for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help

Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3043 journals)

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Showing 1 - 200 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 83, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 331, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 343, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Journal Cover Advances in Geophysics
  [SJR: 2.325]   [H-I: 20]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2687
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Advances in Geophysics
    • Abstract: 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advances in Geophysics, Volume 54



      PubDate: 2013-02-28T13:35:10Z
       
  • Chapter 1 The Role of Fluids in Tectonic and Earthquake Processes
    • Abstract: 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advances in Geophysics, Volume 54

      Fluids play an integral role in the geodynamical system, from consumption through serpentinization at mid-ocean ridges and outer rises, to release through dehydration and decarbonization within subduction zones and beyond. Fluids affect a number of critical elements of the tectonic cycle, including weakening plate boundaries and catalyzing mantle wedge melting for feeding volcanic arcs. This review paper summarizes the vast topic of the hydrogeological cycle of the solid earth, and how fluids affect, and are affected by, tectonic processes. Ultimately these fluids must either remain trapped in the mantle or return to the surface at high pressure via ductile processes or fracture networks. High pressure fluids returning to the surface may get trapped at the base of the brittle crust, where they can contribute to earthquake nucleation and genesis. Evidence suggests that high pressure fluids are active participants in tectonic earthquakes, and the relatively recent discovery of slow slip earthquakes and non-volcanic tremor phenomena all point to trapped, over-pressured fluids as an underlying mechanical cause. Fluids play an integral role in lithospheric geodynamics, which provides for some speculations about fluids and earthquakes in a general sense. One such speculation is that spatial aftershock patterns reflect fluid pathways taken by the release of high pressure fluids triggered by the earthquake mainshock. Some of these patterns are shown, and I introduce the term “Zen Trees” to describe them because of their aesthetic form and their resemblance to Eastern calligraphy. I hypothesize that earthquakes that do not spawn significant aftershock sequences indicate little if any trapped high pressure fluids at depth, while earthquakes producing long-lived aftershock sequences point to large reservoirs of trapped high pressure fluids. Although the viscous mantle is the ultimate geophysical fluid, the focus in this paper is limited to fluids in the lithosphere because this boundary, typically treated as a thermal boundary layer, is controlled by complex dynamical interactions between fracture, deformation, dissolution/precipitation, and fluid flow.

      PubDate: 2013-02-28T13:35:10Z
       
  • Chapter 2 The Role of Pressure Solution Creep in the Ductility of the
           Earth’s Upper Crust
    • Abstract: 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advances in Geophysics, Volume 54

      The aim of this review is to characterize the role of pressure solution creep in the ductility of the Earth’s upper crust and to describe how this creep mechanism competes and interacts with other deformation mechanisms. Pressure solution creep is a major mechanism of ductile deformation of the upper crust, accommodating basin compaction, folding, shear zone development, and fault creep and interseismic healing. However, its kinetics is strongly dependent on the composition of the rocks (mainly the presence of phyllosilicates minerals that activate pressure solution) and on its interaction with fracturing and healing processes (that activate and slow down pressure solution, respectively). The present review combines three approaches: natural observations, theoretical developments, and laboratory experiments. Natural observations can be used to identify the pressure solution markers necessary to evaluate creep law parameters, such as the nature of the material, the temperature and stress conditions, or the geometry of mass transfer domains. Theoretical developments help to investigate the thermodynamics and kinetics of the processes and to build theoretical creep laws. Laboratory experiments are implemented in order to test the models and to measure creep law parameters such as driving forces and kinetic coefficients. Finally, applications are discussed for the modeling of sedimentary basin compaction and fault creep. The sensitivity of the models to time is given particular attention: viscous versus plastic rheology during sediment compaction; steady state versus non-steady state behavior of fault and shear zones. The conclusions discuss recent advances for modeling pressure solution creep and the main questions that remain to be solved.

