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Showing 1 - 200 of 3161 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 96, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 421, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 276, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 403, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 358, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 463, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Addictive Behaviors
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.29
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 17  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0306-4603
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Borderline personality disorder features and drinking, cannabis, and
           prescription opioid motives: Differential associations across substance
           and sex
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 87Author(s): Noel A. Vest, Kyle T. Murphy, Sarah L. Tragesser IntroductionDrinking motives have shown meaningful associations with borderline personality disorder (BPD) features. However, it is unknown whether other common substances of abuse (namely cannabis and prescription opioids) have the same associations with BPD features. In the present study, we tested associations between BPD features and motives across three substances: alcohol, cannabis, and prescription opioids. The purpose of the study was to determine whether BPD showed similar patterns of associations across drugs, or whether some substances serve particular functions for individuals with BPD features, and whether this also varies by sex in a college student sample.MethodFive-hundred ninety-four college students completed online questionnaires measuring demographics, borderline personality disorder features, substance use, and substance specific motives for alcohol, cannabis, and prescription opioid use.ResultsBPD was most strongly associated with coping motives across all substances. For both alcohol and cannabis, this was true for both males and females, along with conformity motives. For prescription opioids, coping, social, enhancement, and pain motives were only significantly related to BPD features for females. When compared statistically, it was found that the associations with coping drinking motives and opioid pain motives were higher among females.ConclusionsThis pattern of results suggests that negatively reinforcing motives (coping and conformity) play a similar functional role in borderline personality and substance use disorder pathology for alcohol and cannabis, but for prescription opioids the negative reinforcement motives (coping and pain) were only evident in females.
  • The effects of self-regulation strategies following moderate intensity
           exercise on ad libitum smoking
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 87Author(s): Maria Angeli, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Nikos Comoutos, Charalampos Krommidas, Ioannis D. Morres, Yannis Theodorakis IntroductionThe purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-regulation strategies can further extend the effect of moderate intensity exercise on smoking delay.MethodParticipants were 40 adult smokers who were randomly assigned into two groups: control and self-regulation. A repeated measures design was adopted including a neutral condition (20 min video) and an exercise condition (20 min moderate intensity exercise).ResultsThe results showed that smoking delay increased significantly for both groups; however, the increase for the self-regulation group was significantly larger than that of the control group.ConclusionsThe results support the anti-smoking effects of acute exercise; furthermore, they highlight the usefulness of self-regulation strategies, and in particular goal setting, in extending smoking delay. The present findings provide important evidence for the exercise and smoking literature and useful directions for the development of smoking cessation interventions.
  • A mediated multigroup model examining marijuana use consequences by sexual
           orientation in us college students
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 87Author(s): Jamie E. Parnes, Mark A. Prince, Bradley T. Conner, Marijuana Outcomes Study Team Marijuana use holds a curvilinear relation to sexual orientation, whereby bisexual individuals reporter higher frequency of use than exclusively hetero- or homosexual individuals. This relation differs by gender, with more pronounced differences among women. Bisexual individuals are at greater risk for negative consequences of marijuana use, such as dependence. To mitigate potential risks, individuals employ protective behavioral strategies (PBS). While differences in use are known, research has yet to examine if consequences and PBS use vary by sexual orientation. This study seeks to address the relations between sexual orientation, consequences, gender, and PBS. It was hypothesized that orientation would be associated with consequences, mediated by PBS, and these relations would vary by gender. College students (N = 8141) from 11 different universities completed an online survey measuring marijuana consequences, PBS use, and sexual orientation. A final analytic sample (n = 2091) was composed of participants who indicated past 30-day marijuana use (60% women, 64% White, mean age 19.92). Path analysis was used to test all study hypothesis. Results indicated a curvilinear relation between sexual orientation and consequences among men, however not women. Moreover, PBS use mediated the relation between orientation and consequences among men, and negatively predicted consequences among women. Conclusions include that mixed sexual orientation men experience higher consequences through lower PBS use. For women, PBS use buffers against consequences. These findings reflect a general effectiveness of PBS use for mitigating negative marijuana-related consequences. The implications of these results are discussed.
  • Expanding the reach of alcohol and other drug services: Prevalence and
           correlates of US adult engagement with online technology to address
           substance problems
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 87Author(s): Brandon G. Bergman, M. Claire Greene, Bettina B. Hoeppner, John F. Kelly Online technologies are well integrated into the day-to-day lives of individuals with alcohol and other drug (i.e., substance use) problems. Interventions that leverage online technologies have been shown to enhance outcomes for these individuals. To date, however, little is known about how those with substance use problems naturally engage with such platforms. In addition, the scientific literatures on health behavior change facilitated by technology and harms driven by technology engagement have developed largely independent of one another. In this secondary analysis of the National Recovery Study (NRS), which provides a geo-demographically representative sample of US adults who resolved a substance use problem, we examined a) the weighted prevalence estimate of individuals who engaged with online technologies to "cut down on substance use, abstain from substances, or strengthen one's recovery" (i.e., recovery-related use of online technology, or ROOT), b) clinical/recovery correlates of ROOT, controlling for demographic covariates, and c) the unique association between ROOT and self-reported history of internet addiction. Results showed one in ten (11%) NRS participants reported ROOT. Significant correlates included greater current psychological distress, younger age of first substance use, as well as history of anti-craving/anti-relapse medication, recovery support services, and drug court participation. Odds of lifetime internet addiction were 4 times greater for those with ROOT (vs. no ROOT). These data build on studies of technology-based interventions, highlighting the reach of ROOT, and therefore, the potential for a large, positive impact on substance-related harms in the US.
