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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3162 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3162 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 97, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 411, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 150, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 397, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 342, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 454, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Natural Gas Industry B
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2352-8540
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • A design algorithm used for the roof frame and liner system of extra-large
           LNG storage tanks

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Chao Zhang The design of roof frame is one of the most important parts of LNG tank design. In China, however, the calculation of roof frame system of extra-large LNG tanks is currently faced with a series of problems. For example, there is no united yardstick on buckling characteristic value, the calculation is based on many assumptions, and the calculation is inconsistent with domestic specifications and stipulations. In view of these problems, the material non-linearity and structural non-linearity were introduced and the initial defect was taken into consideration. Then, the large non-linear finite element calculation software ABAQUS was adopted to carry out modeling on the roof frame and liner system of extra-large LNG tanks and calculate and analyze the force applied on them and their stability. Finally, a complete set of design algorithm for the roof frame and liner system of extra-large LNG tanks was established and applied to the design of a certain LNG tank (20 × 104 m3) in China. It is indicated that this design algorithm can simulate the actual situations accurately. This design algorithm is structurally composed of shell units and beam units, and it is connected in the pattern of common node. Besides, force calculation is conducted in 10 operational modes and the buckling calculation in 7 operational modes, including all operational modes in the construction process of roof frame and liner system of LNG tanks. It is also revealed that the maximum stress on the roof frame is 125.7 MPa, that on the liner is 101.4 MPa and the minimum safety coefficient used for buckling calculation is 2.57. Under this system, the force and stability of the roof frame of LNG tanks are satisfactory. The research results can be used as reference for relevant design and calculation.
       
  • Simulation study on the carbon capture system applying LNG cold energy to
           the O2/H2O oxy-fuel combustion

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Yanwen Guan, Yixiao Han, Mouliang Wu, Wenbin Liu, Lei Cai, Yun Yang, Yanlei Xiang, Shaosong Chen At present, the oxy-fuel combustion (O2/CO2 circulating combustion) is dominant in natural gas generating systems, but it consumes much energy for air separation oxygen generation and carbon capture, leading to a severe reduction of generating efficiency. The O2/H2O combustion system, as the new generation of an oxy-combustion system, is superior to the oxy-fuel combustion, and its pollutant emission is lower, but during its combustion, air separation oxygen generation is still needed, so CO2 compression energy consumption is still higher. In this paper, a set of carbon capture system applying LNG cold energy to the O2/H2O combustion was developed, and its mathematical model was established to calculate thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency. And then, it was compared with the COOLCEP system which also makes use of LNG cold energy for carbon capture. The combustion process of this system is operated under high pressure with H2O as the circulation medium, and LNG is utilized in a cascading pattern, so the energy consumption of air separation oxygen generation and carbon capture system is reduced, the generating efficiency of the system is increased and carbon capture is conducted at low cost. The thermal efficiency and energy efficiency of this system increase continuously as the inlet temperature of gas turbine rises. When the flow rate of circulating water is 13.5 kmol/s, the combustion pressure is 1.6 MPa, and the inlet temperature of gas turbine reaches 1328.1 °C, the thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency is 57.9% (maximum) and 42.7%, respectively. Compared with COOLCEP system, the O2/H2O combustion system is much lower in energy consumption and its thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency are 6.3% and 5.4% higher, respectively.
       
  • Deformation mechanism of horizontal shale gas well production casing and
           its engineering solution: A case study on the Huangjinba Block of the
           Zhaotong National Shale Gas Demonstration Zone

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Liuwei Li, Gaocheng Wang, Zhanghua Lian, Lei Zhang, Jue Mei, Yulou He In the Huangjinba Block of the Zhaotong National Shale Gas Demonstration Zone in the periphery of the Sichuan Basin, two horizontal shale gas wells suffer severe casing deformation. In this paper, the geological and engineering characteristics of the strata around the deformed casing interval were analyzed based on the 24-arm caliper measurement of casing deformation, open-hole caliper, electrical resistivity, drilling time and gas logging, cementing CBL∖VDL and CBL imaging. Then, 24-arm caliper measurement data were analyzed and 3D imaged by 3D imaging analysis software, to figure out the morphologic characteristics of deformed casing. It is shown that severe casing deformation tends to occur where structural fractures are developed. Besides, casing deformation is mainly in the form of “S”-shape bending vertically. The severely deformed casing is also characterized by obviously transverse shear deformation caused by the high-angle sliding compression of rocks. Therefore, some suggestions were proposed correspondingly. First, the countermeasures in this block shall focus on shear casing deformation caused by the sliding of rocks along the fracture face. Wellbore trajectory shall be designed based on the structural contours map of pay zones to bypass the “ridge” and “valley bottom” area in the local high and steep structural zones. Second, the distribution information of fractured zones shall be predicted based on the ant-tracking attribute volume distribution map of pay zones, so that the wellbore trajectory can run along the strike of fractured zone. And third, it is recommended to use plug-drilling free big bore bridge plug or full-bore infinite stage completion technique, so that the conventional bridge plug milling operation after fracturing can be omitted and each fractured layer can be put into production after fracturing.
       
