for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help

Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3160 journals)

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Showing 1 - 200 of 3160 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 97, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 427, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 288, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 413, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 362, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 470, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 231, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
African Journal of Emergency Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.296
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2211-419X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3160 journals]
  • Guest Editorial: Introduction to the Trauma Special Issue

    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 9, SupplementAuthor(s): Timothy Craig Hardcastle, George Oosthuizen, Charlie Mock, Tarek Razek
       
  • A prehospital randomised controlled trial in South Africa: Challenges and
           lessons learnt

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Willem Stassen, Lee Wallis, Maaret Castren, Craig Vincent-Lambert, Lisa Kurland The incidence of cardiovascular disease and STEMI is on the rise in sub-Saharan Africa. Timely treatment is essential to reduce mortality. Internationally, prehospital 12 lead ECG telemetry has been proposed to reduce time to reperfusion. Its value in South Africa has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prehospital 12 lead ECG telemetry on the PCI-times of STEMI patients in South Africa. A multicentre randomised controlled trial was attempted among adult patients with prehospital 12 lead ECG evidence of STEMI. Due to poor enrolment and small sample sizes, meaningful analyses could not be made. The challenges and lessons learnt from this attempt at Africa's first prehospital RCT are discussed. Challenges associated with conducting this RCT related to the healthcare landscape, resources, training of paramedics, rollout and randomisation, technology, consent and research culture. High quality evidence to guide prehospital emergency care practice is lacking both in Africa and the rest of the world. This is likely due to the difficulties with performing prehospital clinical trials. Every trial will be unique to the test intervention and setting of each study, but by considering some of the challenges and lessons learnt in the attempt at this trial, future studies might experience less difficulty. This may lead to a stronger evidence-base for prehospital emergency care.
       
  • A cross-sectional description of open access publication costs, policies
           and impact in emergency medicine and critical care journals

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Chante Dove, Teresa M. Chan, Brent Thoma, Damian Roland, Stevan R. Bruijns IntroductionFinding journal open access information alongside its global impact requires access to multiple databases. We describe a single, searchable database of all emergency medicine and critical care journals that include their open access policies, publication costs, and impact metrics.MethodsA list of emergency medicine and critical care journals (including citation metrics) was created using Scopus (Citescore) and the Web of Science (Impact Factor). Cost of gold/hybrid open access and article process charges (open access fees) were collected from journal websites. Self-archiving policies were collected from the Sherpa/RoMEO database. Relative cost of access in different regions were calculated using the World Bank Purchasing Power Parity index for authors from the United States, Germany, Turkey, China, Brazil, South Africa and Australia.ResultsWe identified 78 emergency medicine and 82 critical care journals. Median Citescore for emergency medicine was 0.73 (interquartile range, IQR 0.32–1.27). Median impact factor was 1.68 (IQR 1.00–2.39). Median Citescore for critical care was 0.95 (IQR 0.25–2.06). Median impact factor was 2.18 (IQR 1.73–3.50). Mean article process charge for emergency medicine was $2243.04, SD = $1136.16 and for critical care $2201.64, SD = $1174.38. Article process charges were 2.24, 1.75, 2.28 and 1.56 times more expensive for South African, Chinese, Turkish and Brazilian authors respectively than United States authors, but neutral for German and Australian authors (1.02 and 0.81 respectively). The database can be accessed here: http://www.emct.info/publication-search.html.ConclusionsWe present a single database that captures emergency medicine and critical care journal impact rankings alongside its respective open access cost and green open access policies.
       
  • Efficacy of nebulized fentanyl and low dose ketamine for pain control of
           patients with long bone fractures: A randomized, double-blind, clinical
           trial

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Mohammadreza Maleki Verki, Javad Mozafari, Fateme Tirandaz, Hassan Motamed, Afsane Khazaeli IntroductionFentanyl is a lipid soluble, highly potent opioid. The lipid solubility of fentanyl makes it an ideal opioid to be administrated by inhalation. The current study compared ketamine infusion and nebulized fentanyl in bone fracture pain relief.MethodsIn this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, patients aged 18 to 55 years who were admitted to the emergency department (ED) with limb fracture were recruited. A total of 127 patients were included in the study, 51.1% (65) of whom were male and 48.9% (62) of whom were female. The patients were divided equally into two groups: Group I received 100 cm3 IV infusion of normal saline and 4 μg/kg of 50 μg/ml nebulized fentanyl; Group II received 0.4 mg/kg ketamine in 10 min and 5 cm3 nebulized normal saline. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale just before treatment and 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min post-treatment.ResultsBefore intervention, the pain scores of both groups showed no significant difference. However, log linear analysis in both groups showed a significantly decrement during the follow up (60 min) (p 
       
