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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3163 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3163 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 95, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 414, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 398, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 344, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 452, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 197, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Life Sciences in Space Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.671
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2214-5524
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • Genetic Variation and Radiation Quality Impact Cancer Promoting Cellular
           Phenotypes in Response to HZE exposure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Deepa M. Sridharan, Shiena Enerio, Chris Wang, Mark A. LaBarge, Martha R. Stampfer, Janice M. Pluth There exists a wide degree of genetic variation within the normal human population which includes disease free individuals with heterozygote defects in major DNA repair genes. A lack of understanding of how this genetic variation impacts cellular phenotypes that inform cancer risk post heavy ion exposure poses a major limitation in developing personalized cancer risk assessment astronauts. We initiated a pilot study with Human Mammary Epithelial Cell strains (HMEC) derived from wild type, a p16 silenced derivative of wild type, and various genetic variants that were heterozygote for DNA repair genes; BRCA1, BRCA2 and ATM. Cells strains were exposed to different high and low LET radiation qualities to generate both simple and complex lesions and centrosome aberrations were examined as a surrogate marker of genomic instability and cancer susceptibility post different exposures. Our results indicate that centrosome aberration frequency is higher in the genetic variants under study. The aberration frequency increases with dose, complexity of the lesion generated by different radiation qualities and age of the individual. This increase in genomic instability correlates with elevated check-point activation post radiation exposure. These studies suggest that the influence of individual genetics on cell cycle regulation could modify the degree of early genomic instability in response to complex lesions and potentially define cancer predisposition in response to HZE exposure. These results will have significant implications in estimating cancer susceptibility in genetically variant individuals exposed to HZE particles.
       
  • Dose calculations in a cell monolayer for high-throughput irradiation with
           proton beams generated by PW lasers for space applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Mariana Bobeica, Sohichiroh Aogaki, Theodor Asavei, Mihail O. Cernaianu, Petru Ghenuche, Dan Stutman One of the specific properties of laser-driven radiation is a broadband energy spectrum, which is also a feature of the space radiation fields. This property can be used in materials science studies or radiobiology experiments to simulate the energy spectrum of space radiation exposures in a ground-based laboratory. However, the differences in effects between the higher dose rates of laser generated radiation and the lower dose rates of space radiation have to be investigated in separate, prior studies. A design for a high-throughput irradiation experiment and the associated Monte Carlo dose calculations for a broadband energy proton beam depositing energy in a cell monolayer is presented. Dose control and dose uniformity in the cell monolayer was achieved in the simulations using a variable thickness Ni attenuator. A set of target doses from 0.2 Gy to 4 Gy was obtained and dose uniformity was optimized to less than 4% variability. This work opens the possibility of single or multiple exposures, controllable, high-throughput irradiation experiments on biological samples or materials, using broadband energy particle beams generated by lasers, with relevance for space applications.
       
  • A Small Test Closed Ecosystem with An Estimated Portion of Human
           Metabolism
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Alexander A. Tikhomirov, Sofya A. Ushakova, Vladimir V. Velichko, Sergey V. Trifonov, Natalia A. Tikhomirova, Galina S. Kalacheva The study describes a small test closed ecosystem used to test technologies to be further employed in full-scale manned closed ecosystems. The test ecosystem is designed to use a certain portion of human metabolism, which is included in the gas, water, and organic waste loops of the system. In this small test closed ecosystem, gas and water loops are fully closed, and the model enables processing of human waste and plant inedible biomass. A physicochemical method is used to remove pollutants from the air in the system. A human takes part in the gas exchange of the system through its respiration loop. This small test closed ecosystem can be used for testing and improving new technologies to be further used in the future space stations.
       
  • LED lighting optimization as applied to a vitamin space plant growth
           facility
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Yu.A. Berkovich, I.O. Konovalova, A.N. Erokhin, S.O. Smolyanina, V.G. Smolyanin, O.S. Yakovleva, I.G. Tarakanov, T.M. Ivanov An algorithm of determining optimal LED lighting parameters for leafy crops (Chinese cabbage Brassica chinensis L. was taken as a model) in a vitamin space Plant Growth Facility is proposed. The lighting parameters to optimize were the level of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), red and white LEDs PPFD ratio and pulse repetition period with a fixed pulse length 30 µs. Optimal lighting parameters should allow achieving a high biomass yield per consumed light energy, as well as high vitamin C content in the crop biomass. A quantitative optimality criterion for estimating the lighting parameters quality is suggested. For Chinese cabbage crop the maximum value of this criterion was obtained at the following lighting conditions parameters: PPFD – 500 μmol m −2 s −1, red/white ratio – 1.5, and pulse repetition period – 501 µs.
       
