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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3162 journals)

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Showing 1401 - 1600 of 3162 Journals sorted alphabetically
Intl. J. of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.926, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Africa Nursing Sciences     Open Access   (SJR: 0.396, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.699, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.591, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Approximate Reasoning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Biochemistry & Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.492, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Biological Macromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.917, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.2, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Chemical and Analytical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Child-Computer Interaction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.479, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Clinical and Health Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.345, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Coal Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.186, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Critical Infrastructure Protection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.648, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Dental Science and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Developmental Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Diabetes Mellitus     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Disaster Risk Reduction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.769, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Drug Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 455, SJR: 1.441, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Educational Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Educational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.617, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Electrical Power & Energy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.276, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.82, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Epilepsy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.402, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.366, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Forecasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.879, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Gastronomy and Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.422, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Gerontology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.215, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Greenhouse Gas Control     Partially Free   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.458, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.947, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 267, SJR: 1.498, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.027, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Human-Computer Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.605, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Hydrogen Energy     Partially Free   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.116, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Hygiene and Environmental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.334, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.124, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Industrial Ergonomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.795, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Industrial Organization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.873, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.514, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Information Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 306, SJR: 1.373, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.732, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Law and Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.546, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Law, Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.362, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Management Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.597, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Marine Energy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.92, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Mechanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.595, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Medical Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.247, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.717, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Mineral Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Mining Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.323, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.218, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.571, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Neuropharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Non-Linear Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.032, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nursing Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Nursing Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.646, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Obstetric Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.717, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.137, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.369, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Osteopathic Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Paleopathology     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.618, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Pavement Research and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.783, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.11, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.172, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.395, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.981, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.401, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Project Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.463, CiteScore: 5)
Intl. J. of Psychophysiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.157, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.485, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Refrigeration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.471, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Research in Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.528, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.259, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.663, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Solids and Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.295, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Spine Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.793, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Surgery Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgery Open     Open Access   (SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Surgery Protocols     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.746, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of the Sociology of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Intl. J. of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.429, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Transportation Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Veterinary Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Women's Dermatology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.213, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. Medical Review on Down Syndrome     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. Orthodontics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.239, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. Perspectives on Child and Adolescent Mental Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Intl. Review of Cell and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.973, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. Review of Cytology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intl. Review of Economics & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.841, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Review of Economics Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.632, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Review of Financial Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Review of Law and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Review of Neurobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.497, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. Review of Research in Mental Retardation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Intl. Soil and Water Conservation Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.667, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. Strategic Management Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Investigación en Educación Médica     Open Access  
Investigaciones de Historia Económica     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.264, CiteScore: 0)
Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa     Open Access  
IRBM     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.139, CiteScore: 0)
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.115, CiteScore: 4)
iScience     Open Access  
ISPRS J. of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70, SJR: 3.169, CiteScore: 8)
Italian Oral Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ITBM-RBM     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ITBM-RBM News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. de Chirurgie Viscerale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.264, CiteScore: 0)
J. de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription  
J. de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 3.571, CiteScore: 2)
J. de Mycologie Médicale / J. of Medical Mycology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.495, CiteScore: 2)
J. de Pédiatrie et de Puériculture     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
J. de Radiologie     Full-text available via subscription  
J. de Radiologie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
J. de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
J. de Traumatologie du Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
J. des Anti-infectieux     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.107, CiteScore: 0)
J. des Maladies Vasculaires     Full-text available via subscription  
J. Européen des Urgences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
J. Européen des Urgences et de Réanimation     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.108, CiteScore: 0)
J. for Nature Conservation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.894, CiteScore: 2)
J. for Nurse Practitioners     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 0)
J. Français d'Ophtalmologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.292, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Academic Librarianship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1028, SJR: 1.224, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Accounting and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 6.875, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Accounting and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.91, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.882, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Accounting Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.347, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Acute Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.196, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Adolescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.01, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Adolescent Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.851, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Advanced Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.741, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.828, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Affective Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.053, CiteScore: 4)
J. of African Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.681, CiteScore: 2)
J. of African Trade     Open Access  
J. of Aging Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.8, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Air Transport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.981, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Algebra     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.187, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Algorithms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 5.049, CiteScore: 7)
J. of Allergy and Clinical Immunology : In Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.461, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.02, CiteScore: 4)
J. of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.752, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.129, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Anesthesia History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Anthropological Archaeology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78, SJR: 1.24, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Anxiety Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.043, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Applied Developmental Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.339, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.235, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Applied Geophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.636, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.321, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Applied Research and Technology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.255, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition     Partially Free   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.303, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.355, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Approximation Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.907, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Archaeological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 1.885, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Archaeological Science : Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.659, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Arid Environments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.763, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Arrhythmia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.398, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Arthroplasty     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.373, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Arthroscopy and Joint Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.103, CiteScore: 0)
J. of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity     Open Access   (SJR: 0.361, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Asia-Pacific Entomology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Asian Ceramic Societies     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.509, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Asian Earth Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.488, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Asian Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 0.696, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Autoimmunity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.046, CiteScore: 7)
J. of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.338, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Banking & Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173)
J. of Basic & Applied Zoology : Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.42, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Behavior, Health & Social Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Behavioral and Experimental Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.593, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Behavioral and Experimental Finance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.475, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
J. of Biomechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.147, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Biomedical Informatics     Partially Free   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.028, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Biomedical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.712, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Bionic Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.584, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Bioscience and Bioengineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.675, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.929, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Bodywork and Movement Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.522, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Bone Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.941, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.753, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.26, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Business Venturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 5.212, CiteScore: 9)

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Journal Cover
Journal of Building Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.753
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2352-7102
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Mechanical, electrical and self-sensing properties of cementitious mortars
           containing short carbon fibers
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 20Author(s): Jacopo Donnini, Tiziano Bellezze, Valeria Corinaldesi This paper is aimed at exploring mechanical, electrical and self-sensing properties of cement-based mortars through the addition of short carbon fibers, at different dosages (2%, 3%, 4% by weight of cement). Compression and bending tests on carbon fiber reinforced mortars (CFRM) were performed. The addition of carbon fibers showed to enhance the mortars’ flexural strength by increasing the fibers content, while no improvement was found in the compressive strength. Electrical resistivity of the CFRM, at different days of curing, was evaluated by AC impedance measurements, using two stainless steel wire meshes as electrodes. The electrical resistivity decreased with time, until reaching a constant value after about 60 days of curing. Carbon fibers were able to drastically reduce the mortar resistivity, up to values below 150 Ω cm. The effect of fibers dosage on the ability of the mortar to change its electrical resistivity when subjected to different stress states was also studied. The specimens were gradually loaded up to 50–60% of the maximum compressive strength, carrying out two loading/unloading cycles, while resistivity was measured using a conductivity meter. Depending on the fibers dosage and stress state within the material, CFRM resistivity changed with significant variations.
       
  • Thermal effect of marble and tile fillers on self-compacting concrete
           behavior in the fresh state and at early age
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 20Author(s): Mohsen Tennich, Mongi Ben Ouezdou, Abderrazek Kallel This paper mainly focuses on studying the effects of industrials wastes from marble and tiles factories on the cracking of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to shrinkages in the fresh state and at early age.In this study, the effect of industrial wastes of marble and tiles on setting of the cement is studied by testing different pastes (cement alone or combined with each normalized limestone filler or the industrial wastes). In a second part of this research, a study of the effect of these industrial wastes on the hydration reaction in early age is carried out on different self-compacting concretes made with industrials wastes from marble and tiles factories (SCCWs).Furthermore, in this work, the resistance to cracking of different concretes at the fresh state is evaluated against the variation of the two factors favoring the cracking due to the plastic shrinkage (temperature at 25 °C and 40 °C both with and without presence of ventilation).The behaviors of the SCCWs are compared to those of a reference self-compacting concrete (SCCR) made with standard or normalized limestone filler and an ordinary vibrated concrete (OVC).The testing results of the setting of cement show that the marble and tiles wastes have a positive effect on the fresh state of concrete and the setting period by reducing the critical phase of concrete in the face of shrinkages. At the same time, these industrial wastes fillers reduce the heat in the exothermic hydration reactions of cement in SCCWs and limit their cracking due to thermal shrinkage. Moreover, the testing results show that SCCWs, exposed to heat and ventilated environment, have satisfactory strength to cracking due to the plastic shrinkage.
       
  • Condensation at the exterior surface of windows
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Anssi Laukkarinen, Paavo Kero, Juha Vinha New energy efficient windows have a higher risk for outdoor air vapour condensing to their exterior surface, when compared to older windows with lower thermal resistance. This external condensation can reduce visibility through the window, decrease owner satisfaction and affect the behaviour of window buyers and sellers. The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of window U-value and other factors on the occurrence of external condensation. A combined heat and moisture transfer model was created and used for the calculations. According to the results, the duration and amount of external condensation are projected to increase in the future due to lower window U-values and climate change. Exterior surface emissivity, external shadings and building location had a big impact on the amount of yearly condensation hours, while window orientation and solar absorption coefficient had a smaller impact. There was also an interesting power-law-type correlation between yearly condensation hours and the median effective thickness of the condensation layer. The results help window manufacturers and building designers make more accurate decisions in their future work.
       
  • Energy trade off analysis of optimized daily temperature setpoints
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Ali Ghahramani, Kanu Dutta, Burcin Becerik-Gerber We introduce a systematic approach for analyzing the energy consumption of four control policies (i.e., zone level daily optimal control, zone level annual optimal control, building level daily optimal control, building level annual optimal control), which differed based on their temporal and spatial control scales. In order to integrate occupant thermal comfort requirements, we defined uniformly distributed random constraint functions on the setpoints. We used the DOE reference small office building in three U.S. climate zones for simulating the performances of control policies, using EnergyPlus. Among the four control policies, the building level annual control policy showed close to the highest energy efficiency (27.76–50.91% (average of 39.81%) savings depending on the climate) with comparatively small training data requirements. In addition, the building level daily optimal setpoint selection, subject to thermal comfort constraints, leads to 17.64–38.37% (average of 26.61%) energy savings depending on the climate. We also demonstrate that temporal scale of the policies have a statistically significant impact on the small office building's energy consumption while spatial scale's impact is insignificant.
       