  • The cost of time: A randomised, controlled trial to assess the economic
           impact of upfront, point-of-care blood tests in the Emergency Centre

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Lara Nicole Goldstein, Mike Wells, Craig Vincent-Lambert IntroductionTime and cost constraints abound in the Emergency Centre (EC). These resource-constraints are further magnified in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Almost half of all patients presenting to the EC require laboratory tests. Unfortunately, access to laboratory services in LMIC is commonly inadequate. Point-of-Care (POC) tests may assist to avert this shortcoming. The aims of this study were to evaluate the cost effectiveness of upfront POC blood tests performed prior to doctor assessment compared to the standard EC workflow.MethodsA secondary analysis was performed on data from a prospective, randomised, controlled trial where patients with abdominal/chest symptoms or generalised body pain/weakness followed either the normal EC workflow pathway or one of two enhanced workflow pathways with POC tests (i-STAT with and without a complete blood count (CBC)) prior to doctor evaluation. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was used to perform the cost effectiveness analysis.ResultsThere were 248 patients enrolled in the study. The use of the two upfront, POC test pathways significantly exceeded the primary outcome measure of a 20% reduction in treatment time. In the i-STAT + CBC group, the 31 min. time-saving translated into cost-saving of US$14.96 per patient (IECR 0.27) whereas the 21 min. time-saving in the i-STAT only group only had an additional net cost of US$3.11 per patient (IECR 0.90).ConclusionUpfront, POC blood tests can be utilised in the resource-constrained EC to manage patients more efficiently by saving time. This time-saving can, in fact, be more cost effective than traditional EC workflow making it an economically viable option for implementation in LMIC.
       
  • Trauma intensive care in a terror-ravaged, resource-constrained setting:
           Are we prepared for the emerging challenge'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): K.E. Amaefule, I.L. Dahiru, U.M. Sule, F.S. Ejagwulu, M.I. Maitama, A. Ibrahim IntroductionTrauma in developing countries has been on the increase, a situation perpetuated by rising road traffic collisions, terrorism and firearms proliferation. Some of the victims of trauma are left with life threatening conditions requiring urgent surgical intervention and/or intensive care. The objectives of this study were to determine the pattern of major trauma needing intensive care in the region, and to determine the outcome of major trauma admitted to intensive care unit.MethodsA six-year retrospective cohort study of trauma patients needing intensive care, set in the Intensive Care Unit of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, North-West Nigeria. Subjects were major trauma patients admitted into the intensive care unit of the institution, identified via an admission register kept in the unit. The main outcomes measured were length of stay and mortality.ResultsTrauma admissions represented 25.1% of the all intensive care admissions. Severe traumatic brain injury accounted for 32.1% of the trauma admissions, while burns accounted for 23.2%. Of the injuries, 15.5% were sustained in bomb blasts, and 8.3% were firearm injuries. The majority of the patients stayed for no more than seven days from admission. Burns patients had the worst outcomes, with 82.1% mortality.ConclusionMajor trauma contributes significantly to local intensive care admissions, with terrorism- related trauma now an emerging challenging cause of major trauma in our region. The observed poor outcomes in this study are a reflection of the quality of available intensive care, and lends credence to the concept of appropriately resourced, specialised intensive care units for optimisation of care.
       
  • Utilisation of emergency blood in a cohort of South African emergency
           centres with no direct access to a blood bank

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): David Morris, Daniël van Hoving, Melanie Stander, Stevan Bruijns IntroductionThe transfusion of emergency blood is an essential part of haemostatic resuscitation. Locally, where direct access to a blood bank is limited, emergency blood is stored within emergency centres. It was previously suggested that stored blood provides inadequate volumes compared to what is needed. Minimal data are available regarding indications for emergency blood usage. We aimed to describe the utilisation of emergency blood in selected Cape Town emergency centres.Materials and methodsA cross-sectional study was carried out at three secondary level emergency centres (no blood bank), and one tertiary centre (with a blood bank). Data from emergency blood recipients were recorded over a three-month study period. Indications for transfusion, number of units and location of transfusion were recorded. Indications and usage location were described in numbers and proportions.ResultsA total of 329 emergency blood units were transfused to 210 patients. Trauma accounted for 39% (n = 81) of cases and other surgical conditions for 22% (n = 47), particularly upper gastrointestinal 11% (n = 24) and perioperative bleeding 8% (n = 16). Medical conditions accounted for 15% (n = 31), with anaemia 13% (n = 27), the most prevalent indication. Gynaecological conditions accounted for 15% (n = 32), mostly ectopic pregnancy 8% (n = 17). The majority of emergency blood, 77% (n = 253) were used in the emergency centres or operating theatres, 6% (n = 21).ConclusionTrauma remains a major indication for emergency blood transfusion in this setting. This study questions the use of emergency blood for certain non-urgent diagnoses (i.e. anaemia). Given the scarcity of this resource and limitations to access, appropriate use of emergency blood needs to be better defined locally. Ongoing monitoring of the indications for which emergency blood is used, improved transfusion stewardship and better systems to access emergency blood should be a priority in this setting.
       
