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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3185 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3185 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 100, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 427, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 293, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 414, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 364, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 469, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 232, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 201, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Addictive Behaviors
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.29
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 17  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0306-4603
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3185 journals]
  • Desire thinking as a predictor of drinking status following treatment for
           alcohol use disorder: A prospective study
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Francesca Martino, Gabriele Caselli, Elena Fiabane, Federica Felicetti, Cecilia Trevisani, Marco Menchetti, Clarice Mezzaluna, Sandra Sassaroli, Ian P. Albery, Marcantonio M. Spada Research has indicated that craving is one of the strongest predictors of treatment outcome and relapse in Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) but there is little consensus on the factors that may influence its activation and escalation. Research has also shown that desire thinking is an important cognitive process which may exacerbate craving in problem drinkers. The aim of present study was to explore, for the first time, the role of desire thinking in prospectively predicting relapse, craving and binge drinking in patients receiving treatment for AUD. One hundred and thirty-five patients admitted to two rehabilitation centres and two outpatient services for addiction and mental health problems were administered baseline, treatment completion and three months follow-up measures of anxiety and depression, AUD severity, binge drinking frequency, craving and desire thinking. Results indicated that the verbal perseveration component of desire thinking at treatment completion was the only significant predictor of relapse at follow-up over and above baseline AUD severity and binge drinking frequency. Furthermore, the imaginal prefiguration component of desire thinking and craving levels at treatment completion were found to predict craving levels at follow-up independently of AUD severity and binge drinking frequency at baseline. Finally, both the imaginal prefiguration and verbal perseveration components of desire thinking at treatment completion were found to be the only predictors of binge drinking frequency at follow-up independently of AUD severity and binge drinking frequency at baseline. Treatments for AUD should aim to reduce desire thinking in people to enhance clinical outcomes and reduce relapse risk.
       
  • Longitudinal associations between smoking and affect among cancer patients
           using varenicline to quit smoking
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Allison J. Carroll, Kristine Kim, Andrew Miele, Matthew Olonoff, Frank T. Leone, Robert A. Schnoll, Brian Hitsman During a quit attempt, high negative affect predicts relapse to smoking. In this study, we evaluated bidirectional longitudinal associations between smoking and negative affect among cancer patients treated with varenicline. Participants (N = 119, 50% female, Mage = 59 years) were smokers (≥5 cigarettes/week) who were diagnosed with cancer and were recruited for a 24-week trial of extended duration varenicline plus behavioral counseling; data for this secondary analyses were drawn from the 12-week open-label phase of the trial. Smoking was assessed via self-reported number of cigarettes in the past 24 h. Negative affect was assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS). Data were collected at pre-quit (week 0), target quit day (week 1), week 4, and week 12. We evaluated cross-lagged panel models for negative affect and smoking using PROC CALIS in SAS. Models were run separately for participants who were adherent (≥80% of medication taken) or nonadherent to varenicline. Among adherent participants (n = 96), smoking accounted for up to 22% of variance in subsequent negative affect throughout treatment. Cross-lagged associations were not observed between smoking and negative affect among non-adherent participants (n = 23). Negative affect did not predict subsequent smoking among either adherent or nonadherent participants. These results suggest that varenicline may attenuate abstinence-induced negative affect among cancer patients treated for nicotine dependence.
       
  • Greater perceived importance of earning abstinence-contingent incentives
           is associated with smoking cessation among socioeconomically disadvantaged
           adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Adam C. Alexander, Emily T. Hébert, Michael S. Businelle, Darla E. Kendzor BackgroundIndividuals' perceptions of the importance of earning financial incentives for smoking cessation may influence the effectiveness of contingency management interventions. This study prospectively explored the perceived importance of earning financial incentives for smoking cessation and its association with smoking cessation within a contingency management intervention among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults.MethodsThis study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial that recruited socioeconomically disadvantaged adults from a safety-net hospital in Dallas County, Texas, from 2011 to 2013. Participants, who were randomly assigned to receive small financial incentives for smoking abstinence (N = 75), rated the importance of earning abstinence-contingent financial incentives one day after their scheduled quit day and one-week post-quit day. Self-reported smoking abstinence was biochemically confirmed weekly through the fourth week post-quit day and at the twelfth week post-quit day. Participants were considered continuously abstinent if self-reported abstinence since the quit date was biochemically confirmed.ResultsGreater perceived importance of earning abstinence contingent incentives for smoking cessation was associated with a higher likelihood of achieving continuous abstinence during the four-week intervention period (OR = 3.95 [95% CI = 1.64, 9.53]) and through 12 weeks post-quit day (OR = 4.71 [95% CI = 1.56, 14.26]).ConclusionsFindings suggest that the perceived importance of earning abstinence-contingent incentives early in a quit attempt predicts smoking cessation among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults and may indicate whether an individual will be responsive to the magnitude of incentives offered.
       
  • Income associations with cigarette purchasing behaviors and quit attempts
           among people experiencing homelessness
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Maya Vijayaraghavan, Julie Neisler, Quentaxia Wrighting, Lorraine R. Reitzel, Emily T. Hébert, Carla J. Rash, Darla E. Kendzor, Michael S. Businelle IntroductionCigarette purchasing behavior may reflect quitting intentions. Little is known about how income could modify the association between cigarette purchasing behaviors and quit attempts among smokers experiencing homelessness.MethodsHomeless, current smokers completed a questionnaire on the amount spent weekly on cigarettes (≤$20/week versus>$20/week), source of cigarettes (store versus other source), quantity of cigarettes purchased ($20/week on cigarettes, 83% reported purchasing cigarettes from a store, and 86% reported purchasing ≥pack during their last purchase. Those who reported an income spent a third of their monthly income on cigarettes, and were more likely to spend>$20/week on cigarettes. The amount spent weekly on cigarettes and the source of cigarettes was not associated with quit attempts, nor did income moderate these relationships. Persons without an income who bought a pack or more of cigarettes made fewer quit attempts (β = −0.4, 95% CI −0.7, −0.2), whereas the association between quantity of cigarettes purchased and quit attempts was not significant for those with an income (β = −0.2, 95% CI −0.4, 0.1).ConclusionsCurrent smokers experiencing homelessness and who are without an income may find it particularly challenging to engage in attempts to quit smoking. Smoking cessation interventions that highlight relief of financial hardship as a potential benefit of successfully quitting smoking may be useful among this population.
       
  • Longitudinal properties of the PARADISE24fin questionnaire in treatment of
           substance use disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Maria Cabello, Javier de la Fuente, Jose Luis Ayuso Mateos, Tuuli PitkänenAbtractAimImprovement of overall functioning is an important goal in the treatment of substance use disorders, and thus tools for monitoring change are needed. The current study aimed to evaluate the longitudinal metric invariance and sensitivity to change for the PARADISE24fin questionnaire.MethodsA total of 1153 patients with substance use disorders completed the PARADISE24fin in two measurement occasions along their treatment. Patients were categorized into three groups according to their treatment status at the second occasion (end of the treatment, on-treatment follow-up, and re-start treatment). The latent structure of the PARADISE24fin questionnaire was analyzed in the two measurement occasions with confirmatory factor analyses. Evidence of the PARADISE24fin sensitivity to change was studied comparing mean change scores for the three treatment status groups.ResultsThe PARADISE24fin showed a strong longitudinal metric invariance across the two occasions in the three treatment status groups. The PARADISE24fin scores decreased during treatment, especially among the group of patients that had completed their treatment.ConclusionsThe PARADISE24fin is a reliable questionnaire to measure changes in psychosocial difficulties in substance use disorders overtime.
       
  • Sexual and gender minority young adults' smoking characteristics:
           Assessing differences by sexual orientation and gender identity
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Erin A. Vogel, Gary L. Humfleet, Meredith Meacham, Judith J. Prochaska, Danielle E. Ramo IntroductionSexual and gender minority (SGM) young adults have higher smoking prevalence than their non-SGM peers. Less is known about differences in smoking characteristics within the SGM community.MethodsParticipants were SGM young adult smokers age 18–25 (N = 165, M age = 21.8) enrolled in a clinical trial of the Put It Out Project, a Facebook smoking cessation intervention for SGM young adults. Analyses tested differences between 1) sexual orientation groups, and 2) gender identity groups, on the following smoking characteristics: cigarettes/day, daily smoker (yes/no), social smoker (yes/no), years of smoking, number of close friends who smoke (out of 5), age of initiation, age began smoking regularly, time to first cigarette (30 min or less/>30 min), lifetime quit attempts, past-year quit attempts, and stage of change for quitting smoking (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation).ResultsParticipants were 56% bi/pansexual, 18% gay, 18% lesbian, 8% other (e.g., asexual, queer). The gender identity of the sample was 52% cisgender, 18% transgender, 30% gender non-binary. Lesbian women began smoking at an older age (M = 18.0, SD = 2.0) than “other” sexual orientation participants (M = 15.7, SD = 2.2), p 
       
  • Using electronic audience response technology to track e-cigarette habits
           among college freshmen
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Jessica L. Bourdon, Linda C. Hancock PurposeThe use of e-cigarette devices, specifically JUUL, is on the rise on college campuses. Traditional means of collecting and analyzing research may not be fast enough for health professionals to effectively assess, plan, and implement effective prevention/intervention strategies.ProceduresIn August 2018, during incoming student orientation sessions at seven different college campuses, data was collected on a specific e-cigarette, JUUL. Data on use and knowledge of JUUL, as well as traditional cigarette use, was collected via immediate electronic audience response devices. Analyses included calculating descriptive statistics for questions of interest.ResultsBecause response on each item was optional and anonymous, participation on specific questions varied and the total sample size for the questions of interest ranged from 1940 to 2027 students. Mean daily use rates were 13.7% (11.6–18.0%) for JUUL and 1.7% (1.3–2.5%) for cigarettes. Most students (67.3%) knew that JUUL always contained nicotine (38.4–84.5%), although 30.1% believed that it just contained nicotine and/or flavored vapor (15.5–50.0%), and 2.1% thought it was flavored vapor only (0.0–5.9%).ConclusionsThis study reports the highest daily use of e-cigarettes among college students in the literature to date, with past-month e-cigarette use and daily cigarette use on par with previous estimates. Findings also highlight the knowledge gaps that some users have about JUUL specifically. In order for college health educators and professionals to best help students, adoption of methods that allow for more rapid assessment of e-cigarette trends is needed. This will help campuses more effectively address this issue, closing the research-to-practice gap in college health.
       
