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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3161 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3161 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 97, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 419, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 268, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 407, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 353, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 465, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 222, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 185, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
African Journal of Emergency Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.296
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2211-419X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Trauma intensive care in a terror-ravaged, resource-constrained setting:
           Are we prepared for the emerging challenge'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): K.E. Amaefule, I.L. Dahiru, U.M. Sule, F.S. Ejagwulu, M.I. Maitama, A. Ibrahim IntroductionTrauma in developing countries has been on the increase, a situation perpetuated by rising road traffic collisions, terrorism and firearms proliferation. Some of the victims of trauma are left with life threatening conditions requiring urgent surgical intervention and/or intensive care. The objectives of this study were to determine the pattern of major trauma needing intensive care in the region, and to determine the outcome of major trauma admitted to intensive care unit.MethodsA six-year retrospective cohort study of trauma patients needing intensive care, set in the Intensive Care Unit of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, North-West Nigeria. Subjects were major trauma patients admitted into the intensive care unit of the institution, identified via an admission register kept in the unit. The main outcomes measured were length of stay and mortality.ResultsTrauma admissions represented 25.1% of the all intensive care admissions. Severe traumatic brain injury accounted for 32.1% of the trauma admissions, while burns accounted for 23.2%. Of the injuries, 15.5% were sustained in bomb blasts, and 8.3% were firearm injuries. The majority of the patients stayed for no more than seven days from admission. Burns patients had the worst outcomes, with 82.1% mortality.ConclusionMajor trauma contributes significantly to local intensive care admissions, with terrorism- related trauma now an emerging challenging cause of major trauma in our region. The observed poor outcomes in this study are a reflection of the quality of available intensive care, and lends credence to the concept of appropriately resourced, specialised intensive care units for optimisation of care.
       
  • Utilisation of emergency blood in a cohort of South African emergency
           centres with no direct access to a blood bank

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): David Morris, Daniël van Hoving, Melanie Stander, Stevan Bruijns IntroductionThe transfusion of emergency blood is an essential part of haemostatic resuscitation. Locally, where direct access to a blood bank is limited, emergency blood is stored within emergency centres. It was previously suggested that stored blood provides inadequate volumes compared to what is needed. Minimal data are available regarding indications for emergency blood usage. We aimed to describe the utilisation of emergency blood in selected Cape Town emergency centres.Materials and methodsA cross-sectional study was carried out at three secondary level emergency centres (no blood bank), and one tertiary centre (with a blood bank). Data from emergency blood recipients were recorded over a three-month study period. Indications for transfusion, number of units and location of transfusion were recorded. Indications and usage location were described in numbers and proportions.ResultsA total of 329 emergency blood units were transfused to 210 patients. Trauma accounted for 39% (n = 81) of cases and other surgical conditions for 22% (n = 47), particularly upper gastrointestinal 11% (n = 24) and perioperative bleeding 8% (n = 16). Medical conditions accounted for 15% (n = 31), with anaemia 13% (n = 27), the most prevalent indication. Gynaecological conditions accounted for 15% (n = 32), mostly ectopic pregnancy 8% (n = 17). The majority of emergency blood, 77% (n = 253) were used in the emergency centres or operating theatres, 6% (n = 21).ConclusionTrauma remains a major indication for emergency blood transfusion in this setting. This study questions the use of emergency blood for certain non-urgent diagnoses (i.e. anaemia). Given the scarcity of this resource and limitations to access, appropriate use of emergency blood needs to be better defined locally. Ongoing monitoring of the indications for which emergency blood is used, improved transfusion stewardship and better systems to access emergency blood should be a priority in this setting.
       
  • The variables perceived to be important during patient handover by South
           African prehospital care providers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Andrew William Makkink, Christopher Owen Alexander Stein, Stevan Raynier Bruijns, Sean Gottschalk IntroductionHigh-acuity patients are typically transported directly to the emergency centre via ambulance by trained prehospital care providers. As such, the emergency centre becomes the first of many physical transition points for patients, where a change of care provider (or handover) takes place. The aim of this study was to describe the variables perceived to be important during patient handover by a cohort of South African prehospital care providers.MethodsA purpose-designed questionnaire was used to gather data related to prehospital emergency care provider opinions on the importance of certain patient variables.ResultsWe collected 175 completed questionnaires from 75 (43%) BAA, 49 (28%) ANA, 15 (9%) ECT, 16 (9%) ANT and 20 (11%) ECP respondents. Within the ten handover variables perceived to be most important for inclusion in emergency centre handover, five were related to vital signs. Blood pressure was ranked most important, followed by type of major injuries, anatomical location of major injuries, pulse rate, respiration rate and patient history. These were followed by Glasgow Coma Score, injuries sustained, patient priority, oxygen saturations and patient allergies.ConclusionThis study has provided some interesting results related to which handover elements prehospital care providers consider as most important to include in handover. More research is required to correlate these findings with the opinions of emergency centre staff.
       
  • Prognostic performance of ECG abnormalities compared to vital signs in
           acutely ill patients in a resource-poor hospital in Uganda

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Teopista Namujwiga, Immaculate Nakitende, John Kellett, Martin Opio, Alfred Lumala, on behalf of the Kitovu Hospital Study Group BackgroundThere are few reports of electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and their prognostic value in acutely ill patients admitted to low resource hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa.MethodsWe undertook an observational study of acutely ill medical patients admitted to a low-resource hospital in Uganda. Vital signs were used to calculate the National Early Warning Score (NEWS), and all ECGs were assessed using Tan et al.’s scoring system as described in Clin Cardiol 2009;32:82–86.ResultsThere were 1361 ECGs performed, covering 68% of all acutely ill medical patients admitted to the hospital during the study. The most common ECG abnormality was a prolonged QTc interval (42% of all patients) and left ventricular hypertrophy (13.5%). Compared to the 519 patients (38%) with no Tan score abnormality, the 842 (62%) patients with one or more abnormalities were more likely to die in hospital (OR = 2.82; CI95% = 1.50–5.36) and within 30 days of discharge (OR = 2.46; CI95% = 1.50–4.08). There was no relationship between age and mortality; however, after adjustment by logistic regression, any NEWS ≥1 on admission, a Tan score of ≥1, and male sex all remained clinically significant predictors of both in-hospital and 30-day mortality.DiscussionThe majority of acutely ill medical patients admitted in a low-resource hospital in sub-Saharan Africa had ECG abnormalities, of which prolonged QTc and left ventricular hypertrophy were most common. Those with any Tan score abnormality were twice as likely to die as those without an abnormality.
       