  • Propagation velocity and time laws of backpressure wave in the wellbore
           during managed pressure drilling

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Tie Yan, Junbo Qu, Xiaofeng Sun, Ye Chen, Yi Pan When gas invasion, especially overflow, occurs at the bottom hole in the process of managed pressure drilling (MPD), it is common to apply backpressure on the wellbore by adjusting the backpressure pump and throttle valve, so as to rebuild bottom hole pressure balance. If it is still thought that the wellhead backpressure is loaded to the bottom hole instantaneously, there will be larger errors between the calculated wellbore parameters and the actual wellbore flow parameters, which will result in well control failure and even well blowout. In this paper, a pressure wave propagation equation suitable for the gas–liquid two-phase flow in the annulus was established based on the global averaged gas–liquid two-phase flow model to investigate the propagation velocity and time of backpressure wave in the wellbore. Then, gas–liquid interaction was introduced to carry out coupling solution on the equation set. It is shown that pressure wave velocity increases with the increase of drilling mud density, but decreases with the increase of void fraction and virtual mass force coefficient. It changes drastically at first, and then slows down. What's more, when the void fraction is greater than 0.1 or the virtual mass force coefficient exceeds 0.2, the momentum between gas phase and liquid phase is fully exchanged, and the pressure wave velocity decreases slowly, approaching a stable value. In Well Penglai 9 in the Sichuan Basin, for example, the average time of single pressure wave propagation is about 50 s, and the total propagation time of 4 rounds is about 200 s, which accounts for more than 67% of the total time of system control response. It is indicated that the propagation velocity and time of the pressure wave in the annulus calculated by this method can greatly improve the accuracy of managed pressure response time of MPD drilling system and the control precision of adaptive throttle valve.
       
  • A new model for calculating the apparent permeability of shale gas in the
           real state

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Yanyu Zhang, Dongdong Li, Xiaofei Sun, Zhaoyao Song, Dayou Shi, Yuliang Su In all the existing apparent permeability calculation models used for shale gas, the effect of surface diffusion of adsorbed gas is neglected and shale gas is assumed to be in an ideal state, so the calculation results may not reflect the real situations. In this paper, a new apparent permeability model suitable for the shale gas of real state was developed by seepage mechanics method. In this model, the influential factors (e.g. the viscous flow and Knudsen diffusion of free gas and the surface diffusion of adsorbed gas) are taken into account to present the real flowing situations of shale gas in nanopores. Then, the accuracy of this new apparent permeability model was verified by comparing its calculation results with the experimental data. Finally, all factors influencing the apparent permeability of shale gas were analyzed in this new model. It is shown that the apparent permeability of shale gas is most affected by pressure and pore radius, and less by relative molecular mass and blockage coefficient. Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity, Langmuir pressure and isothermal adsorption heat mainly affect the fraction of permeability contributed by surface diffusion. Besides, the effects of each factor on apparent permeability and permeability fraction under low pressure are different from those under high pressure. Under low pressure, the effects of temperature and pore radius on apparent permeability are more obvious, and the effects of temperature, pore radius, Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity, Langmuir pressure and isothermal adsorption heat on the fraction of permeability are also more obvious. Finally, when the pressure is low and the pore radius is small, the surface diffusion is dominant. When the pressure is high and the pore radius is large, the viscous flow is dominant. In the case of small pore radius or low pressure, the surface diffusion shall not be neglected.
       