  • Alcohol expectancy profile in late childhood with alcohol drinking and
           purchasing behaviors in adolescence
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 87Author(s): Wan-Ting Chen, Nadia Wang, Kuan-Chia Lin, Chieh-Yu Liu, Wei J. Chen, Chuan-Yu Chen BackgroundThe study aims to (i) identify the evolving profile of endorsed alcohol expectancies (AEs) during the transition from late childhood into early adolescence, and (ii) examine the connection between such profiles and subsequent alcohol drinking and purchasing in adolescence.MethodsA prospective cohort of 928 sixth graders was recruited from 17 elementary schools in northern Taiwan in 2006 with follow-ups conducted in seventh and eighth grade. Information concerning AEs, individual characteristics, and social attributes were collected by self-administered questionnaires at baseline and in seventh grade; drinking behaviors and alcohol purchasing were assessed in eighth grade. Longitudinal latent profile and survey regression analyses were used to evaluate association estimates.ResultsThree distinct profiles of positive AEs were identified: stably low (37%), stably high (35%), and increasing (28%). Regardless of childhood-onset alcohol experience, endorsing the stably high-profile AEs was associated with increased drinking occasions (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.24–1.80), and having the increasing-profile AEs may elevate the likelihood of alcohol purchase in adolescence (adjusted odd ratio [aOR] = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.33–4.96). Additionally, parental drinking was the most influential social factor for drinking occasions (aRR = 1.43) whereas peer drinking was prominent for alcohol purchasing (aOR = 3.06).ConclusionsThe evolving profile of alcohol expectancy in late childhood may predict alcohol drinking occasion and purchasing behaviors in adolescence. Underage drinking prevention efforts should target not only pro-alcohol social environments but also cognitive constructs (e.g., alcohol expectancy).
  • The revised four-factor motivational thought frequency and state
           motivation scales for alcohol control
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 87Author(s): David J. Kavanagh, Nicole Robinson, Jennifer Connolly, Jason Connor, Jackie Andrade, Jon May IntroductionElaborated Intrusion (EI) Theory holds that both functional and dysfunctional motivational cognitions are characterized by their intensity, cognitive availability and involvement of imagery, and can be assessed in terms of their frequency and cross-sectional nature. Recently published data on the Motivational Thought Frequency (MTF-A) and State Motivation (SM-A) scales for alcohol control, which were based on EI theory, have shown acceptable fit for a three-subscale structure (Intensity, Imagery, Availability). However, subsequent analyses on the MTF's adaptation to diabetic regimen adherence suggested superior fit from a four-factor model, splitting Imagery into Incentives and Self-Efficacy Imagery. The current paper reanalyzed data on the MTF-A and SM-A, including an additional item on each and using a more robust statistical approach.MethodsParticipants (n = 504) reporting recent high-risk drinking or were currently trying to control alcohol consumption volunteered to complete an online survey that included the MTF-A, SM-A, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Readiness to Change Questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analyses employed robust maximum likelihood (MLR) with Yuan-Bentler χ2 adjustment, and presented internal consistencies using omega.ResultsAfter omission of multivariate outliers, SM-A data were available from 399 participants, and MTF-A data from 351. Better fit was found for the four-factor model on both measures, and high internal consistencies were obtained for all subscales. Incentives Imagery and Self-Efficacy Imagery were both associated with greater alcohol problems and readiness to change.ConclusionsThe four-factor structures are statistically superior and more theoretically coherent, and allow a focused assessment of key targets of motivational interventions.
  • Exposure to positive peer sentiment about nicotine replacement therapy in
           an online smoking cessation community is associated with NRT use
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 87Author(s): Jennifer L. Pearson, Michael S. Amato, George D. Papandonatos, Kang Zhao, Bahar Erar, Xi Wang, Sarah Cha, Amy M. Cohn, Amanda L. Graham BackgroundLittle is known about the influence of online peer interactions on health behavior change. This study examined the relationship between exposure to peer sentiment about nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in an online social network for smoking cessation and NRT use.MethodsParticipants were 3297 current smokers who enrolled in an Internet smoking cessation program, participated in a randomized trial, and completed a 3-month follow-up. Half received free NRT as part of the trial. Automated text classification identified 27,038 posts about NRT that one or more participants were exposed to in the social network. Sentiment towards NRT was rated on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Participants' exposure to peer sentiment about NRT was determined by analysis of clickstream data. Modified Poisson regression examined self-reported use of NRT at 3-months as a function of exposure to NRT sentiment, controlling for study arm and post exposure.ResultsOne in five participants (19.3%, n = 639) were exposed to any NRT-related posts (mean exposure = 6.5 ± 14.7, mean sentiment = 5.4 ± 0.8). The association between sentiment exposure and NRT use varied by receipt of free NRT. Greater exposure to positive NRT sentiment was associated with an increased likelihood of NRT use among participants who did not receive free NRT (adjusted rate ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.01, 1.47; p = .043), whereas no such relationship was observed among participants who did receive free NRT (p = .48).ConclusionsExposure to positive sentiment about NRT was associated with increased NRT use when smokers obtained it on their own. Highlighting user-generated content containing positive NRT sentiment may increase NRT use among treatment-seeking smokers.
  • Cigarette smoking duration mediates the association between future
           thinking and norepinephrine level
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 87Author(s): Jenny E. Ozga, Nicholas J. Felicione, Melissa D. Blank, Nicholas A. Turiano Fixating on the present moment rather than considering future consequences of behavior is considered to be a hallmark of drug addiction. As an example, cigarette smokers devalue delayed consequences to a greater extent than nonsmokers, and former smokers devalue delayed consequences more than nonsmokers, but less than current smokers. Further, cigarette smokers have higher norepinephrine levels than nonsmokers, which is indicative of poor future health outcomes. It is unclear how duration of cigarette smoking may impact these associations. The current secondary analysis of publicly available data investigated whether extent of future thinking is associated with smoking duration, as well as norepinephrine level, in a large national US sample (N = 985) of current, former, and never smokers. Individuals scoring lower on future thinking tended to smoke for longer durations and had higher norepinephrine levels relative to individuals scoring higher on future thinking. In addition, duration of cigarette abstinence interacted significantly with future thinking and smoking duration for former smokers. Specifically, the mediation relationship between future thinking, smoking duration, and norepinephrine level for former smokers was strongest at shorter durations of cigarette abstinence and decreased as a function of increasing duration of cigarette abstinence. Overall, results from this study suggest the potential importance of implementing smoking cessation treatments as early as possible for smokers and support future thinking as a potential therapeutic target for smoking cessation treatment.
