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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3157 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3157 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 96, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 415, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 261, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 404, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 350, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 456, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Life Sciences in Space Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.671
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2214-5524
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3157 journals]
  • Effects of low-dose oxygen ions and protons on cardiac function and
           structure in male C57BL/6J mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): John W Seawright, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Reid D Landes, Maohua Cao, Preeti Singh, Igor Koturbash, Xiao-Wen Mao, Isabelle R Miousse, Sharda P Singh, Gregory A Nelson, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Marjan Boerma PurposeAstronauts traveling beyond low-Earth orbit will be exposed to high linear-energy transfer charged particles. Because there is concern about the adverse effects of space radiation on the cardiovascular system, this study assessed cardiac function and structure and immune cell infiltration in a mouse model of charged-particle irradiation.Materials and methodsMale C57BL/6J mice were exposed to oxygen ions (16O, 600 MeV/n at 0.25−0.26 Gy/min to a total dose of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, or 1 Gy), protons (150 MeV, 0.35−0.55 Gy/min to 0, 0.5, or 1 Gy), or protons (150 MeV, 0.5 Gy) followed by 16O (600 MeV/n, 0.1 Gy). Separate groups of mice received 137Cs γ-rays (1 Gy/min to 0, 0.5, 1, or 3 Gy) as a reference. Cardiac function and blood velocity were measured with ultrasonography at 3, 5, 7, and 9 months after irradiation. At 2 weeks, 3 months, and 9 months, cardiac tissue was collected to assess apoptosis, tissue remodeling, and markers of immune cells.ResultsEjection fraction and fractional shortening decreased at 3 and 7 months after 16O. These parameters did not change in mice exposed to γ-rays, protons, or protons followed by 16O. Each of the radiation exposures caused only small increases in cleaved caspase-3 and numbers of apoptotic nuclei. Changes in the levels of α-smooth muscle cell actin and a 75-kDa peptide of collagen type III in the left ventricle suggested tissue remodeling, but there was no significant change in total collagen deposition at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 9 months. Increases in protein amounts of cluster of differentiation (CD)2, CD68, and CD45 as measured with immunoblots at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 9 months after exposure to protons or 16O alone suggested immune cell infiltration. For type III collagen, CD2 and CD68, the efficacy in inducing protein abundance of CD2, CD68, and CD45 was 16O> protons> γ-rays> protons followed by 16O.ConclusionsLow-dose, high-energy charged-particle irradiation caused mild changes in cardiac function and tissue remodeling in the mouse.
       
  • Yield of Dwarf Tomatoes Grown with a Nutrient Solution based on Recycled
           Synthetic Urine
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2019Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): P. Zabel, G. Bornemann, M. Tajmar, D. Schubert Extended human spaceflight missions require not only the processing, but also the recycling of human waste streams in bio-regenerative life support systems, which are rich in valuable resources. The Combined Regenerative Organic food Production® project of the German Aerospace Center aims for recycling human metabolic waste products to produce useful resources. A biofiltration process based on natural communities of microorganisms has been developed and tested. The processed aqueous solution is, among others, rich in nitrogen present as nitrate. Nitrate is one of the main nutrients required for plant cultivation, resulting in strong synergies between the developed recycling process and plant cultivation. The latter is envisaged as the basis of future bio-regenerative life support systems, because plants do consume carbon dioxide, water and nutrients in order to produce oxygen, water, food and inedible biomass. This paper describes a series of plant cultivation experiments performed with synthetic urine processed in a bioreactor. The aim of the experiments was to investigate the feasibility of growing tomato plants with this solution. The results of the experiments show that such cultivation of tomato plants is generally feasible, but that the plants are less productive. The fruit fresh weight per plant is less compared to plants grown with the half-strength Hoagland reference solution. This lack in production is caused by imbalances of sodium, chloride, potassium, magnesium and ammonium in the solution gained from recycling the synthetic urine. An attempt on adjusting the produced bioreactor solution with additional mineral fertilizers did not show a significant improvement in crop yield.
       