  • Effect of leaf fiber modification methods on mechanical and
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Demin Jiang, Penghui An, Suping Cui, Feng Xu, Tianfu Tuo, Jingzong Zhang, Hao Jiang Using plant leaves as eco-friendly heat-insulating building materials, five poplar leaf modification methods were employed to improve the compatibility between leaf fibers and cement-based materials in composites. Mechanical properties, water absorption and heat-insulating properties of leaf fiber cement-based composite materials (LFCCM) containing unmodified and modified leaf fibers were analyzed. The results indicated that pure acrylic emulsion spray was the best fiber processing method in terms of mechanical properties of LFCCM, followed by sodium silicate solution spraying; water dipping was also recommended and the strength of LFCCM with lye fiber dipping performed the worst. The optimal fiber treatment method of improving thermal insulation properties of LFCCM was lye dipping, followed by pure acrylic polymer emulsion spraying and sodium silicate solution spraying had the worst performance. With a thermal conductivity
       
  • Calibrated simulation analysis for integration of evaporative cooling and
           radiant cooling system for different Indian climatic zones
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Prateek Srivastava, Yasin Khan, Mahabir Bhandari, Jyotirmay Mathur, Ranaveer Pratap Radiant cooling system (RCS) has proven to be an energy efficient system for meeting a building's cooling requirements. RCS is energy efficient and provides better thermal comfort compared to conventional all-air heating ventilation air conditioning (HVAC) system. To further improve the efficiency of RCS, a parallel evaporative cooling system (cooling tower) is coupled with RCS and analyzed for different climatic condition using calibrated model. A statistical analysis of weather files (based on wet bulb temperature), was used to identify the availability of useful water for cooling tower integration with RCS. A comprehensive simulation feasibility study of the application of cooling tower in RCS was performed for different cities to cover every climatic zones of India. It was found that in summer, the wet bulb temperature (WBT) of different climatic zones, except warm-humid, is suitable for the integration of cooling tower with RCS. An experimental setup was designed and developed for integration of parallel chiller and cooling tower with panel-based RCS for cooling and a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) for dehumidification and ventilation. Experiments were conducted for chiller and cooling tower operated RCS in Composite climate of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Building Energy Models (BEM) were developed for both the chiller-operated RCS and cooling tower-operated RCS in EnergyPlus and calibrated with the measured data. Using the calibrated models, performance of the system was analyzed for different climatic zones of India. A chiller-operated RCS was considered as a baseline to compare the annual energy saving potential and monthly performance of the cooling tower integrated RCS. In the cooling tower–operated RCS, a total annual savings of 7% in hot and dry climates, 11% in composite climates and 20% in temperate climates was achieved compared to the chiller-operated RCS.
       
  • Indicators for quantifying environmental building performance: A
           systematic literature review
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Esmir Maslesa, Per Anker Jensen, Morten Birkved Buildings as products are complex structures with a long service life compared to most other products and they induce considerable environmental impacts throughout their life cycle. The Environmental Building Performance (EBP) depends on attributes like building design, selection of building materials, building location, as well as operation and maintenance. This article provides the accumulated scientific knowledge on how to quantify EBP by a systematic literature review. Such knowledge is valuable for decision-makers and facilities managers in the process of implementing an environmental strategy and focusing on improving EBP. The review includes 69 articles that cover three research topics relating to EBP: I) indicator categories, II) building types and III) assessment methods. The results show that the environmental impacts are higher for non-residential buildings, and that the building use stage has significantly higher environmental impacts than the other stages. Relating to that, the article identifies eight main categories for quantifying EBP and discusses two methods for assessing EBP.
       
  • Review of humidity control technologies in buildings
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Maher Shehadi This paper reviews the current research and advances in humidity control for residential and commercial buildings. Desiccant and hygroscopic buffering zones are summarized. System types, performances and challenges are presented to help the reader select the best cooling dehumidification system for his application or project. More emphasis is put on liquid and hybrid systems along with advances in desiccant membranes and energy conservation. The paper concludes that liquid and hybrid desiccant cooling dehumidification systems offer higher flexibility and control for moisture removal, lower heating and cooling requirements for the regenerator and absorber, respectively, compared with the same for solid desiccant systems. Mixtures of multiple liquid desiccants offer better dehumidification results compared with single desiccant solutions. Hygroscopic humidity buffer zones play a significant role in predicting and meeting the comfort levels for building occupants.
       
  • Standard fire testing of chimney linings from composite materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Zsuzsanna Kererekes, Éva Lublóy, Barbara Elek, Ágoston Restás Improper construction on of chimneys can lead to dwelling-house fires, smoke poisoning or death [1]. Due to the constantly increasing demands, new and more advanced chimney linings are being produced and used. In the case of reinforced concrete and brick chimneys, modern chimney technology applies linings. It is well known that the stainless steel and aluminum linings already in use can eventually become victim to corrosion.Due to the emerging corrosion defects, the development of a newer, more advanced material providing the same level of air tightness in the long term, has been proposed. The new composite lining material is expected to withstand aggressive corrosive substances produced in the chimney shaft and to meet the flammability requirements specified in the regulations. It is well-known, however, that high temperatures or fire are generally unfavorable for plastics.In our experiments, a newly developed composite material was tested according to the standards (non-flammability A1, A2, flame spread) for chimney linings. In addition to the relevant standard requirements, a more rigorous flammability test was performed, i.e. the flammability of the composite material was tested with different oxygen contents, which in our opinion perfectly and realistically reveals the flammability of a material and also replaces other traditional tests.The main goal of our experiments was to observe the built-in sizes not the standard ones and to classify accordingly. This is not only the direction of safety, but also gives a more realistic approach to the behavior of composite inline exposed to heat and fire.Fire classification and requirements do not keep up with the development of plastics and composites, so we make a proposal for a realistic classification. Accompanied by the results of the oxygen index test, we have given the parameter that expresses the best the non-flammability of composites. Incineration in an oxygen-rich environment reveals potentially hidden flammability characteristics, which standard tests cannot detect. The requirements of fire standards mandatory for building materials [2] do not change even if the composites are tested in their actual size.
       
  • Performance evaluation of refuge floors in combination with egress
           components in high-rise buildings
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Alireza Soltanzadeh, Matin Alaghmandan, Hossein Soltanzadeh In recent decades, the number of high-rise buildings has increased. It is therefore essential that emergency evacuation should be taken into account for conditions such as fire, explosion, and terrorist attacks. This research aims to evaluate the performance of the emergency egress components in the architectural design of high-rise buildings. This assessment includes the number and location of stairs and elevators, and most importantly, the number and dimensions of the refuge areas. The main question of this study is: What is the relationship between the number of elevators and emergency stairs with the number and location of refuge areas in a high-rise building for finding the optimal time of emergency egress' In this research, the simulation and modeling methods are used as well as the library data collection method. The research considers 12 different scenarios to investigate the optimal time of emergency egress in a 40-storey high-rise office building. The simulations are done using an algorithm written by the Pathfinder software. The independent variables are the number of elevators, stairs, and refuge floors, and the dependent variable is the most number of people left in the standard time of an hour in the simulation. Results of the research show that in a 40-storey building, having a refuge floor in the middle, will allow more people to be evacuated. That could be feasible by making less nodes in the refuge floor plan that prevent the formation of long queues for the use of elevators.
       
  • Multi-damage identification of large-scale truss structures using a
           two-step approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Narges Fallah, Seyed Rohollah Hoseini Vaez, Ali Mohammadzadeh In this paper, a two-step damage detection approach is presented to identify the location and severity of multiple damage cases in large-scale truss structures. In the first step, a damage locating vector (DLV) method based on EDS (exponential decreased stress) considering modal flexibility differences is employed to localize the damaged elements of a structure. Next, a crow search algorithm (CSA) is applied to estimate the severity of reported damaged elements using the results of the first step. Numerical examples including three large-scale trusses are considered to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed approach. In order to assess the effect of noise on the process of damage detection, a statistical study on each example is investigated, and selection of an appropriate threshold is studied in this article. The results indicate that the combination of the DLV method using EDS and CSA can reliably determine the location and severity of multiple structural damage cases even though there are a high number of elements and a low number of considered modes.
       
  • Non-linear dynamic analysis to assess the seismic performance of
           cross-laminated timber structures
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Maria Cristina Porcu, Claudio Bosu, Igor Gavrić Timber structures are widely recognized to perform very well under strong ground motions. A non-linear dynamic analysis can be carried out to assess their seismic performance for design purposes, as allowed by the current regulations. When dealing with timber structures, however, the difficulties typically involved by this very powerful method of analysis may increase and sometimes become even overwhelming. The reasons are mainly due to insufficient experimental data, lack of standard constitutive models for timber connections and inadequate support provided by the current seismic codes. The key aspects related to modelling the non-linear behaviour of modern timber structures with particular focus to the crucial role of connections are analyzed in this paper. By referring to a case-study building made by solid cross-laminated (X-Lam) timber panels and designed according to the Eurocodes, the path that the designer has to undertake when carrying out a time-history non-linear analysis of a X-Lam timber structure is put in evidence, while some simplified assumptions are suggested and justified. A concentrated plasticity three-dimensional model is adopted where the hysteretic behaviour of connections is implemented by exploiting experimental data available from the literature. Three suites of earthquake records are considered in the investigation. The paper aims to give structural engineers some useful hints to carry out non-linear dynamic analyses of cross-laminated timber structures for design purposes.
       
