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AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
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Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 422, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
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Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
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Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
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American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
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American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
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Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
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Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
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Journal Cover Allergology International
  [SJR: 0.776]   [H-I: 35]   [5 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1323-8930 - ISSN (Online) 1440-1592
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Japanese guidelines for allergic diseases 2017

    • Authors: Ken Ohta; Kenji Izuhara
      Pages: 161 - 162
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Allergology International, Volume 66, Issue 2
      Author(s): Ken Ohta, Kenji Izuhara

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T13:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.03.003
  • The effect of calprotectin on TSLP and IL-25 production from airway
           epithelial cells

    • Authors: Tomohisa Kato; Hideaki Kouzaki; Koji Matsumoto; Junichi Hosoi; Takeshi Shimizu
      Pages: 281 - 289
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Allergology International, Volume 66, Issue 2
      Author(s): Tomohisa Kato, Hideaki Kouzaki, Koji Matsumoto, Junichi Hosoi, Takeshi Shimizu
      Background Calprotectin is a heterodimer complex of the S100A8 and S100A9 proteins, and has various functions as an innate mediator at the sites of inflammation. The aim of this study was to elucidate the roles of calprotectin in the eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS). Methods Allergen-induced production of calprotectin was evaluated in cultured normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells by ELISA and RT-PCR. We then examined the roles of calprotectin on Alternaria alternata (Alternaria)-induced production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and IL-25 in NHBE cells. The extracellular concentration and allergen-induced secretion of calprotectin in cultured primary nasal epithelial (PNE) cells were examined and compared between patients with ECRS and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (NECRS). Results Alternaria, house dust mites, protease from Staphylococcus aureus, papain, trypsin, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid and lipopolysaccharide stimulated calprotectin production in the cultured NHBE cells. The combination of calprotectin and ATP stimulated the production of TSLP and IL-25 in NHBE cells, and calprotectin stimulated Alternaria-induced production of TSLP and IL-25, which was suppressed by blocking P2 purinergic receptors and by treatment with siRNA for S100A8, S100A9 or calprotectin receptors (Toll-like receptor 4 or receptor for advanced glycation end products). Allergen-induced calprotectin production was significantly stimulated in PNE cells from patients with ECRS. Conclusions These results indicate that calprotectin enhances the allergen-induced Th2-type inflammatory responses in airway epithelial cells via the secretion of TSLP and IL-25, and that calprotectin secreted by the epithelial cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of ECRS.

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T13:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2016.06.011
  • Validation and reliability of the Japanese version of the Food Allergy
           Quality of Life Questionnaire–Parent Form

    • Authors: Yumi Mizuno; Yukihiro Ohya; Mizuho Nagao; Audrey DunnGalvin; Takao Fujisawa
      Pages: 290 - 295
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Allergology International, Volume 66, Issue 2
      Author(s): Yumi Mizuno, Yukihiro Ohya, Mizuho Nagao, Audrey DunnGalvin, Takao Fujisawa
      Background Food allergy (FA) is a heavy burden for patients and their families and can significantly reduce the quality of life (QoL) of both. To provide adequate support, qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the parents' QoL may be helpful. The objective of this study is to develop and validate a Japanese version of the Food Allergy QoL Questionnaire–Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF-J), an internationally validated disease-specific QoL measurement of the parental burden of having a child with FA. Methods The FAQLQ-PF and the Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM), an instrument to test the construct validity of the FAQLQ-PF-J, were translated into Japanese. After language validation, the questionnaires were administered to parents of FA children aged 0–12 years and those of age-matched healthy (without FA) children. Internal consistency (by Cronbach's α) and test-retest reliability were evaluated. Construct validity and discriminant validity were also examined. Results One hundred twenty-seven parents of children with FA and 48 parents of healthy children filled out the questionnaire. The FAQLQ-PF-J showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α > 0.77) and test-retest reliability. Good construct validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between the FAQLQ-PF-J and FAIM-J scores. It discriminated parents of children with FA from those without. The scores were significantly higher (lower QoL) for parents of FA children with a history of anaphylaxis than those without, for those with >6 FA-related symptoms experienced than those with less FA-related symptoms. Conclusions The FAQLQ-PF-J is a reliable and valid measure of the parental burden of FA in children.

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T13:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2016.06.013
  • Usefulness of antigen-specific IgE probability curves derived from the
           3gAllergy assay in diagnosing egg, cow's milk, and wheat allergies

    • Authors: Sakura Sato; Kiyotake Ogura; Kyohei Takahashi; Yasunori Sato; Noriyuki Yanagida; Motohiro Ebisawa
      Pages: 296 - 301
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Allergology International, Volume 66, Issue 2
      Author(s): Sakura Sato, Kiyotake Ogura, Kyohei Takahashi, Yasunori Sato, Noriyuki Yanagida, Motohiro Ebisawa
      Background Specific IgE (sIgE) antibody detection using the Siemens IMMULITE® 3gAllergy™ (3gAllergy) assay have not been sufficiently examined for the diagnosis of food allergy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of measuring sIgE levels using the 3gAllergy assay to diagnose allergic reactions to egg, milk, and wheat. Methods This retrospective study was conducted on patients with diagnosed or suspected allergies to egg, milk and wheat. Patients were divided into two groups according to their clinical reactivity to these allergens based on oral food challenge outcomes and/or convincing histories of immediate reaction to causative food(s). The sIgE levels were measured using 3gAllergy and ImmunoCAP. Predicted probability curves were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results We analyzed 1561 patients, ages 0–19 y (egg = 436, milk = 499, wheat = 626). The sIgE levels determined using 3gAllergy correlated with those of ImmunoCAP, classifying 355 patients as symptomatic: egg = 149, milk = 123, wheat = 83. 3gAllergy sIgE levels were significantly higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic patients (P < 0.0001). Predictive probability for positive food allergy was significantly increased and correlated with increased sIgE levels. The cut-offs for allergic reaction with 95% predictive probability as determined by the 3gAllergy probability curves were different from those of ImmunoCAP. Conclusions Measurements of sIgE against egg, milk, and wheat as determined by 3gAllergy may be used as a tool to facilitate the diagnosis of food allergy in subjects with suspected food allergies. However, these probability curves should not be applied interchangeably between different assays.

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T13:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2016.06.012
  • Circulating activated innate lymphoid cells and mucosal-associated
           invariant T cells are associated with airflow limitation in patients with

    • Authors: Ayako Ishimori; Norihiro Harada; Asako Chiba; Sonoko Harada; Kei Matsuno; Fumihiko Makino; Jun Ito; Shoichiro Ohta; Junya Ono; Ryo Atsuta; Kenji Izuhara; Kazuhisa Takahashi; Sachiko Miyake
      Pages: 302 - 309
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Allergology International, Volume 66, Issue 2
      Author(s): Ayako Ishimori, Norihiro Harada, Asako Chiba, Sonoko Harada, Kei Matsuno, Fumihiko Makino, Jun Ito, Shoichiro Ohta, Junya Ono, Ryo Atsuta, Kenji Izuhara, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Sachiko Miyake
      Background A variety of innate subsets of lymphoid cells such as natural killer (NK) cells, several populations of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells as innate-like T lymphocytes are involved in asthma and may have important effector functions in asthmatic immune responses. In the present study, we investigated whether NK cells, ILCs, and MAIT cells in the peripheral blood of patients with asthma would be associated with clinical asthma parameters. Methods We recruited 75 adult patients with mild to severe asthma. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells in peripheral venous blood samples from the patients were purified and stained with different combinations of appropriate antibodies. The cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results The percentage of activated (i.e., CD69+) NK cells in the total NK cell population was negatively correlated with FEV1% which is calculated by the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/the forced vital capacity (FVC). The percentages of CD69+ ILC1s and ILC2s were negatively correlated with FEV1% and %FEV1. The percentage of CD69+ ILC3s was positively correlated with BMI, and the percentage of CD69+ MAIT cells was negatively correlated with FEV1%. Moreover, the percentage of CD69+ NK cells, ILC1s, ILC2s, ILC3s, and MAIT cells were positively correlated with each other. Conclusions For the first time, our data showed that activated NK cells, ILC1s, ILC2s, ILC3s, and MAIT cells were positively correlated with each other and may be associated with airflow limitation in patients with asthma.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T13:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2016.07.005
  • Eosinophilia in infants with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome
           in Japan

    • Authors: Mitsuaki Kimura; Masaki Shimomura; Hideaki Morishita; Takaaki Meguro; Shiro Seto
      Pages: 310 - 316
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Allergology International, Volume 66, Issue 2
      Author(s): Mitsuaki Kimura, Masaki Shimomura, Hideaki Morishita, Takaaki Meguro, Shiro Seto
      Background Many Japanese infants with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) show eosinophilia, which has been thought to be a characteristic of food protein-induced proctocolitis (FPIP). Methods To elucidate the characteristics of eosinophilia in Japanese FPIES patients, 113 infants with non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy due to cow's milk were enrolled and classified into FPIES (n = 94) and FPIP (n = 19). Results The percentage of peripheral blood eosinophils (Eo) was increased in most FPIES patients (median, 7.5%), which was comparable with that in FPIP patients (9.0%). Among FPIES patients, Eo was the highest in patients who had vomiting, bloody stool, and diarrhea simultaneously (12.9%) and lowest in patients with diarrhea alone (3.2%). Eo showed a significant positive correlation with the incidence of vomiting (Cramer's V = 0.31, p < 0.005) and bloody stool (Cramer's V = 0.34, p < 0.0005). A significant difference was found in Eo between early- (≤10 days, n = 56) and late-onset (>10 days, n = 38) FPIES (median, 9.8% vs. 5.4%; p < 0.005). IL-5 production by peripheral blood T cells stimulated with cow's milk protein in early-onset FPIES was significantly higher than that in late-onset FPIES (67.7 pg/mL vs. 12.5 pg/mL, p < 0.01), and showed a significant positive correlation with Eo (rs = 0.60, p < 0.01). Conclusions This study demonstrated two types of eosinophilia in Japanese FPIES infants: conspicuous and mild eosinophilia in early- and late-onset FPIES patients, respectively. Conspicuous eosinophilia in early-onset FPIES is suggested to be caused by abnormally high IL-5 production.