  • A Strategic Approach for Investigating Light Recipes for ‘Outredgeous’
           Red Romaine Lettuce Using White and Monochromatic LEDs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): M.A. Mickens, E.J. Skoog, L.E. Reese, P.L. Barnwell, L.E. Spencer, G.D. Massa, R.M. Wheeler To optimize crop production/quality in space, we studied various “light recipes” that could be used in the Advanced Plant Habitat currently aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. ‘Outredgeous’) plants were grown for 28 days under seven treatments of White (W) LEDs (control), red (635 nm) and blue (460 nm) (RB) LEDs, W + blue (B) LEDs, W + green (520 nm) (G) LEDs, W + red (R) LEDs, W + far red (745 nm) (FR) LEDs, and RGB+FR LEDs with ratios similar to natural sunlight. Total PAR was maintained near 180 µmol•m−2•s−1 with an 18 h photoperiod. Lettuce grown under RGB+FR produced the greatest leaf expansion and overall shoot biomass, while leaves from WB and RB showed the highest levels of pigmentation, secondary metabolites, and elemental nutrients. All other supplemental treatments had varying impacts on morphology that were dependent on crop age. The WG treatment increased fresh mass early in the cycle, while WR increased biomass later in the cycle. The plants grown under WFR exhibited elongation of petioles, lower nutrient content, and similar shoot biomass to the W control. The findings suggest that supplementing a broad spectrum, white light background with discrete wavelengths can be used to manipulate total yield, morphology, and levels of phytonutrients in lettuce at various times during the crop cycle.
       
  • Response to Commentary on “Irradiation effects of MeV protons on dry and
           hydrated Brassica rapa seeds” by Bevelacqua et al.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Naresh T. Deoli, Karl H. Hasenstein
       
  • Comments on “Irradiation effects of MeV protons on dry and hydrated
           Brassica rapa seeds”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): J.J. Bevelacqua, S.M.J. Mortazavi
       
  • Reduction of Geomagnetic Field (GMF) to Near Null Magnetic Field (NNMF)
           Affects Arabidopsis thaliana Root Mineral Nutrition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Ravishankar Narayana, Judith Fliegmann, Ivan Paponov, Massimo E. Maffei The Earth magnetic field (or geomagnetic field, GMF) is a natural component of our planet and variations of the GMF are perceived by plants with a still uncharacterized magnetoreceptor. The purpose of this work was to assess the effect of Near Null Magnetic Field (NNMF, ∼35 μT) on Arabidopsis thaliana Col0 root ion modulation. A time-course (from 10 min to 96 h) exposure of Arabidopsis to NNMF was compared to GMF and the content of some cations (NH4+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) and anions (Cl−, SO4=, NO3− and PO4=) was evaluated by capillary electrophoresis. The expression of several cation and anion channel- and transporter-related genes was assessed by gene microarray. A few minutes after exposure to NNMF, Arabidopsis roots responded with a significant change in the content and gene expression of all nutrient ions under study, indicating the presence of a plant magnetoreceptor that responds immediately to MF variations by modulating channels, transporters and genes involved in mineral nutrition. The response of Arabidopsis to reduced MF was a general reduction of plant ion uptake and transport. Our data suggest the importance to understand the nature and function of the plant magnetoreceptor for future space programs involving plant growth in environments with a reduced MF.
       
  • Irradiation effects of MeV protons on dry and hydrated Brassica
           rapa
    seeds
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Naresh T. Deoli, Karl H. HasensteinABSTRACTAlthough space radiation is a known risk for space travel and eventual colonization of Moon or Mars, relatively few data exist on radiation effects on potential crop plants. We studied Brassica rapa to assess the tolerance of seeds and seedlings to radiation by exposing dry and hydrated B. rapa seeds to 1, 2 and 3 MeV proton ions of various fluences and examined the effect on germination and root growth. Modeling penetration depth with SRIM code indicated that the applied energy was insufficient to penetrate the seeds; therefore, all energy was deposited into the tissue. Subsequent germination varied based on the incident ion energy and fluence (dose). Dry and hydrated seeds germinate after ion fluence (1013 ions cm−2) irradiation, but the germination percentage decreased with increasing fluence for ions that could penetrate the seed coat (> 1 MeV). Despite their greater volume and mass, hydrated seeds were more sensitive to irradiation than dry seeds. Damage of the seed coat after irradiation led to faster germination and initial seedling growth. Our results suggest that the seed coat represents a valuable natural radiation protection and that low energy protons, the prevailing solar radiation, are suitable for studying radiation effects in seeds and plants.
       
