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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3160 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3160 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 97, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 428, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 289, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 414, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 363, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 471, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 232, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Cancer Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.043
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 32  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0065-230X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3160 journals]
  • Chapter Six - Pharmacology of ME-344, a novel cytotoxic isoflavone
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Cancer Research, Volume 142Author(s): Leilei Zhang, Jie Zhang, Zhiwei Ye, Danyelle M. Townsend, Kenneth D. Tew Isoflavones isolated from members of the Fabaceae (primarily Leguminosae) family have been characterized for their phytoestrogenic properties, but certain derivatives have also shown potential as possible cancer therapeutic agents. ME-344, related to phenoxodiol (Fig. 1), is a second generation isoflavone with a recent history of both preclinical and early clinical testing. The drug has unusual cytotoxicity profiles, where cancer cell lines can be categorized as either intrinsically sensitive or resistant to the drug. Evolving studies show that the cytotoxic properties of the drug are enacted through targeting mitochondrial bioenergetics. While the drug has undergone early Phase I/II trials in solid tumors with confined dose limiting effects and some evidence of disease response, there is a continuing need to define specific cellular targets that determine sensitivity, with the long-term goal of applying such information to individualized therapy. This review article details some of the existing and ongoing studies that are assisting in the continued drug development processes that may lead to new drug application (NDA) status.
       
  • Chapter Five - HVEM network signaling in cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Cancer Research, Volume 142Author(s): John R. Šedý, Parham Ramezani-Rad Somatic mutations in cancer cells may influence tumor growth, survival, or immune interactions in their microenvironment. The tumor necrosis factor receptor family member HVEM (TNFRSF14) is frequently mutated in cancers and has been attributed a tumor suppressive role in some cancer contexts. HVEM functions both as a ligand for the lymphocyte checkpoint proteins BTLA and CD160, and as a receptor that activates NF-κB signaling pathways in response to BTLA and CD160 and the TNF ligands LIGHT and LTα. BTLA functions to inhibit lymphocyte activation, but has also been ascribed a role in stimulating cell survival. CD160 functions to co-stimulate lymphocyte function, but has also been shown to activate inhibitory signaling in CD4+ T cells. Thus, the role of HVEM within diverse cancers and in regulating the immune responses to these tumors is likely context specific. Additionally, development of therapeutics that target proteins within this network of interacting proteins will require a deeper understanding of how these proteins function in a cancer-specific manner. However, the prominent role of the HVEM network in anti-cancer immune responses indicates a promising area for drug development.
       
  • Chapter Four - Pathways- and epigenetic-based assessment of relative
           immune infiltration in various types of solid tumors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Cancer Research, Volume 142Author(s): Manny D. Bacolod, Francis Barany, Karsten Pilones, Paul B. Fisher, Romulo J. de Castro Recent clinical studies document the power of immunotherapy in treating subsets of patients with advanced cancers. In this context and with multiple cancer immunotherapeutics already evaluated in the clinic and a large number in various stages of clinical trials, it is imperative to comprehensively examine genomics data to better comprehend the role of immunity in different cancers in predicting response to therapy and in directing appropriate therapies. The approach we chose is to scrutinize the pathways and epigenetic factors predicted to drive immune infiltration in different cancer types using publicly available TCGA transcriptional and methylation datasets, along with accompanying clinico-pathological data. We observed that the relative activation of T cells and other immune signaling pathways differs across cancer types. For example, pathways related to activation and proliferation of helper and cytotoxic T cells appear to be more highly enriched in kidney, skin, head and neck, and esophageal cancers compared to those of lung, colorectal, and liver or bile duct cancers. The activation of these immune-related pathways positively associated with prognosis in certain cancer types, most notably melanoma, head and neck, and cervical cancers. Integrated methylation and expression data (along with publicly available, ENCODE-generated histone ChIP Seq and DNAse hypersensitivity data) predict that epigenetic regulation is a primary factor driving transcriptional activation of a number of genes crucial to immunity in cancer, including T cell receptor genes (e.g., CD3D, CD3E), CTLA4, and GZMA. However, the extent to which epigenetic factors (primarily methylation at promoter regions) affect transcription of immune-related genes may vary across cancer types. For example, there is a high negative correlation between promoter CpG methylation and CD3D expression in renal and thyroid cancers, but not in brain tumors. The types of analyses we have undertaken provide insights into the relationships between immune modulation and cancer etiology and progression, offering clues into ways of therapeutically manipulating the immune system to promote immune recognition and immunotherapy.
       