  • The variables perceived to be important during patient handover by South
           African prehospital care providers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Andrew William Makkink, Christopher Owen Alexander Stein, Stevan Raynier Bruijns, Sean Gottschalk IntroductionHigh-acuity patients are typically transported directly to the emergency centre via ambulance by trained prehospital care providers. As such, the emergency centre becomes the first of many physical transition points for patients, where a change of care provider (or handover) takes place. The aim of this study was to describe the variables perceived to be important during patient handover by a cohort of South African prehospital care providers.MethodsA purpose-designed questionnaire was used to gather data related to prehospital emergency care provider opinions on the importance of certain patient variables.ResultsWe collected 175 completed questionnaires from 75 (43%) BAA, 49 (28%) ANA, 15 (9%) ECT, 16 (9%) ANT and 20 (11%) ECP respondents. Within the ten handover variables perceived to be most important for inclusion in emergency centre handover, five were related to vital signs. Blood pressure was ranked most important, followed by type of major injuries, anatomical location of major injuries, pulse rate, respiration rate and patient history. These were followed by Glasgow Coma Score, injuries sustained, patient priority, oxygen saturations and patient allergies.ConclusionThis study has provided some interesting results related to which handover elements prehospital care providers consider as most important to include in handover. More research is required to correlate these findings with the opinions of emergency centre staff.
       
  • Prognostic performance of ECG abnormalities compared to vital signs in
           acutely ill patients in a resource-poor hospital in Uganda

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Teopista Namujwiga, Immaculate Nakitende, John Kellett, Martin Opio, Alfred Lumala, on behalf of the Kitovu Hospital Study Group BackgroundThere are few reports of electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and their prognostic value in acutely ill patients admitted to low resource hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa.MethodsWe undertook an observational study of acutely ill medical patients admitted to a low-resource hospital in Uganda. Vital signs were used to calculate the National Early Warning Score (NEWS), and all ECGs were assessed using Tan et al.’s scoring system as described in Clin Cardiol 2009;32:82–86.ResultsThere were 1361 ECGs performed, covering 68% of all acutely ill medical patients admitted to the hospital during the study. The most common ECG abnormality was a prolonged QTc interval (42% of all patients) and left ventricular hypertrophy (13.5%). Compared to the 519 patients (38%) with no Tan score abnormality, the 842 (62%) patients with one or more abnormalities were more likely to die in hospital (OR = 2.82; CI95% = 1.50–5.36) and within 30 days of discharge (OR = 2.46; CI95% = 1.50–4.08). There was no relationship between age and mortality; however, after adjustment by logistic regression, any NEWS ≥1 on admission, a Tan score of ≥1, and male sex all remained clinically significant predictors of both in-hospital and 30-day mortality.DiscussionThe majority of acutely ill medical patients admitted in a low-resource hospital in sub-Saharan Africa had ECG abnormalities, of which prolonged QTc and left ventricular hypertrophy were most common. Those with any Tan score abnormality were twice as likely to die as those without an abnormality.
       
  • Implementation and evaluation of an innovative leadership and teacher
           training program for non-physician emergency medicine practitioners in
           Uganda

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Mariel Colella, Mark Bisanzo, Carey Farquhar, Rashidah Nambaziira, Elizabeth Carter, Sarah Gimbel, Gabrielle O'Malley IntroductionLeadership and teaching skills are essential, but not often emphasized, components of medical training. As emergency care develops as a specialty in Uganda, two cadres of providers are being trained: physicians and non-physician clinicians (NPCs). Building formal leadership and educator training into these curricula is essential.MethodsA week long continuing education (CE) course on leadership and teaching is described and evaluated for effectiveness using Kirkpatrick’s framework for learner-centred outcomes. The emergency care trained NPCs participated in a week-long course consisting of lectures, role-playing, and small group discussions, as well as a personality self-assessment. The evaluation process consisted of: 1) an immediate post-course survey to measure learner satisfaction, 2) a retrospective, pre/post self-assessment with a Likert-type scoring tool to measure knowledge gains, and 3) a three-month follow up survey and structured interviews to measure knowledge retention and behaviour change in practice.ResultsAll 15 NPCs participated in the evaluation process. Learner satisfaction was high with an average score of 9.3 (on a 1–10 scale) for course content, amount learned, and use of time. Participants reported gains in knowledge for each of the 24 competencies measured, with an average difference in pre- and post-course Likert scores of 1.11 (on a scale of 1–5). Lastly, all 15 participants shared detailed examples of using course content in practice three months after the course finished. The most frequently mentioned themes were “giving and receiving feedback,” “delegating and assigning tasks,” and “communication.”ConclusionThis course was a successful CE intervention in this setting as measured by Kirkpatrick’s framework. The most frequently mentioned concepts used in practice point to the NPCs ability to take on leadership roles in this setting. Further research and evaluation methods should focus on the influence of culture and personalities on leadership education and translation into practice in an EM setting.
       