  • Proton radiation-induced cancer progression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Krishna Luitel, Ronald Bozeman, Aadil Kaisani, Sang Bum Kim, Summer Barron, James A. Richardson, Jerry W. Shay There are considerable health risks related to ionizing and proton radiation exposure. While there is a long history of health risks associated with ionizing (photon) radiation exposure, there is a limited understanding of the long-term health risks associated with proton radiation exposure. Since proton radiation is becoming more common in cancer therapy, the long-term biological effects of proton radiation remain less well characterized in terms of radiotherapy and well as for astronauts during deep space explorations. In this study, we compared the long-term side effects of proton radiation to equivalent doses of X-rays in the initiation and progression of premalignant lesions in a lung cancer susceptible mouse model (K-rasLA1). We show proton irradiation causes more complex DNA damage that is not completely repaired resulting in increased oxidative stress in the lungs both acutely and persistently. We further observed K-rasLA1 mice irradiated with protons had an increased number and size of initiated and premalignant lesions and adenomas that were often infiltrated with inflammatory cells. Proton irradiated mice had a lower median survival and increased carcinoma incidence as compared to unirradiated controls and X-rays exposed mice. Our conclusion is that exposure to proton irradiation enhances the progression of premalignant lesions to invasive carcinomas through persistent DNA damage, chronic oxidative stress, and immunosuppression.
       
  • Tardigrade Indexing approach on exoplanets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Madhu Kashyap Jagadeesh, Milena Roszkowska, Łukasz Kaczmarek Finding life on other worlds is a fascinating area of astrobiology and planetary sciences. Presently, over 3800 exoplanets, representing a very wide range of physical and chemical environments, are known. Scientists are not only looking for traces of life outside Earth, but they are also trying to find out which of Earth's known organisms (ex: tardigrades (water bears)) would be able to survive on other planets. In our study, we have established a metric tool for distinguishing the potential survivability of active and cryptobiotic tardigrades on rocky-water and water-gas planets in our solar system and exoplanets, taking into consideration the geometrical means of six physical parameters such as radius, density, escape velocity, revolution period, surface temperature, and surface pressure of the considered planets. More than 3800 exoplanets are available as the main sample from Planetary Habitable Laboratory – Exoplanet Catalog (PHL-EC), from which we have chosen 57 exoplanets in our study including Earth and Mars, with water composition as reference. The Active Tardigrade Index (ATI) and Cryptobiotic Tardigrade Index (CTI) are two metric indices with minimum value 0 (= tardigrades cannot survive) and maximum 1 (= tardigrades will survive in their respective state). Values between 0 and 1 indicate a percentage chance of the active or cryptobiotic tardigrades surviving on a given exoplanet. Among known planets some of the exoplanets are tabulated as ATI and CTI indices for sample representation like: Kepler-100d, Kepler-48d, Kepler-289b, TRAPPIST-1 f and Kepler-106e. The results with Mars as the threshold indicates that Mars could be the only rock-water composition planet that could be more suitable for tardigrades than other considered exoplanets.
       
  • 42nd COSPAR Assembly
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 18Author(s):
       
  • IFC - Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 18Author(s):
       
  • Comparison of space radiation GCR models to recent AMS data
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 18Author(s): John W. Norbury, Kathryn Whitman, Kerry Lee, Tony C. Slaba, Francis F. Badavi This paper is the third in a series of comparisons of American (NASA) and Russian (ROSCOSMOS) space radiation calculations. The present work focuses on calculation of fluxes of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which are a constant source of radiation that constitutes one of the major hazards during deep space exploration missions for both astronauts/cosmonauts and hardware. In this work, commonly used GCR models are compared with recently published measurements of cosmic ray Hydrogen, Helium, and the Boron-to-Carbon ratio from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS). All of the models were developed and calibrated prior to the publication of the AMS data; therefore this an opportunity to validate the models against an independent data set.
       