  • Incorporation of mineralized human waste and fish waste as a source of
           higher plant mineral nutrition in the BTLSS mass exchange
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): N.A. Tikhomirova, S.V. Trifonov, S.A. Ushakova, E.A. Morozov, O.V. Anischenko, A.A. Tikhomirov The present study deals with the development of the principles and conditions of fish waste mineralization using the method of wet combustion with hydrogen peroxide in alternating electromagnetic field and describes testing mineralized human waste and fish waste as sources of nutrients for plants in the biotechnical human life support system (BTLSS). The study shows that mineralization of fish waste in the wet combustion reactor should be performed in the presence of readily oxidized organic matter, represented by human waste, as an activator of oxidation. Re-mineralization of the sediment in the mixture of hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid in the wet combustion reactor converts mineral elements bound in the sediment into the form available to plants. Using mineralized fish waste as an additional source of mineral elements in the nutrient solutions for growing plants based on mineralized human waste is a way to reduce the amounts of mineral elements added to the solution to replenish it, enabling fuller closure of material loops in the BTLSS.
       
  • Failure Modes, Causes, and Effects of Algal Photobioreactors used to
           Control a Spacecraft Environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Emily Matula, James A. Nabity Bioregenerative technologies, in particular algae photobioreactors, have the potential to provide closed-loop environmental control and life support for human space flight, if robust enough for long-duration deep space missions. This paper reviews the failure modes, causes, and effects of an algal photobioreactor system for use in space flight environmental control and life support applications. The likelihood and severity for each failure is estimated, and associated mitigation or contingency plans are described. Failure modes can stem from either the algae cellular physiology or the engineered system needed for the application and are grouped in this paper accordingly.
       
  • Why did carbon become the pseudo-limiting factor in aquatic Closed
           Ecological Systems'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Frieda B. Taub Closure from the earth's atmosphere is a critical test of an ecosystem's ability to function. In our earlier testing of autotrophic Closed Ecological Systems (CESs), a C:N ratio of 26.4 (3.3 mM NaHCO3 and 0.125 mM NaNO3) supported algal and Daphnia populations for months, but developed extreme pH values (∼11 ungrazed,>10, grazed), suggesting that the systems were carbon-limited. Only approximately half the HCO3- (bicarbonate) would be expected to be available to green algae, the other portion becoming CO3−2 (carbonate). In an experiment described here, CESs were developed to explore a greater range of C:N ratios. To keep the medium from becoming too osmotically concentrated, NaNO3 was reduced to 0.0312 mM and NaHCO3 tested at 3.3, 13.2, and 26.4 mM, resulting in nominal C:N ratios of 105, 422, and 845. However, additional carbon was not beneficial to long-term survival of the organisms. The algal abundance was relatively insensitive to C:N ratio; greater concentrations of C were not beneficial. Daphnia populations were sensitive to C:N ratio and persisted longer at the lowest C:N ratio of 105. All of the C:N ratios tested in these CESs are outside of the expected range suggested from ecological studies, which is based on the Redfield Ratio of 6.625 C:N, the expected chemical composition of algae. Two potential explanations for the apparent high C demand in our CESs are suggested by the literature. The first is production of fatty algal cells, e.g., one of the algal species, Scenedesmus obliquus, is reported to produce high-lipid cells that could have a higher C:N ratio than the Redfield Ratio. The second is “carbon overconsumption,” which has been suggested for N-limited marine phytoplankton communities dominated by diatoms or nutrient deficient algal communities dominated by small cells that are under-represented by chlorophyll a measurements. The unexpected C dynamics found in our CES tests could be relevant to the design of biological life support systems that must be provisioned with adequate elements for long-term ecosystem functionality. If the actual demand for C is underestimated, its storage may be inadequate.
       
