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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3162 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3162 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 95, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 411, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 251, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 150, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 396, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 341, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 450, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 194, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.316
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 10  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1548-5595
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Working Toward an Improved Understanding of Chronic Cardiorenal Syndrome
           Type 4
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 25, Issue 5Author(s): Daniel Edmonston, Jessica D. Morris, John P. MiddletonChronic diseases of the heart and of the kidneys commonly coexist in individuals. Certainly combined and persistent heart and kidney failure can arise from a common pathologic insult, for example, as a consequence of poorly controlled hypertension or of severe diffuse arterial disease. However, strong evidence is emerging to suggest that cross talk exists between the heart and the kidney. Independent processes are set in motion when kidney function is chronically diminished, and these processes can have distinct adverse effects on the heart. The complex chronic heart condition that results from chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been termed cardiorenal syndrome type 4. This review will include an updated description of the cardiac morphology in patients who have CKD, an overview of the most likely CKD-sourced culprits for these cardiac changes, and the potential therapeutic strategies to limit cardiac complications in patients who have CKD.
       
  • Advanced Heart Failure Therapies and Cardiorenal Syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 25, Issue 5Author(s): Jennifer A. Cowger, Ryhm RadjefHeart failure (HF) is extremely prevalent and for those with end-stage (stage D) disease, 1-year survival is only 25-50%. Several studies have captured the mortality impact of kidney disease on patients with HF, and measures of kidney function are a component of many HF risk stratification scores. The management of advanced HF complicated by cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is challenging, and irreversible kidney failure often limits patient candidacy for advanced HF therapies, such as transplant or left ventricular assist device therapy. Thus, prompt institution of aggressive therapy is warranted in stage D HF patients with CRS to prevent irreversible kidney failure. In this chapter, we discuss the assessment and management of patients with CRS with end-stage HF. In addition to discussing medical therapy aimed at decongestion and increased cardiac inotropy, we provide a summary of temporary circulatory support devices that can be considered for those whom hospice is not desired. In all circumstances, a close collaboration between the advanced HF specialist and nephrologist is needed to achieve the best patient outcomes.
       
  • Extracorporeal Isolated Ultrafiltration for Management of Congestion in
           Heart Failure and Cardiorenal Syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 25, Issue 5Author(s): Amir Kazory, Maria Rosa CostanzoAcute decompensated heart failure has the highest rate of hospital readmission among all medical conditions and portends a significant financial burden on health care system. Congestion, the hallmark of acute decompensated heart failure, represents the primary reason for hospitalization and the driver of adverse outcomes in these patients. Although diuretic-based medical regimens remain the mainstay of management of acute decompensated heart failure, they often show suboptimal efficacy and safety profiles in this setting. Mechanical extraction of excess fluid through extracorporeal ultrafiltration therapy has been proposed as a mechanistically relevant option in this setting. The advent of simplified, portable, and user-friendly devices that are dedicated to ultrafiltration therapy for these patients has renewed the interest in this therapeutic modality. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the initial mechanistic studies followed by the key clinical findings of the most recent landmark trials. The shortcomings of these studies are discussed in detail because not only do they provide the appropriate context in which the results are to be interpreted, but more importantly they also highlight the existing knowledge gaps that need to be addressed in future studies. Finally, selected practical and conceptual considerations and controversies are reviewed with regard to evidence-based ultrafiltration therapy.
       
  • Diuretics in the Management of Cardiorenal Syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 25, Issue 5Author(s): Chandrika Chitturi, James E. NovakThe leading cause of death worldwide is cardiovascular disease. The heart and the kidneys are functionally interdependent, such that dysfunction in one organ may cause dysfunction in the other. By one estimate, more than 60% of patients with congestive heart failure develop chronic kidney disease. Volume overload and congestion are hallmarks of heart failure, and these findings are associated with severe symptoms and poor outcomes. Given the importance of congestion, diuretics remain a cornerstone of heart failure management. However, diuretic treatment remains largely empirical, with little evidence currently available to guide decisions. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology of cardiorenal syndrome, the pharmacology of loop diuretics, mechanisms of diuretic resistance, and evidence-based treatment paradigms.
       
