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Showing 1 - 200 of 3175 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 87, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 387, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 385, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 336, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 438, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 197, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Life Sciences in Space Research
  [SJR: 0.626]   [H-I: 5]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2214-5524
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • A urine-fuelled soil-based bioregenerative life support system for
           long-term and long-distance manned space missions
    • Authors: Federico Maggi; Fiona H.M. Tang; Céline Pallud; Chuanhui Gu
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 17
      Author(s): Federico Maggi, Fiona H.M. Tang, Céline Pallud, Chuanhui Gu
      A soil-based cropping unit fuelled with human urine for long-term manned space missions was investigated with the aim to analyze whether a closed-loop nutrient cycle from human liquid wastes was achievable. Its ecohydrology and biogeochemistry were analysed in microgravity with the use of an advanced computational tool. Urine from the crew was used to supply primary (N, P, and K) and secondary (S, Ca and Mg) nutrients to wheat and soybean plants in the controlled cropping unit. Breakdown of urine compounds into primary and secondary nutrients as well as byproduct gases, adsorbed, and uptake fractions were tracked over a period of 20 years. Results suggested that human urine could satisfy the demand of at least 3 to 4 out of 6 nutrients with an offset in pH and salinity tolerable by plants. It was therefore inferred that a urine-fuelled life support system can introduce a number of advantages including: (1) recycling of liquids wastes and production of food; (2) forgiveness of neglect as compared to engineered electro-mechanical systems that may fail under unexpected or unplanned conditions; and (3) reduction of supply and waste loads during space missions.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T12:47:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • If technological intelligent extraterrestrials exist, what biological
           traits are de rigueur
    • Authors: E.R. Taylor
      Pages: 15 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 17
      Author(s): E.R. Taylor
      If extraterrestrials exist in the depths of cosmic space, and are capable of interstellar communications, even space flight, there is no requirement that they be humanoid in form. However, certain humanoid capabilities would be advantageous for tool fashioning and critical to operating space craft as well as functioning under the disparate extreme conditions under which they may be forced to operate. They would have to be “gas breathing”. The reasonable assumption that life based upon the same elements as Earth life requiring water stems from the unique properties of water that no other similar low molecular weight nonmetal hydride offers. Only water offers the diversity of chemical properties and reactivity, including the existence of the three common physical states within a limited temperature range of service to life, avoiding the issues presented by any alternatives. They must, like us, possess a large, abstract-thinking brain, and probably possess at least all the fundamental senses that humankind possess. They would also be carbon-based life, using oxygen as the electron sink of their biochemistry for the reasons considered. They most likely are homeothermic as us, though they may not necessarily be mammalian as we are. Their biochemistry could differ some from ours, perhaps presenting contact hazards for both species as discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T12:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Acute exposure to space flight results in evidence of reduced lymph
           Transport, tissue fluid Shifts, and immune alterations in the rat
           gastrointestinal system
    • Authors: W.E. Cromer; D.C. Zawieja
      Pages: 74 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 17
      Author(s): W.E. Cromer, D.C. Zawieja
      Space flight causes a number of alterations in physiological systems, changes in the immunological status of subjects, and altered interactions of the host to environmental stimuli. We studied the effect of space flight on the lymphatic system of the gastrointestinal tract which is responsible for lipid transport and immune surveillance which includes the host interaction with the gut microbiome. We found that there were signs of tissue damage present in the space flown animals that was lacking in ground controls (epithelial damage, crypt morphological changes, etc.). Additionally, morphology of the lymphatic vessels in the tissue suggested a collapsed state at time of harvest and there was a profound change in the retention of lipid in the villi of the ileum. Contrary to our assumptions there was a reduction in tissue fluid volume likely associated with other fluid shifts described. The reduction of tissue fluid volume in the colon and ileum is a likely contributing factor to the state of the lymphatic vessels and lipid transport issues observed. There were also associated changes in the number of MHC-II+ immune cells in the colon tissue, which along with reduced lymphatic competence would favor immune dysfunction in the tissue. These findings help expand our understanding of the effects of space flight on various organ systems. It also points out potential issues that have not been closely examined and have to potential for the need of countermeasure development.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T08:22:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • High LET radiation shows no major cellular and functional effects on
           primary cardiomyocytes in vitro
    • Authors: Anja Heselich; Johannes L. Frieß; Sylvia Ritter; Naja P. Benz; Paul G. Layer; Christiane Thielemann
      Pages: 93 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 16
      Author(s): Anja Heselich, Johannes L. Frieß, Sylvia Ritter, Naja P. Benz, Paul G. Layer, Christiane Thielemann
      It is well known that ionizing radiation causes adverse effects on various mammalian tissues. However, there is little information on the biological effects of heavy ion radiation on the heart. In order to fill this gap, we systematically examined DNA-damage induction and repair, as well as proliferation and apoptosis in avian cardiomyocyte cultures irradiated with heavy ions such as titanium and iron, relevant for manned space-flight, and carbon ions, as used for radiotherapy. Further, and to our knowledge for the first time, we analyzed the effect of heavy ion radiation on the electrophysiology of primary cardiomyocytes derived from chicken embryos using the non-invasive microelectrode array (MEA) technology. As electrophysiological endpoints beat rate and field action potential duration were analyzed. The cultures clearly exhibited the capacity to repair induced DNA damage almost completely within 24 h, even at doses of 7 Gy, and almost completely recovered from radiation-induced changes in proliferative behavior. Interestingly, no significant effects on apoptosis could be detected. Especially the functionality of primary cardiac cells exhibited a surprisingly high robustness against heavy ion radiation, even at doses of up to 7 Gy. In contrast to our previous study with X-rays the beat rate remained more or less unaffected after heavy ion radiation, independently of beam quality. The only change we could observe was an increase of the field action potential duration of up to 30% after titanium irradiation, diminishing within the following three days. This potentially pathological observation may be an indication that heavy ion irradiation at high doses could bear a long-term risk for cardiovascular disease induction.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T12:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2018)
  • Synthetic torpor: A method for safely and practically transporting
           experimental animals aboard spaceflight missions to deep space
    • Authors: Yuri Griko; Matthew D. Regan
      Pages: 101 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 16
      Author(s): Yuri Griko, Matthew D. Regan
      Animal research aboard the Space Shuttle and International Space Station has provided vital information on the physiological, cellular, and molecular effects of spaceflight. The relevance of this information to human spaceflight is enhanced when it is coupled with information gleaned from human-based research. As NASA and other space agencies initiate plans for human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), incorporating animal research into these missions is vitally important to understanding the biological impacts of deep space. However, new technologies will be required to integrate experimental animals into spacecraft design and transport them beyond LEO in a safe and practical way. In this communication, we propose the use of metabolic control technologies to reversibly depress the metabolic rates of experimental animals while in transit aboard the spacecraft. Compared to holding experimental animals in active metabolic states, the advantages of artificially inducing regulated, depressed metabolic states (called synthetic torpor) include significantly reduced mass, volume, and power requirements within the spacecraft owing to reduced life support requirements, and mitigated radiation- and microgravity-induced negative health effects on the animals owing to intrinsic physiological properties of torpor. In addition to directly benefitting animal research, synthetic torpor-inducing systems will also serve as test beds for systems that may eventually hold human crewmembers in similar metabolic states on long-duration missions. The technologies for inducing synthetic torpor, which we discuss, are at relatively early stages of development, but there is ample evidence to show that this is a viable idea and one with very real benefits to spaceflight programs. The increasingly ambitious goals of world's many spaceflight programs will be most quickly and safely achieved with the help of animal research systems transported beyond LEO; synthetic torpor may enable this to be done as practically and inexpensively as possible.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T12:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2018)
  • Late Effects of 1H Irradiation on Hippocampal Physiology
    • Authors: Frederico Kiffer; Alexis K. Howe; Hannah Carr; Jing Wang; Tyler Alexander; Julie E. Anderson; Thomas Groves; John W. Seawright; Vijayalakshmi Sridharan; Gwendolyn Carter; Marjan Boerma; Antiño R. Allen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2018
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): Frederico Kiffer, Alexis K. Howe, Hannah Carr, Jing Wang, Tyler Alexander, Julie E. Anderson, Thomas Groves, John W. Seawright, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Gwendolyn Carter, Marjan Boerma, Antiño R. Allen