      PubDate: 2013-02-28T13:35:10Z
       
  • Chapter 3 Compaction and Porosity Reduction in Carbonates: A Review of
           Observations, Theory, and Experiments
    • Abstract: 2013
      Publication year: 2013
      Source:Advances in Geophysics, Volume 54

      Carbonates are major sedimentary materials found in many upper layers of the Earth’s crust. Understanding their compaction behavior is important for porosity prediction in sedimentary basins and to improve the knowledge about sealing of active faults at shallow depths, where the faults cross-cut limestone formations. In carbonates, as opposed to siliciclastic sediments, diagenesis starts at shallow depths (
      PubDate: 2013-02-28T13:35:10Z
       
  • Chapter One Inferring Ocean Storm Characteristics from Ambient Seismic
           Noise A Historical Perspective
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advances in Geophysics, Volume 53

      Microseisms seen on seismograms worldwide were once viewed as “noise” contaminating records of earthquakes. However, these low-amplitude oscillations generated by storms over the oceans are now recognized as carriers of an important meteorological “signal”. Decades-long archives of analog seismograms may thus represent a high-resolution record of climate change significantly longer than those based on traditional meteorological observations. One of the first phenomena investigated by the then-new field of seismology, microseism research began with their identification around 1870. Improved characterization came from subsequent investigations in Europe, Japan, and North America, which sought out their sources and source regions. Two-generation mechanisms were identified in the mid-twentieth century. In both, microseisms originate with atmospheric energy in the form of storms over the oceans. It is coupled into the water column via the generation of ocean swell, transmitted to the seafloor, and then travels as elastic waves at the seafloor. Analysis of secondary microseisms, recorded in eastern North America during August 1992 Saffir/Simpson category 5 hurricane Andrew, shows the feasibility of using these signals to identify North Atlantic Ocean hurricanes. The shift in dominant microseism frequency with Andrew intensification demonstrates that these microseisms were generated over the deep waters of the North Atlantic Ocean at or near the hurricane and are thus a near real-time record of hurricane changes. Variations in secondary microseism frequency and amplitude allow detection of the hurricane while over the ocean and up to ∼2000km from the recording station. Analog seismograms from seismic stations in North America may thus document unobserved North Atlantic hurricanes. However, uncertainties remain. The relative contributions of deep- and shallow-water sources remain uncertain, and the generation of microseisms with transverse wave components lacks a satisfactory explanation. Better understanding of the various controls on microseism properties is necessary before information in these waveforms can be used to infer storm characteristics, especially for less-energetic storms.

      PubDate: 2012-12-18T18:05:48Z
       
  • Chapter Two Phenomenology of Tsunamis II Scaling, Event Statistics, and
           Inter-Event Triggering
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advances in Geophysics, Volume 53

      Observations related to tsunami catalogs are reviewed and described in a phenomenological framework. An examination of scaling relationships between earthquake size (as expressed by scalar seismic moment and mean slip) and tsunami size (as expressed by mean and maximum local run-up and maximum far-field amplitude) indicates that scaling is significant at the 95% confidence level, although there is uncertainty in how well earthquake size can predict tsunami size (R 2 ∼0.4–0.6). In examining tsunami event statistics, current methods used to estimate the size distribution of earthquakes and landslides and the inter-event time distribution of earthquakes are first reviewed. These methods are adapted to estimate the size and inter-event distribution of tsunamis at a particular recording station. Using a modified Pareto size distribution, the best-fit power-law exponents of tsunamis recorded at nine Pacific tide-gauge stations exhibit marked variation, in contrast to the approximately constant power-law exponent for inter-plate thrust earthquakes. With regard to the inter-event time distribution, significant temporal clustering of tsunami sources is demonstrated. For tsunami sources occurring in close proximity to other sources in both space and time, a physical triggering mechanism, such as static stress transfer, is a likely cause for the anomalous clustering. Mechanisms of earthquake-to-earthquake and earthquake-to-landslide triggering are reviewed. Finally, a modification of statistical branching models developed for earthquake triggering is introduced to describe triggering among tsunami sources.

      PubDate: 2012-12-18T18:05:48Z
       
  • Chapter Three Seismic Hazard Scenarios as Preventive Tools for a Disaster
           Resilient Society
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advances in Geophysics, Volume 53

      Lessons learnt from the destructive earthquakes occurred during the new millennium provide new opportunities to take action, revise, and improve the procedure for seismic hazard assessment (SHA). A single hazard map cannot meet the requirements from different end-users; the mapping of the expected earthquake ground motion that accounts for events' recurrence may be suitable for insurances. When dealing with cultural heritage and critical structures (e.g., nuclear power plants), where it is necessary to consider extremely long time intervals, the standard hazard estimates are by far unsuitable, due to their basic heuristic limitations. While time-dependent SHA may be suitable to increase earthquake preparedness, by planning adequate mitigation actions, for critical structures (i.e., those for which the consequences of failure are intolerable) the maximum possible seismic input is relevant. Therefore the need for an appropriate estimate of the seismic hazard, aimed not only at the seismic classification of the national territory, but also at the capability of properly accounting for the local amplifications of ground shaking, as well as for the fault properties, is a pressing concern for seismic engineers. A viable alternative to traditional SHA is represented by the use of the scenario earthquakes, characterized at least in terms of magnitude, distance, and faulting style, and by the treatment of complex source processes. The relevance of the realistic modeling, which permits the generalization of empirical observations by means of physically sound theoretical considerations, is evident, as it allows the optimization of the structural design with respect to the site of interest. The time information associated with the scenarios of ground motion, given by the intermediate-term middle-range earthquake predictions, can be useful to public authorities in assigning priorities for timely mitigation actions. Therefore, the approach we have developed naturally supplies realistic time series of ground motion useful to preserve urban settings, historical monuments, and relevant man-made structures.