  • Mixed methods process evaluation of pilot implementation of the African
           Federation for Emergency Medicine trauma data project protocol in Ethiopia
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Adam D. Laytin, Aklilu Azazh, Biruk Girma, Finot Debebe, Lemlem Beza, Heyria Seid, Megan Landes, Julia Wytsma, Teri A. Reynolds IntroductionThe African Federation for Emergency Medicine Trauma Data Project (AFEM-TDP) has created a protocol for trauma data collection in resource-limited settings using a clinical chart with embedded standardized data points that facilitates a systematic approach to injured patients. We performed a process evaluation of the protocol’s implementation at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to provide insights for adapting the protocol to our setting.MethodsDuring the pilot implementation period, the quality of collected data was assessed. Structured key informant interviews about participant experiences and perceptions of the protocol implementation were then conducted. Interviews were analysed using a SWOT model.ResultsDuring pilot data collection, the overall capture rate was 21%. Variables collected with high frequency included demographics, vital signs and ED diagnosis, while mechanism of injury and ED disposition were often missed. Key informant interviews identified Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats to the protocol. Strengths included improved patient care, enhanced training for junior providers and facilitated data collection. Weaknesses included inadequate supervision and challenges relating to the physical size of the form, which resulted in missing data. Opportunities included retrospective research and quality improvement work. Threats included perceived lack of a local champion, poor buy-in from other hospital departments and need for ongoing financial support.ConclusionA mixed methods process evaluation is an invaluable tool when implementing novel data collection protocols, especially in resource-limited settings. We determined early successes and challenges of the implementation of the AFEM-TDP protocol and generated strategies to adapt the protocol to better suit our setting. Lessons from this process evaluation may be informative for other researchers designing and implementing similar data collection protocols.
       
  • Fatal Boomslang bite in the Northern Cape

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Hendrik Johannes Krüger, Franz Gustav Lemke IntroductionThe authors describe an atypical presentation after a Boomslang bite with rapid progression of symptoms and death.Case reportA young gentleman was bitten and rapidly decompensated before monovalent antivenom could be administered, with fatal results.ConclusionThis case highlights the importance of having monovalent Boomslang antivenom rapidly available in all referral centres that may be involved in the management of Boomslang bite victims.
       
  • Triage live lecture versus triage video podcast in pre-hospital
           students’ education

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Hamidreza Aghababaeian, Ladan Araghi Ahvazi, Ahmad Mosavvi, Sadegh Ahmadi Mazhin, Noorollah Tahery, Mohsen Nouri, Maryam Kiarsi, Leila Kalani IntroductionTriage is the process of determining the priority of patients’ treatments based on the severity of their conditions. The aim of the present study was to survey the effect of triage video podcasting on the knowledge and performance of pre-hospital students.MethodsSixty pre-hospital students were randomly divided into two groups of a 30-subject control group and a 30-subject intervention group. A pre-test was administered among all students. Afterwards, for the first group, triage education was offered through lectures using PowerPoint, while for the second group, audio and video podcasts tailored for this training program were employed. Right after the training as well as one month later, post-tests were run for both groups, and the results were analysed using an independent t-test and covariance.ResultsNo significant difference was observed between the effects of both types of education on knowledge and performance, either immediately, or one month after training.DiscussionWe suggest that video podcasts are ready to replace traditional teaching methods in triage.
       
  • Waveform capnography in a South African prehospital service: Knowledge
           assessment of paramedics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Craig Wylie, Tyson Welzel, Peter Hodkinson BackgroundWaveform capnography has proven to be of great value in the provision of safe patient care especially in the intubated patient. Although seldom available, or used in African contexts, capnography has become standard practice in well-resourced out-of-hospital services for confirmation of intubation, and optimization of resuscitation and ventilation. To date there has been little research into the knowledge of out-of-hospital staff, both local and internationally, utilising capnography. This study describes the knowledge of paramedics who use waveform capnography in the out-of-hospital environment.MethodsA cohort of advanced life support qualified paramedics in a private ambulance service in South Africa undertook a web-based survey around their background, training and use of capnography. Participants’ knowledge was assessed by exploring their interpretation of waveform capnography and establishing attitudes pertaining to training and constraints of availability of capnography.ResultsSeventy eight paramedics responded, and most (91%) indicated they were likely to use capnography when the tool was available. The majority of training in capnography had been during their primary qualification (85%). Most participants indicated that they would like further training (91%). Use of capnography for confirmation of endotracheal tube placement and quality of compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation was well understood (correct in 94% and 84% respectively), while more complicated knowledge such as waveform changes during ventilation (66%) and the effect of hypovolaemia (48%) on capnography were lacking.ConclusionParamedics report using waveform capnography extensively when it is available in the South African out-of-hospital environment. Although the knowledge around capnography and its usage was found to be good in most areas, more complicated scenarios exposed flaws in the knowledge of many paramedics and suggest the need for improved and ongoing training, as well as incorporation into curricula as the field develops across the continent.
       