  • Implementation and evaluation of an innovative leadership and teacher
           training program for non-physician emergency medicine practitioners in
           Uganda

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Mariel Colella, Mark Bisanzo, Carey Farquhar, Rashidah Nambaziira, Elizabeth Carter, Sarah Gimbel, Gabrielle O'Malley IntroductionLeadership and teaching skills are essential, but not often emphasized, components of medical training. As emergency care develops as a specialty in Uganda, two cadres of providers are being trained: physicians and non-physician clinicians (NPCs). Building formal leadership and educator training into these curricula is essential.MethodsA week long continuing education (CE) course on leadership and teaching is described and evaluated for effectiveness using Kirkpatrick’s framework for learner-centred outcomes. The emergency care trained NPCs participated in a week-long course consisting of lectures, role-playing, and small group discussions, as well as a personality self-assessment. The evaluation process consisted of: 1) an immediate post-course survey to measure learner satisfaction, 2) a retrospective, pre/post self-assessment with a Likert-type scoring tool to measure knowledge gains, and 3) a three-month follow up survey and structured interviews to measure knowledge retention and behaviour change in practice.ResultsAll 15 NPCs participated in the evaluation process. Learner satisfaction was high with an average score of 9.3 (on a 1–10 scale) for course content, amount learned, and use of time. Participants reported gains in knowledge for each of the 24 competencies measured, with an average difference in pre- and post-course Likert scores of 1.11 (on a scale of 1–5). Lastly, all 15 participants shared detailed examples of using course content in practice three months after the course finished. The most frequently mentioned themes were “giving and receiving feedback,” “delegating and assigning tasks,” and “communication.”ConclusionThis course was a successful CE intervention in this setting as measured by Kirkpatrick’s framework. The most frequently mentioned concepts used in practice point to the NPCs ability to take on leadership roles in this setting. Further research and evaluation methods should focus on the influence of culture and personalities on leadership education and translation into practice in an EM setting.
       
  • Mixed methods process evaluation of pilot implementation of the African
           Federation for Emergency Medicine trauma data project protocol in Ethiopia
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Adam D. Laytin, Aklilu Azazh, Biruk Girma, Finot Debebe, Lemlem Beza, Heyria Seid, Megan Landes, Julia Wytsma, Teri A. Reynolds IntroductionThe African Federation for Emergency Medicine Trauma Data Project (AFEM-TDP) has created a protocol for trauma data collection in resource-limited settings using a clinical chart with embedded standardized data points that facilitates a systematic approach to injured patients. We performed a process evaluation of the protocol’s implementation at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to provide insights for adapting the protocol to our setting.MethodsDuring the pilot implementation period, the quality of collected data was assessed. Structured key informant interviews about participant experiences and perceptions of the protocol implementation were then conducted. Interviews were analysed using a SWOT model.ResultsDuring pilot data collection, the overall capture rate was 21%. Variables collected with high frequency included demographics, vital signs and ED diagnosis, while mechanism of injury and ED disposition were often missed. Key informant interviews identified Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats to the protocol. Strengths included improved patient care, enhanced training for junior providers and facilitated data collection. Weaknesses included inadequate supervision and challenges relating to the physical size of the form, which resulted in missing data. Opportunities included retrospective research and quality improvement work. Threats included perceived lack of a local champion, poor buy-in from other hospital departments and need for ongoing financial support.ConclusionA mixed methods process evaluation is an invaluable tool when implementing novel data collection protocols, especially in resource-limited settings. We determined early successes and challenges of the implementation of the AFEM-TDP protocol and generated strategies to adapt the protocol to better suit our setting. Lessons from this process evaluation may be informative for other researchers designing and implementing similar data collection protocols.
       
  • Fatal Boomslang bite in the Northern Cape

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Hendrik Johannes Krüger, Franz Gustav Lemke IntroductionThe authors describe an atypical presentation after a Boomslang bite with rapid progression of symptoms and death.Case reportA young gentleman was bitten and rapidly decompensated before monovalent antivenom could be administered, with fatal results.ConclusionThis case highlights the importance of having monovalent Boomslang antivenom rapidly available in all referral centres that may be involved in the management of Boomslang bite victims.
       
  • Triage live lecture versus triage video podcast in pre-hospital
           students’ education

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Hamidreza Aghababaeian, Ladan Araghi Ahvazi, Ahmad Mosavvi, Sadegh Ahmadi Mazhin, Noorollah Tahery, Mohsen Nouri, Maryam Kiarsi, Leila Kalani IntroductionTriage is the process of determining the priority of patients’ treatments based on the severity of their conditions. The aim of the present study was to survey the effect of triage video podcasting on the knowledge and performance of pre-hospital students.MethodsSixty pre-hospital students were randomly divided into two groups of a 30-subject control group and a 30-subject intervention group. A pre-test was administered among all students. Afterwards, for the first group, triage education was offered through lectures using PowerPoint, while for the second group, audio and video podcasts tailored for this training program were employed. Right after the training as well as one month later, post-tests were run for both groups, and the results were analysed using an independent t-test and covariance.ResultsNo significant difference was observed between the effects of both types of education on knowledge and performance, either immediately, or one month after training.DiscussionWe suggest that video podcasts are ready to replace traditional teaching methods in triage.
       
