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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3183 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3183 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 102, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 436, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 312, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 421, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 384, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 475, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 255, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.571
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2092-6782
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3183 journals]
  • Experimental studies of suppressing effectiveness on sloshing with two
           perforated floating plates

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Yue-Min Yu, Ning Ma, She-Ming Fan, Xie-Chong Gu In the present paper, model tests of suppressing sloshing fitted with two perforated floating plates are carried out. The study involves identification of system performance such as the suppression and the solidity ratio. Three different solidity ratios of perforated plates have been tried out as potential positive slosh damping devices. A series of painstaking experiments have been conducted in a rigid rectangular tank on six degrees of freedom motion platform under roll harmonic excitation. Comparison of the clean tank shows that the three types of perforated plates are all effective on damping the run-up and impact pressure along the bulkhead. The parametric study indicates that the perforated plate with the median solidity ratio is the most optimal one in suppressing sloshing among three configurations.
       
  • Distributed control system architecture for deep submergence rescue
           vehicles

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Yushan Sun, Xiangrui Ran, Guocheng Zhang, Fanyu Wu, Chengrong Du The control architectures of Chuan Suo (CS) deep submergence rescue vehicle are introduced. The hardware and software architectures are also discussed. The hardware part adopts a distributed control system composed of surface and underwater nodes. A computer is used as a surface control machine. Underwater equipment is based on a multi-board-embedded industrial computer with PC104 BUS, which contains IO, A/D, D/A, eight-channel serial, and power boards. The hardware and software parts complete data transmission through optical fibers. The software part involves an IPC of embedded Vxworks real-time operating system, upon which the operation of I/O, A/D, and D/A boards and serial ports is based on; this setup improves the real-time manipulation. The information flow is controlled by the software part, and the thrust distribution is introduced. A submergence vehicle heeling control method based on ballast water tank regulation is introduced to meet the special heeling requirements of the submergence rescue vehicle during docking. Finally, the feasibility and reliability of the entire system are verified by a pool test.
       
  • CFD validation and grid sensitivity studies of full scale ship self
           propulsion

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Hrvoje Jasak, Vuko Vukčević, Inno Gatin, Igor Lalović A comparison between sea trial measurements and full–scale CFD results is presented for two self–propelled ships. Two ships considered in the present study are: a general cargo carrier at Froude number Fn=0.182 and a car carrier at Fn=0.254. For the general cargo carrier, the propeller rotation rate is fixed and the achieved speed and trim are compared to sea trials, while for the car carrier, the propeller rotation rate is adjusted to achieve the 80% MCR. In addition, three grids are used for each ship in order to assess the grid refinement sensitivity. All simulations are performed using the Naval Hydro pack based on foam-extend, a community driven fork of the OpenFOAM software. The results demonstrate the possibility of using high–fidelity numerical methods to directly calculate ship scale flow characteristics, including the effects of free surface, non–linearity, turbulence and the interaction between propeller, hull and the flow field.
       
  • Development of the ice resistance series chart for icebreaking ships

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Chun-Ju Lee, Tae-Hwan Joung, Jae-Moon Lew The ice resistance series charts for icebreaking ships were developed through a series of systematic model tests in the ice tank of the Korean Research Institute of Ship and Ocean Engineering (KRISO). Spencer's (1992) component-based scaling system for ship-ice model tests was applied to extend the model ship correlations. Beam to draft ratio (B/T), length to beam ratio (L/B), block coefficient (CB) and stem angle (α) were selected as geometric parameters for hull form development. The basic hull form (S1) of twin pod type with B/T of 3.0, L/B of 6.0, CB of 0.75 and stem angle of 25° was generated with a modern hull design concept. A total of 13 hulls were designed varying the geometric parameters; B/T of 2.5 and 3.5, L/B of 5.0 and 7.0, CB from 0.65 to 0.85 in intervals of 0.05, and 5 stem angles from 15° to 35°. Ice resistance tests were first carried out with the basic hull form in level ice with suitable speed. Four more tests for CB variations from 0.65 to 0.85 were conducted and two more for beam to draft and length to beam ratios were also performed to study the effect of the geometric parameters on ice resistance. Ice resistance tests were summarized using the volumetric coefficient, CV (=∇/L3), instead of L/B and CB variations. Additional model tests were also carried out to account for the effect of the stem angle, ice thickness and ice strength on ice resistance. In order to develop the ice resistance series charts with a minimum number of experiments, the trends of the ice resistance obtained from the experiments were assumed to be similar for other model ship with different geometric parameters. A total of 18 sheets composed of combinations of three different beam to draft ratios and six block coefficients were developed as a parameter of CV in the low speed regions. Three correction charts were also developed for stem angles, ice thickness and ice strength respectively. The charts were applied to estimate ice resistance for existing icebreaking ships including ARAON, and the results were satisfactory with reasonable accuracy.
       
  • An experimental investigation of interceptors for a high speed hull

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Ahmet Gultekin Avci, Baris Barlas Nowadays interceptors have been widely used in a vast range of high-speed crafts. In this study, the results of interceptor adeptness experiments made in Istanbul Technical University's Towing Tank are unveiled. The model was tested through three transverse locations of interceptors with six different deployment depths. For three locations, the interceptor was positioned transverse on the aft; close to chine, in the middle and close to the keel. The fourth interceptor was a full length of 13.00% LWL. The results show a significant drag reduction in benefits of 1.50%–11.30% for Fn 0.58–1.19 and the trim reduction was observed in between 1.60 and 4.70°. Besides, one of the most significant conclusions indicates that the effect of the interceptor decreases from keel to chine for the same blade deployment heights so the blades should be controlled separately at least in three parts from keel to chine area, if operable.
       
  • Motion characteristics of a floating wave energy converter with wave
           activating body type

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Sung-soo Kim, Jae-chul Lee, Donghoon Kang, Soon-sup Lee Interest in renewable energy has been increasing in recent years for many reasons, and there have been many studies on new types of wave energy converters and mechanisms for them. However, in this paper, motion characteristics of a wave energy converter with a wave activating body type is studied with an experiment. In order to conduct the experiment, a simple wave activating body type's wave energy converter is proposed. Experimental variations consist of connection type and location. The connection type controls the rotation motions of structures, and the connection location controls the distance between structures. The movement of floating structures, such as rotation, velocity, and acceleration, is measured with a potentiometer and a motion capture camera. Using the recorded data, the motion characteristics derived from the experimental variations are investigated.
       
  • Obstacles modeling method in cluttered environments using satellite images
           and its application to path planning for USV

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Binghua Shi, Yixin Su, Huajun Zhang, Jiawen Liu, Lili Wan The obstacles modeling is a fundamental and significant issue for path planning and automatic navigation of Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV). In this study, we propose a novel obstacles modeling method based on high resolution satellite images. It involves two main steps: extraction of obstacle features and construction of convex hulls. To extract the obstacle features, a series of operations such as sea-land segmentation, obstacles details enhancement, and morphological transformations are applied. Furthermore, an efficient algorithm is proposed to mask the obstacles into convex hulls, which mainly includes the cluster analysis of obstacles area and the determination rules of edge points. Experimental results demonstrate that the models achieved by the proposed method and the manual have high similarity. As an application, the model is used to find the optimal path for USV. The study shows that the obstacles modeling method is feasible, and it can be applied to USV path planning.
       
