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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3181 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3181 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 105, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 442, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 320, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 424, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 384, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 482, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 264, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 226, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
African Journal of Emergency Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.296
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2211-419X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3181 journals]
  • High-anion gap hyperchloremic acidosis mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis on
           initial presentation – Case report

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Esmail Sangey, Kishan Chudasama IntroductionDiabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) often becomes the primary focus and in turn masks a similar serious condition like hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis.Case reportA 20 years old female with type 1 diabetes mellitus presented to the emergency department (ED) with signs and symptoms corresponding to DKA. Initial pH, HCO3, Na and Cl concentrations were 6.83, 3.6 mmol/l, 143 mmol/l and 122 mmol/l respectively; anion gap 17.4 mmol/l and absent urinary ketones. DKA regime showed no improvement in the measured parameters nor the patient. The diagnosis changed to hyperchloremic high-anion gap acidosis and treatment modifications were made by adding sodium bicarbonate infusion. There was significant improvement in the clinical status of the patient and the calculated parameters.DiscussionHyperchloremic acidosis is associated with a non-anion gap, decrease in plasma bicarbonate and increase in plasma chloride. Rarely, as with this case, it may present with a high-anion gap. The use of bicarbonate therapy has shown improvement in cases of non-anion gap acidosis however there is very little data to support its role in high-anion gap hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis.
       
  • For the students, by the students: Student perceptions of low cost medical
           moulage in a resource-constrained environment

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Andrew William Makkink, Helen Slabber IntroductionSimulation-based learning affords participants the opportunity to practice high-acuity, low-incidence situations without risk to the patient. The realism of a simulated scenario is often referred to as fidelity. High levels of fidelity imply high levels of realism. One method of enhancing fidelity is the use of moulage. Commercially available moulage kits and professionally applied moulage are often expensive and therefore not practical in the resource-constrained environment. Cost-effective alternatives are required for the resource-constrained environment.MethodsStudents at a South African university used readily available, low cost materials to apply self-constructed, low cost moulage for a bandaging practical. A cross sectional design used a purpose-designed, validated questionnaire to gather data related to face and content validity of the self-constructed moulage. Frequency analysis formed the cornerstone of Likert-type quantitative data analysis. An open-ended question afforded participants the opportunity to express their own opinions related to the moulage experience.ResultsThe results revealed that there was both high face validity and high content validity of the self-constructed moulage. Participants found the activity enjoyable and a generally positive learning experience. The self-constructed moulage was realistic and added to the fidelity of the scenario. Participant confidence was improved and their engagement in the learning activity was enhanced. Participants found the self-constructed, low-cost moulage more realistic that commercial products that they had been exposed to.ConclusionThe use of low-cost, self-constructed moulage is a feasible and economically viable means of enhancing fidelity within the resource-constrained simulation setting. This technique is not necessarily limited to emergency medical care and can be used in other areas of healthcare simulation.
       
  • Cross-sectional survey on occupational needle stick injuries amongst
           prehospital emergency medical service personnel in Johannesburg

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Jared McDowall, Abdullah E. Laher IntroductionPrehospital personnel are exposed to challenging situations that place them at increased risk of sustaining a needle stick injury (NSI). Blood borne infections such as HIV and Hepatitis B or C may be transmitted from a NSI. Sub-Saharan Africa has the largest number of people living with HIV globally. There is no data pertaining to NSI among Emergency Medical Service (EMS) personnel in South Africa. This study aimed to investigate the cumulative incidence, knowledge, attitudes and practices pertaining to NSIs amongst a select group of prehospital personnel in Johannesburg.MethodsThis was a prospective, questionnaire based, cross-sectional survey of personnel employed at three EMS service providers in Johannesburg.ResultsOf the 240 subjects that participated in the study, there was a total of 93 NSIs amongst 63 (26.3%) subjects. Of these, 41 (65.1%) had sustained one previous NSI, 16 (25.4%) had two NSIs, 5 (7.9%) had three NSIs and one (1.6%) had five NSIs. Almost two-thirds (n = 60; 64.5%) of NSIs were sustained during intravenous line insertion. Most of the study subjects were male (n = 145, 60.4%), between the age of 25–29 years (n = 67, 27.9%), had a BLS qualification as the highest level of training (n = 89, 37.1%), had>10 years of EMS experience (n = 69; 28.8%) and were up to date with their Hepatitis B vaccination at the time of the study. HIV post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) was initiated in 82 (88.2%) out of the 93 NSI incidents. However, the recommended 28-day course of therapy was only completed in 68 (82.9%) out of the 82 cases where PEP was initiated.ConclusionPrehospital personnel are at risk of sustaining a NSI. There is a need to promote awareness with regards to the risks, preventive measures, awareness of PEP protocols and the timely initiation and completion of HIV PEP amongst EMS personnel in Johannesburg.
       