  • Personal and perceived peer use and attitudes towards use of
           non-prescribed prescription sedatives and sleeping pills among university
           students in seven European countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 87Author(s): Gesa Lehne, Hajo Zeeb, Claudia R. Pischke, Rafael Mikolajczyk, Bridgette M. Bewick, John McAlaney, Robert C. Dempsey, Guido Van Hal, Christiane Stock, Yildiz Akvardar, Ondrej Kalina, Olga Orosova, Ines Aguinaga-Ontoso, Francisco Guillen-Grima, Stefanie M. Helmer IntroductionThe use of non-prescribed prescription sedatives and sleeping pills (NPPSSP) among university students has been described as an important public health issue. However, the impact of perceived social norms on students' use and attitudes towards use of NPPSSP is still unclear. Our aim was to investigate whether perceptions of peer use and approval of use are associated with students' personal use and approval of NPPSSP use.MethodsCross-sectional data from the Social Norms Intervention for the prevention of Polydrug Use (SNIPE) project containing 4482 university students from seven European countries were analyzed to investigate self-other discrepancies regarding personal use and attitudes towards NPPSSP use. Associations between personal and perceived peer use and between personal and perceived approval of use were examined using multivariable logistic regression.ResultsThe majority (51.0%) of students perceived their peers' NPPSSP use to be higher than their personal use. 92.6% of students perceived their peers' approval of NPPSSP use to be identical or higher than their personal approval. Students perceiving that the majority of peers had used NPPSSP at least once displayed higher odds for personal lifetime use (OR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.49–2.55). Perceived peer approval of NPPSSP use was associated with higher odds for personal approval (OR: 5.49, 95% CI: 4.63–6.51).ConclusionsAmong European university students, perceiving NPPSSP use and approval of use to be the norm was positively associated with students' personal NPPSSP use and approval of use, respectively. Interventions addressing perceived social norms may prevent or reduce NPPSSP use among university students.Final trial registration number: DRKS00004375 on the ‘German Clinical Trials Register’.
  • Consideration of future consequences as a moderator of the
           willingness-behavior relationship for young adult marijuana use and
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 87Author(s): Melissa A. Lewis, Dana M. Litt, Kevin M. King, Tracey A. Garcia, Katja A. Waldron, Christine M. Lee The Prototype Willingness Model is a dual-processing (i.e., intentional and socially reactive) health-risk behavior model. The socially reactive path includes behavioral willingness, descriptive normative perceptions, and favorable images of individuals who engage in health-risk behavior (prototype favorability) as important predictors of health behaviors. Individual differences (such as consideration of future consequences) may potentiate the effects of behavioral willingness on health-risk outcomes, such as marijuana use. Given limited research investigating marijuana use and the Prototype Willingness Model, the goals of the current study were: 1) examine consideration of future consequences and Prototype Willingness Model social reaction pathway variables in relation to behavioral willingness to use marijuana longitudinally; and 2) determine if consideration of future consequences moderated the behavioral willingness-marijuana use relation prospectively. Young adults (N = 769) from a larger longitudinal study completed baseline and 3 follow-up assessments (Months 3, 4, 5). Behavioral willingness was positively related to a higher likelihood of use, more days having used marijuana, and more consequences prospectively, over and above baseline use. Consideration of future consequences moderated the association between behavioral willingness and hours high in a typical week. These findings support the willingness-behavior association of the Prototype Willingness Model and preliminarily demonstrate consideration of future consequences' differential impact on behavioral willingness-future marijuana use relation. Intervention and prevention implications are discussed.
  • A longitudinal examination of protective behavioral strategies and alcohol
           consumption among adult drinkers
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 87Author(s): Maria R. Dekker, Michelle I. Jongenelis, Melanie Wakefield, Kypros Kypri, Penelope Hasking, Simone Pettigrew Previous studies suggest that employing specific behavioral strategies when drinking can prevent excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. However, these studies have typically examined these ‘protective behavioral strategies’ (PBSs) in combination, limiting understanding of whether individual strategies differ in their effectiveness. Further, most existing research is cross-sectional in design, precluding the determination of causal relationships between PBS use and alcohol consumption. To address these research gaps, the present study sought to longitudinally (i) identify which individual PBSs are significantly related to reduced alcohol consumption over time and (ii) explore the effectiveness of individual PBSs among specific population groups. The sample comprised 1328 Australian adult drinkers (47% male) who completed an online survey assessing engagement in PBSs and alcohol consumption at two time points approximately four weeks apart. Reported enactment of the PBS ‘Count your drinks’ was associated with a significant reduction in alcohol consumption between T1 and T2. In contrast, enactment of the PBSs ‘Ask a friend to let you know when you have had enough to drink’, ‘Put extra ice in your drink’, ‘Use a designated driver’, and ‘Leave drinking venues at a pre-determined time’ was associated with an increase in alcohol consumption. The results thus suggest that many PBSs may not be effective in reducing alcohol consumption and that some may be associated with higher levels of intake. The results have implications for the development of harm-minimization campaigns designed to encourage drinkers to reduce their alcohol consumption.
  • Sex differences in affect-triggered lapses during smoking cessation: A
           daily diary study
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 87Author(s): Sylvie Messer, Atara Siegel, Lauren Bertin, Joel Erblich IntroductionSmoking lapses during a cessation attempt are common and are thought to be a key predictor of full relapse. Positive and negative affective states have been hypothesized as important precipitants of lapses during quit attempts, although findings have been mixed. Accumulating evidence suggests that women may smoke more when experiencing negative affective states, while men may smoke more when experiencing positive affective states. The possibility that these sex differences may play a role in predicting lapses during a smoking cessation attempt, however, has not been well-investigated. In this study, we hypothesized that, during a quit attempt, negative affect would be more strongly associated with lapses among women, and positive affect would be more strongly associated with lapses among men.MethodWe conducted a prospective study in which male and female nicotine-dependent smokers (n = 60) made an unaided, ‘cold-turkey’ quit attempt. For fourteen days following the initiation of the quit attempt, participants completed daily diaries in which they recorded the degree to which states of ‘good mood’ and ‘bad mood’ preceded smoking lapses.ResultsConsistent with the study hypothesis, findings indicated that men reported higher good-mood-induced smoking lapses than women across the 14-day study interval. Conversely, while levels of bad-mood-induced smoking subsided over the 14-day interval among men, levels persisted among women.DiscussionResults further underscore the need to address sex-specific affective triggers when developing smoking cessation strategies.