  • Lime – and sand – stabilization of clayey materials from the Logone
           valley (Lake Chad basin) for their utilisation as building materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Jean Pierre Temga, Achille Balo Madi, Simon Basga Djakba, Philemon Zo’o Zame, Monique Abessolo Angue, Jacques Richard Mache, Jean Pierre Nguetnkam, Lucien Dieudonné Bitom A study of mechanical, durability and water resistance properties was carried out on clay samples stabilized by the addition of variable proportions of sand and lime. 64 formulations were prepared for a total of 768 specimens with clayey materials (0%, 25%, 50% and 100%), sand (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) and lime (0%, 4%, 8% and 12%). The obtained results show that the specimens specifically stabilized with sand, although resistant with compressive strength ranging from 1.4 to 3.2 MPa, disaggregate and collapse after 24 h immersion in water. The compressive strength of clay stabilized with lime increases with the amount of lime added, giving 5.1 MPa at 12% lime stabilization (4–12% of lime for 0.4–5.1 MPa). The highest compressive strength values are obtained with 12% lime and 0–25% sand (5.1 and 4.1 MPa respectively). The water absorption varies between 15% and 34%. The compressive strength values obtained are above the minimum recommended values for use in construction. A production method of resistant clay bricks from clayey materials from the Logone Valley is proposed. It is recommended to use the suitable mixture for building construction.
       
  • Relevance of torsional effects on the seismic assessment of an old RC
           frame-wall building in Lisbon
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Claudia Caruso, Rita Bento, Edoardo Michele Marino, José Miguel Castro Torsional effects may significantly modify the seismic response of a building and the distribution of damage throughout the structure. In this paper, the torsional response of a case study Reinforced Concrete (RC) wall-frame building built between 1960 and 1980 is presented. The building was constructed without considering appropriate seismic design criteria and without taking into account the forces induced by torsional vibrations. A numerical investigation on the seismic behaviour of the case-study building is carried out by means of nonlinear static pushover analyses performed on a 3-D numerical model of the building; the Extended N2 method is adopted to take into account the influence of higher mode effects in plan and in elevation. The results are then compared with the ones obtained from nonlinear Time-History (TH) analysis. It is concluded that the shear demand evaluated according to the Extended N2 method provides a conservative estimate in comparison to TH analysis. Thus, an improved procedure is proposed for the application of the Extended N2 method in the evaluation of shear demand.
       
  • Statistical modeling of thermal conductivity for cement-based foam
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Farnaz Batool, N.G. Narasimha Prasad, Vivek Bindiganavile This paper presents the formulation of two multivariate regression models for predicting the thermal conductivity of cement-based foam through statistical analysis. The cement-based foam was produced by replacing Portland cement with fly ash, silica fume, and metakaolin, up to 20% by mass, for densities that ranged from 400 to 800 kg/m3. In the first model, the porosity, moisture content, and thermal conductivity of the solid cement paste were considered as independent variables. Results reveal the presence of multicollinearity among these independent variables. In the second formulation, the porosity, mass ratio of the pozzolanic admixture in the binder, and maturity (in days) were taken as independent variables. This model was found statistically significant and was validated against a range of independently determined experimental values for thermal conductivity of such materials.
       
  • Uncertainty analysis of occupant behavior and building envelope materials
           in office building performance simulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Walid Belazi, Salah-Eddine Ouldboukhitine, Alaa Chateauneuf, Abdelhamid Bouchair In this paper, a numerical model is developed to analyze the uncertainty of occupant behavior and building envelope materials on energy performance. The study is carried out for hot, moderate and cold weather conditions. Random variations of parameters related to occupant behavior and building envelope are studied in order to quantify the uncertainties on the final energy loads. Regarding occupant behavior, the studied parameters are the occupant arrival and departure times, the number of occupant and internal gains due to occupant activities. Regarding the building envelope, the studied parameters are external walls, floor and roof U-values. The results show a large variation of energy needs due to uncertainties related to occupant behavior and building physical properties. The uncertainties in input data show that parameters related to occupant behavior have a considerable influence in hot climates compared to parameters related to building envelope materials. On the other hand, for cold climate, the influence is more pronounced for parameters related to building envelope than parameters related to occupant behavior.
       
  • Utilization of commercial sulfate to modify early performance of high
           volume fly ash based binder
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Hoang-Anh Nguyen The current study aims at distinguishing the advantages of using commercial sulfate agents consisting of sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) and gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) to improve the setting time and the engineering properties of a high volume Class F fly ash (HVFA) paste at early ages. Experimental results showed that both types of sulfate activators as added in the HVFA paste shortened the setting time and increased the compressive strengths of the hardened paste specimens at all days, especially at early ages of 1–7 days. The improved macro-behavior of the HVFA pastes modified with sulfate in comparison with the reference specimens without sulfate was associated with the microstructural refinement due to the increased ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) measurement induced by the extra hydration products contributed to the dissolution of fly ash particles as detected by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). In this study, using Na2SO4 to enhance the setting time and early compressive strength of the HVFA paste was more efficient than using CaSO4.2H2O. On the other hand, the CaSO4.2H2O distinguished its’ superior benefit on lowering the hydration heat released of sulfate modified HVFA pastes.
       
  • Thermal resistance of fly ash based rubberized geopolymer concrete
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Salmabanu Luhar, Sandeep Chaudhary, Ismail Luhar This research paper presents the first scientific attempt at a comparative study of thermal resistance of fly ash based geopolymer concrete and rubberized geopolymer concrete. In this study, rubberized fly ash based geopolymer concrete has been prepared using waste rubber tire fibres as a partial substitute for natural river sand, providing an efficient solution to the disposal problems of both fly ash and waste rubber. Changes in the weight, compressive strength, density, and microstructure of control and rubberized fly ash based geopolymer concrete at room temperature, and after thermal treatment at 200 °C, 400 °C, 600 °C and 800 °C for two hours, have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform spectrometry (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTA). Results indicate that the loss in strength for rubberized geopolymer concrete at elevated temperatures is only slightly higher than that of the control geopolymer concrete because of the probable mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion of the integral materials.
       
  • Continuous monitoring of indoor environmental quality using an
           Arduino-based data acquisition system
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Majid Karami, Gabrielle Viola McMorrow, Liping Wang Building performance monitoring could be limited due to the cost and inflexibility of hardware and software platforms for data acquisition. This paper describes a portable continuous measurement toolbox which provides a robust, easily extendable, and low-cost setup for indoor environmental quality (IEQ) monitoring and performance assessment. Various sensors—temperature, relative humidity, illuminance, CO2, VOC, PM2.5, and occupancy—for IEQ performance measurement are included in this toolbox. Arduino Uno boards were connected to the sensors for data acquisition. ZigBee communication protocol was established between an XBee device for each Arduino board and an XBee receiver connected to a computer. The toolbox utilized the open source, agent-based software platform VOLTTRON for data communication and analysis. The data collection system was calibrated against an accurate data acquisition card. Experiments have been conducted using the toolbox for assessing IEQ performance in an open computer lab within a commercial building. Thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and lighting performance have been analyzed based on collected data. The study demonstrated reliability and robustness of the toolbox for continuous monitoring of indoor environmental quality.
       
  • A new concrete-glulam prefabricated composite wall system: Thermal
           behavior, life cycle assessment and structural response
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): G. Boscato, T. Dalla Mora, F. Peron, S. Russo, P. Romagnoni This study analyses a new hybrid construction system, the CGFP - Concrete Glulam Framed Panel - that merges the two mostly used materials in frame technology. It is a prefabricated composite wall made of a reinforced concrete slab and a glulam frame.The strength and stiffness of CGFP have been investigated by load-displacements tests and thermal performance was evaluated by means of a hot-box apparatus. Moreover, the environmental impacts of the system are verified defining its Carbon Footprint and Embodied Energy.The efficacy of the proposed system was validated by experimental and numerical analysis. Mechanical and thermal properties have been evaluated by means of experimental and numerical tests whose results have been compared showing a good agreement. By structural point of view, the strength and the deformation capacity are ensured through the consecutive and interactive structural response between the wood frame and the concrete slab. By the thermal and environmental point of view, thermal resistance obtained with different kind of insulation materials have been analysed and a calculation of the amount of the Carbon Footprint and Embodied Energy was already performed.The CGFP panel shows a good thermal performance, a low environmental impact respect to similar construction systems and promising structural behavior.
       
  • Ricinus communis – A green extract for the improvement of anti-corrosion
           and mechanical properties of reinforcing steel in concrete in chloride
           media
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): S.P. Palanisamy, G. Maheswaran, A. Geetha Selvarani, C. Kamal, G. Venkatesh Various Standard methods such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization study (PDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been utilized to study the corrosion characteristics of reinforcing steel in concrete in without and with various concentrations of Ricinus communis (R. communis) in NaCl media in different time intervals. The ability of the plant extract to produce protective layer on steel surface in concrete and mixed mode (anodic as well as cathodic) inhibitive action have been established from the findings of electrochemical measurements (EIS & PDS). Further, the formation of protective layer on the steel surface by plant extract has been supported by surface morphology analysis (AFM). The adsorption of R. communis extract on steel surface followed the Temkin adsorption isotherm. The results of density functional theory (DFT) analysis brought out the active centers of major ingredients responsible for adsorption of molecules present in R. communis over the steel surface that influenced the anti-corrosion potential of plant extract. The increase in compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of concrete has been observed. The inhibitive mechanism of the R. communis extract against reinforcing steel corrosion in concrete in 3.5% NaCl media has also been proposed.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Potential of a wet fabric device as a roof evaporative cooling solution:
           Mathematical and experimental analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Carlos J. Esparza L., Carlos Escobar del Pozo, Adolfo Gómez A., Gabriel Gómez A., Eduardo Gonzalez C. The present work indicates the potential of a novel wet fabric device as a roof indirect evaporative cooling solution in comparison with a water roof pond and as a future reference for no water consumption devices. Theoretical and experimental models describe the thermal performance of three roof evaporative cooling solutions: I) water roof pond, II) water roof pond with floating fabric and III) wet fabric. Four built experimental cells were used to validate the numerical results. The theoretical model describes interior, roof, water and fabric temperatures, considering constant properties. Finite difference method is used to solve the governing equations for each case by using temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation measurements for three climate conditions: Hot sub-humid, hot humid and warm sub-humid. An experimental study is designed to test the numerical results for control and water pond cases. Numerical and experimental results show good agreement; for the reference cell and water pond cell, the difference between the numerical and experimental average indoor temperature becomes 0.1 K in both cases. The results show that the proposed wet fabric device has a cooling potential for three climate conditions, considering that it does not require substantial constructive modifications. The theoretical model is also used to show that fabric porosity has a pronounced influence on the interior temperature.
       