  • Chapter Three - The second genome: Effects of the mitochondrial genome on
           cancer progression
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Cancer Research, Volume 142Author(s): Adam D. Scheid, Thomas C. Beadnell, Danny R. Welch The role of genetics in cancer has been recognized for centuries, but most studies elucidating genetic contributions to cancer have understandably focused on the nuclear genome. Mitochondrial contributions to cancer pathogenesis have been documented for decades, but how mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) influences cancer progression and metastasis remains poorly understood. This lack of understanding stems from difficulty isolating the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes as experimental variables, which is critical for investigating direct mtDNA contributions to disease given extensive crosstalk exists between both genomes. Several in vitro and in vivo models have isolated mtDNA as an independent variable from the nuclear genome. This review compares and contrasts different models, their advantages and disadvantages for studying mtDNA contributions to cancer, focusing on the mitochondrial-nuclear exchange (MNX) mouse model and findings regarding tumor progression, metastasis, and other complex cancer-related phenotypes.
       
  • Chapter Two - Bittersweet tumor development and progression: Emerging
           roles of epithelial plasticity glycosylations
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Cancer Research, Volume 142Author(s): Ryan M. Phillips, Christine Lam, Hailun Wang, Phuoc T. Tran Altered metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer. The best-known cancer metabolic anomaly is an increase in aerobic glycolysis, which generates ATP and other basic building blocks, such as nucleotides, lipids, and proteins to support tumor cell growth and survival. Epithelial plasticity (EP) programs such as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) are evolutionarily conserved processes that are essential for embryonic development. EP also plays an important role during tumor progression toward metastasis and treatment resistance, and new roles in the acceleration of tumorigenesis have been found. Recent evidence has linked EMT-related transcriptomic alterations with metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells, which include increased aerobic glycolysis. More recent studies have revealed a novel connection between EMT and altered glycosylation in tumor cells, in which EMT drives an increase in glucose uptake and flux into the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). The HBP is a side-branch pathway from glycolysis which generates the end product uridine-5′-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc). A key downstream utilization of UDP-GlcNAc is for the post-translational modification O-GlcNAcylation which involves the attachment of the GlcNAc moiety to Ser/Thr/Asn residues of proteins. Global changes in protein O-GlcNAcylation are emerging as a general characteristic of cancer cells. In our recent study, we demonstrated that the EMT-HBP-O-GlcNAcylation axis drives the O-GlcNAcylation of key proteins such as c-Myc, which previous studies have shown to suppress oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) and contribute to accelerated tumorigenesis. Here, we review the HBP and O-GlcNAcylation and their putative roles in driving EMT-related cancer processes with examples to illuminate potential new therapeutic targets for cancer.
       
  • Chapter One - Highly variant DNA methylation in normal tissues identifies
           a distinct subclass of cancer patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Cancer Research, Volume 142Author(s): Jayashri Ghosh, Bryant Schultz, Christos Coutifaris, Carmen Sapienza The “CpG Island Methylator Phenotype” (CIMP) has been found to be a useful concept in stratifying several types of human cancer into molecularly and clinically distinguishable subgroups. We have identified an additional epigenetic stratification category, the “Outlier Methylation Phenotype” (OMP). Whereas CIMP is defined on the basis of hyper-methylation in tumor genomes, OMP is defined on the basis of highly variant (either or both hyper- and hypo-methylation) methylation at many sites in normal tissues. OMP was identified and defined, originally, as being more common among low birth weight individuals conceived in vitro but we have also identified OMP individuals among colon cancer patients profiled by us, as well as multiple types of cancer patients in the TCGA database. The cause(s) of OMP are unknown, as is whether these individuals identify a clinically useful subgroup of patients, but both the causes of, and potential consequences to, this epigenetically distinct group are of great interest.
       