  • Coalbed methane accumulation conditions and enrichment models of Walloon
           Coal measure in the Surat Basin, Australia

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Ying Tang, Feng Gu, Xiaodan Wu, Hao Ye, Yixin Yu, Mihong Zhong The coal measure of Middle Jurassic Walloon Subgroup is the main reservoir of coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs in the Surat Basin, Australia, and it is a set of typical low-rank, high-yield coal measure. To figure out the CBM accumulation conditions and enrichment models of this coal measure, its distribution characteristics, source rock characteristics, reservoir characteristics and preservation conditions were investigated based on mud logging, experimental and testing data. Then, based on the analysis results of gas origin and gas bearing property of this coal measure, 3 CBM development areas in northeastern Surat Basin were analyzed and compared in terms of its gas enrichment model, and favorable conditions for CBM accumulation and enrichment of Walloon coal measure (WCM) was summarized. It is indicated that tectonic movements, groundwater conditions and macerals provide favorable conditions for gas generation of Walloon coal. The roof, floor and interbed of this coal measure are lithologically tight, presenting a good sealing capacity. Besides, the Walloon CBM reservoir is a mixed origin gas reservoir with the secondary biogenic methane as the dominant component formed in a monocline structure jointly sealed by hydrodynamic force and lithology. CBM enrichment is controlled by 3 factors, i.e., local structure, methane generating capacity of coal bed and underground hydrodynamic force, and it can be divided into 3 models, i.e., anticline model, syncline model and slope model, among which, the CBM enrichment degree of the former two models is higher. Finally, different from other CBM reservoirs, the Walloon CBM reservoir satisfies four favorable conditions in CBM accumulation and enrichment, including dual-carbon source, efficient methane generation, moderate hydrodynamic force and double sealing.
       
  • Present-day temperature–pressure field and its implications for the
           geothermal resources development in the Baxian area, Jizhong Depression of
           the Bohai Bay Basin

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Yiming Zhang, Jian Chang, Nian Liu, Jingwang Liu, Xuefeng Ma, Shufang Zhao, Fangyu Shen, Yang Zhou The Baxian area in the Jizhong Depression, west of the Bohai Bay Basin, is rich in geothermal resources, where Xiong County was built as the first smokeless city in China and the Xiong-county Model has become the geothermal resources demonstration model in China. In this study, the present-day geothermal gradient and the horizontal distribution characteristics of the temperature and pressure at different depths in the Baxian area were studied based on massive measured temperature and pressure data of the boreholes, and then the relationship was also discussed between the temperature–pressure field and the geothermal resources. The following findings were obtained. (1) The present-day geothermal gradient of the Baxian area is within the range of 21.8–73.5 °C/km, averaging 33.5 °C/km. (2) Its strata temperature increases as the depth increases. The horizontal variations of the geothermal gradient and strata temperature correspond to the basement relief very well. As the abnormally high temperature areas, the northern Niutuozhen Uplift, the Central Baxian Depression and the central East Langgu Depression possess huge geothermal resources and will be the most favorable exploration targets. (3) The formation pressure of the Baxian area is characterized by normal pressure and weak overpressure, and its horizontal distribution varies at different depths. The middle–strong overpressure generally developed at the depth of 4000 m in the southern Langgu Depression and southern Baxian Depression. This study is of important guiding significance for the exploration and development of geothermal resources in the Baxian area.
       
  • An open frozen–heave test on the pipeline foundation soils in the
           permafrost regions

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Wei Wang, Xifa Zhang, Yan Lü In the Da Hinggan Mountains, the safe and smooth operation of shallowly buried oil pipelines is threatened greatly by the frozen–heave damage derived from frozen soil. At present, a closed frozen–heave simulation test is often carried out in China, with water content and dry density of samples being assumed to be constant. However, an open frozen–heave test, all the factors of which change as the test goes on, can reflect the real frozen–heave damage more accurately. In this paper, the open frozen–heave test was carried out on five types frozen soil along the China–Russia Crude Oil Pipeline to measure the frozen–heave factor and water content of each soil sample and accordingly analyze their relationship. Besides, its test results were compared with that of the closed frozen–heave test. Then, the normal frozen–heave force was measured by using the displacement limiting method, and this measurement was compared with the result of the static equilibrium test. Finally, a difference significance test was conducted. It is shown that the frozen–heave factor of the open test is higher than that of the closed test; the frozen–heave factor of fine grained soil has a significant effect on the frozen–heave factor of soils, and the frozen–heave factor increases as the capillary effect or the swabbing action of soil increases; the frozen–heave factor of coarse grained soil is mainly dependent on the mud content, and it is lower than that of fine grained soil; the value of frozen–heave force is in close relation with the test methods and the sample height; it is indicated that the open frozen–heave test is more applicable to the investigation on the frozen–heave of the foundation soils of pipelines in the Da Hinggan Mountains. It is concluded that the soils for the cushion and digging/packing layers of the pipelines in the permafrost regions shall be acted by the gravel or detritus with lower mud content, and waterproof and draining pipeline jetty shall be made from the clay soils with a higher plasticity.
       
