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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3181 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3181 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 105, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 444, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 320, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 425, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 385, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 483, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 267, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 227, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
Number of Followers: 12  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0867-4361
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3181 journals]
  • Warunki wdrożenia i realizacji interwencji profilaktycznej w celu
           zapobiegania HCV wobec osób używających narkotyków – wyniki badań
           jakościowych

    • Authors: Katarzyna Dąbrowska; Janusz Sierosławski
      Pages: 199 - 212
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Katarzyna Dąbrowska, Janusz Sierosławski
      Introduction Drug users are particularly exposed to the risk of HCV infection. At the same time, this is a difficult group to reach out with preventive measures. The aim of the study was recognition of respondents’ needs for intervention to reduce hepatitis C virus infection, including the identification of preferences on the conditions of its implementation and execution. Method Results are based on outcomes of 25 group interviews with drug users and professionals and 20 individual interviews with drug users. Analysis included systemic investigation to create the frame of analysis based on codes, which emerged from the material. In the second stage of analysis, selective coding was used to combine a priori categories drawn from research interests. Results Respondents expressed their suggestions regarding the character of the planned intervention and the conditions for its implementation. They turned their attention to the potential barriers that may hinder the use of preventive measures. Physical accessibility, providing a sense of security and anonymity, duration and nature of the intervention adjusted to conditions of implementation and repeatability and complexity of activities are key elements that can affect the success of the intervention. Discussion So far, HCV was not sufficiently present in the preventive interventions addressed to drug users. There is a need to develop a comprehensive, long-term preventive strategy that on the one hand will provide the necessary knowledge, and on the other, change drug users’ attitudes and help to become more health oriented. Conclusions The planned intervention should take into account the needs of HCV infected and non-infected drug users. The activities should be carried out cyclically.

      PubDate: 2015-11-21T13:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Czynniki ryzyka podejmowania prób samobójczych u osób leczonych
           stacjonarnie z powodu uzależnienia od alkoholu

    • Authors: Aneta Michalska; Maciej Kopera; Bartłomiej Gmaj; Agata Łoczewska; Natalia Szejko; Eliza Kisielińska; Marcin Wojnar
      Pages: 213 - 220
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Aneta Michalska, Maciej Kopera, Bartłomiej Gmaj, Agata Łoczewska, Natalia Szejko, Eliza Kisielińska, Marcin Wojnar
      Introduction Alcohol dependence is an important risk factor for suicidal behaviours. Current data show that between 14 and 43% of alcohol-dependent patients attempt suicide. The aim of the present study was to analyse the risk factors for suicide attempts among patients treated for alcohol dependence. Methods Medical data of 994 patients hospitalised in Alcohol Detoxification and Rehabilitation Units of Nowowiejski Hospital in Warsaw were analysed. The relationships between variables that are thought to be related to the prevalence of suicide attempts in this population were evaluated. The relevant psycho-social and demographic data as well as information on alcohol use and treatment history were included. Results 292 (29%) patients confirmed suicide attempts in the past. Among the variables included in the logistic regression model, previous episodes of delirium tremens, earlier onset of alcohol dependence, comorbidity of somatic disorders, and unemployment proved to be significant risk factors for previous suicide attempts. Discussion The higher prevalence of suicide attempts among patients with previous episodes of delirium tremens and earlier onset of alcohol dependence confirms the relationship between the severity of alcohol dependence and suicide attempts. The effect of unemployment and comorbidity of somatic disorders on incidence of suicide attempts might presumably be mediated by co-occurring pain, depression, and poorer social functioning. Conclusions Earlier onset of alcohol dependence and previous episodes of delirium tremens are the risk factors of suicide attempts attributable to the severity of alcohol dependence. The other risk factors (unemployment and somatic disorders) are nonspecific to alcohol dependence, and were previously found to increase the risk in various psychiatric populations.

      PubDate: 2015-12-01T00:37:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Pozytywna i negatywna adaptacja dzieci i młodzieży rodziców
           uzależnionych od alkoholu

    • Authors: Iwona Grzegorzewska; Lidia Cierpiałkowska
      Pages: 221 - 233
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Iwona Grzegorzewska, Lidia Cierpiałkowska
      Introduction Children of parents with alcohol related problems have been a focus of study for clinical psychologists for many years. This is due, on the one hand, to the unfortunately high incidence of alcoholism in modern society, and on the other, to the notably specific functioning of those families who that suffer from alcohol problems. Today, we know that the offspring of alcohol dependent parents are typically characterised by an increased susceptibility to a variety of problems. However, it must be stressed that some children from family with alcoholism do develop properly, going on to lead a satisfactory life free from mental disorders or issues. The aim of the presentation was to assess the vulnerable children of parents with alcoholism and analyse the odds ratio (OR) for developing positive adaptation. Material and methods The total number of participants was 540 respondents, aged 9–20 in two comparison groups. Results Children of alcoholics are a heterogenic population that, despite increased susceptibility to disorders observed in children, coped well with the requirements of life and showed a low level of symptoms of externalisation and internalisation. Conclusions Appropriate intervention for children from alcoholic families can reduce the risk of mental disorders and negative outcomes.