  • The preventability of trauma-related death at a tertiary hospital in
           Ghana: a multidisciplinary panel review approach

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Rockefeller A. Oteng, Daniel Osei-Kwame, Maysel Stella E. Forson-Adae, Kwame Ekremet, Hussein Yakubu, Bernard Arhin, Ronald F. Maio IntroductionThe purpose of the study was to determine the preventable trauma-related death rate (PDR) at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana three years after initiation of an Emergency Medicine (EM) residencyMethodThis was a retrospective, cross-sectional study. A multidisciplinary panel of physicians completed a structured implicit review of clinical data for trauma patients who died during the period 2011 to 2012. The panel judged the preventability of each death and the nature of inappropriate care. Categories were definitely preventable (DP), possibly preventable (PP), and not preventable (NP).Results1) The total number of cases was forty-five; 36 cases had adequate data for review. Subjects were predominately male; road traffic injury (RTI) was the leading mechanism of injury. Four cases (11.1%) were DP, 14 cases (38.9%) were PP and 18 (50%) were NP. Hemorrhage was the leading cause of death (39%). Among DP/PP deaths there were 37 instances of inappropriate care. Delay in surgical intervention was the predominate event (50%). 2) The PDR for this study was 50% (0.95 CI, 33.7%–66.3%)ConclusionFifty percent of trauma deaths were DP/PP. Multiple episodes of varying types of inappropriate care occurred. More efficient surgical evaluation and appropriate treatment of hemorrhage could reduce trauma morality. Large amounts of missing and incomplete clinical data suggest considerable selection bias. A major implication of this study is the importance of having a robust, prospective trauma registry to collect clinical information to increase the number of cases for review.
       
  • Identifying quality indicators for prehospital emergency care services in
           the low to middle income setting: The South African perspective

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Ian Howard, Peter Cameron, Lee Wallis, Maaret Castrén, Veronica Lindström IntroductionHistorically, performance within the Prehospital Emergency Care (PEC) setting has been assessed primarily based on response times. While easy to measure and valued by the public, overall, response time targets are a poor predictor of quality of care and clinical outcomes. Over the last two decades however, significant progress has been made towards improving the assessment of PEC performance, largely in the form of the development of PEC-specific quality indicators (QIs). Despite this progress, there has been little to no development of similar systems within the low- to middle-income country setting. As a result, the aim of this study was to identify a set of QIs appropriate for use in the South African PEC setting.MethodsA three-round modified online Delphi study design was conducted to identify, refine and review a list of QIs for potential use in the South African PEC setting. Operational definitions, data components and criteria for use were developed for 210 QIs for inclusion into the study.ResultsIn total, 104 QIs reached consensus agreement including, 90 clinical QIs, across 15 subcategories, and 14 non-clinical QIs across two subcategories. Amongst the clinical category, airway management (n = 13 QIs; 14%); out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (n = 13 QIs; 14%); and acute coronary syndromes (n = 11 QIs; 12%) made up the majority. Within the non-clinical category, adverse events made up the significant majority with nine QIs (64%).ConclusionWithin the South Africa setting, there are a multitude of QIs that are relevant and appropriate for use in PEC. This was evident in the number, variety and type of QIs reaching consensus agreement in our study. Furthermore, both the methodology employed, and findings of this study may be used to inform the development of PEC specific QIs within other LMIC settings.
       