  • An investigation of the single and combined effects of hypogravity and
           ionizing radiation on brain monoamine metabolism and rats’ behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Viktor S. Kokhan, Kseniya B. Lebedeva-Georgievskaya, Vladimir S. Kudrin, Ara S. Bazyan, Andrey V. Maltsev, Andrey S. Shtemberg BACKGROUNDIonizing radiation and hypogravity can cause central nervous system (CNS) dysfunctions. This is a key limiting factor for deep space missions. Up until now, the mechanisms through which they affect the neural tissue are not completely understood. OBJECTIVES: We studied how the combination of hypogravity (antiorthostatic suspension model, AS) and ionizing radiations (γ-quanta and 1H+ together, R) affects the CNS.METHODSWe applied separately and in combination AS and R to determine the influence of these factors on behavior and metabolism of monoamines in Wistar rat's brain.RESULTSWe found out that R has a slight effect on both the behavior and metabolism of monoamines. However, when applied in combination with AS the former was able to reduce the negative effects of the latter. The combined effect of ionizing radiation and hypogravity led to the recovery of locomotor activity, orientation and exploratory behavior, and long-term context memory impaired under the impact of hypogravity only. These changes came together with an increase in the serotonin and dopamine turnover in all of the brain structures that were studied.CONCLUSIONSWe received the first evidence of interferential interaction between the effects of ionizing radiation and hypogravity factors with regard to a behavior and monoamine turnover in the brain. Further studies with heavy nuclei at relevant doses (
       
  • Nucleic acid bases in Titan tholins and possible genetic systems in the
           Titan liquidosphere
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Jun Kawai, Yoko Kebukawa, Christopher P. McKay, Kensei Kobayashi Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and possesses a dense atmosphere composed of nitrogen and methane. Various types of organic compounds (hydrocarbons, nitriles, etc.) have been found on Titan, which were generated by reactions taking place in its atmosphere. These reactions are considered to provide crucial evidence for chemical reactions which may have occurred in the atmosphere of primitive Earth. Cassini discovered several lakes of liquid methane and ethane on Titan's surface; in addition, the presence of ammonia water in its sub-surface was implied. In order to simulate the chemical reactions in Titan's atmosphere, gas mixtures of nitrogen and methane have been exposed to plasma discharges to synthesize complex organic matters. In this study, we focused on the formation of nucleic acid bases and related compounds recovered from synthesized Titan tholins. The five nucleic acid bases that terrestrial life uses (adenine, cytosine, thymine, guanine, and uracil) have already been reported to be present in synthesized Titan tholins. Purines and pyrimidines, including the five aforementioned nucleic acid bases, were extracted from synthesized Titan tholins and analyzed by HPLC and LC/MS. As a result, the pyrimidine bases of isocytosine and 2, 4-diaminopyrimidine were detected together with the terrestrial nucleic acid bases of adenine, uracil, and cytosine. The results obtained in conjunction with those from previous studies show that some nucleic acid bases and related pyrimidine bases are found in synthesized Titan tholins, suggesting that chemical evolutions toward xenogenetic systems could occur in Titan's environment.
       
  • IFC - Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space Research, Volume 19Author(s):
       
  • Review: Biological effects of space environmental factors: A possible
           interaction between space radiation and microgravity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Fumio Yatagai, Masamitsu Honma, Naoshi Dohmae, Noriaki Ishioka In the mid-1980s, space experiments began to examine if microgravity could alter the biological effects of space radiation. In the late 1990s, repair of DNA strand breaks was reported to not be influenced by microgravity using the pre-irradiated cells, because the exposure doses of space radiation were few due to the short spaceflight. There were, however, conflicting reports depending on the biological endpoints used in various systems. While almost no attempts were made to assess the possibility that the microgravity effects could be altered by space radiation. This was probably due to the general understanding that microgravity plays a major role in space and works independently from space radiation. Recent ground-based simulation studies focusing on DNA oxidative damage and signal transduction suggested that combined effects of microgravity and space radiation might exist. These studies also implicated the importance of research focusing not only on chromosomal DNA but also on cytoplasm, especially mitochondria. Therefore, we propose a new model which accounts for the combined-effects through the window of cellular responses. In this model, the interactions between microgravity and space radiation might occur during the following cellular-responses; A) damaging and signaling by ROS, B) damage responses on DNA (repair, replication, transcription, etc.), and C) expression of gene and protein (regulation by chromatin, epigenetic control, etc.).
       
