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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3182 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3182 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 105, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 443, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 320, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 426, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 389, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 483, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 266, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 214, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 228, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Alexandria Journal of Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.191
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-5068
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3182 journals]
  • WITHDRAWN: Combined calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist,
           MK-8825, and caffeine as potential therapeutic target in the
           nitroglycerin-induced rat migraine model (MK-8825 and caffeine in
           migraine)

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Rehab E. Abo El GheitThis article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause.The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.
       
  • Comparative study between multi-detector computed tomography and
           echocardiography in evaluation of congenital vascular rings

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Manal Hamisa, Fatma Elsharawy, Wafaa Elsherbeny, Suzan Bayoumy Vascular rings are unusual anomalies represent less than 1% of all cardiac anomalies, it is abnormal development of aortic arch complex leading to formation of a ring formed by vessels that encircle both the trachea and esophagus, echocardiography had limited acoustic window which leads to inadequate evaluation of great vessels, Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is one of the most important non invasive diagnostic tool for detection the vascular ring anomalies.The AimTo evaluate role of MDCT Scanning for diagnosis of congenital vascular rings anomalies compared to echocardiography.MethodsThis is a prospective study of 21 children suspected to have vascular ring anomalies. All patients underwent chest radiography, echocardiography examinations and MDCT Scanning using a 128-row CT scanner with 3D reconstruction.ResultsTwenty-one patients (11 male and 10 female), mean age (14 months) were diagnosed as vascular ring anomalies by MDCT then confirmed by surgical results MDCT diagnosed 14 patients with (double aortic arch), 4 patients (right sided aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian), 2 patients (left sided aortic arch with aberrant right subclavian artery) and one patient with pulmonary sling. MDCT also diagnosed seven patients with tracheobronchial stenosis. Echocardiography succeeded only in nine patients with DAA and failed in five and succeeded in diagnosis of two cases of (right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian).ConclusionMDCT is an excellent diagnostic tool for optimum detection of vascular ring anomalies and other extra cardiac lesions compared to echocardiography.
       
  • The role of eugenol in the prevention of chromium-induced acute kidney
           injury in male albino rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Ramez A.E. Barhoma BackgroundPotassium dichromate induces nephrotoxicity mainly due to increased cellular oxidative stress.ObjectivesTo evaluate the possible renoprotective effects of eugenol on the damage induced by potassium dichromate poisoning in male rats.Methods30 male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups, 10 rats in each group; Control group: given olive oil orally (5 mL/kg body weight) for 10 consecutive days. Potassium dichromate (PDC) group: received olive oil orally (5 mL/kg body weight) for 10 consecutive days, then a single s.c. injection of PDC (15 mg/kg) was given in the tenth day. And eugenol + PDC group: received eugenol orally (100 mg/kg body weight/day) for 10 consecutive days and a single s.c. injection of PDC (15 mg/kg) in the tenth day.Then the animals were anaesthetized, blood samples were taken from the abdominal aorta, for measurement of serum urea and creatinine, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Also reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were monitored in renal tissue.ResultsPDC caused significant increase in serum urea, creatinine and LDH levels; this was accompanied with significant decrease in renal GSH and SOD contents, and increase in renal MDA and TNF-α. Histopathological investigations provoked tubular necrosis associated with mononuclear cell infiltration. Pretreatment of rats with eugenol significantly change all previously mentioned PDC-induced effects.ConclusionThe findings of the current study revealed that eugenol protected the kidney against PDC-induced acute kidney injury in rats by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
       
  • Time course effects of 5,5-dihydroxyl pyrimidine-2,4,6-trione (alloxan) as
           a diabetogenic agent in animal model

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Osasenaga M. Ighodaro, Abiola M. Adeosun, Folake O. Asejeje, Gabriel O. Soetan, Omolara O. Kassim ObjectiveThe use of alloxan as a diabetogenic agent at 150 mg/kg BW has been characterized by low percentage induction and instability of the hyperglycemia induced. The present study examined its time course effects with a view to suggesting the probable effective dose of the compound for animal studies.MethodsForty adult Wistar rats were equally randomized into two groups (I and II) and were injected with single intraperitoneal dose of alloxan, 170 and 200 mg/kg BW respectively. Blood glucose concentration (BGC) was monitored in consecutive phases of hourly for 3 h, 3 h interval for 15 h, 6 h interval for 12 h and 9 h after. Changes with time in biomarkers of oxidative stress (SOD, CAT, GST and MDA) and pancreas histopathology were studied.ResultsAlloxan at the evaluated doses produced a multiphasic blood glucose response. One hour post alloxan injection, 90% of group I and 85% of group II animals exhibited diabetic hyperglycemia (glucose level ≥ 200 mg/dL). Groups I and II respectively produced peak levels of hyperglycemia (586.8 and 575.9 mg/dL) at 9 and 12 h post alloxan administration. Hypoglycemia which is characteristic of experimental diabetes was noted between the 15th and 21st hour in both groups (I and II) and resulted in 5 and 10% mortality respectively. At 36th hour, hyperglycemia was restored and apparently sustained. Changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress showed patterns similar to that of blood glucose, and the histopathological examination of the pancreas mainly indicated focal area of a necrotic islet and multifocal area of mild infiltration in both groups.ConclusionThe data obtained shows that alloxan at the investigated doses produced sustained hyperglycemia at 21st and 24th hour post administration, and 170 mg dosage of the compound is apparently a better diabetogenic dose, particularly in terms of reduced animal mortality.
       
  • Neuronal and glial regeneration after focal cerebral ischemia in rat, an
           immunohistochemical and electron microscopical study

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Abeer E. Dief, Passainte S. Hassan, Oehring Hartmut, Gustav F. Jirikowski ObjectivesUnilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) is an established rat model for stoke studies. It induces focal cerebral ischemia, prior to necrotic and apoptotic loss of tissue in a circumscribed cortical area, paralleled by temporary motor impairment.MethodsHere we examined tissue samples from the peri-infarct zone of rats that had survived unilateral MCAO for up to 90 min. With immunohistochemistry we stained sections for proliferation markers Ki 67 and PCNA and for intermediate filament protein nestin. Electron microscopy was employed to assess ultrastructural changes.ResultsAll MCAO animals developed pronounced lesions in the motor cortex. Numerous cells in the immediate peri-infarct area and scattered cells which seem to have migrated into the infarcted lesion stained positively for Ki 67 and PCNA. Electron microscopy revealed that cells in the lesion site proliferate along the blood vessels. Most of these cells had the ultrastructural features of fibrillary astrocytes while some of the cells were clearly neurons. Endothelia were in part fenestrated. Some of the surrounding cells showed immunostaining for PCNA, indicating proliferation. Oligodendroglia and myelination could not be seen in the lesion site. Single neuronal contacts exhibited the ultrastructural features of synapses. Reformation of cortical layers could not be observed.ConclusionsWe concluded that in spite of extensive proliferation; neuronal and glial regeneration occurs after MCAO only to a small extent. Revascularization seems to be an important initial step. The observed functional recovery of experimental animals may be due to neuronal plasticity in young rats rather than structural regeneration.
       
  • Osteocalcin, Azan and Toluidine blue staining in fibrous dysplasia and
           ossifying fibroma of the jaws

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Samuel Ebele Udeabor, Akinyele Olumuyiwa Adisa, Anna Orlowska, Poju Chia, Robert A. Sader, Shahram Ghanaati BackgroundFibrous dysplasia (FD) and ossifying fibroma (OF) are fibro-osseous lesions (FOLs) having several overlaps that may make final diagnosis difficult by hematoxylin and eosin (H/E) alone.AimThis study seeks to detect any association between Azan and Toluidine blue staining as compared with osteocalcin in FD and OF diagnosis.MethodsForty formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) blocks of FD and OF were prepared for Azan, Toluidine blue and osteocalcin staining. Brown staining of calcified structures was considered as positive for osteocalcin. Scoring for Azan and Toluidine blue was evaluated based on intensity and localization. Level of agreement of original and revised diagnosis was determined.ResultsSix (40%) of 15 FD were corroborated by osteocalcin. Eight cases initially diagnosed as OF were revised to FD. There were 25 OF according to H/E, and 17 (68%) were validated by osteocalcin. Measure of agreement between histology and immunohistochemistry was 0.081; p = .608. Eleven (42.3%) OF expressed strong toluidine blue staining of the intervening fibrous connective tissue stroma while only 2 (14.2%) FD showed similar staining, this difference was statistically significant [p = .001].ConclusionsHistomorphometric analysis with Toluidine blue may reduce diagnostic errors of OF and FD.
       
  • The Diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasonography, magnetic
           resonance imaging and diffusion weighted image in female patients with
           endometrial carcinoma

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Dina Moghazy Mohamed, Khaled Abd El-Wahab abo Dewan, Salwa Mahmoud Mera Aim of workTo evaluate the efficacy of transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in presurgical staging of endometrial cancer.MethodologyThis work included 35 female patients. Thirty patients were diagnosed to have endometrial carcinoma.ResultsThe sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound in detection of invasion of myometrial cavity were 67.25%, 75.0%, 90.00%, 30.00% and in distant metastasis were 77.78%, 80.95%, 63.64%, 89.47% and %80. These variables for MRI were 88.89%, 100.0%, 100%, 66.67% and 91% in myometrial invasion and in distant metastasis were 100.0%, 100.0%, 100.0%, 100% and 100.0%. There was an inversely proportional relationship between ADC values and the tumor grading. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) magnitude of 0.77 ± 0.21 × 10−3 mm2/s was associated with endometrial cancer while normal endometrial cavity showed ADC value of 1.31 ± 0.11 × 10−3 mm2/s).ConclusionConventional MRI, diffusion weighted imaging and contrast enhanced MR images are superior to TVUS in patients with endometrial cancer and ADC values help to differentiate between normal and endometrial cancer which may replace MR contrast enhanced images.
       