  • Dependence motives of young adult users of electronic nicotine delivery
           systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Marie Chesaniuk, Alexander W. Sokolovsky, Jasjit S. Ahluwalia, Kristina M. Jackson, Robin Mermelstein IntroductionNicotine dependence contributes to changes in tobacco use among young adults. However, research examining salient dependence motives in young adult users of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) is limited. This study examined the association of dependence motives with ENDS use or lifetime quit attempt, and tests sex moderation in these relationships.MethodsYoung adults (N = 304; age 18–24) self-identifying as regular ENDS users and self-reporting vaping within a week of data collection completed an online survey. They reported demographics, past 30-day vaping and smoking days and frequency, and lifetime quit attempt. Dependence motives were measured with the 14-item Wisconsin Inventory for Smoking Dependency Motives. Backward-stepwise models regressed ENDS use behaviors or lifetime quit attempt onto dependence motives, and separately onto the interactions between motives and sex.ResultsTolerance was positively associated with daily ENDS use frequency (b = 0.34, p 
       
  • Vaping for weight control: A cross-sectional population study in England
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Sarah E. Jackson, Jamie Brown, Paul Aveyard, Fiona Dobbie, Isabelle Uny, Robert West, Linda Bauld IntroductionConcern about weight gain is a barrier to smoking cessation. E-cigarettes may help quitters to control their weight through continued exposure to the appetite-suppressant effects of nicotine and behavioural aspects of vaping. This study explored the views and practices of smokers, ex-smokers and current e-cigarette users relating to vaping and weight control.MethodsCross-sectional survey of past-year smokers (n = 1320), current smokers (n = 1240) and current e-cigarette users (n = 394) in England, conducted April–July 2018. Data were weighted to match the English population on key sociodemographic characteristics.ResultsOf e-cigarette users, 4.6% (95%CI 2.6–6.6) reported vaping for weight control, and 1.9% (95%CI 0.6–3.2) reported vaping to replace meals/snacks. It was rare for individuals who had smoked in the past year to have heard (8.8%, 95%CI 7.3–10.3) or believe (6.4%, 95%CI 5.1–7.7) that vaping could help control weight. Women (OR = 0.62, 95%CI 0.42–0.93) and older people (OR = 0.30, 95%CI 0.13–0.72) were less likely to have heard the claim and women were less likely to believe it (OR = 0.44, 95%CI 0.27–0.72). However, 13.4% (95%CI 11.3–15.5) and 13.1% (95%CI 11.0–15.2) of current smokers who did not use e-cigarettes said they would be more likely to try e-cigarettes or quit smoking, respectively, if vaping could help control their weight.ConclusionOne in 16 English people who have smoked in the last year believe that vaping would prevent weight gain after stopping. One in 22 people who vape are using e-cigarettes for this purpose. However, should evidence emerge that e-cigarettes prevent weight gain, one in eight people who smoke would be tempted to quit smoking and use e-cigarettes.
       
  • Screen of drug use: Diagnostic accuracy for cannabis use disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Quyen Q. Tiet, Yani E. Leyva, Kendall Browne, Rudolf H. Moos ObjectiveAs cannabis has been legalized for medicinal and recreational use, rates of cannabis misuse and cannabis use disorder (CUD) have increased. However, only a small percentage of individuals with CUD seek treatment. A practical screening instrument is needed to detect CUD in primary care (PC) to address the needs of individuals with CUD. This study seeks to validate the 2-item Screen of Drug Use (SoDU) to help detect CUD in the PC setting.MethodWe used archival data from 1283 patients recruited in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) PC clinics. A total of 51 individuals (4%) met DSM-IV criteria for CUD (abuse or dependence; with or without other drug use disorders). A diagnosis of CUD based on the Mini International Diagnostic Interview (MINI) was used as the criterion. Concurrent diagnostic properties of the SoDU were examined against the MINI.ResultsThe SoDU was 100% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 93.00% - 100%), and 87.50% specific (95% CI, 85.53% - 89.23%). When tested in subgroups of patients varying in age, gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, educational level, and PTSD status, the SoDU maintained 100% sensitivity in all subgroups; specificity ranged from 76.26% to 94.34%.ConclusionsThe SoDU is an appropriate instrument to help identify CUD in primary care. It is brief, easy to use, and has good concurrent diagnostic validity for diverse groups of patients.
       
  • JUUL electronic cigarette use patterns, other tobacco product use, and
           reasons for use among ever users: Results from a convenience sample
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Eleanor L.S. Leavens, Elise M. Stevens, Emma I. Brett, Emily T. Hébert, Andrea C. Villanti, Jennifer L. Pearson, Theodore L. Wagener IntroductionJUUL, an e-cigarette from PAX Labs, has captured 70% of the e-cigarette market. The current study examines JUUL use patterns and reasons for initiation in a large convenience sample of U.S. adults.MethodsRespondents were 979 U.S. adults registered on Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) who reported ever using JUUL. Items included frequency/quantity of JUUL use, reasons for trying JUUL, flavor preferences, and use of other tobacco products.ResultsThe majority of participants reported only trying JUUL once or twice (59.5%), 29.2% reported regular nondaily use and 10.3% reported daily use. The average quantity of JUUL pod use was low in the overall sample (4 pods per month). Daily users reported using ~10 pods per month and engaging in 4–9 separate vaping sessions per day. The most frequently reported reasons for JUUL use were because friends were using it (26.5%), curiosity (20.5%), and similarity to a cigarette (7.7%). Approximately 26% of current JUUL users reported current exclusive JUUL use, while 56% reported using JUUL and another e-cigarette. Of the entire sample, 37.1% were former smokers. Of those, 14.9% were daily JUUL users, 21.4% were nondaily JUUL users, and 63.8% were JUUL triers.ConclusionsThis is the first study to examine patterns and reasons for use of the most popular e-cigarette on the market. In this convenience sample, nearly 40% of those who ever tried JUUL reported current daily or daily use. JUUL use may be associated with limited puffing patterns compared to earlier generation e-cigarettes. Research is needed to investigate if JUUL puffing patterns result in decreased exposure to potentially harmful non-nicotine e-liquid constituents compared to other e-cigarettes.
       
  • A cross sectional survey of smoking characteristics and quitting behaviour
           from a sample of homeless adults in Great Britain
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Lynne Dawkins, Allison Ford, Linda Bauld, Sema Balaban, Allan Tyler, Sharon Cox BackgroundSmoking is a key contributor to health and social inequalities and homeless smoking prevalence rates are 4 times higher than the general population. Research on homelessness and smoking to date has been concentrated predominantly in the US and Australia. This study aimed to describe smoking and quitting behaviour in homeless adult smokers in Great Britain. Data on perceptions of, and willingness to try, e-cigarettes were also gathered.MethodsCross sectional survey of 283 adult smokers accessing homeless support services in Kent, the Midlands, London and Edinburgh. Participants answered a four-part survey: i) demographics; ii) current smoking behaviour and dependence (including the Fagerström Test of Cigarette Dependence [FTCD]); iii) previous quit attempts; and iv) e-cigarettes perceptions.ResultsHigh levels of cigarette dependence were observed (FTCD: M = 7.78, sd ± 0.98). Although desire to quit was high, most had made fewer than 5 quit attempts and 90% of these lasted less than 24 h. 91.5% reported that others around them also smoked. Previous quit methods used included cold turkey (29.7%), NRT (24.7%), varenicline (22.3%) and bupropion (14.5%). 34% were willing or able to spend £20 or more for an e-cigarette and 82% had tried one in the past although 54% reported that they preferred smoking.ConclusionWe observed high nicotine dependence, few long-term quit attempts, strong desire to quit and amenability to both traditional cessation methods and e-cigarettes. Community embedded and non-routine approaches to cessation may be promising avenues promoting engagement with the homeless community. Likely barriers to uptake include low affordability, preference for cigarettes and high numbers of smoking acquaintances.
       
  • Clinical characteristics of veterans with gambling disorders seeking pain
           treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Silvia Ronzitti, Shane W. Kraus, Suzanne E. Decker, Lisham Ashrafioun ObjectivesTo examine the relationships between gambling disorder, pain, and suicide attempts among US military veterans using Veterans Health Administration (VHA) pain-related services.MethodsRetrospective cohort analysis of 221,817 veterans using pain services was included in the analysis. First, differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics (i.e., psychiatric comorbidities and pain-related variables) were analyzed according to gambling disorder. Second, we performed logistic regression analyses to assess the association between gambling disorder and suicide attempts.ResultsFemale sex, depressive, alcohol, drug and tobacco use disorders are positively associated with gambling disorders, while severe pain score is negatively associated with gambling disorders. Logistic regression analysis showed that gambling disorder diagnosis was associated suicide attempt in veterans who received a visit for pain in VHA in the past year.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that gambling disorder in female veterans and suicide attempts in veterans with gambling disorder should not be underestimated and warrants further consideration. Moreover, the result that veterans with severe pain may be less likely to have a diagnosis of gambling disorder needs to be confirmed.
       
  • Personality traits as predictors of early alcohol inebriation among young
           adolescents: Mediating effects by mental health and gender-specific
           patterns
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Karin Boson, Peter Wennberg, Claudia Fahlke, Kristina Berglund The aim of this study was to predict alcohol inebriation and mental health (internalizing and externalizing problems plus well-being), and potential gender-specific patterns among young adolescents, by a biopsychosocial model of personality traits. Self-reported data from 853 adolescents (479 girls) in Sweden, aged 13–15 years, from the Longitudinal Research on Development In Adolescence (LoRDIA) program were used. Predictions from personality to inebriation and mediating effects of mental health were estimated by means of logistic regression and generalized structural equation modelling. Separated gender analyses were performed throughout the study to reveal potential gender-specific patterns. Externalizing problems, Novelty Seeking and Cooperativeness had independent effects on alcohol inebriation for both genders as well as Harm Avoidance among girls and Internalizing problems among boys. Novelty Seeking and Self-Directedness had indirect effects through externalizing problems and Harm Avoidance and Self-Directedness had indirect effects through internalizing problems for boys. Self-directedness showed an indirect effect through externalizing problems for girls. The combination of an immature character (low Self-directedness and Cooperativeness) with an extreme temperament profile (high Novelty Seeking and low Harm Avoidance) was a predictor of inebriation across gender, both directly and indirectly through mental health. This study contributes with valuable information about gender-specific considerations when developing and conducting preventative interventions targeting psychological risk and resilience factors for early alcohol inebriation among young adolescents.
       
  • Correlates of cigarette and alternative tobacco product use among young
           tobacco users experiencing homelessness
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Joan S. Tucker, William G. Shadel, Daniela Golinelli, Rachana Seelam, Daniel Siconolfi IntroductionMost young people experiencing homelessness smoke cigarettes, but little is known about use of alternative tobacco products (ATPs) such as e-cigarettes or other electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs). This study examines past month use and correlates of cigarettes and ATP among young tobacco users experiencing homelessness.MethodsWe surveyed a probability sample of N = 469 unaccompanied homeless 13–25 year olds (mean age = 22; 71% male), who reported past month use of any type of tobacco product, from 25 service and street sites in Los Angeles County.ResultsNearly all (90%) participants reported smoking regular cigarettes, and 78% reported using at least one tobacco product other than regular cigarettes. The most commonly used of these other products was natural cigarettes (55%), followed by LCCs (43%), ENDS (34%), cigars (31%), hookah (14%), chewing tobacco (7%), and snus (5%). Multivariable models indicated that correlates of past month use differed by product, but included sociodemographic characteristics, homelessness severity, depression, exposure to other people who used the product, and product perceptions (e.g., relative access, cost, and harm compared to cigarettes).ConclusionUse of cigarettes and ATPs are both widespread among young homeless tobacco users, suggesting that efforts to reduce tobacco use in this population should have a broad focus that includes a variety of products. The effectiveness of these efforts may be enhanced by addressing their considerable exposure to other tobacco users, as well as their perceptions of certain products as being less harmful or more cost-effective options than regular cigarettes.
       