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T13:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2016.08.003
  • Efficacy and safety of bilastine in Japanese patients with chronic
           spontaneous urticaria: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind,
           placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase II/III study

    • Authors: Michihiro Hide; Akiko Yagami; Michinori Togawa; Akihiro Saito; Masutaka Furue
      Pages: 317 - 325
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Allergology International, Volume 66, Issue 2
      Author(s): Michihiro Hide, Akiko Yagami, Michinori Togawa, Akihiro Saito, Masutaka Furue
      Background Bilastine, a novel non-sedating second-generation H1-antihistamine, has been widely used in the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria with a recommended dose of 20 mg once daily in most European countries since 2010. We evaluated its efficacy and safety in Japanese patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Methods We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II/III study (trial registration No. JapicCTI-142574). Patients (age, 18–74 years) were randomly assigned to receive bilastine 20 mg, 10 mg or placebo once daily for 2 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline (Day −3 to 0) in total symptom score (TSS) at 2 weeks (Day 8–14), consisting of the itch and rash scores. Results A total of 304 patients were randomly allocated to bilastine 20 mg (101 patients), bilastine 10 mg (100 patients), and placebo (103 patients). The changes in TSS at 2 weeks were significantly decreased by bilastine 20 mg than did placebo (p < 0.001), demonstrating the superiority of bilastine 20 mg. Bilastine 10 mg also showed a significant difference from placebo (p < 0.001). The TSS changes for the bilastine showed significant improvement from Day 1, and were maintained during the treatment period. The Dermatology Life Quality Index scores were also improved in bilastine than in placebo. The bilastine treatments were safe and well tolerated. Conclusions Two-week treatment with bilastine (20 or 10 mg) once daily was effective and tolerable in Japanese patients with CSU, demonstrating an early onset of action.

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T13:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2016.08.004
  • Inverse correlation of soluble programmed cell death-1 ligand-1 (sPD-L1)

    • Authors: Rasoul Nasiri Kalmarzi; Nima Fattahi; Zeinab Kaviani; Pedram Ataee; Majid Mansouri; Ghobad Moradi; Alireza Yousefzade; Javid Morad Abbassi
      Pages: 326 - 331
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Allergology International, Volume 66, Issue 2
      Author(s): Rasoul Nasiri Kalmarzi, Nima Fattahi, Zeinab Kaviani, Pedram Ataee, Majid Mansouri, Ghobad Moradi, Alireza Yousefzade, Javid Morad Abbassi
      Background T-cell response outcome is determined by co-stimulatory/inhibitory signals. Programmed cell death-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1) is a member of these co-signaling molecules with known soluble form in human serum. Soluble PD-L1 (sPD-L1) is also recognized in patients with some types of malignancy or autoimmune disorders, though there are few studies on sPD-L1 roles in allergic diseases. The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the association between sPD-L1 levels with eosinophil count as well as disease severity in allergic rhinitis (AR) patients. Methods 90 patients with AR were selected. Disease severity was determined by a modified Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) classification as mild, moderate and severe. Whole blood samples were collected. Then eosinophil count and serum sPD-L1 were detected by a hematologic analyzer and a commercial ELISA kit. Results 13 (14.44%), 31 (34.44%), and 46 (51.12%) of patients had mild, moderate and severe disease, respectively. The mean levels of sPD-L1 and eosinophil count were ascertained 18.38 ± 14.42 ng/ml and 422.43 ± 262.26 cell/μl. A significant inverse correlation was determined between sPD-L1 levels and eosinophil count (r = −0.364, P < 0.001). Moreover, we detected a significant negative association between sPD-L1 levels and disease severity (r = −0.384, P < 0.001). Conclusions It is deduced that sPD-L1 can be used as a helpful marker to determine the severity of AR. Furthermore, this study indicated that sPD-L1 may have an inhibitory role in AR development, and its modulation may be considered as a useful accessory therapeutic approach for reduction of AR progression.

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T13:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2016.08.008
  • Autoantibody profiles and their association with blood eosinophils in
           asthma and COPD

    • Authors: Koji Tamai; Harukazu Yoshimatsu; Toshiharu Saito; Hirofumi Matsuoka; Nobuhiko Okada; Yasuko Koma; Akiko Otsuka; Nao Oda; Sayaka Inoue; Sachie Kume; Yujiro Suzuki
      Pages: 332 - 337
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Allergology International, Volume 66, Issue 2
      Author(s): Koji Tamai, Harukazu Yoshimatsu, Toshiharu Saito, Hirofumi Matsuoka, Nobuhiko Okada, Yasuko Koma, Akiko Otsuka, Nao Oda, Sayaka Inoue, Sachie Kume, Yujiro Suzuki
      Background Autoimmune involvement in the pathogenesis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been proposed, and autoantibodies are a hallmark of autoimmunity. This study aimed to compare the autoantibody profiles of asthma and COPD, and the relationship between autoantibodies and features of these diseases. Methods We recruited 110 asthma patients and 92 COPD patients for a prospective study. Six autoantibody types were evaluated: antinuclear antibody, anti-cytoplasmic antibodies, rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, myeloperoxidase–anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (MPO-ANCA) and proteinase 3-ANCA. Other clinical data were also recorded concurrently. Results An antinuclear antibody titre of ≥1:160 presented only in asthma but not in COPD (10% vs. 0%, p = 0.0002). Eosinophil counts in blood were negative predictors of antinuclear antibody in asthma. Conversely, eosinophil counts in blood and immunoglobulin-E levels of ≥100 IU/mL were positively associated with rheumatoid factor in asthma but not in COPD. There was no relationship between antinuclear antibody or rheumatoid factor and disease severity. Conclusions It is possible that asthma tends to involve autoimmunity associated with antinuclear antibody more frequently than COPD because asthma is the more robust factor for antinuclear antibody positivity. Antinuclear antibody and rheumatoid factor are associated with eosinophilic responses, but they do not work as biomarkers for disease severity.

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T13:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2016.08.005
  • Evaluating the efficacy of epinastine ophthalmic solution using a
           conjunctivitis allergen challenge model in patients with birch pollen
           allergic conjunctivitis

    • Authors: Yoshiaki Tagawa; Kenichi Namba; Yumi Nakazono; Daiju Iwata; Susumu Ishida
      Pages: 338 - 343
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Allergology International, Volume 66, Issue 2
      Author(s): Yoshiaki Tagawa, Kenichi Namba, Yumi Nakazono, Daiju Iwata, Susumu Ishida
      Background The efficacy of epinastine 0.05% ophthalmic solution for pollen allergic conjunctivitis has already been shown in a conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) test using cedar pollen as a challenge. The present study investigated the efficacy of this solution against birch pollen conjunctivitis in a CAC test. Methods Ten adult subjects (eight males and two females) with asymptomatic birch pollen conjunctivitis were enrolled in this study. The average age of the subjects was 41.1 years. This study was conducted during a period without birch pollen dispersion. In each subject, the epinastine 0.05% ophthalmic solution was instilled in one eye, and an artificial tear fluid was instilled in the fellow eye in a double-blind manner. Five minutes or 4 h after the drug instillation, both eyes were challenged with an optimal concentration of birch pollen, and ocular itching and conjunctival hyperemia were then graded. Tears were collected before the drug instillation and 20 min after the pollen challenge, and the histamine level was measured. Results The ocular itching scores and palpebral conjunctival hyperemia scores of the epinastine-treated eyes were significantly lower than those of the contralateral control eyes when the eyes were pretreated with the drug 4 h before the CAC. There was a significant correlation between the tear histamine level and mean ocular itching score of three time points (3, 5 and 10 min) following the CAC in the control eyes but not the epinastine-treated eyes. Conclusions Epinastine is effective in suppressing ocular itching and conjunctival hyperemia in birch pollen conjunctivitis.

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T13:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2016.08.011
  • Diagnostic utility of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in prolonged and
           chronic cough according to atopic status

    • Authors: Takamitsu Asano; Masaya Takemura; Kensuke Fukumitsu; Norihisa Takeda; Hiroya Ichikawa; Hisatoshi Hijikata; Yoshihiro Kanemitsu; Takehiro Uemura; Osamu Takakuwa; Hirotsugu Ohkubo; Ken Maeno; Yutaka Ito; Tetsuya Oguri; Atsushi Nakamura; Akio Niimi
      Pages: 344 - 350
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Allergology International, Volume 66, Issue 2
      Author(s): Takamitsu Asano, Masaya Takemura, Kensuke Fukumitsu, Norihisa Takeda, Hiroya Ichikawa, Hisatoshi Hijikata, Yoshihiro Kanemitsu, Takehiro Uemura, Osamu Takakuwa, Hirotsugu Ohkubo, Ken Maeno, Yutaka Ito, Tetsuya Oguri, Atsushi Nakamura, Akio Niimi
      Background Cough-variant asthma (CVA) and cough-predominant asthma (CPA) are the major causes of persistent cough in Japan. The utility of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement in the differential diagnosis of persistent cough has been reported, but the influence of atopic status, which is associated with higher FeNO levels, on the diagnostic utility of FeNO has been unknown. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 105 non-smoking patients with prolonged and chronic cough that were not treated with corticosteroids and anti-leukotrienes. Results CPA was diagnosed in 37 patients, CVA in 40, and non-asthmatic cough (NAC) in 28. FeNO levels were significantly higher in the CPA [35.8 (7.0–317.9) ppb] and CVA [24.9 (3.1–156.0) ppb] groups than in the NAC group [18.2 (6.9–49.0) ppb] (p < 0.01 by Kruskal–Wallis test). The optimal cut-off for distinguishing asthmatic cough (AC; CPA and CVA) from NAC was 29.2 ppb [area under the curve (AUC) 0.74, p < 0.01]. Ninety-one percent of subjects with FeNO levels ≥29.2 ppb had AC. Meanwhile, 40% of AC patients had FeNO levels <29.2 ppb. Stratified cut-off levels were 31.1 ppb (AUC 0.83) in atopic subjects vs. 19.9 ppb (AUC 0.65) in non-atopic subjects (p = 0.03 for AUC). Conclusions Although high FeNO levels suggested the existence of AC, lower FeNO levels had limited diagnostic significance. Atopic status affects the utility of FeNO levels in the differential diagnosis of prolonged and chronic cough.