      NASA's Missions to Mars and beyond will expose flight crews to potentially dangerous levels of charged-particle radiation. Of all charged nuclei, 1H is the most abundant charged particle in both the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and solar particle event (SPE) spectra. There are currently no functional spacecraft shielding materials that are able to mitigate the charged-particle radiation encountered in space. Recent studies have demonstrated cognitive injuries due to high-dose 1H exposures in rodents. Our study investigated the effects of 1H irradiation on neuronal morphology in the hippocampus of adult male mice. 6-month-old mice received whole-body exposure to 1H at 0.5 and 1Gy (150 MeV/n; 0.35-0.55Gy/min) at NASA's Space Radiation Laboratory in Upton, NY. At 9-months post-irradiation, we tested each animal's open-field exploratory performance. After sacrifice, we dissected the brains along the midsagittal plane, and then either fixed or dissected further and snap-froze them. Our data showed that exposure to 0.5 Gy or 1 Gy 1H significantly increased animals’ anxiety behavior in open-field testing. Our micromorphometric analyses revealed significant decreases in mushroom spine density and dendrite morphology in the Dentate Gyrus, Cornu Ammonis 3 and 1 of the hippocampus, and lowered expression of synaptic markers. Our data suggest 1H radiation significantly increased exploration anxiety and modulated the dendritic spine and dendrite morphology of hippocampal neurons at a dose of 0.5 or 1 Gy.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T12:47:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2018.03.004
  • Early effects of 16O radiation on Neuronal Morphology and Cognition in a
           Murine Model
    • Authors: Hannah Carr; Tyler C. Alexander; Thomas Groves; Frederico Kiffer; Jing Wang; Elvin Price; Marjan Boerma; Antiño R. Allen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2018
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): Hannah Carr, Tyler C. Alexander, Thomas Groves, Frederico Kiffer, Jing Wang, Elvin Price, Marjan Boerma, Antiño R. Allen
      Astronauts exposed to high linear energy transfer radiation may experience cognitive injury. The pathogenesis of this injury is unknown but may involve glutamate receptors or modifications to dendritic structure and/or dendritic spine density and morphology. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, where it acts on ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors located at the presynaptic terminal and in the postsynaptic membrane at synapses in the hippocampus. Dendritic spines are sites of excitatory synaptic transmission, and changes in spine structure and dendrite morphology are thought to be morphological correlates of altered brain function associated with hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. The aim of the current study is to assess whether behavior, glutamate receptor gene expression, and dendritic structure in the hippocampus are altered in mice after early exposure to 16O radiation in mice. Two weeks post-irradiation, animals were tested for hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance in the Y-maze. During Y-maze testing, mice exposed to 0.1 Gy and 0.25 Gy radiation failed to distinguish the novel arm, spending approximately the same amount of time in all 3 arms during the retention trial. Exposure to 16O significantly reduced the expression of Nr1 and GluR1 in the hippocampus and modulated spine morphology in the dentate gyrus and cornu Ammon 1 within the hippocampus. The present data provide evidence that 16O radiation has early deleterious effects on mature neurons that are associated with hippocampal learning and memory.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T12:47:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2018.03.001
  • Development of a step-down method for altering male C57BL/6 mouse housing
           density and hierarchical structure: Preparations for spaceflight studies
    • Authors: David C. Scofield; Jeffrey D. Rytlewski; Paul Childress; Kishan Shah; Aamir Tucker; Faisal Khan; Jessica Peveler; Ding Li; Todd O. McKinley; Tien-Min G. Chu; Debra L. Hickman; Melissa A. Kacena
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): David C. Scofield, Jeffrey D. Rytlewski, Paul Childress, Kishan Shah, Aamir Tucker, Faisal Khan, Jessica Peveler, Ding Li, Todd O. McKinley, Tien-Min G. Chu, Debra L. Hickman, Melissa A. Kacena
      This study was initiated as a component of a larger undertaking designed to study bone healing in microgravity aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Spaceflight experimentation introduces multiple challenges not seen in ground studies, especially with regard to physical space, limited resources, and inability to easily reproduce results. Together, these can lead to diminished statistical power and increased risk of failure. It is because of the limited space, and need for improved statistical power by increasing sample size over historical numbers, NASA studies involving mice require housing mice at densities higher than recommended in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (National Research Council, 2011). All previous NASA missions in which mice were co-housed, involved female mice; however, in our spaceflight studies examining bone healing, male mice are required for optimal experimentation. Additionally, the logistics associated with spaceflight hardware and our study design necessitated variation of density and cohort make up during the experiment. This required the development of a new method to successfully co-house male mice while varying mouse density and hierarchical structure. For this experiment, male mice in an experimental housing schematic of variable density (Spaceflight Correlate) analogous to previously established NASA spaceflight studies was compared to a standard ground based housing schematic (Normal Density Controls) throughout the experimental timeline. We hypothesized that mice in the Spaceflight Correlate group would show no significant difference in activity, aggression, or stress when compared to Normal Density Controls. Activity and aggression were assessed using a novel activity scoring system (based on prior literature, validated in-house) and stress was assessed via body weights, organ weights, and veterinary assessment. No significant differences were detected between the Spaceflight Correlate group and the Normal Density Controls in activity, aggression, body weight, or organ weight, which was confirmed by veterinary assessments. Completion of this study allowed for clearance by NASA of our bone healing experiments aboard the ISS, and our experiment was successfully launched February 19, 2017 on SpaceX CRS-10.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T12:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2018.03.002
  • Biological filters and their use in potable water filtration systems in
           spaceflight conditions
    • Authors: Starla G. Thornhill; Manish Kumar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): Starla G. Thornhill, Manish Kumar
      Providing drinking water to space missions such as the International Space Station (ISS) is a costly requirement for human habitation. To limit the costs of water transport, wastewater is collected and purified using a variety of physical and chemical means. To date, sand-based biofilters have been designed to function against gravity, and biofilms have been shown to form in microgravity conditions. Development of a universal silver-recycling biological filter system that is able to function in both microgravity and full gravity conditions would reduce the costs incurred in removing organic contaminants from wastewater by limiting the energy and chemical inputs required. This paper aims to propose the use of a sand-substrate biofilter to replace chemical means of water purification on manned spaceflights.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T12:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2018.03.003
  • HZETRN Radiation Transport Validation Using Balloon-Based Experimental
    • Authors: James E. Warner; Ryan B. Norman; Steve R. Blattnig
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): James E. Warner, Ryan B. Norman, Steve R. Blattnig
      The deterministic radiation transport code HZETRN (High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport) was developed by NASA to study the effects of cosmic radiation on astronauts and instrumentation shielded by various materials. This work presents an analysis of computed differential flux from HZETRN compared with measurement data from three balloon-based experiments over a range of atmospheric depths, particle types, and energies. Model uncertainties were quantified using an interval-based validation metric that takes into account measurement uncertainty both in the flux and the energy at which it was measured. Average uncertainty metrics were computed for the entire dataset as well as subsets of the measurements (by experiment, particle type, energy, etc.) to reveal any specific trends of systematic over- or under-prediction by HZETRN. The distribution of individual model uncertainties was also investigated to study the range and dispersion of errors beyond just single scalar and interval metrics. The differential fluxes from HZETRN were generally well-correlated with balloon-based measurements; the median relative model difference across the entire dataset was determined to be 30%. The distribution of model uncertainties, however, revealed that the range of errors was relatively broad, with approximately 30% of the uncertainties exceeding  ± 40%. The distribution also indicated that HZETRN systematically under-predicts the measurement dataset as a whole, with approximately 80% of the relative uncertainties having negative values. Instances of systematic bias for subsets of the data were also observed, including a significant underestimation of alpha particles and protons for energies below 2.5 GeV/u. Muons were found to be systematically over-predicted at atmospheric depths deeper than 50 g/cm2 but under-predicted for shallower depths. Furthermore, a systematic under-prediction of alpha particles and protons was observed below the geomagnetic cutoff, suggesting that improvements to the light ion production cross sections in HZETRN should be investigated.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T12:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2018.02.003
  • Solar Particle Event Storm Shelter Requirements for Missions Beyond Low
           Earth Orbit
    • Authors: L.W. Townsend; J.H. Adams; S.R. Blattnig; M.S. Clowdsley; D.J. Fry; I. Jun; C.D. McLeod; J.I. Minow; D.F. Moore; J.W. Norbury; R.B. Norman; D.V. Reames; N.A. Schwadron; E.J. Semones; R.C. Singleterry; T.C. Slaba; C.M. Werneth; M.A. Xapsos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): L.W. Townsend, J.H. Adams, S.R. Blattnig, M.S. Clowdsley, D.J. Fry, I. Jun, C.D. McLeod, J.I. Minow, D.F. Moore, J.W. Norbury, R.B. Norman, D.V. Reames, N.A. Schwadron, E.J. Semones, R.C. Singleterry, T.C. Slaba, C.M. Werneth, M.A. Xapsos
      Protecting spacecraft crews from energetic space radiations that pose both chronic and acute health risks is a critical issue for future missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Chronic health risks are possible from both galactic cosmic ray and solar energetic particle event (SPE) exposures. However, SPE exposures also can pose significant short term risks including, if dose levels are high enough, acute radiation syndrome effects that can be mission- or life-threatening. In order to address the reduction of short term risks to spaceflight crews from SPEs, we have developed recommendations to NASA for a design-standard SPE to be used as the basis for evaluating the adequacy of proposed radiation shelters for cislunar missions beyond LEO. Four SPE protection requirements for habitats are proposed: (1) a blood-forming-organ limit of 250 mGy-equivalent for the design SPE; (2) a design reference SPE environment equivalent to the sum of the proton spectra during the October 1989 event series; (3) any necessary assembly of the protection system must be completed within 30 minutes of event onset; and (4) space protection systems must be designed to ensure that astronaut radiation exposures follow the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T12:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2018.02.002
  • IFC - Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 16