      PubDate: 2012-12-18T18:05:48Z
       
  • Volume Editors
    • Abstract: 2010
      Publication year: 2010
      Source:Advances in Geophysics, Volume 52



      PubDate: 2012-12-18T18:05:48Z
       
  • Chapter 1 Probabilistic Inverse Theory
    • Abstract: 2010
      Publication year: 2010
      Source:Advances in Geophysics, Volume 52

      Geophysical investigations which commenced thousands of years ago in China from observations of the Earth shaking caused by large earthquakes (Lee et al., 2003) have gone a long way in their development from an initial, intuitive stage to a modern science employing the newest technological and theoretical achievements. In spite of this enormous development, geophysical research still faces the same basic limitation. The only available information about the Earth comes from measurement at its surface or from space. Only very limited information can be acquired by direct measurements. It is not surprising, therefore, that geophysicists have contributed significantly to the development of the inverse theory—the theory of inference about sought parameters from indirect measurements. For a long time this inference was understood as the task of estimating parameters used to describe the Earth's structure or processes within it, like earthquake ruptures. The problem was traditionally solved by using optimization techniques following the least absolute value and least squares criteria formulated by Laplace and Gauss. Today the inverse theory faces a new challenge in its development. In many geophysical and related applications, obtaining the model “best fitting” a given set of data according to a selected optimization criterion is not sufficient any more. We need to know how plausible the obtained model is or, in other words, how large the uncertainties are in the final solutions. This task can hardly be addressed in the framework of the classical optimization approach. The probabilistic inverse theory incorporates a statistical point of view, according to which all available information, including observational data, theoretical predictions and a priori knowledge, can be represented by probability distributions. According to this reasoning, the solution of the inverse problem is not a single, optimum model, but rather the a posteriori probability distribution over the model space which describes the probability of a given model being the true one. This path of development of the inverse theory follows a pragmatic need for a reliable and efficient method of interpreting observational data. The aim of this chapter is to bring together two elements of the probabilistic inverse theory. The first one is a presentation of the theoretical background of the theory enhanced by basic elements of the Monte Carlo computational technique. The second part provides a review of the solid earth applications of the probabilistic inverse theory.

      PubDate: 2012-12-18T18:05:48Z
       
  • Debris Flows Recent Advances in Experiments and Modeling
    • Abstract: 2010
      Publication year: 2010
      Source:Advances in Geophysics, Volume 52

      We report on recent advances in experiments and modeling of particle–fluid flows that are relevant to an understanding of debris flows. We first describe laboratory experiments on steady, inclined flows of mixtures of water and a single idealized granular phase that focus on the differences in the depths and the velocity of the two phases and that provide evidence for the importance of collisional exchange of momentum and energy between the particles. We then indicate how a relatively simple rate-dependent rheological model for the particles that incorporates yield may be used in the context of a two-phase mixture theory that distinguishes between the depths of the fluid and particle phases to reproduce what is seen in the experiments on both uniform and non-uniform flows. Finally, because a phenomenological extension of kinetic theory for dense, inclined flows of identical particles has recently been developed, we outline a kinetic theory for dense, inclined flows of two types of particles and water as a possible alternative to existing phenomenological theories.