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T13:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2016.08.015
  • Intranasal administration of IL-35 inhibits allergic responses and
           symptoms in mice with allergic rhinitis

    • Authors: Motohiko Suzuki; Makoto Yokota; Yoshihisa Nakamura; Shinya Ozaki; Shingo Murakami
      Pages: 351 - 356
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Allergology International, Volume 66, Issue 2
      Author(s): Motohiko Suzuki, Makoto Yokota, Yoshihisa Nakamura, Shinya Ozaki, Shingo Murakami
      Background IL-35 was recently identified as an anti-inflammatory cytokine. We previously reported that recombinant fusion protein of murine IL-35 and human IgG1 Fc fragment (rIL-35) reduced Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) in vitro. However, it is unclear whether IL-35 can attenuate nasal allergic responses and symptoms of allergic rhinitis in vivo. Methods To investigate the in vivo effect of IL-35 on allergic rhinitis in mice, mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). Intranasal administration of rIL-35 and intranasal challenge of OVA were then performed. Nasal symptoms were estimated after the last nasal challenge. Nasal tissue and cervical lymph nodes (CLN) were collected. OVA-specific IgE in sera, OVA-specific T cell response, and the production of cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10) stimulated by the OVA antigen were measured. The transcription level of Foxp3 and the frequency of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells were also measured. Results rIL-35 significantly inhibited the number of sneezes and nasal rubbing movements. It also reduced the number of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa and significantly decreased the level of OVA-specific IgE, the OVA-specific T cell proliferation, and the production of IL-4 and IL-5. Furthermore, rIL-35 significantly increased the production of IL-10, the transcription level of Foxp3, and the frequency of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Conclusions This study showed for the first time that rIL-35 inhibits nasal allergic responses and symptoms in mice, and that rIL-35 increases IL-10, Foxp3, and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in CLN. This study also suggests that intranasal administration of IL-35 can attenuate allergic rhinitis.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T13:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2016.08.014
  • Rapid subcutaneous desensitization for treatment of hypersensitivity
           reactions to etanercept in two patients with positive basophil activation

    • Authors: Raquel de la Varga Martínez; Diego Gutiérrez Fernández; Antonio Foncubierta Fernández; José Antonio Andrés García; Fermín Medina Varo
      Pages: 357 - 359
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Allergology International, Volume 66, Issue 2
      Author(s): Raquel de la Varga Martínez, Diego Gutiérrez Fernández, Antonio Foncubierta Fernández, José Antonio Andrés García, Fermín Medina Varo

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T13:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2016.09.002
  • Different hypersensitivities against homologous proteins of MGL_1304 in
           patients with atopic dermatitis

    • Authors: Takuma Kohsaka; Takaaki Hiragun; Kaori Ishii; Makiko Hiragun; Akiko Kamegashira; Michihiro Hide
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Takuma Kohsaka, Takaaki Hiragun, Kaori Ishii, Makiko Hiragun, Akiko Kamegashira, Michihiro Hide
      Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is exacerbated by sweating, and the skin of most patients with AD are resided by Malassezia (M.) fungi. Recently, MGL_1304 produced by M alassezia globosa was identified as the major histamine releasing antigen in human sweat. Methods The full length cDNA of the counterpart of MGL_1304 in M alassezia restricta (Mala r 8), was cloned by degenerate PCR and rapid identification of cDNA ends (RACE). Recombinant MGL_1304, and its counterparts, Mala s 8 (produced by M alassezia sympodialis) and Mala r 8 were prepared, and compared in their allergenicities by dot blot analysis and histamine release tests with sera and basophils of patients with AD. Results The identities between MGL_1304 and Mala s 8, MGL_1304 and Mala r 8, and Mala s 8 and Mala r 8 were 68%, 78%, and 76%, respectively, in protein sequences. Dot blot analysis revealed that the level of IgE binding to Mala s 8 was higher than that of MGL_1304. However, histamine release tests revealed that MGL_1304 and Mala r 8 possessed higher activity than Mala s 8. In addition, the crude lysate of M. globosa showed higher histamine release ability than that of M. sympodialis. Conclusions Patients with AD showed hypersensitivities against MGL_1304 and its homologs. However, the allergenicities of the homologs are variable and the histamine release activities may be different from the solid-phase binding activities for IgE. Sweat allergy should be carefully evaluated with biological activities of MGL_1304 and its homologs of other Malassezia fungi residing on the skin.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T10:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.05.009
  • Obesity-related systemic oxidative stress: An important factor of poor
           asthma control

    • Authors: Masako To; Yuta Kono; Naoto Ogura; Shintaro Mikami; Natsue Honda; Akihiro Hitani; Ichino Kano; Kosuke Haruki; Yasuo To
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Masako To, Yuta Kono, Naoto Ogura, Shintaro Mikami, Natsue Honda, Akihiro Hitani, Ichino Kano, Kosuke Haruki, Yasuo To

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T10:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.06.002
  • The thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) level in serum at an
           early stage of a drug eruption is a prognostic biomarker of severity of
           systemic inflammation

    • Authors: Takayoshi Komatsu-Fujii; Yuko Chinuki; Hiroyuki Niihara; Kenji Hayashida; Masataka Ohta; Ryota Okazaki; Sakae Kaneko; Eishin Morita
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Takayoshi Komatsu-Fujii, Yuko Chinuki, Hiroyuki Niihara, Kenji Hayashida, Masataka Ohta, Ryota Okazaki, Sakae Kaneko, Eishin Morita
      Background In severe drug eruptions, precise evaluation of disease severity at an early stage is needed to start appropriate treatment. It is not always easy to diagnose these conditions at their early stage. In addition, there are no reported prognostic biomarkers of disease severity in drug eruptions. The aim of this study was to test whether the thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) level in serum at an early stage of a drug eruption can serve as a prognostic biomarker of systemic inflammation. Methods Study participants included 76 patients who received a diagnosis of a drug eruption, one of the following: drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms/drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, maculopapular exanthema, and erythema multiforme. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) was eliminated in this study because scoring system for evaluating the severity was established. Correlation coefficients between serum TARC levels and indicators of systemic inflammation, including the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, Glasgow prognostic score, modified systemic inflammatory response syndrome (mSIRS) score, and C-reactive protein in serum were evaluated. Results Serum TARC levels positively correlated with the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, Glasgow prognostic score, mSIRS score, C-reactive protein, albumin, white blood cell count, body temperature, and pulse rate. TARC levels negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure. Among these parameters, the mSIRS score showed strong correlation (correlation coefficient: 0.68). Conclusions Serum TARC levels correlate well with indicators of systemic inflammation and of disease severity among patients with a drug eruption except SJS/TEN. Serum TARC may be a prognostic biomarker of severity of inflammation in drug eruptions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T10:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.06.001
  • Leukotriene receptor antagonist attenuated airway inflammation and
           hyperresponsiveness in a double-stranded RNA-induced asthma exacerbation

    • Authors: Mariko Ujino; Naoya Sugimoto; Yuta Koizumi; Shoki Ro; Yasuhiro Kojima; Kamiyama-Hara Asae; Naomi Yamashita; Ken Ohta; Hiroyuki Nagase
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Mariko Ujino, Naoya Sugimoto, Yuta Koizumi, Shoki Ro, Yasuhiro Kojima, Kamiyama-Hara Asae, Naomi Yamashita, Ken Ohta, Hiroyuki Nagase
      Background Viral infections are the most common triggers of asthma exacerbation, but the key molecules involved in this process have not been fully identified. Although cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) have been postulated as the key mediators, their precise roles remain largely unclear. To investigate the roles of cysLTs in virus-induced asthma exacerbation, we developed a murine model using a viral double-stranded RNA analog, polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), and analyzed the effect of leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) administration. Methods A/J mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) + alum (days 0, 28, 42, and 49), followed by intranasal challenge with OVA (phase 1: days 50–52) and poly I:C (phase 2: days 53–55). Montelukast was administered during poly I:C challenge (phase 2) in the reliever model or throughout the OVA and poly I:C challenges (phases 1 and 2) in the controller model. Airway responsiveness to acetylcholine chloride was assessed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on day 56. Results Administration of poly I:C to OVA-sensitized and -challenged mice increased the number of eosinophils and levels of IL-13, IL-9, CCL3, and CXCL1 in BAL fluid (BALF) and tended to increase airway responsiveness. Montelukast significantly attenuated the poly I:C-induced increase in the number of eosinophils and levels of IL-13, IL-9, and CCL3 in BALF and airway hyperresponsiveness in both the reliever and controller models. Conclusions This is the first report showing that LTRA functionally suppressed the pathophysiology of a virus-induced asthma exacerbation model, suggesting the importance of cysLTs as a potential treatment target.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T10:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.05.004
  • IL-17A gene polymorphism rs2275913 is associated with the development of
           asthma after bronchiolitis in infancy