  • Dysregulation as a correlate of cannabis use and problem use
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Hector I. Lopez-Vergara, Kristina M. Jackson, Lidia Z. Meshesha, Jane Metrik ObjectiveCannabis users with a dysregulatory risk factor may be particularly vulnerable to engaging in more frequent and problematic cannabis use. Contemporary models of dysregulated behavior suggest that dysregulation emerges due to distinct mechanisms. The current study seeks to examine the dysregulatory correlates of cannabis involvement, including working memory capacity, delay discounting, impulsivity, and reward sensitivity.MethodParticipants were 104 non-treatment seeking frequent cannabis users (the average participant used cannabis 71% of the days/past 60 days [SD = 22%], with an average of two uses per day [SD = 1.2]). Mean age was 21.3 (SD = 4.3); 36.5% were female. Working memory was assessed via the Trail-Making Test-B and the Digit Span subtests of the WAIS-III, delay discounting was assessed via a computer-based task, trait impulsivity was self-reported via the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and reward sensitivity was self-reported via the Reward Dependence Scale and the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale.ResultsStructural equation modeling estimated the associations between different facets of dysregulation and cannabis involvement. Results suggest that poor working memory capacity and high trait impulsivity were associated with both use and problem use. Greater delay discounting was associated with problem use, but not with frequency of use. Low reward sensitivity was associated with more frequent cannabis use, but not with problem use.ConclusionsResults confirm that the dysregulatory correlates of cannabis involvement consist of multiple dimensions of functioning. Prospective studies that assess the multidimensional structure of dysregulation and cannabis involvement are needed in order to disaggregate the dysregulatory antecedents and consequences of cannabis involvement.
       
  • The relationship between health-related variables and increases in smoking
           among recently diagnosed HIV+ people who inject drugs in Vietnam
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): L. Chockalingam, B. Pence, C.E. Frangakis, T.V. Ha, C.A. Latkin, T. Sripaipan, V.M. Quan, V.F. Go BackgroundIn Vietnam tobacco smoking is prevalent among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and causes excess mortality in this population. Injection drug use is a driver of HIV infections in Vietnam. Changes in HIV disease state may correlate to changes in smoking among PLHIV. This study investigates the relationship between increases in smoking and health-related variables among recently diagnosed HIV+ people who inject drugs (PWID) in Vietnam.MethodsWe analyzed longitudinal data from 323 recently diagnosed HIV+ PWID in a randomized controlled trial from 2009 to 2013 in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. The outcome was an increase of>one cigarette/day from baseline visit cigarette smoking. A generalized estimating equation for repeated measures was used to estimate bivariable and multivariable associations between participant characteristics and smoking increases. We collected qualitative data to enhance our understanding of quantitative results, from 16 HIV+ PWID who smoke.ResultsNinety three point 5% of participants reported some smoking at baseline. Smoking fewer cigarettes, higher health related quality of life (QOL), and higher CD4 counts were predictive of increases in smoking at future visits in a multivariable model. Qualitative data showed smoking increases were tied to improved perceived health, and counseling during respiratory illnesses may increase intention to quit.ConclusionHIV+ PWID in Vietnam smoke at a very high rate. Increases in their smoking are correlated to increases in heath-related QOL, and increases in perceptions of health. Any tobacco-use intervention should account for internal tobacco use triggers faced by HIV+ PWID.
       
  • Emotion dysregulation as an explanatory factor in the relation between
           negative affectivity and non-medical use of opioid in a diverse young
           adult sample
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Jafar Bakhshaie, Andrew H. Rogers, Brooke Y. Kauffman, Nhan Tran, Julia D. Buckner, Joseph W. Ditre, Michael J. Zvolensky The non-medical use of prescription opioids is an area of increasing public health concern, particularly among young college-age adults (ages 18–25) who demonstrate an increased risk of opioid-related problems. Negative mood states are consistently associated with more severe non-medical use of opioid. Emotion dysregulation defined an impaired ability to understand, evaluate, and differentiate one's emotions, and access strategies to regulate them could play an explanatory role in this association. The present study examined the potential explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the relationship between negative affectivity and non-medical use of prescription opioid among a racially/ethnically diverse young adult sample (N = 2080, 78.7% female, Mage = 21.9, SD = 4.9) attending a large southwestern state university, and across the two sub-samples of individuals with and without pain. Results indicated that emotion dysregulation explained, in part, the association between negative affectivity and non-medical use of opioid-related variables, including self-reported addiction to opioids, denial of opioid prescription by a healthcare provider, and family concerns about participant's opioid use. These indirect effects were comparable across individuals with and without pain. Findings suggest that targeting emotion dysregulation may be one therapeutic strategy to reduce non-medical use of opioid in the context of negative affectivity among college students.
       
  • Marijuana use among young adult non-daily cigarette smokers over time
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Neal Doran, Mark G. Myers, John Correa, David R. Strong, Lyric Tully, Kim Pulvers Recent data regarding growth in concurrent use of nicotine and marijuana have raised concern that reductions in legal restrictions on marijuana use may increase risk for tobacco-related harms. Previous studies have shown cross-sectional links between use of both substances, but less is known about associations over time. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that there is a bidirectional relationship between use of marijuana and use of tobacco products over time, such that increasing use of either substance would predict increasing use of the other.Participants (n = 391, 52% male) were 18–24 year-old Californians who were non-daily cigarette smokers at enrollment and had never been daily smokers. They reported nicotine/tobacco and marijuana use quarterly over 2 years. Longitudinal negative binomial and logistic regression models indicated that each additional timepoint at which participants reported recent marijuana use predicted 9–11% increases in tobacco quantity and frequency. Additionally, each additional timepoint at which cigarette or tobacco use was reported predicted 19–22% greater marijuana frequency.Data suggest that young adults who use marijuana more frequently are likely at risk for greater tobacco exposure, and vice versa. These findings suggest a need for preventive measures that focus on concurrent use of both substances rather than either individually.
       
  • Does morning affect contribute to daily Cannabis use'
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Maria Testa, Weijun Wang, Jaye L. Derrick, Whitney C. Brown, R. Lorraine Collins Several theories posit that cannabis and other substances are used to reduce negative affect. This daily report study considered whether variations in positive and negative affect, reported each morning, contributed to the likelihood of cannabis use later that day. We also explored whether levels of positive and negative affect reported immediately after cannabis use improved, relative to that day's morning levels. The sample included 183 men and 183 women representing heterosexual, cannabis-using couples from the community. Participants made independent, daily reports of affect and cannabis use episodes for 30 consecutive days. Using multilevel modeling, we modeled men's and women's use of cannabis on a given day as a function of morning levels of positive, hostile, and anxious affect, accounting for partner cannabis use that day, and mean levels of positive and negative affect. Men and women were more likely to use cannabis on a given day when morning positive affect was lower than typical for the person and when partner used cannabis that day. Neither hostile nor anxious affect contributed to later use of cannabis. Immediately after cannabis use, positive affect increased, and hostile and anxious affect decreased relative to that day's morning levels. The improved affect immediately after use suggests a mechanism of positive reinforcement.
       
  • Family member opioid prescriptions and opioid use disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Mir M. Ali, Rachel Mosher Henke, Ryan Mutter, Peggy L. O'Brien, Eli Cutler, Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Jesse M. Pines It is recognized that family members are a major source of diverted opioids. Yet it is not known how family member opioid prescriptions predict the development of an opioid use disorder (OUD).We conducted an observational study using commercial health care claims to investigate the association between a family member opioid prescription and an individual having an OUD-related claim in a large sample of patients with commercial insurance. We found that individuals had higher odds of having an OUD when a family member had an opioid prescription. This effect was magnified in spouses and employees compared with adolescents and young adult dependents. In addition, adult dependents with a pre-existing non-OUD substance use disorder had higher odds of having an OUD when a family member also had an opioid prescription. Given the high risk of opioid-related morbidity and mortality, more attention should be given to safeguard opioid diversion and to facilitate appropriate disposal of unused opioids.
       
  • Altered topological connectivity of internet addiction in resting-state
           EEG through network analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Yan Sun, Hongxia Wang, Siyu Bo The results of some neuroimaging studies have revealed that people with internet addiction (IA) exhibit structural and functional changes in specific brain areas and connections. However, the understanding about global topological organization of IA may also require a more integrative and holistic view of brain function. In the present study, we used synchronization likelihood combined with graph theory analysis to investigate the functional connectivity (FC) and topological differences between 25 participants with IA and 27 healthy controls (HCs) based on their spontaneous EEG activities in the eye-closed resting state. There were no significant differences in FC (total network or sub-networks) between groups (p > .05 for all). Graph analysis showed significantly lower characteristic path length and clustering coefficient in the IA group than in the HC group in the beta and gamma bands, respectively. Altered nodal centralities of the frontal (FP1, FPz) and parietal (CP1, CP5, PO3, PO7, P5, P6, TP8) lobes in the IA group were also observed. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the observed regional alterations were significantly correlated with the severity of IA. Collectively, our findings showed that IA group demonstrated altered topological organization, shifting towards a more random state. Moreover, this study revealed the important role of altered brain areas in the neuropathological mechanism of IA and provided further supportive evidence for the diagnosis of IA.
       
  • The accuracy of young adult cannabis users' perceptions of friends'
           cannabis and alcohol use
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Michael J. Mason, Aaron Brown, Matthew Moore ObjectiveUnderstanding the complex influence of peers on young adult substance use is an important component of intervention research and is challenging methodologically. The false consensus theory suggests that individuals falsely attribute their own substance use behaviors onto others, producing biased data.MethodsWe tested this theory with 39 young adults who had a cannabis use disorder and a mean age of 20. Participants (egos) recruited three of their close friends (alters). Egos reported their past 30-day cannabis and alcohol use and their perceptions of alters' use. Alters also reported their actual past 30-day cannabis and alcohol use.ResultsResults demonstrated that egos were very accurate in their perceptions of the frequency of alters' cannabis (ρ = 0.82, p 
       
  • Understanding quit patterns from a randomized clinical trial: Latent
           classes, predictors, and long-term abstinence
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Lorra Garey, Kara Manning, Danielle E. McCarthy, Matthew W. Gallagher, Justin M. Shepherd, Michael F. Orr, Norman B. Schmidt, Blaz Rodic, Michael J. Zvolensky ObjectiveTobacco dependence treatment is recognized as a dynamic, chronic process comprised of several specific phases. Of these phases, the Cessation phase is the most critical as it has demonstrated the strongest relation to quit success. Yet, little is understood about smoking trajectories during this period. The current study aimed to address gaps in the smoking research literature and advance understanding of the dynamic quit process unique to completing an integrated smoking treatment by evaluating quit behavior during the Cessation phase.MethodTwo hundred and sixty-seven treatment seeking smokers enrolled in a clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of a novel, integrated smoking cessation treatment (46.1% male; Mage = 39.25, SD = 13.70) were included in the present study. Repeated-measure latent class analysis was employed to evaluate quit patterns from quit day through day 14 post-quit.ResultsResults supported a four-class solution: Consistent Quitters, Non-Quitters, Relapsers, and Delayed Quitters. Predictors of class membership included age, number of prior quit attempts, motivation to quit smoking, and quit day smoking urges. Moreover, class membership was significantly associated with 6-month abstinence.ConclusionResults suggest that there are four relevant classes of quit behavior, each with specific predictor variables including age, motivation to quit, smoking urges, and number of quit attempts, and that these classes relate to long-term abstinence. These results have the potential to inform manualized smoking cessation treatment interventions based on relevant subgroups of quit behavior.
       
  • Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the cannabis use disorders
           identification test - revised among college students
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Nicole R. Schultz, Drew T. Bassett, Bryan G. Messina, Christopher J. Correia ObjectiveCannabis use is common among college students and is associated with a variety of negative consequences. The Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test Revised (CUDIT-R) is an 8-item screening instrument designed to identify potentially problematic or harmful recent cannabis use. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the internal consistency and validity of the CUDIT-R in a sample of college students who reported recent cannabis use (past 30 day).MethodsParticipants (n = 229) completed the CUDIT-R and measures of smoking behavior (Daily Smoking Questionnaire; DSQ), cannabis related consequences (Marijuana Problem Index; MPI), and problematic cannabis use (self-reported DSM-5 Cannabis Use Disorder Criteria).ResultsThe CUDIT-R showed good internal consistency and concurrent validity with cannabis related outcome measures including; frequency of use, cannabis related consequences, and total DSM-5 criteria endorsed. The CUDIT-R also showed evidence of discriminant validity across DSM-5 severity classifications, achieved high levels of sensitivity (0.929) and specificity (0.704), and excellent area under the receiver operating characteristics curve when using a cutoff score of six. All items displayed high levels of discrimination and varied in terms of difficulty and information provided.ConclusionsOverall, the CUDIT-R appears to be a reliable and valid screening measure when used to identify college students at risk for cannabis related problems. Future research should further evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the CUDIT-R threshold scores with more rigorously established DSM-5 diagnoses, and across a range of populations. Research on the utility of using the CUDIT-R for measuring treatment outcomes is also warranted.
       
  • Process for developing a culturally informed brief motivational
           intervention
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 95Author(s): Craig Field, Sandra Oviedo Ramirez, Patricia Juarez, Yessenia Castro The present study culturally enhances a standard brief intervention for alcohol use. Through an iterative process engaging key stakeholders; including patients, and expert consultants, this research sought to enhance current evidence based interventions. Five culturally informed enhancements consistent with Motivational Interviewing were introduced into standard brief interventions. These culturally informed enhancements can be refined to address the cultural risk and protective factors of other priority populations. The distinctions and advantages of this approach over prior cultural adapted interventions is discussed. Importantly, the present study outlines a process for refining the culturally informed brief intervention to other target populations.
       
  • What do we know about gambling-related harm affecting migrants and migrant
           communities' A rapid review
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Heather Wardle, Stephanie Bramley, Caroline Norrie, Jill Manthorpe
       
  • Alcohol-related effects of POST-9/11 discrimination in the context of the
           great recession: Race/ethnic variation
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Robyn Lewis Brown, Judith A. Richman, Myles D. Moody, Kathleen M. Rospenda ObjectivesThis study examined whether race/ethnic variation in discrimination is differentially associated with economic adversity during the period of the Great Recession for Blacks and Latinos compared to non-Hispanic Whites, thereby contributing to higher rates of alcohol use and problematic drinking among these groups.MethodsStructural equation modeling was used to analyze data from a national mail survey.ResultsThe association of 9/11-related discrimination with problem-related drinking substantially derives from the association between 9/11-related discrimination and recession-era economic adversity. The association between 9/11-related discrimination and economic adversity is also significantly greater for Blacks and Latinos compared to non-Hispanic Whites, and is more strongly linked with problem-related drinking for both groups in contrast to non-Hispanic Whites.ConclusionsOverall, the results demonstrate the sustained association of 9/11-related discrimination with alcohol use for Blacks and Latinos compared to non-Hispanic Whites, as well as the differential impact of the Great Recession for these race/ethnic groups. The findings highlight the need to acknowledge macro-level stressors that disproportionately affect disadvantaged groups, such as those occasioned by discriminatory legislation and social policies.
       
  • Culturally relevant risk and protective factors for nonmedical use of
           prescription opioids among incarcerated African American men
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Paris B. Wheeler, Danelle Stevens-Watkins, Myles Moody, Jardin Dogan, Dominiqueca Lewis BackgroundRecent studies have demonstrated that nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) is a national phenomenon affecting a multitude of subpopulations, including incarcerated African American men. However, there has been little investigation of the correlates of NMUPO among this population.ObjectiveGrounded in primary socialization theory, the current study aimed to examine the association between family bonds, family history of prescription drug misuse, and mental health symptoms on NMUPO among African American incarcerated men.MethodA step-wise logistic regression was conducted to determine whether family and mental health factors affected the likelihood of lifetime NMUPO.ResultsPrescription drug misuse among immediate family members (p 
       
  • Substance use and suicidal ideation among child welfare involved
           adolescents: A longitudinal examination
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Christina M. Sellers, Ruth G. McRoy, Kimberly H. McManama O'Brien BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal predictors of alcohol use, marijuana use, and suicidal ideation among maltreated adolescents.MethodsLongitudinal data from this study come from three waves of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Wellbeing II (NSCAW II). Participants included 1050 adolescents (Mage = 14.13) who were subjects of child abuse or neglect investigations. Items from the Health Risk Behavior Questionnaire were used to measure alcohol and marijuana use. Suicidal ideation was measured using an item from the Childhood Depression Inventory. Data on deviant peer affiliation, caregiver health, maltreatment type, age, race, and gender were also collected.ResultsMarijuana use, suicidal ideation, caregiver drug abuse, deviant peer affiliation, age, and race were predictive of alcohol use. Alcohol use, deviant peer affiliation, age, and time were predictive of marijuana use. Alcohol use, deviant peer affiliation, age, and gender predicted suicidal ideation.ConclusionsLongitudinal evidence indicated that individual, family, and peer factors played an important role in predicting alcohol use, marijuana use, and suicidal ideation among child welfare involved adolescents. In addition, this study provides evidence of a potentially reciprocal relationship between alcohol use and suicidal ideation among this population. Intervention efforts for reducing the public health problems of substance use and suicide among child welfare involved adolescents should focus on the importance of peers in influencing thoughts and behaviors, as well as the functional relationship between alcohol use and suicidal ideation.
       
  • Challenges on the road to recovery: Exploring attitudes and experiences of
           clients in a community-based buprenorphine program in Baltimore City
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): C. Truong, N. Krawczyk, M. Dejman, S. Marshall-Shah, K. Tormohlen, D. Agus, J. Bass ObjectiveThis qualitative study identifies and describes experiences and challenges to retention of individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) who participated in a low-threshold combined buprenorphine-peer support treatment program in Baltimore.MethodsIn-depth semi-structured interviews with staff and former clients of the Project Connections Buprenorphine Program (PCBP) (9 people) and focus group discussions with current and previous clients of PCBP (7 people) were conducted. Content analysis was used to extract themes regarding barriers to enrolling and remaining in, and transitioning from the program.ResultsPrimary challenges identified by the participants included struggles with cravings and symptoms of withdrawal, comorbid mental health issues, criminal justice system involvement, medication stigma, and conflicts over level of flexibility regarding program requirements and the role of employment.ConclusionsThis study identified several obstacles clients face when seeking care through a combined buprenorphine-peer support model. Findings highlight potential programmatic factors that can be improved and additional resources that may support treatment retention rates and better outcomes. Despite challenges, low-threshold and community-based programs can increase access to effective maintenance treatment for OUD, especially among vulnerable populations who may not have access to formal health services.
       
  • Dopaminergic and clinical correlates of high-frequency repetitive
           transcranial magnetic stimulation in gambling addiction: a SPECT case
           study
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Mauro Pettorruso, Daniela Di Giuda, Giovanni Martinotti, Fabrizio Cocciolillo, Luisa De Risio, Chiara Montemitro, Giovanni Camardese, Marco Di Nicola, Luigi Janiri, Massimo di Giannantonio, NST Study Group Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) shows the potential to modulate local brain activity, thus resulting in a modulatory action on neurocircuitries implicated in the pathophysiology of Gambling Disorder (GD).We report the case of a GD patient treated with two weeks of high frequency (15 Hz) rTMS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). At baseline and after rTMS treatment the patient underwent a SPECT examination with (123)I-FP-CIT tracer, to test changes in dopamine transporter (DAT) availability. The patient was followed up for six months, to explore safety and clinical correlates of a weekly high frequency rTMS maintenance treatment.Over the six-month follow-up the patient reported no episodes of gambling relapse. Also, the patient did not report craving for gambling or gambling-related symptoms. After two weeks of left DLPFC-rTMS treatment, we found a decrease in DAT availability in striatal regions, that represents a putative neurobiological substrate of dopaminergic pathways modulation.This study suggests that high frequency DLPFC-rTMS deserves further investigations in larger samples, using controlled study designs, to assess its real potential as a treatment for GD.
       
  • Cross-domain correlates of cannabis use disorder severity among young
           adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Randi Melissa Schuster, Maya Hareli, Amelia D. Moser, Kelsey Lowman, Jodi Gilman, Christine Ulysse, David Schoenfeld, A. Eden Evins BackgroundCorrelates of cannabis use and dependence among young adults have been widely studied. However, it is not known which factors are most strongly associated with severity of cannabis use dependence (CUD) severity. Identification of the salient correlates of CUD severity will be of increasing clinical significance as use becomes more socially normative.MethodsThis study used a data-driven, hypothesis-free approach to examine the most robust correlates of CUD severity among a sample of 76 young adults (ages 18 to 25 years) who used cannabis at least weekly. Seventy-one candidate variables were examined for association with CUD severity. These included demographic variables, self-reported and psychodiagnostic assessments of mood and anxiety, self-reported measures of personality, cannabis and other substance use characteristics, and objective and subjective measures of cognition.ResultsOf the 71 candidate variables considered, 27 were associated with CUD severity on a univariate level at a p-value ≤.20. Correlates of CUD severity in the multivariable model using stepwise selection were: more frequent cannabis use in the past 90 days, greater expectancies that cannabis causes cognitive and behavioral impairment, greater self-reported metacognitive deficits, greater anxiety, and lower reaction time variability on a test of sustained attention. Internal validation tests support high prediction accuracy of all variables in the multivariable model, except for lower reaction time variability.ConclusionsCannabis use frequency, beliefs about use, perceived cognitive abilities, and anxiety are robustly associated with CUD severity in young adult, regular cannabis users, and may be important in guiding prevention and treatment efforts.
       
  • Replication of factors related to blackout incidence in U.S. high school
           students: A brief report
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Amie L. Haas, Sara Lorkiewicz, Byron L. Zamboanga Alcohol-related blackouts are a common, yet serious consequence that can result from heavy alcohol intake. This study tested a model examining whether factors identified in related samples (i.e., adolescents residing in the U.K. and U.S. college students) predicted blackouts in community-dwelling U.S. high school youth. Participants from a Northeastern U.S. high school with prior alcohol use (Mage = 16.0 years; 48.2% male, 78.0% White) completed a paper-and-pencil assessment including measures of demographics, alcohol and other substance use, externalizing behaviors, and injunctive norms about risky drinking behaviors. Hierarchical logistic regression examined which factors identified for U.K. residing adolescents (Block 1) replicated in the U.S. sample, and whether factors identified in samples of U.S. college students added additional explained variance (Block 2). Blackouts were reported by 35.6% of students. Regression results indicated that two variables previously identified in adolescents, female gender (OR = 3.26) and increased alcohol use (OR = 1.27) were associated with blackouts. College student risk factors of drinking game (DG) participation and, to a lesser degree injunctive norms for passing out, emerged as additional risk factors (ORs = 2.85 and 1.32, respectively), with the final model explaining 39% of the variance in blackouts. This study advances our understanding of blackouts in younger drinkers and identifies the importance of addressing blackouts within the context of intervention programming that addresses cognitions and high risk drinking practices like DGs.
       