  • A water-filled garment to protect astronauts during interplanetary
           missions tested on board the ISS
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 18Author(s): G. Baiocco, M. Giraudo, L. Bocchini, S. Barbieri, I. Locantore, E. Brussolo, D. Giacosa, L. Meucci, S. Steffenino, A. Ballario, B. Barresi, R. Barresi, M. Benassai, L. Ravagnolo, L. Narici, A. Rizzo, E. Carrubba, F. Carubia, G. Neri, M. Crisconio As manned spaceflights beyond low Earth orbit are in the agenda of Space Agencies, the concerns related to space radiation exposure of the crew are still without conclusive solutions. The risk of long-term detrimental health effects needs to be kept below acceptable limits, and emergency countermeasures must be planned to avoid the short-term consequences of exposure to high particle fluxes during hardly predictable solar events. Space habitat shielding cannot be the ultimate solution: the increasing complexity of future missions will require astronauts to protect themselves in low-shielded areas, e.g. during emergency operations. Personal radiation shielding is promising, particularly if using available resources for multi-functional shielding devices. In this work we report on all steps from the conception, design, manufacturing, to the final test on board the International Space Station (ISS) of the first prototype of a water-filled garment for emergency radiation shielding against solar particle events. The garment has a good shielding potential and comfort level. On-board water is used for filling and then recycled without waste. The successful outcome of this experiment represents an important breakthrough in space radiation shielding, opening to the development of similarly conceived devices and their use in interplanetary missions as the one to Mars.
       
  • Feasibility of incorporating all products of human waste processing into
           material cycling in the BTLSS
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 18Author(s): Ye.A. Morozov, S.V. Trifonov, S.A. Ushakova, O.V. Anishchenko, A.A. Tikhomirov The present study addresses the ways to increase the closure of biotechnical life support systems (BTLSS) for space applications. A promising method of organic waste processing based on “wet combustion” in hydrogen peroxide developed at the IBP SB RAS to produce fertilizers for higher plants is discussed. The method is relatively compact, energy efficient, productive, and eco-friendly. However, about 4–6 g/L of recalcitrant sediment containing such essential nutrients as Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn precipitates after the initial process. These elements are unavailable to plants grown hydroponically and, thus, drop out of the cycling as dead-end products. Possible methods of dissolving that sediment have been studied. Results of experiments show that the most promising method is additional oxidation of the sediment in HNO3 + H2O2. By using the new technological process, which only involves substances synthesized inside the BTLSS material flows, more than 90% of each nutrient can be converted into the form available to plants in irrigation solutions, thus returning them into the material cycling. The results obtained in this study show the efficacy of supplementing the irrigation solutions with the mineral nutrients after sediment dissolution. Lettuce plants grown as the test object on the newly prepared irrigation solutions produced the yield that was more than twice higher than the yield produced on the nutrient solutions prepared without the sediment conversion into a soluble form. Composition of the gases emitted during this process has been analyzed. Dynamics of oxidation of the small fractions of a wax-like sediment remaining after the initial sediment dissolution in HNO3 + H2O2 in the BTLSS soil-like substrate has been studied. The entire technological scheme aimed at the full inclusion of all human wastes into the BTLSS cycling has been suggested and discussed. A process scheme of including products of human waste processing in the biotic cycle of the BTLSS is discussed in the conclusion.
       
  • The influence of nitrogen concentration and precipitation on fertilizer
           production from urine using a trickling filter
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 18Author(s): Gerhild Bornemann, Kai Waßer, Jens Hauslage Planetary habitation requires technology to maintain natural microbial processes, which make nutrients from biowaste available for plant cultivation. This study describes a 646 day experiment, in which trickling filters were monitored for their ability to mineralize nitrogen when loaded with artificial urine solutions of different concentrations (40, 60, 80 and 100% v/v). Former studies have indicated that increasing urine concentrations slow nitrogen conversion rates and induce growing instability. In the current experiment, nitrogen conversion rates, measured as nitrate production/day, did not differ between concentration levels and increasing instability was not observed. Instead, the buffering capacity of the mussel shells added as buffer system (∼75% calcium carbonate) increased with increasing concentrations of synthetic urine possibly due to the higher phosphate content. The intensified precipitation of calcium phosphates seems to promote carbonate dissolution leading to improved buffering. For space applications, the precipitation of calcium phosphates is not desirable as for the phosphate to be available to the plants the precipitate must be treated with hazardous substances. With regard to terrestrial agriculture the process-integrated phosphate precipitation is a possibility to separate the macronutrients nitrogen and phosphate without addition of other chemicals. Thus, the described process offers a simple and cost-effective approach to fertilizer production from biogenic residues like slurry.
       