    • Authors: Annukka Holster; Johanna Teräsjärvi; Eero Lauhkonen; Sari Törmänen; Merja Helminen; Petri Koponen; Matti Korppi; Ville Peltola; Qiushui He; Kirsi Nuolivirta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Annukka Holster, Johanna Teräsjärvi, Eero Lauhkonen, Sari Törmänen, Merja Helminen, Petri Koponen, Matti Korppi, Ville Peltola, Qiushui He, Kirsi Nuolivirta
      Background Interleukin-17 (IL-17A) is a mainly pro-inflammatory cytokine, and IL-17 signaling implicates in the development of allergic asthma. The polymorphism rs2275913 in the promoter region of the IL-17A gene has in previous studies been associated with asthma susceptibility. The objective was to evaluate the association between IL-17A rs2275913 (-197G>A) polymorphism and post-bronchiolitis asthma and/or allergic rhinitis in a prospective 11–13 years post-bronchiolitis follow-up. Methods 166 previously healthy full-term infants, hospitalized for bronchiolitis at age less than 6 months, were invited to follow-up visits at the ages of 5–7 years and 11–13 years. Asthma diagnoses and presumptive symptoms, allergic rhinitis and use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) were registered. Blood samples for IL-17A rs2275913 (-197G>A) polymorphism were obtained during hospitalization or at the 5–7 years control visit. Results There were no significant differences between children with the wild GG and variant GA or AA genotype in the severity of bronchiolitis during hospitalization or in the outcomes until the age 5–7 years. At 11–13 years of age, children with the variant GA or AA genotype had significantly less often current asthma, use of ICSs during last 12 months or allergic rhinitis than those with the wild GG genotype. The ICS use during last 12 months retained the statistical significance in adjusted analyses (adjusted OR 0.25), whereas current asthma and allergic rhinitis marginally lost it. Conclusions The IL-17A rs2275913 (-197G>A) polymorphism decreased the risk of post-bronchiolitis asthma at 11–13 years of age, but not earlier in life, in the present prospective, long-term follow-up study.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T10:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.05.010
  • Identification of a novel food allergen in lotus root

    • Authors: Yukiko Hiraguchi; Reiko Tokuda; Mari Gen; Tomoya Shingaki; Shoko Yoshino; Yusuke Kumagai; Yuko Ebishima; Junya Hirayama; Keigo Kainuma; Mizuho Nagao; Kenji Owa; Yutaka Suehiro; Takao Fujisawa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Yukiko Hiraguchi, Reiko Tokuda, Mari Gen, Tomoya Shingaki, Shoko Yoshino, Yusuke Kumagai, Yuko Ebishima, Junya Hirayama, Keigo Kainuma, Mizuho Nagao, Kenji Owa, Yutaka Suehiro, Takao Fujisawa

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T10:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.05.006
  • Disulfide-linked dimerization of the FcRγ chain is required for positive
           and negative regulation of mast cell activation via FcεRI

    • Authors: Satoshi Nunomura; Chisei Ra; Tadashi Terui; Yoshimichi Okayama
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Satoshi Nunomura, Chisei Ra, Tadashi Terui, Yoshimichi Okayama

      PubDate: 2017-06-20T09:31:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.04.010
  • Successful long-term prophylaxis with human plasma-derived C1 inhibitor in
           planning and carrying out pregnancy

    • Authors: Susana Calaforra-Méndez; Ethel Ibáñez Echevarría; Carolina Perales Chordá; María Verónica Pacheco-Coronel; Agustín Fernández Llópez; Dolores Hernández Fernández de Rojas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Susana Calaforra-Méndez, Ethel Ibáñez Echevarría, Carolina Perales Chordá, María Verónica Pacheco-Coronel, Agustín Fernández Llópez, Dolores Hernández Fernández de Rojas

      PubDate: 2017-06-20T09:31:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.05.008
  • Involvement of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 in house dust
           mite-induced allergic asthma in mice

    • Authors: Shuichiro Maruoka; Yasuhiro Gon; Kenji Mizumura; Shinichi Okamoto; Kota Tsuya; Sotaro Shikano; Kaori Soda; Isao Naguro; Hidenori Ichijo; Shu Hashimoto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Shuichiro Maruoka, Yasuhiro Gon, Kenji Mizumura, Shinichi Okamoto, Kota Tsuya, Sotaro Shikano, Kaori Soda, Isao Naguro, Hidenori Ichijo, Shu Hashimoto

      PubDate: 2017-06-20T09:31:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.05.007
  • Different clinical features of anaphylaxis according to cause and risk
           factors for severe reactions

    • Authors: Sang-Yoon Kim; Min-Hye Kim; Young-Joo Cho
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Sang-Yoon Kim, Min-Hye Kim, Young-Joo Cho
      Background Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening allergic reaction. Several studies reported different anaphylactic reactions according to the causative substances. However, a comparison of anaphylaxis for each cause has not been done. This study was conducted to identify common causes of anaphylaxis, characteristics of anaphylactic reaction for each cause and to analyze the factors related to the severity of the reaction. Methods Medical records of patients who visited the emergency room of Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital from March 2003 to April 2016 and diagnosed with anaphylactic shock were retrospectively reviewed. We compared the clinical features of anaphylaxis according to the cause. In addition, the severity of anaphylaxis was analyzed and contributing factors for severe anaphylaxis were reviewed. Results A total of 199 patients with anaphylaxis were analyzed. Food was the most common cause (49.7%), followed by drug reaction (36.2%), bee venom (10.1%), and unknown cause (4.0%). Cardiovascular symptoms of syncope and hypotension were more common in drug-induced anaphylaxis. The incidence of severe anaphylaxis was the highest in anaphylaxis due to drugs (54.2%). Urticaria and other skin symptoms were significantly more common in food-induced anaphylaxis. Risk factors for severe anaphylaxis included older age, male, and drug-induced one. Epinephrine treatment of anaphylaxis was done for 69.7% and 56.9% of patients with food-induced and drug-induced anaphylaxis, respectively. Conclusions More severe anaphylaxis developed with drug treatment and in males. Low rate of epinephrine prescription was also observed. Male patients with drug induced anaphylaxis should be paid more attention.

      PubDate: 2017-06-10T07:13:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.05.005
  • A case of eel collagen allergy

    • Authors: Masao Tamura; Kiyoshi Matsui; Yukihiro Kobayashi; Chie Ogita; Kazuyuki Tsuboi; Minori Kusakabe; Kota Azuma; Takeo Abe; Takahiro Yoshikawa; Masahiro Sekiguchi; Naoto Azuma; Masayasu Kitano; Hajime Sano
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Masao Tamura, Kiyoshi Matsui, Yukihiro Kobayashi, Chie Ogita, Kazuyuki Tsuboi, Minori Kusakabe, Kota Azuma, Takeo Abe, Takahiro Yoshikawa, Masahiro Sekiguchi, Naoto Azuma, Masayasu Kitano, Hajime Sano

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T07:01:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.04.012
  • Treatment and retreatment with omalizumab in chronic spontaneous
           urticaria: Real life experience with twenty-five patients

    • Authors: Murat Türk; İnsu Yılmaz; Sakine Nazik Bahçecioğlu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Murat Türk, İnsu Yılmaz, Sakine Nazik Bahçecioğlu
      Background Previous data have shown the high efficacy of omalizumab in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). However, factors that may be effective on the response to therapy, relapse rates after drug discontinuation, and efficacy of retreatment remain unclear. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of omalizumab in CSU refractory to conventional therapy, to identify possible factors affecting treatment response and relapse, and also to evaluate the efficacy of retreatment on relapsed disease. Methods The data of CSU patients treated with 300 mg/month omalizumab for at least 3 months were retrospectively analyzed. In order to evaluate the efficacy of treatment and retreatment, baseline and follow-up concomitant medication score (CMS) and urticaria activity score (UAS) were calculated. Possible factors affecting treatment response and relapse were identified. Results Twenty-five patients were included. The median duration of omalizumab therapy was 6 (6–12) months. Of the patients with baseline UAS 6 (5.5–6) and CMS 13 (10–15), 8 (32%) had complete response (UAS = 0) and 2 (8%) were non-responders after 3 months of therapy. None of the complete responders were positive for IgG-anti-TPO. After discontinuation of omalizumab therapy, 11 (61%) patients experienced relapse and 10 of them received retreatment with omalizumab. Half of the patients had complete response, and half had partial response (UAS = 1–4) after retreatment. No treatment related adverse events were documented. Conclusions Omalizumab has high efficacy in both the treatment and retreatment of CSU; however, relapse rates after discontinuation are high. Autoimmune markers may be helpful in predicting treatment response and relapse.