      PubDate: 2015-12-06T19:36:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Zmiany w aktywności podstawowych wskaźników biochemicznych
           wskazujących na nadmierne spożycie alkoholu przy przyjęciu i po
           pięciotygodniowej hospitalizacji

    • Authors: Ewa Ochwanowska; Bożena Witek; Teresa Tymińska-Tkacz; Anna Sito; Agnieszka Prokop; Michał Piotrowicz; Peter Liedke
      Pages: 235 - 250
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Ewa Ochwanowska, Bożena Witek, Teresa Tymińska-Tkacz, Anna Sito, Agnieszka Prokop, Michał Piotrowicz, Peter Liedke
      Introduction Health-harming alcohol drinking leads to metabolic changes and, consequently, to an emergence of chemical compounds in the blood that can be considered as biological indicators of alcohol intake. These markers indicate both acute and chronic ethanol consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in the activity of the basic biochemical parameters indicative of alcohol abuse on admission and after 5-week hospitalisation assigned to subgroups by age and clinical variables. Material and methods The examined group was composed of 60 alcohol-dependent males aged 20–66 undergoing 5-week inpatient treatment. A number of socio-demographic and clinical interviews were carried out with the patients and blood samples were taken for laboratory tests. The following markers were assessed twice (on admission to the unit and after 5 weeks of hospitalisation): MCV, activity of AST, ALT and GGT, level of bilirubin, blood glucose and the ratio of the number of platelets (PLT). Results The activity of AST, ALT, GGT was significantly higher in patients studied at the time of admission to hospital. The values of these indices in patients with alcoholism after 5 weeks of abstinence improved significantly. Discussion The metabolic processes of alcohol-dependent subjects are very complex. We could look for variables such as age, length and intensity of alcohol dependence, quantity and type of alcohol doses or liver function. Conclusion Five-week hospitalisation is an important factor affecting an improvement in biochemical parameter values among alcohol-dependent persons.

      PubDate: 2015-12-06T19:36:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Karanie z mocy ustawy o przeciwdziałaniu narkomanii z perspektywy
           wybranych teorii kary

    • Authors: Jakub Sukiennik
      Pages: 251 - 260
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Jakub Sukiennik
      Increasing amount of legislation is being passed to regulate economic and social relations. It seems that in certain areas, its implementation can be logically justified. However, in the case of increasing criminalisation of drug-related activities that occurred during the Transformation of 1989, this leads to excessive paternalism and raises problems of interpretation. The object of this study will be drug prohibition designed to protect public health. This institution restricts freedom in terms of especially personal liberty in the sense of personal rights and in the sense of the right to dispose of economic assets. Consumption of these substances generates negative externalities, whose formation is an argument in favour of state intervention. The aims of this article are to answer whether prohibition as a method of regulating the drug market, adopted in the 90's, seems to be effective and socially desirable from the point of view of utilitarian, retributive and abolitionist theories of punishment.

      PubDate: 2015-12-01T00:37:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Does brief intervention work for heavy episodic drinking? A comparison of
           emergency department patients in two cultures

    • Authors: Cheryl J. Cherpitel; Yu Ye; Jacek Moskalewicz; Grażyna Świątkiewicz
      Pages: 145 - 162
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Cheryl J. Cherpitel, Yu Ye, Jacek Moskalewicz, Grażyna Świątkiewicz
      Introduction Little has been reported on the efficacy of brief intervention (BI) among heavy episodic drinkers, although this drinking style is known to be especially harmful in relation to negative consequences including alcohol-related injuries. The comparative efficacy of BI is analysed in two similar randomised controlled clinical trials of emergency department (ED) patients in different cultures, both exhibiting similar styles of heavy episodic drinking: Polish and Mexican-Americans in the U.S. Methods Improvements in drinking and problem outcomes are analysed at 3-month and 12-month follow-up, using random effects modelling, among 446 Polish patients and 698 Mexican-American patients, randomised to screened-only, assessment, and intervention conditions in each study. Results In Poland significant improvement was observed in all outcome measures for the assessed condition at 3 months compared to baseline, but only in the two problem variables at 12 months, while for the intervention condition, significant improvement was found in all outcome measures at both time periods; however, estimates of the interaction terms were not statistically significant. In the Mexican-American study, while significant improvement in nearly all outcome measures were observed at 3 months and 12 months for both conditions, estimates of the interaction terms suggest that for all drinking variables, but not problem variables, outcomes were significantly improved for the intervention condition over the assessed condition at 12 months, suggesting a 12-month intervention effect. Conclusions Findings here are non-conclusive regarding a treatment effect of BI for heavy episodic drinking in ED patients. Given the mixed findings for BI in other ED studies, future studies need to explore the efficacy of BI in other populations and cultures exhibiting different drinking patterns to help identify what type of drinker would most benefit from BI in the ED setting.