  • Genetic Variation and Radiation Quality Impact Cancer Promoting Cellular
           Phenotypes in Response to HZE exposure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Deepa M. Sridharan, Shiena Enerio, Chris Wang, Mark A. LaBarge, Martha R. Stampfer, Janice M. Pluth There exists a wide degree of genetic variation within the normal human population which includes disease free individuals with heterozygote defects in major DNA repair genes. A lack of understanding of how this genetic variation impacts cellular phenotypes that inform cancer risk post heavy ion exposure poses a major limitation in developing personalized cancer risk assessment astronauts. We initiated a pilot study with Human Mammary Epithelial Cell strains (HMEC) derived from wild type, a p16 silenced derivative of wild type, and various genetic variants that were heterozygote for DNA repair genes; BRCA1, BRCA2 and ATM. Cells strains were exposed to different high and low LET radiation qualities to generate both simple and complex lesions and centrosome aberrations were examined as a surrogate marker of genomic instability and cancer susceptibility post different exposures. Our results indicate that centrosome aberration frequency is higher in the genetic variants under study. The aberration frequency increases with dose, complexity of the lesion generated by different radiation qualities and age of the individual. This increase in genomic instability correlates with elevated check-point activation post radiation exposure. These studies suggest that the influence of individual genetics on cell cycle regulation could modify the degree of early genomic instability in response to complex lesions and potentially define cancer predisposition in response to HZE exposure. These results will have significant implications in estimating cancer susceptibility in genetically variant individuals exposed to HZE particles.
       
  • Dose calculations in a cell monolayer for high-throughput irradiation with
           proton beams generated by PW lasers for space applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Mariana Bobeica, Sohichiroh Aogaki, Theodor Asavei, Mihail O. Cernaianu, Petru Ghenuche, Dan Stutman One of the specific properties of laser-driven radiation is a broadband energy spectrum, which is also a feature of the space radiation fields. This property can be used in materials science studies or radiobiology experiments to simulate the energy spectrum of space radiation exposures in a ground-based laboratory. However, the differences in effects between the higher dose rates of laser generated radiation and the lower dose rates of space radiation have to be investigated in separate, prior studies. A design for a high-throughput irradiation experiment and the associated Monte Carlo dose calculations for a broadband energy proton beam depositing energy in a cell monolayer is presented. Dose control and dose uniformity in the cell monolayer was achieved in the simulations using a variable thickness Ni attenuator. A set of target doses from 0.2 Gy to 4 Gy was obtained and dose uniformity was optimized to less than 4% variability. This work opens the possibility of single or multiple exposures, controllable, high-throughput irradiation experiments on biological samples or materials, using broadband energy particle beams generated by lasers, with relevance for space applications.
       
  • A Small Test Closed Ecosystem with An Estimated Portion of Human
           Metabolism
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Alexander A. Tikhomirov, Sofya A. Ushakova, Vladimir V. Velichko, Sergey V. Trifonov, Natalia A. Tikhomirova, Galina S. Kalacheva The study describes a small test closed ecosystem used to test technologies to be further employed in full-scale manned closed ecosystems. The test ecosystem is designed to use a certain portion of human metabolism, which is included in the gas, water, and organic waste loops of the system. In this small test closed ecosystem, gas and water loops are fully closed, and the model enables processing of human waste and plant inedible biomass. A physicochemical method is used to remove pollutants from the air in the system. A human takes part in the gas exchange of the system through its respiration loop. This small test closed ecosystem can be used for testing and improving new technologies to be further used in the future space stations.
       
  • LED lighting optimization as applied to a vitamin space plant growth
           facility
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Yu.A. Berkovich, I.O. Konovalova, A.N. Erokhin, S.O. Smolyanina, V.G. Smolyanin, O.S. Yakovleva, I.G. Tarakanov, T.M. Ivanov An algorithm of determining optimal LED lighting parameters for leafy crops (Chinese cabbage Brassica chinensis L. was taken as a model) in a vitamin space Plant Growth Facility is proposed. The lighting parameters to optimize were the level of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), red and white LEDs PPFD ratio and pulse repetition period with a fixed pulse length 30 µs. Optimal lighting parameters should allow achieving a high biomass yield per consumed light energy, as well as high vitamin C content in the crop biomass. A quantitative optimality criterion for estimating the lighting parameters quality is suggested. For Chinese cabbage crop the maximum value of this criterion was obtained at the following lighting conditions parameters: PPFD – 500 μmol m −2 s −1, red/white ratio – 1.5, and pulse repetition period – 501 µs.
       