  • Waveform capnography in a South African prehospital service: Knowledge
           assessment of paramedics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Craig Wylie, Tyson Welzel, Peter Hodkinson BackgroundWaveform capnography has proven to be of great value in the provision of safe patient care especially in the intubated patient. Although seldom available, or used in African contexts, capnography has become standard practice in well-resourced out-of-hospital services for confirmation of intubation, and optimization of resuscitation and ventilation. To date there has been little research into the knowledge of out-of-hospital staff, both local and internationally, utilising capnography. This study describes the knowledge of paramedics who use waveform capnography in the out-of-hospital environment.MethodsA cohort of advanced life support qualified paramedics in a private ambulance service in South Africa undertook a web-based survey around their background, training and use of capnography. Participants’ knowledge was assessed by exploring their interpretation of waveform capnography and establishing attitudes pertaining to training and constraints of availability of capnography.ResultsSeventy eight paramedics responded, and most (91%) indicated they were likely to use capnography when the tool was available. The majority of training in capnography had been during their primary qualification (85%). Most participants indicated that they would like further training (91%). Use of capnography for confirmation of endotracheal tube placement and quality of compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation was well understood (correct in 94% and 84% respectively), while more complicated knowledge such as waveform changes during ventilation (66%) and the effect of hypovolaemia (48%) on capnography were lacking.ConclusionParamedics report using waveform capnography extensively when it is available in the South African out-of-hospital environment. Although the knowledge around capnography and its usage was found to be good in most areas, more complicated scenarios exposed flaws in the knowledge of many paramedics and suggest the need for improved and ongoing training, as well as incorporation into curricula as the field develops across the continent.
       
  • The burden of road traffic injury among trauma patients in Ethiopia: A
           systematic review and meta-analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Aklilu Endalamaw, Yeneabat Birhanu, Animut Alebel, Amare Demsie, Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold BackgroundRoad traffic injury (RTI) is one of the main reasons for trauma-related admission in Ethiopian hospitals. Nationally representative data is needed to develop and implement the public health emergency management strategy. Therefore, this study was aimed to estimate the national pooled prevalence of RTI among trauma patients in Ethiopia.MethodsPubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), psycEXTRA, and Google Scholar databases were searched. Heterogeneity of studies was assessed using the I2 statistics. Publication bias was checked by using funnel plot and Egger’s regression test. The DerSimonian and Laird's random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence. Subgroup analysis was conducted by age and region. The trend of RTI estimated as well.ResultsThe pooled prevalence of RTI among trauma patients in Ethiopia was 31.5% (95% CI: 25.4%, 37.7%). Regional subgroup analysis showed that the pooled prevalence of RTI was 58.3% in the region of southern, nation, nationalities, and peoples (SNNPR) and 33.3% in Addis Ababa. Subgroup analysis based on patients age showed that the pooled prevalence of RTI was 51.7% in adults, 14.2% in children, and 32.6% in all age group. The time-trend analysis has shown an increasing burden of RTI in Ethiopian hospitals.ConclusionThe burden of RTI among trauma patients was high. Therefore, strengthening road safety management throughout the country is needed to reduce RTI.
       
  • Pre-hospital intercostal chest drains in South Africa: A modified Delphi
           study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Enrico Dippenaar, Lee Wallis IntroductionTrauma is one of the most common causes of death in low- and middle-income countries, with thoracic injury accounting for 20–25% of these deaths worldwide. The current management of a life-threatening pre-hospital pneumothorax is with a needle chest decompression, however, definitive care for a pneumothorax and/or haemothorax is still the insertion of an intercostal chest drain. The aim of this study was to seek expert opinion and consensus on the placement of ICDs in the pre-hospital emergency care setting in South Africa.MethodsA three-round modified Delphi study was undertaken with an expert panel drawn from local emergency care experts consisting of physicians and emergency medical service practitioners. Participants supplied opinion statements in round 1 under headings derived from common emerging themes found in the literature. During round 2 participants used a 9-point Likert scale to rate their consensus on each statement and in round 3 they were able to change their position based on the earlier panel distributions. A consensus percentage of 60% was set within a narrow margin of ‘strongly agree’ or ‘strongly disagree’.ResultsA total of 22 experts took part as panel members. There were 123 opinion statements produced from round 1, of which 21 (17%) reached consensus in round 2. At the end of round 3 another four statements reached consensus, bringing the total up to 25 (20%).ConclusionDefinitive care of a life-threating pneumothorax and/or haemothorax must be sought emergently. The insertion of an ICD, under select conditions, may be required in the pre-hospital setting in South Africa.
       
  • Traumatic ocular lens dislocation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Jason Arthur, Brett Schubert, Stephen S. Topp IntroductionOcular lens dislocation is a relatively rare and difficult to diagnose disorder. Computed tomography often confirms the diagnosis, however may be unavailable in resource limited settings. Bedside ultrasound offers an alternative method of diagnosis which is rapid, inexpensive, and relatively easy.CaseA 59-year-old man presented with a complaint of decreased vision in his right eye after being assaulted. Exam was remarkable for decreased visual acuity and increased intraocular pressure. Maxillofacial and brain CT as well as bedside ultrasound demonstrated a posteriorly dislocated ocular lens. The patient’s intraocular pressures were medically managed and he was discharged with close follow-up with ophthalmology.ConclusionOcular lens dislocation may be easily diagnosed with ultrasound. Direction of lens dislocation dictates management, however posterior dislocations may be amenable to outpatient management.
       