      PubDate: 2015-11-01T00:36:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • Rozpoznawanie uzależnienia od alkoholu przez lekarzy podstawowej opieki
           zdrowotnej: polskie wyniki europejskiego projektu badawczego APC

    • Authors: Andrzej Jakubczyk; Jürgen Rehm; Jakob Manthey; Antoni Gual; Marcin Wojnar
      Pages: 163 - 171
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Andrzej Jakubczyk, Jürgen Rehm, Jakob Manthey, Antoni Gual, Marcin Wojnar
      Introduction Alcohol dependence is one of the most rarely recognised and treated psychiatric disorders in the Polish population. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol dependence (AD) as well as the characteristics of AD patients presenting themselves to general practitioners (GPs) on an average day. Methods A total of 2396 patients were assessed by their GPs within an AD diagnosis. In the next step, 1197 patients from the primary group were assessed by independent interviewers using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview questionnaire (CIDI) based on the DSM-IV criteria of alcohol dependence. Results General practitioners recognised AD during the last 12 months in 4,9% of their patients, whereas CIDI assessment revealed prevalence of AD at 6,3%. The overlap between these two groups was only 12,5%. Patients identified by GPs turned out to be significantly older, more frequently males and with comorbid liver disease than those diagnosed with CIDI. The compiled population of AD patients was characterised by more frequent sleep problems, liver diseases and nicotine dependence in comparison to non-alcoholic subjects. Discussion The prevalence of alcohol dependence among GP patients is significantly higher than in the general population. Conclusion General practitioners should be more sensitive to alcohol use problems in females and younger patients who are yet to develop any somatic consequences of drinking. Smoking patients and those suffering from sleep problems should be also considered at risk for alcohol dependence.

      PubDate: 2015-09-22T12:31:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • Changes in concentration of visfatin during four weeks of inpatient
           treatment of alcohol dependent males

    • Authors: Damian Czarnecki; Zofia Rosińska; Ewa Żekanowska; Marcin Ziółkowski; Barbara Góralczyk; Edward Jacek Gorzelańczyk; Marek Kunc; Anna Długosz; Jacek Budzyński; Beata Łangowska-Grodzka; Krzysztof Opozda
      Pages: 173 - 181
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Damian Czarnecki, Zofia Rosińska, Ewa Żekanowska, Marcin Ziółkowski, Barbara Góralczyk, Edward Jacek Gorzelańczyk, Marek Kunc, Anna Długosz, Jacek Budzyński, Beata Łangowska-Grodzka, Krzysztof Opozda
      Introduction Visfatin is a protein which belongs to the adiponectines, and exhibits insulinomimetic properties. A high concentration of visfatin may be directly related to an ongoing inflammatory process in the body. The aim of this study was to assess changes in the concentration of visfatin in relation to the intensity of alcohol craving and selected clinical characteristics in patients with alcohol dependency. Materials and methods The thirty-seven males enrolled in the study had been hospitalised due to alcohol dependence in the addiction treatment unit. In the first week and after four weeks of treatment, clotted blood samples were obtained to determine the concentration of visfatin and other biochemical parameters. Next, patients were divided into two groups – group 1 with a decrease and group 2 with an increase in the concentration of visfatin during the four weeks of treatment. The study used a socio-demographic and clinical scale, the Short Alcohol Dependence Data questionnaire (SADD) and an analogue alcohol craving scale. Additionally, the study considered measurements of waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR) and biochemical blood parameters. Results There was a statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 2 in the concentration of visfatin (35.5ng/ml vs 146ng/ml) after four weeks of inpatient alcohol dependence treatment. Discussion Perhaps different pathophysiological processes were taking place (including inflammatory response) in patients with high and low visfatin concentration in the initial stage of the trial. Conclusions The dynamic of change in the concentration of visfatin during four weeks of abstinence is not associated with a reduction in craving for alcohol at the time and is associated with alcohol drinking and liver functioning.