  • Hydrodynamic characteristics of cambered NACA0012 for flexible-wing
           application of a flapping-type tidal stream energy harvesting system

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Patar Ebenezer Sitorus, Jin –Soon Park, Jin Hwan Ko In recent years, nonlinear dynamic models have been developed for flapping-type energy harvesting systems with a rigid wing, but not for those with a flexible wing. Thus, in this study, flexible wing designs of NACA0012 section are proposed and measurements of the forces of rigid cambered wings, which are used to estimate the performance of the designed wings, are conducted. Polar curves from the measured lift and drag coefficients show that JavaFoil estimation is much closer to the measured values than Eppler over the entire given range of angles of attack. As the camber of the rigid cambered wings is increased, both the lift and drag coefficients increase, in turn increasing the resultant forces. Moreover, the maximum resultant forces for all rigid cambered wings are achieved at the same angle of attack as the maximum lift coefficient, meaning that the lift coefficient is dominant in representations of the wing characteristics.
       
  • Experimental investigations on seismic response of riser in touchdown zone

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 3Author(s): Yunyun Dai, Jing Zhou A series of indoor simulation tests on a large-sized shaking table was performed, which was used to simulate the earthquake ground motion for the pipe–soil interaction system to be tested. The purpose of this study is to examine the dynamic characteristic and seismic response of a length of PVC pipeline lay on a clay seabed under seismic load. The pipeline was fully instrumented to provide strain and acceleration responses in both transverse and in-line. Dynamical modal tests show that corresponding mode shapes vertically and horizontally are basically the same. But the absolute values of the natural frequencies vertically are all higher than those corresponding values in transverse. It turned out that the geometry configuration of riser affects its stiffness. Seismic response of pipeline depends significantly on the waveform, and Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA). As the seismic loading progressed, the strain response was severe around both TDZ and catenary zone. Additionally, strain responses in top and bottom positions were more severe than the result in left or right side of the pipeline in the same section.
       
  • An improved solid boundary treatment for wave–float interactions
           using ISPH method

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 3Author(s): Xing Zheng, Xipeng Lv, Qingwei Ma, Wenyang Duan, Abbas Khayyer, Songdong Shao The Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method has proved to have great potentials in dealing with the wave-structure interactions. Compared with the Weakly Compressible SPH (WCSPH) method, the ISPH approach solves the pressure by using the pressure Poisson equation rather than the equation of state. This could provide a more stable and accurate pressure field that is important in the study of wave-structure interactions. This paper improves the solid boundary treatment of ISPH by using a high accuracy Simplified Finite Difference Interpolation (SFDI) scheme for the 2D wave-structure coupling problems, especially for free-moving structure. The proposed method is referred as the ISPH_BS. The model improvement is demonstrated by the documented benchmark tests and laboratory experiment covering various wave-structure interaction applications.
       
  • Dynamic modeling and three-dimensional motion simulation of a disk type
           underwater glider

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 3Author(s): Pengyao Yu, Tianlin Wang, Han Zhou, Cong Shen Disk type underwater gliders are a new type of underwater gliders and they could glide in various directions by adjusting the internal structures, making a turnaround like conventional gliders unnecessary. This characteristic of disk type underwater gliders makes them have great potential application in virtual mooring. Considering dynamic models of conventional underwater gliders could not adequately satisfy the motion characteristic of disk type underwater gliders, a nonlinear dynamic model for the motion simulation of disk type underwater glider is developed in this paper. In the model, the effect of internal masses movement is taken into consideration and a viscous hydrodynamic calculation method satisfying the motion characteristic of disk type underwater gliders is proposed. Through simulating typical motions of a disk type underwater glider, the feasibility of the dynamic model is validated and the disk type underwater glider shows good maneuverability.
       
  • Numerical investigations of tip clearance flow characteristics of a
           pumpjet propulsor

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 3Author(s): Lin Lu, Yuefei Gao, Qiang Li, Lin Du In this study, numerical investigations of the tip clearance flow characteristics of a pumpjet propulsor based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method have been presented. The Zwart-Gerber-Belamri (Z-G-B) cavitation model based on Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) method is employed. The structured gird is applied. The formation and development of the tip clearance flows has been investigated and presented. The structure of the tip leakage vortex has been shown. The radial distributions of different velocity components with different Span along the axial direction have been carried out to present the influence of the tip clearance flow on the main flow. In addition, the influences of the tip clearance size on the pumpjet propulsor performance, including the impact on the velocity flow fields and the cavitation characteristic, have been presented.
       
  • Experimental investigation of slamming impact acted on flat bottom bodies
           and cumulative damage

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 3Author(s): Hyunkyoung Shin, Byoungcheon Seo, Sang-Rai Cho Most offshore structures including offshore wind turbines, ships, etc. suffer from the impulsive pressure loads due to slamming phenomena in rough waves. The effects of elasticity & plasticity on such slamming loads are investigated through wet free drop test results of several steel unstiffened flat bottom bodies in the rectangular water tank. Also, their cumulative deformations by consecutively repetitive free drops from 1000 mm to 2000 mm in height are measured.
       
  • Three-dimensional trajectory tracking for underactuated AUVs with
           bio-inspired velocity regulation

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 3Author(s): Jiajia Zhou, Dingqi Ye, Junpeng Zhao, Dongxu He This paper attempts to address the motion parameter skip problem associated with three-dimensional trajectory tracking of an underactuated Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) using backstepping-based control, due to the unsmoothness of tracking trajectory. Through kinematics concepts, a three-dimensional dynamic velocity regulation controller is derived. This controller makes use of the surge and angular velocity errors with bio-inspired models and backstepping techniques. It overcomes the frequently occurring problem of parameter skip at inflection point existing in backstepping tracking control method and increases system robustness. Moreover, the proposed method can effectively avoid the singularity problem in backstepping control of virtual velocity error. The control system is proved to be uniformly ultimately bounded using Lyapunov stability theory. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the developed controller, which can realize accurate three-dimensional trajectory tracking for an underactuated AUV with constant external disturbances.
       
  • Improved version of LeMoS hybrid model for ambiguous grid densities

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 3Author(s): I. Shevchuk, N. Kornev Application of the LeMoS hybrid (LH) URANS/LES method for the wake parameters prediction is considered. The wake fraction coefficient is calculated for inland ship model M1926 under shallow water conditions and compared to results of PIV measurements. It was shown that due to lack of the resolved turbulence at the interface between LES and RANS zones the artificial grid induced separations can occur. In order to overcome this drawback, a shielding function is introduced into LH model. The new version of the model is compared to the original one, RANS k−ω SST and SST-IDDES models. It is demonstrated that the proposed modification is robust and capable of wake prediction with satisfactory accuracy.
       
  • The effects of consolidation time on the strength and failure behavior of
           freshwater ice rubble

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 3Author(s): Hamid Shayanfar, Eleanor Bailey, Robert Pritchett, Rocky Taylor Medium-scale tests were conducted to measure and observe the strength and failure behavior of freshwater ice rubble. A custom box measuring 3.05 m × 0.94 m × 0.94 m, with Plexiglas walls was built so that failure mechanisms could be observed. Ice rubble beams of nominal thickness 50 cm were produced by placing randomly sized ice pieces into the box filled with water at its freezing temperature. After the specified consolidation time, ranging between 0.2 and 70.5 h, the ice rubble beam was deformed by pushing a platen vertically downwards though the center of the beam until failure. For consolidation times less than 4 h, the ice beam failed progressively and tended to fail by shearing on macroscopic scale. At times greater than 4 h the beam failed by bending. The change in failure behaviour has been attributed to the degree of bonding between ice blocks.
       