  • Chapter Six - Exploiting epigenetically mediated changes: Acute myeloid
           leukemia, leukemia stem cells and the bone marrow microenvironment
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Cancer Research, Volume 141Author(s): Aksinija A. Kogan, Rena G. Lapidus, Maria R. Baer, Feyruz V. Rassool Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) derives from the clonal expansion of immature myeloid cells in the bone marrow, and results in the disruption of normal hematopoiesis and subsequent bone marrow failure. The bone marrow microenvironment (BME) and its immune and other supporting cells are regarded to facilitate the survival, differentiation and proliferation of leukemia stem cells (LSCs), which enables AML cells to persist and expand despite treatment. Recent studies have identified epigenetic modifications among AML cells and BME constituents in AML, and have shown that epigenetic therapy can potentially reprogram these alterations. In this review, we summarize the interactions between the BME and LSCs, and discuss changes in how the BME and immune cells interact with AML cells. After describing the epigenetic modifications seen across chromatin, DNA, the BME, and the immune microenvironment, we explore how demethylating agents may reprogram these pathological interactions, and potentially re-sensitize AML cells to treatment.
       
  • Chapter Five - Hypoxia-inducible factors promote breast cancer stem cell
           specification and maintenance in response to hypoxia or cytotoxic
           chemotherapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Cancer Research, Volume 141Author(s): Lisha Xiang, Gregg L. Semenza Clinical studies have revealed that breast cancers contain regions of intratumoral hypoxia (reduced oxygen availability), which activates hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). The relationship between intratumoral hypoxia, distant metastasis and cancer mortality has been well established. A major mechanism by which intratumoral hypoxia contributes to disease progression is through induction of the breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) phenotype. BCSCs are a small subpopulation of cells with the capability for self-renewal. BCSCs have been implicated in resistance to chemotherapy, disease recurrence, and metastasis. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying HIF-dependent induction of the BCSC phenotype in response to hypoxia or chemotherapy.
       
  • Chapter Four - Assays for functionally defined normal and malignant
           mammary stem cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Cancer Research, Volume 141Author(s): Syed Mohammed Musheer Aalam, Philip Anthony Beer, Nagarajan Kannan The discovery of rare, heterogeneous self-renewing stem cells with shared developmental and molecular features within epithelial components of mammary gland and breast cancers has provided a conceptual framework to understand cellular composition of these tissues and mechanisms that control their number. These normal mammary epithelial stem cells (MaSCs) and breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) were identified and analyzed using transplant assays (namely mammary repopulating unit (MRU) assay, mammary tumor-initiating cell (TIC) assay), which reveal their latent ability to regenerate respective normal and malignant epithelial tissues with self-renewing units displaying hierarchical cellular differentiation over multiple generations in recipient mice. “Next-generation” methods using “barcoded” normal and malignant mammary cells, with the help of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, have revealed hidden complexity and heterogeneous growth potential of MaSCs and BCSCs. Several single markers or combinations of markers have been reported to prospectively enrich MaSCs and BCSCs. Such markers and the extent to which they enrich for MaSCs and BCSCs activity require a critical appraisal. Also, knowledge of the functional assays and their limitations and harmonious reporting of results is a prerequisite to improve our understanding of MaSCs and BCSCs. This chapter describes evolution of the concept of MaSCs and BCSCs, and specific methodologies to investigate them.
       
  • Chapter Three - Clonal hematopoiesis: Pre-cancer PLUS
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Cancer Research, Volume 141Author(s): Alexander J. Silver, Siddhartha Jaiswal Clonal hematopoiesis is a common, age-related process in which a somatically mutated hematopoietic precursor gives rise to a genetically distinct subpopulation in the blood. This phenomenon has been observed in populations across the globe and, while virtually non-existent in children is estimated to affect> 10% of the 70-and-older age group. The mutations are thought to occur in stem cells, which makes them pre-cancerous, and precursors to cancer stem cells. Many of the genes most commonly mutated in clonal hematopoiesis are also recurrently mutated in leukemia, genes such as DNMT3A, TET2, ASXL1, JAK2, and TP53. However, between 40% and 60% of cases arise from the accumulation of what appear to be random mutations outside of known driver genes. Clonal hematopoiesis is frequently present in otherwise healthy individuals and may persist for many years. Though largely asymptomatic, carrying these somatic mutations confers a small but significantly increased risk of leukemic transformation, affecting 0.5–1% carriers per year; although most genes confer an increased risk of transformation, mutations in TP53 and U2AF1 appear to carry a particularly high risk for transformation. Additionally, a patient's history of prior treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiation are correlated with the development of clonal hematopoiesis; in the setting of chemotherapy treatment of solid tumors, hematopoietic mutations in TP53 and PPM1D appear to contribute to outgrowth of clones that may lead to subsequent malignancy. The presence of a clone also imparts a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which in some cases appears to be due to increased inflammation and atherosclerosis. Clonal hematopoiesis is correlated with several other diseases as well, including diabetes, chronic pulmonary disease, and aplastic anemia, with other associations probably yet to be uncovered.
       