  • Impulsivity and tobacco product use over time
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85Author(s): Neal Doran, Lyric Tully Impulsivity has been consistently associated with greater likelihood and intensity of cigarette smoking, but most studies have been cross-sectional. Additionally, while some initial studies are suggestive, less is known about links between impulsivity and use of e-cigarettes or hookah tobacco. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the urgency and sensation seeking aspects of impulsivity would be prospectively associated with patterns of cigarette, e-cigarette, and hookah tobacco use over time.Young adults (n = 335; 56% male) aged 18–24 who were non- and never-daily cigarette smokers at baseline completed 9 online assessments of tobacco product use over two years. Longitudinal negative binomial regression models were used to evaluate relationships between impulsivity components and product use.Frequency of use of all three products declined over time. Higher levels of positive urgency (cigarette), negative urgency (hookah), and lack of premeditation (e-cigarette, hookah) were associated with smaller reductions in frequency of specific products. Additionally, higher negative urgency predicted greater quantity of cigarettes consumed, and higher sensation seeking was associated with more frequent e-cigarette use.Findings suggest impulsivity components differentially predict tobacco use over time, indicating that motives and/or risk factors for tobacco use may be product-specific.
  • Suicidal ideation among adults with a recent sexual assault: Prescription
           opioid use and prior sexual assault
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85Author(s): Amanda K. Gilmore, Christine K. Hahn, Anna E. Jaffe, Kate Walsh, Angela D. Moreland, Erin F. Ward-Ciesielski IntroductionSexual assault (SA) is common, and recent sexual assault is associated with suicidal ideation and prescription opioid (PO) use. PO use is also associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation. The current study examined suicidal ideation among adults seeking medical and psychological follow-up care after a SA medical forensic examination based on PO use and prior SA.MethodsAdults (n = 60) who received a SA medical forensic exam at the emergency room within 120 h of a SA were invited to receive medical and psychological follow-up care, which included a questionnaire about current mental health symptoms.ResultsResults from a linear regression model revealed that more acute stress symptoms were associated with higher suicidal ideation. Further, there was a significant association between PO use and suicidal ideation among those with a prior SA such that those with a prior SA and who used POs reported more severe suicidal ideation than those with a prior SA who did not use POs.ConclusionsRoutine screening at the emergency department for PO use and prior SA may help prevention efforts for suicide among adults who recently experienced SA.
  • Perceived family relationship quality and use of poly-tobacco products
           during early and late adolescence
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85Author(s): Tzu Tsun Luk, Man Ping Wang, Lok Tung Leung, Jianjiu Chen, Yongda Wu, Tai Hing Lam, Sai Yin Ho BackgroundThe role of family relationship in adolescent use of emerging tobacco products, which have become increasingly popular, is unknown. We examined the associations of perceived family relationship quality with current use of poly-tobacco products including cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), waterpipe and smokeless tobacco in adolescents.MethodsData from a representative sample of 42,250 US grade 7–12 equivalent students (mean ± SD age 14.6 ± 1.9 years; 51.3% boys) from 75 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong (2012−13) were analysed. Logistic regressions yielded adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for current (past 30-day) use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and poly-tobacco (≥2 products) in relation to perceived family relationship quality, adjusted for age, sex, perceived family affluence, parental education, family structure, parental and sibling smoking and secondhand smoke exposure at home. Subgroup analyses were conducted to compare the associations in early (aged ≤14 years) versus late (>14) adolescents.ResultsThe odds of current use increased with worse perceived family relationship quality with AORs (95% confidence interval) of up to 2.92 (2.32–3.68) for cigarettes, 7.28 (4.71–11.2) for e-cigarettes, 5.04 (3.44–7.40) for waterpipe, 8.09 (4.87–13.4) for smokeless tobacco and 5.25 (3.45–8.01) for poly-tobacco products use (all P for trend
  • Trajectories of impulsivity by sex predict substance use and heavy
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85Author(s): Victor Martinez-Loredo, Jose Ramon Fernandez-Hermida, Alejandro De La Torre-Luque, Sergio Fernandez-Artamendi Although impulsivity and sensation seeking have been consistently associated with substance use, few studies have analyzed the relationship between changes in these variables and substance use in early adolescents. The aim of this study was to identify trajectories of impulsivity and sensation seeking and explore their relationship with substance use and heavy drinking. A total of 1342 non-user adolescents (53.6% males; mean age = 12.98, SD = 0.50) annually completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Zuckerman's Impulsive Sensation Seeking scale and a delay discounting task, over a total period of three years. Past alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use, drunkenness episodes (DE) and problem drinking were also assessed. Impulsivity trajectories were explored using latent class mixed modelling. To study their predictive power binary logistic regressions were used. Two trajectories of impulsivity were found in males and five were found in females. Males with an increasing impulsivity trajectory were more likely to report tobacco [odds ratio (OR) = 1.84] and cannabis (OR = 3.01) use, DE (OR = 2.44) and problem drinking (OR = 3.12). The early increasing trajectory in females predicted tobacco use (OR = 3.71), cannabis use (OR = 5.87) and DE (OR = 3.64). Lack of premeditation and delay discounting were the most relevant facets in high-risk trajectories. Selective intervention and more intense and tailored treatment might help these adolescents to reduce early increases in impulsivity and prevent escalation of substance use.
  • Situational fears: Association with negative affect-related smoking
           cognition among treatment seeking smokers
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85Author(s): Jafar Bakhshaie, Andrew H. Rogers, Brooke Y. Kauffman, Melissa Fasteau, Julia D. Buckner, Norman B. Schmidt, Michael J. Zvolensky Despite the consistent clinically-significant relation between smoking and anxiety and its disorders, there is limited understanding of how specific fears relate to smoking processes. To isolate therapeutic targets for smoking-anxiety treatment development, there is a need to identify the underlying situational fears most related to smoking processes. Thus, the present study examined the association between interoceptive, agoraphobic, and social fears in terms of clinically significant negative affect-related smoking cognitions including negative affect reduction expectancies, coping motives, and perceived internal barriers to cessation. Participants were 469 treatment seeking smokers (48.2% female, Mage = 36.59, SD = 13.58) enrolled in a smoking cessation trial and completed baseline measures of smoking cognitions and situational fears. Results indicated that the there was a significant effect for social fears, relative to interoceptive and agoraphobic fears, for each of the studied clinically relevant smoking variables. Overall, this study offers initial empirical evidence that social fears are significantly and consistently related to several clinically-significant types of smoking cognition.