  • Self-initiated gradual smoking reduction among community correction
           smokers
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Mickeah J. Hugley, Caitlin Wolford-Clevenger, Michelle L. Sisson, Angela T. Nguyen, Karen L. Cropsey IntroductionSmoking remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Many smoking cessation guidelines advise smokers to quit precipitately; however, most quit attempts involve a more gradual cessation. Characteristics of individuals who tend to reduce prior to quitting and the effectiveness of pre-quit reduction are not well understood. This study examined individual differences and smoking cessation outcomes between individuals who self-initiated gradual reduction in cigarettes per day (CPD) and those who did not reduce prior to quit date.MethodsThis study is a secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial of smoking cessation with pharmacotherapy among individuals under community corrections supervision. We compared participants who self-initiated smoking reduction by at least 25% between baseline and the first treatment session (n = 128) to participants who either increased or did not reduce smoking between baseline and the first treatment session (n = 354).ResultsAfrican American race, no previous cigar smoking, no previous use of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, less withdrawal symptoms at baseline, and older age at first smoking were associated with being a self-initiated gradual reduction in univariate analyses. Individuals who self-initiated gradual reduction also had a had a greater likelihood of achieving at least one quit during the one-year study period as compared to those who did not reduce prior to the intervention.ConclusionsIndividuals who self-initiate gradual reduction differ from those who increase or do not change their smoking prior to a quit date. Gradual reduction also increased success in quitting.
       
  • An experimental investigation of the role of delay discounting and craving
           in gambling chasing behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Maria Ciccarelli, Marina Cosenza, Francesca D'Olimpio, Mark D. Griffiths, Giovanna Nigro Chasing is a central feature of gambling disorder and refers to the attempt by individuals to recover financial losses by continuing to gamble. Although several efforts have been made to individuate the factors involved in the complex phenomenon of chasing, little is known regarding its association with delay discounting and craving, both considered important in the development and maintenance of gambling disorder. In the present study, the interplay between chasing, delay discounting, and craving (while controlling for gambling severity) was investigated. The sample comprised 128 adult gamblers aged between 18 and 67 years and consisted of non-problem gamblers (n = 58), problem gamblers (n = 18), and pathological gamblers (n = 52) based on the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) scores. Participants were administered the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) and the Gambling Craving Scale (GACS), as well as completing the ChasIT, a computerized task assessing chasing behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to the control and the loss condition of the ChasIT. Results showed that pathological gamblers were more likely to chase and reported more severe chasing persistence. Regression analyses indicated that heightened levels of craving and the inability to tolerate delay in gratification, along with gambling severity, predicted both the decision to chase and chasing persistence. The present study contributes important findings to the gambling literature, highlighting the role of craving and delay discounting in facilitating the inability to stop within-sessions gambling. These findings may provide evidence that chasers and non-chasers represent two different types of gamblers, and that the difference may be useful for targeting more effective therapies.
       
  • What you think and where you drink: Context, alcohol outcome expectancies,
           and drinking behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Noah R. Wolkowicz, Lindsay S. Ham, Byron L. Zamboanga
       
  • Synthetic cannabinoid use among college students
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Eva M. Mathews, Emily Jeffries, Chenen Hsieh, Glenn Jones, Julia D. Buckner Background and objectivesSynthetic cannabinoid use is associated with severe problems, including psychosis, kidney failure, and death. Given that young adults are especially vulnerable to using synthetic cannabinoids, the current study sought to identify factors and consequences related to use within this population.Methods1140 undergraduates completed an online survey of synthetic cannabinoid use, consequences, and related constructs.ResultsThe prevalence of lifetime synthetic cannabinoid use was 7.9% (n = 90), 15.6% (n = 13) of which were regular users, meaning they used once a year or more often. Synthetic cannabinoid users reported multiple adverse effects (e.g., anxiety, paranoia, tachycardia, lightheadedness) and 16.7% (n = 15) of users said they considered or did go to the Emergency Room while using synthetic cannabinoids. In the entire sample, participants believed their friends (t = 18.3, p 
       
  • Tales of hope: Social identity and learning lessons from others in
           Alcoholics Anonymous: A test of the Social Identity Model of Cessation
           Maintenance
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Daniel Frings, Kerry V. Wood, Nadia Lionetti, Ian P. Albery Social identities can facilitate positive recovery outcomes for people overcoming addiction. However, the mechanism through which such protective effects emerge are unclear. The social identity model of cessation maintenance posits that one such process may be contextualisation (the creation of meaning around relevant future events and actions which act in a protective fashion). The current paper tested the role of contextualisation by exploring the role of a common feature of addiction meetings, the sharing of a personal recovery story. Data were collected from an online sample of 170 members of Alcoholics Anonymous [AA] (mean age 45.4 years, 50% male). Participants rated their social identification with AA before reading an archetypal tale of hope. They then completed measures of contextualisation (the perceived self-relevance and utility of the tale) and measures of perceived quit efficacy and costs of relapse to self and others. Identity, relevance and utility positively related to quit efficacy and perceived cost of relapse to the self. High identification with AA was also related to higher story relevance and utility. However, no mediation relationship between identity and efficacy via story relevance or utility was observed. Perceived cost to self increased in line with identity, with an additional joint indirect mediation of social identity via both meditators. These findings provide a clear pattern of results linking identity to contextualisation (story relevance and utility) and contextualisation to outcome measures. They also support the role of contextualisation as an important component of group processes more generally.
       
  • Longitudinal assessment of heavy alcohol use and incapacitated sexual
           assault: A cross-lagged analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Alyssa L. Norris, Kate B. Carey, Jennifer L. Walsh, Robyn L. Shepardson, Michael P. Carey Researchers have argued there are bidirectional associations between heavy alcohol use and sexual assault; however, research in this area is inconclusive due to methodological differences, particularly in study design. The purpose of this study is to clarify the longitudinal associations between heavy alcohol use and incapacitated sexual assault among first-year college women, accounting for hypothesized autoregressive effects within each construct over their first year of college. A sample of 483 women completed regular surveys that assessed a range of health behaviors, including alcohol use and sexual behavior, during their first year of college. We used cross-lagged analyses to examine prospective associations between incapacitated sexual assault and heavy alcohol use (frequency of heavy episodic drinking and peak blood alcohol content). There were significant autoregressive effects, such that women who were engaging in heavier alcohol use as they entered college continued to be heavier alcohol users throughout their first year, and women with a history of assault at college entry were at greater risk for assault during their first year of college. There was a significant cross-lagged effect from precollege incapacitated assault to first-semester alcohol use after controlling for pre-college alcohol use. There were no significant cross-lag paths from alcohol use to subsequent incapacitated assault. Women with a history of incapacitated sexual assault engaged in heavier drinking during their transition to college, but heavy alcohol use did not predict subsequent assault risk.
       
  • Alcohol use, psychiatric disorders and gambling behaviors: A multi-sample
           study testing causal relationships via the co-twin control design
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Spencer B. Huggett, Evan A. Winiger, Robin P. Corley, John K. Hewitt, Michael C. Stallings Human laboratory studies and twin research investigating relationships between alcohol use/pathology and gambling generally have yielded contradictory results, sometimes suggesting causal relationships and common genetic risk factors. 2860 individuals (mean age: 25.60, s.d = 3.21, 50.62% female) from separate clinical (n = 636) and community based (twin) samples (n = 2224) were used to assess associations between past year alcohol use and frequency of past year gambling behaviors (gambling frequency). After adjustment for demographic and psychiatric covariates, individual-level analyses detected that increased alcohol use was associated with more frequent gambling behaviors in twin and clinical samples. Co-twin control models were then used to test potential causal (direct) relationships between alcohol use and gambling frequency. Controlling for all covariates and shared genetic/environmental factors, we found increased alcohol use directly predicted more frequent gambling behaviors (consistent with causality). Our study also suggests shared genetic and/or environmental risk factors contribute to the association between increased alcohol use and frequent gambling behavior, a finding that may be more pronounced in males. The present study helps bridge the gap between twin research and human laboratory studies on gambling and alcohol use and corroborates findings across community and clinical samples. Overall, our findings support both common risk factors between alcohol use and gambling as well as a direct relationship between alcohol use and gambling frequency. Recognizing these dual processes could prove useful for gambling-related prevention/intervention programs.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Marijuana use motives mediate the association between experiences of
           childhood abuse and marijuana use outcomes among emerging adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Lidia Z. Meshesha, Ana M. Abrantes, Bradley J. Anderson, Claire E. Blevins, Celeste M. Caviness, Michael D. Stein IntroductionExperiences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical abuse (CPA) are associated with poor mental health outcomes including substance use in subsequent years. Marijuana use motives (i.e., coping with negative affect, enhancing positive affect, or improving social interactions) may influence problematic substance use among young adults. Specifically, motives may be associated with severity of marijuana use outcomes among individuals who have experienced CSA or CPA. This study investigated the indirect effect of marijuana use motives between experiences of CSA or CPA and marijuana use and problems among emerging adults.MethodParticipants were 397 young adults (50.1% male, 66.2% White) between ages 18–25 years, who reported 15.85 (SD = 11.66) days of marijuana use in the past month. Participants reported on history of childhood abuse, marijuana use days, problems, and motives for use.ResultsFindings suggest a significant indirect effect of coping motives in the association between CPA and marijuana use days and marijuana problems. Further, both coping motives and marijuana use days indicated a significant indirect effect between CPA and problems. Motives of socializing or enhancement did not have a significant indirect effect between CPA and marijuana use or problems. There were no significant findings with CSA and marijuana use outcomes.DiscussionCoping motives might be an important potential target for future marijuana interventions in persons with childhood physical abuse.
       
  • Sleep-related functional impairment as a moderator of risky drinking and
           subsequent negative drinking consequences in college students
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Patricia A. Goodhines, Michelle J. Zaso, Les A. Gellis, Aesoon Park ObjectivePoor sleep quality and insufficient total sleep time have been shown to modify the relationship between college drinking and negative drinking consequences. This study aimed to examine whether prospective associations between risky drinking and negative drinking consequences similarly differ by sleep-related functional impairment, which is novel to the literature.MethodData were obtained from a 2-month prospective study of 157 college drinkers (mean age = 19 years [SD = 1.11], 30% male, 76% White). Online questionnaires were administered at both Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2) to measure sleep-related functional impairment (assessed by Insomnia Diurnal Impact Scale; Ruiz, Guilera, & Gomez-Benito, 2011) and drinking behaviors and negative drinking consequences (assessed retrospectively over the past 2 months).ResultsProspective negative binomial regression analyses demonstrated that associations of both maximum drinks and binge drinking frequency at T1 with negative drinking consequences at T2 differed by T1 sleep-related functional impairment after controlling for covariates (sex, negative mood, total sleep time, insomnia symptoms, morning preference, and negative drinking consequences at T1). Students reporting lower sleep-related functional impairment experienced high levels of negative drinking consequences only at high levels of risky drinking, whereas students reporting higher sleep-related functional impairment experienced consistently high levels of negative drinking consequences regardless of their risky drinking levels.ConclusionFindings indicate that sleep-related functional impairment may exacerbate negative drinking consequences of risky drinking. Thus, sleep-related functional impairment helps to explain individual differences in the association between risky drinking and negative drinking consequences in college students.
       
  • Do current smokers use more cigarettes and become more dependent on
           nicotine because of psychological distress after a natural disaster'
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Adam C. Alexander, Kenneth D. Ward, David R. Forde, Michelle Stockton, Mary C. Read Natural disasters increase nicotine dependence and cigarette consumption, but the exact mechanisms and conditions responsible for this increase are relatively unclear. This study explored whether posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms were pathways to increased nicotine dependence and cigarette consumption after disaster exposure using a representative sample of current smokers who were living in New Orleans at the time Hurricane Katrina struck (n = 175), and a comparison sample of smokers from Memphis (n = 222) who were not directly impacted by Hurricane Katrina. We assessed whether nicotine dependence and daily cigarette consumption differed by city and evaluated potential mediators and moderators of this association using conditional process analysis. Results showed that though nicotine dependence (B = 0.46, SE = 0.20, p = .02) and average daily cigarette consumption (B = 2.19, SE = 0.80, p = .01) were higher among New Orleans than Memphis smokers 27 months after Hurricane Katrina, hurricane exposure did not indirectly affect nicotine dependence and average daily cigarette consumption through increases in posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms. Smokers who are exposed to disasters may not be increasing their cigarette use and their dependency on nicotine because of post-disaster psychological distress. Future studies should investigate other mechanisms and conditions to explain post-disaster changes in smoking behavior.
       