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T12:17:33Z
  • From the desk of the Editor in Chief
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 16

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T12:17:33Z
  • Effects of simulated microgravity on gene expression and biological
           phenotypes of a single generation Caenorhabditis elegans cultured on 2
           different media
    • Authors: Ling Fei Tee; Hui-min Neoh; Sue Mian Then; Nor Azian Murad; Mohd Fairos Asillam; Mohd Helmy Hashim; Sheila Nathan; Rahman Jamal
      Pages: 11 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 15
      Author(s): Ling Fei Tee, Hui-min Neoh, Sue Mian Then, Nor Azian Murad, Mohd Fairos Asillam, Mohd Helmy Hashim, Sheila Nathan, Rahman Jamal
      Studies of multigenerational Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to long-term spaceflight have revealed expression changes of genes involved in longevity, DNA repair, and locomotion. However, results from spaceflight experiments are difficult to reproduce as space missions are costly and opportunities are rather limited for researchers. In addition, multigenerational cultures of C. elegans used in previous studies contribute to mixture of gene expression profiles from both larvae and adult worms, which were recently reported to be different. Usage of different culture media during microgravity simulation experiments might also give rise to differences in the gene expression and biological phenotypes of the worms. In this study, we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity on the gene expression and biological phenotype profiles of a single generation of C. elegans worms cultured on 2 different culture media. A desktop Random Positioning Machine (RPM) was used to simulate microgravity on the worms for approximately 52 to 54 h. Gene expression profile was analysed using the Affymetrix GeneChip® C. elegans 1.0 ST Array. Only one gene (R01H2.2) was found to be downregulated in nematode growth medium (NGM)-cultured worms exposed to simulated microgravity. On the other hand, eight genes were differentially expressed for C. elegans Maintenance Medium (CeMM)-cultured worms in microgravity; six were upregulated, while two were downregulated. Five of the upregulated genes (C07E3.15, C34H3.21, C32D5.16, F35H8.9 and C34F11.17) encode non-coding RNAs. In terms of biological phenotype, we observed that microgravity-simulated worms experienced minimal changes in terms of lifespan, locomotion and reproductive capabilities in comparison with the ground controls. Taking it all together, simulated microgravity on a single generation of C. elegans did not confer major changes to their gene expression and biological phenotype. Nevertheless, exposure of the worms to microgravity lead to higher expression of non-coding RNA genes, which may play an epigenetic role in the worms during longer terms of microgravity exposure.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T22:55:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
  • Whole high-quality light environment for humans and plants
    • Authors: Anton Sharakshane
      Pages: 18 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 15
      Author(s): Anton Sharakshane
      Plants sharing a single light environment on a spaceship with a human being and bearing a decorative function should look as natural and attractive as possible. And consequently they can be illuminated only with white light with a high color rendering index. Can lighting optimized for a human eye be effective and appropriate for plants' Spectrum-based effects have been compared under artificial lighting of plants by high-pressure sodium lamps and general-purpose white LEDs. It has been shown that for the survey sample phytochrome photo-equilibria does not depend significantly on the parameters of white LED light, while the share of phytoactive blue light grows significantly as the color temperature increases. It has been revealed that yield photon flux is proportional to luminous efficacy and increases as the color temperature decreases, general color rendering index Ra and the special color rendering index R14 (green leaf) increase. General-purpose white LED lamps with a color temperature of 2700 K, Ra > 90 and luminous efficacy of 100 lm/W are as efficient as the best high-pressure sodium lamps, and at a higher luminous efficacy their yield photon flux per joule is even bigger in proportion. Here we show that demand for high color rendering white LED light is not contradictory to the agro-technical objectives.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T07:20:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
  • Comparison of methods for individualized astronaut organ dosimetry:
           Morphometry-based phantom library versus body contour autoscaling of a
           reference phantom
    • Authors: Michelle M. Sands; David Borrego; Matthew R. Maynard; Amir A. Bahadori; Wesley E. Bolch
      Pages: 23 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 15
      Author(s): Michelle M. Sands, David Borrego, Matthew R. Maynard, Amir A. Bahadori, Wesley E. Bolch
      One of the hazards faced by space crew members in low-Earth orbit or in deep space is exposure to ionizing radiation. It has been shown previously that while differences in organ-specific and whole-body risk estimates due to body size variations are small for highly-penetrating galactic cosmic rays, large differences in these quantities can result from exposure to shorter-range trapped proton or solar particle event radiations. For this reason, it is desirable to use morphometrically accurate computational phantoms representing each astronaut for a risk analysis, especially in the case of a solar particle event. An algorithm was developed to automatically sculpt and scale the UF adult male and adult female hybrid reference phantom to the individual outer body contour of a given astronaut. This process begins with the creation of a laser-measured polygon mesh model of the astronaut's body contour. Using the auto-scaling program and selecting several anatomical landmarks, the UF adult male or female phantom is adjusted to match the laser-measured outer body contour of the astronaut. A dosimetry comparison study was conducted to compare the organ dose accuracy of both the autoscaled phantom and that based upon a height–weight matched phantom from the UF/NCI Computational Phantom Library. Monte Carlo methods were used to simulate the environment of the August 1972 and February 1956 solar particle events. Using a series of individual-specific voxel phantoms as a local benchmark standard, autoscaled phantom organ dose estimates were shown to provide a 1% and 10% improvement in organ dose accuracy for a population of females and males, respectively, as compared to organ doses derived from height–weight matched phantoms from the UF/NCI Computational Phantom Library. In addition, this slight improvement in organ dose accuracy from the autoscaled phantoms is accompanied by reduced computer storage requirements and a more rapid method for individualized phantom generation when compared to the UF/NCI Computational Phantom Library.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T07:20:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
  • Coupling of anaerobic waste treatment to produce protein- and lipid-rich
           bacterial biomass
    • Authors: Lisa M. Steinberg; Rachel E. Kronyak; Christopher H. House
      Pages: 32 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 15
      Author(s): Lisa M. Steinberg, Rachel E. Kronyak, Christopher H. House
      Future long-term manned space missions will require effective recycling of water and nutrients as part of a life support system. Biological waste treatment is less energy intensive than physicochemical treatment methods, yet anaerobic methanogenic waste treatment has been largely avoided due to slow treatment rates and safety issues concerning methane production. However, methane is generated during atmosphere regeneration on the ISS. Here we propose waste treatment via anaerobic digestion followed by methanotrophic growth of Methylococcus capsulatus to produce a protein- and lipid-rich biomass that can be directly consumed, or used to produce other high-protein food sources such as fish. To achieve more rapid methanogenic waste treatment, we built and tested a fixed-film, flow-through, anaerobic reactor to treat an ersatz wastewater. During steady-state operation, the reactor achieved a 97% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate with an organic loading rate of 1740 g d−1 m−3 and a hydraulic retention time of 12.25 d. The reactor was also tested on three occasions by feeding ca. 500 g COD in less than 12 h, representing 50x the daily feeding rate, with COD removal rates ranging from 56–70%, demonstrating the ability of the reactor to respond to overfeeding events. While investigating the storage of treated reactor effluent at a pH of 12, we isolated a strain of Halomonas desiderata capable of acetate degradation under high pH conditions. We then tested the nutritional content of the alkaliphilic Halomonas desiderata strain, as well as the thermophile Thermus aquaticus, as supplemental protein and lipid sources that grow in conditions that should preclude pathogens. The M. capsulatus biomass consisted of 52% protein and 36% lipids, the H. desiderata biomass consisted of 15% protein and 7% lipids, and the Thermus aquaticus biomass consisted of 61% protein and 16% lipids. This work demonstrates the feasibility of rapid waste treatment in a compact reactor design, and proposes recycling of nutrients back into foodstuffs via heterotrophic (including methanotrophic, acetotrophic, and thermophilic) microbial growth.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T09:04:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
  • Mimicking the effects of spaceflight on bone: Combined effects of disuse
           and chronic low-dose rate radiation exposure on bone mass in mice
    • Authors: Kanglun Yu; Alison H. Doherty; Paula C. Genik; Sara E. Gookin; Danielle M. Roteliuk; Samantha J. Wojda; Zhi-Sheng Jiang; Meghan E. McGee-Lawrence; Michael M. Weil; Seth W. Donahue
      Pages: 62 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 15
      Author(s): Kanglun Yu, Alison H. Doherty, Paula C. Genik, Sara E. Gookin, Danielle M. Roteliuk, Samantha J. Wojda, Zhi-Sheng Jiang, Meghan E. McGee-Lawrence, Michael M. Weil, Seth W. Donahue
      During spaceflight, crewmembers are subjected to biomechanical and biological challenges including microgravity and radiation. In the skeleton, spaceflight leads to bone loss, increasing the risk of fracture. Studies utilizing hindlimb suspension (HLS) as a ground-based model of spaceflight often neglect the concomitant effects of radiation exposure, and even when radiation is accounted for, it is often delivered at a high-dose rate over a very short period of time, which does not faithfully mimic spaceflight conditions. This study was designed to investigate the skeletal effects of low-dose rate gamma irradiation (8.5 cGy gamma radiation per day for 20 days, amounting to a total dose of 1.7 Gy) when administered simultaneously to disuse from HLS. The goal was to determine whether continuous, low-dose rate radiation administered during disuse would exacerbate bone loss in a murine HLS model. Four groups of 16 week old female C57BL/6 mice were studied: weight bearing + no radiation (WB+NR), HLS + NR, WB + radiation exposure (WB+RAD), and HLS+RAD. Surprisingly, although HLS led to cortical and trabecular bone loss, concurrent radiation exposure did not exacerbate these effects. Our results raise the possibility that mechanical unloading has larger effects on the bone loss that occurs during spaceflight than low-dose rate radiation.