  • Numerical simulation and field application of diverting acid acidizing in
           the Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Hong Yue, Fei Liu, Heng Xue, Yu Sang, Changlin Zhou, Yezhong Wang The Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao dolomite gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin are characterized by well-developed natural micro-fractures and dissolved pores and cavities. Due to the strong heterogeneity of reservoirs and the serious damage of drilling and completion fluids, acid placement is difficult, and especially the acidizing stimulation of long-interval highly deviated wells or horizontal wells is more difficult. In this paper, the diverting mechanism and rheological behavior of viscoelastic surfactant (VES) based diverting acid was firstly investigated, and the diverting acid with good diversion performance and low secondary damage was selected as the main acid. Then, based on the experimental results of its rheological behaviors, an empirical model of effective viscosity was fitted and a two-scale wormhole propagation model was coupled. And accordingly, a mathematical model for the acidizing of self-diverting acid was established to simulate the pH value, Ca2+ concentration, effective viscosity and wormhole shape under the effect of diverting acid in long-interval highly deviated wells that are non-uniformly damaged. Finally, gelled acid and 5% VES diverting acid were compared in terms of their etched wormhole shapes, flow rate distribution and acid imbibition profiles. It is shown that the diverting acid can obviously improve the acid imbibition profile of strong-heterogeneity reservoirs to intensify low-permeability reservoir stimulation. In view of the strong heterogeneity of Longwangmiao dolomite reservoirs and the complexities of drilling and completion fluid damage in the Sichuan Basin, a placement technology was developed for variable VES concentration diverting acid in horizontal wells and long-interval highly deviated wells completed with slotted liners. This acid placement technology has been practically applied in 8 wells and their cumulative gas production rate tested at the wellhead is 1233.46 × 104 m3/d. The average production stimulation ratio per well is up to 1.95. It provides a support for the efficient development of the Longwangmiao giant gas reservoir.
       
  • Multi-well synchronous hydraulic conformance fracturing technology used
           for deep coal beds and its field application in the Southern Qinshui Basin
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Jianping Ye, Zhaozhong Yang, Rigui Xia, Jian Zhang, Xiaogang Li For deep CBM productivity improvement, a technical concept of conducting multi-well synchronous hydraulic conformance fracturing was proposed based on its geological characteristics. First, a mathematical model for multi-fracture induced stress was established by using the boundary element displacement discontinuity method, to simulate the distribution of induced stress field in deep coal beds and analyze the possibility of the formation of complex fracture networks induced by the hydraulic conformance fracturing. Then, the propagation situation of fracture networks interfered by stress and its influencing factors were studied by using the discrete element method. And finally, the feasibility of synchronous hydraulic conformance fracturing technology was verified through tri-axial fracturing experiment and field application. It is shown that by virtue of synchronous hydraulic conformance fracturing technology, stress interference area and strength are increased, so horizontal major stress difference is decreased and even the direction of earth stress is changed regionally, which is conducive to the connection of developed face cleats and butt cleats in coal rocks, so as to form large, efficient and complex fracture networks. Furthermore, the favorable conditions for the formation of complex fracture networks by hydraulic conformance fracturing include lower initial horizontal major stress difference, low Poisson's ratio, short well spacing and low fracturing fluid viscosity and high net pressure inside the fractures. Finally, it is shown from the 3D true physical simulation experiments that by virtue of this synchronous hydraulic conformance fracturing technology, natural fractures in coal rocks can be connected sufficiently, and consequently complex fracture networks composed of hydraulic fractures, face cleats and butt cleats are created. Based on these research results, a set of optimization design method for the synchronous hydraulic conformance fracturing of deep coal beds was proposed. Five vertical wells located in the deep coal beds of North Shizhuang Block in the Southern Qinshui Basin were chosen for the pilot test. It is indicated from fracture monitoring and drainage/production data that the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) of synchronous hydraulic fractured wells is large and its fracture network is complex; and that compared with the conventionally fractured wells, the synchronous hydraulic fractured well is earlier in gas breakthrough, and higher and more stable in production rates and casing pressure and its regional pressure drop even spreads to the adjacent wells, so that their production rates are remarkably raised.
       