      PubDate: 2015-10-01T15:53:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • Jakie są skutki finansowe i zdrowotne picia alkoholu?
           Przegląd literatury

    • Authors: Katarzyna Kolasa
      Pages: 183 - 192
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Katarzyna Kolasa
      Introduction According to the available data, alcohol consumption leads to 3.8% deaths globally. So far there have been limited attempts to estimate the costs caused by alcohol in Poland. Objective 1. To estimate the impact of alcohol on mortality and its social and economic consequences. 2. To provide an insight into what kind of methodological approach could be useful for future experts interested in the calculation of alcohol burden in Poland. Methods A literature review was conducted to search in PubMed and grey literature for alcohol “cost of illness” (CoI) studies published between 2004 and 2014. Following key words were used: “costs of alcohol” and “burden of alcohol”. Only publications that focused on the association between alcohol and health or economic outcomes were included. Studies with a small number of patients and limited in scope research were excluded. Results The inclusion criteria were met by ten publications of which four focused on the association between alcohol and mortality, three that studied alcohol economic consequences and three covering both topics. In respective countries, the number of deaths associated with alcohol ranged from 2.7% to 8.7% and the total costs ranged from 0.13% to 10% of GDP. Indirect costs constituted the biggest share with up to 80% of total burden. Discussion and conclusions Alcohol consumption leads to the number of clinical and economic consequences. The available CoI studies provide valuable insight into which data source and methods are applicable to the calculation of alcohol impact on both mortality and costs.

      PubDate: 2015-11-10T23:49:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • Dzieci rodziców z zaburzeniami psychicznymi i behawioralnymi związanymi
           z używaniem alkoholu. Komunikat z ogólnopolskich badań „Epidemiologia
           zaburzeń psychiatrycznych i dostęp do psychiatrycznej opieki zdrowotnej
           – EZOP Polska”

    • Authors: Łukasz Wieczorek; Jacek Wciórka; Jakub Stokwiszewski; Bogdan Wojtyniak; Andrzej Kiejna; Tomasz Adamowski; Jacek Moskalewicz
      Pages: 193 - 197
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Łukasz Wieczorek, Jacek Wciórka, Jakub Stokwiszewski, Bogdan Wojtyniak, Andrzej Kiejna, Tomasz Adamowski, Jacek Moskalewicz
      The EZOP Poland study was the first national survey in the country using methodology elaborated and tested in the World Mental Health Survey Initiative (WMH) enabling planning and implementation national epidemiological research on mental health and disorders associated with alcohol and other psychoactive substances. This paper aims to present an estimate of the number of children below 18 years of age whose parent suffered from mental and behavioural disorders due to alcohol use. Results of the study show that over 900 thousand children and young people under 18 have a parent with alcohol related disorders, which constitutes almost 13% of children of this age group. This percentage varies between 11% in the group of children under 4 years of age and nearly 15% in the group aged 13-17.

      PubDate: 2015-08-25T04:14:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    • Authors: Jürgen Rehm; Vladimir Poznyak
      Pages: 79 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Jürgen Rehm , Vladimir Poznyak
      Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organisation has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Group Technique, a variant of the Delphi methodology. Experiences with this methodology over the past two years are reported. Finally, conclusions for the monitoring and surveillance at the national level are given.

      PubDate: 2015-07-03T17:31:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Stosunek lekarzy rodzinnych do interwencji związanych z używaniem
           alkoholu – polskie wyniki międzynarodowego projektu badawczego ODHIN

    • Authors: Andrzej Jakubczyk; Aneta Michalska; Natalia Szejko; Marcin Wojnar
      Pages: 91 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Andrzej Jakubczyk , Aneta Michalska , Natalia Szejko , Marcin Wojnar
      Background Brief interventions for alcohol use are considered an effective method of reducing alcohol drinking and alcohol-attributable mortality. The aim of the study was to document the attitudes of Polish general practitioners (GPs) to alcohol and alcohol problems, and examine how these attitudes are associated with self-reported activity in managing patients for alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Methods A total of 276 GPs were surveyed. The questionnaire included items on the GP's reported education and training on alcohol, attitudes and self-confidence in managing alcohol problems and self-reported estimates of patient numbers managed for alcohol and alcohol problems during the previous year. In addition, potential barriers and facilitators for conducting brief interventions in GP setting were investigated. Results More than half of GPs (55.3%) reported 6 or less patients managed for alcohol and alcohol problems during the previous year. GPs reporting higher levels of education for alcohol problems declared more emphasis on disease prevention, felt more secure in managing patients with alcohol problems and delivered a higher number of brief interventions. Discussion Qualifications and positive experiences rather than declarations about importance and preparation towards conducting brief interventions are associated with higher number of patients managed for drinking alcohol. Conclusion General practitioners in Poland very rarely manage patients for alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Complex interventions, with special emphasis on training on alcohol reduction strategies, are needed to improve this situation.