      PubDate: 2012-12-18T18:05:48Z
       
  • Chapter 3 Azores–Tunisia, A Tectonically Complex Plate Boundary
    • Abstract: 2010
      Publication year: 2010
      Source:Advances in Geophysics, Volume 52

      The seismically active region from Tunisia to the Azores Islands constitutes the westernmost part of the plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa. From the point of view of tectonics, this is a complex structure which involves volcanism and rifting at the Azores, strike-slip motion at the center of the Atlantic, and horizontal N-S compressions at its eastern part, with complex interaction between Iberia and northern Africa and E-W extension at the Alboran Sea, involving some kind of subduction or delamination process. This chapter has been divided into four parts: (1) Atlantic region, Azores–Gibraltar; (2) Azores Islands triple junction; (3) southern Iberia, Betics, and Alboran Sea; and (4) North Africa, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. Plate motion shows counterclock rotation of Africa with respect to Eurasia around a pole near the Canary Islands. The Azores region forms a triple junction with ridge structure and oblique spreading in its three branches. The Atlantic region from Azores to Gibraltar is separated into two parts, west and east of 20°W. The first has E-W strike-slip motion and the second is under horizontal N-S compression producing underthrusting of Africa. The Betics–Alboran area is dominated by the collision movement between Iberia and northern Africa, and the E-W extension at the Alboran Basin. Intermediate and deep earthquake activity and tomography data show an anomalous deep structure, interpreted as produced by a subduction or a lithospheric delamination process. The Betics Cordillera, which links with the Rif by the Gibraltar Arc, is formed by overthrusting toward the north, limiting with the stable Iberia, and crossed by several fracture systems. The Rif, High Atlas, and Tell mountains are under NW-SE horizontal compression and dominated by structures trending NE-SW. Several interpretations have been given to the tectonic development of these regions, and some aspects are not yet completely explained.

      PubDate: 2012-12-18T18:05:48Z
       
  • Chapter 1 Seismicity Induced by Mining: Recent Research
    • Abstract: 2009
      Publication year: 2009
      Source:Advances in Geophysics, Volume 51

      The present review of seismicity induced by mining is a continuation of the previous reviews, published in 1990 and 2001 in Advances in Geophysics, describing the problems involved and the state-of-the-art of relevant research in this field at the end of 1980s and 1990s. During the last decade, seismic monitoring has been expanded in several mining districts, a number of new techniques have been introduced, and new significant results have been obtained in studies of seismic events induced by mining. This review is organized similarly to some extent to the previous ones. New techniques in seismic monitoring in mines, mining factors affecting seismicity, source mechanisms and source time functions, source parameters and their scaling relations are briefly discussed. Precursory phenomena observed in mines and some attempts at prediction of larger events are reviewed. The new results obtained so far by the Japanese research group in South African gold mines, the concepts of stress diffusion and of “critical earthquakes” applied to seismicity in mines, and numerical modeling of rock mass response to mining are also briefly discussed.

      PubDate: 2012-12-18T18:05:48Z
       
  • Chapter 2 Induced Seismicity in Hydrocarbon Fields
    • Abstract: 2009
      Publication year: 2009
      Source:Advances in Geophysics, Volume 51

      Over the last few decades, it has become clear that various human activities have the potential to generate seismic activity. Examples include subsurface waste injection, reservoir impoundment in the vicinity of large dams, and development of mining, geothermal or hydrocarbon resources. Recently, induced seismicity has also become a concern in connection with geologic carbon sequestration projects. This study focuses on seismicity induced by hydrocarbon production by summarizing the published case studies and describing current theoretical approaches to model these. It is important to understand the conditions under which hydrocarbon production may lead to seismic activity in order to ensure that they are performed safely. Our knowledge of induced seismicity in hydrocarbon fields has progressed substantially over the last few years owing to more intensive high-quality instrumentation of oil fields and a continuous effort to understand the phenomenon theoretically. However, much of the available literature is dispersed over a variety of journals and specialized reports. This review aims at providing a first step toward making the current knowledge about induced seismicity in hydrocarbon fields more accessible to a broad audience of scientists.

      PubDate: 2012-12-18T18:05:48Z
       
  • Chapter 3 Phenomenology of Tsunamis: Statistical Properties from
           Generation to Runup
    • Abstract: 2009
      Publication year: 2009
      Source:Advances in Geophysics, Volume 51

      Observations related to tsunami generation, propagation, and runup are reviewed and described in a phenomenological framework. In the three coastal regimes considered (near-field broadside, near-field oblique, and far field), the observed maximum wave amplitude is associated with different parts of the tsunami wavefield. The maximum amplitude in the near-field broadside regime is most often associated with the direct arrival from the source, whereas in the near-field oblique regime, the maximum amplitude is most often associated with the propagation of edge waves. In the far field, the maximum amplitude is most often caused by the interaction of the tsunami coda that develops during basin-wide propagation and the nearshore response, including the excitation of edge waves, shelf modes, and resonance. Statistical distributions that describe tsunami observations are also reviewed, both in terms of spatial distributions, such as coseismic slip on the fault plane and near-field runup, and temporal distributions, such as wave amplitudes in the far field. In each case, fundamental theories of tsunami physics are heuristically used to explain the observations.