      PubDate: 2017-05-31T06:57:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.05.003
  • CpG oligodeoxynucleotides enhance airway epithelial barrier integrity

    • Authors: Yasuhiro Gon; Sotaro Shikano; Shuichiro Maruoka; Kenji Mizumura; Yutaka Kozu; Kazumichi Kuroda; Eriko Tsuboi; Ikuko Takeshita; Hiroyuki Kishi; Yasuyuki Nomura; Takeshi Oshima; Shu Hashimoto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Yasuhiro Gon, Sotaro Shikano, Shuichiro Maruoka, Kenji Mizumura, Yutaka Kozu, Kazumichi Kuroda, Eriko Tsuboi, Ikuko Takeshita, Hiroyuki Kishi, Yasuyuki Nomura, Takeshi Oshima, Shu Hashimoto

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T06:53:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.05.002
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in Japan: A nationwide survey

    • Authors: Tsuyoshi Oguma; Masami Taniguchi; Terufumi Shimoda; Katsuhiko Kamei; Hiroto Matsuse; Akira Hebisawa; Noboru Takayanagi; Satoshi Konno; Koichi Fukunaga; Kazuki Harada; Jun Tanaka; Katsuyoshi Tomomatsu; Koichiro Asano
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Tsuyoshi Oguma, Masami Taniguchi, Terufumi Shimoda, Katsuhiko Kamei, Hiroto Matsuse, Akira Hebisawa, Noboru Takayanagi, Satoshi Konno, Koichi Fukunaga, Kazuki Harada, Jun Tanaka, Katsuyoshi Tomomatsu, Koichiro Asano
      Background Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an allergic pulmonary disease characterized by a hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus species colonizing the airways. The clinical characteristics of ABPA may differ depending on genetic and environmental background. We performed a nationwide survey to determine the clinical characteristics of ABPA in Japan. Methods In 2013, a questionnaire on physician-diagnosed ABPA/allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis was sent to 903 medical centers specializing in respiratory or allergic diseases. Cases fulfilling the following criteria were categorized as possible ABPA-central bronchiectasis (ABPA-CB): 1) presence of specific serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies or a positive skin reaction to Aspergillus, and 2) bronchiectasis or mucoid impaction in the central bronchi. Results Of 499 physician-diagnosed cases reported by 132 clinical centers, 358 cases met the criteria for possible ABPA-CB. Median age of ABPA-CB onset was 57 (interquartile range, 44–68) years; later-onset disease, developing ≥50 years of age, accounted for 66% of the cases and was associated with female sex, delayed onset of asthma, and lower levels of serum IgE. A third of the patients (120 patients, 34%) exhibited low levels of serum total IgE (<1000 IU/mL). Aspergillus species were isolated from sputum in 126/213 cases (59%), and Schizophyllum commune was identified in 12 (6%) patients. During the course of the treatment, ABPA recurred in 169 (48%) cases. Conclusions This nationwide survey identified several unique clinical characteristics of ABPA in Japan, such as late-onset, relatively lower serum IgE levels, and frequent recurrences/flares.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T06:53:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.04.011
  • The interplay between neuroendocrine activity and psychological
           stress-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma

    • Authors: Tomomitsu Miyasaka; Kaori Dobashi-Okuyama; Tomoko Takahashi; Motoaki Takayanagi; Isao Ohno
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Tomomitsu Miyasaka, Kaori Dobashi-Okuyama, Tomoko Takahashi, Motoaki Takayanagi, Isao Ohno
      Psychological stress is recognized as a key factor in the exacerbation of allergic asthma, whereby brain responses to stress act as immunomodulators for asthma. In particular, stress-induced enhanced type 2 T-helper (Th2)-type lung inflammation is strongly associated with asthma pathogenesis. Psychological stress leads to eosinophilic airway inflammation through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway and autonomic nervous system. This is followed by the secretion of stress hormones into the blood, including glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which enhance Th2 and type 17 T-helper (Th17)-type asthma profiles in humans and rodents. Recent evidence has shown that a defect of the μ-opioid receptor in the brain along with a defect of the peripheral glucocorticoid receptor signaling completely disrupted stress-induced airway inflammation in mice. This suggests that the stress response facilitates events in the central nervous and endocrine systems, thus exacerbating asthma. In this review, we outline the recent findings on the interplay between stress and neuroendocrine activities followed by stress-induced enhanced Th2 and Th17 immune responses and attenuated regulatory T (Treg) cell responses that are closely linked with asthma exacerbation. We will place a special focus on our own data that has emphasized the continuity from central sensing of psychological stress to enhanced eosinophilic airway inflammation. The mechanism that modulates psychological stress-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma through neuroendocrine activities is thought to involve a series of consecutive pathological events from the brain to the lung, which implies there to be a “neuropsychiatry phenotype” in asthma.

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T06:50:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.04.013
  • Dectin-1 plays a critical role in HDM-induced PGE2 production in

    • Authors: Takashi Ito; Koichi Hirose; Ayako Norimoto; Aiko Saku; Hiroshi Nakajima
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Takashi Ito, Koichi Hirose, Ayako Norimoto, Aiko Saku, Hiroshi Nakajima

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T06:50:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.05.001
  • Early control treatment with montelukast in preschool children with
           asthma: A randomized controlled trial

    • Authors: Mizuho Nagao; Masanori Ikeda; Norimasa Fukuda; Chizu Habukawa; Tetsuro Kitamura; Toshio Katsunuma; Takao Fujisawa; Kennichi Tokuyama; Akihiko Terada; Kazuki Sato; Katsushi Miura; Hirokazu Arakawa; Masafumi Zaitsu; Tastuo Sakamoto; Tetsuya Takamasu; Naoki Shimojo; Makoto Kameda; Hiroyuki Mochizuki; Hiroshi Tachimoto; Koichi Yamaguchi; Kei Masuda; Yuichi Adachi; Yusei Oshima; Shigemi Yoshihara; Noriko Tanaka; Kunitaka Ohta; Masao Morita; Reiko Tokuda; Yoshihiko Kitou; Hayao Araki; Akiko Yamaoka; Akio Nakamura
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Mizuho Nagao, Masanori Ikeda, Norimasa Fukuda, Chizu Habukawa, Tetsuro Kitamura, Toshio Katsunuma, Takao Fujisawa
      Background While Japanese guideline recommends initial control treatment for preschool children with asthma symptoms more than once a month, Western guidelines do not. To determine whether control treatment with montelukast was more effective than as-needed β2-agonists in this population, we conducted a randomized controlled trial. Methods Eligible patients were children aged 1–5 years who had asthma symptoms more than once a month but less than once a week. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive montelukast 4 mg daily for 48 weeks or as-needed β2-agonists. The primary endpoint was the number of acute asthma exacerbations before starting step-up treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. This study is registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network clinical trials registry, number UMIN000002219. Results From September 2009 to November 2012, 93 patients (47 in the montelukast group and 46 in the no-controller group) were enrolled into the study. All patients were included in the analysis. During the study, 13 patients (28%) in the montelukast group and 23 patients (50%) in the no-controller group had acute exacerbations with the mean numbers of 0.9 and 1.9/year, respectively (P = 0.027). In addition, 10 (21%) and 19 (41%) patients received step-up treatment, respectively. Cumulative incidence of step-up treatment was significantly lower in the montelukast group (hazard ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.21 to 0.92; P = 0.033). Conclusions Montelukast is an effective control treatment for preschool children who had asthma symptoms more than once a month but less than once a week.

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T06:50:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.04.008
  • A case of refractory chronic rhinosinusitis with anti-desmoglein 3 IgG4

    • Authors: Yasushi Ota; Fumio Ishikawa; Toshiya Sato; Nobuyuki Hiruta; Makoto Kitamura; Hiromitsu Yokota; Yoshihiro Ikemiyagi; Hideaki Bujo; Mutsunori Fujiwara; Mitsuya Suzuki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Yasushi Ota, Fumio Ishikawa, Toshiya Sato, Nobuyuki Hiruta, Makoto Kitamura, Hiromitsu Yokota, Yoshihiro Ikemiyagi, Hideaki Bujo, Mutsunori Fujiwara, Mitsuya Suzuki

      PubDate: 2017-05-16T10:46:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.04.009
  • Emerging roles of basophils in allergic inflammation

    • Authors: Kensuke Miyake; Hajime Karasuyama
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Kensuke Miyake, Hajime Karasuyama
      Basophils have long been neglected in immunological studies because they were regarded as only minor relatives of mast cells. However, recent advances in analytical tools for basophils have clarified the non-redundant roles of basophils in allergic inflammation. Basophils play crucial roles in both IgE-dependent and -independent allergic inflammation, through their migration to the site of inflammation and secretion of various mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, and proteases. Basophils are known to produce large amounts of IL-4 in response to various stimuli. Basophil-derived IL-4 has recently been shown to play versatile roles in allergic inflammation by acting on various cell types, including macrophages, innate lymphoid cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Basophil-derived serine proteases are also crucial for the aggravation of allergic inflammation. Moreover, recent reports suggest the roles of basophils in modulating adaptive immune responses, particularly in the induction of Th2 differentiation and enhancement of humoral memory responses. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in understanding the roles of basophils in allergic inflammation.

      PubDate: 2017-05-16T10:46:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.04.007
  • T follicular helper and TH2 cells in allergic responses

    • Authors: Masato Kubo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Masato Kubo
      IL-4 is a cytokine commonly secreted by TH2 and follicular helper T (TFH) cells after antigenic sensitization. TH2 cells have been thought to be the major contributor of B cell help as a source of IL-4 responsible for class switch recombination to Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and Immunoglobulin E (IgE). Importantly, there are some differences in transcriptional regulation between these two T cell subsets. The IL-4 production by TH2 and TFH cells is distinctively regulated by two pathways, GATA-3-mediated Il4-HS2 enhancer and Notch mediated Il4-CNS-2 enhancer. IgE and IgG1 antibody responses are mainly controlled by IL-4-secreting TFH cells, but not by TH2 cells. In this review, we discuss the role of TH2 and TFH cells in IgE production and allergic responses.