  • Rapid, remote education for point-of-care ultrasound among non-physician
           emergency care providers in a resource limited setting

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Benjamin Terry, David L. Polan, Rashidah Nambaziira, Julius Mugisha, Mark Bisanzo, Romolo Gaspari IntroductionAccess to high-quality emergency care in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is lacking. Many countries utilise a strategy known as “task-shifting” where skills and responsibilities are distributed in novel ways among healthcare personnel. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has the potential to significantly improve emergency care in LMICs.MethodsPOCUS was incorporated into a training program for a ten-person cohort of non-physician Emergency Care Providers (ECPs) in rural Uganda. We performed a prospective observational evaluation on the impact of a remote, rapid review of POCUS studies on the primary objective of ECP ultrasound quality and secondary objective of ultrasound utilisation. The study was divided into four phases over 11 months: an initial in-person training month, two middle month blocks where ECPs performed ultrasounds independently without remote electronic feedback, and the final months when ECPs performed ultrasounds independently with remote electronic feedback. Quality was assessed on a previously published eight-point ordinal scale by a U.S.-based expert sonographer and rapid standardised feedback was given to ECPs by local staff. Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound exam findings for the Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) was calculated.ResultsOver the study duration, 1153 ultrasound studies were reviewed. Average imaging frequency per ECP dropped 61% after the initial in-person training month (p = 0.01) when ECPs performed ultrasound independently, but rebounded once electronic feedback was initiated (p = 0.001), with an improvement in quality from 3.82 (95% CI, 3.32–4.32) to 4.68 (95% CI, 4.35–5.01) on an eight-point scale. The sensitivity and specificity of FAST exam during the initial training period was 77.8 (95% CI, 59.2–83.0) and 98.5 (95% CI, 93.3–99.9), respectively. Sensitivity improved 88% compared to independent, non-feedback months whereas specificity was unchanged.ConclusionsRemotely delivered quality assurance feedback is an effective educational tool to enhance provider skill and foster continued and sustainable use of ultrasound in LMICs.
       
  • Retrospective review of the patient cases at a major trauma center in
           Nairobi, Kenya and implications for emergency care development

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Julie Saleeby, Justin G. Myers, Karen Ekernas, Katherine Hunold, Ali Wangara, Alice Maingi, Peyton Wilson, Vincent Mutiso, Sarah Zamamiri, Daniel Bacon, Wes Davis, John Suder, Yash Agrawal, Ogar Ogar, Ian B.K. Martin, Stephen Dunlop IntroductionLow- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are continuing to experience a “triple burden” of disease - traumatic injury, non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and communicable disease with maternal and neonatal conditions (CD&Ms). The epidemiology of this triad is not well characterised and poses significant challenges to resource allocations, administration, and education of emergency care providers. The data collected in this study provide a comprehensive description of the emergency centre at Kenya's largest public tertiary care hospital.MethodsThis study is a retrospective chart review conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital of all patient encounters over a four-month period. Data were collected from financial and emergency centre triage records along with admission and mortality logbooks. Chief complaints and discharge diagnoses collected by specially trained research assistants were manually converted to standardised diagnoses using International Classification of Disease 10 (ICD-10) codes. ICD-10 codes were categorised into groups based on the ICD-10 classification system for presentation.ResultsA total of 23,941 patients presented to the emergency centre during the study period for an estimated annual census of 71,823. The majority of patients were aged 18-64 years (58%) with 50% of patients being male and only 3% of unknown sex. The majority of patients (61%) were treated in the emergency centre, observed, and discharged home. Admission was the next most common disposition (33%) followed by death (6%). Head injury was the overall most common diagnosis (11%) associated with admission.ConclusionsTrends toward NCDs and traumatic diseases have been described by this study and merit further investigation in both the urban and rural setting. Specifically, the significance of head injury on healthcare cost, utilisation, and patient death and disability points to the growing need of additional resources at Kenyatta National Hospital for acute care. It further demonstrates the mounting impact of trauma in Kenya and throughout the developing world.African relevance•This is a comprehensive description of the emergency centre at Kenya's largest public tertiary hospital•It adds to descriptions of trends of non-communicable and traumatic diseases in low- and middle-income countries•It describes epidemiology in Kenya, one of Africa's largest countries
       
  • Needs assessment for a formal emergency medicine residency program in
           southern Madagascar