  • Engineering geological models for efficient development of high-rank
           coalbed methane and their application – Taking the Qinshui Basin for
           example

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Qingzhong Zhu, Yanhui Yang, Yuting Wang, Guoliang Shao Low average single-well production resulting in low economic benefit has become the main bottleneck of the CBM gas development in China. So it is significant to choose suitable efficient development technologies based on CBM geological factors for high rank CBM recovery enhancement. In view of this, CBM geological factors were analyzed, different geological models were established and the corresponding models of development engineering technologies were thus put forward. It was proposed that the four main factors affecting high rank CBM recovery from a lower degree to a higher degree respectively include coal texture, rank of coal metamorphism, in-situ stress, and the ratio of critical desorption pressure to initial reservoir pressure. On this basis, four engineering geological models were classified as follows: vertical well, open-hole multilateral horizontal well, U-shaped and roof tree-like horizontal wells, and fish-bone and L-shaped wells. It is concluded that the former two models are more adaptable in such areas with better coal texture and high degree of thermal maturity, while the latter two are commonly applied in a wide range of areas.
       
  • Carbon isotope characteristics of the Middle–Upper Cambrian Xixiangchi
           Group and bottom boundary marks of Furongian Series in the Sichuan Basin
           and its adjacent areas

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s): Wei Li, Peng Jia, Ru Fan, Yuanzheng Lu, Xin Li, Shenhui Deng The Middle–Upper Cambrian Xixiangchi Group in the Sichuan Basin is mainly a set of dolomites of platform facies. In the past, there was no effective way to determine the bottom boundary mark of the Upper Cambrian strata, so natural gas exploration of this horizon lagged behind. In this paper, it is revealed from the C and O isotopic profile of debris that in the middle of the Xixiangchi Group, there is a positive excursion event of carbon isotopes that can be correlated all over the world, so it can be used as an important mark to identify the Furongian Series (equivalent to the Upper Cambrian strata). Then, based on the characteristics of electric curves, the Furongian Series boundary mark was determined and its classification program was worked out preliminarily. It is shown that during the deposition of the Xixiangchi Group, it is a paleo-geomorphologically gentle-slope carbonate platform which is high in the east and low in the east, and a thin–moderate dolomite layer which is thin in the west and thick in the east is deposited. This layer is vertically divided into 4 intervals. Besides, the bottom boundary mark of the Furongian Series in the Sichuan Basin and its adjacent areas can be determined by combining the SPICE (Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion) event of carbon isotopes with the characteristics of electric curves. Finally, the carbon isotope mark of the Furongian Series bottom boundary is the SPICE event corresponding to the positive excursion which is regionally correlated, the corresponding electrical mark is the GR small peak areas in the middle of the Xixiangchi group, and the corresponding lithologic symbol is the argillaceous dolomite. The research results are conducive to the further subdivision of the Xixiangchi Group in the Sichuan Basin and its adjacent areas and promoting the study on sedimentary evolution and reservoir distribution laws so that gas exploration in this series of strata can be speeded up.
       
  • Inside Front Cover

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 3Author(s):
       
  • Key elements for functioning gas hubs: A case study of East Asia

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 2Author(s): Xunpeng Shi, Hari M.P. Variam This paper clarifies various concepts relevant to gas trading hubs and presents an innovative framework with key elements to create gas hubs. The nine key elements in the framework are further divided into basic elements for balancing hubs and advanced elements for benchmark hubs. The framework is applied to three East Asian case studies. The East Asian comparative case study shows that while Singapore is leading the way in establishing an LNG hub in Asia, the LNG hub concept is yet to be tested. Meanwhile, although China has the potential to host a gas hub, its current level of hub development is low. The paper suggests that these countries can advance their hub initiatives by strengthening the key elements as detailed in the proposed framework and create a more conducive environment through efforts such as market liberalization.
       