  • Definitive salvage chemotherapy for the treatment of refractory/relapsed
           non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a single center experience

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Rania Hafez, Safinaz Hussein, Marwa Ismail ObjectiveNon Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL)s are a group of malignancies which affect the lymphatic system. A significant proportion of NHL patients experience either relapse or failure of treatment which is called refractory disease. Relapsed or refractory NHL usually have poor prognosis due to shortage of randomized trials comparing efficacy of different treatment protocols to define the optimal salvage chemotherapy regimen in these cases. In this study, we are trying to define the best salvage chemotherapy regimen with low toxicity and better quality of life for patients by comparing outcome of 2 salvage chemotherapy regimens GDP & DHAP.Patients and methods100 patients diagnosed as relapsed or refractory NHL were randomly assigned to receive either Gemcitabine, Dexamethasone and Cisplatin (GDP) or Dexamethasone, Cytarabine and Cysplatin (DHAP) for 4 to 6 cycles. Primary endpoints of the study were overall survival and progression free survival. Secondary endpoints were response to treatment, toxicity profile of each regimen, and quality of life assessment.ResultsThe overall response rate was 70% in GDP group & 64% in DHAP group with no statistically significant difference between them (p-value 0.5). There was no significant difference between both groups regarding toxicity profile except in febrile neutropenia episodes which was much less in GDP group (p-value 0.04). Quality of life was better in GDP group than DHAP with significant difference (p-value 
       
  • Role of magnetic resonance imaging in loco-regional evaluation of cancer
           rectum, pre and post neoadjuvant therapy

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Enjy El-Kady, Mohamed Eid Ibrahim, Khaled Saied Abbas, Amal Sobhy El-Sedfy, M. Ahmed Mohallel The high rate of local recurrence is considered the major concern and challenge regarding the surgical treatment of cancer rectum. The target of use of pre-operative neoadjuvant therapy is reducing tumour size and improving its resectability in order to reduce local recurrence risk and improve survival rates.Plans for management and treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer showed clear changes after use of neoadjuvant therapy. This in turn necessitates accurate evaluation of the tumour parameters before and after use of combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CRT).Aim of study is to assess the initial stage of cancer rectum then its response to neoadjuvant therapy using MRI, prior to operative interference. This is followed by post-operative histo-pathological data correlation.MethodsThis study was conducted on 50 patients. All patients were examined by high-resolution T2-weighted images. Turbo-spin-echo sequences taken in sagittal plane, axial plane perpendicular to tumor axis and coronal plane parallel to tumor axis or anal canal. All are according to tumor height. Diffusion weighted images (DWI) performed in all cases.ResultsFollowing neoadjuvant therapy, down-staging was detected in this study in more than 90% of patients regarding the T2 signal and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the tumour, also status of depth of involvement of meso-rectal fascia (MRF), circumferential resection margin (CRM), extra-mural vascular invasion (EMVI) and nodal involvement.ConclusionPre-operative MRI in cancer rectum is irreplaceable to assess initial staging and post-neoadjuvant therapy response thus improving surgical results.
       
  • Assessment of the onset of radiation-induced cardiac damage after
           radiotherapy of breast cancer patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Ebtsam Zaher, Enayat Fahmy, Kamal Mahmoud, Yasser El Kerm, Mohammad Auf ObjectivesThe study aimed to evaluate the dose delivered to the heart during radiotherapy of left-sided and right-sided breast cancer (BC) patients, correlate the dose and laterality of radiotherapy to the possible cardiac damage and evaluate whether Left-ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF), Troponin-I (TnI), Creatinine Kinase (CK), Creatine Kinase-MB Relative Index (CK-MBRI) or Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH) could be used to detect the possible onset of radiotherapy-related cardiotoxicity.Subjects and methods80 females were assigned as; 30 left-sided BC patients, 30 right-sided BC patients and 20 healthy females. Patients were treated by radical mastectomy followed by FAC-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy. CT-based 3D-planning was used to generate cardiac dose-volume histograms to assess mean dose received by the heart.Echocardiography was done to all patients before and 1 year after completing radiotherapy. In serum, TnI and CK-MB concentration and CK and LDH activities were determined before and 1 year after radiotherapy.ResultsIn left-sided patients, mean dose delivered to the heart was significantly higher in left-sided patients with significant association with total radiotherapy dose in left- but not right-sided patients. LVEF before and after radiotherapy were statistically different only in left-sided patients. LVEF one year after radiotherapy dropped 20% or more (ΔLVEF) in 6 patients, all were left-sided.Using cut-off values 0.08 ng/mL for TnI and 1.4 for CK-MBRI; 11 left-sided patients had abnormal TnI and CK-MBRI vs 5 right-sided patients, the 6 patients identified with ΔLVEF ≥ 20 were all among them.Conclusionthe mean dose delivered to the heart is significantly higher in left-sided patients, and it was correlated to the total radiotherapy dose. One year after radiotherapy, ΔLVEF is possibly good marker of cardiotoxicity onset, however, the persistent elevation of both TnI and CK-MBRI could identify both patients with cardiotoxicity and patients that are thought to be in subclinical phase of cardiac damage.
       
  • Study of urinary interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) and urinary
           soluble CD 25 (sCD25) as markers of lupus nephritis and their relation to
           histological class

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Montasser Mohamed Hussein Zeid, Nahed Mohamed Baddour, Dalia Abd El-Moaty El-Neily, Heba Selim Elshair, Mohamed Mamdouh ObjectiveTo study the role of urinary interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) and urinary soluble CD 25 (sCD 25) as diagnostic and prognostic markers of lupus nephritis (LN) and their relation to the LN class in renal biopsy.Subjects and methodsThis study included 45 lupus patients fulfilling the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) classification criteria: 25 patients with active LN during activity and during follow up (3 months later) as [group A] and 20 patients without any signs of activity [group B]. (20) age and sex matched healthy subjects were enrolled as control group [group C]. Urine samples were collected at baseline and at follow up. Urinary IP-10 and sCD25 were measured by ELISA.ResultsUrinary IP-10 and sCD25 levels were higher in group A compared to groups B and C (P 
       
  • Gene expression and six single nucleotide polymorphisms of interleukin-6
           in rheumatoid arthritis: A case-control study in Iraqi patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Ali H. Ad'hiah, Aseel S. Mahmood, Abdul-Kareem A. Al-kazaz, Khadier K. Mayouf BackgroundInterleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a significant role in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but its single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as well as therapy may modulate such role.ObjectivesIt was aimed to determine gene expression and six SNPs (rs1800796 C/G, rs7802307 A/C/T, rs7802308 A/T, rs36215814 A/G, rs184229712 A/G and rs867254801 C/G) of IL6 in etanercept-treated Iraqi Arab RA patients.Materials and methodsFifty-one RA patients and 45 controls were enrolled, and the determinations were carried out by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Sanger’s DNA sequencing. Disease activity and laboratory markers were considered in these evaluations, which were the first presentation in Iraqi patients.ResultsThe ΔCt mean of IL6 mRNA showed a significant increase in RA patients compared to control (9.084 ± 0.964 vs. 6.780 ± 2.240; p = 0.0001). In terms of a relative expression, the 2−ΔΔCt means showed no significant variations between subgroups of patients distributed by clinical and laboratory findings, with the exception of C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP-positive patients showed a lower mean compared to CRP-negative patients (0.201 ± 0.109 vs. 0.312 ± 0.131; p = 0.001). Distributing patients by gender and duration of disease also revealed significant variations between male and female patients. With respect to SNPs, allele and genotype frequencies of four SNPs (rs1800796, rs7802307, rs184229712 and rs867254801) showed variations between patients and controls, while no differences were reported for rs7802308 and rs36215814 SNPs. In addition, IL6 gene expression was significantly influenced by two SNP genotypes (rs36215814 GA and rs184229712 AG) compared to the corresponding GG genotypes.ConclusionGene expression of IL6 was down-regulated in RA patients, especially CRP-negative patients. Moreover, four SNPs of such cytokine may have a role in RA risk.
       
  • Impact of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) A1298C gene
           polymorphism on the outcome of methotrexate treatment in a sample of
           Egyptian rheumatoid arthritis patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Ola Atef Sharaki, Amira Hasan Elgerby, Eman Saad Nassar, Sara Salah Eldin Khalil Background: Methotrexate is the most commonly used disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) and it is considered the first-line treatment in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MTX treatment outcome regarding response to the drug and adverse effects in RA patients are not universal. Therefore, it would be beneficial if we could predict the response of patients to MTX before starting MTX treatment in order to determine the patient’s drug-treatment plan. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of MTHFR A1298C SNP (rs1801131) on the clinical outcome of MTX treatment as regards treatment efficacy and toxicity in a cohort of Egyptian rheumatoid arthritis patients. Patients and methods: Fifty rheumatoid arthritis patients were included in the present study. Data about patient related variables such as age and sex, disease related variables such as disease duration as well as treatment related variables such as treatment duration, dose of MTX, its route of administration and concomitant use of other drugs (NSAIDs) were obtained. DAS28 was calculated to all patients to assess drug response. MTHFR A1298C polymorphism was investigated using real time 5′ nuclease allelic discrimination assay. Results: Multivariate regression analysis for factors predicting MTX drug response showed that MTHFR A1298C SNP and MTX dose were the most significant independent predictors for MTX treatment response (p = .016, OR = 39.113, 95% C.I = 1.970–776.558, p = .003, OR = 1.667, C.I = 1.184–2.348, respectively). Considering clinicopathological variables; longer disease duration, positive anti-CCP, NSAIDs users, higher MTX doses and longer treatment durations were significantly associated with non-response to MTX. Regarding MTX drug toxicity, MTHFR 1298 CC genotype, MTX dose and concomitant use of NSAIDs were significantly associated with MTX drug toxicity (MCp = .003, p = .031, p = .029, respectively). Conclusion: Our study proved that MTHFR A1298C SNP can predict clinical outcome of MTX treatment as regards treatment efficacy and toxicity in Egyptian rheumatoid arthritis patients.
       
  • Lateral ankle anatomical variants predisposing to peroneal tendon
           impingement

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Mahmoud Agha, Mohamed Saied Abdelgawad, Nasser Gamal Aldeen PurposeTo delineate the significant association between the peroneal tendons injury and the lateral ankle joint anatomical variants.SubjectsRetrospective revision of the last 600 ankle MRI examinations, with dividing such candidates into: Group A: Inclusion group including patients with pure Peroneal tendon injury & lateral ankle anatomical variants. Group B: Control group including patients with Peroneal Tendonsinjury & no anatomical variants. Group C: Exclusion group including patients with other different types of ankle injuries.TechniqueStandard MRI ankle joint protocols.ResultsGroup A: 73 patients (40.3%) had PTT including: straight/convex RMG in 48 (26.5%) patients; 19 of them (39.6%) had PTT, PT hypertrophy in 39 (21.6%) patients; 14 (35.9%) of them had PTT. RCE hypertrophy in 33 (18.3%) patients; 12 of them (36.4%) had PTT. PQ muscle was seen in 15 (8.3%) patients; 7 (46.7%) of them had PTT. Low PB muscle belly was found in 29 (16%) patients; 13 (44.9%) of them had PTT. OP was found in 17 (9.3%) patients; 8 (47%) of them had PTT. Group B: 26 of them (18%) had PTT. Fisher exact test 0 P value.ConclusionThe lateral ankle joint anatomical variants facilitate peroneal tendons injury, ending in chronic lateral joint instability.
       