  • The correspondence between transdermal alcohol monitoring and daily
           self-reported alcohol consumption
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85Author(s): Tara E. Karns-Wright, Donald M. Dougherty, Nathalie Hill-Kapturczak, Charles W. Mathias, John D. Roache Alcohol consumption is typically assessed via self-report methods, though there are concerns over the accuracy of this information. Transdermal alcohol monitoring can passively and continuously measure alcohol consumption with minimal interference in daily life. The current study examines the correspondence between daily self-reported alcohol consumption and transdermal alcohol monitors. Thirty-two healthy men (n = 16) and women (n = 16) wore a transdermal alcohol monitor for 28 days. Participants were instructed to drink as they usually do and prompted daily with a survey link to report yesterday's drinking. Data analyses focused on the following comparisons: (1) the overall correspondence between self-reported drinking and TAC readings; (2) the sensitivity of various TAC criteria thresholds to detect self-reported drinking (TAC thresholds of none, low, moderate, and heavy); and (3) the risks of false positive TAC findings using self-reported drinking as the Gold Standard. Participants self-reported drinking a total of 324 days, of which, TAC events were detected on 212 days (65.4%). When participants self-reported not drinking (399 days), zero TAC was also found on 366 days (92%). The correspondence between self-reported drinking and transdermal concentrations tended to be good: overall, when self-reported drinking was reported, TAC also detected drinking 65.4% of the time.
  • A retrospective analysis of the association between providing nicotine
           replacement therapy at admission and motivation to quit and nicotine
           withdrawal symptoms during an inpatient psychiatric hospitalization
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85Author(s): Chizimuzo T.C. Okoli, Yazan D. Al-Mrayat, Charles I. Shelton, Milan Khara BackgroundPsychiatric patients have high tobacco use prevalence, dependence, and withdrawal severity. A tobacco-free psychiatric hospitalization necessitates the management of nicotine withdrawal (NW) for tobacco using patients. NW management often requires the provision of approved nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to patients, which may also motivate tobacco users towards cessation. However, few studies have examined the associations between providing NRT, motivation to quit, and NW among psychiatric patients.Objective(s)To examine the associations between providing NRT at admission and motivation to quit smoking and severity of NW symptoms.DesignA retrospective review of the medical records of 255 tobacco using patients on whom NW was assessed during their hospital stay. The time when NRT was provided (i.e., at admission vs. not provided vs. on the unit), motivation to quit smoking, and 8-item Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale were assessed.ResultsThe primary NW symptom was ‘craving’ (65.1%); reporting of ‘anxiety’ varied by psychiatric diagnosis. Providing NRT at admission was not associated with motivation to quit. Patients receiving NRT on the unit (i.e., delayed receipt) had significantly higher NW than those who received NRT at admission. In multivariate analyses, receiving NRT on the unit was significantly associated with greater NW severity (β = .19, p = .002).ConclusionsAmong psychiatric patients, providing NRT at admission is associated with greater severity of NW. The provision of NRT for NW management may be considered as standard practice during tobacco-free psychiatric stays. Future studies may consider the effect of other tobacco treatment medications (such as varenicline, bupropion) on managing NW.
  • Motives for drinking alcohol and eating palatable foods: An evaluation of
           shared mechanisms and associations with drinking and binge eating
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85Author(s): Tera L. Fazzino, Amani Raheel, Natalie Peppercorn, Kelsie Forbush, Taylor Kirby, Kenneth J. Sher, Christie Befort BackgroundYoung adulthood is a high-risk period for heavy drinking and binge eating, both of which can impact weight and lead to obesity. Examining motives for drinking alcohol and eating palatable foods may facilitate a more integrated understanding of these behaviors during the college years. The current study tested whether shared or distinct (i.e., behavior-specific) motivational mechanisms may explain the occurrence of reward-driven drinking and eating in young adults.MethodsA sample of college freshmen (N = 103) stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, and heavy drinking status were selected to participate. Participants completed questionnaires measuring alcohol use, eating behavior, and motives assessed by the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised and Palatable Eating Motives Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) tested whether drinking and eating motives were better represented as single latent motives, or two behavior-specific motives. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the association between motivational factors and behaviors.ResultsBehavior-specific CFA models demonstrated stronger model fit and higher factor loadings than single motive models. SEM models indicated that eating to cope with negative emotions, to enhance positive experiences, to obtain social reinforcement, and to conform with peers were significantly associated with binge eating (p values 
  • Psychometric evaluation of the drinking refusal self-efficacy scale -
           revised with college students in the United States
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85Author(s): Kray A. Scully, Richard S. Mohn, Michael B. Madson Drinking refusal self-efficacy has recently emerged as a potential factor related to reduced alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences in college students. The Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy Questionnaire-Revised (DRSEQ-R) has been commonly used to assess for drinking refusal self-efficacy. However, psychometric evaluation of the measure with college students from the United States is needed to enhance its research and clinical utility. The goal of the present study was to confirm the factor structure of the DRSEQ-R with a sample of traditional aged college students from the United States as well as assess the measurement invariance of the factor structure across sex and race and the measure's convergent validity with other common alcohol use measures. Traditional age college students (n = 1683, 73% women; 63% White, non-Hispanic) completed measures of drink refusal self-efficacy, protective behavioral strategies, weekly alcohol use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related negative consequences. Using exploratory factor analysis and multi-group confirmatory factor analyses, a three-factor structure was identified, but, unlike the DRSEQ-R, one item loaded onto the opportunistic relief factor instead of the social pressure factor. The proposed model registered more reliable internal consistencies across the subscales, was invariant across sex and race, and demonstrated acceptable convergent validity with other commonly used alcohol measures. The proposed model for the DRSE-R may be a more psychometrically sound way to assess for drinking refusal self-efficacy among college students in the United States. Implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed.
  • Viral suppression among HIV-infected methadone-maintained patients: The
           role of ongoing injection drug use and adherence to antiretroviral therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85Author(s): Roman Shrestha, Michael M. Copenhaver IntroductionMethadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is associated with improved virologic outcomes, yet no studies have explored factors associated with viral suppression in HIV-infected patients on MMT. Given the critical role of sustained viral suppression in maximizing benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART), we sought to assess factors associated with viral suppression in patients stabilized on MMT.MethodsA sample of 133 HIV-infected, methadone-maintained patients who reported HIV-risk behaviors were assessed using an audio-computer assisted self-interview (ACASI). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify significant correlates of viral suppression.ResultsAmong all participants, self-reported HIV risk behaviors were highly prevalent and over 80% had achieved viral suppression. Independent correlates of viral suppression were: having optimal adherence to ART (aOR = 4.883, p = .009), high CD4 count (aOR = 2.483, p = .045), and ongoing injection drug use (aOR = 0.081, p = .036). Furthermore, results revealed a significant interaction effect that involved optimal ART adherence and injection of drug use on viral suppression (aOR = 2.953, p = .029).ConclusionOverall, our findings highlight unaddressed HIV-related treatment challenges faced by certain group of methadone-maintained patients. These findings have significant implications for the HIV treatment as prevention efforts and, thus, indicate the need for comprehensive efforts to promote viral suppression in this risk population.