      PubDate: 2017-08-22T01:45:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
  • Effects of high-intensity static magnetic fields on a root-based
           bioreactor system for space applications
    • Authors: Maria Elena Villani; Silvia Massa; Vanni Lopresto; Rosanna Pinto; Anna Maria Salzano; Andrea Scaloni; Eugenio Benvenuto; Angiola Desiderio
      Pages: 79 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 15
      Author(s): Maria Elena Villani, Silvia Massa, Vanni Lopresto, Rosanna Pinto, Anna Maria Salzano, Andrea Scaloni, Eugenio Benvenuto, Angiola Desiderio
      Static magnetic fields created by superconducting magnets have been proposed as an effective solution to protect spacecrafts and planetary stations from cosmic radiations. This shield can deflect high-energy particles exerting injurious effects on living organisms, including plants. In fact, plant systems are becoming increasingly interesting for space adaptation studies, being useful not only as food source but also as sink of bioactive molecules in future bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS). However, the application of protective magnetic shields would generate inside space habitats residual magnetic fields, of the order of few hundreds milli Tesla, whose effect on plant systems is poorly known. To simulate the exposure conditions of these residual magnetic fields in shielded environment, devices generating high-intensity static magnetic field (SMF) were comparatively evaluated in blind exposure experiments (250 mT, 500 mT and sham -no SMF-). The effects of these SMFs were assayed on tomato cultures (hairy roots) previously engineered to produce anthocyanins, known for their anti-oxidant properties and possibly useful in the setting of BLSS. Hairy roots exposed for periods ranging from 24 h to 11 days were morphometrically analyzed to measure their growth and corresponding molecular changes were assessed by a differential proteomic approach. After disclosing blind exposure protocol, a stringent statistical elaboration revealed the absence of significant differences in the soluble proteome, perfectly matching phenotypic results. These experimental evidences demonstrate that the identified plant system well tolerates the exposure to these magnetic fields. Results hereby described reinforce the notion of using this plant organ culture as a tool in ground-based experiments simulating space and planetary environments, in a perspective of using tomato ‘hairy root’ cultures as bioreactor of ready-to-use bioactive molecules during future long-term space missions.

      PubDate: 2017-12-06T12:55:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
  • IN MEMORIAM Takeo Ohnishi 1944-2017
    • Authors: Tom K. Hei; Marco Durante; Frank Cucinotta; Jack Miller
      First page: 74
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 14
      Author(s): Tom K. Hei, Marco Durante, Frank Cucinotta, Jack Miller

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T00:18:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2017)
    • Authors: Bernard M. Rabin; Kirsty L. Carrihill-Knoll; Marshall G. Miller; Barbara Shukitt-Hale
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): Bernard M. Rabin, Kirsty L. Carrihill-Knoll, Marshall G. Miller, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
      Exposure to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles) can produce decrements in cognitive performance. A series of experiments exposing rats to different HZE particles was run to evaluate whether the performance decrement was dependent on the age of the subject at the time of irradiation. Fischer 344 rats that were 2-, 11- and 15/16-months of age were exposed to 16O, 48Ti, or 4He particles at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. As previously observed following exposure to 56Fe particles, exposure to the higher LET 48Ti particles produced a disruption of cognitive performance at a lower dose in the older subjects compared to the dose needed to disrupt performance in the younger subjects. There were no age related changes in the dose needed to produce a disruption of cognitive performance following exposure to lower LET 16O or 4He particles. The threshold for the rats exposed to either 16O or 4He particles was similar at all ages. Because the 11- and 15-month old rats are more representative of the age of astronauts (45-55 years old) the present results indicate that particle LET may be a critical factor in estimating the risk of developing a cognitive deficit following exposure to space radiation on exploratory class missions.