  • Application of precise MPD & pressure balance cementing technology

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 2Author(s): Yong Ma, Youcheng Zheng, Bingqing Xu, Lili Chen, Shibin Liu The precise managed pressure drilling (MPD) technology is mainly used to deal with the difficulties encountered when oil and gas open hole sections with multiple pressure systems and the strata with narrow safety density window are drilled through. If its liner cementing is carried out according to the conventional method, lost circulation is inevitable in the process of cementing while the displacement efficiency of small-clearance liner cementing is satisfied. If the positive and inverse injection technology is adopted, the cementing quality cannot meet the requirements of later well test engineering of ultradeep wells. In this paper, the cementing operation of Ø114.3 mm liner in Well Longgang 70 which was drilled in the Jiange structure of the Sichuan Basin was taken as an example to explore the application of the cementing technology based on the precise MPD and pressure balancing method to the cementing of long open-hole sections (as long as 859 m) with both high and low pressures running through multiple reservoirs. On the one hand, the technical measures were taken specifically to ensure the annulus filling efficiency of slurry and the pressure balance in the whole process of cementing. And on the other hand, the annulus pressure balance was precisely controlled by virtue of precise MPD devices and by injecting heavy weight drilling fluids through central pipes, and thus the wellbore pressure was kept steady in the whole process of cementing in the strata with narrow safety density window. It is indicated that Ø114.3 mm liner cementing in this well is good with qualified pressure tests and no channeling emerges at a funnel during the staged density reduction. It is concluded that this method can enhance the liner cementing quality of complex ultradeep gas wells and improve the wellbore conditions for the later safe well tests of high-pressure gas wells.
       
  • Research and performance evaluation on an HA integrated acid system for
           sandstone acidizing

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 2Author(s): Liqiang Zhao, Yiyong Pan, Yigang Liu, Xianghai Meng, Yujie Guo, Pingli Liu When the conventional sandstone acidizing technologies are adopted, many slugs are needed in the injection of prepad fluid, treatment fluid and postpad fluid, and consequently the production and operation suffers inconveniences and difficulties. In view of this, a kind of HA integrated acid system which is mainly composed of organic polybasic acids (HA)+HCl + HF and an efficient organic solvent was developed in this paper based on the idea of integrated acid replacing "multiple steps" and high efficiency and intensification. Via this HA integrated acid system, the complicated blockage in sandstone reservoirs can be removed effectively. Then, experiments were carried out on this system to evaluate its performance in terms of its retardance, organic blockage dissolution, chelating and precipitation inhibition. It is indicated that this new system can not only realize the acidizing of conventional integrated acid, but also present a good retarding performance by controlling H+ multi-stage ionization step by step and by forming silica acid-aluminum phosphonate film on the surface of clay minerals; that via this new HA integrated acid system, the organic blockage can be removed efficiently; and that it is wider in pH solution range than conventional APCs (aminopolycarboxyliates) chelants, stronger in chelating capacity of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+ than conventional chelants (e.g. EDTA, NTA and DTPA), and better in precipitation inhibition on metal fluoride, fluosilicic acid alkali metal, fluoaluminic acid alkali metal and hydroxide than multi-hydrogen acid, fluoboric acid and mud acid systems. These research results provide a technical support for the plugging removal in high-temperature deep oil and gas reservoirs.
       
  • LNG bunkering pontoons on inland waters in China

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 2Author(s): Hongjun Fan, Jianyong Xu, Shunping Wu, Guozheng Shi, Wenfeng Guan LNG bunkering pontoons are presented to solve the fueling difficulty of LNG ships on inland waterways with a great variation of water height and channel width by seasonal change. First, the background of this concept was analyzed as well as the demand of LNG bunkering pontoons, and the involved idea of levels management. Then, from the safety barrier perspective, safety design principles were discussed, the safety principles and implement measures of LNG storage were provided, LNG tanks for the pontoon were analyzed in detail in terms of their types, design pressure, material selection and leakage protection principles. Also, the safety concerns of LNG supply and bunkering process were raised, and an improved handy bunkering arm & hose, lighter and more flexible than ever before, was introduced. Berthing and unberthing are related to the survival of the pontoon so that the key points of such design were highlighted. It is concluded that (1) based on the levels management, the pontoon equipped with IMO Type C tanks, with reasonable berthing/unberthing and safety designs adopted, is proved to be safe and reliable by practices; (2) by 2025, nearly 30 such improved LNG bunkering pontoons with a fueling capacity of 500 m3 each will be required on Yangtze and Pearl Rivers; and (3) the pontoon's safety and reliability has been verified by practices and its fourth generation has been developed.
       