  • Pain intensity and tobacco smoking among Latinx Spanish-speaking adult
           smokers
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Michael J. Zvolensky, Jafar Bakhshaie, Justin M. Shepherd, Nubia A. Mayorga, Natalia Giraldo-Santiago, Natalia Peraza, Andrew H. Rogers, Joseph W. Ditre, Jodi Berger-Cardoso Some research suggests that pain intensity is greater among Latinx persons compared to non-Hispanic-Whites, and that the experience of more intense pain among this group is related to poorer mental health and impairment. Yet, the degree to which pain-smoking relations generalize to Latinx smokers is unknown. The present study tested whether past-month pain intensity among adult Latinx smokers was related to cigarette dependence, perceived barriers for quitting, and problems experienced during past quit attempts. Participants were 363 Spanish-speaking Latinx daily smokers (58.7% female, Mage = 33.3 years, SD = 9.81). Consistent with prediction, current pain intensity was significantly related to greater cigarette dependence, perceived barriers for quitting, and problems experienced during past quit attempts. These novel data provide preliminary evidence that individual differences in the intensity of experienced pain in the past month is related to a range of clinically-significant smoking variables among a large sample of Latinx smokers. The findings suggest that pain intensity may be important to Latinx smokers, a group that often showcases pain-related disparities compared to other racial/ethnic groups.
       
  • Two- and three-year follow-up from a gender-specific, web-based drug abuse
           prevention program for adolescent girls
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Traci Marie Schwinn, Steven Paul Schinke, Bryan Keller, Jessica Hopkins IntroductionRates of drug use among early adolescent girls meet or exceed rates of their male counterparts. Girls are also vulnerable to differential risk factors for drug use. Yet, expressly designed prevention programs targeting this population are absent. The present study reports 2- and 3-year findings on a web-based drug abuse prevention program for adolescent girls.MethodsA sample of adolescent girls (N = 788) were recruited via Facebook. Online, all girls completed pretests; girls were randomly assigned to a 9-session intervention arm or to a measurement-only control arm and all girls completed posttests. All girls also completed 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-up measurements.ResultsAt 2-year follow-up and compared to girls in the control arm, intervention-arm girls reported less past-month cigarette, marijuana, and “other” drug use (club drugs, cocaine, ecstasy, hallucinogens, heroin, inhalants, methamphetamines, steroids, prescription drugs), lower rates of peer drug use, and increased scores on drug refusal skills, coping skills, self-esteem, media literacy, and self-efficacy. At 3-year follow-up, and compared to girls in the control arm, intervention-arm girls reported less past-month cigarette and e-cigarette use, lower rates of peer drug use, lower reported anxiety and stress, and increased scores on drug refusal skills, self-esteem, media literacy, self-efficacy, and body image.ConclusionsLongitudinal outcome data lend support to the efficacy of a gender-specific, web-based drug abuse prevention program to reduce adolescent girls' drug use rates and associated risk factors.
       
  • Endorsement of the “firewater myth” affects the use of protective
           behavioral strategies among American Indian and Alaska Native students
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Vivian M. Gonzalez, Adrian J. Bravo, Maria C. Crouch, Protective Strategies Study Team Belief in an American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) specific biological vulnerability (BV) to alcohol problems (aka the “firewater myth”) has been found to be associated with worse alcohol outcomes among AI/AN college students who drink, despite also being associated with greater attempts to reduce drinking. In the current study, we examined the associations of belief in a BV and belief that AI/AN people have more alcohol problems with the use of alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) among AI/AN college students. PBS examined, as measured by the Protective Behavioral Strategies Scale-20, included manner of drinking, limiting/stopping drinking, and serious harm reduction strategies. Participants were college students who identified being AI/AN (n = 137) and had drank in the past month, and were selected from a larger multi-site study on PBS. Mediation models revealed that greater belief in a BV and belief that AI/AN people have more alcohol problems were both negatively associated with manner of drinking, which in turn was associated with greater past month alcohol use and alcohol consequences. These beliefs were not significantly associated with other PBS. Consistent with prior research with other student populations, both manner of drinking and limiting/stopping drinking were associated with less alcohol use and all three domains of PBS were directly associated with fewer alcohol consequences. The results suggest that these beliefs regarding AI/AN people and alcohol negatively affect the use of strategies aimed at avoiding drinking behavior that can lead to rapid drinking and a higher blood alcohol content, contributing to alcohol consequences.
       
  • Alcohol-related protective behavioral strategies as a mediator of the
           relationship between drinking motives and risky sexual behaviors
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 93Author(s): Alison Looby, Adrian J. Bravo, Tess M. Kilwein, Lauren Zimmerman, Matthew R. Pearson, Protective Strategies Study Team Risky sexual behaviors (RSB) frequently occur in the context of alcohol use and are associated with distinct drinking motives among college students. Use of alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) is associated with reductions in alcohol use and related problems, which may extend to alcohol-related RSB. Moreover, as PBS use mediates the relationship between positive reinforcement drinking motives and alcohol-related problems, the same may be true for alcohol-related RSB, specifically. The current study examined whether PBS mediates the relationship between drinking motives and RSB among college students. Participants (N = 2039, 72.8% female, Mage = 19.79) from ten universities across ten U.S. states completed an online survey assessing past-month drinking motivation, alcohol PBS, alcohol consumption, and RSB. To test study aims, a saturated path model in which drinking motives were modeled as predictors of RSB via PBS use subscales and alcohol consumption was conducted. Several double mediation effects were found, such that stronger endorsement of motives (i.e., social, enhancement, conformity, coping for depression) were associated with lower PBS (particularly manner of drinking and serious harm reduction), which was associated with higher alcohol use, which was associated with higher RSB. Multi-group models found the mediation effects to be gender invariant, although several differences in direct associations were found across genders. For college students high in positive reinforcement motives (i.e., social or enhancement) for drinking, interventions that aim to increase PBS use, specifically related to modifying the manner in which one drinks and avoiding very dangerous consequences, may be effective in reducing alcohol-related RSB.
       
  • Associations among simultaneous and co-occurring use of alcohol and
           marijuana, risky driving, and perceived risk
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2019Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Jennifer C. Duckworth, Christine M. Lee
       
  • Psychiatric comorbidity among first-time and repeat DUI offenders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2019Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Layne M. Keating, Sarah E. Nelson, Rhiannon Wiley, Howard J. Shaffer Driving under the influence of alcohol or other substances is a serious public health concern. Previous research has shown that psychiatric comorbidity is more prevalent for repeat offenders than the general population, and that first-time offenders exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric comorbidity, but few studies have directly compared first-time and repeat DUI offenders. The current study compares psychiatric comorbidity among repeat and first-time DUI offenders. First-time and repeat DUI offenders completed the screener module of the Computerized Assessment and Referral System (CARS), adapted from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI: Kessler & Ustun, 2004), to measure potential psychiatric comorbidity. For 16 of 19 psychiatric disorders, repeat DUI offenders were more likely to screen positive during their lifetime compared with first-time DUI offenders. Similarly, repeat DUI offenders were more likely to screen positive during the past year for 11 of 16 assessed psychiatric disorders. Overall, repeat DUI offenders screened positive for an average of 6.3 disorders during their lifetime, compared to first-time offenders who screened positive for an average of 3.7 disorders. Repeat DUI offenders also screened positive for more past-year disorders (M = 3.3) than first-time offenders (M = 1.9). Compared to first-time offenders, repeat DUI offenders evidence more severe and pervasive psychiatric comorbidity. Further research is necessary to determine whether psychiatric comorbidity among first-time offenders directly predicts re-offense. If so, screening for mental health issues among first-offenders could provide valuable information about how best to allocate resources for these offenders.
       
  • Evaluating the predictive value of measures of susceptibility to tobacco
           and alternative tobacco products
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2019Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Jessica L. Barrington-Trimis, Fei Liu, Jennifer B. Unger, Todd Alonzo, Tess Boley Cruz, Robert Urman, Mary Ann Pentz, Kiros Berhane, Rob McConnell BackgroundThe “cigarette susceptibility index” has been adapted for other products, yet, the validity of these adapted measures–particularly among youth who have used other tobacco products–has not been evaluated.MethodsWe used prospective data from the Southern California Children's Health Study to evaluate the association of questionnaire measures assessing susceptibility to e-cigarette, cigarette, hookah and cigar/cigarillo/little cigar use at wave 1 (W1; 11th/12th grade) with subsequent initiation between W1 and W2 (16 months later, N = 1453). We additionally examined whether each effect estimate differed by use of other tobacco products at W1.ResultsOdds ratios, attributable risk%, and risk differences for product initiation among susceptible vs. non-susceptible youth were consistently higher among never users of any tobacco product than among youth with any tobacco use history. For example, susceptible (vs. non-susceptible) youth with no prior tobacco use had 3.64 times the odds of subsequent initiation of e-cigarettes (95%CI:2.61,5.09), while among users of another product, susceptible (vs. non-susceptible) youth had 1.95 times the odds of e-cigarette initiation (95%CI:0.98,3.89; p-interaction = 0.016). 60.4% of e-cigarette initiation among never users of any product could be attributed to susceptibility, compared to 19.8% among users of another product. The e-cigarette absolute risk difference between susceptible and non-susceptible youth was 21.9%(15.2,28.6) for never users, vs. 15.4%(0.2,30.7) for users of another product.ConclusionTobacco product-specific susceptibility associations with initiation of use at W2 were markedly attenuated among prior users of other products, demonstrating reduced utility for these measures among subjects using other products.
       
  • Mediation analysis with zero-inflated substance use outcomes: Challenges
           and recommendations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2019Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Holly P. O'Rourke, Edwin Vazquez Mediating mechanisms are important components of substance use research, as many substance use interventions work by targeting mediating variables. One issue that is common in substance use research is the presence of many responses of zero in a count variable that is the primary outcome of interest, such as number of drinks per week or number of substances used in the past month. The goal of this paper is to highlight the unique challenges that substance use researchers face when conducting mediation analysis with a zero-inflated count outcome. In this paper, we first describe the models that are commonly used for zero-inflated count data, and when it is appropriate to use them. We then describe general mediation analysis and summarize the small body of work that has focused on mediation for count and zero-inflated count outcomes. We identify the main issue of computing the mediated effect when outcomes are zero-inflated, namely, that the path leading to the zero-inflated count outcome (or mediator) is modeled in two parts. We then provide two examples of mediation models with different conclusions that have zero-inflated count outcomes using adolescent substance use data and define the issues that arise when assessing mediation for each. Finally, we describe the directions in which we must target future methodological research to create accessible solutions for handling mediation with zero-inflated count data in substance use research.
       