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T18:21:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.12.001
  • Effects of spaceflight on the immunoglobulin repertoire of unimmunized
           C57BL/6 mice
    • Authors: Claire Ward; Trisha A. Rettig; Savannah Hlavacek; Bailey A. Bye; Michael J. Pecaut; Stephen K. Chapes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): Claire Ward, Trisha A. Rettig, Savannah Hlavacek, Bailey A. Bye, Michael J. Pecaut, Stephen K. Chapes
      Spaceflight has been shown to suppress the adaptive immune response, altering the distribution and function of lymphocyte populations. B lymphocytes express highly specific and highly diversified receptors, known as immunoglobulins (Ig), that directly bind and neutralize pathogens. Ig diversity is achieved through the enzymatic splicing of gene segments within the genomic DNA of each B cell in a host. The collection of Ig specificities within a host, or Ig repertoire, has been increasingly characterized in both basic research and clinical settings using high-throughput sequencing technology (HTS). We utilized HTS to test the hypothesis that spaceflight affects the B-cell repertoire. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the impact of spaceflight on the unimmunized Ig repertoire of C57BL/6 mice that were flown aboard the International Space Station (ISS) during the Rodent Research One validation flight in comparison to ground controls. Individual gene segment usage was similar between ground control and flight animals, however, gene segment combinations and the junctions in which gene segments combine was varied among animals within and between treatment groups. We also found that spontaneous somatic mutations in the IgH and Igκ gene loci were not increased. These data suggest that space flight did not affect the B cell repertoire of mice flown and housed on the ISS over a short period of time.

      PubDate: 2017-12-06T12:55:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.11.003
  • IFC - Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 15

      PubDate: 2017-12-06T12:55:03Z
  • Estimating Co2 gas exchange in mixed age vegetable plant communities grown
           on soil-like substrates for life support systems
    • Authors: V.V. Velichko; A.A. Tikhomirov; S.A. Ushakova
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): V.V. Velichko, A.A. Tikhomirov, S.A. Ushakova
      If soil-like substrate (SLS) is to be used in human life support systems with a high degree of mass closure, the rate of its gas exchange as a compartment for mineralization of plant biomass should be understood. The purpose of this study was to compare variations in CO2 gas exchange of vegetable plant communities grown on the soil-like substrate using a number of plant age groups, which determined the so-called conveyor interval. Two experimental plant communities were grown as plant conveyors with different conveyor intervals. The first plant community consisted of conveyors with intervals of 7 days for carrot and beet and 14 days for chufa sedge. The conveyor intervals in the second plant community were 14 days for carrot and beet and 28 days for chufa sedge. This study showed that increasing the number of age groups in the conveyor and, thus, increasing the frequency of adding plant waste to the SLS, decreased the range of variations in CO2 concentration in the “plant – soil-like substrate” system. However, the resultant CO2 gas exchange was shifted towards CO2 release to the atmosphere of the plant community with short conveyor intervals. The duration of the conveyor interval did not significantly affect productivity and mineral composition of plants grown on the SLS.

      PubDate: 2017-11-15T05:12:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.11.001
  • Forces Associated with Launch into Space do not Impact Bone Fracture
    • Authors: Paul Childress; Alexander Brinker; Cynthia-May S. Gong; Jonathan Harris; David J. Olivos; Jeffrey D. Rytlewski; David C. Scofield; Sungshin Y. Choi; Yasaman Shirazi-Fard; Todd O. McKinley; Tien-Min G. Chu; Carolynn L. Conley; Nabarun Chakraborty; Rasha Hammamieh; Melissa A. Kacena
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): Paul Childress, Alexander Brinker, Cynthia-May S. Gong, Jonathan Harris, David J. Olivos, Jeffrey D. Rytlewski, David C. Scofield, Sungshin Y. Choi, Yasaman Shirazi-Fard, Todd O. McKinley, Tien-Min G. Chu, Carolynn L. Conley, Nabarun Chakraborty, Rasha Hammamieh, Melissa A. Kacena
      Segmental bone defects (SBDs) secondary to trauma invariably result in a prolonged recovery with an extended period of limited weight bearing on the affected limb. Soldiers sustaining blast injuries and civilians sustaining high energy trauma typify such a clinical scenario. These patients frequently sustain composite injuries with SBDs in concert with extensive soft tissue damage. For soft tissue injury resolution and skeletal reconstruction a patient may experience limited weight bearing for upwards of 6 months. Many small animal investigations have evaluated interventions for SBDs. While providing foundational information regarding the treatment of bone defects, these models do not simulate limited weight bearing conditions after injury. For example, mice ambulate immediately following anesthetic recovery, and in most cases are normally ambulating within 1-3 days post-surgery. Thus, investigations that combine disuse with bone healing may better test novel bone healing strategies. To remove weight bearing, we have designed a SBD rodent healing study in microgravity (µG) on the International Space Station (ISS) for the Rodent Research-4 (RR-4) Mission, which launched February 19, 2017 on SpaceX CRS-10 (Commercial Resupply Services). In preparation for this mission, we conducted an end-to-end mission simulation consisting of surgical infliction of SBD followed by launch simulation and hindlimb unloading (HLU) studies. In brief, a 2 mm defect was created in the femur of 10 week-old C57BL/6J male mice (n=9-10/group). Three days after surgery, 6 groups of mice were treated as follows: 1) Vivarium Control (maintained continuously in standard cages); 2) Launch Negative Control (placed in the same spaceflight-like hardware as the Launch Positive Control group but were not subjected to launch simulation conditions); 3) Launch Positive Control (placed in spaceflight-like hardware and also subjected to vibration followed by centrifugation); 4) Launch Positive Experimental (identical to Launch Positive Control group, but placed in qualified spaceflight hardware); 5) Hindlimb Unloaded (HLU, were subjected to HLU immediately after launch simulation tests to simulate unloading in spaceflight); and 6) HLU Control (single housed in identical HLU cages but not suspended). Mice were euthanized 28 days after launch simulation and bone healing was examined via micro-Computed Tomography (µCT). These studies demonstrated that the mice post-surgery can tolerate launch conditions. Additionally, forces and vibrations associated with launch did not impact bone healing (p=0.3). However, HLU resulted in a 52.5% reduction in total callus volume compared to HLU Controls (p=0.0003). Taken together, these findings suggest that mice having a femoral SBD surgery tolerated the vibration and hypergravity associated with launch, and that launch simulation itself did not impact bone healing, but that the prolonged lack of weight bearing associated with HLU did impair bone healing. Based on these findings, we proceeded with testing the efficacy of FDA approved and novel SBD therapies using the unique spaceflight environment as a novel unloading model on SpaceX CRS-10.