  • Preliminary optimal configuration on free standing hybrid riser

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 3Author(s): Kyoung-Su Kim, Han-Suk Choi, Kyung Sung Kim Free Standing Hybrid Riser (FSHR) is comprised of vertical steel risers and Flexible Jumpers (FJ). They are jointly connected to a submerged Buoyancy Can (BC). There are several factors that have influence on the behavior of FSHR such as the span distance between an offshore platform and a foundation, BC up-lift force, BC submerged location and FJ length.An optimization method through a parametric study is presented. Firstly, descriptions for the overall arrangement and characteristics of FSHR are introduced. Secondly, a flowchart for optimization of FSHR is suggested. Following that, it is described how to select reasonable ranges for a parametric study and determine each of optimal configuration options. Lastly, numerical analysis based on this procedure is performed through a case study. In conclusion, the relation among those parameters is analyzed and non-dimensional parametric ranges on optimal arrangements are suggested. Additionally, strength analysis is performed with variation in the configuration.
       
  • Artificial neural network controller for automatic ship berthing using
           head-up coordinate system

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 3Author(s): Nam-Kyun Im, Van-Suong Nguyen The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model has been known as one of the most effective theories for automatic ship berthing, as it has learning ability and mimics the actions of the human brain when performing the stages of ship berthing. However, existing ANN controllers can only bring a ship into a berth in a certain port, where the inputs of the ANN are the same as those of the teaching data. This means that those ANN controllers must be retrained when the ship arrives to a new port, which is time-consuming and costly. In this research, by using the head-up coordinate system, which includes the relative bearing and distance from the ship to the berth, a novel ANN controller is proposed to automatically control the ship into the berth in different ports without retraining the ANN structure. Numerical simulations were performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller. First, teaching data were created in the original port to train the neural network; then, the controller was tested for automatic berthing in other ports, where the initial conditions of the inputs in the head-up coordinate system were similar to those of the teaching data in the original port. The results showed that the proposed controller has good performance for ship berthing in ports.
       
  • Editorial

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 3Author(s):
       
  • Friction correction for model ship resistance and propulsion tests in ice
           at NRC's OCRE-RC

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 3Author(s): Michael Lau This paper documents the result of a preliminary analysis on the influence of hull-ice friction coefficient on model resistance and power predictions and their correlation to full-scale measurements. The study is based on previous model-scale/full-scale correlations performed on the National Research Council - Ocean, Coastal, and River Engineering Research Center's (NRC/OCRE-RC) model test data. There are two objectives for the current study: (1) to validate NRC/OCRE-RC's modeling standards in regarding to its practice of specifying a CFC (Correlation Friction Coefficient) of 0.05 for all its ship models; and (2) to develop a correction methodology for its resistance and propulsion predictions when the model is prepared with an ice friction coefficient slightly deviated from the CFC of 0.05. The mean CFC of 0.056 and 0.050 for perfect correlation as computed from the resistance and power analysis, respectively, have justified NRC/OCRE-RC's selection of 0.05 for the CFC of all its models. Furthermore, a procedure for minor friction corrections is developed.
       
  • Numerical and experimental study on the impact between a free falling
           wedge and water

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Chuanrui Dong, Shili Sun, Hexing Song, Qiang Wang In this paper, numerical and experimental studies are performed to investigate the liquid impact on a free falling wedge. In the numerical simulation, the structure is assumed to be rigid and the elastic response is ignored. The fully nonlinear coupling between wedge and water is considered by an auxiliary function method based on the Boundary Element Method (BEM). At the intersection of the wedge surface and liquid surface, two coincident nodes are used to decouple the boundary conditions. The Eulerian free surface conditions in the local coordinate system are adopted to update the deformed free surface. In the experiments, five pressure sensors are fixed on each side of the wedge which is released from an experimental installation. Steel and aluminum wedges that have different structural elasticity are used in the experiments to investigate the influence of structural elasticity on the impact force. Numerical results are compared with experimental data and they agree very well. The influence of fluid gravity, body mass, initial entry speed and deadrise angle on the impact pressure are further investigated.
       
  • A nonlinear controller based on saturation functions with variable
           parameters to stabilize an AUV

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): E. Campos, J. Monroy, H. Abundis, A. Chemori, V. Creuze, J. Torres This paper deals with a nonlinear controller based on saturation functions with variable parameters for set-point regulation and trajectory tracking control of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). In many cases, saturation functions with constant parameters are used to limit the input signals generated by a classical PD (Proportional-Derivative) controller to avoid damaging the actuators; however this abrupt bounded harms the performance of the controller. We, therefore, propose to replace the conventional saturation function, with constant parameters, by a saturation function with variable parameters to limit the signals of a PD controller, which is the base of the nonlinear PD with gravitational/buoyancy compensation and the nonlinear PD + controllers that we propose in this paper. Consequently, the mathematical model is obtained, considering the featuring operation of the underwater vehicle LIRMIA 2, to do the stability analysis of the closed-loop system with the proposed nonlinear controllers using the Lyapunov arguments. The experimental results show the performance of an AUV (LIRMIA 2) for the depth control problems in the case of set-point regulation and trajectory tracking control.
       
  • 2D numerical modeling of icebreaker advancing in ice-covered water

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 3Author(s): Junji Sawamura This paper presents 2D numerical modeling to calculate ship–ice interactions that occur when an icebreaker advances into ice-covered water. The numerical model calculates repeated icebreaking of an ice plate and removal of small ice floes. The icebreaking of the ice plate is calculated using a ship–ice contact detection technique and fluid–structural interaction of ice plate bending behavior. The ship–ice interactions in small ice floes are calculated using a physically based modeling with 3DOF rigid body equations. The ice plate is broken in crushing, bending, and splitting mode. The ice floes drift by wind or current and by the force induced by the ship–ice interaction. The time history of ice force and ice floe distribution when an icebreaker advances into the ice-covered water are obtained numerically. Numerical results demonstrate that the time history of ice force and distribution of ice floes (ice channel width) depend on the ice floe size, ship motion and ice drifting by wind or current. It is shown that the numerical model of ship maneuvering in realistic ice conditions is necessary to obtain precise information about the ship in ice-covered water. The proposed numerical model can be useful to provide data of a ship operating in ice-covered water.
       