  • Exploring the role of positive metacognitions in explaining the
           association between the fear of missing out and social media addiction
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85Author(s): Silvia Casale, Laura Rugai, Giulia Fioravanti The present study aimed to investigate: a) the contribution of the fear of missing out (FoMO) in explaining social media problematic use taking also into account the fear of being negatively evaluated and the perception of low self-presentational skills; b) the mediating role of positive metacognitions about social media use in the relationship between FoMO and social media problematic use. A sample of 579 undergraduates was recruited (54.6% F; mean age = 22.39 ± 2.82). Among females, the assessed structural model produced good fit to the data [χ2 = 101.11, df = 52, p 
  • Spanish adaptation of the Gambling Motives Questionnaire (GMQ): Validation
           in adult pathological gamblers and relationship with anxious-depressive
           symptomatology and perceived stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85Author(s): Paula Jauregui, Ana Estevez, Jaione Onaindia Gambling has been found to be related to different motives, such as enhancement, social, and behavioral and emotional coping. The most used instrument in this field is the Gambling Motives Questionnaire (GMQ; Stewart & Zack, 2008), which has not been validated in clinical samples. This study aimed to validate a Spanish version of the GMQ in a sample of adult pathological gamblers and to analyze its relationship with pathological gambling, anxiety, depression, and perceived stress. A sample of 164 gamblers was recruited from centers for the treatment of pathological gambling. The three-factor structure (enhancement, social, and coping motives) of the GMQ was validated through exploratory and confirmatory factorial analyses, and its convergent validity was proven. Gambling motives correlated with pathological gambling, anxiety, depression, and perceived stress. Enhancement motives predicted pathological gambling, while controlling for the effect of anxiety, depression, and perceived stress. These results are relevant for clinical evaluation and intervention with adult pathological gamblers.
  • Alcohol consequences, not quantity, predict major depression onset among
           first-year female college students
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85Author(s): Samantha R. Rosenthal, Melissa A. Clark, Brandon D.L. Marshall, Stephen L. Buka, Kate B. Carey, Robyn L. Shepardson, Michael P. Carey Alcohol use and its consequences have often been associated with depression, particularly among female college students. Interpretation of this association has been challenging due to potential reverse causation. The current study sought to clarify the temporality of these relationships. We examined: (1) the association between alcohol consumption and onset depression among female college students, and (2) the association between drinking consequences and onset depression among drinkers only. We used a prospective longitudinal design. Participants were first-year female college students who completed a baseline survey at study entry, and monthly assessments of alcohol consumption, drinking consequences, and depression symptoms. Cox proportional hazards regression with time-varying covariates were constructed among the full sample (N = 412) and the drinkers only sample (N = 335). Adjusted hazard ratios accounted for known risk factors for depression such as race/ethnicity, academic challenge, not getting along with one's roommate, sexual victimization prior to college, marijuana use, and socioeconomic status. For each additional average drink per week, adjusting for all covariates, there was no (95% CI: -4%, +4%) increased risk of onset depression. For each additional alcohol consequence, adjusting for all covariates, there was a 19% (95% CI: 5%, 34%) increased risk of onset depression. This significant relationship remained after adjusting for quantity of alcohol consumption. Quantity of alcohol consumed did not predict incident depression. However, experiencing alcohol consequences, regardless of consumption, did increase the risk of incident depression. College substance use and mental health interventions should aim to reduce not only alcohol consumption, but also alcohol-related consequences.
  • Transition to drug co-use among adolescent cannabis users: The role of
           decision-making and mental health
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85Author(s): Catalina Lopez-Quintero, Karen Granja, Samuel Hawes, Jacqueline C. Duperrouzel, Ileana Pacheco-Colón, Raul Gonzalez BackgroundCo-use of cannabis and drugs other than cannabis (DOTC) influences the risk of experiencing cannabis disorders. Accordingly, we explored whether speed of transition to drug co-use, the number of DOTC used, and/or being an experimental cannabis-only user, a regular cannabis-only user, or a regular cannabis user who co-uses DOTC (i.e., cannabis-plus user) were associated with decision-making (DM), mental health disorder symptoms, or cannabis use-related characteristics.MethodsWe analyzed baseline data from a sub-sample of 266 adolescent (ages 14 to 16) cannabis users (CU) participating in an ongoing longitudinal study. Assessments included semi-structured interviews, self-report questionnaires, and measures of drug use, DM (measured via the Iowa Gambling Task), mental health disorders, and cannabis use-related problems.ResultsEndorsing a larger number of mood disorders symptoms was associated with being a regular cannabis-plus user rather than a regular cannabis-only user (AOR = 1.08, C.I.95% 1.01, 1.15). Poorer DM was associated with a faster transition to co-use, such that for each one unit increase in DM performance, the years to onset of drug co-use increased by 1% (p = 0.032). Endorsing a larger number of cannabis use-related problems was positively associated with endorsing a larger number of DOTC used (p = 0.001).ConclusionsThis study provides new evidence on the process of drug co-use among CU. Specifically, mood disorder symptoms were associated with use of DOTC among regular CU. Furthermore, poorer DM was associated with a faster transition to drug co-use. Poorer DM and mood disorder symptoms may aggravate or accelerate the onset of adverse consequences among adolescent CU.