  • Cochrane, evidence-based medicine and associated factors: A
           cross-sectional study of the experiences and knowledge of Ethiopian
           specialists in training

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Omar Abdulwadud, Aklilu Azazh, Amha Mekasha, Tigist Bacha Heye, Balkachew Nigatu, Finote Debebe, Haimanot Geremew Emiru IntroductionEvidence-based healthcare is a core competency for practicing healthcare practitioners and those in speciality training. In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the teaching of evidence-based medicine (EBM) in residency program. This survey evaluated the experiences and knowledge of Cochrane, EBM and associated factors among Ethiopian specialists in training.MethodsA convenient sample of trainee specialists completed a pretested self-administered survey. The majority (93%) were ≤30 years old, males (63%) and 41% in paediatrics speciality. The associations of categorical variables with EBM knowledge was assessed by Fisher’s exact or Chi-Square tests. Covariates contributing to EBM knowledge were identified using multivariate logistic regression analysis.ResultsEighty-three trainees participated in the survey (response rate 88.2%). About 75% have heard about Cochrane but no one recognized Cochrane South Africa. Only 25% of the trainees knew the Cochrane Library but none used it in clinical practice. Most (78%) have heard of EBM, 15% had attended EBM course, 96% wanted to attend EBM course and 81% had positive attitudes to EBM. Trainees EBM knowledge was associated with awareness of Cochrane [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 8.5, 95% Confidence interval (CI) 1.3–54.6, P = 0.02], EBM (AOR = 51.2, 95% CI 2.7–960.8, P = 0.009), and being in third year training (AOR = 28.4, 95% CI 1.9–427.2, P = 0.02). The promotion of EBM in residency hospital (AOR = 22.2, 95% CI 2.2–223.8, P = 0.008) and being aware of Cochrane (AOR = 4.8, 95% CI 1.1–21.7, P = 0.04) were predictors of positive attitude. Familiarity with Cochrane Library was influenced by EBM knowledge (AOR = 6.6, 95% CI 1.4–31.5, P = 0.02) and perceived organization barrier to accessing the resource (AOR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.03–10.1, P = 0.04).ConclusionEthiopian trainee specialists lacked formal EBM training, awareness and use of the Cochrane Library. To improve the healthcare quality and patient outcomes, EBM education should be integrated into residency curricula.
       
  • Are “virtual” paediatric weight estimation studies valid'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Mike Wells, Lara Goldstein Introduction“Virtual” studies account for nearly one-third of all published weight estimation articles, but the validity of these virtual studies has never been evaluated. It is important to establish this validity in order to decide whether the results of these studies can be applied to real-world usage. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of virtual weight estimates using the Broselow and PAWPER tapes and compare these to actual real-life estimates from the tapes.MethodsVirtual weights were generated for the Broselow and PAWPER tapes using anthropometric data from a sample of 1385 children for whom actual Broselow and PAWPER tape weights were available. The accuracy of the virtual and real-life estimates was compared against each child’s actual weight. The agreement of the virtual and real estimates was also evaluated.ResultsThe percentage of weight estimates within 10% of actual weight were 57.9% and 59.3% for the real and virtual Broselow tapes respectively and 76.6% and 78.4% for the real and virtual PAWPER tapes respectively. The Cohen’s kappa for the real and virtual Broselow and PAWPER tapes was 0.65 and 0.64 respectively, which indicated substantial agreement.ConclusionsThe virtual and real weight estimates had very similar accuracy outcomes for both tapes in this study. However, if virtual studies are used, they should be followed by real-life studies in order to assess the impact of human and patient factor errors on the accuracy of the weight estimation systems.
       
  • Development of a nurse-led tranexamic acid administration protocol for
           trauma patients in rural South Africa

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2019Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Christopher Wearmouth, Jacob Smith IntroductionAdministration of tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to effectively reduce all-cause mortality in trauma patients when given within three hours of injury. We found that many trauma patients in our hospital were not receiving TXA. This was due to a variety of factors, including late presentation to hospital, lack of staff awareness, short staffing, and unavailable drugs or equipment. Our aim was to develop a protocol for safe, nurse-led administration of TXA in the emergency centre in order to increase the number of eligible patients treated.MethodsWe developed a protocol based on the inclusion criteria of the CRASH-2 study, opting to use physiological observations along with criteria from the South African Triage Scale to allow nursing staff to identify patients with, or at risk of, significant haemorrhage. We tailored the protocol to the equipment and training available in our poorly resourced rural healthcare setting.ResultsIn a two-month period, 14 patients were given TXA by nurses before the arrival of a doctor. 13/14 (92.9%) were deemed appropriate, with 1/14 (7.1%) deemed inappropriate due to the time since injury. 12/13 (92.3%) patients received the correct infusion dose, with 1/13 (7.7%) only receiving the infusion once the doctor arrived. No adverse events were reported.ConclusionsNursing staff in resource poor rural settings can use a protocol based on the South African Triage Scale and the CRASH-2 study to safely administer TXA to trauma patients. We believe this to be the first published literature on nurse-led administration of TXA. Mortality from trauma may be reduced in rural settings by the timely administration of TXA in the prehospital and rural primary healthcare settings.
       
  • Modified Delphi study to determine optimal data elements for inclusion in
           a pilot violence and injury observatory in Cape Town, South Africa

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Ardil Jabar, Shane Bjorkman, Richard Matzopoulos IntroductionViolence and injury observatories (VIOs) are primarily a tool to aid safety and security stakeholders within both governments and non-governmental organisations to develop interventions focused on violence prevention and related to citizen safety issues. VIOs are centres that focus on collating and integrating violence-related injury data sources to monitor, evaluate, and study the progression of violence and crime in a targeted region. In preparation for implementing a pilot VIO in Cape Town, we sought to determine the optimal indicators, datasets and research priorities for inclusion.MethodsThe study employed a two-round Delphi study conducted via email. The Delphi panel constituted 21 participants. This included, but was not limited, to senior members of staff in the Provincial Health Services in Emergency Medicine and Disaster Medicine, representatives from relevant data stakeholders and non-government actors working in violence reduction.ResultsFourteen violence-related indicators and 12 violence-related datasets reached consensus. Additionally, research priorities were identified within 16 research themes across five different types of violence: elder abuse, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and armed violence. Finally, four data-sharing questions raised by panellists after round one were answered by the Delphi panel following the second round.DiscussionThis study provides a research priority framework for violence and injury prevention work within South Africa. These expert-identified violence and injury indicators and datasets are context-appropriate and may serve to guide the development of additional VIOs within the region.
       