      PubDate: 2015-06-23T00:32:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Stygmatyzacja osób uzależnionych od alkoholu oraz systemu leczenia
           uzależnień w Warszawie i społeczności lokalnej

    • Authors: Łukasz Wieczorek
      Pages: 103 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Łukasz Wieczorek
      Introduction Alcoholism is mentioned as one of the most important social problems, and alcohol dependent persons are socially excluded and stigmatised. The aim of the discussed study was to evaluate the perception of alcohol dependent persons starting outpatient treatment, as well as to consider whether alcohol dependent persons and outpatient clinics are subjects of the social stigma. Evaluation was performed on patients and therapists at two outpatient alcohol treatment clinics in Warsaw and the local community. Materials and methods The qualitative research methodology was used. Interviews with a standardised list of desired information were applied to therapists and patients. In two different communities 64 interviews were conducted. Results In the respondents’ opinion, alcohol dependent persons are stigmatised. The discrediting attributes are alcohol drinking, maintaining abstinence and alcohol treatment in outpatient clinic. The general image of alcoholics consists in low social and financial status, neglected appearance and lifestyle. Taking treatment is the last resort, because it is the moment that the label alcoholic adheres to a drinker. It is strengthened by the therapist who diagnoses alcohol addiction. Despite attempts to correct the stigma through therapy and changes in lifestyle, the general image of alcoholics does not change. This label remains even after the end of treatment. Patients fear that disclosure of treatment will label their families.In the opinion of therapists, the stigma also affects the workers of the outpatient clinics as employees of worse category institutions. The neglect of the addiction treatment sector is a clear manifestation of this labelling.

      PubDate: 2015-06-23T00:32:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Spożywanie piwa i alkoholu etylowego a poziom wybranych interleukin w
           osoczu u młodych szczurów Wistar

    • Authors: Michał Oczkowski; Aleksandra Kołota; Marcin Barański; Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska
      Pages: 119 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Michał Oczkowski , Aleksandra Kołota , Marcin Barański , Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska
      Introduction Excessive alcohol intake can directly inhibit the immune response. Ethyl alcohol affects changes of plasma cytokine concentrations and in various tissues disturbs the balance between the multifunctional proteins that play a pivotal role in immunological and inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of beer or ethanol consumption on selected plasma cytokine concentrations in young male rats. Material and methods The experiment was conducted on 30-day old male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups (B2, B6, E2, and E6) and 2 control groups (C2 and C6). Rats from B2 and B6 groups were exposed to beer (10% of ethanol), and those from E2 and E6 groups to 10% ethanol solution for 2 or 6 weeks respectively. The rats had free access to alcohol and lab chow, but water was supplied during the photoperiod light phase. The rats were anesthetised after two or six weeks of the experiment and the blood was sampled by heart puncture and collected into heparinised tubes. Plasma IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations were measured using ELISA kits. Results Statistical analysis has shown that plasma IL-10 concentration was significantly increased in E6 versus C6 and E2 groups of rats. Decreased plasma IL-6 concentration in E2 in comparison with C2 group of rats was also found. At the same time, significantly higher IL-6 concentration was observed in B6 versus C6 and E6 groups. Our results indicate disruption of cytokine production, which may impair immunological defence and influence proinflammatory reactions.

      PubDate: 2015-06-23T00:32:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Metoksetamina – nowy związek psychoaktywny („dopalacz”) o silnym
           działaniu psychodysleptycznym

    • Authors: Agnieszka Wiesner; Aleksandra Tyl; Jolanta B. Zawilska
      Pages: 131 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Agnieszka Wiesner, Aleksandra Tyl, Jolanta B. Zawilska
      During the last decade, numerous new psychoactive substances have appeared on the illegal recreational drug market. One of them is methoxetamine, a structural analogue of ketamine. The increasing popularity of methoxetamine as a recreational drug may be attributed to its potent hallucinogenic and dissociative effects. Methoxetamine exerts a wide range of effects on the central and peripheral nervous system, and some of which resemble the effects of ketamine while others vary greatly. The consumption of methoxetamine carries a significant health risk, and may even lead to fatal intoxication.

      PubDate: 2015-08-04T04:17:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Poglądy Tadeusza Bilikiewicza na zagadnienia alkoholizmu w Polsce

    • Authors: Ryszard Kujawski
      Pages: 139 - 144
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Ryszard Kujawski
      The aim of this article is to present Professor Tadeusz Bilikiewicz's (1901–1980) views on the problem of alcohol in Poland. Medical literature articles and Gdańsk Library and Polish Academy of Sciences Archive documents were major sources of research. Tadeusz Bilikiewicz unsuccessfully tried to introduce a very radical form of counteracting alcoholism – the Prohibition Act. Attempts to introduce it received a negative reception in numerous environments.