  • Toward Precision Medicine in the Cardiorenal Syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 25, Issue 5Author(s): Nicholas Wettersten, Alan S. Maisel, Dinna N. CruzAlthough the field of oncology has made significant steps toward individualized precision medicine, cardiology and nephrology still often use a “one size fits all” approach. This applies to the intersection of the heart-kidney interaction and the cardiorenal syndrome as well. Recent studies have shown that the prognostic implications of worsening renal function (WRF) in acute heart failure are variable; thus, there is a need to differentiate the implications of WRF to better guide precise care. This may best be performed with biomarkers that can give the clinician a real-time evaluation of the physiologic state at the time of developing WRF. This review will summarize current cardiac and renal biomarkers and their status in the evaluation of cardiorenal syndrome. Although we have made progress in our understanding of this syndrome, further investigation is needed to bring precision medicine into routine clinical practice for the care of patients with cardiorenal syndrome.
       
  • Heart–Kidney Interactions in Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 1
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 25, Issue 5Author(s): Alberto Palazzuoli, Gaetano RuoccoThe exact significance of kidney function deterioration during acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) episodes is still under debate. Several studies reported a wide percentage of worsening renal function (WRF) in ADHF patients ranging from 20% to 40%. This is probably because of different populations enrolled with different baseline kidney and cardiac function, varying definition of acute kidney injury (AKI), etiology of kidney dysfunction (KD), and occurrence of transient or permanent KD over the observational period. Current cardiorenal syndrome classification does not distinguish among the mechanisms leading to cardiac and renal deterioration. Cardiorenal syndrome type 1 (CRS-1) is the result of a combination of neurohormonal activation, fluid imbalance, arterial underfilling, increased renal and abdominal pressure, and aggressive decongestive treatment. A more complete mechanistic approach to CRS-1 should include evaluation of baseline kidney function, timing, course and magnitude of KD, and introduction of specific biomarkers able to identify early kidney damage. Therefore, clinical and laboratory parameters may yield a different combination among predisposing, precipitating, and amplifying factors that may influence cardiorenal syndrome development. Thus, CRS-1 is a heterogeneous syndrome that needs to be better defined and categorized taking into account clinical status, renal condition, and treatment. The application of universal definitions for WRF/AKI definition would be the first step to achieve a clear classification.
       
  • Pathophysiological Mechanisms in Cardiorenal Syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 25, Issue 5Author(s): Janani Rangaswami, Roy O. MathewCardiorenal syndrome represents the confluence of intricate hemodynamic, neurohormonal, and inflammatory pathways that initiate and propagate the maladaptive cross talk between the heart and kidneys. Several of these pathophysiological principles were described in older historical experiments. The last decade has witnessed major efforts in streamlining its definition, clinical phenotypes, and classification to improve diagnostic accuracy and deliver optimal goal-directed medical therapies. The ability to characterize the various facets of cardiorenal syndrome based on its pathophysiology is poised in an exciting vantage point, in the backdrop of several advanced diagnostic strategies, notably cardiorenal biomarkers that may help with accurate delineation of clinical phenotype, prognosis, and delivery of optimal medical therapies in future studies. This promises to help integrate precision medicine into the clinical diagnosis and treatment strategies for cardiorenal syndrome and, through a heightened understanding of its pathophysiology, to deliver appropriate therapies that will reduce its associated morbidity and mortality.
       
  • Epidemiology of Cardiorenal Syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 25, Issue 5Author(s): Junior UdumanCardiorenal syndrome is a spectrum of disorders that emphasizes the bidirectional nature of cardiac and kidney injury. Observational and retrospective studies have helped us to understand the prevalence and burden of each of the 5 types of cardiorenal syndromes. Cardiorenal syndrome type 1 is the most common. The nature of epidemiologic data limits clear delineation between cardiorenal syndrome types 2 and 4. Overall, the presence of cardiac or renal dysfunction strongly predicts a poor outcome of the contrary organ.
       