      PubDate: 2017-11-15T05:12:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.11.002
  • An innovative in vitro device providing continuous low doses of γ-rays
           mimicking exposure to the space environment: a dosimetric study
    • Authors: V. Pereda-Loth; X. Franceries; A.S. Afonso; A. Ayala; B. Eche; D. Ginibrière; G. Gauquelin-Koch; M. Bardiès; L. Lacoste-Collin; M. Courtade-Saïdi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): V. Pereda-Loth, X. Franceries, A.S. Afonso, A. Ayala, B. Eche, D. Ginibrière, G. Gauquelin-Koch, M. Bardiès, L. Lacoste-Collin, M. Courtade-Saïdi
      Astronauts are exposed to microgravity and chronic irradiation but experimental conditions combining these two factors are difficult to reproduce on earth. We have created an experimental device able to combine chronic irradiation and altered gravity that may be used for cell cultures or plant models in a ground based facility. Irradiation was provided by thorium nitrate powder, conditioned so as to constitute a sealed source that could be placed in an incubator. Cell plates or plant seedlings could be placed in direct contact with the source or at various distances above it. Moreover, a random positioning machine (RPM) could be positioned on the source to simulate microgravity. The activity of the source was established using the Bateman formula. The spectrum of the source, calculated according to the natural decrease of radioactivity and the gamma spectrometry, showed very good adequacy. The experimental fluence was close to the theoretical fluence evaluation, attesting its uniform distribution. A Monte Carlo model of the irradiation device was processed by GATE code. Dosimetry was performed with radiophotoluminescent dosimeters exposed for one month at different locations (x and y axes) in various cell culture conditions. Using the RPM placed on the source, we reached a mean absorbed dose of gamma rays of (0.33 ± 0.17) mSv per day. In conclusion, we have elaborated an innovative device allowing chronic radiation exposure to be combined with altered gravity. Given the limited access to the International Space Station, this device could be useful to researchers interested in the field of space biology.

      PubDate: 2017-10-31T22:19:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.10.004
  • Microgels for Long-Term Storage of Vitamins for Extended Spaceflight
    • Authors: R. Schroeder
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): R. Schroeder
      Biocompatible materials that can encapsulate large amounts of nutrients while protecting them from degrading environmental influences are highly desired for extended manned spaceflight. In this study, alkaline-degradable microgels based on poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PVCL) were prepared and analysed with their regard to stabilise retinol which acts as a model vitamin (vitamin A1). It was investigated whether the secondary crosslinking of the particles with a polyphenol can prevent the isomerisation of biologically active all-trans retinol to biologically inactive cis-trans retinol. Both loading with retinol and secondary crosslinking of the particles was performed at room temperature to prevent an early degradation of the vitamin. This study showed that PVCL microgels drastically improve the water solubility of hydrophobic retinol. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the highly crosslinked microgel particles in aqueous solution can be utilised to greatly retard the light- and temperature-induced isomerisation process of retinol by a factor of almost 100 compared to pure retinol stored in ethanol. The use of microgels offers various advantages over other drug delivery systems as they exhibit enhanced biocompatibility and superior aqueous solubility.

      PubDate: 2017-10-24T18:58:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.10.003
  • Spacecraft cabin environment effects on the growth and behavior of
           chlorella vulgaris for life support applications
    • Authors: Tobias Niederwieser; Patrick Kociolek; David Klaus
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): Tobias Niederwieser, Patrick Kociolek, David Klaus
      An Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is necessary for humans to survive in the hostile environment of space. As future missions move beyond Earth orbit for extended durations, reclaiming human metabolic waste streams for recycled use becomes increasingly important. Historically, these functions have been accomplished using a variety of physical and chemical processes with limited recycling capabilities. In contrast, biological systems can also be incorporated into a spacecraft to essentially mimic the balance of photosynthesis and respiration that occurs in Earth's ecosystem, along with increasing the reuse of biomass throughout the food chain. In particular, algal photobioreactors that use Chlorella vulgaris have been identified as potential multifunctional components for use as part of such a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). However, a connection between the biological research examining C. vulgaris behavior and the engineered spacecraft cabin environmental conditions has not yet been thoroughly established. This review article characterizes the ranges of prior and expected cabin parameters (e.g. temperature, lighting, carbon dioxide, pH, oxygen, pressure, growth media, contamination, gravity, and radiation) and reviews algal metabolic response (e.g. growth rate, composition, carbon dioxide fixation rates, and oxygen evolution rates) to changes in those parameters that have been reported in prior space research and from related Earth-based experimental observations. Based on our findings, it appears that C. vulgaris offers many promising advantages for use in a BLSS. Typical atmospheric conditions found in spacecraft such as elevated carbon dioxide levels are, in fact, beneficial for algal cultivation. Other spacecraft cabin parameters, however, introduce unique environmental factors, such as reduced total pressure with elevated oxygen concentration, increased radiation, and altered gravity, whose effects on the biological responses of C. vulgaris are not yet well understood. A summary of optimum growth parameter ranges for C. vulgaris is presented in this article as a guideline for designing and integrating an algal photobioreactor into a spacecraft life support system. Additional research challenges for evaluating as of yet uncharacterized parameters are also identified in this article that have the potential for improving spaceflight applications as well as terrestrial aquatic algal cultivation systems.

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T16:44:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.10.002
  • Developing a technique to enhance durability of fibrous ion-exchange resin
           substrate for space greenhouses
    • Authors: A.S. Krivobok; Yu. Berkovich V.A. Shcherbakova N.A. Chuvilskaya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): A.S. Krivobok, Yu. A. Berkovich, V.A. Shcherbakova, N.A. Chuvilskaya
      One way to cut consumables for space plant growth facilities (PGF) with artificial soil in the form of fibrous ion-exchange resin substrate (FIERS) is on-board regeneration of the used medium. After crop harvest the procedure includes removal of the roots from the fibrous media with preservation of the exchanger properties and capillary structure. One type of FIERS, namely BIONA-V3TM, has been used in Russian prototypes of space conveyors. We describe a two-stage treatment of BIONA-V3TM including primary microwave heating of the used FIERS untill (90±5)°C in alkali-peroxide solution during 3.5 hrs. The second stage of the treatment is decomposition of root vestiges inside pores of BIONA-V3TM by using thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic bacteria Clostridium thermocellum, Clostridium cellulolyticum and Cellulosilyticum lentocellum during 7-10 days at 55°C. The two-stage procedure allows extraction of 90% dead roots from the FIERS’ pores and the preservation of root zone hydro-physical properties. A posterior enrichment of the FIERS by minerals makes BIONA- V3TM reusable.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T14:38:44Z
  • IFC - Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 14

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T00:18:17Z
  • Exploring innovative radiation shielding approaches in space: a material
           and design study for a wearable radiation protection spacesuit
    • Authors: M. Vuolo; G. Baiocco; S. Barbieri; L. Bocchini; M. Giraudo; T. Gheysens; C. Lobascio; A. Ottolenghi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): M. Vuolo, G. Baiocco, S. Barbieri, L. Bocchini, M. Giraudo, T. Gheysens, C. Lobascio, A. Ottolenghi
      We present a design study for a wearable radiation-shielding spacesuit, designed to protect astronauts’ most radiosensitive organs. The suit could be used in an emergency, to perform necessary interventions outside a radiation shelter in the space habitat in case of a Solar Proton Event (SPE). A wearable shielding system of the kind we propose has the potential to prevent the onset of acute radiation effects in this scenario. In this work, selection of materials for the spacesuit elements is performed based on the results of dedicated GRAS/Geant4 1-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations, and after a trade-off analysis between shielding performance and availability of resources in the space habitat. Water is the first choice material, but also organic compounds compatible with a human space habitat are considered (such as fatty acids, gels and liquid organic wastes). Different designs and material combinations are proposed for the spacesuits. To quantify shielding performance we use GRAS/Geant4 simulations of an anthropomorphic phantom in an average SPE environment, with and without the spacesuit, and we compare results for the dose to Blood Forming Organs (BFO) in Gy-Eq, i.e. physical absorbed dose multiplied by the proton Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) for non-cancer effects. In case of SPE occurrence for Intra-Vehicular Activities (IVA) outside a radiation shelter, dose reductions to BFO in the range of 44 to 57% are demonstrated to be achievable with the spacesuit designs made only of water elements, or of multi-layer protection elements (with a thin layer of a high density material covering the water filled volume). Suit elements have a thickness in the range 2 to 6 cm and the total mass for the garment sums up to 35 - 43 kg depending on model and material combination. Dose reduction is converted into time gain, i.e. the increase of time interval between the occurrence of a SPE and the moment the dose limit to the BFO for acute effects is reached. Wearing a radiation shielding spacesuit of the kind we propose, the astronaut could have up to more than the double the time (e.g. almost 6 instead of 2.5 hours) to perform necessary interventions outside a radiation shelter during a SPE, his/her exposure remaining within dose limits. An indicative mass saving thanks to the shielding provided by the suits is also derived, calculating the amount of mass needed in addition to the 1.5 cm thick Al module considered for the IVA scenario to provide the same additional shielding given by the spacesuit. For an average 50% dose reduction to BFO this is equal to about 2.5 tons of Al. Overall, our results offer a proof-of-principle validation of a complementary personal shielding strategy in emergency situations in case of a SPE event. Such results pave the way for the design and realization of a prototype of a water-filled garment to be tested on board the International Space Station for wearability. A successful outcome will possibly lead to the further refining of the design of radiation protection spacesuits and their possible adoption in future long duration manned missions in deep space.