  • Anthropometric dimensions of hand and foot as predictors of stature: A
           study of two ethnic groups in Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Patrick S. Igbigbi, Beryl S. Ominde, Chidinma F. Adibeli BackgroundAnthropometry as a science deals with the study of human measurements with a view towards the understanding of physical variations that exist in human population groups. Estimation of stature is very important in the investigation process of unknown and co-mingled human remains in mass casualties and natural disasters. Stature or height therefore is critically essential in human identification.AimThis study was aimed at determining stature using the anthropometric measurements of hand and foot dimensions in two ethnic Nigerian populations.MethodologyA descriptive cross-sectional study involving 384 Nigerian students selected using random sampling technique was used. These subjects were male and female volunteers of two ethnic groups’ aged between18 and 30 years. Cochran method for sample size determination was used. All measurements of hand and foot dimensions were recorded to the nearest centimetre using standardized anthropometric measuring equipment and the mean actual and estimated stature obtained.ResultsThe study showed significant gender difference in mean right and left hand breadth but not the mean right and left hand length (P 
       
  • Relationship between body mass index, waist circumference, waist hip ratio
           and erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease in a tertiary centre in
           Nigeria: A case control study

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Olusegun Adekanle, Samuel Anu Olowookere, Oluwasegun Ijarotimi, Dennis Amajuoyi Ndububa, Akinwumi Oluwole Komolafe BackgroundGastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when the reflux of stomach content causes troublesome symptoms with or without mucosa damage and or complications. GERD is believed to be evolving among blacks.ObjectivesThe objective of this study was to look at the relationship of GERD to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist hip ratio (WHR) among patients with distal oesophageal erosive GERD and controls.MethodsA case control study among patients with dyspepsia that had diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Patients with erosive GERD were grouped into cases while those without GERD were controls. GERD was graded using the Los Angeles classification. BMI, WC, HC and WHR were measured among cases and controls. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 or WC ≥ 88 cm or ≥WHR 0.85 in females and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 or WHR ≥ 0.9 or WC ≥ 102 cm for males. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.ResultsA total of 160 subjects (80 cases and 80 controls) were analysed. Mean (SD) age for cases was 51.1 (±12.4) years and 50.1 (±13.7) years for controls. When cases with GERD were compared with controls; males were less likely to be obese, BMI 
       
  • Toxicities of selected medicinal plants and floras of lower phyla

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): P.U. Amadi, E.N. Agomuo, A.I. Bob-Chile Agada, U.C. Njoku, M.O. Ifeanacho, J.C. Okereke, C.U. Iheka, J.O. Osuoha The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects associated with the administration of aqueous extracts (AE) of Calliandra portoricensis (CP), Dracaena arborea (DA), Duranta repens (DR), Polytrichum juniperinum (PJ), Parmelia caperata (PC), and Nostartium officinale (NO) on Wistar rats. LD50 for each plant was obtained prior to administration. Seven groups of six rats each were orally gavaged for 28 days as follows; group 1–7 received normal rat pellets and saline, in addition, group 2 received 20 mg/kg b.w CP, group 3 & 4 respectively received 8 mg/kg b.w DA and DR, group 5 & 6 respectively received 4 mg/kg b.w PJ and PC, and group 7 received 100 mg/kg b.w NO. Liver enzymes; ALP, ALT, AST and GGT were significantly (p 
       
  • Childhood accidental poisoning in western Iraq: Pattern and risk factors

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Zaid R. Al-Ani, Sahar J. Al-Hiali, Riyadh H. Al-Janabi
       
  • Plasma soluble CD 163 level as a marker of oesophageal varices in
           cirrhotic patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Alaa El Din Mohamed Abdo, Khaled Mahmoud Mohy El Din, Essam El Din Saeed Bedewy, Reham Abdel Haleem Abo Elwafa, Mohamed Adel Abdel Aziz BackgroundVariceal bleeding (VB), the most common lethal complication of cirrhosis, associated with high mortality. Timely prediction of esophageal varices (EV) represents a real challenge for the medical team. This study evaluated the level of plasma soluble CD 163 as a marker of the presence of EVs and to compare it with other noninvasive clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic parameters as well as endoscopy.MethodsThis prospective controlled study was conducted on 80 adults. Gp I had no oesophageal varices, gp II had small varices, gp IIIa had large varices, gp IIIb are the same patients of gp IIIa but after eradication of varices and gp IV as healthy controls. Serum samples were assayed for soluble CD 163.Resultssoluble CD163 was statistically significant different between controls and all liver cirrhosis. it showed a statistically significant difference between group I and II (p = 0.009) and between group I and IIIa (p 
       
  • Early prediction of iron deficiency in females in child bearing age in
           central Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Mysara M. Mogahed, Shereen Mohamed Abdelwahab
       
  • Knowledge of basic life support among the students of Jazan University,
           Saudi Arabia: Is it adequate to save a life'

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Awais Ahmad, Naseem Akhter, Raju K. Mandal, Mohammed Y. Areeshi, Mohtashim Lohani, Mohammad Irshad, Mohsen Alwadaani, Shafiul Haque BackgroundBasic Life Support [BLS; including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)] is a part of medical skills utilized in case of an emergency medical care to save human lives. It is well established that the young students can become major healthcare supportive workforce for a community including the cases of emergency. Therefore, adequate knowledge of BLS is necessary for all the university attending students. This study evaluated the awareness of BLS knowledge and attitude towards BLS training among the students of Jazan University, Saudi Arabia.MethodsA self-administered survey questionnaire using cross-sectional design was employed.ResultsOut of 360 participants, the majority were male students (84.2%). The participants have mediocre knowledge of BLS, and their mean score was 7.83 out of 14. The knowledge score, i.e., correct response of male and female students was almost similar. Not a single student answered all the questions correctly. About 28% participants had received BLS training previously during their study course and showed better BLS knowledge (mean score 10.41) in comparison with the other participants. In contrast with the students of health science related courses, the highest mean knowledge score (11.5) was opted by the students of emergency medical services, whereas the lowest score (6.58) was opted by the students of nursing background.ConclusionsOverall, a majority of the students of Jazan University did not have complete knowledge of BLS (CPR). The outcomes of this study will be helpful for education and healthcare service providers of the Saudi kingdom as a whole and for Jazan region.
       
  • Prevalence of depressive symptoms among Turkish women experiencing
           premenstrual symptoms and correlated factors

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Nülüfer Erbil ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate prevalence of depressive symptoms among Turkish women experiencing premenstrual symptoms and correlated factors.MethodThis descriptive and cross-sectional study. The data were collected with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Premenstruel Syndrome Scale (PMSS), and questionnaire form. A total of 121 married and literate women who agreed to participate were included in the study.ResultsThe proportions depressive symptoms among women with severe premenstrual symptoms and without severe premenstrual symptoms were 51% and 13.5% respectively. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between the BDI score; the total PMSS score (r = 0.403) and its subscales scores including depressive feelings (r = 0.439); anxiety (r = 0.412); fatigue (r = 0.280); irritability (r = 0.253); depressive thoughts (r = 0.456); pain (r = 0.204); and the changes in appetite (r = 0.418). A negative correlation was found in the swelling subscale score of PMSS (r = −0.079), but there was no correlation with the changes in the sleeping habits subscale score (r = 0.024). There was correlation between BDI scores and occupation, education, perception of outcome, domicile, and a history of psychiatric disorders of the women. There was correlation between PMSS scores a history of psychiatric disorders and complaint of dysmenorrhea in the women.ConclusionsIn conclusion, women who experienced premenstrual syndrome had higher depressive symptoms than women without premenstrual syndrome. Women with premenstrual syndrom should be assessed for depression by health professionals.
       
  • Assessment of knowledge, attitude and behavior towards antibiotic use in
           primary health care patients in Fayoum Governorate, Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Naglaa A. El Sherbiny, Eman H. Ibrahim, Mohamed Masoud
       
  • Diagnostic performance of GeneXpert and Ziehl-Neelson microscopy in the
           detection of tuberculosis in Benue State, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Enenche Francis Ejeh, Ann Undiandeye, Victor O. Akinseye, Kenneth O. Okon, Haruna M. Kazeem, Caleb Ayuba Kudi, Simeon Idowu B. Cadmus BackgroundAccurate and timely diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is key to effective treatment and management. This study was designed to compare the diagnostic performance of GeneXpert and Ziehl-Neelson (ZN) microscopy test using culture as the reference.MethodsCross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary hospital to compare the performance of GeneXpert and ZN test among HIV and non-HIV patients. Sputum samples were collected from 261 suspected TB patients and analyzed in the laboratory using GeneXpert, ZN test and culture. Statistical analysis included calculation of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. χ2 was used to compare the outcome of diagnostic test and demographic variables. p-value 
       
  • Microbiological monitoring of ultrapure dialysis fluid in a hemodialysis
           center in Alexandria, Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Aleya A. Abbass, Ahmed F. El-Koraie, Walaa A. Hazzah, Eman A. Omran, Mohammed A. Mahgoub
       
  • Candidemia after cardiac surgery in Tehran, Iran: A retrospective analysis
           of 424 cases at two medical centers

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Nayeb Ali Ahmadi, Leila Davodi BackgroundCandidaemia is an emerging problem and one of the most important nosocomial infections in many hospitals. The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology and patient outcomes of candidemia after cardiac surgery at two medical centers in Iran over a nine-year period.MethodsA retrospective analysis was conducted reviewing the medical records of all patients who underwent surgical treatment of cardiac disease at two medical centers. Demographic data, comorbidities, surgical procedure, length of hospital stay, odds ratio and annual trend for candidemia in cardiosurgical cases were collected and analyzed.ResultsCandidemia was responsible for 1.78% cases of total cardiac surgeries (23,849) in two hospitals. Data showed an overall declining trend for the incidence of candidemia during the study period, so that decreased from 3.81% in 2003–2004 to 0.52% in 2011–2012 (P 
       
  • Toxoplasma gondii: Prolonged in-vitro maintenance of virulent tachyzoites
           in fluid media at low temperatures

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Mohamed M. El-Bahy, Marwa M. Khalifa, Eman M.H. Méabed BackgroundProlonged maintenance of infective Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites (T.g.T.) is an important subject for research purposes. This study aimed to evaluate four serum free fluid media for prolonged in vitro maintenance of T.g.T.MethodsThe four fluid media Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) pH 7.2 and Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI-1640) with or without 3% fetal bovine serum (FBS) were evaluated for maintenance of virulent T.g.T. The four media were tested after incubation at three different temperature degrees in the darkness.ResultsProlonged maintenance period for infective T.g.T. was recorded especially in the absence of FBS supplement. RPMI without FBS was able to maintain infective T.g.T. for 16 days post incubation (dpi) at refrigerator temperature. This period decreased to 10 dpi and 6 dpi after incubation in the same media at 18–22 °C and 37 °C, respectively. Cultivation of T.g.T. in RPMI supplemented with 3% FBS and in PBS proved to maintain infective T.g.T. for 14 dpi at refrigerator temperature, and for 9 and 5 dpi when the two media were incubated at 18–22 °C and 37 °C, respectively. Shorter periods for keeping the T.g.T. infectivity were recorded using PBS supplemented with 3% FBS under all tested temperature conditions.ConclusionThis method allows economic long-lasting maintenance of tachyzoites for 16th dpi in RBMI that can be reactivated by reinoculation in mice.
       