      PubDate: 2015-07-29T21:26:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • A subjective assessment of the short-term effects of alcohol consumption.
           Preliminary studies on the Polish language adaptation of “The Biphasic
           Alcohol Effects Scale”

    • Authors: Ryszard Poprawa
      Pages: 1 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Ryszard Poprawa
      Introduction The short-term effects of alcohol consumption are experienced as biphasic, depending on the stage of its metabolisation. Usually at the beginning of the consumption, while the level of alcohol in blood is increasing, it is generally perceived as a stimulant and when decreasing as a sedative. Martin et al.’s Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) is a self-reported measure of short-term effects of drinking. The aim of the study was to prepare the Polish adaptation of the scale in order to determine its reliability and offer a preliminary assessment of validity. Materials and methods The modified Polish adaptation of BAES is now complete as Skala Efektów Picia Alkoholu (SEPA) (Scale of Alcohol Drinking Effects). To validate SEPA, Poprawa's Alcohol Use Scale and Polish adaptation of Fromme, Stroot and Kaplan's Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol Questionnaire were used. The research was conducted on two independent samples of young adults: N=331 and N=222. Results Two-factor structure of SEPA and validity of modifications were confirmed both in the assessment of moderate and high alcohol dosages. The tool's reliability indicators were very good. Both subscales of sedative and stimulant effects adequately and significantly correlate with the expected effects of drinking. The results of the subscale of stimulating effects positively correlate with the expectations of positive effects of alcohol and the results of the subscale of sedative effects – with negative expectations of alcohol. Conclusions SEPA reliably measures the subjective short-term twofold effects of drinking: positive stimulant and negative sedative.

      PubDate: 2015-04-29T19:10:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Zasoby odpornościowe i czynniki ryzyka a używanie alkoholu i marihuany w
           okresie wczesnej dorosłości

    • Authors: Agnieszka Pilarska; Radosław Pilarski
      Pages: 23 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Agnieszka Pilarska , Radosław Pilarski
      Introduction The aim of the study was an attempt at defining the risk factors and immunity resources allowing prediction of the use and abuse of alcohol and marijuana in early adulthood. Temperament and character traits, anxiety levels, self-destructive tendencies and style of coping with stress were examined. Method The research sample included 166 secondary school students aged 18–20 years defined by targeted selection. The following questionnaires were used: AUDIT, Spielberger et al.’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Kelley et al.’s Chronic Self-destructiveness Scale, Endler and Parker's Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations and Cloninger et al.’s Temperament and Character Inventory. Results A relationship was demonstrated between temperament and character traits, style of coping with stress, self-destructive tendencies and marijuana/alcohol use (p <0.05). Temperament and character traits included exploratory excitability, disorderliness, sentimentality, bad habits, vindictiveness and advantage of personal benefits. Among stress-coping styles, important significance was ascribed to emotion-oriented strategy. No significant relationship was found between psychoactive substance use and declared anxiety level. Conclusions Alcohol and marijuana users significantly differ from abstainers as regards temperament and character traits, manifested, e.g. by a higher degree of exploratory excitability, unconventionality, lower tolerance to monotony, poorer discipline and control in frustrating situations. As regards stress-coping styles – marijuana and alcohol users are worse at coping with frustration, and they tend to focus attention on themselves and their emotional problems. The investigation on the severity of self-destructive tendencies showed that psychoactive substance users have a tendency to initiate intentional suffering and failures, give in to temptation easily and show addictive tendencies.

      PubDate: 2015-04-29T19:10:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Zaburzenia hazardowe – rozpowszechnienie, oferta terapeutyczna,
           dostępność leczenia i predyktory podjęcia leczenia. Przegląd
           literatury

    • Authors: Łukasz Wieczorek; Katarzyna Dąbrowska
      Pages: 37 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Łukasz Wieczorek , Katarzyna Dąbrowska
      Introduction The aim of the review is to present the complexity of issues related to treatment of gambling disorders, including definition of gambling and diagnostic criteria, the coexistence of gambling disorders and other disorders, epidemiology of the phenomenon, the prevalence of help seeking, the therapeutic offer for gamblers and its effectiveness, motivations and barriers to treatment. Material and method The review of the literature was conducted using the MEDLINE database and Google Scholar. Two general search terms: “gambling” and “treatment” were used, and exploration was limited to 2000–2014. A total number of 96 publications were included in the review. Results The legalisation of gambling contributed to a growth in the social acceptance for this type of behaviour. Gambling disorders are often associated with mental disorders (mood, neurotic and personality disorders), and psychoactive substance dependence. The vast majority of gamblers do not seek treatment and about one third of them recover without professional help. Among those who decided on treatment, participation in the Gamblers Anonymous meetings is the most preferred form. Cognitive behavioural therapy, brief interventions and controlled gambling are effective forms of treatment as confirmed by evaluation studies. Gamblers decide to take treatment mainly for economic reasons or because of concerns about their mental and physical health. Barriers to treatment are primarily gamblers’ beliefs that they can solve their problems themselves, shame, fear of stigma, lack of information on what the treatment is and doubts about its effectiveness and quality.