  • Evaluation of the limit ice thickness for the hull of various
           Finnish-Swedish ice class vessels navigating in the Russian Arctic

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 3Author(s): Pentti Kujala, Mihkel Kõrgesaar, Jorma Kämäräinen Selection of suitable ice class for ships operation is an important but not simple task. The increased exploitation of the Polar waters, both seasonal periods and geographical areas, as well as the introduction of new international design standards such as Polar Code, reduces the relevancy of using existing experience as basis for the selection, and new methods and knowledge have to be developed. This paper will analyse what can be the limiting ice thickness for ships navigating in the Russian Arctic and designed according to the Finnish-Swedish ice class rules. The permanent deformations of ice-strengthened shell structures for various ice classes is determined using MT Uikku as the typical size of a vessel navigating in ice. The ice load in various conditions is determined using the ARCDEV data from the winter 1998 as the basic database. By comparing the measured load in various ice conditions with the serviceability limit state of the structures, the limiting ice thickness for various ice classes is determined. The database for maximum loads includes 3-weeks ice load measurements during April 1998 on the Kara Sea mainly by icebreaker assistance. Gumbel 1 distribution is fitted on the measured 20 min maximum values and the data is divided into various classes using ship speed, ice thickness and ice concentration as the main parameters. Results encouragingly show that present designs are safer than assumed in the Polar Code suggesting that assisted operation in Arctic conditions is feasible in rougher conditions than indicated in the Polar Code.
       
  • Numerical study on the structural response of energy-saving device of
           ice-class vessel due to impact of ice block

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 3Author(s): Sadaoki Matsui, Shotaro Uto, Yasuhira Yamada, Shinpei Watanabe The present paper considers the contact between energy-saving device of ice-class vessel and ice block. The main objective of this study is to clarify the tendency of the ice impact force and the structural response as well as interaction effects of them. The contact analysis is performed by using LS-DYNA finite element code. The main collision scenario is based on Finnish-Swedish ice class rules and a stern duct model is used as an energy-saving device. For the contact force, two modelling approaches are adopted. One is dynamic indentation model of ice block based on the pressure-area curve. The other is numerical material modelling by LS-DYNA. The authors investigated the sensitivity of the structural response against the ice contact pressure, the interaction effect between structure and ice block, and the influence of eccentric collision. The results of these simulations are presented and discussed with respect to structural safety.
       
  • New insights about ice friction obtained from crushing-friction tests on
           smooth and high-roughness surfaces

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 3Author(s): Robert E. Gagnon Ice crushing occurs in many situations that involve a sliding frictional component such as sports involving ice-contact, ice interaction with ship hulls, and ice-on-ice sliding/crushing within glaciers and between interacting sea ice floes. Ice crushing-friction tests were conducted in the lab at −10 °C using a set of acrylic ice-crushing platens that included a flat smooth surface and a variety of high-roughness surfaces with regular arrays of small prominences. The experiments were part of Phase II tests of the Blade Runners technology for reducing ice-induced vibration. Ice was crushed against the platens where the ice movement had both a vertical and a horizontal component. High-speed imaging through the platens was used to observe the ice contact zone as it evolved during the tests. Vertical crushing rates were in the range 10–30 mm/s and the horizontal sliding rates were in the range 4.14–30 mm/s. Three types of freshwater ice were used. Friction coefficients were extraordinarily low and were proportional to the ratio of the tangential sliding rate and the normal crushing rate. For the rough surfaces all of the friction coefficient variation was determined by the fluid dynamics of a slurry that flowed through channels that developed between leeward-facing facets of the prominences and the moving ice. The slurry originated from a highly-lubricating self-generating squeeze film of ice particles and melt located between the encroaching intact ice and the surfaces.
       
  • Guest Editorial

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 3Author(s): Kyungsik Choi
       
  • Prediction of the wave induced second order vertical bending moment due to
           the variation of the ship side angle by using the quadratic strip theory

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 3Author(s): Seunglyong Kim, Jungsoo Ryue, In-Kyu Park In this study, the second order bending moment induced by sea waves is calculated using the quadratic strip theory. The theory has the fluid forcing terms including the quadratic terms of the hydrodynamic forces and the Froude–Krylov forces. They are applied to a ship as the external forces in order to estimate the second order ship responses by fluid forces. The sensitivity of the second order bending moment is investigated by implementing the quadratic terms by varying the ship side angle for two example ships. As a result, it was found that the second order bending moment changes significantly by the variation of the ship side angle. It implies that increased flare angles at the bow and the stern of ships being enlarged would amplify their vertical bending moments considerably due to the quadratic terms and may make them vulnerable to the fatigue.
       
  • Fatigue analysis on the mooring chain of a spread moored FPSO considering
           the OPB and IPB

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Yooil Kim, Min-Suk Kim, Myong-Jin Park The appropriate design of a mooring system to maintain the position of an offshore structure in deep sea under various environmental loads is important. Fatigue design of the mooring line considering OPB/IPB(out-of-plane bending/in-plane bending) became an essential factor after the incident of premature fatigue failure of the mooring chain due to OPB/IPB in the Girassol region in West Africa. In this study, mooring line fatigue analysis was performed considering the OPB/IPB of a spread moored FPSO in deep sea. The tension of the mooring line was derived by hydrodynamic analysis using the de-coupled analysis method. The floater motion time histories were calculated under the assumption that the mooring line behaves in quasi-static manner. Additional time domain analysis was carried out by prescribing the obtained motions on top of the selected critical mooring line, which was determined based on spectral fatigue analysis. In addition, nonlinear finite element analysis was performed considering the material nonlinearities, and both the interlink stiffness and stress concentration factors were derived. The fatigue damage to the chain surface was estimated by combining both the hydrodynamic and stress analysis results.
       
  • Probabilistic estimates of corrosion rate of fuel tank structures of aging
           bulk carriers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Špiro Ivošević, Romeo Meštrović, Nataša Kovač This paper considers corrosion wastage of two ship hull structure members as a part of investigated fuel oil tanks of 25 aging bulk carriers. Taking into account that many factors which influence corrosion wastage of ship hull structures are of uncertain nature, the related corrosion rate (c1) is considered here as a real-valued continuous distribution, assuming that the corrosion wastage starts after 5, 6 or 7 years. In all considered cases, by using available data and applying three basic statistical tests, it is established that between two-parameter continuous distributions, normal, Weibull and logistic distributions are best fitted distributions for the mentioned corrosion rate (c1). Note that the presented statistical, numerical and graphical results concerning two mentioned ship hull structure members allow to compare and discuss the corresponding probabilistic estimates for the corrosion rate (c1).
       
  • A study on accumulated damage of steel wedges with dead-rise 10° due
           to slamming loads

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Byoungcheon Seo, Dac Dung Truong, Sangrai Cho, Dongju Kim, Sookeun Park, Hyunkyoung Shin This paper presents the results of experimental investigation on the elastic–plastic response of steel unstiffened wedges with dead-rise 10° subjected to repeated impulsive pressure loadings. Repeated drop tests were performed with both wedge thickness and drop height varied. The pressure and histories were recorded during the tests and the permanent deflections were measured after every drop. Using the recorded test result, the effects of flexibility of wedges and repetition have been investigated. From the pressure history obtained from the tests the characteristics of the impulses were identified. Numerical simulations of the tests were made using the measured pressure history and the permanent deflection predictions were compared with those of the experiments.
       
  • Rotor dynamic analysis of a tidal turbine considering fluid–structure
           interaction under shear flow and waves

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Andre Laß, Matti Schilling, Jitendra Kumar, Frank-Hendrik Wurm A rotor dynamic analysis is mandatory for stability and design optimization of submerged propellers and turbines. An accurate simulation requires a proper consideration of fluid-induced reaction forces. This paper presents a bi-directional coupling of a bond graph method solver and an unsteady vortex lattice method solver where the former is used to model the rotor dynamics of the power train and the latter is used to predict transient hydrodynamic forces. Due to solver coupling, determination of hydrodynamic coefficients is obsolete and added mass effects are considered automatically. Additionally, power grid and structural faults like grid fluctuations, eccentricity or failure could be investigated using the same model. In this research work a fast, time resolved dynamic simulation of the complete power train is conducted. As an example, the rotor dynamics of a tidal stream turbine is investigated under two inflow conditions: I - shear flow, II - shear flow + water waves.
       