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Gretchen Mockler, Rivo Andry Rakotoarivelo, Jaona Ranaivo, Rolando Valenzuela, Katherine Pierson, Dalia Calix, William Mallon IntroductionWorld Health Organization data for Madagascar reveal that the nation's under age five mortality rate is 56/1000, and that its maternal mortality rate is 440/100,000. Malaria, leprosy, plague, and tuberculosis remain significant communicable disease threats. Malnutrition rates are improving but continue to impact negatively on the general health of the Malagasy population, especially in the southern region with its 1.9 million inhabitants. There are no emergency medicine (EM) training programs to serve the southern half of Madagascar, which has a large urban population in Fianarantsoa. This study aimed to assess the need for and potential feasibility of an emergency medicine training program in southern Madagascar.MethodsWe met with the institutional leadership on site at the university hospital in Fianarantsoa. A needs assessment was performed on multiple domains. Domain 1: existing hospital infrastructure and its physical plant and emergency centre (EC) space allotment. Domain 2: existing clinical and technological resources. Domain 3: educational resources and the existing curriculum for EM. Domain 4: medical student educational program and availability of prospective residency candidates. Domain 5: pre-hospital care and emergency medical services.ResultsThe size of the EC is adequate for the current census. Clinical resources are typical of many developing countries, with significant need for technological advancement and support, which we delineate in the body of our paper. There is an existing curriculum in Antananarivo and in Majanga, as well as one available through the African Federation for Emergency Medicine. The medical school in the area is relatively new, with graduating classes numbering approximately 30. There is no organised pre-hospital care system, no 9-1-1 equivalent, and no pre-hospital treatment from within metropolitan Fianarantsoa.ConclusionsWhile the needs assessment indicates substantial need for emergency medicine development in southern Madagascar, the yield (particularly for the metropolitan Fianarantsoa area) would serve the population well.
       
  • Dissemination patterns of scientific abstracts presented at the first and
           second African Conference of Emergency Medicine

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 9, Issue 2Author(s): Marlin Abrams, Stevan R. Bruijns, Daniël J. van Hoving IntroductionEvidence based medicine is the standard of modern health care practices. Ongoing biomedical research is needed to expand existing knowledge and improve quality of care, but it needs to reach clinicians to drive change. Journal articles and conference presentations are dissemination tools. The aim of the study was to establish the publication rate of scientific abstracts presented at the first and second African Conference of Emergency Medicine. The secondary objectives were establishing non-publication dissemination and the factors associated with publication and non-publication. Determining non-publication dissemination patterns and the factors associated with reasons for publishing or non-publication were also investigated.MethodsPresenters of the 129 scientific abstracts from the first and second African Conference of Emergency Medicine were invited to participate in an online survey. The survey was followed by a manual literature search to identify published manuscripts of authors that did not complete the survey, to determine the most accurate publication rate.ResultsThirty-one presenters responded (24%), of which 18 published in a peer-reviewed journal. An additional 25 publications were identified by the literature search. The overall publication rate was 33.3% (26.9% from 2012 and 40.3% from 2014). Oral presentations were more likely to be published (p = 0.09). Sixteen manuscripts (37.2%) were published in the African Journal of Emergency Medicine. Presentations at local academic meetings were the most used platform beyond publication (43%). The main reason to publish was to add to the body of knowledge (100%), while lack of time (57%) was the major obstacle for not publishing.ConclusionThe overall publication rate for the first and second Africa Conferences of Emergency Medicine is comparable to other non-African Emergency Medicine conferences. The increasing publication trend between conferences might reflect the development of regional research capacity. Emergency Medicine providers in Africa need to be encouraged to participate in high quality, locally relevant research and to distribute those findings through accessible formats.
       
  • A prehospital randomised controlled trial in South Africa: Challenges and
           lessons learnt

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Willem Stassen, Lee Wallis, Maaret Castren, Craig Vincent-Lambert, Lisa Kurland The incidence of cardiovascular disease and STEMI is on the rise in sub-Saharan Africa. Timely treatment is essential to reduce mortality. Internationally, prehospital 12 lead ECG telemetry has been proposed to reduce time to reperfusion. Its value in South Africa has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prehospital 12 lead ECG telemetry on the PCI-times of STEMI patients in South Africa. A multicentre randomised controlled trial was attempted among adult patients with prehospital 12 lead ECG evidence of STEMI. Due to poor enrolment and small sample sizes, meaningful analyses could not be made. The challenges and lessons learnt from this attempt at Africa's first prehospital RCT are discussed. Challenges associated with conducting this RCT related to the healthcare landscape, resources, training of paramedics, rollout and randomisation, technology, consent and research culture. High quality evidence to guide prehospital emergency care practice is lacking both in Africa and the rest of the world. This is likely due to the difficulties with performing prehospital clinical trials. Every trial will be unique to the test intervention and setting of each study, but by considering some of the challenges and lessons learnt in the attempt at this trial, future studies might experience less difficulty. This may lead to a stronger evidence-base for prehospital emergency care.
       