  • Cardiorenal Syndrome: An Overview
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 25, Issue 5Author(s): Claudio Ronco, Antonio Bellasi, Luca Di LulloIt is well established that a large number of patients with acute decompensated heart failure present with various degrees of heart and kidney dysfunction usually primary disease of heart or kidney often involve dysfunction or injury to the other. The term cardiorenal syndrome increasingly had been used without a consistent or well-accepted definition. To include the vast array of interrelated derangements and to stress the bidirectional nature of heart-kidney interactions, a new classification of the cardiorenal syndrome with 5 subtypes that reflect the pathophysiology, the time frame, and the nature of concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunction was proposed. Cardiorenal syndrome can generally be defined as a pathophysiological disorder of the heart and kidneys, in which acute or chronic dysfunction of one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction to the other. Although cardiorenal syndrome was usually referred to as acute kidney dysfunction following acute cardiac disease, it is now clearly established that impaired kidney function can have an adverse impact on cardiac function.
       
  • Cardiorenal Syndrome: A Call to Action for a Pressing Medical Issue
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 25, Issue 5Author(s): Peter A. McCullough, Sandeep Soman
       
  • A Tale of Two Failures: A Guide to Shared Decision-Making for Heart and
           Renal Failure
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 25, Issue 5Author(s): Hesham Shaban, Jerry Yee
       
  • Incomplete Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Kidney Stones
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 25, Issue 4Author(s): Daniel G. Fuster, Orson W. MoeRenal tubular acidosis (RTA) is comprised of a diverse group of congenital or acquired diseases with the common denominator of defective renal acid excretion with protean manifestation, but in adults, recurrent kidney stones and nephrocalcinosis are mainly found in presentation. Calcium phosphate (CaP) stones and nephrocalcinosis are frequently encountered in distal hypokalemic RTA type I. Alkaline urinary pH, hypocitraturia, and, less frequently, hypercalciuria are the tripartite lithogenic factors in distal RTA (dRTA) predisposing to CaP stone formation; the latter 2 are also commonly encountered in other causes of urolithiasis. Although the full blown syndrome is easily diagnosed by conventional clinical criteria, an attenuated forme fruste called incomplete dRTA typically evades clinical testing and is only uncovered by provocative acid-loading challenges. Stone formers (SFs) that cannot acidify urine of pH 
       
  • Pseudo-Renal Tubular Acidosis: Conditions Mimicking Renal Tubular Acidosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 25, Issue 4Author(s): Junior Uduman, Jerry YeeHyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, particularly renal tubular acidosis, can pose diagnostic challenges. The laboratory phenotype of a low total carbon dioxide content, normal anion gap, and hyperchloremia may be misconstrued as hypobicarbonatemia from renal tubular acidosis. Several disorders can mimic renal tubular acidosis, and these must be appropriately diagnosed to prevent inadvertent and inappropriate application of alkali therapy. Key physiologic principles and limitations in the assessment of renal acid handling that can pose diagnostic challenges are enumerated.
       
  • Clinical Approach to Proximal Renal Tubular Acidosis in Children
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 25, Issue 4Author(s): Gal Finer, Daniel LandauProximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA) is an inherited or acquired clinical syndrome in which there is a decreased bicarbonate reclamation in the proximal tubule resulting in normal anion gap hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. In children, pRTA may be isolated but is often associated with a general proximal tubular dysfunction known as Fanconi syndrome which frequently heralds an underlying systemic disorder from which it arises. When accompanied by Fanconi syndrome, pRTA is characterized by additional renal wasting of phosphate, glucose, uric acid, and amino acids. The most common cause of inherited Fanconi syndrome in the pediatric age group is cystinosis, a disease with therapeutic implications. In this article, we summarize the clinical presentation and differential diagnosis of pRTA and Fanconi syndrome and provide a practical approach to their evaluation in children.
       