  • Case studies on the probabilistic characteristics of ultimate strength of
           stiffened panels with uniform and non-uniform localized corrosion
           subjected to uniaxial and biaxial thrust

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Jinju Cui, Deyu Wang, Ning Ma Based on Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (NFEA), this paper focuses on the bi-axial ultimate strength of typical bottom structures under corrosion. On one hand, uniform and not simultaneous corrosion across different structures is introduced, and surrogate models by Gaussian Process (GP) are built for both longitudinal and transverse cases individually, and corresponding probabilistic characteristics are investigated; meanwhile, corrosion effects on interaction between bi-axial stresses at ultimate state are studied. On the other hand, non-uniform localized pitting corrosion of normally distributed circular shapes is introduced, and different pitting corrosion densities are considered; structural bi-axial ultimate strengths under pitting corrosion are studied, and the results are compared with that from equivalent uniform corrosion; the probabilistic characteristics of structural ultimate strength in life cycle are studied; finally, the ultimate strength under randomly distributed pitting corrosion is compared with results from normally distributed pitting and uniform corrosion under various boundary conditions.
       
  • Numerical studies on non-linearity of added resistance and ship motions of
           KVLCC2 in short and long waves

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Olgun Hizir, Mingyu Kim, Osman Turan, Alexander Day, Atilla Incecik, Yongwon Lee In this study, numerical simulations for the prediction of added resistance for KVLCC2 with varying wave steepness are performed using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method and a 3-D linear potential method, and then the non-linearities of added resistance and ship motions are investigated in regular short and long waves. Firstly, grid convergence tests in short and long waves are carried out to establish an optimal mesh system for CFD simulations. Secondly, numerical simulations are performed to predict ship added resistance and vertical motion responses in short and long waves and the results are verified using the available experimental data. Finally, the non-linearities of added resistance and ship motions with unsteady wave patterns in the time domain are investigated with the increase in wave steepness in both short and long waves. The present systematic study demonstrates that the numerical results have a reasonable agreement with the experimental data and emphasizes the non-linearity in the prediction of the added resistance and the ship motions with the increasing wave steepness in short and long waves.
       
  • Experimental investigations on the failure modes of ring-stiffened
           cylinders under external hydrostatic pressure

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Sang-Rai Cho, Teguh Muttaqie, Quang Thang Do, Sinho Kim, Seung Min Kim, Doo-Hwan Han This paper reports on the experimental investigations on the failure modes of ring-stiffened cylinder models subjected to external hydrostatic pressure. Nine models were welded from general structural steel. The shells were initially formed by cold-rolling, and flat-bar ring frames were welded to the shell. The hydrostatic pressure tests were conducted by using water as the medium in pressure chambers. The details of the preparation and main test were briefly explained. The investigation identified the consequence of the structural failure modes, including: shell yielding, local shell buckling between ring stiffeners, overall buckling of the shell together with the stiffeners, and interactive buckling mode combining local and overall buckling. In addition, the ultimate strengths were predicted by using existing design codes. Non-linear numerical computations were also conducted by employing the actual imperfection coordinates. Finally, accuracy and reliability of the predictions of design formulae and numerical were substantiated with the test results.
       
  • A numerical and experimental study on the performance of a twisted rudder
           with wavy configuration

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Yong Jin Shin, Moon Chan Kim, Joon-Hyoung Lee, Mu Seok Song In this paper, a Wavy Twisted Rudder (WTR) is proposed to address the discontinuity of the twisted section and increase the stalling angle in comparison to a conventional full-spade Twisted Rudder (TR). The wave configuration was applied to a KRISO Container Ship (KCS) to confirm the characteristics of the rudder under the influence of the propeller wake. The resistance, self-propulsion performance, and rudder force at high angles of the wavy twisted rudder and twisted rudder were compared using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The numerical results were compared with the experimental results. The WTR differed from the TR in the degree of separation flow at large rudder angles. This was verified by visualizing the streamline around the rudder. The results confirmed the superiority of the WTR in terms of its delayed stall and high lift–drag ratio.
       
  • Two-stage layout–size optimization method for prow stiffeners

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Zhijun Liu, Shingo Cho, Akihiro Takezawa, Xiaopeng Zhang, Mitsuru Kitamura Designing sophisticate ship structures that satisfy several design criteria simultaneously with minimum weight and cost is an important engineering issue. For a ship structure composed of a shell and stiffeners, this issue is more serious because their mutual effect has to be addressed. In this study, a two-stage optimization method is proposed for the conceptual design of stiffeners in a ship's prow. In the first stage, a topology optimization method is used to determine a potential stiffener distribution based on the optimal results, whereupon stiffeners are constructed according to stiffener generative theory and the material distribution. In the second stage, size optimization is conducted to optimize the plate and stiffener sections simultaneously based on a parametric model. A final analysis model of the ship-prow structure is presented to assess the validity of this method. The analysis results show that the two-stage optimization method is effective for stiffener conceptual design, which provides a reference for designing actual stiffeners for ship hulls.
       
  • Theoretical investigation about the hydrodynamic performance of propeller
           in oblique flow

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Lixun Hou, Ankang Hu This paper establishes an iterative calculation model for the hydrodynamic performance of propeller in oblique flow based on low order potential based surface panel method. The hydrodynamic performance of propeller is calculated through panel method which is also used to calculate the induced velocity. The slipstream of propeller is adjusted according to the inflow velocity and the induced velocity. The oblique flow is defined by the axial inflow velocity and the incident angle. The calculation results of an instance show that the thrust and torque of propeller decrease with the increase of axial inflow velocity but increase with the incident angle. The unsteadiness of loads on the propeller blade surface gets more intensified with the increases of axial inflow velocity and incident angle. However, comparing with the effect of axial inflow velocity on the unsteadiness of the hydrodynamic performance of propeller, the effect of the incident angle is more remarkable.
       
  • A numerical study on the correlation between the evolution of propeller
           trailing vortex wake and skew of propellers

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 2Author(s): Lian-Zhou Wang, Chun-Yu Guo, Yu-Min Su, Tie-Cheng Wu The characteristics of the relationship between the evolution of propeller trailing vortex wake and skew angle are numerically examined based on four different five-blade David Taylor Model Basin (DTMB) model propellers with different skew angles. Numerical simulations are based on Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations combined with SST k−ω turbulence model. Results show that the contraction of propeller trailing vortex wake can be restrained by increasing skew angle and loading conditions, and root vortices fade away when the propeller skew angle increases. With the increase of the propeller's skew angle, the deformation of the hub vortex and destabilization of the tip vortices are weakening gradually because the blade-to-blade interaction becomes weaker. The transition trailing vortex wake from stability to instability is restrained when the skew increases. Furthermore, analyses of tip vortice trajectories show that the increasing skew can reduce the difference in trailing vortex wake contraction under different loading conditions.
       