  • Cola therapy for oesophageal food bolus impactions a case series

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Eva P. Baerends, Tom Boeije, Anna Van Capelle, Nieke E. Mullaart-Jansen, Michael D. Burg, Albert J. Bredenoord IntroductionThis retrospective case series describes the use of cola to immediately treat complete oesophageal food bolus obstructions in the emergency centre. Short of emergent endoscopy – which is invasive, expensive, not without adverse events, and often unavailable in low-resource settings – no other proven therapies exist to relieve oesophageal food impactions.MethodsWe performed a chart review of adults with complete oesophageal food bolus obstructions presenting to two Dutch emergency centres. Our primary outcome was cola’s success rate in resolving the obstruction. Our secondary outcome was adverse event occurrence.ResultsWe identified 22 cola interventions in 19 patients, the majority of whom (77.3%) were male. The median age was 59 years (IQR 29–73). All presentations were due to meat impaction. Endoscopy revealed relevant upper gastrointestinal pathology in 54.5%. When initiated in the emergency centre, cola successfully resolved 59% of complete oesophageal obstructions. No adverse events were reported in patients successfully treated with cola.DiscussionWhile keenly aware of our retrospective study’s limitations, we found a promising success rate for cola as an acute intervention for oesophageal food bolus impactions. We registered no adverse events attributable to cola. Also, given that cola is cheap, widely available and seemingly safe we believe it can be considered in patients with oesophageal obstructions due to food, either as pre-endoscopy treatment or in case endoscopy is not available at all. We think our findings provide an impetus for prospective research on this intervention.
       
  • Procedural sedation and analgesia practices in the emergency centre

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Delecia K. Wood-Thompson, Callistus O.A. Enyuma, Abdullah E. Laher IntroductionProcedural sedation and analgesia allows the clinician to safely and efficiently administer sedation, analgesia, anxiolysis and sometimes amnesia to facilitate the performance of various procedures in the emergency centre. The aim of this study is to determine current sedation practices, common indications and major obstacles in selected emergency centres across Southern Gauteng, South Africa, with a view to improving future standards and practices.MethodsThis was a prospective, questionnaire based, cross-sectional interview of emergency centre managers or their designee of selected private-sector and public-sector hospitals in Southern Gauteng.ResultsOverall, 17 hospitals completed the interview, nine (53%) public-sector and eight (47%) private-sector hospitals, with 36% of hospitals being aligned to an academic institute. All hospitals performed procedural sedation in their emergency centre. Forty seven percent of managers had between ten and 19 years of clinical experience post internship. Although eleven (64.7%) managers achieved a postgraduate qualification in emergency medicine, only seven (41%) were accredited with a Fellowship of the College of Emergency Medicine (FCEM) qualification and only three (17.7%) centres employed three or more specialists. The majority of centres (52.3%) performed between ten and 30 procedures per month requiring sedation. Staff training in the practice of procedural sedation was mostly obtained internally (52.9%), from in-house seniors. Essential drugs, procedure monitors, resuscitation equipment and protocols were all available in 70.6% of centres.ConclusionAlthough the safe practice and awareness of procedural sedation and analgesia in both public-sector and private-sector emergency centres in Southern Gauteng appears to be on the increase, there is still a need to enhance practitioner training and promote awareness of current local and international trends, protocols and recommendations.
       
  • Developing a South African Helicopter Emergency Medical Service Activation
           Screen (SAHAS): A Delphi study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Diane Laatz, Tyson Welzel, Willem Stassen IntroductionHelicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) are an expensive resource that should be utilised efficiently to optimise the cost-benefit ratio. This is especially true in resource-limited settings, such as South Africa. This may be achieved by implementing call-out criteria that are most appropriate to the healthcare system in which HEMS operate. Currently, there are no published evidence-based HEMS call-out criteria developed for South Africa. By identifying patients that are most likely to benefit from HEMS, their utilisation can be enhanced and adjusted to ensure optimal patient outcome. We aimed to systematically utilise expert opinions to reach consensus on HEMS call-out criteria that are contextual to the South African setting.MethodsA modified Delphi technique was used to develop call-out criteria, using current literature as the basis of the study. Purposive, snowball sampling was employed to identify a sample of 118 participants locally and internationally, of which 42 participated for all three rounds. Using an online survey platform, binary agreement/disagreement with each criterion was sought. Acceptable consensus was set at 75%. Statements were sent out in the third round ascertaining whether participants agreed with the analysis of the first two rounds.ResultsAfter two rounds, consensus was obtained for 63% (36/57) of criteria, while 64% of generated statements received consensus in the third round. Results emphasised the opinion that HEMS dispatch criteria relating to patient condition and incident locations were preferential to a comprehensive list. Through collation of these results and international literature, we present an initial concept for a South African HEMS Activation Screen (SAHAS), favouring inquiry on a case-by-case basis.DiscussionThe combination of existing literature and participant opinions, established that call-out criteria are most efficient when based on clinical parameters and geographic considerations, as opposed to a specified list of criteria. The initial concept of our SAHAS should be investigated further.
       