  • Commentary on Jauhar and Hayes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Michael P. Hengartner
       
  • Toward more efficient diagnostic criteria sets and rules: The use of
           optimization approaches in addiction science
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2019Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Jordan E. Stevens, Douglas Steinley, Yoanna E. McDowell, Cassandra L. Boness, Timothy J. Trull, Christopher S. Martin, Kenneth J. Sher Psychiatric diagnostic systems, such as The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), use expert consensus to determine diagnostic criteria sets and rules (DCSRs), rather than exploiting empirical techniques to arrive at optimal solutions (OS). Our project utilizes complete enumeration (i.e., generating all possible subsets of item combinations A and B with all possible thresholds, T) to evaluate all possible DCSRs given a set of relevant diagnostic data. This method yields the entire population distribution of diagnostic classifications (i.e., diagnosis of the disorder versus no diagnosis) produced by a set of dichotomous predictors (i.e., diagnostic criteria). Once unique sets are enumerated, optimization on some predefined correlate or predictor will maximally separate diagnostic groups on one or more, disorder-specific “outcome” criteria. We used this approach to illustrate how to create a common Substance Use Disorder (SUD) DCSR that is applicable to multiple substances. We demonstrate the utility of this approach with respect to alcohol use disorder and Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) using DSM-5 criteria as input variables. The optimal SUD solution with a moderate or above severity grading included four criteria (i.e. 1) having a strong urge or craving for the substance (CR), 2) failure to fulfill major role obligations at work school or home (FF), 3) continued use of the substance despite social or interpersonal problems caused by the substance use (SI) and 4) physically hazardous use (HU)) with a diagnostic threshold of two. The derived DCSR was validated with known correlates of SUD and performed as well as DSM-5. Our findings illustrate the value of using an empirical approach to what is typically a subjective process of choosing criteria and algorithms that is prone to bias. The optimization of diagnostic criteria can reduce criteria set sizes, resulting in decreased research, clinician, and patient burden.
       
  • Authors' response to a critique by Jauhar and Hayes of ‘A systematic
           review into the incidence, severity and duration of antidepressant
           withdrawal effects: Are guideline evidence-based'’
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2019Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): James Davies, John Read
       
  • Susceptibility and perceptions of excessive internet use impact on health
           among Vietnamese youths
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2019Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Ha Ngoc Do, Brenda Onyango, Roshni Prakash, Bach Xuan Tran, Quang Nhat Nguyen, Long Hoang Nguyen, Hoa Quynh Thi Nguyen, Anh Tuan Nguyen, Hiep Duy Nguyen, Thanh Phuong Bui, Thao Bich Thi Vu, Khiet Thanh Le, Dung Tuan Nguyen, Anh Kim Dang, Nam Ba Nguyen, Carl A. Latkin, Cyrus S.H. Ho, Roger C.M. Ho Studies performed worldwide show excessive Internet use could have a negative impact on health. However, Internet use studies in Vietnam are limited. In this study, we reported a high prevalence of frequent Internet usage among Vietnamese youth between 16 and 30 years old. Of 1200 participants, almost 65% reported using the Internet daily. Moreover, 34.3% of the participants reported feeling anxious or uncomfortable after not using the Internet for one day irrespective of their gender, and 40% believed using the Internet frequently did not affect their health. Of those, there was a higher proportion of women than men that held this belief (42.1% vs. 35.9%, respectively, p = .03). In this cohort, undergraduate students were more likely than blue-collar workers to believe that frequent Internet use could affect health. Yet, undergraduate [OR = 1.50, 95%CI = (1.08, 2.09), p 
       
  • A review of EMA assessment period reporting for mood variables in
           substance use research: Expanding existing EMA guidelines
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2019Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Narayan B. Singh, Elin A. Björling Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is an increasingly popular approach in substance use research for capturing reliable, in-situ, self-reported information about fluctuating variables, such as mood, over time. Current EMA guidelines do not sufficiently address the reporting of assessment periods (e.g., right now, past 30 min). Given the importance of time in EMA studies, variation and ambiguity in assessment period reporting risks misinterpretation of procedures and findings. The following study reviewed the methodological reporting of EMA assessment periods in substance use research. A search conducted in PsychINFO and PubMed using the terms “ecological momentary assessment” OR “EMA” AND “mood” AND “substance use” yielded 36 unique search results. The references of these results were hand searched and resulted in 126 additional studies. After deleting duplicates and applying inclusion criteria, 56 studies were included in the review. Review of these studies illustrated (1) variability and ambiguity in study assessment periods (2) within-study incongruence between assessment period descriptions and associated EMA prompts, (3) and a large temporal range of retrospective assessment periods across studies. Each of these findings are illustrated and discussed using examples from the literature. From these examples, assessment period reporting guidelines are proposed to improve EMA reporting clarity. Such improvements will facilitate increased synthesis of EMA research and position future researchers to investigate the validity and reliability of EMA data captured with different lengths of retrospection.
       
  • Which sports are more at risk of physical exercise addiction: A systematic
           review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Laura Di Lodovico, Ségolène Poulnais, Philip Gorwood IntroductionExcessive physical exercise may evolve into physical exercise addiction, a recently identified entity with many yet unclear aspects, such as global prevalence and variability according to different types of physical exercise.MethodsWe systematically reviewed the current literature up to June 2018 to collect all studies screening exercise addiction with two of the most frequently used screening scales: the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) and the Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS).ResultsWe detected forty-eight studies (20 using the EAI, 26 the EDS, and 2 both scales) reporting variable point prevalence of exercise addiction risk, depending on the target population and the investigated sport. The EAI identifies a higher proportion of people at risk for physical exercise addiction among endurance athletes (14,2%) followed by ball games (10,4%), fitness centre attendees (8,2%) and power disciplines (6,4%), while a frequency of 3,0% was reported in the general population. Studies using the EDS found discrepant results.DiscussionThis systematic review suggests that sport disciplines are associated with different vulnerability for physical exercise addiction. Besides the different addictive potential of each sport, the heterogeneity of results may be also due to socio-demographic and cultural characteristics of the target populations. The EAI and the EDS identify different proportions of individuals at risk for exercise addiction both in general population and in specific sport categories. As the EAI screens a higher proportion of subjects at risk, especially in endurance disciplines, it could be more appropriate for early detection of at-risk subjects and/or disciplines.ConclusionTailored prevention strategies for each discipline could help better preserving benefits of sports. More precision in research methods and the use of the most appropriate scale are required to allow a better comparability of prevalence among physical exercise disciplines and in general population.
       
  • Statistical methods for evaluating the correlation between timeline
           follow-back data and daily process data with applications to research on
           alcohol and marijuana use
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Wanjun Liu, Runze Li, Marc A. Zimmerman, Maureen A. Walton, Rebecca M. Cunningham, Anne Buu BackgroundRetrospective timeline follow-back (TLFB) data and prospective daily process data have been frequently collected in addiction research to characterize behavioral patterns. Although previous validity studies have demonstrated high correlations between these two types of data, the conventional method adopted in those studies was based on summary measures that may lose critical information and the Pearson's correlation coefficient that has an undesirable property. This study proposes the functional concordance correlation coefficient to address these issues.MethodsWe use real data collected from a randomized experiment to demonstrate the applications of the proposed method and compare its analytical results with those of the conventional method. We also conduct a simulation study based on the real data to evaluate the level of overestimation associated with the conventional method.ResultsThe results of the real data example indicate that the correlation between these two types of data varies across substances (alcohol vs. marijuana) and assessment schedules (daily vs. weekly). Additionally, the correlations estimated by the conventional method tend to be higher than those estimated by the proposed method. The simulation results further show that the magnitude of overestimation associated with the conventional method is greatest when the true correlation is medium.ConclusionsThe findings of the real data example imply that daily assessments are particularly beneficial for characterizing more variable behaviors like alcohol use, whereas weekly assessments may be sufficient for low variation events such as marijuana use. The proposed method is a better approach for evaluating the validity of TLFB data.
       
  • Mediation analysis with binary outcomes: Direct and indirect effects of
           pro-alcohol influences on alcohol use disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Alan Feingold, David P. MacKinnon, Deborah M. Capaldi A risk factor or intervention (an independent variable) may influence a substance abuse outcome (the dependent variable) indirectly, by affecting an intervening variable (a mediator) that in turn affects that outcome. Mediation analysis is a statistical method commonly used to examine the interrelations among independent, mediating, and dependent variables to obtain the direct and indirect effects of an independent variable on a continuous dependent variable. However, mediation analysis may also be used with binary outcomes, such as a diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Study 1 demonstrated methods of mediation analysis with binary outcomes by examining the direct and indirect effects of pro-alcohol social influences on an AUD, as a function of: (a) the distribution of the independent variable (binary vs. continuous), (b) the frequency of the outcome (non-rare vs. rare), and (c) the effect metric (probability vs. odds ratio). Study 2 was a Monte Carlo (simulation) study of bias in the indirect effects based on estimates from the first study. These methods have wide applicability in addictions research because many key outcomes are binary, and mediation analysis is frequently used to study the causal mechanisms by which interventions and risk factors affect substance abuse.
       
  • Quantifying the impact of partial measurement invariance in diagnostic
           research: An application to addiction research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Mark H.C. Lai, George B. Richardson, Hio Wa Mak Establishing measurement invariance, or that an instrument measures the same construct(s) in the same way across subgroups of respondents, is crucial in efforts to validate social and behavioral instruments. Although substantial previous research has focused on detecting the presence of noninvariance, less attention has been devoted to its practical significance and even less has been paid to its possible impact on diagnostic accuracy. In this article, we draw additional attention to the importance of measurement invariance and advance diagnostic research by introducing a novel approach for quantifying the impact of noninvariance with binary items (e.g., the presence or absence of symptoms). We illustrate this approach by testing measurement invariance and evaluating diagnostic accuracy across age groups using DSM alcohol use disorder items from a public national data set. By providing researchers with an easy-to-implement R program for examining diagnostic accuracy with binary items, this article sets the stage for future evaluations of the practical significance of partial invariance. Future work can extend our framework to include ordinal and categorical indicators, other measurement models in item response theory, settings with three or more groups, and via comparison to an external, “gold-standard” validator.
       
  • Developmental considerations in survival models as applied to substance
           use research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Kristina M. Jackson, Tim Janssen Survival analysis is a class of models that are ideal for evaluating questions of timing of events, which makes them well-suited for modeling the development of a process such as initiation of substance use, development of addiction, or post-treatment recovery. The focus of this review paper is to demonstrate how survival models operate in a broader developmental framework and to offer guidance on selecting the appropriate model on the basis of the research question at hand. We provide a basic overview of survival models and then identify several key issues, explain how they pertain to research in the addiction field, and describe studies that utilize survival models to address questions about timing. We discuss the importance of carefully selecting the metric and origin of the time scale that corresponds to developmental process under investigation and we describe types of censoring/truncation. We describe the value of modeling covariates as time-invariant versus time-varying, and make the distinction between time-varying covariates and time-varying effects of covariates. We also explain how to test for substantive differences due to the timing of the assessment of the predictor. We finish the paper with a presentation of relatively novel extensions of survival models, including models that integrate standard statistical mediational analysis with discrete-time survival analysis, models that simultaneously consider order and timing of multiple events, and models that involve joint modeling of longitudinal and survival data. We also present our own substantive examples of various models in an Appendix containing annotated syntax and output.
       
  • A robust alternative estimator for small to moderate sample SEM:
           Bias-corrected factor score path analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Ben Kelcey Structural equation modeling with full information maximum likelihood estimation is the predominant method to empirically assess complex theories involving multiple latent variables in addiction research. Although full information estimators have many desirable properties including consistency, a major limitation in structural equation models is that they often sustain significant bias when implemented in small to moderate size studies (e.g., fewer than 100 or 200). Recent literature has developed a limited information estimator designed to address this limitation—conceptually implemented through a bias-corrected factor score path analysis approach—that has been shown to produce unbiased and efficient estimates in small to moderate sample settings. Despite its theoretical and empirical merits, literature has suggested that the method is underused because of three primary reasons—the methods are unfamiliar to applied researchers, there is a lack of practical and accessible guidance and software available for applied researchers, and comparisons against full information methods that are grounded in discipline-specific examples are lacking. In this study, I delineate this method through a step-by-step analysis of a sequential mediation case study involving internet addiction. I provide example R code using the lavaan package and data based on a hypothetical study of addiction. I examine the differences between the full and limited information estimators within the example data and subsequently probe the extent to which these differences are indicative of a consistent divergence between the estimators using a simulation study. The results suggest that the limited information estimator outperforms the conventional full information maximum likelihood estimator in small to moderate sample sizes in terms of bias, efficiency, and power.
       