  • Numerical modeling and simulation technique in time-domain for multibeam
           echo sounder

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 2Author(s): Donghwan Jung, Jeasoo Kim, Gihoon Byun A Multibeam Echo Sounder (MBES) is commonly used for rapid seafloor mapping. We herein present a time-domain integrated system simulation technique for MBES development. The Modeling and Simulation (M&S) modules consist of four parts: sensor array signal transmission, propagation and backscattering modeling in the ocean environment, beamforming of the received signals, and image processing. Also, the simulation employs a ray-theory-based algorithm to correct the reconstructed bathymetry, which has errors due to the refraction caused by the vertical sound velocity profile. The developed M&S technique enables design parameter verification and system parameter optimization for MBES. The framework of this technique can also be potentially used to characterize the seabed properties. Finally, typical seafloor images are presented and discussed.
       
  • Editorial

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 2Author(s):
       
  • Development of stress correction formulae for heat formed steel plates

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 2Author(s): Hyung Kyun Lim, Joo-Sung Lee The heating process such as line heating, triangular heating and so on is widely used in plate forming of shell plates found in bow and stern area of outer shell in a ship. Local shrinkage during heating process is main physical phenomenon used in plate forming process. As it is well appreciated, the heated plate undergoes the change in material and mechanical properties around heated area due to the harsh thermal process. It is, therefore, important to investigate the changes of physical and mechanical properties due to heating process in order to use them plate the design stage of shell plates. This study is concerned with the development of formula of plastic hardening constitutive equation for steel plate on which line heating is applied. In this study the stress correction formula for the heated plate has been developed based on the numerical simulation of tension test with varying plate thickness and heating speed through the regression analysis of multiple variable case. It has been seen the developed formula shows very good agreement with results of numerical simulation. This paper ends with usefulness of the present formula in examining the structural characteristic of ship's hull.
       
  • PAUT-based defect detection method for submarine pressure hulls

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 2Author(s): Min-jae Jung, Byeong-cheol Park, Jeong-hoon Bae, Sung-chul Shin A submarine has a pressure hull that can withstand high hydraulic pressure and therefore, requires the use of highly advanced shipbuilding technology. When producing a pressure hull, periodic inspection, repair, and maintenance are conducted to maintain its soundness. Of the maintenance methods, Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) is the most effective, because it does not damage the target but sustains its original form and function while inspecting internal and external defects. The NDT process to detect defects in the welded parts of the submarine is applied through Magnetic particle Testing (MT) to detect surface defects and Ultrasonic Testing (UT) and Radiography Testing (RT) to detect internal defects. In comparison with RT, UT encounters difficulties in distinguishing the types of defects, can yield different results depending on the skills of the inspector, and stores no inspection record. At the same time, the use of RT gives rise to issues related to worker safety due to radiation exposure. RT is also difficult to apply from the perspectives of the manufacturing of the submarine and economic feasibility. Therefore, in this study, the Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) method was applied to propose an inspection method that can address the above disadvantages by designing a probe to enhance the precision of detection of hull defects and the reliability of calculations of defect size.
       
  • The effect of initial stress induced during the steel manufacturing
           process on the welding residual stress in multi-pass butt welding

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 2Author(s): Jeong-ung Park, Gyubaek An, Wanchuck Woo A residual stress generated in the steel structure is broadly categorized into initial residual stress during manufacturing steel material, welding residual stress caused by welding, and heat treatment residual stress by heat treatment. Initial residual stresses induced during the manufacturing process is combined with welding residual stress or heat treatment residual stress, and remained as a final residual stress. Because such final residual stress affects the safety and strength of the structure, it is of utmost importance to measure or predict the magnitude of residual stress, and to apply this point on the design of the structure. In this study, the initial residual stress of steel structures having thicknesses of 25 mm and 70 mm during manufacturing was measured in order to investigate initial residual stress (hereinafter, referred to as initial stress). In addition, thermal elastic plastic FEM analysis was performed with this initial condition, and the effect of initial stress on the welding residual stress was investigated. Further, the reliability of the FE analysis result, considering the initial stress and welding residual stress for the steel structures having two thicknesses, was validated by comparing it with the measured results. In the vicinity of the weld joint, the initial stress is released and finally controlled by the weld residual stress. On the other hand, the farther away from the weld joint, the greater the influence of the initial stress. The range in which the initial stress affects the weld residual stress was not changed by the initial stress. However, in the region where the initial stress occurs in the compressive stress, the magnitude of the weld residual compressive stress varies with the compression or tension of the initial stress. The effect of initial stress on the maximum compression residual stress was far larger when initial stress was considered in case of a thickness of 25 mm with a value of 180 MPa, while in case of thickness at 70 mm, it was 200 MPa. The increase in compressive residual stress is almost the same as the initial stress. However, if initial stress was tensile, there was no significant change in the maximum compression residual stress.Graphical abstractImage 1Distribution of residual stress in welding direction considering with / without the initial stress at thickness, 70 mm.
       
  • A study on minimum weight design of vertical corrugated bulkheads for
           chemical tankers

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 2Author(s): Sang-Hoon Shin, Dae-Eun Ko Corrugated bulkhead has been adopted for cargo tank bulkheads of commercial vessels such as bulk carriers, product oil carriers and chemical tankers. It is considered that corrugated bulkhead is a preferred structural solution, compared to the flat stiffened bulkhead, due to several advantages such as lower mass, easier maintenance and smaller corrosion problems. Many researches to find the optimum shape of corrugated bulkhead have been mostly carried out for bulk carriers. Compared to corrugated bulkheads of bulk carriers, ones of chemical tankers are more complicated since they are composed of transverse and longitudinal bulkheads, and they are made of higher priced materials. The purpose of this study is the development of minimum weight design method for corrugated bulkhead of chemical tankers. Evolution strategy is applied as an optimization technique. It has been verified from many researches that evolution strategy searches global optimum point prominently by using multi-individual searching technique. Multi-individual searching methods need excessive time if they connect to 3-D finite element model for repetitive structural analyses. In order to resolve this issue, 2-D beam element connected to deck and lower stool is substituted for a corrugated structure in this study. To verify the reliability of the structural responses by idealized 2-D beam model, they have been compared with ones by 3-D finite element model. In this study, optimum design for corrugated bulkhead of 30 K chemical tanker has been carried out, and the results by developed optimum design program have been compared with design data of existing ship. It is found out that optimum design is about 9% lighter than one of existing ship.
       
  • Research on the motion characteristics of a trans-media vehicle when
           entering water obliquely at low speed

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 2Author(s): Yong-li Li, Jin-fu Feng, Jun-hua Hu, Jian Yang This paper proposes a single control strategy to solve the problem of trans-media vehicle difficult control. The proposed control strategy is just to control the vehicle's air navigation, but not to control the underwater navigation. The hydrodynamic model of a vehicle when entering water obliquely at low speed has been founded to analyze the motion characteristics. Two methods have been used to simulate the vehicle entering water in the same condition: numerical simulation method and theoretical model solving method. And the results of the two methods can validate the hydrodynamic model founded in this paper. The entering water motion in the conditions of different velocity, different angle, and different attack angle has been simulated by this hydrodynamic model and the simulation has been analyzed. And the change rule of the vehicle's gestures and position when entering water has been obtained by analysis. This entering water rule will guide the follow-up of a series of research, such as the underwater navigation, the exiting water process and so on.
       