  • Acute mesenteric ischaemia: A case of expedited diagnosis and management
           using point-of-care ultrasound

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Jill Crosby, Dagmawi Werku, Tigist Zewdu, Grace Wanjiku, Jessica Schmidt IntroductionThe term acute abdomen refers to a clinical syndrome of sudden onset, severe abdominal pain. The differential diagnosis for this presentation is broad, but most cases require emergent medical or surgical management. Especially in cases of ischaemic bowel, time to diagnosis can mean the difference between survival and death. As a result, mortality remains high in resource-limited settings.Case reportWe describe the case of a 28-year-old male who presented to an urban Ethiopian emergency centre with three days of vomiting, bloody diarrhoea, and abdominal pain. He collapsed in triage with weak pulses and an undetectable blood pressure. Point-of-care ultrasound revealed a hyperechoic, mobile mass in the left ventricle of the heart. Small bowel dilation and thickening was visualised throughout the abdomen. Mesenteric ischaemia was rapidly identified as the working diagnosis, prompting early surgical consultation and aggressive, goal-directed resuscitation.DiscussionShort of elucidating a definitive diagnosis, ultrasound narrowed the focus of an undifferentiated presentation and supported mobilisation for exploratory laparotomy. Ultimately, this circumvented several hours of time which is conventionally required to obtain computed tomography at this institution. As demonstrated in this case, point-of-care ultrasound can be life-saving in resource-limited settings where acquisition time for definitive imaging is often prohibitive.
       
  • African Federation for Emergency Medicine’s Francophone Working
           Group – May 2018 Report

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 8, Issue 3Author(s): Müller M Mundenga, Ken Diango, Gabin Mbanjumucyo, Diulu Kabongo, Andrea G Tenner Even though the African Federation for Emergency Medicine (AFEM) has been successfully developing emergency care in Africa for the past nine years, a considerable amount of potential AFEM members from the African-Francophone countries are not able to access AFEM resources. In response, an AFEM Francophone Working Group has been created to coordinate all existing and new initiatives to promote emergency care in African-Francophone countries.
       
  • The case for investing in public health surveillance in low- and
           middle-income countries

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Kidist K. Bartolomeos Surveillance is central to public health. In the absence of comparable data from most low-income and middle-income countries, national and international agencies use estimates to monitor health targets. Although morbidity and mortality estimations generated by statistical modelling can fulfill national and global reporting requirements, locally generated data are needed to guide evidence-based local action. The focus on measurement around the sustainable development goals provides an opportunity for WHO and the global health community to make a case for increased investment by governments to strengthen local surveillance systems.
       
  • Chronic kidney disease in the emergency centre: A prospective
           observational study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Babawale Taslim Bello, Olalekan Ezekiel Ojo, Olapeju Funke Oguntunde, Adedotun Ademola Adegboye IntroductionLate presentation, usually to the emergency centre (EC), is frequently reported among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in resource-limited settings, and is known to be associated with poor outcomes. This study aims to describe the pattern of EC presentation of adults with CKD in Southwest Nigeria.MethodsThis was a prospective observational study of 158 consecutively presenting CKD patients at the EC of two tertiary hospitals in Southwest Nigeria. Patients 18 years of age or older who were admitted into the EC at either study site with an admitting diagnosis of CKD and who consented to participate in the study were recruited. Socio-demographic characteristics, primary reason(s) for admission into the EC, requirement for dialysis, as well as the indication for dialysis were documented. The patients were followed-up for the duration of their stay in the EC and the outcome of EC admission documented.ResultsOverall, 54 (34.2%) were females, median age was 49 years and 74.1% were not known to have CKD prior to EC admission. The commonest indications for admission into the EC were uraemia, sepsis and hypertensive crisis, with 73.4% of the patients having at least one indication for dialysis at EC admission. The commonest indications for dialysis were uraemia, marked azotaemia and acute pulmonary oedema. The median time to first session of dialysis was 48 h and 24.1% of patients who required dialysis were not dialysed. Death during the period of EC admission occurred in 14 (8.9%) patients all of whom were not previously known to have CKD.DiscussionThere is a large pool of undiagnosed CKD among the general population. In many of these, the diagnosis will likely be made only when they present to the EC with complications. Late diagnosis is associated with worse outcomes.
       
  • Is there an association between central venous pressure measurement and
           ultrasound assessment of the inferior vena cava'

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): J. Govender, I. Postma, D. Wood, W. Sibanda IntroductionEarly assessment of volume status is paramount in critically ill patients. Central venous pressure (CVP) measurement and ultrasound assessment of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are both used for volume assessment in the emergency centre. Recent data is conflicting over whether there is a correlation between CVP and ultrasound assessment of the IVC.MethodsThis was a retrospective review of an audit previously performed in the Emergency Unit of Ngwelezane Hospital in Kwazulu-Natal. The audit involved measuring inferior vena cava collapsibility index (IVC-CI) within 5 min of CVP measurement. In this retrospective study, audit data were analysed to determine if an association exists.ResultsTwenty-four patients were included. The median age of participants was 36 (IQR 42) years (95% CI 33–56). The median time to ultrasound was 18.6 (52.5) h (95% CI 7.5–36.2). The mean CVP was 13.7 ± 7.7 cm H2O and mean IVC-CI was 39.4 ± 17.8%. Based on a Pearson correlation test, there was a weak negative correlation between CVP and IVC-CI, which was not statistically significant (r = −0.05, n = 24, p = 0.81, 95% CI −0.5 to 0.4) for all participants. However, among females there was a moderate negative correlation between CVP and IVC-CI, which was not statistically significant (r = −0.43, n = 7, p = 0.34, 95% CI −0.9 to 0.5), while among males there was a weak positive correlation, which was not statistically significant (r = 0.16, n = 17, p = 0.53, 95% CI −0.3 to 0.6).DiscussionThere is no significant correlation between CVP and IVC-CI. Further validation research is required to support our preliminary findings of no significant correlation between CVP measurement and ultrasound assessment of the IVC. CVP and IVC ultrasound should be used as clinical adjuncts, and not as stand-alone measures of volume assessment.
       