  • Strength and durability of concrete containing recycled concrete
           aggregates
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Job Thomas, Nassif Nazeer Thaickavil, P.M. Wilson Recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) sourced from waste concrete are a sustainable alternative to natural crushed stone aggregates. The strength and durability properties of concrete containing RCA were evaluated by a comprehensive experimental investigation involving nine control mixes. The variables considered in the experimental study are water cement ratio, cement content in concrete and percentage replacement of coarse aggregate. The strength properties such as compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength are studied. Durability properties such as water absorption, sorptivity, acid attack resistance and chloride permeability are also determined. The test results showed that up to 25% of natural crushed stone aggregates in concrete may be replaced with RCA, without significantly affecting the strength of concrete and that the partial replacement of natural aggregates with RCA can be recommended in areas of moderate exposure conditions. Mathematical models developed in the study can be used for the a priori prediction of the strength parameters of RCA concrete. A mix design methodology using the developed models is proposed to aid practicing engineers to determine the mix proportions of RCA concrete.
       
  • Influence of sintering temperature of a ceramic substrate in mortar
           adhesion for civil construction
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): A.R.G. Azevedo, B.R. França, J. Alexandre, M.T. Marvila, E.B. Zanelato, G.C. Xavier The mortars have a fundamental role in the buildings, as in the placement of blocks or in use as a wall and ceiling coating, another application and the fixing of ceramic tiles for coating. The variation of the properties of the ceramic substrates directly influences the efficiency of the coating system of the constructions. The objective of this work is to analyze the influence of the firing temperature of the ceramic blocks, known as substrates, on the adhesion property of the mortar based on cement and lime, for this purpose, were made ceramic blocks in different firing temperature (750 °C, 850 °C and 950 °C) and physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of the clay used without processing. The results indicated that the firing temperature is a variable that directly influences the properties of the red ceramic where the bricks burned at 950 °C provided greater gain of resistance to the adhesion of traction due to the high initial absorption index compared with the temperatures of 850 °C and 750 °C.
       
  • The effects of illuminance, colour temperature, and colour rendering of
           various existing light-emitting diode lamps on subjective preference and
           performance in Indonesia
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Revantino, Rizki A. Mangkuto, Adriana Enge, Filza Munir, F.X. Nugroho Soelami, Faridah Studies on user acceptance of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) lighting were largely done in developed countries, while there are presumably significant differences between the developed and developing countries. Series of measurements of various domestic LED lamps in Indonesia were conducted to investigate the effects of varying illuminance (Eav), Correlated-Colour Temperature (CCT), and Colour Rendering Index (CRI) on visual perception and to determine the users’ preference of those parameters in Indonesian context. Visual assessments were conducted using observation booths in a dark room. The assessments were consisted of subjective performance and preference tests. The performance tests focused on the subjects’ acuity in reading letters with various size and contrast; while the preference tests focused on the perception of lighting level, colour clarity, colour appearance, and overall visual comfort. It was found that variation of CCT yields significant effect on colour clarity and visual comfort. In term of colour appearance, variation of CCT yields more significant effect compared to CRI, while illuminance gives no effect. On lighting level, variation of both Eav and CCT yields more significant effect compared to CRI. Most of the participating subjects felt visually comfortable under the CCT of 6500 K, average desktop illuminance of 350 lx, and higher CRI value.
       
  • Hygroscopic behaviour of lignocellulosic materials: Dataset at oscillating
           relative humidity variations
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Giana Almeida, Romain Rémond, Patrick Perré The objective of this work is to study the hygroscopic behaviour of lignocellulosic materials used in building insulation. Five lignocellulosic materials have been studied and compared: cellulose, flax-hemp wool, low fibreboard density (LDF), Norway spruce and wheat straw. Particular attention is paid to the history of changes in relative humidity (RH). The RH trajectories were chosen to meet two objectives: i) to precisely determine the envelope curves (full adsorption and full desorption in the absence of memory effect) and ii) to quantify the memory effect in the case of partial sorption cycles, likely to occur in these materials in use. The Hailwood-Horrobin model was used to describe the envelope curves and the effect of temperature on isotherms was also modelled. The difference in hygroscopic behaviour is explained by the differences in the chemical and structural composition of the materials studied. The parameters identified in this work provide very useful information to assess the sorption behaviour of lignocellulosic materials when in use in buildings.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Potential and challenges of immersive virtual environments for occupant
           energy behavior modeling and validation: A literature review
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Yimin Zhu, Sanaz Saeidi, Tracey Rizzuto, Astrid Roetzel, Robert Kooima Occupant energy behavior is a major factor affecting the energy performance of buildings, but its impact is difficult to predict during design. Although a significant amount of research has been done based on empirical and lab experiments, the performance gap of buildings, i.e., the design energy performance vs. the actual energy performance of buildings, still exists. Immersive virtual environments (IVEs) offer a unique opportunity and alternative for studying occupant energy behavior because of its potential to provide realistic virtual experiences to participants and elicit their behavioral responses. The objective of this study is to perform a comprehensive literature review to understand the potential and challenges of IVE applications to occupant energy behavior studies. The review covers research in both occupant energy behavior and IVE applications. By matching IVE capabilities with factors of the Drivers-Needs-Actions-Systems (DNAs) framework and the needs of occupant energy behavior studies, the authors found that IVE applications vary depending on IVE's technical maturity to handle DNAs factors, which can be classified into three categories; and that current IVE applications are centered on validating IVEs for occupant behavior studies and understanding behaviors in IVEs. Future research is needed to improve strategies for data generation, behavior and sensation modeling, prediction, and validation, as well as the creation of virtual experiences with multiple sensory inputs and social presence.
       
  • New sol-gel deposition technique in the Smart-Windows – Computation of
           possible applications of Smart-Windows in buildings
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Mauro Cannistraro, Maria Elena Castelluccio, David Germanò The integration of a new architectural component into the building envelope can contribute to improving its energy performance, and the comfort conditions visual and thermo-hygrometric. Two deposition methods are used: dip-coating and spin-coating, optically characterized by spectro-photometric techniques. Measurements of a dynamic type have enabled the determination of parameters such as switching times (relative to the coloring and inverse process) and optical memory (important in smart-window applications to reduce the consumption of operating energy). The experimental results of the deposition technique on two electro-chromic devices measuring made at the Department of Engineering of the University of Messina, are shown below. In this study, through a computational investigation, the possibilities of environmental control of "Smart-Windows" with electro-chromic technology are investigated. To characterize these aspects, the thermal behavior of a building-model equipped with electro-chromic Smart-Windows was analyzed using the MC4 Software simulation program. Through the separate applications of the Smart Windows, connected with different types of shading, we have proceeded to simulate the calculation of the energy requirement of a block of the Engineering Faculty of the University of Messina, which has a building typology favorable to the study, being characterized by extensive glass walls facing south. Annual cooling thermal loads calculated for the building under examination. for different control strategies of the Smart Windows, they were then compared with the thermal loads obtained with traditional glass systems (actually installed) for different types of shielding in order to estimate any energy savings
       
  • Optimisation analysis of a stand-alone hybrid energy system for the senate
           building, university of Ilorin, Nigeria
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): B.O. Ariyo, M.F. Akorede, I.O.A. Omeiza, S.A.Y. Amuda, S.A. Oladeji This study investigates the feasibility of providing electric power from a PV-Wind-Diesel-Battery hybrid system as an alternative energy supply to the Senate Building of the University of Ilorin, Nigeria. The case study presents an average daily energy demand of 1520 kWh, 712.5 kWh and 212.8 kWh during a typical dry season, rainy season and weekend days respectively. The daily average energy demand data is logged using Fluke 432-II Power Quality and Energy Analyzer. The solar irradiance and wind speed data of the site over one year period were sourced from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) website. A two-objective optimisation cost function is formulated and solved considering three different scenarios of the case study. Analysis of various system configurations is carried to meet the power demand at the possible minimum cost of energy (COE). The results obtained are compared with that of Hybrid Optimisation Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software. Both approaches reveal that PV-Diesel-Battery system configuration yields the optimal results for the case study. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to examine the conditions under which it is technically and economically feasible to include wind turbine in the system design as proposed. However, comparative cost analysis carried out shows that the hybrid energy system with a cost of $0.283/kWh (#84.90/kWh) is not economically viable yet compared with $0.087/kWh (#26.00) currently charged by most electric utilities in Nigeria.
       
  • A numerical procedure for modeling the floor deformability in seismic
           analysis of existing RC buildings
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): S. Ruggieri, F. Porco, G. Uva In the paper is presented a research study on floor system behavior in existing Reinforce Concrete (RC) buildings under horizontal actions. Generally, vulnerability analysis consists in the study of effective structural behavior of buildings, in order to carry out the assessment, comparing seismic demand and structural capacity. To this purpose, the hypotheses at the base of Finite Element (FE) numerical model, as rigid floor assumption, assume a primary role for the accurateness of seismic analysis results.In the study, after carrying out a preliminary assessment on significant parameters, which influence the floor stiffness, a new numerical simplified procedure has been proposed. Starting by micro-models, made with solid elements, on several simple applications, the behavior of floor system in elastic field has been analyzed in terms of in-plane displacements and a thickness of an equivalent shell of orthotropic material has been defined, usable in macro-model of frame-shell elements.Subsequently, using the procedure proposed, a real case of existing RC buildings has been investigated. The results of linear analysis have been evaluated through their comparison with those obtained by a model where the flexibility of slab is simulated with a more consolidate method like “strut model”.The numerical analyses carried out have enabled to give interesting indications about both the accuracy of rigid floor assumption and assessment of slab elements.
       