      PubDate: 2017-08-10T22:31:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.08.003
  • T cell resistance to activation by dendritic cells requires long-term
           culture in simulated microgravity
    • Authors: Jillian H. Bradley; Rachel Stein; Brad Randolph; Emily Molina; Jennifer P. Arnold; Randal K. Gregg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): Jillian H. Bradley, Rachel Stein, Brad Randolph, Emily Molina, Jennifer P. Arnold, Randal K. Gregg
      Immune impairment mediated by microgravity threatens the success of space exploration requiring long-duration spaceflight. The cells of most concern, T lymphocytes, coordinate the host response against microbial and cancerous challenges leading to elimination and long-term protection. T cells are activated upon recognition of specific microbial peptides bound on the surface of antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DC). Subsequently, this engagement results in T cell proliferation and differentiation into effector T cells driven by autocrine interleukin-2 (IL-2) and other cytokines. Finally, the effector T cells acquire the weaponry needed to destroy microbial invaders and tumors. Studies conducted on T cells during spaceflight, or using Earth-based culture systems, have shown reduced production of cytokines, proliferation and effector functions as compared to controls. This may account for the cases of viral reactivation events and opportunistic infections associated with astronauts of numerous missions. This work has largely been based upon the outcome of T cell activation by stimulatory factors that target select T cell signaling pathways rather than the complex, signaling events related to the natural process of antigen presentation by DC. This study tested the response of an ovalbumin peptide-specific T cell line, OT-II TCH, to activation by DC when the T cells were cultured 24-120 h in a simulated microgravity (SMG) environment generated by a rotary cell culture system. Following 72 h culture of T cells in SMG (SMG-T) or control static (Static-T) conditions, IL-2 production by the T cells was reduced in SMG-T cells compared to Static-T cells upon stimulation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin. However, when the SMG-T cells were stimulated with DC and peptide, IL-2 was significantly increased compared to Static-T cells. Such enhanced IL-2 production by SMG-T cells peaked at 72 h SMG culture time and decreased thereafter. When activation of SMG-T cells occurred in SMG, the T cells produced less IL-2 than control T cell cultures upon incubation with PMA and ionomycin. Short-term (24 h) SMG culture and activation of T cells by DC resulted in enhanced IL-2 production compared to Static-T cells, however, when culture was extended to 120 h, SMG-T cells secreted significantly less IL-2 than Static-T cells. SMG-T cell IL-2 doubled upon stimulation of the DC prior to addition to the T cell culture but remained less than control. SMG-T cell resistance to activation appeared comparable to the phenomenon of T cell exhaustion observed in patients with chronic diseases or persistent tumors. That is, long-term culture of T cells in SMG resulted in increased expression of the inhibitory receptor, CTLA-4. Blockade of CTLA-4 interaction with DC ligands resulted in improved T cell IL-2 production. Overall, this is the first study to determine the efficacy of DC in activating peptide-specific T cells. Furthermore, the findings suggests that countermeasures to restore T cell responsiveness in astronauts during long-term spaceflight or those living in microgravity environments should target possible inhibitory pathways that arise on activated T cells following stimulation.

      PubDate: 2017-08-10T22:31:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.08.002
  • Modifiers of Radiation Effects in the Eye
    • Authors: Norman J. Kleiman; Fiona A. Stewart; Eric J. Hall
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): Norman J. Kleiman, Fiona A. Stewart, Eric J. Hall
      World events, including the threat of radiological terrorism and the fear of nuclear accidents, have highlighted an urgent need to develop medical countermeasures to prevent or reduce radiation injury. Similarly, plans for manned spaceflight to a near-Earth asteroid or journey to Mars raise serious concerns about long-term effects of space radiation on human health and the availability of suitable therapeutic interventions. At the same time, the need to protect normal tissue from the deleterious effects of radiotherapy has driven considerable research into the design of effective radioprotectors. For more than 70 years, animal models of radiation cataract have been utilized to test the short and long-term efficacy of various radiation countermeasures. While some compounds, most notably the Walter Reed (WR) class of radioprotectors, have reported limited effectiveness when given before exposure to low-LET radiation, the human toxicity of these molecules at effective doses limits their usefulness. Furthermore, while there has been considerable testing of eye responses to X- and gamma irradiation, there is limited information about using such models to limit the injurious effects of heavy ions and neutrons on eye tissue. A new class of radioprotector molecules, including the sulfhydryl compound PrC-210, are reported to be effective at much lower doses and with far less side effects. Their ability to modify ocular radiation damage has not yet been examined. The ability to non-invasively measure sensitive, radiation-induced ocular changes over long periods of time makes eye models an attractive option to test the radioprotective and radiation mitigating abilities of new novel compounds.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T09:04:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.07.005
  • Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD) Modeling
           Workshop Proceedings
    • Authors: Donald M. Hassler; John W. Norbury; Günther Reitz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): Donald M. Hassler, John W. Norbury, Günther Reitz

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T09:04:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.06.004
  • Simulation of the GCR spectrum in the Mars curiosity rover's RAD detector
           using MCNP6
    • Authors: Hunter N. Ratliff; Michael B.R. Smith; Lawrence Heilbronn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): Hunter N. Ratliff, Michael B.R. Smith, Lawrence Heilbronn
      The paper presents results from MCNP6 simulations of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) propagation down through the Martian atmosphere to the surface and comparison with RAD measurements made there. This effort is part of a collaborative modeling workshop for space radiation hosted by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). All modeling teams were tasked with simulating the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) spectrum through the Martian atmosphere and the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on-board the Curiosity rover. The detector had two separate particle acceptance angles, 4π and 30 ° off zenith. All ions with Z = 1 through Z = 28 were tracked in both scenarios while some additional secondary particles were only tracked in the 4π cases. The MCNP6 4π absorbed dose rate was 307.3 ± 1.3 µGy/day while RAD measured 233 µGy/day. Using the ICRP-60 dose equivalent conversion factors built into MCNP6, the simulated 4π dose equivalent rate was found to be 473.1 ± 2.4 µSv/day while RAD reported 710 µSv/day.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T07:20:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.07.003
  • IFC - Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 13