  • A descriptive analysis of endotracheal intubation in a South African
           Helicopter Emergency Medical Service

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Willem Stassen, Alastair Lithgow, Craig Wylie, Christopher Stein IntroductionHelicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) exists to supplement the operations of ground-based emergency care providers, mainly in high acuity cases. One of the important procedures frequently carried out by HEMS personnel is endotracheal intubation. Several HEMS providers exist in South Africa, with a mix of advanced life support personnel, however intubation success rates and adverse events have not been described in any local HEMS operation.MethodsThis was a retrospective chart review of intubation-related data collected by a HEMS operation based in Johannesburg over a 16-month period. First-pass and overall success rates were described, in addition to perceived airway difficulty, adverse events and other data.ResultsOf the 49 cases recorded in the study period, one was excluded leaving 48 cases for analysis. Most cases (n = 34, 71%) involved young male trauma patients who were intubated with rapid sequence intubation. The first pass success rate was 79% (n = 38) with an overall success rate of 98% (n = 47). At least one factor suggesting airway difficulty was present in 29% (n = 14) of cases, with most perceived airway difficulty related to the high prevalence of trauma cases. At least one adverse event occurred in 27% (n = 13) of cases with hypoxaemia, hypotension and bradycardia most prevalent.DiscussionIn this small sample of South African HEMS intubation cases, we found overall and first-pass success rates comparable to those reported in similar contexts.
       
  • Left pulmonary artery bullet embolism following a penetrating cardiac
           gunshot injury

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Anjana Bairagi, Timothy C. Hardcastle, David J.J. Muckart IntroductionBullet emboli occur when bullets migrate from an entry point to an abnormal endpoint via blood vessels or bowel. Most result from low-velocity, small calibre civilian gunshots. Although rare, when it does occur, it commonly embolises to the arterial system. Many times, these are amenable to removal and recovery.Case reportWe present a case of a haemodynamically unstable polytrauma patient with a pulmonary artery projectile embolus following a penetrating trans-thoracic cardiac gunshot wound.ConclusionA brief overview of the literature regarding bullet emboli is provided in light of this unusual case, focusing specifically on thoracic bullet emboli. A high index of suspicion should be raised when the number of entry and exit wounds are incongruent, bullet location does not align with anticipated trajectory, or serial radiographs demonstrate missile migration. Radiological evaluation and bullet retrieval are dependent on haemodynamic stability of the patient.
       
  • Intraoperative awareness and experience with a ketamine-based anaesthesia
           package to support emergency and essential surgery when no anaesthetist is
           available

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Sarah Villegas, Sebastian Suarez, Joseph Owuor, Gabriella M. Wuyke, Brett D. Nelson, Javan Imbamba, Debora Rogo, Khama Rogo, Thomas F. Burke IntroductionFive of the 7.2 billion people on earth have limited access to emergency and essential surgical procedures. The lack of safe, affordable and timely anaesthesia services are primary barriers to universal surgical coverage. The objective of this study was to assess intraoperative awareness when the ‘Every Second Matters for Emergency and Essential Surgery – Ketamine’ (ESM-Ketamine) package was used to support emergency and essential surgeries and painful procedures in rural Kenya when no anaesthetist was available.MethodsForty-seven consecutive adult patients that underwent an operative procedure under ESM-Ketamine at Sagam Community Hospital in Luanda, Kenya were enrolled. Participants underwent two semi-structured interviews that explored the patient’s experience with ESM-Ketamine both after the operative procedure and four to six weeks after surgery.ResultsForty-seven participants completed the first interview and 37 (78.7%) the second interview. Thirty-seven (78.7%) cases were procedural sedations and ten were (21.3%) emergency surgeries. Intraoperative awareness occurred in nine (24.3%) participants who underwent procedural sedation and two (20%) who underwent emergency surgery. Twenty-six (55.3%) participants reported dreams during the procedure. Thirty-two (86.5%) participants considered their experience positive, and 35 (95%) would recommend a procedure supported by ketamine to a friend.DiscussionMost patients whose painful procedures and emergency operations were supported by the ESM-Ketamine package when no anaesthetist was available reported favourable experiences.
       
  • The burden on emergency centres to provide care for critically ill
           patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Menbeu Sultan, Gelila Mengistu, Finot Debebe, Aklilu Azazh, Indi Trehan IntroductionGiven the scarcity of critical care hospital beds in Africa, emergency centres (ECs) are increasingly charged with caring for critically ill patients for extended periods of time. The objective of this study was to improve the understanding of the nature and outcomes of critically ill patients with prolonged treatment times of more than six hours in two ECs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.MethodsThis study was conducted over three months in two ECs of urban tertiary care hospitals in Addis Ababa. Structured questionnaires were completed by six emergency and critical care nurses. EC patients were included if they met the Society for Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) intensive care unit (ICU) admission criteria and stayed in the EC for more than 6 h. We collected initial demographic and clinical information, data about the patients’ clinical course in the EC, and data regarding the patients’ disposition. We used descriptive statistics for analysis.ResultsA total of 291 patients, over the course of three months, had an EC stay that exceeded six hours. The median length of stay for these patients was 48 h (interquartile range: 25–72 h). The most common categories of illness were neurological disease in 87 patients (30%) and cardiovascular disease in 61 patients (21%). The most frequent aetiologies of critical illness were severe head trauma and severe sepsis with multi-organ failure (26 patients, 9% each). A total of 94 patients (32%) died in the EC, while 86 (30%) were discharged directly from the EC without hospital admission.DiscussionECs in Addis Ababa face a heavy burden in caring for a large number of critically ill patients over a long period of time, with relatively high mortality rates. These findings should promote supporting emergency centres to strengthen and expand ICU capacity to provide appropriate critical care services.
       