  • A Strategic Approach for Investigating Light Recipes for ‘Outredgeous’
           Red Romaine Lettuce Using White and Monochromatic LEDs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): M.A. Mickens, E.J. Skoog, L.E. Reese, P.L. Barnwell, L.E. Spencer, G.D. Massa, R.M. Wheeler To optimize crop production/quality in space, we studied various “light recipes” that could be used in the Advanced Plant Habitat currently aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. ‘Outredgeous’) plants were grown for 28 days under seven treatments of White (W) LEDs (control), red (635 nm) and blue (460 nm) (RB) LEDs, W + blue (B) LEDs, W + green (520 nm) (G) LEDs, W + red (R) LEDs, W + far red (745 nm) (FR) LEDs, and RGB+FR LEDs with ratios similar to natural sunlight. Total PAR was maintained near 180 µmol•m−2•s−1 with an 18 h photoperiod. Lettuce grown under RGB+FR produced the greatest leaf expansion and overall shoot biomass, while leaves from WB and RB showed the highest levels of pigmentation, secondary metabolites, and elemental nutrients. All other supplemental treatments had varying impacts on morphology that were dependent on crop age. The WG treatment increased fresh mass early in the cycle, while WR increased biomass later in the cycle. The plants grown under WFR exhibited elongation of petioles, lower nutrient content, and similar shoot biomass to the W control. The findings suggest that supplementing a broad spectrum, white light background with discrete wavelengths can be used to manipulate total yield, morphology, and levels of phytonutrients in lettuce at various times during the crop cycle.
       
  • Response to Commentary on “Irradiation effects of MeV protons on dry and
           hydrated Brassica rapa seeds” by Bevelacqua et al.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Naresh T. Deoli, Karl H. Hasenstein
       
  • Comments on “Irradiation effects of MeV protons on dry and hydrated
           Brassica rapa seeds”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): J.J. Bevelacqua, S.M.J. Mortazavi
       
  • Reduction of Geomagnetic Field (GMF) to Near Null Magnetic Field (NNMF)
           Affects Arabidopsis thaliana Root Mineral Nutrition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Ravishankar Narayana, Judith Fliegmann, Ivan Paponov, Massimo E. Maffei The Earth magnetic field (or geomagnetic field, GMF) is a natural component of our planet and variations of the GMF are perceived by plants with a still uncharacterized magnetoreceptor. The purpose of this work was to assess the effect of Near Null Magnetic Field (NNMF, ∼35 μT) on Arabidopsis thaliana Col0 root ion modulation. A time-course (from 10 min to 96 h) exposure of Arabidopsis to NNMF was compared to GMF and the content of some cations (NH4+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) and anions (Cl−, SO4=, NO3− and PO4=) was evaluated by capillary electrophoresis. The expression of several cation and anion channel- and transporter-related genes was assessed by gene microarray. A few minutes after exposure to NNMF, Arabidopsis roots responded with a significant change in the content and gene expression of all nutrient ions under study, indicating the presence of a plant magnetoreceptor that responds immediately to MF variations by modulating channels, transporters and genes involved in mineral nutrition. The response of Arabidopsis to reduced MF was a general reduction of plant ion uptake and transport. Our data suggest the importance to understand the nature and function of the plant magnetoreceptor for future space programs involving plant growth in environments with a reduced MF.
       