  • Collecting outcome data of a text messaging smoking cessation intervention
           with in-program text assessments: How reliable are the results'
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85Author(s): Johannes Thrul, Judith A. Mendel, Samuel J. Simmens, Lorien C. Abroms BackgroundText messaging interventions have shown promise in helping people quit smoking. Texting programs periodically survey participants about their smoking status. This study examined the consistency of participant self-reported smoking between external surveys and internal program text message assessments.MethodsParticipants in Text2Quit program were surveyed about their past 7-day smoking at one, three, and six months post-enrollment using different survey modes (external surveys and internal program text message assessments) and responses were compared for consistency. The first set of analyses was conducted for participants responding on both modes (n = 45 at one month; n = 50 at three months; n = 42 at six months). Additional analyses, assuming missing = smoking, were conducted with the full sample of 262 smokers (68.7% female, mean age = 35.8 years) and compared to saliva-confirmed abstinence rates.ResultsParticipants responding to both modes consistently reported smoking status at one (88.9%), three (88.0%) and six (88.1%) months post-enrollment, with fair to substantial levels of agreement (one month: κ = 0.24; three months: κ = 0.63; six months: κ = 0.66). Participants responding to both modes reported high rates of abstinence. In missing = smoking analyses, significant differences in abstinence rates reported across modes were detected at each timepoint (one month: external = 30.5%, internal = 16.4%; three months: external = 33.2%, internal = 16.0%; six months: external = 31.7%, internal = 12.2%; all p 
  • The role of depressive symptoms in treatment of adolescent cannabis use
           disorder with N-Acetylcysteine
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85Author(s): Rachel L. Tomko, Amanda K. Gilmore, Kevin M. Gray Relative to adults, adolescents are at greater risk of developing a cannabis use disorder (CUD) and risk may be exacerbated by co-occurring depressive symptoms. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), an over-the-counter antioxidant, is thought to normalize glutamate transmission. Oxidative stress and glutamate transmission are disrupted in both depression and CUD. Thus, NAC may be particularly effective at promoting cannabis abstinence among adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms. Secondary analyses were conducted using a sub-sample of adolescents with CUD (N = 74) who participated in an 8-week randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial examining the efficacy of NAC for cannabis cessation. It was hypothesized that NAC would reduce severity of depressive symptoms, and that decreases depressive symptom severity would mediate decreases in positive weekly urine cannabinoid tests (11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol). Additionally, it was expected that adolescents with greater severity of baseline depressive symptoms would be more likely to become abstinent when assigned NAC relative to placebo. Results from linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations did not suggest that NAC reduced severity of depressive symptoms, and the hypothesis that NAC's effect on cannabis cessation would be mediated by reduced depressive symptoms was not supported. However, an interaction between treatment condition and baseline severity of depressive symptoms as a predictor of weekly urine cannabinoid tests was significant, suggesting that NAC was more effective at promoting abstinence among adolescents with heightened baseline depressive symptoms. These secondary findings, though preliminary, suggest a need for further examination of the role of depressive symptoms in treatment of adolescent CUD with NAC.
  • Healthcare provider counseling to quit smoking and patient desire to quit:
           The role of negative smoking outcome expectancies
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85Author(s): Joan S. Tucker, Brian D. Stucky, Maria Orlando Edelen, William G. Shadel, David J. Klein AimsThe U.S. Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline on treating tobacco use and dependence recommends providing advice to quit to every tobacco user seen in a healthcare setting. However, the mechanism through which counseling encourages patients to quit has not been adequately studied. This study tests whether the association between receiving healthcare provider counseling and desire to quit is accounted for by negative health and psychosocial outcome expectancies of smoking.MethodsData were collected online from 721 adult smokers who had seen a healthcare provider in the past 12 months. Associations between counseling to quit, negative outcome expectancies of smoking, and desire to quit were tested, as well as whether outcome expectancies and desire to quit differed by type of counseling (counseling only vs. counseling plus assistance) and level of smoking.ResultsBivariate associations indicated a stronger desire to quit among patients receiving counseling, particularly when it included healthcare provider assistance to quit. SEM results indicated that the association between counseling and desire to quit was fully accounted for by patients' negative health and psychosocial outcome expectancies for smoking. These associations were found across levels of smoking in the case of health expectancies, but were limited to moderate and heavy smokers in the case of psychosocial expectancies.ConclusionResults suggest that the time devoted to counseling patients about smoking should include providing some assistance to quit, such as recommending a product, prescription or program. Regardless of smoking level, this counseling should incorporate techniques to elicit patients' negative health and psychosocial expectancies of smoking.
  • Screening emergency department patients for opioid drug use: A qualitative
           systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85Author(s): Preet Kaur Sahota, Siri Shastry, Dana B. Mukamel, Linda Murphy, Narisu Yang, Shahram Lotfipour, Bharath Chakravarthy IntroductionThe opioid drug epidemic is a major public health concern and an economic burden in the United States. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the reliability and validity of screening instruments used in emergency medicine settings to detect opioid use in patients and to assess psychometric data for each screening instrument.MethodsPubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and were searched for articles published up to May 2018. The extracted articles were independently screened for eligibility by two reviewers. We extracted 1555 articles for initial screening and 95 articles were assessed for full-text eligibility. Six articles were extracted from the full-text assessment.ResultsSix instruments were identified from the final article list: Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain - Revised; Drug Abuse Screening Test; Opioid Risk Tool; Current Opioid Misuse Measure; an Emergency Medicine Providers Clinician Assessment Questionnaire; and an Emergency Provider Impression Data Collection Form. Screening instrument characteristics, and reliability and validity data were extracted from the six studies. A meta-analysis was not conducted due to heterogeneity between the studies.ConclusionsThere is a lack of validity and reliability evidence in all six articles; and sensitivity, specificity and predictive values varied between the different instruments. These instruments cannot be validated for use in emergency medicine settings. There is no clear evidence to state which screening instruments are appropriate for use in detecting opioid use disorders in emergency medicine patients. There is a need for brief, reliable, valid and feasible opioid use screening instruments in the emergency medicine setting.
  • Metacognitive beliefs in addictive behaviours: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors, Volume 85Author(s): Tristan Hamonniere, Isabelle Varescon A wide research base has shown the link between metacognitive beliefs and psychopathology and there is currently evidence that elevated levels of maladaptive metacognitive beliefs are present in the majority of psychological disorders. An increasing body of evidence also suggests that metacognitive beliefs may play a role in alcohol use, nicotine use, gambling, online gaming and problematic internet use. This article provides a systematic review of empirical studies that have examined metacognitive beliefs and addictive behaviours. Thirty-eight studies were included, with results showing a significant positive association between metacognitive beliefs and addictive behaviours. These results are consistent with the metacognitive model of addictive behaviour that supports the central role of metacognitive beliefs in the development and maintenance of addictive behaviours. However, our review highlights the paucity of longitudinal and experimental studies, preventing the determination of the causal status of metacognitive beliefs in addictive behaviours. Despite this limitation, the current evidence has important treatment implications because it suggests that interventions that target metacognitive beliefs could be beneficial for people presenting with addictive behaviours.