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T14:08:27Z
  • Payload hardware and experimental protocol development to enable future
           testing of the effect of space microgravity on the resistance to
    • Authors: AC Matin; J-H Wang; Mimi Keyhan; Rachna Singh; Michael Benoit; Macarena P. Parra; Michael R. Padgen; Antonio J. Ricco; Matthew Chin; Charlie R. Friedericks; Tori N. Chinn; Aaron Cohen; Michael B. Henschke; Timothy V. Snyder; Matthew P. Lera; Shannon S. Ross; Christina M. Mayberry; Sungshin Choi; Diana T. Wu; Ming X. Tan; Travis D. Boone; Christopher C. Beasley; Stevan M. Spremo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): AC Matin, J-H Wang, Mimi Keyhan, Rachna Singh, Michael Benoit, Macarena P. Parra, Michael R. Padgen, Antonio J. Ricco, Matthew Chin, Charlie R. Friedericks, Tori N. Chinn, Aaron Cohen, Michael B. Henschke, Timothy V. Snyder, Matthew P. Lera, Shannon S. Ross, Christina M. Mayberry, Sungshin Choi, Diana T. Wu, Ming X. Tan, Travis D. Boone, Christopher C. Beasley, Stevan M. Spremo
      Human immune response is compromised and bacteria can become more antibiotic resistant in space microgravity (MG). We report that under low-shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG), stationary-phase uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) become more resistant to gentamicin (Gm), and that this increase is dependent on the presence of σs (a transcription regulator encoded by the rpoS gene). UPEC causes urinary tract infections (UTIs), reported to afflict astronauts; Gm is a standard treatment, so these findings could impact astronaut health. Because LSMMG findings can differ from MG, we report preparations to examine UPEC's Gm sensitivity during spaceflight using the E. coli Anti-Microbial Satellite (EcAMSat) on a free-flying “nanosatellite” in low Earth orbit. Within EcAMSat's payload, a 48-microwell fluidic card contains and supports study of bacterial cultures at constant temperature; optical absorbance changes in cell suspensions were made at three wavelengths for each microwell and a fluid-delivery system provided growth medium and predefined Gm concentrations. Performance characterization is reported here for spaceflight prototypes of this payload system. Using conventional microtiter plates, we show that Alamar Blue (AB) absorbance changes can assess the Gm effect on E. coli viability, permitting telemetric transfer of the spaceflight data to Earth. Laboratory results using payload prototypes are consistent with wellplate and flask findings of differential sensitivity of UPEC and its ∆rpoS strain to Gm. if σs plays the same role in space MG as in LSMMG and Earth gravity, countermeasures discovered in recent Earth studies (aimed at weakening the UPEC antioxidant defense) to control UPEC infections would prove useful also in space flights. Further, EcAMSat results should clarify inconsistencies from previous space experiments on bacterial antibiotic sensitivity and other issues.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T11:27:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.05.001
  • Comparing HZETRN, SHIELD, FLUKA and GEANT Transport Codes
    • Authors: John W. Norbury; Tony C. Slaba; Nikolai Sobolevsky; Brandon Reddell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): John W. Norbury, Tony C. Slaba, Nikolai Sobolevsky, Brandon Reddell
      For the first time, the American (NASA) and Russian (ROSCOSMOS) space radiation transport codes, HZETRN and SHIELD respectively, are directly compared to each other. Calculations are presented for Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) minimum Hydrogen, Oxygen and Iron projectiles incident on a uniform Aluminum cylinder of varying thickness. Comparisons are made for the flux spectra of neutrons, light ions (Z≤ 2), heavy ions (Z> 2) and pions emitted from the back of the Aluminum cylinder. In order to provide more benchmark comparisons, some calculations with the GEANT and FLUKA transport codes are also shown.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T13:36:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.04.001
  • BION-M1: First Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring in Mice during a
           30-day Spaceflight
    • Authors: Alexander Andreev-Andrievskiy; Anfisa Popova; Jean-Christophe Lloret; Patrick Aubry; Anatoliy Borovik; Daria Tsvirkun; Olga Vinogradova; Eugeniy Ilyin; Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch; Claude Gharib; Marc-Antoine Custaud
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): Alexander Andreev-Andrievskiy, Anfisa Popova, Jean-Christophe Lloret, Patrick Aubry, Anatoliy Borovik, Daria Tsvirkun, Olga Vinogradova, Eugeniy Ilyin, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Claude Gharib, Marc-Antoine Custaud
      Animals are an essential component of space exploration and have been used to demonstrate that weightlessness does not disrupt essential physiological functions. They can also contribute to space research as models of weightlessness-induced changes in humans. Animal research was an integral component of the 30-day automated Russian biosatellite Bion-M1 space mission. The aim of the hemodynamic experiment was to estimate cardiovascular function in mice, a species roughly 3000 times smaller than humans, during prolonged spaceflight and post-flight recovery, particularly, to investigate if mice display signs of cardiovascular deconditioning. For the first time, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were continuously monitored using implantable telemetry during spaceflight and recovery. Decreased HR and unchanged BP were observed during launch, whereas both HR and BP dropped dramatically during descent. During spaceflight, BP did not change from pre-flight values. However, HR increased, particularly during periods of activity. HR remained elevated after spaceflight and was accompanied by increased levels of exercise-induced tachycardia. Loss of three of the five mice during the flight as a result of the hardware malfunction (unrelated to the telemetry system) and thus the limited sample number constitute the major limitation of the study. For the first time BP and HR were continuously monitored in mice during the 30-day spaceflight and 7-days of post-flight recovery. Cardiovascular deconditioning in these tiny quadruped mammals was reminiscent of that in humans. Therefore, the loss of hydrostatic pressure in space, which is thought to be the initiating event for human cardiovascular adaptation in microgravity, might be of less importance than other physiological mechanisms. Further experiments with larger number of mice are needed to confirm these findings.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T16:28:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.03.002
  • Evaluation of HZETRN on the Martian Surface: Sensitivity tests and model
    • Authors: Tony C. Slaba; Nicholas N. Stoffle
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): Tony C. Slaba, Nicholas N. Stoffle
      The Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSLRAD) is providing continuous measurements of dose, dose equivalent, and particle flux on the surface of Mars. These measurements have been highly useful in validating environmental and radiation transport models that will be heavily relied upon for future deep space missions. In this work, the HZETRN code is utilized to estimate radiation quantities of interest on the Martian surface. A description of the modeling approach used with HZETRN is given along with the various input models and parameters used to define the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment and Martian geometry. Sensitivity tests are performed to gauge the impact of varying several input factors on quantities being compared to MSLRAD data. Results from these tests provide context for inter-code comparisons presented in a companion paper within this issue. It is found that details of the regolith and atmospheric composition have a minimal impact on surface flux, dose, and dose equivalent. Details of the density variation within the atmosphere and uncertainties associated with specifying the vertical atmospheric thickness are also found to have minimal impact. Two widely used GCR models are used as input into HZETRN and it is found that the associated surface quantities are within several percent of each other.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T14:58:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.03.001
  • Long term stability of Oligo (dT) 25 magnetic beads for the expression
           analysis of Euglena gracilis for long term space projects
    • Authors: Ina Becker; Sebastian M. Strauch; Jens Hauslage; Michael Lebert
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Life Sciences in Space Research
      Author(s): Ina Becker, Sebastian M. Strauch, Jens Hauslage, Michael Lebert
      The unicellular freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis has a highly developed sensory system. The cells use different stimuli such as light and gravity to orient themselves in the surrounding medium to find areas for optimal growth. Due to the ability to produce oxygen and consume carbon dioxide, Euglena is a suitable candidate for life support systems. Participation in a long-term space experiment would allow for the analysis of changes and adaptations to the new environment, and this could bring new insights into the mechanism of perception of gravity and the associated signal transduction chain. For a molecular analysis of transcription patterns, an automated system is necessary, capable of performing all steps from taking a sample, processing it and generating data. One of the developmental steps is to find long-term stable reagents and materials and test them for stability at higher-than-recommended temperature conditions during extended storage time. We investigated the usability of magnetic beads in an Euglena specific lysis buffer after addition of the RNA stabilizer Dithiothreitol over 360 days and the lysis buffer with the stabilizer alone over 455 days at the expected storage temperature of 19°C. We can claim that the stability is not impaired at all after an incubation period of over one year. This might be an interesting result for researchers who have to work under non-standard lab conditions, as in biological or medicinal fieldwork.

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T04:19:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2017.02.001
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