  • Renal Tubular Acidosis: H+/Base and Ammonia Transport Abnormalities and
           Clinical Syndromes
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 25, Issue 4Author(s): Ira KurtzRenal tubular acidosis (RTA) represents a group of diseases characterized by (1) a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis; (2) abnormalities in renal HCO3− absorption or new renal HCO3− generation; (3) changes in renal NH4+, Ca2+, K+, and H2O homeostasis; and (4) extrarenal manifestations that provide etiologic diagnostic clues. The focus of this review is to give a general overview of the pathogenesis of the various clinical syndromes causing RTA with a particular emphasis on type I (hypokalemic distal RTA) and type II (proximal) RTA while reviewing their pathogenesis from a physiological “bottom-up” approach. In addition, the factors involved in the generation of metabolic acidosis in both type I and II RTA are reviewed highlighting the importance of altered renal ammonia production/partitioning and new HCO3− generation. Our understanding of the underlying tubular transport and extrarenal abnormalities has significantly improved since the first recognition of RTA as a clinical entity because of significant advances in clinical acid-base chemistry, whole tubule and single-cell H+/base transport, and the molecular characterization of the various transporters and channels that are functionally affected in patients with RTA. Despite these advances, additional studies are needed to address the underlying mechanisms involved in hypokalemia, altered ammonia production/partitioning, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, cystic abnormalities, and CKD progression in these patients.
       
  • Hyperkalemic Forms of Renal Tubular Acidosis: Clinical and
           Pathophysiological Aspects
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 25, Issue 4Author(s): Daniel Batlle, Jose ArrudaIn contrast to distal type I or classic renal tubular acidosis (RTA) that is associated with hypokalemia, hyperkalemic forms of RTA also occur usually in the setting of mild-to-moderate CKD. Two pathogenic types of hyperkalemic metabolic acidosis are frequently encountered in adults with underlying CKD. One type, which corresponds to some extent to the animal model of selective aldosterone deficiency (SAD) created experimentally by adrenalectomy and glucocorticoid replacement, is manifested in humans by low plasma and urinary aldosterone levels, reduced ammonium excretion, and preserved ability to lower urine pH below 5.5. This type of hyperkalemic RTA is also referred to as type IV RTA. It should be noted that the mere deficiency of aldosterone when glomerular filtration rate is completely normal only causes a modest decline in plasma bicarbonate which emphasizes the importance of reduced glomerular filtration rate in the development of the hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis associated with SAD. Another type of hyperkalemic RTA distinctive from SAD in which plasma aldosterone is not reduced is referred to as hyperkalemic distal renal tubular acidosis because urine pH cannot be reduced despite acidemia or after provocative tests aimed at increasing sodium-dependent distal acidification such as the administration of sodium sulfate or loop diuretics with or without concurrent mineralocorticoid administration. This type of hyperkalemic RTA (also referred to as voltage-dependent distal renal tubular acidosis) has been best described in patients with obstructive uropathy and resembles the impairment in both hydrogen ion and potassium secretion that are induced experimentally by urinary tract obstruction and when sodium transport in the cortical collecting tubule is blocked by amiloride.
       
  • Hypokalemic Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 25, Issue 4Author(s): Patricia G. Vallés, Daniel BatlleDistal renal tubular acidosis (DRTA) is defined as hyperchloremic, non-anion gap metabolic acidosis with impaired urinary acid excretion in the presence of a normal or moderately reduced glomerular filtration rate. Failure in urinary acid excretion results from reduced H+ secretion by intercalated cells in the distal nephron. This results in decreased excretion of NH4+ and other acids collectively referred as titratable acids while urine pH is typically above 5.5 in the face of systemic acidosis. The clinical phenotype in patients with DRTA is characterized by stunted growth with bone abnormalities in children as well as nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis that develop as the consequence of hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and relatively alkaline urine. Hypokalemia is a striking finding that accounts for muscle weakness and requires continued treatment together with alkali-based therapies. This review will focus on the mechanisms responsible for impaired acid excretion and urinary potassium wastage, the clinical features, and diagnostic approaches of hypokalemic DRTA, both inherited and acquired.
       
  • Renal Tubular Acidosis and the Nephrology Teaching Paradigm
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 25, Issue 4Author(s): Daniel Batlle, Jose Arruda
       
  • It Is Really Time for Ammonium Measurement
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, Volume 25, Issue 4Author(s): Kalani L. Raphael, Jerry Yee
       
 
 
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