  • Simplifying the implementation of modern scale scoring methods with an
           automated R package: Automated moderated nonlinear factor analysis
           (aMNLFA)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Nisha C. Gottfredson, Veronica T. Cole, Michael L. Giordano, Daniel J. Bauer, Andrea M. Hussong, Susan T. Ennett When generating scores to represent latent constructs, analysts have a choice between applying psychometric approaches that are principled but that can be complicated and time-intensive versus applying simple and fast, but less precise approaches, such as sum or mean scoring. We explain the reasons for preferring modern psychometric approaches: namely, use of unequal item weights and severity parameters, the ability to account for local dependence and differential item functioning, and the use of covariate information to more efficiently estimate factor scores. We describe moderated nonlinear factor analysis (MNLFA), a relatively new, highly flexible approach that allows analysts to develop precise factor score estimates that address limitations of sum score, mean score, and traditional factor analytic approaches to scoring. We then outline the steps involved in using the MNLFA scoring approach and discuss the circumstances in which this approach is preferred. To overcome the difficulty of implementing MNLFA models in practice, we developed an R package, aMNLFA, that automates much of the rule-based scoring process. We illustrate the use of aMNLFA with an empirical example of scoring alcohol involvement in a longitudinal study of 6998 adolescents and compare performance of MNLFA scores with traditional factor analysis and sum scores based on the same set of 12 items. MNLFA scores retain more meaningful variation than other approaches. We conclude with practical guidelines for scoring.
       
  • Implementing statistical methods for generalizing randomized trial
           findings to a target population
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Benjamin Ackerman, Ian Schmid, Kara E. Rudolph, Marissa J. Seamans, Ryoko Susukida, Ramin Mojtabai, Elizabeth A. Stuart Randomized trials are considered the gold standard for assessing the causal effects of a drug or intervention in a study population, and their results are often utilized in the formulation of health policy. However, there is growing concern that results from trials do not necessarily generalize well to their respective target populations, in which policies are enacted, due to substantial demographic differences between study and target populations. In trials related to substance use disorders (SUDs), especially, strict exclusion criteria make it challenging to obtain study samples that are fully “representative” of the populations that policymakers may wish to generalize their results to. In this paper, we provide an overview of post-trial statistical methods for assessing and improving upon the generalizability of a randomized trial to a well-defined target population. We then illustrate the different methods using a randomized trial related to methamphetamine dependence and a target population of substance abuse treatment seekers, and provide software to implement the methods in R using the “generalize” package. We discuss several practical considerations for researchers who wish to utilize these tools, such as the importance of acquiring population-level data to represent the target population of interest, and the challenges of data harmonization.
       
  • How to implement directed acyclic graphs to reduce bias in addiction
           research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Kathryn Wouk, Anna E. Bauer, Nisha C. Gottfredson
       
  • A straightforward approach for coping with unreliability of person means
           when parsing within-person and between-person effects in longitudinal
           studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Nisha C. Gottfredson Longitudinal studies enable researchers to distinguish within-person (i.e., time-varying) from between-person (i.e., time invariant) effects by using the person mean to model between-person effects and person-mean centering to model within-person effects using multilevel models (MLM). However, with some exceptions, the person mean tends to be based on a relatively small number of observations available for each participant in longitudinal studies. Unreliability inherent in person means generated with few observations results in downwardly biased between-person and cross-level interaction effect estimates. This manuscript considers a simple, easy-to-implement, post-hoc bias adjustment to correct for attenuation of between-person effects caused by unreliability of the person mean. This correction can be applied directly to estimates obtained from MLM. We illustrate this method using data from a panel study predicting adolescent alcohol involvement from perceived parental monitoring, where parental monitoring was disaggregated into within-person (i.e., person-mean-centered) and between-person (i.e., person-mean) components. We then describe results of a small simulation study that evaluated the performance of the post-hoc adjustment under data conditions that mirrored those of the empirical example. Results suggested that, under a condition in which parameter bias is known to be problematic (i.e., moderate ICCX, small n, presence of a compositional effect), it is preferable to use the bias-adjusted MLM estimates over the unadjusted MLM estimates for between-person and cross-level interaction effects.
       
  • Interaction effects may actually be nonlinear effects in disguise: A
           review of the problem and potential solutions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): William C.M. Belzak, Daniel J. Bauer It is common in addictions research for statistical analyses to include interaction effects to test moderation hypotheses. Far less commonly do researchers consider the possibility that a given predictor may exert a nonlinear effect on the outcome. This lack of attention to the possible nonlinear effects of individual predictors is problematic because it may result in identification of entirely spurious interactions with other, correlated predictors. Given the commonplace practice of testing interactions, and the rarity of testing nonlinear effects, we speculate that some of the significant interactions reported in the literature may actually be spurious, reflecting only the misspecification of nonlinear effects. We outline the mathematical reasons for this problem using the relatively simple case of a quadratic regression model. Within this context, prior research by Busemeyer and Jones (1983) clearly demonstrated that quadratic effects of individual predictors can masquerade as interaction effects between correlated predictors. Furthermore, the explosive growth of mediation, moderation, and moderated mediation analyses in behavioral research makes this issue especially relevant for researchers of addiction. In this article, we (1) call further attention to the potential problems of omitting nonlinear effects in linear regression, (2) extend these findings to the more complex moderated mediation model, and (3) provide practical recommendations for applied researchers for differentiating nonlinear from interactive effects.
       
  • Conducting sensitivity analyses to identify and buffer power
           vulnerabilities in studies examining substance use over time
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Sean P. Lane, Erin P. Hennes IntroductionA priori power analysis is increasingly being recognized as a useful tool for designing efficient research studies that improve the probability of robust and publishable results. However, power analyses for many empirical designs in the addiction sciences require consideration of numerous parameters. Identifying appropriate parameter estimates is challenging due to multiple sources of uncertainty, which can limit power analyses' utility.MethodWe demonstrate a sensitivity analysis approach for systematically investigating the impact of various model parameters on power. We illustrate this approach using three design aspects of importance for substance use researchers conducting longitudinal studies base rates, individual differences (i.e., random slopes), and correlated predictors (e.g., co-use) and examine how sensitivity analyses can illuminate strategies for controlling power vulnerabilities in such parameters.ResultsEven large numbers of participants and/or repeated assessments can be insufficient to observe associations when substance use base rates are too low or too high. Large individual differences can adversely affect power, even with increased assessments. Collinear predictors are rarely detrimental unless the correlation is high.ConclusionsIncreasing participants is usually more effective at buffering power than increasing assessments. Research designs can often enhance power by assessing participants twice as frequently as substance use occurs. Heterogeneity should be carefully estimated or empirically controlled, whereas collinearity infrequently impacts power significantly. Sensitivity analyses can identify regions of model parameter spaces that are vulnerable to bad guesses or sampling variability. These insights can be used to design robust studies that make optimal use of limited resources.
       
  • Modeling change trajectories with count and zero-inflated outcomes:
           Challenges and recommendations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Kevin J. Grimm, Gabriela Stegmann The goal of this article is to describe models to examine change over time with an outcome that represents a count, such as the number of alcoholic drinks per day. Common challenges encountered with this type of data are: (1) the outcome is discrete, may have a large number of zeroes, and may be overdispersed, (2) the data are clustered (multiple observations within each individual), (3) the researchers needs to carefully consider and choose an appropriate time metric, and (4) the researcher needs to identify both a proper individual (potentially nonlinear) change model and an appropriate distributional form that captures the properties of the data. In this article, we provide an overview of generalized linear models, generalized estimating equation models, and generalized latent variable (mixed-effects) models for longitudinal count outcomes focusing on the Poisson, negative binomial, zero-inflated, and hurdle distributions. We review common challenges and provide recommendations for identifying an appropriate change trajectory while determining an appropriate distributional form for the outcome (e.g., determining zero-inflation and overdispersion). We demonstrate the process of fitting and choosing a model with empirical longitudinal data on alcohol intake across adolescence collected as part of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997.
       
  • A systematic review into the incidence, severity and duration of
           antidepressant withdrawal effects: Are guidelines evidence-based'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): James Davies, John Read IntroductionThe U.K.'s current National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and the American Psychiatric Association's depression guidelines state that withdrawal reactions from antidepressants are ‘self-limiting’ (i.e. typically resolving between 1 and 2 weeks). This systematic review assesses that claim.MethodsA systematic literature review was undertaken to ascertain the incidence, severity and duration of antidepressant withdrawal reactions. We identified 24 relevant studies, with diverse methodologies and sample sizes.ResultsWithdrawal incidence rates from 14 studies ranged from 27% to 86% with a weighted average of 56%. Four large studies of severity produced a weighted average of 46% of those experiencing antidepressant withdrawal effects endorsing the most extreme severity rating on offer. Seven of the ten very diverse studies providing data on duration contradict the U.K. and U.S.A. withdrawal guidelines in that they found that a significant proportion of people who experience withdrawal do so for more than two weeks, and that it is not uncommon for people to experience withdrawal for several months. The findings of the only four studies calculating mean duration were, for quite heterogeneous populations, 5 days, 10 days, 43 days and 79 weeks.ConclusionsWe recommend that U.K. and U.S.A. guidelines on antidepressant withdrawal be urgently updated as they are clearly at variance with the evidence on the incidence, severity and duration of antidepressant withdrawal, and are probably leading to the widespread misdiagnosing of withdrawal, the consequent lengthening of antidepressant use, much unnecessary antidepressant prescribing and higher rates of antidepressant prescriptions overall. We also recommend that prescribers fully inform patients about the possibility of withdrawal effects.
       
  • Beyond path diagrams: Enhancing applied structural equation modeling
           research through data visualization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Kevin A. Hallgren, Connor J. McCabe, Kevin M. King, David C. Atkins IntroductionStructural equation modeling (SEM) is a multivariate data analytic technique used in many domains of addictive behaviors research. SEM results are usually summarized and communicated through statistical tables and path diagrams, which emphasize path coefficients and global fit without showing specific quantitative values of data points that underlie the model results. Data visualization methods are often absent in SEM research, which may limit the quality and impact of SEM research by reducing data transparency, obscuring unexpected data anomalies and unmodeled heterogeneity, and inhibiting the communication of SEM research findings to research stakeholders who do not have advanced statistical training in SEM.Methods and resultsIn this report, we show how data visualization methods can address these limitations and improve the quality of SEM-based addictive behaviors research. We first introduce SEM and data visualization methodologies and differentiate data visualizations from model visualizations that are commonly used in SEM, such as path diagrams. We then discuss ways researchers may utilize data visualization in SEM research, including by obtaining estimates of latent variables and by visualizing multivariate relations in two-dimensional figures. R syntax is provided to help others generate data visualizations for several types of effects commonly modeled in SEM, including correlation, regression, moderation, and simple mediation.DiscussionThe techniques outlined here may help spur the use of data visualization in SEM-based addictive behaviors research. Using data visualization in SEM may enhance methodological transparency and improve communication of research findings.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
 
 
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