  • Chapter Two - Dormancy and cancer stem cells: An enigma for cancer
           therapeutic targeting
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Cancer Research, Volume 141Author(s): Sarmistha Talukdar, Praveen Bhoopathi, Luni Emdad, Swadesh Das, Devanand Sarkar, Paul B. Fisher Dormancy occurs when cells remain viable but stop proliferating. When most of a cancer population undergoes this phenomenon, the result is called tumor dormancy, and when a single cancer cell undergoes this process, it is termed quiescence. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) share several overlapping characteristics and signaling pathways with dormant cancer cells, including therapy resistance, and an ability to metastasize and evade the immune system. Cancer cells can be broadly grouped into dormancy-competent CSCs (DCCs), cancer-repopulating cells (CRCs), dormancy-incompetent CSCs and disseminated tumor cells (DTCs). The settings in which cancer cells exploit the dormancy phase to survive and adapt are: (i) primary cancer dormancy; (ii) metastatic dormancy; (iii) therapy-induced dormancy; and (iv) immunologic dormancy. Dormancy, therapy resistance and plasticity of CSCs are fundamentally interconnected processes mediated through mechanisms involving reversible genetic alterations. Niches including metastatic, bone marrow, and perivascular are known to harbor dormant cancer cells. Mechanisms of dormancy induction are complex and multi-factorial and can involve angiogenic switching, addictive oncogene inhibition, immunoediting, anoikis, therapy, autophagy, senescence, epigenetic, and biophysical regulation. Therapy can have opposing effects on cancer cells with respect to dormancy; some therapies can induce dormancy, while others can reactivate dormant cells. There is a lack of consensus relative to the value of therapy-induced dormancy, i.e., some researchers view dormancy induction as a beneficial strategy as it can lead to metastasis inhibition, while others argue that reactivating dormant cancer cells and then eliminating them through therapy are a better approach. More focused investigations of intrinsic cell kinetics and environmental dynamics that promote and maintain cancer cells in a dormant state, and the long-term consequences of dormancy are critical for improving current therapeutic treatment outcomes.
       
  • Chapter One - Regulation of cancer stem cell properties by SIX1, a member
           of the PAX-SIX-EYA-DACH network
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Cancer Research, Volume 141Author(s): Tami J. Kingsbury, MinJung Kim, Curt I. Civin The PAX-SIX-EYA-DACH network (PSEDN) is a central developmental transcriptional regulatory network from Drosophila to humans. The PSEDN is comprised of four conserved protein families; including paired box (PAX), sine oculis (SIX), eyes absent (EYA), and dachshund (DACH). Aberrant expression of PSEDN members, particularly SIX1, has been observed in multiple human cancers, where SIX1 expression correlates with increased aggressiveness and poor prognosis. In conjunction with its transcriptional activator EYA, the SIX1 transcription factor increases cancer stem cell (CSC) numbers and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). SIX1 promotes multiple hallmarks and enabling characteristics of cancer via regulation of cell proliferation, senescence, apoptosis, genome stability, and energy metabolism. SIX1 also influences the tumor microenvironment, enhancing recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages and stimulating angiogenesis, to promote tumor development and progression. EYA proteins are multifunctional, possessing a transcriptional activation domain and tyrosine phosphatase activity, that each contributes to cancer stem cell properties. DACH proteins function as tumor suppressors in solid cancers, opposing the actions of SIX-EYA and reducing CSC prevalence. Multiple mechanisms can lead to increased SIX1 expression, including loss of SIX1-targeting tumor suppressor microRNAs (miRs), whose expression correlates inversely with SIX1 expression in cancer patient samples. In this review, we discuss the major mechanisms by which SIX1 confers CSC and EMT features and other important cancer cell characteristics. The roles of EYA and DACH in CSCs and cancer progression are briefly highlighted. Finally, we summarize the clinical significance of SIX1 in cancer to emphasize the potential therapeutic benefits of effective strategies to disrupt PSEDN protein interactions and functions.
       
 
 
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