  • The effect of competing risks on astronaut and cosmonaut mortality
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 18Author(s): Robert J. Reynolds, Steven M. Day Astronauts and cosmonauts have been reported to be at substantially lower age-specific risk of death from chronic disease (primarily heart disease and cancers) in comparison to the general populations of the United States and Russia, respectively. Yet, both groups have been at greater age-specific risk of death from external causes, mainly due to plane crashes and spacecraft accidents. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the reported reductions in mortality from natural causes result, to some degree, from survival bias created by early deaths from external causes.Statistical comparisons of baseline characteristics between cause-of-death groups showed no significant differences. Cause-specific survival curves showed no difference in long-term mortality from external causes among either astronauts or cosmonauts compared to Kaplan-Meier curves with censoring for competing causes. Cause-specific survival curves for natural causes suggested a possible upward bias in mortality estimates published thus far for both groups of space explorers. Differences in survival between Kaplan-Meier curves and the cause-specific survival curves were 7% and 5% for astronauts and cosmonauts respectively after 55 years.The data do not support the hypothesis that observed reductions in mortality from natural causes are due in whole or in part to bias created by deaths from external causes at young ages. The data imply that reports of cause-specific mortality for astronauts and cosmonauts may in fact systematically overestimate mortality rates, though these findings should be interpreted with caution as the data are thin at the extremes of follow-up time.
       
  • Attachment of Turner's thick-toed geckos (Chondrodactylus turneri GRAY
           1864) during weightlessness and their responses to flotation
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 18Author(s): V.M. Barabanov, V.I. Gulimova, R.K. Berdiev, S.V. Saveliev We investigated the behavior of 15 female Turner's thick-toed geckos (Chondrodactylus turneri GRAY 1864) during a 30-day orbital experiment on the unmanned spacecraft “BION-M” No. 1. During weightlessness, the geckos maintained their ability to attach to the surfaces using the subdigital pads on their toes. On average, the geckos spent 99.9% of the time adhering to surfaces during the flight and only 0.1% floating freely. The active geckos, when starting to float, immediately restored attachment by a number of behavioral responses. The floating quiescent geckos, when resuming their active condition, responded in the same manner. The responses during flotation are similar to the behavioral reflexes triggered by a fall under normal gravity; i.e.: 1) the ventral extension of the limbs, 2) a skydiving posture, and 3) postural righting reflexes. Ventral extension of limbs was described for the first time in weightlessness. Individual variability in the frequency of flotations was found for both active and quiescent geckos during the flight. The findings show that the ability to attach to surfaces is an important factor in the geckos' adaptation to weightlessness. The behavioral responses that originated during freefall in conditions on Earth (one-G) appear as adaptations to weightlessness and remain partially effective.
       
  • Spatial resolution requirements for active radiation detectors used beyond
           low earth orbit
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 18Author(s): Rafe A. McBeth, Thomas B. Borak Measurements of the incident fluence of HZE particles, as a function of LET, are used to determine absorbed dose as well as Quality Factors for assigning risk estimates to astronauts during manned space missions. These data are often based on thin solid state detectors that measure energy deposition, dE, and the assumption that the trajectory of the particle, dx, is equivalent to the thickness of the detector. Heavy ions often fragment while penetrating shielding materials in vehicles or habitats. Projectile fragments can be clustered spatially and temporally at the location of the thin detector which are then misclassified as a single particle. Eliminating the confounding effects of coincident events is the first step in extending the reach of flight instruments to identify the charge and velocity of individual particles. Identification of individual particles, in a fragmentation spectrum, will require that detection systems have sufficient segmentation to eliminate coincident events. The objective of this study was to reduce coincident events while avoiding over-design and complexity.Monte Carlo simulations, using Geant4, were performed for 4He, 12C, 28Si and 56Fe ions at energies of 300, 900 and 2400 MeV/n incident upon aluminum shields having areal densities of 5.4, 13.5, and 54 g/cm2. The identity, energy and spatial distribution of all particles downstream from the shielding were analyzed using a novel approach based on proximity distributions. Results indicated that pixel dimensions on the order of 1 mm were sufficient to reduce errors caused by coincident events for active space radiation detectors.
       
  • Sequencing Nothing: Exploring Failure Modes of Nanopore Sensing and
           Implications for Life Detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Alexandra Pontefract, Julie Hachey, Maria T. Zuber, Gary Ruvkun, Christopher E. Carr The detection of extant life is a major focus of many planned future planetary missions, a current challenge of which is the ability to target biomarkers capable of providing unambiguous evidence of life. DNA sequencing is increasingly recognized as a powerful tool for life detection for planetary exploration missions; beyond use of sequence information to determine the origins of the sample (e.g., extant life or forward contamination), recent advances in the field have enabled interrogation of single molecules, with or without amplification. The focus of this work is on failure modes, specifically the issues encountered when there is no-to-low input DNA into a sequencing device, and the potential for the generation of sequencing artifacts that could be interpreted as a false positive. Using Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) MinION, we assess whether single molecule sequencing, involving no amplification, generates noise signals that could be misinterpreted in the context of a planetary exploration mission, and also whether the ability of the instrument to handle these types of situations could make it feasible for clean room monitoring. Utilizing quality score filtering techniques in place at the time of this experiment, runs containing only initial flowcell chemistry and/or library reagents generated 5 passing reads out of a total of 3,568 measured reads, and contained estimated sequences with low complexity that did not map to the NCBI database. The noise characteristics in all instances suggest that quality thresholds were appropriately chosen by ONT: new chemistry and basecalling workflows have shown further suppression of noise sources, which completely mitigate the generation of spurious reads.
       