  • A cross-sectional description of open access publication costs, policies
           and impact in emergency medicine and critical care journals

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Chante Dove, Teresa M. Chan, Brent Thoma, Damian Roland, Stevan R. Bruijns IntroductionFinding journal open access information alongside its global impact requires access to multiple databases. We describe a single, searchable database of all emergency medicine and critical care journals that include their open access policies, publication costs, and impact metrics.MethodsA list of emergency medicine and critical care journals (including citation metrics) was created using Scopus (Citescore) and the Web of Science (Impact Factor). Cost of gold/hybrid open access and article process charges (open access fees) were collected from journal websites. Self-archiving policies were collected from the Sherpa/RoMEO database. Relative cost of access in different regions were calculated using the World Bank Purchasing Power Parity index for authors from the United States, Germany, Turkey, China, Brazil, South Africa and Australia.ResultsWe identified 78 emergency medicine and 82 critical care journals. Median Citescore for emergency medicine was 0.73 (interquartile range, IQR 0.32–1.27). Median impact factor was 1.68 (IQR 1.00–2.39). Median Citescore for critical care was 0.95 (IQR 0.25–2.06). Median impact factor was 2.18 (IQR 1.73–3.50). Mean article process charge for emergency medicine was $2243.04, SD = $1136.16 and for critical care $2201.64, SD = $1174.38. Article process charges were 2.24, 1.75, 2.28 and 1.56 times more expensive for South African, Chinese, Turkish and Brazilian authors respectively than United States authors, but neutral for German and Australian authors (1.02 and 0.81 respectively). The database can be accessed here: http://www.emct.info/publication-search.html.ConclusionsWe present a single database that captures emergency medicine and critical care journal impact rankings alongside its respective open access cost and green open access policies.
       
  • Efficacy of nebulized fentanyl and low dose ketamine for pain control of
           patients with long bone fractures: A randomized, double-blind, clinical
           trial

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Mohammadreza Maleki Verki, Javad Mozafari, Fateme Tirandaz, Hassan Motamed, Afsane Khazaeli IntroductionFentanyl is a lipid soluble, highly potent opioid. The lipid solubility of fentanyl makes it an ideal opioid to be administrated by inhalation. The current study compared ketamine infusion and nebulized fentanyl in bone fracture pain relief.MethodsIn this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, patients aged 18 to 55 years who were admitted to the emergency department (ED) with limb fracture were recruited. A total of 127 patients were included in the study, 51.1% (65) of whom were male and 48.9% (62) of whom were female. The patients were divided equally into two groups: Group I received 100 cm3 IV infusion of normal saline and 4 μg/kg of 50 μg/ml nebulized fentanyl; Group II received 0.4 mg/kg ketamine in 10 min and 5 cm3 nebulized normal saline. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale just before treatment and 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min post-treatment.ResultsBefore intervention, the pain scores of both groups showed no significant difference. However, log linear analysis in both groups showed a significantly decrement during the follow up (60 min) (p 
       
  • The cost of time: A randomised, controlled trial to assess the economic
           impact of upfront, point-of-care blood tests in the Emergency Centre

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Lara Nicole Goldstein, Mike Wells, Craig Vincent-Lambert IntroductionTime and cost constraints abound in the Emergency Centre (EC). These resource-constraints are further magnified in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Almost half of all patients presenting to the EC require laboratory tests. Unfortunately, access to laboratory services in LMIC is commonly inadequate. Point-of-Care (POC) tests may assist to avert this shortcoming. The aims of this study were to evaluate the cost effectiveness of upfront POC blood tests performed prior to doctor assessment compared to the standard EC workflow.MethodsA secondary analysis was performed on data from a prospective, randomised, controlled trial where patients with abdominal/chest symptoms or generalised body pain/weakness followed either the normal EC workflow pathway or one of two enhanced workflow pathways with POC tests (i-STAT with and without a complete blood count (CBC)) prior to doctor evaluation. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was used to perform the cost effectiveness analysis.ResultsThere were 248 patients enrolled in the study. The use of the two upfront, POC test pathways significantly exceeded the primary outcome measure of a 20% reduction in treatment time. In the i-STAT + CBC group, the 31 min. time-saving translated into cost-saving of US$14.96 per patient (IECR 0.27) whereas the 21 min. time-saving in the i-STAT only group only had an additional net cost of US$3.11 per patient (IECR 0.90).ConclusionUpfront, POC blood tests can be utilised in the resource-constrained EC to manage patients more efficiently by saving time. This time-saving can, in fact, be more cost effective than traditional EC workflow making it an economically viable option for implementation in LMIC.
       