      PubDate: 2017-05-10T10:42:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.04.006
  • Skin prick test is more useful than specific IgE for diagnosis of
           buckwheat allergy: A retrospective cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Noriyuki Yanagida; Sakura Sato; Kyohei Takahashi; Ken-ichi Nagakura; Kiyotake Ogura; Tomoyuki Asaumi; Motohiro Ebisawa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Noriyuki Yanagida, Sakura Sato, Kyohei Takahashi, Ken-ichi Nagakura, Kiyotake Ogura, Tomoyuki Asaumi, Motohiro Ebisawa
      Background Buckwheat (BW) is a potentially life-threatening allergen. Usefulness of BW-specific immunoglobulin-E (BW-sIgE) level for diagnosis of BW allergy is controversial, while the skin prick test (SPT) is widely used because of its less invasive procedure and immediate results. However, there are no data comparing usefulness of the SPT and BW-sIgE level. Therefore, our study aimed to clarify efficacy of the SPT for diagnosis of BW allergy. Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study evaluated patients who underwent an oral food challenge (OFC) for diagnosis or confirmation of acquired tolerance using 3072 mg of BW protein between July 2006 and April 2014. We then compared the diagnostic performance of BW sIgE and SPT to predict positive OFC results. Results We analyzed 126 patients aged 2–16 years (median, 7.7 years), 18 (14%) of whom showed positive OFC results. Between patients with positive and negative OFC results, there was no significant difference in BW-sIgE level. However, patients with positive OFC results had a larger SPT wheal diameter. Area under the curve for positive OFC results for BW-sIgE level and SPT wheal diameter were 0.583 and 0.791, respectively. The 5%, 10%, 50%, and 90% positive predictive values of SPT wheal diameter were 2.0 mm, 5.2 mm, 14.7 mm, and 24.1 mm, respectively. Conclusions Our study revealed that the SPT was more useful than BW-sIgE level for diagnosis of BW allergy. Thus, an OFC may be avoided if the patient's SPT wheal diameter is at least 24.1 mm.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T10:38:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.04.005
  • Association of Japanese cedar pollinosis and sensitization with HLA-DPB1
           in the Japanese adolescent

    • Authors: Wataru Morii; Aiko Sakai; Takahiro Ninomiya; Masanori Kidoguchi; Ryo Sumazaki; Shigeharu Fujieda; Emiko Noguchi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Wataru Morii, Aiko Sakai, Takahiro Ninomiya, Masanori Kidoguchi, Ryo Sumazaki, Shigeharu Fujieda, Emiko Noguchi
      Background Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a heterogeneous disorder that significantly affects daily activity, work productivity, sleep, learning, and quality of life in all generations. Japanese cedar (JC) pollen is the most common allergen responsible for the development of AR in Japan. AR caused by JC pollen is considered to be a multifactorial inheritance disease that is caused by both environmental and genetic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Human Leukocyte Antigen-DPB1 (HLA-DPB1) is associated with JC sensitization/pollinosis. Methods Subjects in the present study were 544 students at the University of Tsukuba from 2013 to 2015. PCR-SSOP was performed to determine each individual's HLA-DPB1 alleles. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine relationships between JC-related phenotypes and alleles/amino acid polymorphisms of HLA-DPB1. Results HLA-DPB1*02 allele were significantly associated with both JC sensitization/pollinosis (q < 0.05). Furthermore, HLA-DPB1*02:01 and HLA-DPB1*02:02 had a protective tendency for JC sensitization/pollinosis, and HLA-DPB1*05:01 had a susceptible tendency for sensitization (P < 0.05). In amino acid polymorphism analyses, Glutamic acid in position 69, Glycine-Glycine-Proline-Methionine in positions 84–87, Threonine in position 170 and Methionine in position 205 were also observed to have a protective tendency for JC sensitization (P < 0.05). Amino acid positions 69 and 84–87 were located in binding pocket 5 and 1 of HLA-DPβ1, respectively. Conclusions Amino acid changes in the allergen-binding pocket of HLA-DPβ1 are likely to influence pollinosis/sensitization to the allergenic peptide of JC pollen and determine the pollinosis risk for each individual exposed to JC pollen.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T10:34:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.04.004
  • “Spike” in acute asthma exacerbations during enterovirus D68 epidemic
           in Japan: A nation-wide survey

    • Authors: Seigo Korematsu; Kengo Nagashima Yasunori Sato Mizuho Nagao Shunji Hasegawa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Seigo Korematsu, Kengo Nagashima, Yasunori Sato, Mizuho Nagao, Shunji Hasegawa, Haruna Nakamura, Shiro Sugiura, Katsushi Miura, Kenji Okada, Takao Fujisawa
      Background In September 2015, Japan experienced an unusual increase in acute asthma hospitalizations of children that coincided with an enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) epidemic. The objective of this study is to investigate whether EV-D68 had a causal relationship with the spike in asthma hospitalizations. Methods A nation-wide retrospective survey of asthma hospitalizations of children was performed for the period from January 2010 through October 2015. The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology asked its affiliated hospitals to report monthly numbers of hospitalizations, ICU admissions and mechanical ventilations due to acute asthma exacerbation. The data were retrieved from medical databases using predefined search criteria: diagnosis of asthma or asthmatic bronchitis, admission, and age <20 years. Monthly numbers of EV-D68 detection were also obtained from the Infectious Disease Surveillance Center of Japan. A Granger causality test was used to analyze the association of EV-D68 detections for asthma exacerbation. Results A total of 157 hospitals reported 87,189 asthma hospitalizations, including 477 ICU admissions and 1193 mechanical ventilations, during the survey period of 5 years and 10 months. The numbers of these events increased drastically in September 2015. The Granger causality test verified the association between EV-D68 and asthma hospitalizations/mechanical ventilations. The most-affected age group was 3–6 years old. Conclusions The spike in pediatric asthma hospitalizations in Japan in September 2015 was found to be associated with the EV-D68 epidemic. Respiratory pathogens can cause “epidemics” of asthma exacerbation. Coordinated surveillance of infectious diseases and asthma may be beneficial for prevention and better control of both illnesses.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T10:34:21Z
  • The significant expression of TRPV3 in nasal polyps of eosinophilic
           chronic rhinosinusitis

    • Authors: Takahiro Tokunaga; Takahiro Ninomiya; Yukinori Kato; Yoshimasa Imoto; Masafumi Sakashita; Tetsuji Takabayashi; Emiko Noguchi; Shigeharu Fujieda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Takahiro Tokunaga, Takahiro Ninomiya, Yukinori Kato, Yoshimasa Imoto, Masafumi Sakashita, Tetsuji Takabayashi, Emiko Noguchi, Shigeharu Fujieda
      Background The number of patients with eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) has been increasing in recent years in Japan. In ECRS, nasal polyps recur immediately after endoscopic sinus surgery. The molecular biological mechanism underlying the refractoriness of ECRS is unclear. Methods Whole-transcriptome analysis with next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq) was conducted to investigate the molecular biological mechanism of ECRS. Real-time PCR, immunohistochemical staining, and immunofluorescence staining were performed to validate the results of RNA-seq. Results RNA-seq analysis revealed that in the nasal polyps of ECRS, the levels of 3 transcripts were elevated significantly and those of 7 transcripts were diminished significantly. Among the genes encoding these transcripts, TRPV3 (transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 3) was identified as the only gene that is highly expressed in ECRS nasal polyps but this gene's expression was not previously detected using DNA microarray analysis in peripheral blood eosinophils. TRPV3 is newly identified here as a gene transcribed in ECRS. Our analysis also revealed that TRPV3 was highly expressed in the infiltrating eosinophils and mucosal epithelium of the nasal polyps of ECRS, and further that the more severe the refractoriness was after surgery, the higher the TRPV3 expression was in nasal polyps. Conclusions TRPV3 might play a role in the refractoriness of ECRS. Additional studies are required to evaluate the function of TRPV3 in ECRS.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T10:34:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.04.002
  • A retrospective study: Acute rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal
           reactive arthritis in Japan

    • Authors: Satoshi Sato; Yoji Uejima; Eisuke Suganuma; Tadamasa Takano; Yutaka Kawano
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Satoshi Sato, Yoji Uejima, Eisuke Suganuma, Tadamasa Takano, Yutaka Kawano
      Background Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and post-streptococcal reactive arthritis (PSRA) are immune-mediated consequences of group A streptococcal pharyngitis. ARF has declined in developed nations. No prevalence survey of PSRA has been conducted. This study evaluated the incidence and characteristics of ARF and PSRA in Japanese children. Methods From 2010 to 2015, ARF and PSRA were evaluated using clinical data retrospectively collected by chart review from 528 hospitals. Results From 323 hospitals (61% response rate), 44 cases of ARF and 21 cases of PSRA were reported. Patients with ARF and/or PSRA were mainly from large cities in Japan. The mean age of ARF occurrence was 8.5 years, and the ratio of female/male patients was 16:28. Major manifestations in the acute phase included carditis, 27 cases (61.4%); polyarthritis, 22 cases (50%); erythema marginatum, 7 cases (15.9%); Sydenham chorea, 3 cases (6.8%); and subcutaneous nodules, 1 case (2.3%). Twenty-one (58.3%) patients had migratory arthritis. During the follow-up period, 6 patients (13.6%) showed mild carditis. For PRSA, the mean age was 8.2 years, and the ratio of female/male patients was 12:9. Six (28.6%) patients had monoarthritis, and 4 (19%) patients had migratory arthritis. No patient had carditis. Conclusions Although ARF and PSRA are rare in the Japanese pediatric population, substantial numbers of patients with both conditions were identified in this study. We observed a high incidence of arthritis and carditis in ARF patients. No PSRA case was complicated with carditis. General pediatricians need to have updated information about ARF and PSRA, even in industrialized countries.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T10:34:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.04.001
  • Diminished capacity of opsonization and immune complex solubilization, and
           detection of anti-C1q antibodies in sera from patients with hereditary