  • The burden of road traffic injury among trauma patients in Ethiopia: A
           systematic review and meta-analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Aklilu Endalamaw, Yeneabat Birhanu, Animut Alebel, Amare Demsie, Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold BackgroundRoad traffic injury (RTI) is one of the main reasons for trauma-related admission in Ethiopian hospitals. Nationally representative data is needed to develop and implement the public health emergency management strategy. Therefore, this study was aimed to estimate the national pooled prevalence of RTI among trauma patients in Ethiopia.MethodsPubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), psycEXTRA, and Google Scholar databases were searched. Heterogeneity of studies was assessed using the I2 statistics. Publication bias was checked by using funnel plot and Egger’s regression test. The DerSimonian and Laird's random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence. Subgroup analysis was conducted by age and region. The trend of RTI estimated as well.ResultsThe pooled prevalence of RTI among trauma patients in Ethiopia was 31.5% (95% CI: 25.4%, 37.7%). Regional subgroup analysis showed that the pooled prevalence of RTI was 58.3% in the region of southern, nation, nationalities, and peoples (SNNPR) and 33.3% in Addis Ababa. Subgroup analysis based on patients age showed that the pooled prevalence of RTI was 51.7% in adults, 14.2% in children, and 32.6% in all age group. The time-trend analysis has shown an increasing burden of RTI in Ethiopian hospitals.ConclusionThe burden of RTI among trauma patients was high. Therefore, strengthening road safety management throughout the country is needed to reduce RTI.
       
  • Pre-hospital intercostal chest drains in South Africa: A modified Delphi
           study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Enrico Dippenaar, Lee Wallis IntroductionTrauma is one of the most common causes of death in low- and middle-income countries, with thoracic injury accounting for 20–25% of these deaths worldwide. The current management of a life-threatening pre-hospital pneumothorax is with a needle chest decompression, however, definitive care for a pneumothorax and/or haemothorax is still the insertion of an intercostal chest drain. The aim of this study was to seek expert opinion and consensus on the placement of ICDs in the pre-hospital emergency care setting in South Africa.MethodsA three-round modified Delphi study was undertaken with an expert panel drawn from local emergency care experts consisting of physicians and emergency medical service practitioners. Participants supplied opinion statements in round 1 under headings derived from common emerging themes found in the literature. During round 2 participants used a 9-point Likert scale to rate their consensus on each statement and in round 3 they were able to change their position based on the earlier panel distributions. A consensus percentage of 60% was set within a narrow margin of ‘strongly agree’ or ‘strongly disagree’.ResultsA total of 22 experts took part as panel members. There were 123 opinion statements produced from round 1, of which 21 (17%) reached consensus in round 2. At the end of round 3 another four statements reached consensus, bringing the total up to 25 (20%).ConclusionDefinitive care of a life-threating pneumothorax and/or haemothorax must be sought emergently. The insertion of an ICD, under select conditions, may be required in the pre-hospital setting in South Africa.
       
  • Traumatic ocular lens dislocation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Jason Arthur, Brett Schubert, Stephen S. Topp IntroductionOcular lens dislocation is a relatively rare and difficult to diagnose disorder. Computed tomography often confirms the diagnosis, however may be unavailable in resource limited settings. Bedside ultrasound offers an alternative method of diagnosis which is rapid, inexpensive, and relatively easy.CaseA 59-year-old man presented with a complaint of decreased vision in his right eye after being assaulted. Exam was remarkable for decreased visual acuity and increased intraocular pressure. Maxillofacial and brain CT as well as bedside ultrasound demonstrated a posteriorly dislocated ocular lens. The patient’s intraocular pressures were medically managed and he was discharged with close follow-up with ophthalmology.ConclusionOcular lens dislocation may be easily diagnosed with ultrasound. Direction of lens dislocation dictates management, however posterior dislocations may be amenable to outpatient management.
       