  • Comparison of immunogenical potency of Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER)
           antigens prepared by 3 different methods in conjunction with
           Alum-Naltrexone adjuvant in BALB/c mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Peyman Khezri, Shahram Shahabi, Esmaeil Abasi, Habib Mohammadzadeh Hajipirloo ObjectivesTo evaluate the immunization ability of three Leishmania major antigens including formaline killed promastigotes (FKP), autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM) and soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA), they were used to immunize BALB/c mice in association with a mixture of alum and naltrexone (Alum-Nalt) as adjuvant.MethodsEach mouse from any of three groups received FKP, ALM or SLA antigens. Three additional groups were injected with same antigenes plus Alum-Nalt. One more group was injected with PBS to be the control group. Booster injections were given at 14th and 28th days. Two weeks after the last immunization, seven mice from each group were exposed to live promastigotes subcutaneously, and skin lesion formation among each mouse was monitored and recorded for 60 days. One week later, cellular and humoral immune responses of other immunized mice were evaluated by measuring the serum levels of anti-ALM-specific IgG1, IgG2a and total IgG antibodies, splenic anti-ALM-specific IFN-γ and IL-5 production and splenic lymphocyte proliferation after adding ALM.ResultsIn the challenge test, all mice immunized with ALM antigen and Alum-Nalt were prevented from formation of skin ulcer. Also, the mice from the same group showed higher IFN-γ production and splenic lymphocyte proliferation and higher anti-ALM-specific IgG2a production.
       
  • Comparing the efficiency of four diagnostic concentration techniques
           performed on the same group of intestinal parasites

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Kamran Pakdad, Seyed Dawood Mousavi Nasab, Fatemeh-Alsadat Damraj, Nayeb Ali Ahmadi BackgroundIntestinal parasites are a major public health problem, and their accurate diagnosis is important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency of four concentration techniques for the detection of intestinal parasites under laboratory conditions.MethodsA total of 800 suspension specimens including 200 samples for each technique were simultaneously and parallel processed for comparing the diagnostic efficiency of the formalin-tween (FTC), formalin-ether (FEC), formalin-acetone (FAC), and formalin-gasoline concentration (FGC) techniques.ResultsSensitivity of FTC, FEC, FAC, and FGC techniques for diagnosis of intestinal parasites was 71.7%, 55.8%, 70.0% and 56.7%; and their negative predictive values (NPV) were 70.2%, 60.2%, 69.0% and 60.6%, respectively. FTC and FAC techniques with equivalent recovery rates were significantly more sensitive than FEC and FGC techniques for diagnosing helminth ova, but for diagnosis of protozoan cysts they were reversed. Overall diagnostic κ agreement for FTC and FAC techniques was substantial, while for FEC and FGC techniques it was moderate. The κ statistic indicated low to moderate agreement for diagnosis of helminths and moderate to substantial agreement for protozoa.ConclusionTween, acetone and gasoline reagents are more stable, safer, less flammable and of lower cost than that of ether; and promise to be a useful alternative to ether- concentration. Our results demonstrated that the combined use of parasitological techniques is important for the diagnosis of all intestinal parasites. FTC and FGC techniques are superior for the diagnosis of helminth ova and protozoan cysts in stool, respectively. Additional studies are suggested, using a larger sample size and different parasites in the field.
       
  • Low cost detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in HCV infected patients by
           SYBR Green I real-time PCR

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Dalia Elsayed Metawlly, Ahmed Noby Amer, Hanan Mostafa Mostafa, Gamal El Din Elsawaf, Ola Abd El Kader The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highest in Egypt compared to other countries. Nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) allows detection of HCV early during the course of infection. Unfortunately, NAT is more expensive than ELISA, thus its routine use as a screening tool for blood products or in clinical practice is quite limited. The aim of this study was to compare two common RT-PCR methods, TaqMan probe technique and SYBR Green method in quantitative detection of HCV RNA for diagnosis and follow up of HCV patients. Among the recruited 220 HCV patients, 154 (70%) were HCV-RNA positive by both the techniques, while 24 (10.9%) were negative by both techniques. On the other hand, 40 (18.2%) cases were HCV RNA positive only by SYBR Green technique, and 2 (0.9%) only by TaqMan probe technique. Forty (20.4%) of the 196 chronic HCV cases were HCV-RNA positive by SYBR Green but negative by TaqMan probe technique.ConclusionThis method is useful for rapid qualitative detection of HCV infection and particularly suitable for routine diagnostic applications.
       
  • Prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension and its related risk
           factors among undergraduate students in a Tertiary institution, Ghana

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Daniel Gyamfi, Christian Obirikorang, Emmanuel Acheampong, Kwabena Owusu Danquah, Evans Adu Asamoah, Fatima Zarah Liman, Emmanuella Nsenbah Batu ObjectivesThis study sought to provide information about pre-hypertension and hypertension status among undergraduate students at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted among a total of 540 students. Participants were interviewed using questionnaires and their blood pressures (BP), height, weight were measured and Body Mass Index ‘BMI’ and Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR) were calculated. Repeated measurements were obtained on two successive times in students with persistently elevated BP. Data obtained was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 23. Final prevalence was adjusted for loss-to- follow up on participants with first elevated BP from the reading and logistic regression used to evaluate risk factors. P-value less than .05 was considered statistically significant.ResultsTwelve (2.2%) of the students were hypertensive, whilst pre-hypertension was prevalent in 26.1% of the student. Family history of hypertension [OR = 1.68(0.73–1.68)], kidney failure [OR = 1.38(0.34–5.60)], stroke [OR = 1.10(0.64–1.91)] and heart failure [OR = 1.03(0.27–3.94)] were associated with increased risk of developing pre-hypertension; however no significant association was observed (p > .05). WHtR and BMI were independent positively correlated with blood pressure status after controlling for gender and age (p 
       
  • Interplay of adipokines in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension: A
           comparative cross-sectional in Ghana

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Osei Asibey, Francis Agyemang Yeboah, W.K.B.A. Owiredu, Emmanuel Acheampong, Enoch Odame Anto, Isaac K. Owusu BackgroundThe renin-angiotensin-system (RAS), endothelial dysfunction and sympathetic nervous system are mechanistic risk factors of hypertension. The study sought to elucidate the interplay of adipokines in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension.MethodologyThis comparative cross-sectional study recruited 200 confirmed hypertensive patients from the KATH and 50 age-matched normotensives. Participants’ blood pressures, anthropometric and socio-demographic information were voluntarily obtained. Serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and resistin of the participants were quantified using the ELISA. Renal function, lipid profile and glycemic status of all subjects were also analyzed.ResultsHypertensive patients showed a significantly higher anthropometric indices of adiposity compared to normotensives, CI (p 
       
  • Prevalence of obesity among adults in Issele-Uku, Delta State Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Otovwe Agofure BackgroundObesity is gradually assuming an epidemic dimension among adults in Nigeria. Unfortunately, this has led to the increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases.ObjectiveThe study was designed to assess the prevalence of obesity among adults in Issele-uku, Aniocha North Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria.Materials and MethodsThe study employed a cross-sectional study design conducted among 201 respondents utilizing a simple random sampling technique. A validated semi-structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information from respondents; while descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyze the data.ResultsThe results show that more of the respondents were between the ages of 18–40 years, while about half 101(50.50%) were females and 104(52.0%) were married. Furthermore, only 46(23.0%) were overweight while 17.50% and 5.50% were pre-obese and obese respectively. The mean Body Mass Index of the respondents was 23.02 ± 4.42 while the respondents demonstrated positive attitude towards prevention of obesity. In addition, only eating akpu/fufu significantly predicted obesity (R2 = 0.034) while both sex (P = .350) and educational status (P = 0.165) did not significantly influence obesity and some of the respondents’ 82(41.0%) exercises once in a while.ConclusionThe study recommended more awareness campaign on the dangers of obesity across communities in Nigeria.
       
  • Characterization of abnormal sleep patterns in patients with obesity, type
           2 diabetes, or combined

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Aliaa Ali El-Aghoury, Tamer Mohamed Elsherbiny, Neveen Lewis, Tarek Mohamed Salem, Nesma Osman Introduction: Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus have reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Abnormal sleep has been linked to both incident and prevalent obesity and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to characterize abnormal sleep patterns [ASP's] in patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes, or both. Subjects: The study included 92 subjects divided into four groups: Group 1, 23 obese patients (BMI > 30) with type 2 diabetes mellitus; Group 2, 23 non-obese diabetic patients; group 3, 23 obese subjects without diabetes; group 4, 23 matched healthy control subjects. Methods: Waist circumference and BMI [body mass index] estimation, fasting and post challenge plasma glucose “groups 2 & 4”, HOMA-IR [Homeostatic model assessment- Insulin resistance] estimation, and finally evaluation for ASP's using a CDC [Centers for Disease Control and prevention] validated questionnaire. Results: Post-prandial glucose and BMI significantly predicted Sleep latency and sleep hours at night respectively. Both group 1 and 3 compared to group 4 showed higher prevalence of: Insomnia [p 
       
  • Predictors of conversion from prediabetic state to type 2 diabetes
           mellitus in Jordan

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Khawla Al-dajah, Anwar Al-Kassar, Amjad Al-shdaifat
       
  • Chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: Comparison of
           KDIGO and KDOQI guidelines

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Richard K.D. Ephraim, Richard Mantey, Stephen Atombo, Samuel A. Sakyi, Linda A. Fondjo, Worlanyo Tashie, Hope Agbodzakey, Felix A. Botchway, Bright Amankwaa BackgroundChronic kidney disease (CKD), has become a public health concern as it has been reported to cause adverse outcomes such as kidney failure and premature death. This cross sectional study compared the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) and Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) guidelines in assessing the prevalence of CKD in Type 2 diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients.MethodsWe consecutively sampled a cross-section of 202 T2DM patients from the Ho municipality in the Volta region (Ghana). Structured pre-tested questionnaires were administered to obtain information on gender, age, body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, medication used, duration on medication, and duration of diabetes. Serum creatinine and urine protein were estimated using standard protocols and CKD was classified according to KDIGO and KDOQI guidelines.ResultsThe prevalence of CKD was 63.4% and 58.4% using the KDIGO and KDOQI guidelines respectively. The prevalence of mildly decreased renal function or worse (eGFR 
       
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome in patients with and without diabetes mellitus in
           Upper Egypt: The impact of electrophysiological and ultrasonographical
           studies