  • Ice forces acting on towed ship in level ice with straight drift. Part II:
           Numerical simulation

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Volume 10, Issue 2Author(s): Li Zhou, Zhenju Chuang, Xu Bai A numerical method is proposed to simulate level ice interaction with ship in transverse and longitudinal directions in time domain. A novel method is proposed to simulate non-symmetric transverse force in a stochastic way. On the basis of observations from the model tests, the simulation of longitudinal force combines the ice bending force acting on the waterline, submersion force below the waterline and ice friction forces caused by transverse force and ice floes rotation amidships. In the simulations the ship was fixed and towed through an intact ice sheet at a certain speed. The setup of the numerical simulation is similar to the ice tank setup as much as possible. The simulated results are compared with model tests data and the results show good agreement with the measurement.
       
  • FEA based optimization of semi-submersible floater considering buckling
           and yield strength

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Beom-Seon Jang, JaeDong Kim, Tae-Yoon Park, SangBae Jeon A semi-submersible structure has been widely used for offshore drilling and production of oil and gas. The small water plane area makes the structure very sensitive to weight increase in terms of payload and stability. Therefore, it is necessary to lighten the substructure from the early design stage. This study aims at an optimization of hull structure based on a sophisticated yield and buckling strength in accordance with classification rules. An in-house strength assessment system is developed to automate the procedure such as a generation of buckling panels, a collection of required panel information, automatic buckling and yield check and so on. The developed system enables an automatic yield and buckling strength check of all panels composing the hull structure at each iteration of the optimization. Design variables are plate thickness and stiffener section profiles. In order to overcome the difficulty of large number of design variables and the computational burden of FE analysis, various methods are proposed. The steepest descent method is selected as the optimization algorithm for an efficient search. For a reduction of the number of design variables and a direct application to practical design, the stiffener section variable is determined by selecting one from a pre-defined standard library. Plate thickness is also discretized at 0.5t interval. The number of FE analysis is reduced by using equations to analytically estimating the stress changes in gradient calculation and line search steps. As an endeavor to robust optimization, the number of design variables to be simultaneously optimized is divided by grouping the scantling variables by the plane. A sequential optimization is performed group by group. As a verification example, a central column of a semi-submersible structure is optimized and compared with a conventional optimization of all design variables at once.
       
  • An improved Rankine source panel method for three dimensional water wave
           problems

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Aichun Feng, Yunxiang You, Huayang Cai An improved three dimensional Rankine source method is developed to solve numerically water wave problems in time domain. The free surface and body surface are both represented by continuous panels rather than a discretization by isolated points. The integral of Rankine source 1/r on free surface panel is calculated analytically instead of numerical approximation. Due to the exact algorithm of Rankine source integral applied on the free surface and body surface, a space increment free surface source distribution method is developed and much smaller amount of source panels are required to cover the fluid domain surface than other numerical approximation methods. The proposed method shows a higher accuracy and efficiency compared to other numerical methods for various water wave problems.
       
  • Numerical simulation of concrete abrasion induced by unbreakable ice floes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Jeong-Hwan Kim, Yooil Kim This paper focuses on the numerical simulation of ice abrasion induced by unbreakable ice floe. Under the assumption that unbreakable floes behave as rigid body, the Discrete Element Method (DEM) was applied to simulate the interaction between a fixed structure and ice floes. DEM is a numerical technique which is eligible for computing the motion and effect of a large number of particles. In DEM simulation, individual ice floe was treated as single rigid element which interacts with each other following the given interaction rules. Interactions between the ice floes and structure were defined by soft contact and viscous Coulomb friction laws. To derive the details of the interactions in terms of interaction parameters, the Finite Element Method (FEM) was employed. An abrasion process between a structure and an ice floe was simulated by FEM, and the parameters in DEM such as contact stiffness, contact damping coefficient, etc. were calibrated based on the FEM result. Resultantly, contact length and contact path length, which are the most important factors in ice abrasion prediction, were calculated from both DEM and FEM and compared with each other. The results showed good correspondence between the two results, providing superior numerical efficiency of DEM.
       
  • Analysis of the dynamic characteristics for the change of design
           parameters of an underwater vehicle using sensitivity analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Myungjun Jeon, Hyeon Kyu Yoon, Junho Hwang, Hyeon Jin Cho In order to design the hull form of an underwater vehicle in the conceptual design phase, the dynamic characteristics depending on the hull form parameters should be identified. Course-keeping stability, turning ability, yaw-checking ability, and mission competence are set to be the indices of the dynamic characteristics, and the geometric parameters for the bare hull and rudder are set to be the hull form design parameters. The total sensitivity of the dynamic characteristics with respect to the hull form parameters is calculated by the chain rule of the partial sensitivity of the dynamic characteristics with respect to the hydrodynamic coefficients, and the partial sensitivity of the hydrodynamic coefficients with respect to the hull form parameters. Based on the sensitivity analysis, important hull form parameters are selected, and those optimal values to satisfy the required intercept time of mission competence of a specific underwater vehicle and turning rate are estimated.
       
  • Test and estimation of ballistic armor performance for recent naval ship
           structural materials

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Yun-ho Shin, Jung-hoon Chung, Jong-Hwan Kim This paper presents the ballistic armor performance examination and thickness estimation for the latest naval ship structure materials in the Republic of Korea. Up to date, research regarding methods of ballistic experiments establishing database on the latest hull structure materials as well as a precise method of estimating required thickness of armor against specific projectiles have been rarely researched. In order to build a database and estimate proper thicknesses of structure materials, this study used four structure materials that have been widely applied in naval ships such as AH36 steel, AL5083, AL5086, and Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP). A 7.62 × 39 mm mild steel core bullet normally fired by AK-47 gun was considered as a threat due to its representativeness. Tate and Alekseevskii's penetration algorithm was also used to calculate a correction factor (α) and then estimate the armor thickness of naval ship hull structure materials with a given impact velocity. Through live fire experiments, the proposed method performance difference was measured to be 0.6% in AH36, 0.4% in AL5083, 0.0% in AL5086, and 8.0% in FRP compared with the experiment results.
       
  • The impact of corrosion on marine vapour recovery systems by VOC generated
           from ships

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Yoo Youl Choi, Seok Hee Lee, Jae-Cheul Park, Doo Jin Choi, Young Soo Yoon Marine emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) have received much attention because the International Maritime Organization (IMO) requires the installation of vapour emission control systems for the loading of crude oils or petroleum products onto ships. It was recently recognised that significant corrosion occurs inside these vapour emission control systems, which can cause severe clogging issues. In this study, we analysed the chemical composition of drain water sampled from currently operating systems to investigate the primary causes of corrosion in vapour recovery systems. Immersion and electrochemical tests were conducted under simulated conditions with various real drain water samples, and the impact of corrosion on the marine vapour recovery system was carefully investigated. Moreover, corrosion tests on alternative materials were conducted to begin identifying appropriate substitutes. Thermodynamic calculations showed the effects of environmental factors on the production of condensed sulphuric acid from VOC gas. A model of sulphuric acid formation and accumulation by the characteristics of VOC from crude oil and flue gas is suggested.
       