  • Irradiation effects of MeV protons on dry and hydrated Brassica
           rapa
    seeds
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Naresh T. Deoli, Karl H. HasensteinABSTRACTAlthough space radiation is a known risk for space travel and eventual colonization of Moon or Mars, relatively few data exist on radiation effects on potential crop plants. We studied Brassica rapa to assess the tolerance of seeds and seedlings to radiation by exposing dry and hydrated B. rapa seeds to 1, 2 and 3 MeV proton ions of various fluences and examined the effect on germination and root growth. Modeling penetration depth with SRIM code indicated that the applied energy was insufficient to penetrate the seeds; therefore, all energy was deposited into the tissue. Subsequent germination varied based on the incident ion energy and fluence (dose). Dry and hydrated seeds germinate after ion fluence (1013 ions cm−2) irradiation, but the germination percentage decreased with increasing fluence for ions that could penetrate the seed coat (> 1 MeV). Despite their greater volume and mass, hydrated seeds were more sensitive to irradiation than dry seeds. Damage of the seed coat after irradiation led to faster germination and initial seedling growth. Our results suggest that the seed coat represents a valuable natural radiation protection and that low energy protons, the prevailing solar radiation, are suitable for studying radiation effects in seeds and plants.
       
  • Proton radiation-induced cancer progression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Krishna Luitel, Ronald Bozeman, Aadil Kaisani, Sang Bum Kim, Summer Barron, James A. Richardson, Jerry W. Shay There are considerable health risks related to ionizing and proton radiation exposure. While there is a long history of health risks associated with ionizing (photon) radiation exposure, there is a limited understanding of the long-term health risks associated with proton radiation exposure. Since proton radiation is becoming more common in cancer therapy, the long-term biological effects of proton radiation remain less well characterized in terms of radiotherapy and well as for astronauts during deep space explorations. In this study, we compared the long-term side effects of proton radiation to equivalent doses of X-rays in the initiation and progression of premalignant lesions in a lung cancer susceptible mouse model (K-rasLA1). We show proton irradiation causes more complex DNA damage that is not completely repaired resulting in increased oxidative stress in the lungs both acutely and persistently. We further observed K-rasLA1 mice irradiated with protons had an increased number and size of initiated and premalignant lesions and adenomas that were often infiltrated with inflammatory cells. Proton irradiated mice had a lower median survival and increased carcinoma incidence as compared to unirradiated controls and X-rays exposed mice. Our conclusion is that exposure to proton irradiation enhances the progression of premalignant lesions to invasive carcinomas through persistent DNA damage, chronic oxidative stress, and immunosuppression.
       
  • Tardigrade Indexing approach on exoplanets
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2018Source: Life Sciences in Space ResearchAuthor(s): Madhu Kashyap Jagadeesh, Milena Roszkowska, Łukasz Kaczmarek Finding life on other worlds is a fascinating area of astrobiology and planetary sciences. Presently, over 3800 exoplanets, representing a very wide range of physical and chemical environments, are known. Scientists are not only looking for traces of life outside Earth, but they are also trying to find out which of Earth's known organisms (ex: tardigrades (water bears)) would be able to survive on other planets. In our study, we have established a metric tool for distinguishing the potential survivability of active and cryptobiotic tardigrades on rocky-water and water-gas planets in our solar system and exoplanets, taking into consideration the geometrical means of six physical parameters such as radius, density, escape velocity, revolution period, surface temperature, and surface pressure of the considered planets. More than 3800 exoplanets are available as the main sample from Planetary Habitable Laboratory – Exoplanet Catalog (PHL-EC), from which we have chosen 57 exoplanets in our study including Earth and Mars, with water composition as reference. The Active Tardigrade Index (ATI) and Cryptobiotic Tardigrade Index (CTI) are two metric indices with minimum value 0 (= tardigrades cannot survive) and maximum 1 (= tardigrades will survive in their respective state). Values between 0 and 1 indicate a percentage chance of the active or cryptobiotic tardigrades surviving on a given exoplanet. Among known planets some of the exoplanets are tabulated as ATI and CTI indices for sample representation like: Kepler-100d, Kepler-48d, Kepler-289b, TRAPPIST-1 f and Kepler-106e. The results with Mars as the threshold indicates that Mars could be the only rock-water composition planet that could be more suitable for tardigrades than other considered exoplanets.
       
 
 
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