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Abeer A. Tony, Effat A.E. Tony, Yasser A.R.M. Selim, Ehab Saad BackgroundCarpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy in the upper extremity. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) is the most valid way of diagnosing CTS in combination of these clinical symptoms together with positive signs by physical examination. Ultrasonography is a useful non-invasive diagnostic method for CTS and there is considerable correlation between the electrophysiological tests and the measurements of cross-sectional area (CSA) by ultrasonography. Many studies have shown that the carpal tunnel syndrome seems to occur more frequently in patients with diabetes mellitus and might be associated with the duration of diabetes mellitus, microvascular complications and degree of glycemic control. Although diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for CTS, reports about median nerve CSA measurements between CTS patients with and without DM are scant. This prospective study aimed to evaluate whether or not ultrasonographic findings of the median nerve is different between DM and non-DM-CTS patients. To correlate the diagnostic results in both DM and non-DM-CTS patients.Patients and methodsThirty six non-diabetic patients and twenty five diabetic patients with CTS were assessed. All patients were subjected to thorough history taking, full clinical examination, electrophysiological assessment of wrists and gray scale ultrasonography (US).ResultsHigh mean cross sectional area of median nerve (CSA) on ultrasonographical studies was detected with non-significant difference between both groups. Additionally, a non-significant difference for flattening ratio was found between two groups. Moreover, there was a highly significant positive correlation between electro diagnostic and ultrasonographic results in diabetic patients.ConclusionThe CSA of median nerve is larger in CTS hands in both DM and non-DM patients. Mean electro-diagnostic parameters were not significant predictors of CTS in patients with diabetes. The combination of electrophysiological and ultrasonography provides diagnostic effective tools across the entire spectrum of CTS in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Nevertheless, screening for DM in patients with CTS is not recommended.
       
  • Synthetic biology-based portable in vitro diagnostic platforms

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Almando Geraldi, Ernawati Arifin Giri-Rachman Early diagnosis of infectious diseases represents powerful means to increase patient survival rate, avoid disease spreading, and decrease healthcare costs. Current Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)- and antibody-based diagnostic methods for detecting pathogens offer rapid analysis with highly accurate and specific results. However, those methods are still hampered by the need of sophisticated infrastructures and highly-skilled technicians, which limit the deployment in developing area. Synthetic biology with its rational and short design-to-production cycles has the potential to overcome those limitations. Here, we discuss two promising efforts for pathogen nucleic acids detection using synthetic biology approaches: Synthetic RNA-based and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas)-based biosensors. The two systems were reported to show remarkable specificity and sensitivity on detecting and reporting the presence of pathogen via pathogen nucleic acid recognition with lower development and operational costs when compared to current PCR- and antibody-based diagnostic tools. Moreover, both systems can be applied to paper-based platforms which simplify the distribution and utilization in low resource-settings.
       
  • Additive manufacturing applications in medical cases: A literature based
           review

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Mohd. Javaid, Abid Haleem BackgroundA significant number of the research paper on Medical cases using Additive manufacturing studied. Different applications of additive manufacturing technologies in the medical area analysed for providing the state of the art and direction of the development.The aim of workTo illustrate the Additive Manufacturing technology as being used in medical and its benefits along-with contemporary and future applications.Materials and methodsLiterature Review based study on Additive Manufacturing that are helpful in various ways to address medical problems along with bibliometric analysis been done.ResultBriefly described the review of forty primary applications of AM as used for medical purposes along with their significant achievement. Process chain development in the application of AM is identified and tabulated for every process chain member, its achievement and limitations for various references.There are five criteria which one can achieve through medical model when made through AM technology. To support the achievements and limitations of every criterion proper references are provided. The ongoing research is also classified according to the application of AM in medical with criteria, achievement and references. Eight major medical areas where AM is implemented have been identified along with primary references, objectives and advantages.ConclusionPaper deals with the literature review of the Medical application of Additive Manufacturing and its future. Medical models which are customised and sourced from data of an individual patient, which vary from patient to patient can well be modified and printed. Medical AM involves resources of human from the field of reverse engineering, medicine and biomaterial, design and manufacturing of bones, implants, etc. Additive Manufacturing can help solve medical problems with extensive benefit to humanity.
       
  • Risk factors associated with paediatric tuberculosis in an endemic setting

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Caleb Joseph Attah, Stephen Oguche, Daniel Egah, Tokkit Nandi Ishaya, Mathilda Banwat, Adgidzi Godwin Adgidzi BackgroundThe success of any tuberculosis (TB) control/intervention programme hinges on the understanding of transmission dynamics of TB within that setting. However, there is paucity of data in high disease burdened countries like Nigeria on the associated risk factors of childhood TB and this supports the need for this research.ObjectiveThis study was undertaken to determine the prevalent associated risk factors of childhood pulmonary TB in a high diseased burdened setting.Subjects and methodWe carried out a cross sectional study among children aged 18 months to 15 years in six selected health facilities in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The subjects were screened for pulmonary TB using chest X-ray, sputum or gastric aspirate acid-fast bacilli microscopy and mycobacterium culture. They were also screened for HIV infection. Detailed information was taken regarding history of contact with adult TB source case, house-hold contact, duration of contact, house-hold size, number of people sleeping in a room, cross ventilation, BCG immunization, socio-economic, educational and HIV status of parents, and ingestion of unpasteurized milk and chronic illness other than TB. The subjects had physical examination for BCG scar and nutritional status.ResultsA total of 150 subjects were selected for the study with mean age of 9.12 ± 4.66 years and median age of 10.0 years. The prevalence of definite TB cases found among them was 32% which is 5.5 times higher than the reported national average. The risk factors associated with pulmonary TB include lower socioeconomic status (79.2%), history of contact with an adult TB case source (72.9%), overcrowding (72.9%), absence of cross ventilation (68.8%), ingestion of unpasteurized milk (45.8%) and severe malnutrition among children under five using MUAC parameter (12.5%). The most significant independent predictors of TB in children were absence of cross ventilation (OR = 3.27), contact with adult source case (OR = 2.91) and overcrowding (OR = 2.30).ConclusionAbsent of cross ventilation, contact with adult source case and overcrowding are the most significant predictors of pulmonary TB in children. Although ingestion of unpasteurized milk is a significant predictor and important source of TB, it is not a major source of TB transmission when compared to contact with adult source case (Open TB).
       
  • Zoonotic fungal diseases and animal ownership in Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Adebowale I. Adebiyi, Daniel O. Oluwayelu BackgroundThe growing interest in keeping animals as pets in Nigeria and other resource-poor countries highlights the possibility of transmission of zoonotic infections to humans. These zoonoses which are usually caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi, are naturally transmitted to humans, causing various degrees of morbidity and mortality with attendant economic and or public health consequences.Materials and methodIn the present review, a computerized search of existing literature was conducted using the Google search engine and PubMed electronic database to identify and download relevant publications on zoonotic fungal infections in Nigeria. The key words used were zoonotic fungal disease and Nigeria while the Boolean operator ‘AND’ was used to combine and narrow the searches. Additional information was obtained by searching the medical and veterinary libraries for journals not listed in the database. The available publications were thereafter reviewed and findings qualitatively described.ResultsOur findings revealed that fungal diseases with zoonotic potential lack sufficient attention in Nigeria. This suggests that fungi are yet to be considered as major causes of morbidity and mortality in animals and humans in Nigeria, and may account for the few reports available on zoonotic fungal diseases in the country.ConclusionThere is a need to raise awareness of the extent of health problems caused by zoonotic fungal diseases in Nigeria in order to better appreciate their burden and public health consequences, and also provide an integrated platform for development of effective prevention and control strategies.
       
  • Traditional practices and childhood cryptosporidiosis in Nigeria: A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Adekunle B. Ayinmode, Oluwasola O. Obebe Cryptosporidium infection is known worldwide as an important aetiology of chronic diarrhoea that can become fatal in children (below 5 years of age) and immunocompromised individuals. This review was aimed at identifying some traditional practices that may be risk factors for childhood diseases like cryptosporidiosis in a country like Nigeria with different tribes and cultures. Information gathered from literature search and informal sources identified some indigenous practices like birth rituals, special childhood menus, traditional nanny practice, local management of childhood diarrhoea and some myths among others, as factors that may negatively impact childhood health in a multi-cultural population like Nigeria. A proper understanding of these traditional practices will enable the prevention and control of childhood disease like cryptosporidiosis in a multi-ethnic setting.
       
  • Metabolomics-based studies in the field of
           Leishmania/leishmaniasis

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Nasrin Amiri Dash Atan, Mehdi Koushki, Nayeb Ali Ahmadi, Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani Leishmania is a neglected protozoan parasite which creates some problems for public health with different clinical infections in different countries around. Due to the lack of an effective drug without side effects and the emergence drug resistance, there is an urgent need to introduce the novel drug targets and new drugs and vaccines to control leishmaniasis during recent years, metabolomics and other “Omics” platforms has become an important approach to comprehensive knowledge of the Leishmania parasites biology. The study of metabolite profiles can open the insights for discovering novel therapeutic targets in this infection in both of the parasites and human host. In addition, specifying the metabolomics profile changes among promastigotes, amastigotes and during metacyclogenesis can pay the way for achieving parasite survival parameters and the host-parasite interaction. The previous studies in this field have been extracted from the databases, literature and their detailed major concepts. The present review highlights the role of metabolomics approach in the field of Leishmania research. Also, several important metabolite signatures introduced in various aspect of leishmania parasite such as drug resistance and parasite biology which would be useful in the field of biomarker and drug discovery process. Finally, metabolomics plays a potential role in introducing metabolic pathways related to Leishmania parasite and its treatment design.
       
  • Effect of metformin on Sirtuin-1 disorders associated with diabetes in
           male rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Effat A. Khowailed, Hanan Ahmed Seddiek, Manal Moustafa Mahmoud, Laila A. Rashed, Fatma Elsayed Ibrahim BackgroundType 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycaemia. Increased glucose production through abnormally elevated hepatic gluconeogenesis is central to the manifestation of hyperglycaemia in T2DM. Metformin corrects hyperglycaemia mainly through inhibition of gluconeogenesis. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has been identified as regulator of gluconeogenic gene expression. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of metformin on SIRT1 level and activity in liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. Further, the possible role of SIRT1 on metabolic disorders associated with diabetes mellitus, including serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotiens (HDL), will be explored.MethodsThirty-two male albino rats were divided into control group (GpI), diabetic (DM) group (GpII), (metformin + DM) group (GpIII) administered 120 mg/kg metformin daily for 1 month before induction of diabetes, (DM + metformin) group (GpIV) administered 250 mg/kg metformin daily for 1 month after induction of diabetes. At the end of the study, BMI%, serum levels of glucose, insulin, TG and HDL, HOMA, SIRT1 level and activity in liver and pancreas and pancreatic DNA ladder were assessed.ResultsOur results showed significant decrease in serum glucose, insulin and TG levels and HOMA; significant increase in HDL level and SIRT1 level and activity in liver and pancreas beside the marked disappearance of pancreatic apoptosis in GpIII & IV relative to GpII. Regarding BMI%, it showed no significant changes in GpIV relative to GpII. No significant change was recorded between GpIII and GpIV regarding all studied parameters except on serum TG.ConclusionLowered SIRT1 in diabetes was improved by the administration of Metformin. Consequently, the pathophysiological disorders associated with T2DM were improved.
       
