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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3162 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3162 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 95, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 411, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 395, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 340, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 448, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 192, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 2173-5786
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Role of imaging techniques in the diagnosis and follow-up of
           muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)Author(s): A. Mesa, E. Nava, A. Fernández del Valle, B. Argüelles, R. Menéndez- del Llano, S. Sal de Rellán IntroductionMuscle-invasive bladder malignancies represent 20–30% of all bladder cancers. These patients require imaging tests to determine the regional and distant staging.ObjectiveTo describe the role of various imaging tests in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. To assess recent developments in radiology aimed at improving the sensitivity and specificity of local staging and treatment response.Acquisition of evidenceWe conducted an updated literature review.Synthesis of the evidenceComputed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the tests of choice for performing proper staging prior to surgery. Computed tomography urography is currently the most widely used technique, although it has limitations in local staging. Ultrasonography still has a limited role.Recent developments in MRI have improved its capacity for local staging. MRI has been suggested as the test of choice for the follow-up, with promising results in assessing treatment response.Positron emission tomography could improve the detection of adenopathies and extrapelvic metastatic disease.ConclusionsImaging tests are essential for the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Recent technical developments represent important improvements in local staging and have opened the possibility of assessing treatment response.ResumenIntroducciónLas neoplasias vesicales con invasión muscular suponen un 20-30% del total. En estos pacientes se requiere la realización de pruebas de imagen para determinar la estadificación local y a distancia.ObjetivoDescribir el papel de las diferentes pruebas de imagen en el diagnóstico, estadificación y seguimiento del cáncer vesical músculo-invasivo. Evaluar los últimos avances en radiología orientados a mejorar la sensibilidad y especificidad de la estadificación local y la respuesta al tratamiento.Adquisición de la evidenciaSe ha realizado una revisión actualizada de la bibliografía.Síntesis de la evidenciaLa tomografía computarizada y la resonancia magnética son las pruebas de imagen de elección para realizar una adecuada estadificación previa a la cirugía. La tomografía computarizada con fase de urografía es la técnica más empleada actualmente, aunque presenta limitaciones en la estadificación local. La ecografía continúa teniendo un papel limitado.Los últimos avances en resonancia magnética han mejorado su capacidad para la estadificación local y se postula como prueba de elección en el seguimiento, con resultados prometedores en la valoración de respuestas al tratamiento.La tomografía por emisión de positrones podría mejorar la detección de adenopatías y de enfermedad metastásica extrapélvica.ConclusionesLas pruebas de imagen son fundamentales en el diagnóstico, estadificación y seguimiento del cáncer vesical músculo-invasivo. Los últimos avances técnicos han supuesto una importante mejora en la estadificación local y abren la posibilidad de valorar respuestas al tratamiento.
       