  • Analysis of climate adaptive energy-saving technology approaches to
           residential building envelope in Shanghai
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Li Pan, Qiang Xu, Yue Nie, Tong Qiu In areas having both a hot summer and cold winter, there are two features that affect energy use. One is the high demand for cooling and heating, especially the cooling requirement in summer; the other is the intermittent energy use mode, which depends on whether people are at home. Over recent decades, the average environmental temperature has risen continually, and thus the building cooling load has increased significantly. At present, technological approaches to the building envelope are based on the continuous energy use mode, which needs to be optimised to fit in with local climate characteristics and energy use habits. The orthogonal analysis method is used to optimise the index values of the building envelope capacity by using energy consumption simulation, and experiments are performed to verify a suitable way of using thermal insulation layers to insulate the envelope structure. From the results, it is concluded that thermal reaction rate can be used as a factor to judge the performance of different thermal insulation types. Under an intermittent energy use mode, interior thermal insulation has a higher thermal reaction rate and lower energy consumption. In order to conserve energy, different combinations of envelope index levels are proposed for heating and cooling modes. After building with this optimised energy technology approach, it is expected that thermal comfort can be achieved with a relatively low level of energy use.
       
  • Measuring thermal conductivity of green-walls components in controlled
           conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Laurent Libessart, Mohamed Amine Kenai This study is the first stage of a larger multidisciplinary research program about the environmental performances and functions of green walls in urban ecosystems. It aims to determine how green-walls contribute to the thermal insulation of buildings by measuring the thermal conductivities of green-walls’ components in controlled conditions. The study focused on complex green-wall systems, i.e. with a structure containing substrate in opposition with green-walls based on climbing plants. The four substrates were materials found in commercial substrate combinations. To compare, the thermal conductivities on two plants are carried out. In dry conditions, they showed conductivities of 0.062 W/m °C for sphagnum moss (Sphagnum cristatum), 0.060W/m °C for outdoor planting mix, and 0.105 W/m °C for clay balls and 0.051 W/m °C for substrate from a green-wall. Vegetation conductivities were also measured for ivy (Hedera helix) and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia). As expected, conductivities were quite high (between 0.220 and 0.274 W/m °C). With the building thermal simulation, green-walls are technically able to improve buildings’ insulation.
       
  • Beyond the third dimension of BIM: A systematic review of literature and
           assessment of professional views
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Rabia Charef, Hafiz Alaka, Stephen Emmitt Across the world, the use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and the three-dimensional (3D) model in projects are increasingly frequent for supporting design tasks. The digital data embodied in the BIM model is shared between the project stakeholders from the various disciplines. After giving an overview of the BIM 3D Model data used for planning (4D) and costing (5D), the study assesses the level of clarity or confusion on what the numbers of dimension refer to after the 5th dimension. A systematic review of the different BIM dimensions was conducted associated with an online questionnaire sent to various Architecture, Engineering and Construction stakeholders across Europe. The online questionnaire survey was limited to the 28 European Union (EU) countries. Each of the 28 EU countries was represented by at least one respondent. The research identified 52 papers considering BIM 4D Model, 15 considering 5D modelling, 6 considering the 6D Model and 2 considering the 7D. It was also identified a confusion between academics and practitioners for the 6D and 7D BIM dimensions. In fact, 86% of the professionals, actually using 6D, allocate Sustainability to 6D. Whereas 85% of the professionals using 7D allocate it to Facility Management.
       
  • Experimental study on the cooling performance of solar-assisted natural
           ventilation in a large building in a warm and humid climate
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Leila Moosavi, Majid Zandi, Mokhtar Bidi This paper investigates the cooling performance of a naturally ventilated building equipped with a solar chimney and hybrid evaporative cooling, and provides data recorded during a fourteen-day site test in an occupied office building incorporating an atrium. The efficiency of the implemented strategies was determined in terms of enhancing the indoor thermal and air movement conditions in the atrium occupied zones under different opening configurations and evaporative cooling operation times. The thermal data for the glazed atrium, together with the wind and stack-induced airflow rates, indicate that a larger exhaust opening in the solar chimney reduces the air temperature of the atrium central zone rather than the adjacent space. It increases the hours of comfort by more than 30%, with a potential significant reduction in the cooling requirements of about 12% when the building is occupied. On average, the hybrid evaporative cooling system reduces the indoor temperature by 0.7 °C and significantly decreases the thermal stratification during the afternoon. Furthermore, the amount of warm air removal through the chimney vent has an almost direct linear relationship with the wind speed when it exceeds 1.4 m/s in a favorable direction.
       
  • The effects of using agricultural waste as partial substitute for sand in
           cement blocks
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Navaratnarajah Sathiparan, H.T.S.M. De Zoysa The disposal of agricultural waste is a serious environmental problem. Use of agricultural wastes in the production of cement block may reduce the global environmental pollution. This study analyzes the feasibility of using agricultural waste like rice husk, sawdust, peanut shell, rice straw and coconut shell as a partial sand replacement in the manufacture of cement blocks. The experiments have been conducted to determine the physical, strength and durability properties of cement block. Test results show that cement blocks with agricultural waste were satisfied the strength requirement according to the ASTM standard but durability is the major issue for these blocks. Cement block with coconut shell and peanut shell shows reasonable strength and durability properties.
       
  • An innovative approach for compressive strength estimation of mortars
           having calcium inosilicate minerals
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): H. Naderpour, M. Mirrashid There are several factors that can affect on the quality of construction and all of the using elements, such as mortars, as a basic component of the building industry, are effective in the ability and performance of the building. Therefore, determination of strength of mortar is an important property in construction and many studies have been done to identify the effective parameters and the predictive relationships to determine the strength of mortars. In this paper, the effect of two types of materials including micro-Silica and also Calcium Inosilicate minerals on the compressive strength of mortars has been investigated by artificial neural networks. Also, a suitable relationship to estimate the considered strength is proposed based on the selected neural network. The results of the relationships show that these equations with a high accuracy have a proper ability and acceptance performance to predict the compressive strength of considered mortars.
       
  • Climate responsive cooling control using artificial neural networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): K. Venkatesan, U. Ramachandraiah The building envelope is influenced by climatic factors as thermal radiation, solar radiation, convection heat and infiltration heat. Their peak occurs at different times. Obtaining an equivalent thermal resistance of the building envelope is a challenge considering heat loss/heat gain of building envelope towards climate responsive cooling control. Considering heat flow at the zone using EnergyPlus software brings climate responsive cooling control. The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed which deciphers the building envelope heat flow using data obtained from EnergyPlus. Using ANN, model predictive controller and Gray box model of the building cooling system, thermal performance was obtained by simulations using Simulink, MLE+, BCVTB and EnergyPlus. The ANN envelope heat load predictor improves energy efficiency over the temperature based model in which the climate heat flow is determined using the equivalent thermal resistance and the atmospheric temperature. An Energy saving of 6.25% with 1.05% error for Chennai 5.19% with 2.21% error for Trichy and 7.52% with 0.08% error for Shillong climate was obtained.
       
  • Multi-criteria decision-making methods for preliminary design of
           sustainable facades
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Saviz Moghtadernejad, Luc. E. Chouinard, M. Saeed Mirza The current design and construction trends toward sustainable development have led to increased attention on designing high performance building structures, especially emphasizing reductions in energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Facades have the potential to drastically affect building energy performance and the comfort level of occupants; therefore, more attention and effort needs to be given to their design than at present. However, the involvement of various interdisciplinary professionals and the need for satisfying different design criteria makes the design process considerably complicated. This complexity is related to the required integration and provision for balance between all necessary functions of a façade system, which can be conflicting with each other. Consequently, most designers still tend to use conventional design methods that lack consideration of all required criteria. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) analysis is a useful tool to assist designers with this integration, by generating the best solutions for achieving conflicting and multiple objectives. MCDM methods have been extensively used in management and optimization fields; however, their application to building technology, especially in façade design, is relatively recent. Currently there are many MCDM methods available, each with related benefits and drawbacks. Nevertheless, not all MCDM methods are appropriate for providing solutions to the façade design problem. This paper reviews and compares the most common MCDM methods for façade design. Accordingly, the most efficient methods for sustainable façade design are introduced and used in a decision-making process to examine their efficiency in façade design.
       
  • Non-destructive characterization of ancient clay brick walls by indirect
           ultrasonic measurements
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Esequiel Mesquita, Rachel Martini, André Alves, Paulo Antunes, Humberto Varum In this work, ultrasonic tests were carried out on the external walls of the Nossa Senhora do Rosário dos Pretos Church, an ancient masonry structure from the 18th century placed at Aracati, Brasil. The main aim of this research was to characterize the ultrasonic velocities of the external walls of the church, in view of further maintenance measures, as well to collect quantitative data on the state of conservation of the church. Fort that purpose, a methodology based on indirect ultrasonic measurements was developed and is presented in this paper. The results show that ultrasonic tests can be applied for characterizing wall homogeneity, offering useful information for control of maintenance or retrofitting measures.
       
  • Utilization of recycled waste as filler in foam concrete
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): T.J. Chandni, K.B. Anand The rapid urbanization has led to the enormous increase in wastes being disposed of. This paper aims at identifying the possibility of using recycled materials such as crushed glass and plastic wastes in foam concrete as a substitute filler for fine river sand. A protein based foaming agent has been adopted for the study. The workability and strength of different mixes, made using preformed foam, at varying densities using powdered glass and plastic wastes have been investigated. Analysis of foam concrete mixes to identify air-void distribution and its relationship to strength has been done. Effect of superplasticizer inclusion and the corresponding change in the water to solids ratio on compressive strength has also been carried out. The study showed that incorporation of recycled wastes is effective to produce foam concrete of strength that will permit its use for bearing wall applications. Incorporation of PCE based superplasticizer was observed to be effective in enhancing the strength of foam concrete.
       