  • An unusual case of peritonitis following a caesarean delivery

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Ahmed Gado, Hesham Badawi, Ahmed Karim Postoperative fluid accumulation is a very rare complication of caesarean delivery. We present an unusual case of peritonitis of unknown origin following a caesarean delivery. Emergency surgery was performed. On exploration there was a large amount of clear fluid which was removed. No signs of iatrogenic injury or any abnormality was detected. Fluid cultures of fluid drained from the abdomen did not grow any organisms. The working diagnosis was reactive peritonitis. Post exploratory laparotomy sepsis developed which was managed conservatively. The patient was discharged after full recovery.
       
  • Nodular hidradenoma of the breast: A case report

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): G.H. Ano-Edward, I.O. Amole, S.A. Adesina, O.A. Ajiboye, M.E. lasisi, R.K. Jooda Nodular hidradenoma is a rare benign skin adnexial lesion of the breast. It is often located in the nipple areolar region and presents as a slow growing painless lesion.We report a case in a 62 yr old male who had a slowly growing left breast lesion of 10 yrs duration. Physical examination revealed an 8 cm superficial, spherical, mobile non tender lump in the nipple areolar region. Excision biopsy with clear margins was performed and histologic examination was nodular hidradenoma after wide consultations.Nodular hidradenoma of the breast is a differential diagnosis of sub areolar masses that must be considered by both pathologist and surgeons to avoid misdiagnosis and overtreatment.
       
  • Adjustment disorder after botulinum toxin injection in an adolescent
           palatal myoclonus case: The importance of informed consent in the
           treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders in children and adolescents

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Yusuf Öztürk, Zehra Topal, Nuran Demir, Ali Evren Tufan
       
  • Results of arthroscopic treatment of femroacetabular impingement (FAI)

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Raafat Ragab, Tarek Elkhadrawe, Philip Housden, Ahmed Abotaleb IntroductionFemoroacetabular impingement (FAI) has been suggested as an important etiology of pain in the groin region in young adults especially athletes and there are theories connecting it to early onset osteoarthritis.AimTo assess the results of arthroscopic treatment of FAI.PatientsForty patients had been managed arthroscopically for their FAI in both El-Hadra university hospital and William Harvey Hospital.MethodsResults of arthroscopic treatment of FAI in 40 consecutive patients had been evaluated using patients reported outcomes (modified Harris Hip Score and international Hip Outcome Tool-12) and clinical measures of improvement of range of motion in both flexion and internal rotation in 90° of hip flexion.ResultsThe average of the outcome scores showed statistically significant improvement following the arthroscopic intervention.ConclusionFemroacetabular impingement is an important etiology of groin pain in young adults, nevertheless the athletes. Diagnosis of this condition is primarily a clinical one to be supported with relevant imaging. Hip arthroscopy is an effective approach to treat and correct the underlying bony abnormalities of FAI. Younger age of patients predicts better improvement in i-HOT-12 score.
       
  • Role of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the popliteus
           musclotendinous injuries as a part of the posterolateral corner injuries
           of the knee

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Aly A. Abdel-Kerim Farahat, Abd ElAziz Elnekeidy, Mohamed Abdel Motaleb Abdelgelil IntroductionThe popliteus musclotendinous complex is considered to be one of the main stabilizers of the posterolateral corner of the knee having different attachments and variable sites of injuries, the use of MRI helps the radiologists to depict such injuries consistently.Purpose of the studyTo study the role of MRI in evaluating the popliteus musclotendinous injuries as a part of the PLCof the knee.Patients and methodsOur study included 15 patients with trauma to the knee undergoing MRI using 1.5 T magnet using the following sequence: Axial, Coronal, sagittal proton density fat sat, T1, T2 and T2 gradient and conventional X-ray/CT [All patients did conventional X-ray Knee (AP and Lateral views), two patients did CT study of the knee].ResultsOut of 15 studied patients with PLC injuries, eight (53.33%) patients had popliteus complex injuries, 7 (87.5%) patients showed combined injuries with other posterolateral structures while one (12.5) patient had isolated popliteus musclotendinous complex injury.ConclusionMRI imaging is crucial in the evaluation of the different sites and patterns of injuries of the popliteus musclotendinous complex when suspecting PLC injury.
       
  • Utility of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in assessment of liver
           fibrosis

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Doaa M. Emara, Marwa M. Reda, Doaa A. Elwazzan Objectives: hepatic fibrosis occurs due to chronic liver injury. Early fibrosis can be reversed by treatment with specific antifibrotic therapy in addition to removal of the cause if possible, that is why, identification of the early liver fibrosis is important. MRI DWI is a non-invasive non-contrast imaging technique which help in diagnosis of different stages of hepatic fibrosis. Aim of the work: was to study the predictive value of diffusion weighted MRI for assessing liver fibrosis in comparison to liver biopsy in chronic hepatitis C virus patients. Methods: all the studied cases were subjected to the followings: (1) History and laboratory examination (PCR for HCV and liver function tests). (2) MRI DWI and post processing ADC map. (3) Percutaneous liver biopsy in cases with HCV for histopathological examination to assess the stage of fibrosis. Results: this study was carried out on 75 subjects, divided into two group, 50 cases and 25 controls, the mean age in the two studied groups was 36.5 ± 9.32 and 35.8 ± 6.75 respectively in patients and control. ADC of both liver and spleen showed a highly significant increase in the control than in the cases with mean liver ADC in the control group = 2.3 ± 0.25. There was a significant negative correlation between the mean ADC of the liver, spleen and the stage of liver fibrosis.
       
  • Serum cobalamin and red cell folate levels of anti-psychotic treatment and
           treatment naïve psychiatic patients in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): AO Shittu, AO Adewoye, HO Olawumi BackgroundPsychiatric disorders contribute significantly to the global burden of diseases. There is an urgent need to curtail the morbidity and mortality associated with psychiatric disorders. Deficiencies of cobalamin and folate have been linked with psychiatric disorders.Materials and methodSixty-six each of antipsychotic treatment, treatment naïve psychiatric patients and control were recruited for the study. Red cell folate and serum cobalamin were determined with Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay kits and the haemogram using Sysmex XT2000i.ResultFolate deficiency was present in 13.6% of newly diagnosed anti-psychotic naive psychiatric patients with few of them having neutrophil hypersegmentation (7.6%) and macrocytosis (4.5%). Mean red cell folate levels for anti-psychotic naïve, patients on anti-psychotic and controls were 350.23 ± 0.54 nmol/l, 370 ± 0.70 nmol/l and 370 ± 0.51 nmol/l respectively, with p-values of 0.0001 and 0.3500 respectively when compared with control, while serum cobalamin levels were within the normal reference range in all patients and controls.Reticulocyte count had 8 times and 3 times likelihood of influencing low serum folate and low serum cobalamin respectively.ConclusionAll patients had Serum cobalamin levels within the reference interval, the same can be said of the RBC folate levels of the greater percentage (95.5%) of psychiatric patients on psychotropic drugs.
       
  • Prevalence of depression and anxiety among college students living in a
           disaster-prone region

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Marthoenis, Inong Meutia, Liza Fathiariani, Hizir Sofyan The present study examined the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety among college students living in a disaster-prone area of Aceh, Indonesia. College students enrolled in two public Universities in Banda Aceh were randomly selected to participate in the self-administered standardized questionnaires for depression and anxiety. The prevalence rates of depression and anxiety were 18.8% and 27.4%, respectively. Depression was associated with gender and BMI while anxiety was only associated with gender. Depression is also positively correlated to anxiety. Depression and anxiety are prevalent among college students living in a disaster prone area. Early detection and timely treatment of mental disorders should be beneficial to the students living in this circumference.
       
  • Factors affecting seeking health-related information through the internet
           among patients in Kuwait

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Haya M. Alkhatlan, Khan F. Rahman, Badriyah H. Aljazzaf BackgroundThe internet is a powerful worldwide communication medium that provides its users with immediate information irrespective of their location, culture, language and time. E-health service will have a great impact in reducing the costs of health care, increasing satisfaction of patients and health professionals, and minimizing the burden on health facilities.ObjectiveThis study aims to determine the proportion of patients who obtain health-related information through the internet as well as factors that could affect using the internet for seeking health information.Subjects and methodsThis study was conducted in six general hospitals in Kuwait. A cross-sectional study was adopted to determine the proportion of patients who obtain health-related information through the internet. It was followed by a case-control study to determine factors that could be associated with on-line search of health information. A questionnaire was used which included data related to socio-demographic characteristics, clinical history and computer experience. The final analysis included 220 participants.ResultsThe majority of participants (93.2%) mentioned that they have used the internet for one or more purposes. Only 129 participants (62.9%) used the internet for obtaining health related information. All studied socio-demographic factors, except age and marital state, and computer skills variables had significant effect on on-line search for health information. After adjustment for confounding, only gender, nationality, level of education, and using computer at work were proved to be significant determinants of the outcome of interest.ConclusionIt is important to close the gap in health literacy and increase the use of health information technology to support patient self-management. The creation of an eHealth-literate population should be a priority in Kuwaiti public health policy.
       
  • Identification of colorblindness among selected primary school children in
           Hararghe Region, Eastern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Temesgen Tola Geletu, Manikandan Muthuswamy, Tamiru Oljira Raga BackgroundColor vision deficiency or colorblindness, is the inability or reduced ability to distinguish different color spectra, particularly, red & green under normal lighting conditions with unaided eye. Red-green colorblindness is heritable genetic disorder and most prevalent type of color vision deficiency and its incidence varies between different ethnicity and sex and shows disparity in different parts/regions of the world.ObjectivesThis study was conducted to find out the prevalence of colorblindness in Eastern part of Ethiopia and identify its distribution among Harari, Oromo and Ethio-Somali ethnic groups.MethodsA total of 2103 (1043 male & 1060 female) students belonging to the three ethnic groups were randomly selected from nine selected primary schools and were screened for color vision deficiency by using Ishihara’s tests for color vision deficiency and the data analysis was carried out with SPSS version 16.0.ResultsAmong those screened for color vision deficiency, 33 of them (1.6%) were diagnosed with colorblindness out of which 31 were male and 2 were female. Out of this; 15, 7 and 11 were from Harari, Oromo and Somali ethnicity respectively. The highest incidence was observed among Harari males (4.2%) and no color vision deficiency was recorded among Oromo females. Deuteronomally was the most frequent color vision defect detected (16, 48.5%) and protanopia was the least detected color vision deficiency with 4 cases (12.1%).ConclusionResults from this study show similar prevalence rate with previously reported study in Ethiopia for Harari ethnic group but lower prevalence rates for Somali and Oromo ethnic groups. Early detection of colorblindness is important for children to select their future profession and take necessary precautions in their everyday activities. Families and other concerned bodies should also take the case of children with colorblindness into consideration while dealing with them.
       