      PubDate: 2012-12-18T18:05:48Z
       
  • Contributors to Volume 50
    • Abstract: 2008
      Publication year: 2008
      Source:Advances in Geophysics, Volume 50



      PubDate: 2012-12-18T18:05:48Z
       
  • Chapter 1 Coherent Back-Scattering and Weak Localization of Seismic Waves
    • Abstract: 2008
      Publication year: 2008
      Source:Advances in Geophysics, Volume 50

      I present a review of the weak localization effect in seismology. To understand this multiple scattering phenomenon, I begin with an intuitive approach illustrated by experiments performed in the laboratory. The importance of reciprocity and interference in scattering media is emphasized. I then consider the role of source mechanism, again starting with experimental evidence. Important theoretical results for elastic waves are summarized, that take into account the full vectorial character of elastic waves. Applications to the characterization of heterogeneous elastic media are discussed.

      PubDate: 2012-12-18T18:05:48Z
       
  • Theory of Transmission Fluctuations in Random Media with a
           Depth‐Dependent Background Velocity Structure
    • Abstract: 2008
      Publication year: 2008
      Source:Advances in Geophysics, Volume 50

      An extended theory on the coherence function of log amplitude and phase for waves passing through random media is developed for a depth‐dependent background medium using the WKBJ‐approximated Green's function, the Rytov approximation, and the stochastic theory of the random velocity field. The new theory overcomes the limitation of the existing theory that can only deal with constant background media. Our extended coherence functions depend jointly on the angle separation between two incident plane waves and the spatial lag between receivers. The theory is verified through numerical simulations using the iasp91 background velocity model with two layers of random media. The current theory has the potential to be used to invert for the depth‐dependent spectrum of heterogeneities in the Earth.

      PubDate: 2012-12-18T18:05:48Z
       
  • Chapter 3 Synthesis of Vector‐Wave Envelopes in Random Elastic Media on
           the Basis of the Markov Approximation
    • Abstract: 2008
      Publication year: 2008
      Source:Advances in Geophysics, Volume 50

      High‐frequency seismograms of earthquakes are complex mainly caused by scattering due to the lithospheric inhomogeneity. Disregarding phase information, seismologists have often focused on the characteristics of seismogram envelopes. The delay time of the maximum amplitude arrival from the onset and the apparent duration time are good measures of scattering caused by random velocity inhomogeneities. There is a stochastic method to directly simulate wave envelopes in random media. The Markov approximation for the parabolic equation is known to be powerful for the direct synthesis of scalar wave envelopes when the wavelength is shorter than the correlation length of random media. It leads to the master equation for the two‐frequency mutual coherence function (TFMCF) of waves, of which the Fourier transform gives the time trace of the wave intensity. It well predicts the peak delay and the broadening of wave envelopes with increasing travel distance for an impulsive source. In this chapter, we extend this approximation to vector waves in random elastic media. When the medium inhomogeneity is weak and the wavelength is shorter than the correlation distance, P‐ and S‐waves can be separately treated by using potentials since conversion scattering between them is weak. Applying the Markov approximation to the TFMCF of potential field, we are able to synthesize vector‐wave envelopes. Vector‐wave envelopes are analytically derived for plane wavelet incidence onto random media and for wavelet radiation from a point source in random media characterized by a Gaussian autocorrelation function. For P‐waves, this approximation predicts not only the peak delay and envelope broadening in the longitudinal component but also the excitation of wave amplitude in the transverse component due to ray bending. The ratio of the mean square (MS) fractional velocity fluctuation to the correlation distance ɛ2/a is the key parameter characterizing these vector‐wave envelopes. The relation between the time integral of the transverse‐component MS amplitude against travel distance gives this ratio. S‐wave envelopes can be synthesized with an analogous mathematical approach. For the same randomness, the envelope broadening of S‐wavelet is larger than that of P‐wavelet by a factor of the ratio of their wave velocities. The validity of the direct envelope synthesis with the Markov approximation is confirmed by a comparison with vector‐wave envelopes calculated from finite difference simulations in two dimensions. The direct syntheses of vector‐wave envelopes developed here could serve for the mathematical interpretation of observed seismograms in terms of lithospheric inhomogeneity.

      PubDate: 2012-12-18T18:05:48Z
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.196.105.189
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016