  • Effects of structural characteristics on the productivity of shale gas
           wells: A case study on the Jiaoshiba Block in the Fuling shale gasfield,
           Sichuan Basin

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 2Author(s): Ming Hu, Wenbin Huang, Jiayu Li For the sake of figuring out the influential mechanisms of structural characteristics on the productivity of shale gas wells, the structural characteristics of the Jiaoshiba Block in the Fuling shale gasfield, Sichuan Basin, were analyzed. Then, based on well test data of more than 190 horizontal wells, the effects of structures on shale gas well productivity were discussed systematically, and the main structural factors of different structural units in the Jiaoshiba Block that influence the productivity of shale gas wells were clarified. The following results were obtained. First, the structural units in the Jiaoshiba Block were obviously different in structural characteristics and their deformation strength is different. Second, the influence of structural characteristics on shale gas well productivity is directly manifested in gas-bearing property and fracturing effect. The stronger the structural deformation and the more developed the large faults and natural fractures, the more easily shale gas escapes and the poorer the gas bearing property will be, and vice versa. Third, The stronger the structural deformation, the more developed the fractures, the greater the burial depth and the higher the compressive stress of negative structures, the worse the fracturing effect will be, and vice versa. And fourth, Tectonics is the key factor controlling the difference of shale gas productivity between different structural units in the Jiaoshiba Block, but the main structural factors influencing the productivity are different in different structural units.
       
  • Application of element logging to lithologic identification of key
           horizons in Sichuan–Chongqing gas provinces

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 2Author(s): Ping Yin, Lin Qi, Qianxia Zhu, Li Luo, Jiaqiong Tang, Cong Ruan, Lei Zhao, Hong Liang With the popularization and application of fast drilling technology in Sichuan–Chongqing gas provinces, the returned cuttings are fine and even powdered, so the traditional cutting lithology identification methods are not applicable any longer. In this paper, qualitative lithology identification and quantitative interpretation based on element logging were conducted on the key oil and gas bearing layers in this area according to the principle of elemental geochemistry. The study results show that: (1) different lithologies can be identified easily because of their different element logging characteristics. For example, basalts have the element characteristics of 0.35 
       
  • Optimal design of the engineering parameters for the first global trial
           production of marine natural gas hydrates through solid fluidization

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 2Author(s): Shouwei Zhou, Jinzhou Zhao, Qingping Li, Wei Chen, Jianliang Zhou, Na Wei, Ping Guo, Wantong Sun More than 90% of natural gas hydrates (hereinafter, hydrate for short) in the South China Sea are non-diagenetic ore bodies, so they cannot be exploited easily by means of the conventional methods. In this paper, the solid fluidization method, as one of the revolutionary technologies in efficient exploitation of non-diagenetic natural gas hydrates, was, for the first time, put forward by Academician Zhou Shouwei. And it is successfully applied in the Shenhu Area of the South China Sea based on the technologies, equipment and processes which rely on domestic independent intellectual property rights. During the production test of fluidization, the ore bodies of hydrates are broken by the jet at the bottom hole into fine particles and carried upward by the drilling fluid. When the phase equilibrium state is reached with the increase of temperature and the decrease of pressure affected by the operation parameters, which is different from conventional phase equilibrium state, the hydrates bearing solid particles are decomposed, and consequently liquid–solid flow in the annulus becomes complex gas–liquid–solid multiphase flow. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the construction parameters design so as to meet the high-level requirements of well control safety. In this paper, the engineering parameters are optimally designed based on the engineering geological characteristics of the target block, combined with the analysis on complex multiphase flow in the wellbore. Then, a theoretical model and a numerical calculation method for the multiphase flow, temperature and pressure of complex media in wellbores and the phase equilibrium and decomposition of natural gas hydrates were established. And the multiphase flow in the wellbore during the production test of fluidization was analyzed under different operating parameters by means of numerical simulation, software emulation and experimental verification. And thus, the design optimization scheme of on-site engineering parameters of production test of marine natural gas hydrate fluidization was prepared. It is pointed out that the diameter of jet fluidization well section shall not be excessively large; and that it is necessary to increase the flow rate and density of drilling fluid and apply wellhead back pressure to ensure the cutting carrying safety and to mitigate well control risks. The results of this basic theoretical study can provide significant support to field operation and improvement of output in production tests.
       