  • Seismic fragility assessment of superelastic shape memory alloy reinforced
           concrete shear walls
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Emad Abraik, Maged A. Youssef Mitigation of seismic damage can be achieved through self-centering techniques. One of the potential techniques involves the use of Superelastic Shape Memory Alloy (SE-SMA) bars in Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures. This study explores the use of such bars in the plastic-hinge regions of RC walls. The seismic performance and vulnerability of SE-SMA RC walls of ten- and twenty-story buildings are analytically assessed using fragility curves. The maximum inter-story drift, residual drift, and fragility are evaluated using multi strip analysis. The results clearly demonstrate the superior seismic performance of SE-SMA RC walls as compared to steel RC walls.
       
  • Experimental analysis on the active and passive cool roof systems for
           industrial buildings in Malaysia
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Ming Chian Yew, Ming Kun Yew, Lip Huat Saw, Tan Ching Ng, Kah Pin Chen, Durairaj Rajkumar, Jing Han Beh This piece of research presents the capability of active and passive cool roof systems, which is designed to reduce the heat transmission into an attic through the metal deck roofing for industrial buildings in Malaysia. In this study, an ideal cool roof system focusing on utilizing solar energy, cavity ventilation and thermal reflective coating (TRC) were employed and investigated. This technique is one of the most innovative and sustainable practices at reducing the energy consumption that provide buildings with comfortable indoor conditions through natural means. The four cool roof models were designed and built in active and passive systems to examine the effect of attic temperature reduction. Application of TRC can significantly reduce the heat absorption of the metal roof. The roof and attic temperatures of the roof models were measured to determine the performance of cool roof system. The roof design (d) results indicate a great reduction at about 15 °C in the attic air temperature compared to normal roof. The outstanding performance is due to the cool roof system that integrated TRC, improved moving air cavity (MAC)-solar powered fans and opened attic inlet comprise the ability to reflect the sunlight and circulate the hot air efficiently.
       
  • Earthquake-Induced pallet sliding in industrial racking systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Carlo A. Castiglioni, Alberto Drei, Alper Kanyilmaz, Harris P. Mouzakis This paper discusses the sliding behaviour of pallets in industrial racking systems under dynamic actions. For this purpose, a summary of the results of an extensive series of dynamic shake-table tests are presented; complete results of this extensive testing campaign may be found in a recently published book. Dynamic and seismic tests have been performed using three beam types with different surface finish materials, in both the Cross-Aisle (CA) and Down-Aisle (DA) directions. Lower and upper bound accelerations were determined from the uniaxial dynamic tests. Several phenomena related to deformations of the supporting beams (i.e. in- and out-of-plane bending) were found to affect the pallet behaviour, in both the CA and DA directions, with sliding occurring at very low acceleration levels. The same behaviour was observed during uniaxial earthquake tests. For biaxial seismic testing, lower bound acceleration in the CA direction was higher than in dynamic cyclic tests, whereas the opposite was observed in the DA direction.
       
  • Durability of concrete made with natural granular granite, silica sand and
           powders of waste marble and basalt as fine aggregate
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Hanifi Binici, Orhan Aksogan In this study, the durability of concrete made with natural granular granite, silica sand and powders of waste marble and basalt as fine aggregate, was taken into consideration. Limestone was used as coarse aggregate in the production of samples. The properties considered were the compressive strength, resistance to abrasion, freeze-thaw property, capillary water permeability and sulfate resistance. It was observed that the durability property of the concrete made with natural granular granite, silica sand and powders of waste marble and basalt as fine aggregate, was superior to the conventional control concrete. The effect of fine aggregate on the durability of concrete was evaluated. It is understood that the proposed mix provides a better condensed matrix. Moreover, it was observed that the fine aggregate type and its incorporation ratio, also, have great effect on the level of durability. Finally, the results show that addition of natural granular granite, silica sand and powders of waste marble and basalt yields a perfect less permeable concrete.
       
  • Comparative life-cycle assessment for renovation methods of waste water
           sewerage systems for apartment buildings
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Daniel Berglund, Parastou Kharazmi, Sofiia Miliutenko, Folke Björk, Tove Malmqvist This comparative life-cycle assessment highlights three main alternatives for renovation of waste water sewerage: pipe replacement, cured- in- place pipe (CIPP) lining (also called sliplining) and renovation by coatings. The functional unit of this study is a six-story block house that was built in 1960 and has 29 apartments. The characterized results of environmental impacts display an advantage for CIPP-lining over pipe replacement in 14 of the 18 studied impact categories. Regarding those categories in which impacts were comparatively large, when looking at the average impact from a European citizen according to the ReCiPe methodology for life cycle inventory list, pipe replacement has greater impacts than CIPP-lining. In general, the impacts of pipe replacement are related to new tiles, expanded polyester cement, the screed, and the material for waterproofing, as well as the electricity needed for drying the structure. The CIPP-lining method displays higher impacts than pipe replacement in just four categories. These impacts are, to a large extent, caused by the use of consumables such as gloves and cotton cloths. From an LCA-perspective, the study shows that the CIPP and coatings relining methods have advantages over pipe replacement under the condition that the technical lifetime is the same for these methods. Still, the uncertainty of service life, as well as Bisphenol A (BPA) emissions, remain as issues of concern for further study. There are also other differences among the alternatives that ultimately influence a property owner's choice of method, such as costs, inconvenience for the residents, renewal of bathroom interiors, and the way in which the property owner values the alternative technologies.Graphical abstractSchematic system boundaries of pipe replacementThis study shows advantages for the CIPP method and relining by coatings compared to the pipe replacement from an LCA-point of view under the condition that the technical lifetime is the same for both methods.fx1
       
  • Rapid evaluation of safety-state in hidden-frame supported glass curtain
           walls using remote vibration measurement
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Zhide Huang, Mowen Xie, Jinhui Zhao, Yan Du, Hong-ke Song The vibration performance of a simulation for a hidden-frame supported glass curtain wall (HFSGCW) was tested using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) in this paper. The effect of silicon structural sealant on the first order inherent frequency of HFSGCW and the spectral characteristics per LDV on different points were studied. Meanwhile, the test results of LDV were verified using traditional sensors (DASP modal analysis system) in order to evaluate the feasibility of LDV used for safety state evaluation of HFSGCW. Results show that the first order inherent frequency obtained by LDV matches well with DASP modal analysis results. The first order inherent frequency decreases with an increase of sealant failure,and the first order frequency amplitude scale of structural sealant upper point increases significantly after the structural silicon sealant is destroyed. The safety state of HFSGCW is divided into three levels. Meanwhile, a safety state rapid evaluation model and key detection technologies of HFSGCW based on LDV is proposed.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Thermo-fluid dynamic analysis of concrete masonry units via experimental
           testing and numerical modeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Marcos Martínez, Nathaniel Huygen, John Sanders, Sez Atamturktur This study aims to achieve a better understanding of the thermal behavior of concrete masonry systems, focusing not only on standard units but also on special thermally efficient unit configurations. In this context, sophisticated numerical models are generated to predict the thermal performance of masonry units. The validation of these numerical models follows a rigorous process that includes comparisons against experiments in the laboratory. The validated models are then used to evaluate the effect of material properties, geometry, and insulated materials on the heat flow path, distribution of temperatures, and air velocities within the units. The results show the importance of including the three heat transfer mechanisms of conduction, convection, and radiation within an effective numerical model and the equal importance of considering the influence of air flow within the cells of the masonry units.
       
  • A study on validation of shear behaviour of steel fibrous SCC based on
           numerical modelling (ATENA)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Praveen Kannam, Venkateswara Rao Sarella Shear failure in reinforced concrete is sudden and brittle; to avoid this type of failure, beams are reinforced with stirrups. The present work is aimed at studying the shear behaviour of fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete and comparing the experimental results with a finite element model created using ATENA. ATENA is a user-friendly software developed for nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete structures. In the experimental study, two grades of self-compacting concrete (SCC30 and SCC70) were considered. A total of 16 shear deficient beams were cast and tested for two shear span to depth ratios (a/d) of 2 and 3 for both fibrous and non-fibrous concrete. The 16 beams were also modelled using the nonlinear numerical based ATENA software. The experimental results demonstrated that, as the shear span to effective depth ratio increased from 2 to 3, the ultimate shear strength decreased, and with addition of steel fibers there is an improvement in the ultimate load carrying capacity of SCC beams. There is an enhancement in the shear behaviour. It was also noticed that, due to the addition of steel fibers, the sudden brittle failure mode of the beams changed to a ductile mode. The experimental results compared well with numerical values obtained from the finite element software (ATENA), with the percentage error in most cases being less than 15%.
       
  • Thermal modelling of insulator for energy saving in existing residential
           building
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Megha Jain, K.K. Pathak The present work aims to check the energy consumption of typical household buildings located in hot and humid environment using passive energy conservation techniques. The primary tenet of sustainable development is energy conservation. The recent advance in construction technology gives seminal importance to minimisation of energy demand. However, the already built environment, consumes sustained amount of energy hampering sustainability. In this research, thermal simulation is carried out for observing reduction in energy consumption of three residential buildings in the Bhopal city of India. Ambient temperature, surface temperature and Heat transfer has been analyzed after using modern insulating techniques, namely ceramic tiles, high reflective coating, aluminum paint on roof, along with rock wool spread on opaque components of the building. The results of the investigation suggest that the use of reflective solar coating in roof and walls of buildings reduces heat gain by as much as 25%. Simulations are carried out using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools with fluent software.
       