    • Authors: Daisuke Honda; Isao Ohsawa; Nobuyuki Sato; Hiroyuki Inoshita; Satoshi Mano; Yasuhiko Tomino; Yusuke Suzuki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Daisuke Honda, Isao Ohsawa, Nobuyuki Sato, Hiroyuki Inoshita, Satoshi Mano, Yasuhiko Tomino, Yusuke Suzuki
      Background Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor. Symptoms of HAE include edema, which can potentially cause suffocation. Some patients with HAE exhibit immunological abnormalities, which could prevent an accurate diagnosis. Low levels of complement components are characteristic of HAE and in other settings are thought to reduce elimination of apoptotic cells and immune complex (IC). Thus, we aimed to experimentally clarify the mechanism of immunological abnormalities using sera from HAE patients. Methods Serum samples from 18 patients with HAE were collected when free from angioedema attack and compared with normal human pooled sera (NHPS) from 20 healthy volunteers. Opsonization was measured as the rate of phagocytosis of apoptotic Jurkat cells by macrophages differentiated from THP-1 cells incubated with serum. IC solubilization in serum was analyzed by quantifying peroxidase released from a synthetic IC composed of peroxidase and anti-peroxidase antibodies. Anti-C1q antibody levels were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Serological immunological abnormalities were detected in 12 patients. Opsonization in serum samples from each patient with HAE was lower than that in NHPS (∼20% versus 70%, respectively). The rate of IC solubilization was lower in serum from HAE patients than NHPS. Some patients had high serum anti-C1q antibody levels with increased serum IC levels. Conclusions Sera from patients with HAE exhibit anti-C1q antibodies, with a lower capacity for opsonization and IC solubilization. This may be associated with immunological abnormalities and should be investigated further to facilitate accurate diagnosis of HAE.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T09:39:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.03.008
  • Maintenance of pathogenic Th2 cells in allergic disorders

    • Authors: Kenta Shinoda; Kiyoshi Hirahara; Toshinori Nakayama
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Kenta Shinoda, Kiyoshi Hirahara, Toshinori Nakayama
      Immunological memory is an important protective mechanism that enables host organisms to respond rapidly and vigorously to pathogens that have been previously encountered. In addition to the protective function, memory CD4+ T helper (Th) cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disorders, including asthma. Recently, several investigators have identified phenotypically and functionally distinct memory Th2 cell subsets that produce IL-5. These memory Th2 cell subsets play an important role in the pathology of allergic inflammation and function as memory-type “pathogenic Th2 (Tpath2) cells” both in mice and humans. We review the role of lung Tpath2 cells in the development of allergic inflammation and, in the context of recent findings, propose a mechanism by which Tpath2 cells not only survive but also continue to function at the sites where antigens were encountered. A greater understanding of the functional molecules or signaling pathways that regulate the inflammatory niche for Tpath2 cells may aid in the design of more effective treatments for chronic inflammatory disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T13:36:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.03.005
  • Histamine H1 and H4 receptor expression on the ocular surface of patients
           with chronic allergic conjunctival diseases

    • Authors: Noriko Inada; Jun Shoji; Yukiko Shiraki; Hiroshi Aso; Satoru Yamagami
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Noriko Inada, Jun Shoji, Yukiko Shiraki, Hiroshi Aso, Satoru Yamagami
      Background This study investigated the histamine H1 and H4 receptors mRNA (H1R and H4R, respectively) expression on the ocular surface of patients with chronic forms of allergic conjunctival diseases to determine whether they can serve as biomarkers for allergic inflammation in the conjunctiva. Methods We examined 19 patients with vernal or atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC/VKC group) and 15 healthy volunteers (control group). The AKC/VKC group was divided into active and stable stage subgroups. Specimens were obtained from the upper tarsal conjunctiva of each participant using a modified impression cytology method. H1R, H4R, and eotaxin-1, -2, and -3 mRNA (eotaxin-1, eotaxin-2, eotaxin-3, respectively) expression was determined by real-time RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical analysis for eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil major basic protein (MBP), eotaxin-2, and histamine H4 receptor (H4R) were performed using conjunctival smears. Results The number of H4R-positive patients was higher in the active than the stable stage subgroup and control group, whereas no difference was observed for H1R. H1R levels were higher in the active than in the stable stage subgroup, while those of H4R were higher in the active stage subgroup than in the control group. H1R and H4R levels were correlated with eotaxin-2 level. In immunohistochemical analysis, H4R revealed their expression on eosinophils in conjunctival smears of patients with AKC/VKC. Conclusions H4R is useful as biomarkers of allergic inflammation on ocular surfaces. Most notably, H4R expressed on eosinophils is useful as a biomarker of eosinophilic inflammation of the ocular surface.

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T13:36:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.03.004
  • Nattokinase, profibrinolytic enzyme, effectively shrinks the nasal polyp
           tissue and decreases viscosity of mucus

    • Authors: Tetsuji Takabayashi; Yoshimasa Imoto; Masafumi Sakashita; Yukinori Kato; Takahiro Tokunaga; Kanako Yoshida; Norihiko Narita; Tamotsu Ishizuka; Shigeharu Fujieda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Tetsuji Takabayashi, Yoshimasa Imoto, Masafumi Sakashita, Yukinori Kato, Takahiro Tokunaga, Kanako Yoshida, Norihiko Narita, Tamotsu Ishizuka, Shigeharu Fujieda
      Background Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is often comorbid with asthma and resistant to therapeutic interventions. We recently reported that excessive fibrin deposition caused by impairment of fibrinolysis might play pivotal role in forming nasal polyp. Nattokinase (NK), a serine protease produced by Bacillus subtilis, has been reported to be a strong fibrinolytic enzyme. NK could be a promising drug candidate for use in the treatment of both CRSwNP and asthma. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of NK on nasal polyp tissues from patients with CRSwNP. The nasal discharge from patients with CRSwNP and sputum from subjects with asthma were also used to investigate whether NK influences the viscosity of mucus. Methods To examine the effects on NK on nasal polyp tissues, pieces of nasal polyps were incubated either with saline or NK (10–1000 FU/ml) at 37 °C for 24 h. We assessed the presence of fibrin in nasal polyp tissue incubated with NK by means of immunohistochemistry. To examine the effects of NK on nasal discharge and sputum from patients with CRSwNP and asthma, respectively, were incubated with NK solution at 37 °C for 1 h. Results NK effectively shrinks the nasal polyp tissue through fibrin degradation. We also found that the viscosity of the nasal discharge and sputum from patients with CRSwNP and asthma, respectively, was significantly reduced by incubation with NK solution. Conclusions NK may be an effective alternative therapeutic option in patients with CRSwNP and comorbid asthma by causing fibrin degradation.

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T13:36:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.03.007
  • Patch testing in patients with recurrent vesicular hand eczema

    • Authors: Risa Tamagawa-Mineoka; Naomi Nakamura; Sachiko Ueda; Koji Masuda; Norito Katoh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Risa Tamagawa-Mineoka, Naomi Nakamura, Sachiko Ueda, Koji Masuda, Norito Katoh

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T13:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.03.006
  • Japanese guidelines for food allergy 2017

    • Authors: Motohiro Ebisawa; Komei Ito; Takao Fujisawa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Motohiro Ebisawa, Komei Ito, Takao Fujisawa
      Five years have passed since the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Food Allergy (JPGFA) was first revised in 2011 from its original version. As many scientific papers related to food allergy have been published during the last 5 years, the second major revision of the JPGFA was carried out in 2016. In this guideline, food allergies are generally classified into four clinical types: (1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, (2) infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy, (3) immediate-type of food allergy (urticaria, anaphylaxis, etc.), and (4) special forms of immediate-type of food allergy such as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and oral allergy syndrome (OAS). Much of this guideline covers the immediate-type of food allergy that is seen during childhood to adolescence. Infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy type is especially important as the onset of most food allergies occurs during infancy. We have discussed the neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy and special forms of immediate type food allergy types separately. Diagnostic procedures are highlighted, such as probability curves and component-resolved diagnosis, including the recent advancement utilizing antigen-specific IgE. The oral food challenge using a stepwise approach is recommended to avoid complete elimination of causative foods. Although oral immunotherapy (OIT) has not been approved as a routine treatment by nationwide insurance, we included a chapter for OIT, focusing on efficacy and problems. Prevention of food allergy is currently the focus of interest, and many changes were made based on recent evidence. Finally, the contraindication between adrenaline and antipsychotic drugs in Japan was discussed among related medical societies, and we reached an agreement that the use of adrenaline can be allowed based on the physician's discretion. In conclusion, this guideline encourages physicians to follow the principle to let patients consume causative foods in any way and as early as possible.

      PubDate: 2017-03-15T09:18:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2017.02.001
  • Japanese guidelines for occupational allergic diseases 2017

    • Authors: Kunio Dobashi; Kazuo Akiyama; Atsushi Usami; Hiroo Yokozeki; Zenro Ikezawa; Naomi Tsurikisawa; Yoichi Nakamura; Kazuhiro Sato; Jiro Okumura; Kaoru Takayama
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Kunio Dobashi, Kazuo Akiyama, Atsushi Usami, Hiroo Yokozeki, Zenro Ikezawa, Naomi Tsurikisawa, Yoichi Nakamura, Kazuhiro Sato, Jiro Okumura, Kaoru Takayama
      In 2013, a guideline for occupational allergic diseases was published for the first time in Japan. Occupational allergic diseases are likely to worsen or become intractable as a result of continuous exposure to high concentrations of causative antigens, and are socioeconomically important diseases with which the patients might sometimes lose jobs due to work interruptions. Guidelines for occupational allergic diseases have been published in many countries. This guideline consists of six chapters about occupational asthma, occupational allergic rhinitis, occupational skin diseases, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and occupational anaphylaxis shock, and legal aspects of these diseases. The guideline is characterized with the following basic structure: Clinical Questions (CQs) are set with reference to Minds (Medical Information Network Distribution Service), statements by the committee are correspondingly listed, recommended grades and evidence levels are defined, and then descriptions and references are indicated.