  • National recommendations document on the follow-up of patients with renal
           cell carcinoma
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018Source: Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition), Volume 42, Issue 6Author(s): Á. Juárez, J.L. Álvarez-Ossorio, J. Carballido, R. Llarena, R. Medina, J. Moreno, E. Sánchez, F. Vázquez, J.M. Cózar ObjectivesThis document was developed to establish directives for the follow-up of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) based on the best available scientific evidence and on expert opinions, which can help urologists in the decision-making process and standardize the criteria at the national level.Material and methodsThe methodology is based on the RAND/UCLA method. A panel of 9 experts on RCC participated in designing a thematic index, identifying and reading the available evidence, formulating recommendations and drafting the content. A validating group of 25 experts, who did not participate in the previous phases, assessed the recommendations through anonymous voting in a face-to-face consensus meeting. The recommendations that were agreed upon by 75% or more of the participants in this vote were accepted as consensus. The recommendations that did not achieve this consensus were rejected.ResultsA total of 25 recommendations were accepted as consensus. These recommendations cover the laboratory tests, clinical assessment tests and imaging tests that should be performed for patients with RCC. The presented recommendations have been adapted according to relapse risk. The current document also outlines the frequency and duration of follow-up for each patient profile.ConclusionsThe current document enables standardization of the follow-up criteria for patients with RCC treated in the Spanish healthcare setting, according to the patients’ relapse risk.ResumenObjetivosEste documento se ha desarrollado con el objetivo de establecer unas directrices para el seguimiento de los pacientes con carcinoma de células renales (CCR), basadas en la mejor evidencia científica disponible y en la opinión de expertos, que puedan facilitar a los urólogos la toma de decisiones, así como una normalización de criterios a nivel nacional.Material y métodosLa metodología utilizada se basó en el método RAND/UCLA. Un panel de 9 expertos en CCR participaron en el diseño de un índice temático, en la identificación y lectura de la evidencia disponible, y en la formulación de recomendaciones y redacción del contenido. Un grupo validador de 25 expertos, que no había participado en las fases previas, valoró las recomendaciones mediante una votación anónima en una reunión presencial de consenso. Las recomendaciones que alcanzaron el acuerdo del 75% o más de los participantes en dicha votación fueron aceptadas como consenso; las recomendaciones que obtuvieron un acuerdo inferior fueron rechazadas.ResultadosUn total de 25 recomendaciones fueron aceptadas como consenso. En ellas se recogen las pruebas analíticas, pruebas de evaluación clínica y de imagen que deben realizarse en los pacientes con CCR. Las recomendaciones presentadas han sido adaptadas dependiendo del riesgo de recaída. En el actual documento también se detalla la frecuencia y duración del seguimiento para cada perfil de paciente.ConclusionesEl documento actual permite estandarizar los criterios de seguimiento de los pacientes con CCR atendidos en el ámbito del sistema sanitario español, según su riesgo de recaída.
       
  • The digital environment in men's sexual disorders: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018Source: Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition), Volume 42, Issue 6Author(s): E. García-Cruz, J. Romero-Otero, M. Fode, A. Alcaraz ContextThe revolution of digital technologies constitutes a new setting for the patient–physician relationship and provides patients with a scenario of privacy and universal access to a vast amount of information. However, there is little information on how digital resources are used and what their advantages and disadvantages are.ObjectivesTo explore the scope of the scientific research on the use of digital technology related to men's sexual disorders and to analyze the primary sources of digital information related to this field.Acquisition of evidenceSystematic searches of the scientific literature, websites (10 first results in each google search) and mobile applications (apps). The searches combined the keywords “web” and “app” with “erectile dysfunction”, “premature ejaculation”, “Peyronie”, “male hypogonadism”, and “infertility”. Websites and apps were assessed for quality according to predefined indicators.Synthesis of evidenceThe qualitative analysis of the scientific literature included 116 manuscripts; 47% were clinical studies based on online survey, 9% dealt with digital treatments, 11% with quality/safety of digital healthcare environment, 3% with digital activity, 21% with patient empowerment, and 9% with online drug selling. Of 50 websites assessed for quality, 29 (58%) scored 4 or 5 on a 5-point Likert scale. The app search yielded 40 apps; only 3 of them (8%) reported the identity of a health center or healthcare professional involved.ConclusionsPatients and healthcare professionals may benefit from digital resources related to men's sexual disorders; however, a strong commitment by the scientific and healthcare community is essential to increase the quality of these resources.ResumenContextoLa revolución de las tecnologías digitales constituye un nuevo escenario para las relaciones médico-paciente y proporciona a los pacientes un espacio de privacidad y acceso universal al conocimiento. Sin embargo, existe poca información acerca del uso de los recursos digitales, así como de sus ventajas e inconvenientes.ObjetivosExplorar el ámbito de la investigación científica en cuanto al uso de recursos digitales relacionados con los trastornos sexuales masculinos y analizar las principales fuentes de información en estos campos.Adquisición de la evidenciaBúsquedas sistemáticas en la literatura científica, páginas web (10 primeros resultados en cada búsqueda de google) y aplicaciones móviles (apps). Las búsquedas combinaron las palabras clave «web» y «app» con «erectile dysfunction», «premature ejaculation», «Peyronie», «male hypogonadism», y «infertility». La calidad de las páginas web y apps fue analizada según indicadores predefinidos.Síntesis de la evidenciaEl análisis cualitativo de la literatura científica incluyó 116 artículos, el 47% de los cuales eran estudios basados en encuestas online, el 9% abordaban los tratamientos digitales, el 11% la calidad/seguridad del entorno digital en salud, el 3% la actividad digital, el 21% el empoderamiento de los pacientes y el 9% las ventas de fármacos online. De las 50 páginas web evaluadas, 29 (58%) puntuaron 4 o 5 en una escala Likert de 5 puntos. La búsqueda de apps resultó en 40 apps; únicamente 3 de ellas (8%) aportaban la identidad de algún centro de salud o profesional implicado.ConclusionesTanto los pacientes como los profesionales sanitarios pueden beneficiarse de los recursos digitales relacionados con los trastornos sexuales masculinos. No obstante, es necesaria una mayor implicación de la comunidad médica para incrementar la calidad de dichos recursos.
       