  • Late effects of 1H irradiation on hippocampal physiology
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 17Author(s): Frederico Kiffer, Alexis K. Howe, Hannah Carr, Jing Wang, Tyler Alexander, Julie E. Anderson, Thomas Groves, John W. Seawright, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Gwendolyn Carter, Marjan Boerma, Antiño R. Allen NASA’s Missions to Mars and beyond will expose flight crews to potentially dangerous levels of charged-particle radiation. Of all charged nuclei, 1H is the most abundant charged particle in both the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and solar particle event (SPE) spectra. There are currently no functional spacecraft shielding materials that are able to mitigate the charged-particle radiation encountered in space. Recent studies have demonstrated cognitive injuries due to high-dose 1H exposures in rodents. Our study investigated the effects of 1H irradiation on neuronal morphology in the hippocampus of adult male mice. 6-month-old mice received whole-body exposure to 1H at 0.5 and 1 Gy (150 MeV/n; 0.35–0.55 Gy/min) at NASA's Space Radiation Laboratory in Upton, NY. At 9-months post-irradiation, we tested each animal's open-field exploratory performance. After sacrifice, we dissected the brains along the midsagittal plane, and then either fixed or dissected further and snap-froze them. Our data showed that exposure to 0.5 Gy or 1 Gy 1H significantly increased animals’ anxiety behavior in open-field testing. Our micromorphometric analyses revealed significant decreases in mushroom spine density and dendrite morphology in the Dentate Gyrus, Cornu Ammonis 3 and 1 of the hippocampus, and lowered expression of synaptic markers. Our data suggest 1H radiation significantly increased exploration anxiety and modulated the dendritic spine and dendrite morphology of hippocampal neurons at a dose of 0.5 or 1 Gy.
       
  • Solar particle event storm shelter requirements for missions beyond low
           Earth orbit
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 17Author(s): L.W. Townsend, J.H. Adams, S.R. Blattnig, M.S. Clowdsley, D.J. Fry, I. Jun, C.D. McLeod, J.I. Minow, D.F. Moore, J.W. Norbury, R.B. Norman, D.V. Reames, N.A. Schwadron, E.J. Semones, R.C. Singleterry, T.C. Slaba, C.M. Werneth, M.A. XapsosABSTRACTProtecting spacecraft crews from energetic space radiations that pose both chronic and acute health risks is a critical issue for future missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Chronic health risks are possible from both galactic cosmic ray and solar energetic particle event (SPE) exposures. However, SPE exposures also can pose significant short term risks including, if dose levels are high enough, acute radiation syndrome effects that can be mission- or life-threatening. In order to address the reduction of short term risks to spaceflight crews from SPEs, we have developed recommendations to NASA for a design-standard SPE to be used as the basis for evaluating the adequacy of proposed radiation shelters for cislunar missions beyond LEO. Four SPE protection requirements for habitats are proposed: (1) a blood-forming-organ limit of 250 mGy-equivalent for the design SPE; (2) a design reference SPE environment equivalent to the sum of the proton spectra during the October 1989 event series; (3) any necessary assembly of the protection system must be completed within 30 min of event onset; and (4) space protection systems must be designed to ensure that astronaut radiation exposures follow the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle.
       