  • Emergency health education in a conflict stricken environment: A
           situational analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Ivy Muya, Joanne Garside, Marco Van-der Plas, Mohammed Ali Mohammed IntroductionBosasso General Hospital is located in Puntland Somalia, an area affected by prolonged civil conflict, terrorism, clan fighting and piracy. International evidence highlights that staff skills and competence may have a significant impact on patient outcomes however there has been little research on emergency education in such an austere and volatile environment. The purpose of this study therefore was to identify current practices and gaps in delivering emergency medicine education in this resource-deprived environment.MethodsA mixed methods approach was adopted to inform convergent parallel data collection techniques including questionnaire (n = 16), key informant (n = 5) and focus group interviews (n = 16). Data analysis, following data triangulation, produced descriptive quantitative statistics of themes such as emergency care, educational provision, enablers and barriers.ResultsThe research showed that among health care staff at the hospital, 19% of the nurses felt that visiting nurses offer some knowledge on emergency care, while 38% of knowledge was gained from visiting doctors. Regarding knowledge of emergency medicine, 88.9% of the nurses felt that emergency medicine is basically first aid.DiscussionEmergency care was perceived by the majority as essentially ‘first aid’. Many indicated that they received little or no regular or formal training on emergency care and related essential topics. In terms of challenges faced in delivering emergency care education demonstrated a common factor in the limited resources available which included lack of teaching materials, reading materials, online resources, health care professionals, equipment and mentors. Conclusions drawn suggest that the knowledge of emergency medicine by front line professionals is limited. Therefore, the development of field curricula, practical and theoretical training by visiting practitioners, provision of additional teaching aids, tools and equipment, integration of multiple disciplines in training and financial resource mobilisation would be beneficial in improving knowledge, attitudes and practices of emergency care.
       
  • A cross-sectional survey of burnout amongst doctors in a cohort of public
           sector emergency centres in Gauteng, South Africa

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Suma Rajan, Andreas Engelbrecht IntroductionWorking in emergency care is commonly regarded as highly stressful. This is also true in the African setting characterised by high patient loads and limited resources. As in other similarly demanding occupations, burnout can be anticipated. The aim of this study was to examine the level of burnout amongst doctors in a cohort of public sector emergency centres in Gauteng, South Africa.MethodsAn observational, cross-sectional design was employed, using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (which has been tested and validated in similar settings elsewhere). The study included a cohort of doctors working in the emergency centres of public sector hospitals in Gauteng, South Africa.ResultsOne hundred participants completed the questionnaire out of a possible 124 doctors working at the five centres. Ninety-three met the inclusion criteria and was further analysed. Seven respondents were specialist emergency physicians (7.5%), 36 were emergency medicine registrars (38.7%) and 50 were medical officers (53.8%). Fifty one respondents were female (55.0%). Analysis of burnout component scores showed a mean emotional exhaustion score of 31.69 (standard deviation, SD = 10.32), with 62 respondents (66.7%) in the high-risk group – from 86 (92.5%) at moderate to high risk. The mean de-personalisation score was 13.39 (SD = 6.21), with 50 respondents (53.8%) in the high-risk group – from 75 (80.7%) at moderate to high risk of burnout. The mean personal accomplishment score was 34.87 (SD = 6.54), with 21 respondents (22.6%) in the high-risk group – from 65 (69.9%) at moderate to high risk of burnout.DiscussionThe results indicate that a large proportion of the doctors who work in these emergency centres are at moderate to high risk of burnout. Based on our findings we recommend that interventions be introduced at the work place to reduce burnout in doctors and improve their mental well-being. This will ensure better service delivery to patients with emergencies. Further research into the causes of occupational burnout should be explored.
       
  • A low fidelity eye model for lateral canthotomy training

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Rodrigo Kong, Dersim Pascal Kaya, Eric Cioe-Pena, Josh Greenstein We introduce a low-fidelity, low-cost, reusable training model for the lateral canthotomy procedure. We believe that this trainer has the potential to improve clinicians’ knowledge and skill of the procedure, especially when cost or access to higher-fidelity trainers is prohibitive.
       
  • A description of the self-perceived educational needs of emergency nurses
           in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2018Source: African Journal of Emergency MedicineAuthor(s): Reka Dulandas, Petra Brysiewicz IntroductionEmergency nurses are usually the first to interact with critically ill patients and victims of violence and injuries, and require advanced skills and knowledge to manage such patients. Inadequate training prevents nurses from providing optimal emergency care, and it is important to investigate if there are any skills and competencies lacking in these emergency nurses. We sought to describe the self-perceived educational needs of emergency nurses in Durban, South Africa.MethodsA descriptive quantitative survey was conducted with nurses working in four emergency centres (two state, and two privately funded hospitals) in Durban, South Africa.ResultsThe survey questionnaire was distributed with a response rate of 79% (n = 128). Almost half the respondents (48%, n = 61) scored less than the mean score of 29, thus indicating lower competency levels. The majority of respondents (67%, n = 85) perceived themselves as highly competent in basic skills (e.g. assess breathing, administer oxygen, assess circulation). Less than half the respondents (45%, n = 57) perceived themselves as highly competent in the intermediate skills (e.g. control haemorrhage, assist with endotracheal intubation, manage shock). A large number of respondents (46%, n = 59) perceived themselves as least competent in advanced skills (e.g. defibrillation/cardioversion, interpreting an echocardiogram [ECG]). The mean score obtained for educational need was 100, thus reflecting a high educational need, and more than half the respondents (62%, n = 79) scored higher than the mean score of 100 for educational needs. The lowest score was 41. Thirty percent (n = 38) of the respondents scored 117, indicating educational needs for all the competencies listed. Overall, 72% (n = 92) agreed that emergency education was a need.DiscussionThe study emphasises the need for support systems for educational development of emergency nurses. Further training in specific skills and competencies may enhance emergency care provided. There is a growing need for ongoing educational development of emergency nurses in South Africa.
       
 
 
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