  • Cryotherapy versus high-intensity focused ultrasound for treating prostate
           cancer: Oncological and functional results
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018Source: Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition), Volume 42, Issue 6Author(s): F. Donis-Canet, M.D. Sánchez-Gallego, F. Arias-Fúnez, G. Duque-Ruíz, I. Laso, J. Brasero-Burgos, J. Lorca-Álvaro, V. Gómez-Dos Santos, R. Rodríguez-Patrón, F.J. Burgos-Revilla Context and objectiveThe increasingly early diagnosis of prostate cancer requires a search for therapeutic alternatives with good oncological results that in turn facilitate a good long-term quality of life. This review analyses 2 minimally invasive therapies for treating localized prostate cancer in terms of oncological and functional results, as well as the complications resulting from the therapies.Acquisition of evidenceA systematic literature review was conducted of the treatment of localized prostate cancer with 2 ablative techniques as the primary therapy: cryosurgery or cryotherapy and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). We included patients who underwent procedures that included the entire gland, with hemiablation or focal therapy, which were indicated for low to intermediate-risk prostate cancer according to the D’Amico criteria. We excluded patients with high-risk prostate cancer and those who underwent any prior treatment for prostate cancer.Synthesis of the evidenceAfter conducting the literature search and excluding the studies that did not meet the protocol criteria, we reviewed a total of 14 studies, with a total of 350 patients treated using cryotherapy and 1107 treated with HIFU. All studies were either prospective or retrospective and were not randomized. The patients’ mean age was younger than 75 years.Overall, the rate of disease recurrence in the patients treated with cryotherapy varied between 13.2% and 26%, while the rate for those treated with HIFU varied between 7.3% and 67.9%. The overall demonstrated continence at 12 months was 97.6–100% for cryotherapy and 96–100% for HIFU. In terms of sexual potency rates, cryotherapy showed complete potency at 12 months for 86–100% of the patients treated with focal cryotherapy and slightly lower rates for hemiablation (76.9–100%) and total therapy (39%). HIFU showed potency rates of 89%, 52–80% and 33–78% for focal therapy, hemiablation and total therapy, respectively.ConclusionsBoth techniques have comparable functional results, although the somewhat poorer oncological results for HIFU reflect a steeper learning curve, which could lead to its use in centers with high volumes of patients.ResumenContexto y objetivoEl diagnóstico cada vez más precoz del cáncer de próstata obliga a buscar alternativas terapéuticas con buenos resultados oncológicos, que a su vez faciliten una buena calidad de vida a largo plazo. La presente revisión analiza los resultados de 2 terapias mínimamente invasivas en el tratamiento del cáncer localizado de próstata en cuanto a resultados oncológicos y funcionales, así como las complicaciones derivadas de los mismos.Adquisición de la evidenciaRevisión sistemática de la literatura referida al tratamiento del cáncer localizado de próstata con 2 técnicas ablativas como terapia primaria: la criocirugía o crioterapia y el high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Se incluyen pacientes con procedimientos que incluían la totalidad de la glándula, con hemiablación o con terapia focal e indicados en cáncer de próstata de bajo riesgo o riesgo intermedio según criterios D’Amico. Se excluyen pacientes con cáncer de próstata de alto riesgo, o aquellos que hayan recibido cualquier tratamiento previo para el cáncer de próstata.Síntesis de la evidenciaTras la búsqueda y exclusión de estudios que no cumplían los criterios del protocolo, se revisan un total de 14 estudios, con un total de 350 pacientes tratados mediante crioterapia, y un total de 1.107 pacientes tratados con HIFU. En todos los casos se trataron de estudios prospectivos o retrospectivos, no aleatorizados. La edad media de los pacientes fue de menos de 75 años.En global la tasa de recidiva anatomopatológica en los pacientes tratados con crioterapia oscila entre el 13,2% y el 26%, mientras que en el HIFU oscilan entre el 7,3% y el 67,9%. La continencia global mostrada fue de un 97,6-100% en el caso de la crioterapia, y un 96-100% en el HIFU a los 12 meses. Respecto a las tasas de potencia sexual la crioterapia muestra una potencia completa del 86-100% a los 12 meses en pacientes tratados con crioterapia focal, y algo menores en la hemiablación (76,9-100%) y en la terapia total (39%). El HIFU reporta tasas de potencia del 89% 52-80% y 33-78% en terapia focal, hemiablación y terapia total respectivamente.ConclusionesAmbas técnicas presentan unos resultados funcionales equiparables, si bien los resultados oncológicos algo más pobres en el HIFU son reflejo de una curva de aprendizaje más complicada, que puede abocar su uso a centros con alto volumen de pacientes.
       