  • Utilisation of emergency blood in a cohort of South African emergency
           centres with no direct access to a blood bank

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): David Morris, Daniël van Hoving, Melanie Stander, Stevan Bruijns IntroductionThe transfusion of emergency blood is an essential part of haemostatic resuscitation. Locally, where direct access to a blood bank is limited, emergency blood is stored within emergency centres. It was previously suggested that stored blood provides inadequate volumes compared to what is needed. Minimal data are available regarding indications for emergency blood usage. We aimed to describe the utilisation of emergency blood in selected Cape Town emergency centres.Materials and methodsA cross-sectional study was carried out at three secondary level emergency centres (no blood bank), and one tertiary centre (with a blood bank). Data from emergency blood recipients were recorded over a three-month study period. Indications for transfusion, number of units and location of transfusion were recorded. Indications and usage location were described in numbers and proportions.ResultsA total of 329 emergency blood units were transfused to 210 patients. Trauma accounted for 39% (n = 81) of cases and other surgical conditions for 22% (n = 47), particularly upper gastrointestinal 11% (n = 24) and perioperative bleeding 8% (n = 16). Medical conditions accounted for 15% (n = 31), with anaemia 13% (n = 27), the most prevalent indication. Gynaecological conditions accounted for 15% (n = 32), mostly ectopic pregnancy 8% (n = 17). The majority of emergency blood, 77% (n = 253) were used in the emergency centres or operating theatres, 6% (n = 21).ConclusionTrauma remains a major indication for emergency blood transfusion in this setting. This study questions the use of emergency blood for certain non-urgent diagnoses (i.e. anaemia). Given the scarcity of this resource and limitations to access, appropriate use of emergency blood needs to be better defined locally. Ongoing monitoring of the indications for which emergency blood is used, improved transfusion stewardship and better systems to access emergency blood should be a priority in this setting.
       
  • The variables perceived to be important during patient handover by South
           African prehospital care providers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Andrew William Makkink, Christopher Owen Alexander Stein, Stevan Raynier Bruijns, Sean Gottschalk IntroductionHigh-acuity patients are typically transported directly to the emergency centre via ambulance by trained prehospital care providers. As such, the emergency centre becomes the first of many physical transition points for patients, where a change of care provider (or handover) takes place. The aim of this study was to describe the variables perceived to be important during patient handover by a cohort of South African prehospital care providers.MethodsA purpose-designed questionnaire was used to gather data related to prehospital emergency care provider opinions on the importance of certain patient variables.ResultsWe collected 175 completed questionnaires from 75 (43%) BAA, 49 (28%) ANA, 15 (9%) ECT, 16 (9%) ANT and 20 (11%) ECP respondents. Within the ten handover variables perceived to be most important for inclusion in emergency centre handover, five were related to vital signs. Blood pressure was ranked most important, followed by type of major injuries, anatomical location of major injuries, pulse rate, respiration rate and patient history. These were followed by Glasgow Coma Score, injuries sustained, patient priority, oxygen saturations and patient allergies.ConclusionThis study has provided some interesting results related to which handover elements prehospital care providers consider as most important to include in handover. More research is required to correlate these findings with the opinions of emergency centre staff.
       