  • Omentin-1 and diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Mohamed Abdelraouf Korany, Ahmed Sonbol, Sameh Mohamed Elgouhary BackgroundDiabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common and serious micro vascular complication affecting type 2 diabetic patients.The literature on adipokines as a possible mechanism in the pathogenesis of DR is contradictory.We are in need for more explanation about the pathogenesis of DR and also in need for reliable biomarker for early diagnosis of such complication.The aim of this work was to study the serum level of omentin-1 and its relation to diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM).Patients and methodsThis study was conducted on 75 type 2 DM patients; 20 healthy subjects served as a control group. All participants were classified into 4 groups:•Group1: Included 25 type 2 diabetics without retinopathy.•Group2: Included 25 type 2 diabetics with non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NDPR).•Group 3: Included 25 type 2 diabetics with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).•Group 4: Included 20 healthy subjects as a control group.Thorough history taking and physical examination with calculation of body mass index (BMI), investigations were done including serum creatinine, lipid profile, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbAIc), C-reactive protein (CRP), urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) and serum omentin-1. Fundus examination was carried out by an expert ophthalmologist.ResultsSerum omentin-1 level was significantly lower in diabetic patients compared with the control, and in DR compared with diabetics without DR and in PDR compared with NPDR.There was a negative significant correlation between serum omentin-1 level and BMI, HbA1c, CRP, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and Serum triglycerides (TG) and positive significant correlation with high density lipoprotein (HDL).ConclusionsFrom this study we can conclude that serum omentin-1 is significantly lower in patients with DR compared with diabetics without retinopathy and in PDR patients compared with NPDR patients.Also, there is a negative significant correlation between serum omentin-1 and HbAIc, BMI, CRP and some lipid parameters.
       
  • Study of risk factors for erectile dysfunction in patients with type 2
           diabetes mellitus: Correlation to serum testosterone level

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Mohamed Abdelraouf Korani, Ahmed Sonbol BackgroundDiabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most frequent etiologies of erectile dysfunction (ED). Risk factors of ED in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM) include patient age, disease duration, sedentary life and glycemic control. Subnormal testosterone concentrations contribute to ED as testosterone regulates nearly every component of erectile function.The aim of the work was to study the age of the patient, duration of diabetes mellitus, body mass index (BMI), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAIc) and urinary albumin creatinine ratio (uACR) in type 2 male diabetic patients as risk factors for erectile dysfunction and their relation to serum testosterone level.Patients and methodsThis study was conducted on 100 male type 2 diabetics selected from inpatient department and out patient clinics of the Internal Medicine Department in Menoufia University Hospital. The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1: 50 patients with type 2 DM with erectile dysfunction and Group 2: 50 patientswith type 2 DM without erectile dysfunction. The study groups were subjected to thorough history with special emphasis on age of the patients, disease duration and investigations including testosterone level, glycosylated hemoglobin, and uACR. The patients answered the abridged 5-item version of the International Index of Eectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire.ResultsTotal serum testosterone was significantly lower in diabetics with ED compared to those without ED. HbAIc, diabetes duration and uACR were independently negatively correlated with testosterone level.ConclusionThe diabetes duration, glycemic control and uACR contribute to erectile dysfunction in type 2 diabetics, and they were independently and negatively correlated with total serum testosterone level.
       
  • Upgrading patients with pacemakers to resynchronization pacing: Predictors
           of success

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Samir Rafla, Aly Aboelhoda, Mostafa Nawar, J.Ch. Geller, Mohamed Lotfi BackgroundThe investigations of predictors of success or failure of cardiac resynchronization therapy were studied previously. Assessment of success in patients already on dual or single pacemakers and upgraded to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) were not extensively studied before. How to select patients in whom this may be the most optimal strategy is unclear. We sought to determine factors associated with success or failure in this group of patients who were already paced for heart block.Methods81 pts were subjected to upgrade to CRT implantation after being on pacemaker. The study was conducted in Germany. Data was presented as Median (Min.–Max.) for abnormally distributed data or Mean ± SD. for normally distributed data. Parameters that revealed no statistical significance in response: Age, sex, EF, diabetes, renal disease, GFR, MR, QRS duration (all above 150 ms), history of ablation, AF recurrence, previous pacemaker, optimization. The following parameters revealed significant influence on response to CRT: Less responders with: Higher C reactive protein (CRP), presence of tricuspid incompetence (TR), presence of pulmonary hypertension (PHN), presence of previous MI, being ischemic vs nonischemic cardiomyopathy (CM) (less responders with ischemic CM).ConclusionsThe findings through light on specific parameters that predict response to upgrade to CRT after usual pacemaker.
       
  • Salt intake in a group of Tunisian obeses

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Chiraz Amrouche, Olfa Berriche, Rym Ben Othman, Feten Mahjoub, Khouloud Halloumi, Fahim Chaima, Sabeh Bhouri, Amel Gammoudi, Henda Jamoussi BackgroundSalt is directly related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease associated with it. As obesity facilitates the effect of salt, a quantification of obese salt intake is necessary.MethodsOur patients numbering 56 have been recruited in the consultation of the obesity unit. Patients were given a questionnaire about their knowledge concerning salt. Natriuresis of 24 h was quantified. The average amount of sodium consumed per day from foods was determined (SAL), the average amount of sodium consumed per day from table salt added to cooking and seasoning (SAC) and the average total amount of sodium consumed per day (STOQ).ResultsThe mean age of our patients was 44.31 ± 12.8 years. The average BMI of our patients was 37.12 ± 5.9 kg/m2. The average systolic blood pressure was 123.8 ± 14 mmHg and mean diastolic blood pressure was 76.45 ± 10.7 mmHg. The average amount of sodium consumed per day from food (SAL) was 1915 ± 1038 mg. The average amount of sodium consumed per day from cooking salt (SAC) was 2487 ± 1663 mg. The total amount of sodium consumed per day (STOQ) was 4402 ± 1831 mg. This addition is equivalent to 11 ± 4.6 g of salt per day. The total sodium intake exceeded 2000 mg/day in 89.2% of patients. More than half (57%) of spontaneous sodium intake comes from salt added. The average natriuresis in our population is 158 ± 68 mmol/24 h, higher than the norm in 18% of cases.The majority (85%) of our patients have claimed that excess salt is bad to very bad for health.ConclusionOur study showed the importance of salt consumption in obeses and especially table salt and yet the majority of our patients consider it to be harmful to health.It will be necessary to take into account the sodium intake when prescribing the diet.
       
  • Parathormone (PTH) is strongly related to left ventricular mass index
           (LVMI) in hypertensives, obese, and normal control

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Samir Naim Assaad, Aliaa Ali El-Aghoury, Eman M. El-Sharkawy, Tamer Mohamed Elsherbiny, Ahmed Abdelhameed Osman
       
  • Association of IL-23R gene single nucleotide polymorphism; rs 11209026
           with incidence and severity of ankylosing spondylitis in a cohort of
           Egyptian patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Mohamed I. Sayed, Doaa I. Hashad, Eman A. Soliman, Maha M. Talaaba The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association between incidence and severity of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in a cohort of Egyptians and Interleukin-23Receptor (IL23R) genesingle nucleotide polymorphism(rs11209026). Methods:The study included thirty-two AS patients and forty volunteers who serves as a control group. The studied polymorphismwas genotyped using 5′ Nuclease assay. Results: A statistically significant difference was detected between both studied groups as regards different IL23R genesingle nucleotide polymorphism(rs11209026) genotypes. Heterozygous genotype was the most prevailing among both cases and controls. At a cutoff level of 110 pg/mL, a statically significant difference was observed between cases and controls as regards serum IL23 level. Conclusions:In Egyptians, IL-23R single nucleotide polymorphism (rs11209026) appears to be associated with ankylosing spondylitis occurrence not severity, while higher levels of IL-23 might be associated with disease severity.
       
  • The possible protective effect of lactoferrin on
           lipopolysaccharide-induced memory impairment in albino rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): Nermin M. Madi, Mervat H. El-Saka
       
  • First line defence antioxidants-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT)
           and glutathione peroxidase (GPX): Their fundamental role in the entire
           antioxidant defence grid

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 4Author(s): O.M. Ighodaro, O.A. Akinloye The body encloses a complex antioxidant defence grid that relies on endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. These molecules collectively act against free radicals to resist their damaging effects to vital biomolecules and ultimately body tissues. Based on their response to general free radical invasion, they can be categorized into first, second, third and even fourth line defense antioxidants. The role and effectiveness of the first line defense antioxidants which basically include superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) is important and indispensable in the entire defense strategy of antioxidants, especially in reference to super oxide anion radical (*O2) which is perpetually generated in normal body metabolism, particularly through the mitochondrial energy production pathway (MEPP). A lot has been published concerning antioxidants and their significance in preventing oxidative stress and the attendant cellular damage, howbeit with paucity of awareness on the fundamental role of SOD, CAT and GPX. The present review tends to articulate important information on SOD, CAT and GPX as first line defense antioxidant enzymes.
       
  • Corrigendum to “Gender difference of knowledge and attitude of primary
           health care staff towards domestic violence” [Alexandria J. Med. 47
           (2011) 337–341]

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 3Author(s): Saadoun F. Alazmi, Deema M. Alotaibi, Aminah A. Atwan, Mohammed Ibrahim Kamel, Medhat K. El-Shazly
       
  • Corrigendum to “Practicing breast self-examination among women attending
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 3Author(s): Saadoun F. Alazmi, Ali Alkhabbaz, Hadeel A. Almutawa, Ali E. Ismaiel, Gamal Makboul, Medhat K. El-Shazly
       
  • Ultrastructural alterations of renal tissue in a male patient with
           Fabry’s disease

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 3Author(s): Farahnaz Noroozinia, Khadijah Makhdoomi, Amir Abbas Farshid BackgroundFabry’s disease is an X-linked lipid storage disorder due to deficient lysosomal alpha galactosidase A.Case PresentationKidney biopsy was done on a 19 year old male patient with complaint of acroparesthesia, maculopapular skin lesions and cornea verticillata. Kidney biopsy tissue was processed and examined by electron microscopy. Changes were inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of the renal cells. These inclusions were osmophilic with concentric lamellation of clear and dark layers, showing onion skin appearance. The podocytes were mostly affected and some of the foot processes were fused. Cross-sections of collagen fibers were also evident, indicating fibrosis.ConclusionThe ultra-structure of the kidney clearly showed the intra-cytoplasmic glycosphingolipid accumulation in renal cells, responsible for progressive decline in renal function which could lead to kidney failure. The final diagnosis of Fabry’s disease was confirmed. In the present case-study, electron microscopy proved to be a valuable diagnostic aid.
       