  • Can we base the indication of early cystectomy on more than
           clinical–pathological characteristics'
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018Source: Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition), Volume 42, Issue 6Author(s): R. Martinez-Rodríguez
       
  • Encrusted prostatitis by Corynebacterium urealyticum: The
           importance of clinical suspicion
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018Source: Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition), Volume 42, Issue 6Author(s): A. Pardo Martínez, A. Rosino Sánchez, Á. Rivero Guerra, I. Barceló Bayonas
       
  • Super-mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy for renal stone smaller than
           25 mm in pediatric patients: Could it be an alternative to shockwave
           lithotripsy'
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018Source: Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition), Volume 42, Issue 6Author(s): K. Sarica, B. Eryildirim, A. Tuerxun, A. Batuer, O. Kavukoglu, A. Buz, G. Zeng AimTo evaluate the efficacy of 2 different techniques: shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) vs. super-mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy (SMP), in terms of success as well as complication rates in pediatric renal stones sizing
       
  • Factors involved in the late failure of endoscopic vesicoureteral reflux
           treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition), Volume 42, Issue 5Author(s): S. Fuentes, A. Gómez-Fraile, I. Carrillo-Arroyo, C. Tordable-Ojeda, D. Cabezalí-Barbancho, F. López, A. Aransay Bramtot IntroductionThe short-term results of endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) are excellent. Over time, however, a number of patients have been identified for whom VUR reappeared after being resolved with this technique. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors related to this event.Material and methodsA retrospective, analytical, case–control study included 395 ureteral units with primary VUR treated successfully at our center, with a minimum follow-up of 3 years. We identified cases in which VUR reappeared and analyzed the demographic variables, those related to VUR (grade, laterality, initial study) and those related to the operation (materials used).ResultsWe identified 77 ureteral units with recurrence in the 395 included units (19.5%). The recurrence rate was 29.7% for the patients treated with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid (Dx/HA), 20.2% for those treated with polydimethylsiloxane (MP) and 12.2% for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The onset of recurrence rose to 35% for patients treated before 1 year of age and those with grade V VUR. Urinary dysfunction symptoms also increased the recurrence rate to 34.9%.ConclusionThe use of resorbable dextranomer/hyaluronic acid material was related to recurrence in the endoscopic treatment of VUR. The high-grade reflux and treatment at an early age, as well as the presence of urinary dysfunction, are also factors associated with recurrence.ResumenIntroducciónLos resultados del tratamiento endoscópico del reflujo vesicoureteral (RVU) a corto plazo son excelentes. No obstante, con el paso de los años se ha identificado un número de pacientes en quienes el RVU que fue resuelto mediante esta técnica vuelve a aparecer. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los factores relacionados con este evento.Material y métodosSe ha realizado un estudio analítico retrospectivo tipo caso-control incluyendo 395 unidades ureterales con RVU primario tratadas con éxito en nuestro centro, con seguimiento mínimo de 3 años. Se han identificado los casos en los que el RVU reapareció y se han analizado variables demográficas, variables relativas al RVU (grado, lateralidad, estudio inicial) y a la intervención (material utilizado).ResultadosSe identificaron 77 unidades ureterales con recidiva de las 395 incluidas (19,5%). La incidencia de recidiva fue del 29,7% en los pacientes tratados con dextranómero/ácido hialurónico (Dx/HA), del 20,2% en los tratados con polidimetilxilosano (MP) y del 12,2% en el caso de politetrafluoroetileno (PTFE). La aparición de recidiva se eleva hasta el 35% en el caso de pacientes tratados antes del año de edad y aquellos con RVU de grado V. La clínica de disfunción miccional también eleva la incidencia de recidiva al 34,9%.ConclusiónEl uso del material reabsorbible Dx/HA está relacionado con la recidiva del tratamiento endoscópico del RVU. Los reflujos de alto grado, junto con el tratamiento en edades precoces, así como la presencia de disfunción miccional, también son factores asociados a la recurrencia.
       