      PubDate: 2017-02-16T07:45:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2016.12.010
  • Japanese guidelines for allergic rhinitis 2017

    • Authors: Kimihiro Okubo; Yuichi Kurono; Keiichi Ichimura; Tadao Enomoto; Yoshitaka Okamoto; Hideyuki Kawauchi; Harumi Suzaki; Shigeharu Fujieda; Keisuke Masuyama
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Kimihiro Okubo, Yuichi Kurono, Keiichi Ichimura, Tadao Enomoto, Yoshitaka Okamoto, Hideyuki Kawauchi, Harumi Suzaki, Shigeharu Fujieda, Keisuke Masuyama
      Like asthma and atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis is an allergic disease, but of the three, it is the only type I allergic disease. Allergic rhinitis includes pollinosis, which is intractable and reduces quality of life (QOL) when it becomes severe. A guideline is needed to understand allergic rhinitis and to use this knowledge to develop a treatment plan. In Japan, the first guideline was prepared after a symposium held by the Japanese Society of Allergology in 1993. The current 8th edition was published in 2016, and is widely used today. To incorporate evidence based medicine (EBM) introduced from abroad, the most recent collection of evidence/literature was supplemented to the Practical Guideline for the Management of Allergic Rhinitis in Japan 2016. The revised guideline includes assessment of diagnosis/treatment and prescriptions for children and pregnant women, for broad clinical applications. An evidence-based step-by-step strategy for treatment is also described. In addition, the QOL concept and cost benefit analyses are also addressed. Along with Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact of Asthma (ARIA), this guideline is widely used for various clinical purposes, such as measures for patients with sinusitis, childhood allergic rhinitis, oral allergy syndrome, and anaphylaxis and for pregnant women. A Q&A section regarding allergic rhinitis in Japan was added to the end of this guideline.

      PubDate: 2017-02-16T07:45:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2016.11.001
  • Japanese guidelines for adult asthma 2017

    • Authors: Masakazu Ichinose; Hisatoshi Sugiura; Hiroyuki Nagase; Masao Yamaguchi; Hiromasa Inoue; Hironori Sagara; Jun Tamaoki; Yuji Tohda; Mitsuru Munakata; Kohei Yamauchi; Ken Ohta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Masakazu Ichinose, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Hiroyuki Nagase, Masao Yamaguchi, Hiromasa Inoue, Hironori Sagara, Jun Tamaoki, Yuji Tohda, Mitsuru Munakata, Kohei Yamauchi, Ken Ohta
      Adult bronchial asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, and presents clinically with variable airway narrowing (wheezes and dyspnea) and cough. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling, leading to intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased; however, the number of patients who die of asthma has decreased (1.2 per 100,000 patients in 2015). The goal of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to attain normal pulmonary function and lead a normal life, without any symptoms. A good relationship between physicians and patients is indispensable for appropriate treatment. Long-term management by therapeutic agents and elimination of the causes and risk factors of asthma are fundamental to its treatment. Four steps in pharmacotherapy differentiate between mild and intensive treatments; each step includes an appropriate daily dose of an inhaled corticosteroid, varying from low to high levels. Long-acting β2-agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, sustained-release theophylline, and long-acting muscarinic antagonist are recommended as add-on drugs, while anti-immunoglobulin E antibody and oral steroids are considered for the most severe and persistent asthma related to allergic reactions. Bronchial thermoplasty has recently been developed for severe, persistent asthma, but its long-term efficacy is not known. Inhaled β2-agonists, aminophylline, corticosteroids, adrenaline, oxygen therapy, and other approaches are used as needed during acute exacerbations, by choosing treatment steps for asthma in accordance with the severity of exacerbations. Allergic rhinitis, eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis, eosinophilic otitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, aspirin-induced asthma, and pregnancy are also important issues that need to be considered in asthma therapy.

      PubDate: 2017-02-16T07:45:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2016.12.005
  • Japanese guidelines for atopic dermatitis 2017

    • Authors: Ichiro Katayama; Michiko Aihara; Yukihiro Ohya; Hidehisa Saeki; Naoki Shimojo; Shunsuke Shoji; Masami Taniguchi; Hidekazu Yamada
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Ichiro Katayama, Michiko Aihara, Yukihiro Ohya, Hidehisa Saeki, Naoki Shimojo, Shunsuke Shoji, Masami Taniguchi, Hidekazu Yamada
      Given the importance of appropriate diagnosis and appropriate assessment of cutaneous symptoms in treatment of atopic dermatitis, the basics of treatment in this guideline are composed of (1) investigation and countermeasures of causes and exacerbating factors, (2) correction of skin dysfunctions (skin care), and (3) pharmacotherapy, as three mainstays. These are based on the disease concept that atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory cutaneous disease with eczema by atopic diathesis, multi-factorial in onset and aggravation, and accompanied by skin dysfunctions. These three points are equally important and should be appropriately combined in accordance with the symptoms of each patient. In treatment, it is important to transmit the etiological, pathological, physiological, or therapeutic information to the patient to build a favorable partnership with the patient or his/her family so that they may fully understand the treatment. This guideline discusses chiefly the basic therapy in relation to the treatment of this disease. The goal of treatment is to enable patients to lead an uninterrupted social life and to control their cutaneous symptoms so that their quality of life (QOL) may meet a satisfactory level. The basics of treatment discussed in this guideline are based on the “Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis 2008” prepared by the Health and Labour Sciences Research and the “Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2015 (ADGL2015)” prepared by the Atopic Dermatitis Guidelines Advisory Committee, Japanese Society of Allergology in principle. The guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis are summarized in the “Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Disease 2016” together with those for other allergic diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T06:57:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2016.12.003
  • Japanese guidelines for allergic conjunctival diseases 2017

    • Authors: Etsuko Takamura; Eiichi Uchio; Nobuyuki Ebihara; Shigeaki Ohno; Yuichi Ohashi; Shigeki Okamoto; Naoki Kumagai; Yoshiyuki Satake; Jun Shoji; Yayoi Nakagawa; Kenichi Namba; Kazumi Fukagawa; Atsuki Fukushima; Hiroshi Fujishima
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Etsuko Takamura, Eiichi Uchio, Nobuyuki Ebihara, Shigeaki Ohno, Yuichi Ohashi, Shigeki Okamoto, Naoki Kumagai, Yoshiyuki Satake, Jun Shoji, Yayoi Nakagawa, Kenichi Namba, Kazumi Fukagawa, Atsuki Fukushima, Hiroshi Fujishima
      The definition, classification, pathogenesis, test methods, clinical findings, criteria for diagnosis, and therapies of allergic conjunctival disease are summarized based on the Guidelines for Clinical Management of Allergic Conjunctival Disease (Second Edition) revised in 2010. Allergic conjunctival disease is defined as “a conjunctival inflammatory disease associated with a Type I allergy accompanied by some subjective or objective symptoms.” Allergic conjunctival disease is classified into allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis. Representative subjective symptoms include ocular itching, hyperemia, and lacrimation, whereas objective symptoms include conjunctival hyperemia, swelling, folliculosis, and papillae. Patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis, which is characterized by conjunctival proliferative changes called giant papilla accompanied by varying extents of corneal lesion, such as corneal erosion and shield ulcer, complain of foreign body sensation, ocular pain, and photophobia. In the diagnosis of allergic conjunctival diseases, it is required that type I allergic diathesis is present, along with subjective and objective symptoms accompanying allergic inflammation. The diagnosis is ensured by proving a type I allergic reaction in the conjunctiva. Given that the first-line drug for the treatment of allergic conjunctival disease is an antiallergic eye drop, a steroid eye drop will be selected in accordance with the severity. In the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, an immunosuppressive eye drop will be concomitantly used with the abovementioned drugs.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T06:57:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2016.12.004
  • Japanese guidelines for childhood asthma 2017

    • Authors: Hirokazu Arakawa; Yuhei Hamasaki; Yoichi Kohno; Motohiro Ebisawa; Naomi Kondo; Sankei Nishima; Toshiyuki Nishimuta; Akihiro Morikawa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2017
      Source:Allergology International
      Author(s): Hirokazu Arakawa, Yuhei Hamasaki, Yoichi Kohno, Motohiro Ebisawa, Naomi Kondo, Sankei Nishima, Toshiyuki Nishimuta, Akihiro Morikawa
      The Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Diseases 2017 (JAGL 2017) includes a minor revision of the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for the Treatment and Management of Asthma 2012 (JPGL 2012) by the Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology. The section on child asthma in JAGL 2017 provides information on how to diagnose asthma between infancy and adolescence (0–15 years of age). It makes recommendations for best practices in the management of childhood asthma, including management of acute exacerbations and non-pharmacological and pharmacological management. This guideline will be of interest to non-specialist physicians involved in the care of children with asthma. JAGL differs from the Global Initiative for Asthma Guideline in that JAGL emphasizes diagnosis and early intervention of children with asthma at <2 years or 2–5 years of age. The first choice of treatment depends on the severity and frequency of symptoms. Pharmacological management, including step-up or step-down of drugs used for long-term management based on the status of asthma control levels, is easy to understand; thus, this guideline is suitable for the routine medical care of children with asthma. JAGL also recommends using a control test in children, so that the physician aims for complete control by avoiding exacerbating factors and appropriately using anti-inflammatory drugs (for example, inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene receptor antagonists).

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T12:19:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alit.2016.11.003
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