  • Persistent depletion of plasma gelsolin (pGSN) after exposure of mice to
           heavy silicon ions
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 17Author(s): Kanokporn Noy Rithidech, Paiboon Reungpatthanaphong, Montree Tungjai, Witawat Jangiam, Louise Honikel, Elbert B. Whorton Little is known about plasma proteins that can be used as biomarkers for early and late responses to radiation. The purpose of this study was to determine a link between depletion of plasma gelsolin (pGSN) and cell-death as well as inflammatory responses in the lung (one of the tissues known to be radiosensitive) of the same exposed CBA/CaJ mice after exposure to heavy silicon (28Si) ions. To prevent the development of multiple organ dysfunctions, pGSN (an important component of the extracellular actin-scavenging system) is responsible for the removal of actin that is released into the circulation during inflammation and from dying cells. We evaluated the levels of pGSN in plasma collected from groups of mice (5 mice in each) at 1 week (wk) and 1 month (1 mo) after exposure whole body to different doses of 28Si ions, i.e. 0, 0.1, 0.25, or 0.5 Gy (2 fractionated exposures, 15 days apart that totaled each selected dose). In the same mouse, the measurements of pGSN levels were coupled with the quantitation of injuries in the lung, determined by (a) the levels of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (cleaved-PARP), a marker of apoptotic cell-death, (b) the levels of activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and selected cytokines, i.e. tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and IL-6, from tissue-lysates of the lung. Further, the ratio of neutrophils and lymphocytes (N/L) was determined in the same mouse. Our data indicated: (i) the magnitude of pGSN depletion was dependent to radiation dose at both harvest times, (ii) a persistent depletion of pGSN up to 1 mo post-exposure to 0.25 or 0.5 Gy of 28Si ions, (iii) an inverse-correlation between pGSN depletion and increased levels of cleaved-PARP, including activated NF-κB/pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung, and (iv) at both harvest times, statistically significant increases in the N/L ratio in groups of mice exposed to 0.5 Gy only. Our findings suggested that depletion in pGSN levels reflects not only the responses to 28Si-ion exposure at both harvest times but also early and late-occurring damage.
       
  • Acute exposure to space flight results in evidence of reduced lymph
           Transport, tissue fluid Shifts, and immune alterations in the rat
           gastrointestinal system
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 17Author(s): W.E. Cromer, D.C. Zawieja Space flight causes a number of alterations in physiological systems, changes in the immunological status of subjects, and altered interactions of the host to environmental stimuli. We studied the effect of space flight on the lymphatic system of the gastrointestinal tract which is responsible for lipid transport and immune surveillance which includes the host interaction with the gut microbiome.We found that there were signs of tissue damage present in the space flown animals that was lacking in ground controls (epithelial damage, crypt morphological changes, etc.). Additionally, morphology of the lymphatic vessels in the tissue suggested a collapsed state at time of harvest and there was a profound change in the retention of lipid in the villi of the ileum. Contrary to our assumptions there was a reduction in tissue fluid volume likely associated with other fluid shifts described. The reduction of tissue fluid volume in the colon and ileum is a likely contributing factor to the state of the lymphatic vessels and lipid transport issues observed. There were also associated changes in the number of MHC-II+ immune cells in the colon tissue, which along with reduced lymphatic competence would favor immune dysfunction in the tissue.These findings help expand our understanding of the effects of space flight on various organ systems. It also points out potential issues that have not been closely examined and have to potential for the need of countermeasure development.
       
  • Early effects of 16O radiation on neuronal morphology and
           cognition in a murine model
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 17Author(s): Hannah Carr, Tyler C. Alexander, Thomas Groves, Frederico Kiffer, Jing Wang, Elvin Price, Marjan Boerma, Antiño R. Allen Astronauts exposed to high linear energy transfer radiation may experience cognitive injury. The pathogenesis of this injury is unknown but may involve glutamate receptors or modifications to dendritic structure and/or dendritic spine density and morphology. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, where it acts on ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors located at the presynaptic terminal and in the postsynaptic membrane at synapses in the hippocampus. Dendritic spines are sites of excitatory synaptic transmission, and changes in spine structure and dendrite morphology are thought to be morphological correlates of altered brain function associated with hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. The aim of the current study is to assess whether behavior, glutamate receptor gene expression, and dendritic structure in the hippocampus are altered in mice after early exposure to 16O radiation in mice. Two weeks post-irradiation, animals were tested for hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance in the Y-maze. During Y-maze testing, mice exposed to 0.1 Gy and 0.25 Gy radiation failed to distinguish the novel arm, spending approximately the same amount of time in all 3 arms during the retention trial. Exposure to 16O significantly reduced the expression of Nr1 and GluR1 in the hippocampus and modulated spine morphology in the dentate gyrus and cornu Ammon 1 within the hippocampus. The present data provide evidence that 16O radiation has early deleterious effects on mature neurons that are associated with hippocampal learning and memory.
       