  • Diagnosis and treatment of male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms
           in Spain – The MERCURY Study. Do urologists follow the recommendations
           of the European guidelines'
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition), Volume 42, Issue 5Author(s): C. Errando-Smet, C. Müller-Arteaga, M. Hernández, M. Roset ObjectivesTo explore the management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men in Spain and assess the compliance with recommendations established in the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines.Material and methodsMERCURY was an epidemiological and cross-sectional study which involved 227 Urology Units across Spain assessing adult male patients with mixed LUTS and persisting storage symptoms. Sociodemographic, clinical and resource use data for the 6 months prior to study inclusion were collected. Additionally, through a theoretical clinical case, clinicians described their attitude toward the diagnostic and therapeutic management of males with mixed LUTS and persisting storage symptoms during the first and second visits. Answer options given to clinicians about LUTS management were aligned with those recommended by EAU guidelines.Result610 patients included in the study were evaluated. 87.7% of them consumed some health resource mainly due to: urologist visits (79.7%), PSA determination (76.6%) and treatment with alpha-blockers (37.5%) and alpha-blockers plus antimuscarinics (37.2%). According to the theoretical clinical case, urologists preference toward diagnostic tools and pharmacological treatment in first visit were mainly PSA determination (97.7%), digital rectal examination (91.4%) and treatment with alphablockers as monotherapy (56.6%), whereas in the second visit uroflowmetry (48.9%), voiding diary (40.3%) and treatment with alpha-blockers plus antimuscarinics (70.6%) were mainly preferred.ConclusionsUrologists attitude toward management of male patients with mixed LUTS and persisting storage symptoms is aligned with that recommended in the EAU guidelines.ResumenObjetivosConocer el manejo de pacientes varones con síntomas del tracto urinario inferior (STUI) y evaluar el seguimiento de las recomendaciones de las guías de la Asociación Europea de Urología en España.Material y métodosEl estudio MERCURY, epidemiológico y transversal, con 227 unidades de urología participantes en España, evaluó a pacientes varones con STUI mixtos predominantemente de llenado, de los cuales se recogió información sociodemográfica, clínica y de consumo de recursos de los 6 meses anteriores. Adicionalmente, mediante un caso clínico teórico, los investigadores describieron su actitud sobre el manejo de los STUI mixtos con predominio de llenado persistentes tras un tratamiento inicial, en cuanto a pruebas diagnósticas y aproximación terapéutica en la primera y la segunda visita. Las opciones proporcionadas para el manejo de los STUI estaban alineadas con las recomendaciones de la Asociación Europea de Urología.ResultadosSe evaluaron 610 pacientes, de los cuales el 87,7% consumió algún recurso sanitario debido a: visitas al urólogo (79,7%), determinación del PSA (76,6%) y tratamiento con alfabloqueante (37,5%) y alfabloqueante más antimuscarínico (37,2%). En el caso clínico teórico, la actitud del urólogo en la elección de pruebas diagnósticas y tratamiento farmacológico fue principalmente: determinación del PSA (97,7%), tacto rectal (91,4%) y tratamiento con alfabloqueantes en monoterapia (56,6%) en la primera visita; flujometría (48,9%), diario miccional (40,3%) y tratamiento con alfabloqueante más antimuscarínico (70,6%) en la segunda visita.ConclusionesLa actitud de los urólogos en España para el manejo del paciente varón con STUI mixtos predominantemente de llenado se ajusta a las recomendaciones de las guías clínicas europeas.
       