  • Modified softened truss-model for prestressed concrete beams under torsion
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): L.F.A. Bernardo, M.M. Teixeira This article presents a computation procedure developed to predict the global behaviour of prestressed concrete (PC) beams under pure torsion. This computation procedure constitutes an extension of a theoretical model previously proposed, the Modified Variable Angle Truss-Model (MVATM) for Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams under torsion. The modifications incorporated in the MVATM and the calculation procedure are presented. The obtained theoretical predictions are compared with experimental results available in the literature. It is shown that the proposed computation procedure provides good predictions for the global behaviour of PC beams under torsion, including for low loading stages.
       
  • Properties of class F fly ash based geopolymer mortar produced with
           alkaline water
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Jai Sai Tenepalli, D. Neeraja In this study class F fly ash based geopolymer mortar is produced with water containing an alkaline substance such as sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). Subsequently, compressive strength, density, absorption and porosity of the produced mortar mixture were tested after 28 days and compared with controlled geopolymer mortar produced with pure distilled water. A mixture of NaOH and Na2SiO3 solutions along with an elevated curing regime of 70 °C for 24 h was used to activate the geopolymerization process. The entire process involved in designing 21 mortar mixtures in 04 different batches by varying three processing parameters with different levels. The processing parameters and levels varied are as follows: Concentrations of sodium hydroxide solution expressed in molarity (10 M, 12 M and 14 M), the ratios of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) to sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution (1.0, 2.0 and 2.5) and varying concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (0.5 g/L, 1.0 g/L, 1.5 g/L, 2.0 g/L, 7.5 g/L and 15 g/L) spiked in distilled water. A ratio of 3.0 fine aggregate to fly ash was kept constant for all mortar mixtures. Results indicated that with 12 M NaOH solution, 1.5 proportion of Na2SiO3 to NaOH solution, 1.0 g/L concentration of sodium bicarbonate in distilled water, geopolymer mortar of 41 MPa compressive strength with low porosity and good quality of mixture along with a low rate of absorption could be produced. Up to a concentration of 1.5 g/L of sodium bicarbonate in water is beneficial and higher levels are detrimental towards the properties of geopolymer mortar.
       
  • Ternary alkali aluminosilicate cement based on rice husk ash, slag and
           coal fly ash
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): A.G.N.D. Darsanasiri, Faris Matalkah, Salina Ramli, Kutaibah Al-Jalode, Anagi Balachandra, Parviz Soroushian A sustainable hydraulic cement relying primarily on the alkali aluminosilicate chemistry was developed using primarily industrial byproducts as raw materials. The byproduct raw materials included rice husk ash as the main source of amorphous silica, and coal fly ash and slag as sources of aluminosilicates and calcium. In addition, sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as sources of alkalis and soluble silica, and tartaric acid as a set retarder. All these raw materials were used in dry form and were processed into a hydraulic cement via the mechanical effects rendered by ball-milling. The chemical and mineralogical compositions of the hydraulic cement and its hydrates were evaluated. The heat of hydration, strength development characteristics and set time of the cement were also assessed against the ASTM C1157 requirements, and compared with the corresponding properties of Type I Portland cement. The hydraulic cement formulated with rice husk ash met the ASTM C1157 requirements relevant to strength and set time for ‘Genera Use’ (GU) cement, and produced compressive strengths that were higher those obtained with Type I Portland cement.
       
  • Performance analysis of a solid desiccant assisted hybrid space cooling
           system using TRNSYS
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): D.B. Jani, Manish Mishra, P.K. Sahoo The traditional air conditioners suffer from performance degradation especially in humid conditions. This is due to fact that the excess moisture level in ventilation air considerably increases latent cooling load of the space to be conditioned. The use of desiccant integrated vapor compression hybrid cooling system can alleviate this problem by controlling the temperature and humidity separately. It also reduces energy consumption for obtaining desired thermal comfort. In the present study, TRNSYS simulation studio project has been developed to perform the simulations of the desiccant dehumidifier coupled vapor compression hybrid system for different configurations in summer cooling season. Experimental measurements are also carried out to observe the influence of operating parameters on system performance. The obtained results show that the proposed system has ensured a substantial reduction in process air humidity at dehumidifier exit while maintaining the conditioned room comfort.
       
  • Concrete as a thermal mass material for building applications - A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Payam Shafigh, Iman Asadi, Norhayati Binti Mahyuddin Identifying new energy saving methods in the building sector is essential due to limited natural energy sources and the rising population. Thermal mass materials have the ability to absorb and store heat before releasing it later on when necessary. They act as heat sinks during the daytime and as heat sources during the nighttime. Thermal performance is evaluated according to the specific heat capacity and specific latent heat. Applying thermal mass materials such as concrete is deemed a suitable strategy to reduce the energy consumption of buildings. Concrete with low thermal conductivity and high specific heat capacity is desirable in building construction. The aim of this study is to review factors affecting the heat storage capacity of concrete. In addition, common measurement methods of cement-based materials’ thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity are reviewed. Various studies reveal that temperature, humidity, aggregate type, cementitious material type as well as phase change material (PCM) used influence the thermal properties of concrete. The advantages and limitations of PCM-concrete are also summarized in this study.
       
  • Application of a graphical method to predict the service life of adhesive
           ceramic external wall claddings in the city of Brasília, Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 19Author(s): Jéssica Souza, Ana Silva, Jorge de Brito, Elton Bauer The degradation behaviour of any given building is specifically dependent on degradation actions that result from the local climatic and atmospheric conditions (e.g. solar radiation, wind-driven rain, pollution, degree of airborne salinity), the degree of maintenance and intensity in use of the building in-service, and as well, from decisions made in the design stage, in the selection and specification of materials, and the adequacy of the execution of the construction. The outcome from the research described in this paper intends is to provide information on predicting the service life of adhesive ceramic external wall claddings in the city of Brasília, Brazil. A comparison of service life prediction for wall cladding of buildings located in Brazil and Portugal is also provided, where the Portuguese example is used as a reference for a previous and similar service life analysis. The methodology consists in applying a degradation index, called severity of degradation, to assess the degradation condition of adhesive ceramic external wall claddings in buildings located in Brasília. In this analysis, various factors are considered that can influence the degradation of these ceramic tile claddings. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the applicability of the model, initially developed for the surroundings of Lisbon, for other cities having different climatic characteristics. Apart from contributing to the development of feedback tools to prepare detailed project specifications, this research also allows assessing the most important factors in the degradation of adhesive ceramic external wall claddings.
       
  • Assessing the performance of molarity and alkaline activator ratio on
           engineering properties of self-compacting alkaline activated concrete at
           ambient temperature
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Nagaraj. V. K, D.L. Venkatesh Babu Geopolymer technology concentrates producing eco-friendly binder which can be a permanent solution for replacement of traditional hydraulic binders. The performance benefits and operational energy savings can be accomplished by use of self-compacting alkaline activated concrete commonly known as Self-Compacting Geopolymer Concrete (SCGC). The current study access experimental investigation on influence of different concentration of sodium hydroxide solution (2 M, 4 M, 6 M, 8 M, 10 M and 12 M) and alkaline activator ratio (2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 and 4) fresh properties, compressive strength and durability properties. The industrial by-products such as fly ash and Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS) are effectively used in producing SCGC. In order to avoid heat curing treatment and facilitate ambient curing a part fly ash of was replaced by GGBS. In order to improve fresh properties and to control rapid setting 25% low calcium fly ash and 75% GGBS were used to produce SCGC. Sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution were used to activate the source materials. Experimental outcome concluded mix with 10 M and alkaline activator ratio of 4 was nominated as optimum as the mix had better workability, compressive strength and durability performance. The durability of SCGC is expressed in terms of capillary rise, weight loss or deterioration and loss in compressive strength in aggressive environment.
       
  • Towards Quantifying Human Experience in the Built Environment: A
           Crowdsourcing Based Experiment to Identify Influential Architectural
           Design Features
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Semiha Ergan, Zhuoya Shi, Xinran Yu One of the main challenges in the quantification of the influence of architectural design features on human experience is to define the set of architectural design features that people notice immediately in a space as well as to define the type of influence these design features can have on people. Through a crowdsourced experiment, this study provides evidences on the architectural design features that people notice immediately in a space, preferences of people on the spaces configured with these features, and the influence level of these features on overall experience in spaces. Statistical analysis on around 400 subjects’ data show that certain features such as the openness of space, presence of windows and daylighting, flexibility in isolation/socialization, level of artificial lighting, density of spaces, and color of surfaces are easy to notice by people and are also powerful to change the human experience. The findings provide an ordering of the identified design features based on their noticeability and influence levels for practitioners to consider in their design decisions. Findings also establish the basis towards objectively quantifying the impact of architectural design features on human experience in spaces.
       
  • Thermal conductivity of concrete - A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Iman Asadi, Payam Shafigh, Zahiruddin Fitri Bin Abu Hassan, Norhayati Binti Mahyuddin The thermal conductivity (k-value) of cement-based materials like concrete is an important factor when considering the amount of heat transfer through conduction. The amount of heat loss through walls and roofs has a direct effect on the energy consumption of buildings. The steady state and transient methods are considered the two main thermal conductivity measurement approaches. The moisture content, temperature, type of aggregate, type of cementitious material and density of concrete are influential factors on the thermal conductivity. The aim of this paper is to review the techniques most commonly used to measure the thermal conductivity of concrete as well as to consider the factors affecting the thermal conductivity of cement-based materials. In addition, a general equation for predicting the thermal conductivity of concrete is proposed in this study based on data reported by researchers. The results of this review indicate that most researchers have measured the k-value of cement-based materials based on transient methods. The reported k-value in saturated conditions is higher than in dry conditions. Moreover, the measured k-value exhibits a declining trend with increasing temperature. It is concluded that using lightweight concrete in structural and non-structural building envelopes is a valuable method of reducing the amount of heat transfer and energy consumption owing to the lower k-value of lightweight concrete compared to normal weight concrete.
       