  • Cochrane, evidence-based medicine and associated factors: A
           cross-sectional study of the experiences and knowledge of Ethiopian
           specialists in training

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Omar Abdulwadud, Aklilu Azazh, Amha Mekasha, Tigist Bacha Heye, Balkachew Nigatu, Finote Debebe, Haimanot Geremew Emiru IntroductionEvidence-based healthcare is a core competency for practicing healthcare practitioners and those in speciality training. In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the teaching of evidence-based medicine (EBM) in residency program. This survey evaluated the experiences and knowledge of Cochrane, EBM and associated factors among Ethiopian specialists in training.MethodsA convenient sample of trainee specialists completed a pretested self-administered survey. The majority (93%) were ≤30 years old, males (63%) and 41% in paediatrics speciality. The associations of categorical variables with EBM knowledge was assessed by Fisher’s exact or Chi-Square tests. Covariates contributing to EBM knowledge were identified using multivariate logistic regression analysis.ResultsEighty-three trainees participated in the survey (response rate 88.2%). About 75% have heard about Cochrane but no one recognized Cochrane South Africa. Only 25% of the trainees knew the Cochrane Library but none used it in clinical practice. Most (78%) have heard of EBM, 15% had attended EBM course, 96% wanted to attend EBM course and 81% had positive attitudes to EBM. Trainees EBM knowledge was associated with awareness of Cochrane [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 8.5, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 1.3–54.6, P = 0.02], EBM (AOR = 51.2, 95% CI 2.7–960.8, P = 0.009), and being in third year training (AOR = 28.4, 95% CI 1.9–427.2, P = 0.02). The promotion of EBM in residency hospital (AOR = 22.2, 95% CI 2.2–223.8, P = 0.008) and being aware of Cochrane (AOR = 4.8, 95% CI 1.1–21.7, P = 0.04) were predictors of positive attitude. Familiarity with Cochrane Library was influenced by EBM knowledge (AOR = 6.6, 95% CI 1.4–31.5, P = 0.02) and perceived organization barrier to accessing the resource (AOR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.03–10.1, P = 0.04).ConclusionEthiopian trainee specialists lacked formal EBM training, awareness and use of the Cochrane Library. To improve the healthcare quality and patient outcomes, EBM education should be integrated into residency curricula.
       
  • Are “virtual” paediatric weight estimation studies valid'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Mike Wells, Lara Goldstein Introduction“Virtual” studies account for nearly one-third of all published weight estimation articles, but the validity of these virtual studies has never been evaluated. It is important to establish this validity in order to decide whether the results of these studies can be applied to real-world usage. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of virtual weight estimates using the Broselow and PAWPER tapes and compare these to actual real-life estimates from the tapes.MethodsVirtual weights were generated for the Broselow and PAWPER tapes using anthropometric data from a sample of 1385 children for whom actual Broselow and PAWPER tape weights were available. The accuracy of the virtual and real-life estimates was compared against each child’s actual weight. The agreement of the virtual and real estimates was also evaluated.ResultsThe percentage of weight estimates within 10% of actual weight were 57.9% and 59.3% for the real and virtual Broselow tapes respectively and 76.6% and 78.4% for the real and virtual PAWPER tapes respectively. The Cohen’s kappa for the real and virtual Broselow and PAWPER tapes was 0.65 and 0.64 respectively, which indicated substantial agreement.ConclusionsThe virtual and real weight estimates had very similar accuracy outcomes for both tapes in this study. However, if virtual studies are used, they should be followed by real-life studies in order to assess the impact of human and patient factor errors on the accuracy of the weight estimation systems.
       
  • Development of a nurse-led tranexamic acid administration protocol for
           trauma patients in rural South Africa

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Christopher Wearmouth, Jacob Smith IntroductionAdministration of tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to effectively reduce all-cause mortality in trauma patients when given within three hours of injury. We found that many trauma patients in our hospital were not receiving TXA. This was due to a variety of factors, including late presentation to hospital, lack of staff awareness, short staffing, and unavailable drugs or equipment. Our aim was to develop a protocol for safe, nurse-led administration of TXA in the emergency centre in order to increase the number of eligible patients treated.MethodsWe developed a protocol based on the inclusion criteria of the CRASH-2 study, opting to use physiological observations along with criteria from the South African Triage Scale to allow nursing staff to identify patients with, or at risk of, significant haemorrhage. We tailored the protocol to the equipment and training available in our poorly resourced rural healthcare setting.ResultsIn a two-month period, 14 patients were given TXA by nurses before the arrival of a doctor. 13/14 (92.9%) were deemed appropriate, with 1/14 (7.1%) deemed inappropriate due to the time since injury. 12/13 (92.3%) patients received the correct infusion dose, with 1/13 (7.7%) only receiving the infusion once the doctor arrived. No adverse events were reported.ConclusionsNursing staff in resource poor rural settings can use a protocol based on the South African Triage Scale and the CRASH-2 study to safely administer TXA to trauma patients. We believe this to be the first published literature on nurse-led administration of TXA. Mortality from trauma may be reduced in rural settings by the timely administration of TXA in the prehospital and rural primary healthcare settings.
       