  • Clinical usefulness of random biopsies in diagnosis and treatment of
           non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition), Volume 42, Issue 5Author(s): J.D. Subiela, J. Palou, C. Esquinas, J.M. Fernández Gómez, O. Rodríguez Faba Introduction and objectiveThis systematic review of the literature has been focused on determining the clinical usefulness of random bladder biopsies (RB) in the diagnosis of carcinoma in situ. A meta-analysis was performed to establish the clinic and pathological factors associated to positive biopsies.Evidence acquisitionA systematic review was performed using Pubmed/Medline database according to the PRISMA guidelines. Thirty-seven articles were included, recruiting a total of 12,657 patients, 10,975 were submitted to RB.Evidence synthesisThe overall incidence of positive RB was 21.91%. Significant differences were found in the incidence of positive RB when patients were stratified according to urine cytology result, tumor multiplicity, tumor appearance, stage and grade. The results of the meta-analysis revealed that the presence of positive cytology, tumor multiplicity, non-papillary appearance tumors, stage T1 and histological grades G2 and G3 represent the risk factors to predict abnormalities in RB.ConclusionsThe incidence of positive RB in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer was 21.91%. The maximum usefulness of RB was observed when these are performed in a standardized way. The results of the meta-analysis showed that besides positive cytology and non-papillary appearance tumors, tumor multiplicity and histological grades G2 and G3 represent risk factors associated to positive RB, suggesting that the use of RB might be extensive to the intermediate risk group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC).ResumenIntroducción y objetivoEsta revisión sistemática de la literatura se ha focalizado en determinar la utilidad clínica de las biopsias aleatorias (BA) de vejiga para el diagnóstico de carcinoma in situ. Se realizó un metaanálisis para establecer los factores clinicopatológicos asociados a la positividad de dichas biopsias.Adquisición de la evidenciaSe realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura usando la base de datos PubMed/Medline siguiendo los criterios PRISMA. Se incluyeron 37 artículos, reclutando un total de 12.657 pacientes, de los que 10.975 fueron sometidos a BA.Síntesis de la evidenciaLa incidencia global de BA positivas fue del 21,91%. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la positividad de las BA cuando los pacientes fueron estratificados según resultado de la citología, multiplicidad, aspecto tumoral, estadio y grado. Los resultados del metaanálisis revelaron que la presencia de citología positiva, multiplicidad tumoral, tumores de aspecto no papilar, estadio T1 y grados histológicos G2 y G3 representan factores de riesgo que predicen anormalidades en las BA.ConclusionesLa incidencia de BA positivas en pacientes con tumor vesical no-músculo invasivo fue del 21,91%. El máximo rendimiento de estas biopsias se evidencia cuando se realizan de manera normativizada. Los resultados del metaanálisis muestran que, además de la citología positiva y el aspecto no papilar, la multiplicidad tumoral y los grados histológicos G2 y G3 representan factores asociados a BA positivas, por lo que el uso de dichas biopsias se puede hacer extensivo al grupo de riesgo intermedio de la European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC).
       