  • Barriers to the Integration of BIM and Sustainability Practices in
           Construction Projects: A Delphi Survey of International Experts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Timothy O. Olawumi, Daniel W.M. Chan, Johnny K.W. Wong, Albert P.C. Chan The built environment faces numerous challenges in its quest to be more productive and sustainable, and the adoption of a smart and creative process of carrying out the various operations. This study aims to investigate the profound barriers faced by construction stakeholders in their attempts to integrate BIM and sustainability practices in the construction processes. A two-round Delphi survey formed the basis of aggregating consensus among the expert panel based on a set of 38 factors derived via content analysis of previous studies. Descriptive results and inferential tests were employed for data analysis, and the results validated using the interrater agreement analysis. The three key barriers by descending order of significance were industry's resistance to change from traditional working practices, an extended period of adapting to innovative technologies and the lack of understanding of the processes and workflows required for BIM and sustainability. Deductions were also made based on the comparative analysis of the expert groups. The findings will advance the implementation of BIM and sustainability practices in construction projects and enable project stakeholders to focus on addressing the critical challenges discussed in this study.
       
  • Utilization of rice husk ash and waste glass in the production of ternary
           blended cement mortar composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2018Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): M.M. Younes, H.A. Abdel-Rahman, Magdy M. Khattab The purpose of this study is the recycling or reuse of waste materials in the production of ternary blended cement mortars (TBCMs) by a partial substitution of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) with a ratio of 20% waste glass powder (WG) to obtain a blended cement (80% OPC: 20% WG). Three different ratios of rice husk ash namely 2.5%, 5%, and 10% are added to obtain three TBCMs as well as conventional cement mortar CM (zero % of rice husk ash). The specimens of all mortars are cured under tap water for different periods of time namely 3, 7, 28, 60, and 90 days. The influence of amorphous silica present in both waste glass and rice husk ash on the performance of TBCMs is studied. The results emphasized that both the waste glass and rice husk ash has a positive effect in the improvement of the compressive strength values of all mortar specimens with increasing hydration time. While the physical parameters such as total porosity and water absorption percentages decreased. The results also indicated that for any given hydration time, the compressive strength values of TBCMs are higher than those of CM. The noticeable improvement in the compressive strength is for TBCM2 specimens (5% rice husk ash). On the other hand, the influence of gamma-irradiation doses on physico-mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester (UP)/impregnated blended cement mortar composite specimens (TBCMs) is studied. The obtained data showed an enhancement in the mechanical properties of the irradiated specimens as compared to unirradiated ones. Furthermore, the thermal stability of TBCMs is studied by using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The results are also confirmed by XRD analysis.
       
  • Numerical study of flow-through wall elements with phase–change
           materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2018Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Andreas Hantsch The energy efficiency of buildings is important. In order to reduce the energy demand for heating and cooling, a previously proposed flow-through wall element (FTWE) is enhanced with phase–change materials (PCM). By means of numerical modelling and simulation, the influence of the FTWE on both the peak loads and the integrated annual energies for heating and cooling is studied. Moreover the primary energy demand comprising heating, cooling, and the operation of the FTWE is considered. There are various parameter that have been varied, such as climatic conditions (different cities), flow speeds through the FTWE as well as phase–fraction and phase–change temperature of the PCM. The numerical model is reduced to a conduction–phase–change problem in the solid components and to an advection–diffusion problem in the channel of the FTWE. The heat transfer from the fluid to the solids is carried out with Nusselt number equations. This facilitates highly time-resolved annual simulations. The results revealed that the PCM-enhanced FTWE is beneficial for most of the conditions and cities. Especially, the cooling loads can be reduced significantly compared to FTWE without PCM. The annual primary energy consumption depends strongly upon the operation of the FTWE and is lowest for all cases at flow speeds of approx. 1 m/s.
       
  • Synthesis of a novel humidity self-regulating material from riverbed
           sediment for simulating cave dwellings performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2018Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Jiajun Miao, Zhenzi Jing, Li Pu, Yi Zhang With simulation of the cave dwellings’ performance of warming in winter and cooling in summer, a humidity self-regulating material was first synthesized with riverbed sediment. A tough and porous building material could be obtained under hydrothermal conditions, and tobermorite formation during hydrothermal process was found to have a capability of improving both strength and porosity of the specimens. The solidified sediment specimens with the molar ratios of CaO to SiO2 (C/S) of 0.4 and 0.8 could enhance the moisture adsorption/desorption capacity evidently. With extra sepiolite addition, the moisture adsorption/desorption and humidity regulating capacities could be further improved due to the coexistence of tobermorite and sepiolite. For example with extra 30 mass% sepiolite addition, the amount of moisture adsorption/desorption increased nearly two times and the RH variation decreased by a factor of two comparable to that of without sepiolite addition. As such, the hydrothermally solidified riverbed sediment can be used as the “cave-dwelling” construction materials (humidity regulating materials) in cities to both improve the comfort and save energy and resources.
       
  • Energy-based Target Cost Modelling for Construction Projects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2018Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Aladdin Alwisy, Beda Barkokebas, Samer Bu Hamdan, Mustafa Gül, Mohamed Al-Hussein Energy consumption is a key performance outcome influencing both the operational cost and environmental impact of a building. Studies exploring the connection between construction project capital cost and energy performance have presented a set of tools and models capable of evaluating the influence of construction systems on energy consumption metrics; however, what is lacking in these studies is a structured framework capable of systematically meeting desired project costs. This deficiency reduces the effectiveness of existing energy paradigms during the decision-making process. This paper thus introduces an energy-based target cost modelling framework (eTC) that achieves the balance between project cost and performance metrics through the combination of target costing principles and energy analysis techniques. The introduction of standardized energy factors, utilisation of energy simulation, and implementation of statistical analysis results in the development of energy-based mathematical models capable of efficiently evaluating construction system alternatives. Rule-based analysis is then employed to automatically select the construction system(s) that yield an optimised energy consumption according to a targeted cost and defined set of performance criteria. The eTC thus establishes cost-driven guidelines for energy consumption that help construction practitioners to enhance the energy performance of a building within a desired cost.
       
  • A Distributed Approach to Emergency Demand Response in Geo-Distributed
           Mixed-Use Buildings
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2018Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Chuan Pham, Nguyen H. Tran, Shaolei Ren, Choong Seon Hong, Kim Khoa Nguyen, Mohamed Cheriet Emergency Demand Response (EDR) has attracted research attention in recent years with its critical role in smart grids. Even though there are numerous potential participants for EDR, we especially focus on EDR, especially within datacenters and buildings, due to their huge power consumption yet flexible control knobs for power shedding. To reduce the deployment cost, many edge datacenters now are co-located inside buildings, which are responsible for power and IT infrastructure (called mixed-use buildings). In this paper, we consider a scenario that has not been addressed in the literature, in which multiple loads in geographically Distributed Mixed-use Buildings (geo-MUBs) can team up to participate EDR. We then design a mechanism that can coordinate tenants and geo-distributed buildings to minimize the system cost for EDR based on a robustly distributed framework, Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). In this mechanism, we also design a privacy-preserving scheme to conceal all tenants' transactions by using a lightweight algorithm. Simulation results show that our proposed method can reduce the total cost by 48.8% compared to existing approaches while satisfying all tenants constraints.
       
  • Analysis of Ancient lime Plasters - Reason behind Longevity of the
           Monument Charminar, India A Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2018Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): R. Ravi, S. Thirumalini, N. Taher The present study has been taken up to analyse the ancient plasters at Charminar, Hyderabad, India for the effective conservation of the historic monument. The plasters were characterized adopting physicochemical analysis as well as modern analytical techniques including XRD, TGA with DTA, SEM and Infra-Red methods (FT- IR). The binder is calcium rich lime with binder aggregate ratio of 1:2.75 to 1:3.43 by weight and mineralogical analysis reflect load bearing phases vaterite, calcite and aragonite with some amount of alumina silicates contributing to strength of the mortars. The results of FT-IR substantiated the outcome of organic test. TGA confirms the results of XRD and indicated the loss of weight around temperature of 750◦C showing decomposition of calcite and vaterite and release of CO2. SEM images validated the presence of calcite and vaterite. The organics present in the lime plasters in the form of carbohydrates and proteins has mitigated the degradation of materials that could be the main reason behind the sound survival of the Charminar over the ages. On fermentation, organics were converted into alcohols of short chain and stabilised the formation of meta stable vaterite rather than calcite. This keeps the mortars young and hence the durability of the structure.
       
  • Classification of sensor independent point cloud data of building objects
           using random forests
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018Source: Journal of Building EngineeringAuthor(s): Maarten Bassier, Bjorn Van Genechten, Maarten Vergauwen The Architectural, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is looking to integrate Building Information Modeling (BIM) for existing buildings. Currently these as-built models are created manually, which is time-consuming. An important step in the automated Scan-to-BIM procedure is the interpretation and classification of point cloud data. This is computationally challenging due to the sheer size of point cloud data for an entire building. Additionally, the variety of objects makes classification problematic. Existing methods integrate prior knowledge from the sensors or environment to improve the results. However, these approaches are therefore often case specific and thus have limited applicability. The goal of this research is to provide a method that is independent of any sensor or scene within a building environment. Furthermore, our method processes the entire building simultaneously, resulting in more distinct local and contextual features.This paper presents a generic approach to automatically identify structural elements for the purposes of Scan-to-BIM. More specifically, a Random Forests classifier is employed for the classification of the floors, ceilings, roofs, walls and beams. As input, our algorithm takes a set of planar primitives that are pre-segmented from the point cloud. This significantly reduces the data while maintaining accuracy. Both contextual and geometric features are used to describe the observed patches. The algorithm is evaluated using realistic data for a wide variety of existing buildings including houses, school facilities, a factory, a castle and a church. The experiments prove that the proposed algorithm is capable of properly labeling 87% of the structural elements with an average precision of 85% in highly cluttered environments without the support of the sensors position. In future work, the classified patches will be processed by class-specific reconstruction algorithms to create BIM geometry.
       
 
 
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