  • Modified Delphi study to determine optimal data elements for inclusion in
           a pilot violence and injury observatory in Cape Town, South Africa

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Ardil Jabar, Shane Bjorkman, Richard Matzopoulos IntroductionViolence and injury observatories (VIOs) are primarily a tool to aid safety and security stakeholders within both governments and non-governmental organisations to develop interventions focused on violence prevention and related to citizen safety issues. VIOs are centres that focus on collating and integrating violence-related injury data sources to monitor, evaluate, and study the progression of violence and crime in a targeted region. In preparation for implementing a pilot VIO in Cape Town, we sought to determine the optimal indicators, datasets and research priorities for inclusion.MethodsThe study employed a two-round Delphi study conducted via email. The Delphi panel constituted 21 participants. This included, but was not limited, to senior members of staff in the Provincial Health Services in Emergency Medicine and Disaster Medicine, representatives from relevant data stakeholders and non-government actors working in violence reduction.ResultsFourteen violence-related indicators and 12 violence-related datasets reached consensus. Additionally, research priorities were identified within 16 research themes across five different types of violence: elder abuse, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and armed violence. Finally, four data-sharing questions raised by panellists after round one were answered by the Delphi panel following the second round.DiscussionThis study provides a research priority framework for violence and injury prevention work within South Africa. These expert-identified violence and injury indicators and datasets are context-appropriate and may serve to guide the development of additional VIOs within the region.
       
  • Cola therapy for oesophageal food bolus impactions a case series

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Eva P. Baerends, Tom Boeije, Anna Van Capelle, Nieke E. Mullaart-Jansen, Michael D. Burg, Albert J. Bredenoord IntroductionThis retrospective case series describes the use of cola to immediately treat complete oesophageal food bolus obstructions in the emergency centre. Short of emergent endoscopy – which is invasive, expensive, not without adverse events, and often unavailable in low-resource settings – no other proven therapies exist to relieve oesophageal food impactions.MethodsWe performed a chart review of adults with complete oesophageal food bolus obstructions presenting to two Dutch emergency centres. Our primary outcome was cola’s success rate in resolving the obstruction. Our secondary outcome was adverse event occurrence.ResultsWe identified 22 cola interventions in 19 patients, the majority of whom (77.3%) were male. The median age was 59 years (IQR 29–73). All presentations were due to meat impaction. Endoscopy revealed relevant upper gastrointestinal pathology in 54.5%. When initiated in the emergency centre, cola successfully resolved 59% of complete oesophageal obstructions. No adverse events were reported in patients successfully treated with cola.DiscussionWhile keenly aware of our retrospective study’s limitations, we found a promising success rate for cola as an acute intervention for oesophageal food bolus impactions. We registered no adverse events attributable to cola. Also, given that cola is cheap, widely available and seemingly safe we believe it can be considered in patients with oesophageal obstructions due to food, either as pre-endoscopy treatment or in case endoscopy is not available at all. We think our findings provide an impetus for prospective research on this intervention.
       
  • Procedural sedation and analgesia practices in the emergency centre

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Delecia K. Wood-Thompson, Callistus O.A. Enyuma, Abdullah E. Laher IntroductionProcedural sedation and analgesia allows the clinician to safely and efficiently administer sedation, analgesia, anxiolysis and sometimes amnesia to facilitate the performance of various procedures in the emergency centre. The aim of this study is to determine current sedation practices, common indications and major obstacles in selected emergency centres across Southern Gauteng, South Africa, with a view to improving future standards and practices.MethodsThis was a prospective, questionnaire based, cross-sectional interview of emergency centre managers or their designee of selected private-sector and public-sector hospitals in Southern Gauteng.ResultsOverall, 17 hospitals completed the interview, nine (53%) public-sector and eight (47%) private-sector hospitals, with 36% of hospitals being aligned to an academic institute. All hospitals performed procedural sedation in their emergency centre. Forty seven percent of managers had between ten and 19 years of clinical experience post internship. Although eleven (64.7%) managers achieved a postgraduate qualification in emergency medicine, only seven (41%) were accredited with a Fellowship of the College of Emergency Medicine (FCEM) qualification and only three (17.7%) centres employed three or more specialists. The majority of centres (52.3%) performed between ten and 30 procedures per month requiring sedation. Staff training in the practice of procedural sedation was mostly obtained internally (52.9%), from in-house seniors. Essential drugs, procedure monitors, resuscitation equipment and protocols were all available in 70.6% of centres.ConclusionAlthough the safe practice and awareness of procedural sedation and analgesia in both public-sector and private-sector emergency centres in Southern Gauteng appears to be on the increase, there is still a need to enhance practitioner training and promote awareness of current local and international trends, protocols and recommendations.
       