  • Robot-assisted pudendal neurolysis in the treatment of pudendal nerve
           entrapment syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition), Volume 42, Issue 5Author(s): P. Moscatiello, D. Carracedo-Calvo, L. Yupanqui-Guerra, M.E. Rivera-Martínez, A. Mendiola de la Hoza, M. Sánchez-Encinas IntroductionPudendal nerve entrapment syndrome (PNE) is characterized by the presence of neuropathic pain in the pudendal nerve (PN) territory, associated or not with urinary, defecatory and sexual disorders. Surgical PN decompression is an effective and safe alternative for cases when conservative treatment fails. The aim of this study is to describe the first robot-assisted pudendal neurolysis procedure performed in our country.Material and methodsWe describe step by step the technique of robot-assisted laparoscopic neurolysis of the left PN performed with intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring on a 60-year-old patient diagnosed with left PNE.ResultsThe procedure was performed satisfactorily without complications. After 24 h, the patient was discharged from the hospital. We observed a 50% reduction in pain measured using the visual analog scale 2 weeks after the procedure, which remained after 10 weeks of the neurolysis.ConclusionsRobot-assisted neurolysis of the PN constitutes a feasible and safe approach, enabling better visualization and accuracy in the dissection of the PN. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring is useful for locating the PN and for detecting intraoperative changes after the release of the nerve.ResumenIntroducciónEl síndrome de atrapamiento del pudendo (SAP) se caracteriza por la presencia de dolor de características neuropáticas en el territorio del nervio pudendo (NP) asociado o no a alteraciones miccionales, defecatorias y sexuales. La descompresión quirúrgica del mismo constituye una alternativa eficaz y segura en los casos de fracaso de tratamiento conservador. El objetivo es describir el primer procedimiento de neurólisis robótica del pudendo realizada en nuestro país.Material y métodosSe describe paso a paso la técnica de neurólisis laparoscópica asistida por robot del NP izquierdo realizada con monitorización neurofisiológica intraoperatoria en una paciente de 60 años de edad a quien se diagnosticó SAP izquierdo.ResultadosEl procedimiento se realizó de forma satisfactoria sin complicaciones. Tras 24 h se procedió al alta hospitalaria. Se objetivó una reducción del dolor del 50% medida mediante Escala Visual Analógica a las 2 semanas del procedimiento, mantenida tras 10 semanas de la neurólisis.ConclusionesLa neurólisis robótica del NP constituye una vía de abordaje factible y segura, permitiendo una mejor visualización y precisión en la disección del NP. La monitorización neurofisiológica intraoperatoria es útil para la localización del NP y para la detección de cambios intraoperatorios tras la liberación del nervio.
       
  • Imperforate syringocele of the Cowper's gland. Diagnosis by
           urethrosonography
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition), Volume 42, Issue 5Author(s): D. Martínez-García, V.J. Bañón-Pérez
       
  • Intraprostatic injections for male lower urinary tract symptoms: Reality
           or fiction'
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition), Volume 42, Issue 5Author(s): A. Alcántara Montero, N. Pascual Regueiro
       
 
 
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