  • A urine-fuelled soil-based bioregenerative life support system for
           long-term and long-distance manned space missions
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 17Author(s): Federico Maggi, Fiona H.M. Tang, Céline Pallud, Chuanhui Gu A soil-based cropping unit fuelled with human urine for long-term manned space missions was investigated with the aim to analyze whether a closed-loop nutrient cycle from human liquid wastes was achievable. Its ecohydrology and biogeochemistry were analysed in microgravity with the use of an advanced computational tool. Urine from the crew was used to supply primary (N, P, and K) and secondary (S, Ca and Mg) nutrients to wheat and soybean plants in the controlled cropping unit. Breakdown of urine compounds into primary and secondary nutrients as well as byproduct gases, adsorbed, and uptake fractions were tracked over a period of 20 years. Results suggested that human urine could satisfy the demand of at least 3 to 4 out of 6 nutrients with an offset in pH and salinity tolerable by plants. It was therefore inferred that a urine-fuelled life support system can introduce a number of advantages including: (1) recycling of liquids wastes and production of food; (2) forgiveness of neglect as compared to engineered electro-mechanical systems that may fail under unexpected or unplanned conditions; and (3) reduction of supply and waste loads during space missions.
       
  • If technological intelligent extraterrestrials exist, what biological
           traits are de rigueur
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 17Author(s): E.R. Taylor If extraterrestrials exist in the depths of cosmic space, and are capable of interstellar communications, even space flight, there is no requirement that they be humanoid in form. However, certain humanoid capabilities would be advantageous for tool fashioning and critical to operating space craft as well as functioning under the disparate extreme conditions under which they may be forced to operate. They would have to be “gas breathing”. The reasonable assumption that life based upon the same elements as Earth life requiring water stems from the unique properties of water that no other similar low molecular weight nonmetal hydride offers. Only water offers the diversity of chemical properties and reactivity, including the existence of the three common physical states within a limited temperature range of service to life, avoiding the issues presented by any alternatives. They must, like us, possess a large, abstract-thinking brain, and probably possess at least all the fundamental senses that humankind possess. They would also be carbon-based life, using oxygen as the electron sink of their biochemistry for the reasons considered. They most likely are homeothermic as us, though they may not necessarily be mammalian as we are. Their biochemistry could differ some from ours, perhaps presenting contact hazards for both species as discussed.
       
  • Biological filters and their use in potable water filtration systems in
           spaceflight conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 17Author(s): Starla G. Thornhill, Manish Kumar Providing drinking water to space missions such as the International Space Station (ISS) is a costly requirement for human habitation. To limit the costs of water transport, wastewater is collected and purified using a variety of physical and chemical means. To date, sand-based biofilters have been designed to function against gravity, and biofilms have been shown to form in microgravity conditions. Development of a universal silver-recycling biological filter system that is able to function in both microgravity and full gravity conditions would reduce the costs incurred in removing organic contaminants from wastewater by limiting the energy and chemical inputs required. This paper aims to propose the use of a sand-substrate biofilter to replace chemical means of water purification on manned spaceflights.
       
  • IFC - Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 17Author(s):
       
  • HZETRN radiation transport validation using balloon-based experimental
           data
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 17Author(s): James E. Warner, Ryan B. Norman, Steve R. Blattnig The deterministic radiation transport code HZETRN (High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport) was developed by NASA to study the effects of cosmic radiation on astronauts and instrumentation shielded by various materials. This work presents an analysis of computed differential flux from HZETRN compared with measurement data from three balloon-based experiments over a range of atmospheric depths, particle types, and energies. Model uncertainties were quantified using an interval-based validation metric that takes into account measurement uncertainty both in the flux and the energy at which it was measured. Average uncertainty metrics were computed for the entire dataset as well as subsets of the measurements (by experiment, particle type, energy, etc.) to reveal any specific trends of systematic over- or under-prediction by HZETRN. The distribution of individual model uncertainties was also investigated to study the range and dispersion of errors beyond just single scalar and interval metrics.The differential fluxes from HZETRN were generally well-correlated with balloon-based measurements; the median relative model difference across the entire dataset was determined to be 30%. The distribution of model uncertainties, however, revealed that the range of errors was relatively broad, with approximately 30% of the uncertainties exceeding  ± 40%. The distribution also indicated that HZETRN systematically under-predicts the measurement dataset as a whole, with approximately 80% of the relative uncertainties having negative values. Instances of systematic bias for subsets of the data were also observed, including a significant underestimation of alpha particles and protons for energies below 2.5  GeV/u. Muons were found to be systematically over-predicted at atmospheric depths deeper than 50 g/cm2 but under-predicted for shallower depths. Furthermore, a systematic under-prediction of alpha particles and protons was observed below the geomagnetic cutoff, suggesting that improvements to the light ion production cross sections in HZETRN should be investigated.
       
 
 
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