      PubDate: 2015-04-29T19:10:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Zaburzenia używania alkoholu: Czy nowe kryteria diagnostyczne implikują
           zmianę strategii terapeutycznych'

    • Authors: Agnieszka Samochowiec; Magdalena Chęć; Łukasz Kołodziej; Jerzy Samochowiec
      Pages: 55 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Agnieszka Samochowiec , Magdalena Chęć , Łukasz Kołodziej , Jerzy Samochowiec
      The aim of this paper is to present changes in diagnostic criteria of alcohol use disorders and some consequences concerning change to therapy and pharmacotherapy approaches. The presented DSM-5 classification features the diagnostic category “Substance Use Disorder”, which combines DSM-IV “substance abuse” and “substance dependence” as a single disorder. The definition of alcohol dependence as a set of behavioural and physical symptoms in people who consume large amounts of alcohol, including alcohol withdrawal syndrome, tolerance and craving, has not changed. According to the new version of classification the ICD-11, diagnosis of “Disorders due to use of alcohol” includes alcohol intoxication, harmful use, dependence syndrome, withdrawal syndrome and alcohol-induced mental and behavioural disorders. As regards studies on the effectiveness of treatment, issues such as the understanding of addiction mechanisms, basic assumptions and the aims pursued are now being redefined and new treatment strategies are being sought including, presented in this paper, modular psychotherapy utilizing personal resources available and therapy based on harm reduction strategies as well as new pharmacological treatment proposals.

      PubDate: 2015-04-29T19:10:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Rekreacyjne używanie leków dostępnych w odręcznej sprzedaży:
           odurzanie i doping mózgu

    • Authors: Aleksandra Piątek; Małgorzata Koziarska-Rościszewska; Jolanta B. Zawilska
      Pages: 65 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2015
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
      Author(s): Aleksandra Piątek , Małgorzata Koziarska-Rościszewska , Jolanta B. Zawilska
      Recreational substance use is becoming more common, especially among young people. Some anti-inflammatory or antitussive drugs exert potent psychoactive effects when they are used in large doses. Easily available over-the-counter (OTC) drugs may cause a range of effects including hallucinations or euphoria. Dextromethorphan (DXM) is particularly often used. At doses of 1.5–7.5mg/kg body mass it induces stimulation, mood improvement, motor impairment, and used at doses higher than 7.5mg/kg b.m., it exerts dissociative effects. Adverse reactions are especially clear when DXM was taken with alcohol or substances affecting metabolic activity of cytochrome P450 CYP2D6. Among DXM users, some cases of psychological dependence and withdrawal symptoms were observed. Long-term use of DXM may be associated with cognitive function deterioration. The abuse of Tantum Rosa (a popular gynecological anti-inflammatory drug containing benzydamine) was described mainly in Brazil, Poland and Romania. It causes hallucinations (mainly visual) and “flashbacks” (short-term hallucinations despite not being under the influence of the psychedelic compound). Pseudoephedrine, an amphetamine-like stimulant, produces mood improvement or even euphoria, hallucinations and psychosis. However, the real health threat is associated with the use of substances produced from pseudoephedrine: ephedrone and methamphetamine.

      PubDate: 2015-04-29T19:10:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.alkona.2015.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Diversifying childhood experiences of Adult Children of Alcoholics

    • Authors: Krzysztof Gąsior
      Pages: 289 - 304
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction, Volume 27, Issue 4
      Author(s): Krzysztof Gąsior
      Introduction The aim of the research was to determine the differing childhood experiences of Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACoA). We therefore sought to gain a typological picture of ACoA childhood experience in the context of risk factors and protective factors in the scope of the family structure – risk factors like violence, parental conflict, parental mental disorders, their image as well as parental practice. Method The research applied Gąsior's Family of Origin Dysfunctionality Scale (SDRP) and CAST (Children of Alcoholics Screening Test). The research group included 395 Adult Children of Alcoholics, both in therapy (48 alcohol dependent) and not in therapy. Average age 29 years. Statistical analysis included factor analysis and analysis of variance. Results There were three basic types of ACoA experiences. Severe risk factors (alcoholism and violence) in the family of origin together with negative images and dysfunctional practices by both parents typify the high-risk type. In the moderately affected type, childhood experiences are associated with milder family of origin dysfunction and with better functioning of the mother and using functional practices in contrast to the father. The incidence of risk factors was moderate. In the last family of origin type there was a low incidence of risk factors, the family structure was not disordered and parents fulfilled their functions well. Among the protective factors, the function of the non-drinking parent and positive parental practices related to care and control were primary. Other important protective factors were good sibling relations, socio-economic family status and support from outside the family. Conclusions The relation between risk and protective factors in ACoA families requires further research.