  • Hydrofoil optimization of underwater glider using Free-Form Deformation
           and surrogate-based optimization

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Xinjing Wang, Baowei Song, Peng Wang, Chunya Sun Hydrofoil is the direct component to generate thrust for underwater glider. It is significant to improve propulsion efficiency of hydrofoil. This study optimizes the shape of a hydrofoil using Free-Form Deformation (FFD) parametric approach and Surrogate-based Optimization (SBO) algorithm. FFD approach performs a volume outside the hydrofoil and the position changes of control points in the volume parameterize hydrofoil's geometric shape. SBO with adaptive parallel sampling method is regarded as a promising approach for CFD-based optimization. Combination of existing sampling methods is being widely used recently. This paper chooses several well-known methods for combination. Investigations are implemented to figure out how many and which methods should be included and the best combination strategy is provided. As the hydrofoil can be stretched from airfoil, the optimizations are carried out on a 2D airfoil and a 3D hydrofoil, respectively. The lift-drag ratios are compared among optimized and original hydrofoils. Results show that both lift-drag-ratios of optimized hydrofoils improve more than 90%. Besides, this paper preliminarily explores the optimization of hydrofoil with root-tip-ratio. Results show that optimizing 3D hydrofoil directly achieves slightly better results than 2D airfoil.
       
  • Dynamic quantitative risk assessment of accidents induced by leakage on
           offshore platforms using DEMATEL-BN

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Xiangkun Meng, Guoming Chen, Gaogeng Zhu, Yuan Zhu On offshore platforms, oil and gas leaks are apt to be the initial events of major accidents that may result in significant loss of life and property damage. To prevent accidents induced by leakage, it is vital to perform a case-specific and accurate risk assessment. This paper presents an integrated method of Ddynamic Qquantitative Rrisk Aassessment (DQRA)—using the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL)-Bayesian Network (BN)—for evaluation of the system vulnerabilities and prediction of the occurrence probabilities of accidents induced by leakage. In the method, three-level indicators are established to identify factors, events, and subsystems that may lead to leakage, fire, and explosion. The critical indicators that directly influence the evolution of risk are identified using DEMATEL. Then, a sequential model is developed to describe the escalation of initial events using an Event Tree (ET), which is converted into a BN to calculate the posterior probabilities of indicators. Using the newly introduced accident precursor data, the failure probabilities of safety barriers and basic factors, and the occurrence probabilities of different consequences can be updated using the BN. The proposed method overcomes the limitations of traditional methods that cannot effectively utilize the operational data of platforms. This work shows trends of accident risks over time and provides useful information for risk control of floating marine platforms.
       
  • The sensitivity of ship resistance to wall-adjacent grids and near-wall
           treatments

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Dong Woo Park, Sang Bong Lee Numerical simulations of turbulent flows around KCS have been performed to study the sensitivity of ship resistance to wall-adjacent grids and disclose the influence of near-wall treatment on the sensitivity of ship resistance. The resistance coefficients of viscous and pressure forces were compared when using realizable k-ε and SST k-ω turbulence models in structured and unstructured grids, respectively. The calculation of friction velocity was found to be mainly responsible for the reduction of viscous and total resistances when the height of wall-adjacent cells increased. Since the assumption of equilibrium state between turbulent production and dissipation was not met in a bulbous bow, it was more reasonable to iteratively calculate the friction velocity from empirical laws of the wall for near-wall treatment rather than explicitly estimate it from the turbulent kinetic energy.
       
  • AUV hull lines optimization with uncertainty parameters based on six sigma
           reliability design

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Yuan hang Hou, Xiao Liang, Xu yang Mu Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV), which are becoming more and more important in ocean exploitation tasks, needs energy conservation urgently when sailing the complex mission path in long time cruise. As hull lines optimization design becomes the key factor, which closely related with resistance, in AUV preliminary design stage, uncertainty parameters need to be considered seriously. In this research, Myring axial symmetry revolution body with parameterized expression is assumed as AUV hull lines, and its travelling resistance is obtained via modified DATCOM formula. The problems of AUV hull lines design for the minimum travelling resistance with uncertain parameters are studied. Based on reliability-based optimization design technology, Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) for high quality level is conducted, and is proved more reliability for the actual environment disturbance.
       
  • Development of partial liquefaction system for liquefied natural gas
           carrier application using exergy analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Jungho Choi The cargo handling system, which is composed of a fuel gas supply unit and cargo tank pressure control unit, is the second largest power consumer in a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier. Because of recent enhancements in ship efficiency, the surplus boil-off gas that remains after supplying fuel gas for ship propulsion must be reliquefied or burned to regulate the cargo tank pressure. A full or partial liquefaction process can be applied to return the surplus gas to the cargo tank. The purpose of this study is to review the current partial liquefaction process for LNG carriers and develop new processes for reducing power consumption using exergy analysis. The developed partial liquefaction process was also compared with the full liquefaction process applicable to a LNG carrier with a varying boil-off gas composition and varying liquefaction amounts. An exergy analysis showed that the Joule–Thomson valve is the key component needed for improvements to the system, and that the proposed system showed an 8% enhancement relative to the current prevailing system. A comparison of the study results with a partial/full liquefaction process showed that power consumption is strongly affected by the returned liquefied amount.
       
  • SCP-Matrix based shipyard APS design: Application to long-term production
           plan

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): SeungHoon Nam, HuiQiang Shen, Cheolho Ryu, Jong Gye Shin A shipyard is an Engineer To Order (ETO) company that designs and manufactures new products when orders are placed. Various tasks are concurrently performed, thereby making process management considerably important. It is particularly important to plan and control production activities because production constitutes the largest part of the overall process. Therefore, this study focuses on the development of a production planning system based on an Advanced Planning System (APS). An APS is an integrated planning system that targets supply chain processes in accordance with the principles of hierarchical planning. In this study, a Supply Chain Planning Matrix (SCP-Matrix), which is used as a guideline for APS development, is designed through analysis of shipyard cases. Then, we define the process in detail, starting from long-term production plan as the initial application, and design and implement a long-term production planning system using a component-based development.
       
  • Three-dimensional dynamics of vortex-induced vibration of a pipe with
           internal flow in the subcritical and supercritical regimes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018Source: International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean EngineeringAuthor(s): Jinlong Duan, Ke Chen, Yunxiang You, Renfeng Wang, Jinlong Li The Three-dimensional (3-D) dynamical behaviors of a fluid-conveying pipe subjected to vortex-induced vibration are investigated with different internal flow velocity v. The values of the internal flow velocity are considered in both subcritical and supercritical regimes. During the study, the 3-D nonlinear equations are discretized by the Galerkin method and solved by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The results indicate that for a constant internal flow velocity v in the subcritical regime, the peak Cross-flow (CF) amplitude increases firstly and then decrease accompanied by amplitude jumps with the increase of the external reduced velocity. While two response bands are observed in the In-line (IL) direction. For the dynamics in the lock-in condition, 3-D periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic vibrations are observed. A variety of CF and IL responses can be detected for different modes with the increase of v. For the cases studied in the supercritical regime, the dynamics shows a great diversity with that in the subcritical regime. Various dynamical responses, which include 3-D periodic, quasi-periodic as well as chaotic motions, are found while both CF and IL responses are coupled while v is beyond the critical value. Besides, the responses corresponding to different couples of μ1 and μ2 are obviously distinct from each other.
       
 
 
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