  • Hepatitis-C Virus Infection and Exposure to Blood and Body Fluids among
           Nurses and Paramedical Personnel at the Alexandria University Hospitals,
           Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 3Author(s): Yehia Abdelghaffar Moustafa Seida, Maha Mohamed Helmy Moemen, Mona Shawki Ali Moustafa, May Moheb Eldin Mohamed Raouf, Noha Selim Mohamed Elshaer BackgroundWorldwide, prevalence of anti-HCV positivity in health care workers (HCWs) ranges from 0% to 9.7%. The current study was conducted to calculate prevalence of HCV infection, frequency and characteristics of blood and body fluid (BBF) exposure among HCW at the Alexandria University Hospitals.MethodsHospital-based cross-sectional approach was adopted. At the Hospitals, 62.2% of available nurses and paramedical personnel voluntarily participated (n = 499), and were interviewed, screened for HCV antibodies. Quantitative estimation of HCV-RNA was done to seropositive cases.ResultsPrevalence of anti-HCV antibodies and HCV infection was 8.6%, and 4.4% respectively. The frequency of BBF exposures was 66.7%. Blood/blood products were mainly involved (92.1%). More than half of exposed HCWs reported not wearing personal protective devices. Anatomical site of exposure was mainly right hand palm (36.2%). Regarding needle-stick injuries, two thirds of injured HCWs were the original user of sharp item which was contaminated in 79.7% of injuries. In 70.2% of injuries, disposable syringes were involved and occurred during item disposal. About 61% of injuries were superficial.ConclusionPrevalence of HCV infection among HCWs is similar to that among general population in the country. Nurses and housekeepers are frequently exposed to BBF. Adherence to infection control measures according to the National Guidelines is crucial to reduce HCV transmission.
       
  • Perceptions of caretakers with different socioeconomic status about the
           harmful outcomes of fever in under-five children in Dodoma region, central
           Tanzania: A cross-sectional study

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 3Author(s): Telemu Kassile, Bruno P. Mmbando, Razack Lokina, Phares Mujinja BackgroundSocioeconomic status can affect health in childhood through many different pathways. Evidence on how households differ with regard to socioeconomic status and the degree to which this difference is associated with investment in child health is essential to the design of appropriate intervention strategies.AimThis study examines the impact of caretakers’ socio-economic characteristics on perceptions about the harmful outcomes of fever among under-five children.Material and methodsThe study used a three-stage cluster sample of households with under-five children in Dodoma region, central Tanzania. Multilevel modelling approach was used to model the relationship between the outcome measure and caretakers’ socioeconomic characteristics while controlling for other variables.ResultsA total of 329 under-five children with fever were studied of which 74.8% were perceived by their caretakers to have some chances for harmful effects of fever to occur when they experienced fever. Secondary school education or above of caretakers was significantly associated with decreased beliefs about the occurrence of harmful effects of fever.ConclusionMany caretakers are concerned about the occurrence of harmful effects of fever for their under-five children. Study findings suggest that promoting enrolment in secondary education or above and participation in the labour market particularly in non-farm activities of women would be valuable to the health of under-five children in central Tanzania.
       
  • Socio-demographic and clinical factors predicting time to presentation for
           children with pneumonia in Ilorin, Nigeria

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 3Author(s): Rasheedat M. Ibraheem, Mohammed B. Abdulkadir, Aishat A. Gobir, Wahab B.R. Johnson BackgroundPneumonia is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in children, and the time to presentation is a recognized contributor towards disease severity and outcome.ObjectivesThe current study aimed to explore the influence of some socio-demographic and clinical factors in children with pneumonia on the time to presentation at a health facility in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria.Materials and methodA prospective cross-sectional study of 167 children with pneumonia was done. The duration of the various symptoms and first presentation to a health facility was obtained. Time to presentation was categorized as 0–2 days (early), 3–5 days (intermediate) and greater than five days (late). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant predictors of either early or intermediate presentation compared with late presentation. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.ResultsFifty-one (30.5%) children with pneumonia had an early presentation, 73 (43.7%) had intermediate presentation and 43 (25.7%) were late in presentation. Predictors of early presentation were younger age (OR 0.96, 95%CI 0.93–0.99), higher respiratory rates (OR 1.03, 95%CI 1.01–1.06) and bronchopneumonia (OR 6.93, 95%CI 1.52–31.63). Predictors of intermediate presentation were families with few number of children (OR 0.73, 95%CI 0.57–0.92) and bronchopneumonia (OR 3.41, 95%C.I. 1.02–11.38).ConclusionInfancy and families with few children are socio-demographic features that are likely to determine early-to-intermediate presentation of children with pneumonia while high respiratory rates and bronchopneumonia are disease related factors that predict early presentation.
       
  • Attitudes towards menopause and depression, body image of women during
           menopause

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 3Author(s): Nülüfer Erbil IntroductionMenopause is an important and normal developmental process in a woman’s life. During menopause women experience physical, psychological and social changes.ObjectiveAim of the study was to investigate attitude towards menopause, body image and depression level of Turkish women in menopause.MethodsThe data of this descriptive and cross-sectional study were collected via questionnaire form, Attitude towards Menopause Scale (ATMS), Body Image Scale (BIS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).Results54.1% of women held negative attitudes towards this transition. The rate of women who fit the borderline evaluation for depression was 27.5%. Women with low depressive symptom severity and positive attitudes towards menopause had higher positive body image scores. Women with positive attitudes towards menopause had a more positive body image and they experienced lower depressive symptoms. ATMS, BIS and BDI scores of women in naturally menopause who had not had menstruation for at least one year or who had entered menopause due to surgery were compared; menopause attitude scores and body image scores of women in naturally menopause was significantly more positive. There was a significant positive correlation between ATMS and BIS scores of women in menopause, also there was a significant negative correlation between MAS and BDI scores of women.ConclusionsWomen with an optimistic attitude towards menopause tend to have a more positive body image and their depression level is lower.
       
  • Forensic dissection of lip print as an investigative tool in a mixed
           Egyptian population

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 3Author(s): S.A. Ahmed, Hanan E. Salem, Marwa M. Fawzy Background: Identification is a major problem facing forensic practitioners, DNA and finger prints are highly useful but sometimes aren't easily collected from the crime scene. Lip print could be useful in this field being unique to each individual. Aim: The current study aimed at detecting the frequency and gender relation of lip print pattern in an Egyptian sample. Methodology: Samples were collected on white copy paper, divided into four quadrants then examined with magnifying lens for pattern distribution. Results: The study showed that pattern IV was the most frequently represented pattern in the study sample, pattern I & II were more prevalent in males and females respectively. Prevalent pattern in Cairo and Lower Egypt was I while it was IV in Upper Egypt. Conclusion: The lip print pattern can differ due to gender and geographical origin in Egyptian subjects.
       
  • Evaluation of selective peripheral neurotomies in the treatment of
           refractory lower limb spasticity in adults

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 3Author(s): Sherif M. Salem, Waleed Fawzy El-Saadany, Wael Ahmed Fouad, Walid A. Abdel Ghany Background“Selective peripheral neurotomies” (SPNs) are indicated for the treatment of refractory focal and multifocal spasticity of lower limbs in adults.ObjectiveTo evaluate the surgical results of selective peripheral neurotomies in 20 adult patients who had refractory focal & multifocal spasticity of the lower limbs, follow up period of one year.Patients and MethodsProspective study included 20 adult patients who had refractory spasticity of the lower limbs. Preoperative evaluation for muscle tone using Modified Ashworth Score (MAS), muscle power using Medical Research Council Scale (MRCS), functional assessment using Oswestry Functional Scale (OFS) and Range Of Motion (ROM) using manual goniometry were done for all patients. All cases underwent surgery in the form of SPN of tibial, obturator, sciatic and/or femoral nerves. Follow up of the patients was done at 10th day, 3, 6 months and one year postoperatively.ResultsThe mean age of patients was 31.35 ± 12.42 years. There were statistically significant improvement of muscle tone, muscle power, functional assessment and range of motion between preoperative and one year postoperative values. Improvement of the muscle tone was from a preoperative Mean ± SD of 3.60 ± 0.68 on MAS to a postoperative 2.30 ± 0.86 at one year, improvement of muscle power on MRCS was from preoperative Mean ± SD 3.75 ± 1.08 to postoperative 4.08 ± 0.69 at one year, There was a functional improvement from a preoperative Mean ± SD of 3.0 ± 0.73 on OFS to 3.60 ± 0.60 at one year postoperatively. Also, there was a significant improvement between preoperative ROM Mean ± SD 61.25 ± 15.29 and one year postoperatively 72.25 ± 12.19.ConclusionsSelective peripheral neurotomies could effectively improve muscle tone, muscle power, functional performance & range of motion in patients with refractory focal and multifocal spasticity in the lower limbs.
       
  • Physiological variables and molecular study of KLK2 and KLK3 among patient
           with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 3Author(s): Mustafa F. Dawood, Sameer M. Khalaf, Ahmed A. Suleiman Prostatic hyperplasia is benign tumor occur in prostate. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is common disease in old men. The incidence of disease arises with increase in age. The patient with benign prostatic hyperplasia are estimated 20% of men in 40s old, and 90% in of men in 80s old, and main causes of prostatic hyperplasia are unknown but there is evidence referring to genetic and hormonal disorders that may cause the disease. This study includes 60 patients with prostatic hyperplasia with an average age of 64 years old and 30 samples as a control with same age group. The study obtained that there was significant association (P ≤ 0.05) between PSA (KLK3) and prostatic hyperplasia. Result also mentions that there was significant decrease in testosterone level and significant increase in dihydrotestosterone level. The present study for KLK2 and KLK3 genes showed molecular variation in both genes, varied between polymorphism and allele polymorphism. PCR amplification of specific primers of KLK2 gene showed polymorphisms ranged between 14%, 8%, 10%, and 6% in each KLK2a, KLK2b, KLK2c, and KLK2d primers respectively, while the allele polymorphism in KLK2c amplification with primer reaches 18% of patient. PCR amplification of specific primers of KLK3 gene showed polymorphisms ranged between 10%, 6%, 2%, and 4% in each KLK3a, KLK3b, KLK3c, and KLK3d primer respectively, and allele variation was not detected in amplification product of KLK3.
       
  • Otosclerosis and complications of stapedectomy: CT and MRI correlation

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine, Volume 54, Issue 3Author(s): Heba Ibrahim Ali, Nivan Hany Khater
       
 
 
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