      PubDate: 2015-04-29T19:10:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s0867-4361(14)70021-5
       
  • Psychological birth – the separation-individuation process among female
           Adult Children of Alcoholics

    • Authors: Aneta Pasternak; Katarzyna Schier
      Pages: 305 - 318
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction, Volume 27, Issue 4
      Author(s): Aneta Pasternak , Katarzyna Schier
      Introduction The research aims to answer the following question: What are the dynamics of the separation-individuation process (according to Margaret Mahler's theory) in women who are Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACoA) in comparison to women who did not experience a parent's alcoholism in their childhood. The authors state that children of alcohol-dependent parents may experience relational traumas and this may inhibit the separation-individuation process. The study also seeks to answer whether there are relations between the severity of the difficulties in the area of separation-individuation and parentification (role reversal) in the past and in the present parentification of ACoA women. Method Research was conducted on 110 women (55 from an experimental group and 55 from a control group). The following tools were used to measure the variables: Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) by Jones and Pilat and the PATHSEP questionnaire by Lapsley for estimating the dynamics of the separation-individuation process. A questionnaire FRS-A (Filial Responsibility Scale for Adults) by Jurkovic and Thirkield to study levels of parentification was also used. Results The results of the study have shown that distortions in the separation-individuation process occur more often in women with the ACoA syndrome compared to women who did not grow up in alcoholic families. In the ACoA group the sense of injustice associated with parentification in the past was a mediator of the relation between difficulties in the separation-individuation process and current sense of injustice. Discussion and conclusions The analysis of the results of this study serves as a valuable guide for work with women who experienced a parent's alcoholism in their childhood. It seems relevant that educational and therapeutic work with these women should include the component of regaining their intrapsychic and interpersonal individuality.

      PubDate: 2015-04-29T19:10:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s0867-4361(14)70022-7
       
  • Prężność psychiczna a zadowolenie z życia osób uzależnionych od
           alkoholu

    • Authors: Nina
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Alcoholism and Drug Addiction, Volume 27, Issue 4
      Author(s): Nina Ogińska-Bulik
      Introduction The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between resiliency and satisfaction with life in alcohol addicts. Results of 82 alcohol-dependent persons, aged 25–75 years (M = 46.13, SD = 11.33) who participated in therapy were analysed. Most of the participants were male (58.5%). Method Fahrenberg's et al Life Satisfaction Questionnaire and Ogińska-Bulik's & Juczyński's Resiliency Assessment Scale were used in the study. Results Resiliency positively correlates with total result of Life Satisfaction Questionnaire and five of its dimensions, it is self-satisfaction, as well as satisfaction with health, finances, friends/relatives and sexuality. Among resiliency factors predictive role play openness to new experiences and sense of humor (factor 2), persistence and determination in action (factor 1), and personal competencies to cope and tolerance of negative affect (factor 3). Development of resiliency may contribute to improving quality of life alcohol-dependent persons. Wprowadzenie Celem podjętych badań było ustalenie zależności między prężnością psychiczną a zadowoleniem z życia osób uzależnionych od alkoholu. Analizie poddano wyniki 82 osób uzależnionych od alkoholu w wieku 25–75 lat (M = 46,13; SD = 11,33), które uczestniczyły w terapii odwykowej. Większość badanych stanowili mężczyźni (58,5%). Metoda W badaniach wykorzystano Kwestionariusz Zadowolenia z Życia Fahrenberga i wsp. oraz Skalę do Pomiaru Prężności – SPP-25 autorstwa Ogińskiej-Bulik i Juczyńskiego. Wyniki Prężność dodatnio koreluje z wynikiem ogólnym Kwestionariusza Zadowolenia z Życia oraz pięcioma jego wymiarami, tj. zadowoleniem z własnej osoby, a także ze zdrowia, finansów, przyjaciół/krewnych/znajomych oraz seksualności. Wśród czynników wchodzących w skład prężności predykcyjną rolę dla zadowolenia z życia pełnią otwartość na nowe doświadczenia i poczucie humoru (czynnik 2), wytrwałość i determinacja w działaniu (czynnik 1) oraz kompetencje osobiste do radzenia sobie i tolerancja negatywnych emocji (czynnik 3). Rozwijanie prężności może przyczynić się do poprawy jakości życia osób uzależnionych od alkoholu.

      PubDate: 2015-04-29T19:10:43Z
       
 
 
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