  • Prognostic performance of ECG abnormalities compared to vital signs in
           acutely ill patients in a resource-poor hospital in Uganda

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Teopista Namujwiga, Immaculate Nakitende, John Kellett, Martin Opio, Alfred Lumala, on behalf of the Kitovu Hospital Study Group BackgroundThere are few reports of electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and their prognostic value in acutely ill patients admitted to low resource hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa.MethodsWe undertook an observational study of acutely ill medical patients admitted to a low-resource hospital in Uganda. Vital signs were used to calculate the National Early Warning Score (NEWS), and all ECGs were assessed using Tan et al.’s scoring system as described in Clin Cardiol 2009;32:82–86.ResultsThere were 1361 ECGs performed, covering 68% of all acutely ill medical patients admitted to the hospital during the study. The most common ECG abnormality was a prolonged QTc interval (42% of all patients) and left ventricular hypertrophy (13.5%). Compared to the 519 patients (38%) with no Tan score abnormality, the 842 (62%) patients with one or more abnormalities were more likely to die in hospital (OR = 2.82; CI95% = 1.50–5.36) and within 30 days of discharge (OR = 2.46; CI95% = 1.50–4.08). There was no relationship between age and mortality; however, after adjustment by logistic regression, any NEWS ≥1 on admission, a Tan score of ≥1, and male sex all remained clinically significant predictors of both in-hospital and 30-day mortality.DiscussionThe majority of acutely ill medical patients admitted in a low-resource hospital in sub-Saharan Africa had ECG abnormalities, of which prolonged QTc and left ventricular hypertrophy were most common. Those with any Tan score abnormality were twice as likely to die as those without an abnormality.
       
  • Triage live lecture versus triage video podcast in pre-hospital
           students’ education

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Hamidreza Aghababaeian, Ladan Araghi Ahvazi, Ahmad Mosavvi, Sadegh Ahmadi Mazhin, Noorollah Tahery, Mohsen Nouri, Maryam Kiarsi, Leila Kalani IntroductionTriage is the process of determining the priority of patients’ treatments based on the severity of their conditions. The aim of the present study was to survey the effect of triage video podcasting on the knowledge and performance of pre-hospital students.MethodsSixty pre-hospital students were randomly divided into two groups of a 30-subject control group and a 30-subject intervention group. A pre-test was administered among all students. Afterwards, for the first group, triage education was offered through lectures using PowerPoint, while for the second group, audio and video podcasts tailored for this training program were employed. Right after the training as well as one month later, post-tests were run for both groups, and the results were analysed using an independent t-test and covariance.ResultsNo significant difference was observed between the effects of both types of education on knowledge and performance, either immediately, or one month after training.DiscussionWe suggest that video podcasts are ready to replace traditional teaching methods in triage.
       
  • Waveform capnography in a South African prehospital service: Knowledge
           assessment of paramedics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Craig Wylie, Tyson Welzel, Peter Hodkinson BackgroundWaveform capnography has proven to be of great value in the provision of safe patient care especially in the intubated patient. Although seldom available, or used in African contexts, capnography has become standard practice in well-resourced out-of-hospital services for confirmation of intubation, and optimization of resuscitation and ventilation. To date there has been little research into the knowledge of out-of-hospital staff, both local and internationally, utilising capnography. This study describes the knowledge of paramedics who use waveform capnography in the out-of-hospital environment.MethodsA cohort of advanced life support qualified paramedics in a private ambulance service in South Africa undertook a web-based survey around their background, training and use of capnography. Participants’ knowledge was assessed by exploring their interpretation of waveform capnography and establishing attitudes pertaining to training and constraints of availability of capnography.ResultsSeventy eight paramedics responded, and most (91%) indicated they were likely to use capnography when the tool was available. The majority of training in capnography had been during their primary qualification (85%). Most participants indicated that they would like further training (91%). Use of capnography for confirmation of endotracheal tube placement and quality of compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation was well understood (correct in 94% and 84% respectively), while more complicated knowledge such as waveform changes during ventilation (66%) and the effect of hypovolaemia (48%) on capnography were lacking.ConclusionParamedics report using waveform capnography extensively when it is available in the South African out-of-hospital environment. Although the knowledge around capnography and its usage was found to be good in most areas, more complicated scenarios exposed flaws in the knowledge of many paramedics and suggest the need for improved and ongoing training, as well as incorporation into curricula as the field develops across the continent.
       