  • Developing a South African Helicopter Emergency Medical Service Activation
           Screen (SAHAS): A Delphi study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Diane Laatz, Tyson Welzel, Willem Stassen IntroductionHelicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) are an expensive resource that should be utilised efficiently to optimise the cost-benefit ratio. This is especially true in resource-limited settings, such as South Africa. This may be achieved by implementing call-out criteria that are most appropriate to the healthcare system in which HEMS operate. Currently, there are no published evidence-based HEMS call-out criteria developed for South Africa. By identifying patients that are most likely to benefit from HEMS, their utilisation can be enhanced and adjusted to ensure optimal patient outcome. We aimed to systematically utilise expert opinions to reach consensus on HEMS call-out criteria that are contextual to the South African setting.MethodsA modified Delphi technique was used to develop call-out criteria, using current literature as the basis of the study. Purposive, snowball sampling was employed to identify a sample of 118 participants locally and internationally, of which 42 participated for all three rounds. Using an online survey platform, binary agreement/disagreement with each criterion was sought. Acceptable consensus was set at 75%. Statements were sent out in the third round ascertaining whether participants agreed with the analysis of the first two rounds.ResultsAfter two rounds, consensus was obtained for 63% (36/57) of criteria, while 64% of generated statements received consensus in the third round. Results emphasised the opinion that HEMS dispatch criteria relating to patient condition and incident locations were preferential to a comprehensive list. Through collation of these results and international literature, we present an initial concept for a South African HEMS Activation Screen (SAHAS), favouring inquiry on a case-by-case basis.DiscussionThe combination of existing literature and participant opinions, established that call-out criteria are most efficient when based on clinical parameters and geographic considerations, as opposed to a specified list of criteria. The initial concept of our SAHAS should be investigated further.
       
  • Left pulmonary artery bullet embolism following a penetrating cardiac
           gunshot injury

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Anjana Bairagi, Timothy C. Hardcastle, David J.J. Muckart IntroductionBullet emboli occur when bullets migrate from an entry point to an abnormal endpoint via blood vessels or bowel. Most result from low-velocity, small calibre civilian gunshots. Although rare, when it does occur, it commonly embolises to the arterial system. Many times, these are amenable to removal and recovery.Case reportWe present a case of a haemodynamically unstable polytrauma patient with a pulmonary artery projectile embolus following a penetrating trans-thoracic cardiac gunshot wound.ConclusionA brief overview of the literature regarding bullet emboli is provided in light of this unusual case, focusing specifically on thoracic bullet emboli. A high index of suspicion should be raised when the number of entry and exit wounds are incongruent, bullet location does not align with anticipated trajectory, or serial radiographs demonstrate missile migration. Radiological evaluation and bullet retrieval are dependent on haemodynamic stability of the patient.
       
  • Intraoperative awareness and experience with a ketamine-based anaesthesia
           package to support emergency and essential surgery when no anaesthetist is
           available

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Sarah Villegas, Sebastian Suarez, Joseph Owuor, Gabriella M. Wuyke, Brett D. Nelson, Javan Imbamba, Debora Rogo, Khama Rogo, Thomas F. Burke IntroductionFive of the 7.2 billion people on earth have limited access to emergency and essential surgical procedures. The lack of safe, affordable and timely anaesthesia services are primary barriers to universal surgical coverage. The objective of this study was to assess intraoperative awareness when the ‘Every Second Matters for Emergency and Essential Surgery – Ketamine’ (ESM-Ketamine) package was used to support emergency and essential surgeries and painful procedures in rural Kenya when no anaesthetist was available.MethodsForty-seven consecutive adult patients that underwent an operative procedure under ESM-Ketamine at Sagam Community Hospital in Luanda, Kenya were enrolled. Participants underwent two semi-structured interviews that explored the patient’s experience with ESM-Ketamine both after the operative procedure and four to six weeks after surgery.ResultsForty-seven participants completed the first interview and 37 (78.7%) the second interview. Thirty-seven (78.7%) cases were procedural sedations and ten were (21.3%) emergency surgeries. Intraoperative awareness occurred in nine (24.3%) participants who underwent procedural sedation and two (20%) who underwent emergency surgery. Twenty-six (55.3%) participants reported dreams during the procedure. Thirty-two (86.5%) participants considered their experience positive, and 35 (95%) would recommend a procedure supported by ketamine to a friend.DiscussionMost patients whose painful procedures and emergency operations were supported by the ESM-Ketamine package when no anaesthetist was available reported favourable experiences.
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.146.98.143
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-