  • New research progress of natural gas geological theories in China during
           the 12th Five-Year Plan period

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 2Author(s): Guoqi Wei, Zengye Xie, Jian Li, Wei Yang, Shuichang Zhang, Qi Zhang, Xinshe Liu, Dongliang Wang, Fudong Zhang, Honggang Cheng With the continuous deepening of natural gas exploration, the quality of discovered resources gets worse and exploration targets are getting more and more complicated, so it is necessary to develop and improve natural gas geological theories continuously in order to tap and discover more natural gas resources. Therefore, geological theories on the formation of large gas fields were studied during the 12th Five-Year Plan period and the following progresses were mainly achieved. (1) Gas generation modes were established of oil cracking and highly evolved coal-measure source rocks in different geologic conditions. (2) A model was set up for evaluating quantitatively the hydrocarbon expulsion and detainment of various source rocks with different abundance. (3) Natural gas genesis identification chart was built up with multiple parameters and indexes. (4) Two carbonate rock sedimentation patterns and two tight sandstone sedimentation patterns were established. (5) A new method was developed for evaluating caprock–reservoir displacement pressure difference of immediate caprocks. (6) The hydrocarbon accumulation pattern of large gas fields was established and their main controlling factors and distribution laws were summarized. Then, the natural gas exploration theories were deepened in the following five fields and their application achievements are remarkable. First, the hydrocarbon-accumulation geological theory used for large ancient carbonate gas fields was innovatively understood to promote the discovery and confirmation of the Anyue supergiant gas field in the Sichuan Basin. Second, the hydrocarbon-accumulation geological theory suitable for large tight sandstone gas fields was developed to guide the exploration of tight sandstone gas in the Ordos and Songliao basins. Third, the hydrocarbon-accumulation theory of platform margin reefs was deepened to expand the exploration of platform margin reef gas in the Sichuan Basin. Fourth, the hydrocarbon accumulation mechanism and enrichment theory of large condensate gas reservoirs were deepened to guide the exploration of large condensate gas reservoirs in the Tarim Basin. And fifth, the exploration theory of volcanic gas reservoirs with hydrocarbon-generation fault troughs as basic units was completed to realize the strategic replacement of volcanic gas reservoir exploration.
       
  • Design and hydraulic modeling of pulse grinding bits for horizontal wells

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 2Author(s): Zheng Wei, Deli Gao, Yongsheng Liu If cuttings carrying performance is poor and cuttings removal is not in time during the drilling of horizontal wells, drilling cuttings will accumulate in the lower sections, leading to backing pressure, BHA binding and even drill pipe sticking. In this paper, a new type of Helmholtz pulse grinding bits suitable for horizontal wells was designed based on the theory of Helmholtz oscillation chamber to generate pulse, jet pump and high pressure jet after the formation of cuttings beds was analyzed. In this type of bit, a high-speed pulse jet is used to assist rock breaking, a reverse jet is used to remove the cuttings at the bottom of the bit under negative pressure, and its inner grinding structure is used to reduce the particle size of cuttings. By using this bit, efficient cuttings removal and rock breaking will be both realized, the chip hold-down effect will be reduced and the cuttings beds in a horizontal well will be also removed. Then, the hydraulic models were established for a pulse generation device, an efficient rock breaking device and a reverse swabbing device, respectively. It is shown from the simulation results that the optimal resonance flowrate increases with the increase of the diameters of an inlet chamber and a feedback chamber and with the decrease of the diameter of a resonance chamber, and it is approximately in linear relationship with each factor. The optimal flowrate ratio of the reverse swabbing device increases first and then decreases with the increase of dimensionless flowrate ratio, and decreases with the increase of dimensionless area ratio. It is indicated from example analysis that the inherent frequency of Helmholtz oscillation chamber is 24.00 Hz, the optimal oscillation flowrate is 23.92 L/s and the optimal flowrate ratio is 0.59. Based on case studies, the accuracy of hydraulic models is verified. It is concluded that this new type of bits provides a new solution to the accumulation of cuttings beds.
       
  • Inside Front Cover

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Natural Gas Industry B, Volume 5, Issue 2Author(s):
       
 
 
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