  • Pre-hospital intercostal chest drains in South Africa: A modified Delphi
           study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Enrico Dippenaar, Lee Wallis IntroductionTrauma is one of the most common causes of death in low- and middle-income countries, with thoracic injury accounting for 20–25% of these deaths worldwide. The current management of a life-threatening pre-hospital pneumothorax is with a needle chest decompression, however, definitive care for a pneumothorax and/or haemothorax is still the insertion of an intercostal chest drain. The aim of this study was to seek expert opinion and consensus on the placement of ICDs in the pre-hospital emergency care setting in South Africa.MethodsA three-round modified Delphi study was undertaken with an expert panel drawn from local emergency care experts consisting of physicians and emergency medical service practitioners. Participants supplied opinion statements in round 1 under headings derived from common emerging themes found in the literature. During round 2 participants used a 9-point Likert scale to rate their consensus on each statement and in round 3 they were able to change their position based on the earlier panel distributions. A consensus percentage of 60% was set within a narrow margin of ‘strongly agree’ or ‘strongly disagree’.ResultsA total of 22 experts took part as panel members. There were 123 opinion statements produced from round 1, of which 21 (17%) reached consensus in round 2. At the end of round 3 another four statements reached consensus, bringing the total up to 25 (20%).ConclusionDefinitive care of a life-threating pneumothorax and/or haemothorax must be sought emergently. The insertion of an ICD, under select conditions, may be required in the pre-hospital setting in South Africa.
       
  • Traumatic ocular lens dislocation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Jason Arthur, Brett Schubert, Stephen S. Topp IntroductionOcular lens dislocation is a relatively rare and difficult to diagnose disorder. Computed tomography often confirms the diagnosis, however may be unavailable in resource limited settings. Bedside ultrasound offers an alternative method of diagnosis which is rapid, inexpensive, and relatively easy.CaseA 59-year-old man presented with a complaint of decreased vision in his right eye after being assaulted. Exam was remarkable for decreased visual acuity and increased intraocular pressure. Maxillofacial and brain CT as well as bedside ultrasound demonstrated a posteriorly dislocated ocular lens. The patient’s intraocular pressures were medically managed and he was discharged with close follow-up with ophthalmology.ConclusionOcular lens dislocation may be easily diagnosed with ultrasound. Direction of lens dislocation dictates management, however posterior dislocations may be amenable to outpatient management.
       
  • Cochrane, evidence-based medicine and associated factors: A
           cross-sectional study of the experiences and knowledge of Ethiopian
           specialists in training

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Omar Abdulwadud, Aklilu Azazh, Amha Mekasha, Tigist Bacha Heye, Balkachew Nigatu, Finote Debebe, Haimanot Geremew Emiru IntroductionEvidence-based healthcare is a core competency for practicing healthcare practitioners and those in speciality training. In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the teaching of evidence-based medicine (EBM) in residency program. This survey evaluated the experiences and knowledge of Cochrane, EBM and associated factors among Ethiopian specialists in training.MethodsA convenient sample of trainee specialists completed a pretested self-administered survey. The majority (93%) were ≤30 years old, males (63%) and 41% in paediatrics speciality. The associations of categorical variables with EBM knowledge was assessed by Fisher’s exact or Chi-Square tests. Covariates contributing to EBM knowledge were identified using multivariate logistic regression analysis.ResultsEighty-three trainees participated in the survey (response rate 88.2%). About 75% have heard about Cochrane but no one recognized Cochrane South Africa. Only 25% of the trainees knew the Cochrane Library but none used it in clinical practice. Most (78%) have heard of EBM, 15% had attended EBM course, 96% wanted to attend EBM course and 81% had positive attitudes to EBM. Trainees EBM knowledge was associated with awareness of Cochrane [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 8.5, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 1.3–54.6, P = 0.02], EBM (AOR = 51.2, 95% CI 2.7–960.8, P = 0.009), and being in third year training (AOR = 28.4, 95% CI 1.9–427.2, P = 0.02). The promotion of EBM in residency hospital (AOR = 22.2, 95% CI 2.2–223.8, P = 0.008) and being aware of Cochrane (AOR = 4.8, 95% CI 1.1–21.7, P = 0.04) were predictors of positive attitude. Familiarity with Cochrane Library was influenced by EBM knowledge (AOR = 6.6, 95% CI 1.4–31.5, P = 0.02) and perceived organization barrier to accessing the resource (AOR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.03–10.1, P = 0.04).ConclusionEthiopian trainee specialists lacked formal EBM training, awareness and use of the Cochrane Library. To improve the healthcare quality and patient outcomes, EBM education should be integrated into residency curricula.
       
 
 
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