  • Remote biochemical verification of tobacco use: Reducing costs and
           improving methodological rigor with mailed oral cotinine swabs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Matthew R. Moore, Michael J. Mason, Aaron R. Brown, Claudia M. Garcia, Ashlie D. Seibers, Chelsea J. Stephens IntroductionMulti-site tobacco cessation trials could benefit from remote biochemical verification for tobacco use without invasive, time-consuming, or expensive collection processes. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no previous studies examining the predictive validity of oral fluid swabs for the detection of cotinine levels with samples collected off-site and mailed for on-site interpretation.MethodsTobacco users were recruited through an online survey and participants who met the initial eligibility criteria were invited to take part. Those who elected to enroll provided two positive iScreen Oral Fluid Device (OFD) cotinine test samples during an in-office visit. One sample was used as a control and stored in a temperature-regulated location, while the other was mailed from one of ten surrounding counties. Mailing method and time from collection to mailing were varied, and results were assessed against control samples.ResultsTwenty tobacco users enrolled in the study. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 31 (M = 16.45, SD = 1.54). Several types of tobacco use were reported, with electronic cigarettes the most commonly reported product. None of the mailed sample interpretations changed from pre- to post-mailing, with up to twenty-one days from sample collection to results confirmation.ConclusionsResults indicate that the use of mailed oral swabs may be an easy to use, reliable, and low-cost option for the detection of cotinine in tobacco users when in-person collection is not feasible. Test result interpretations were found to be unchanged after mailing, and after extended post-collection time gaps.
  • Substance use disorders and sexual behavior; the effects of alcohol and
           drugs on patients' sexual functioning and behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Meine H. Bosma-Bleeker, Eric Blaauw IntroductionHardly any research exists on the relationship between substance use and sexual behaviors in patients with a substance use disorder. This study aimed to examine this relation by looking into perceived positive effects on sexual behavior, perceived negative effects and risky sexual behavior due to substance use in patient groups of users of alcohol, stimulants, sedatives and Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB). In addition, the current study aimed to address the question whether sexual behavior (e.g. number of sexual partners, sexual activity) differs between these patient groups.MethodA total of 180 patients with a substance use disorder (i.e. alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, GHB and opiates) participated. A self-report questionnaire was administered with questions on substance use, sexual behaviors (e.g. sexual activity, masturbation, use of pornography) and statements about the perceived changes in sexual functioning and behavior under influence of the primary substance of abuse.ResultsAll four groups reported changes in sexual functioning due to the use of their primary substance. More than half of the patients reported enhancements in sexual functioning (i.e. sexual pleasure, sexual arousal, sexual behavior), but also decrements or risky behaviors and about a quarter stated that their sexual thoughts, feelings and behaviors were often associated with the use of their primary substance of abuse. Patients with a GHB use disorder reported the strongest relation between drug use and sexual behavior. Users of GHB not only reported more enhancement of sexual functioning, but also less decline of sexual functioning compared to the other patient groups and more risky behavior or more sexual activity than some of the other groups of patients.ConclusionsThe results underline the importance of addressing the relationship between substance use and sexual behavior in treatment programs, as patients may be hesitant to stop their use of substances when they experience many positive effects in their sexual behavior. Future research directions are suggested.
  • A pilot investigation of the effect of electronic cigarettes on smoking
           behavior among opioid-dependent smokers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Nicholas J. Felicione, Paul Enlow, Daniel Elswick, Dustin Long, C. Rolly Sullivan, Melissa D. Blank IntroductionCompared to the general population, smoking rates are 2–4 times higher among individuals with opioid use disorders (OUDs). These smokers also have poor long-term cessation rates, even with pharmacotherapy or other interventions. Low success rates with traditional approaches may prompt smokers with OUDs to try more novel products like electronic cigarettes (ECIGs). This pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and effect of ECIGs on smoking behavior among smokers with OUD.MethodsParticipants (N = 25) were daily smokers receiving buprenorphine/naloxone for OUD at an outpatient clinic. They were randomized to use a second-generation ECIG (0 or 18 ng/ml nicotine) ad libitum for two weeks while completing assessments via text messaging daily, and also via in-person visits at baseline, end of the two-week intervention, and a 4-week follow-up.ResultsFeasibility was evidenced by high enrollment (93.9%) and retention (70.9%) rates. ECIG adherence was relatively high as measured by self-report (80.6% active, 91.7% placebo), while the average volume of liquid used per week was low (~3 ml). Both ECIG doses produced reductions in self-reported cigarettes per day that were not supported by average carbon monoxide levels. Biologically-confirmed smoking abstinence was observed in 8% of participants.ConclusionsPreliminary results suggest that smokers with OUD are interested in using ECIGs, but their adherence may be less than ideal. Poor medication adherence rates are often observed in this disparate population, and future work should consider the use of other ECIG device types and a combination of methods to verify and quantify ECIG use.
  • Prevalence of withdrawal symptoms from electronic cigarette cessation: A
           cross-sectional analysis of the US Population Assessment of Tobacco and
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): John R. Hughes, Peter W. Callas Electronic cigarette use can produce rapid and high levels of nicotine and thus could produce or maintain a physical dependence on nicotine. No experimental and limited observational studies have tested whether cessation of e-cigarettes is associated with withdrawal symptoms. To examine withdrawal from electronic cigarette and compare it to that from tobacco cigarettes, we searched the US Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Survey to locate successful and unsuccessful attempts to stop electronic or tobacco cigarettes. We examined electronic cigarette-only users, tobacco cigarette-only users and dual users. A minority of e-cigarette users who stopped/reduced e-cigarettes reported withdrawal symptoms but reported fewer symptoms than tobacco cigarette users who stopped/reduced tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarette withdrawal was not significantly greater in those who tried but were unable to stop e-cigarettes. In dual users, continued tobacco use appeared to reduce e-cigarette withdrawal but the opposite was not true. Given our small sample size and use of retrospective recall, an experimental test of e-cigarette abstinence is needed to better describe the severity of electronic cigarette withdrawal.
  • Personality and prescription drug use/misuse among first year
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): A. Chinneck, K. Thompson, I.T. Mahu, P. Davis-MacNevin, K. Dobson, S.H. Stewart Emerging adults (18–25 year olds) endorse the highest rates of prescription drug misuse. Attending college or university may confer additional risk. Previous research suggests that personality is an important predictor of many addictive behaviours. Four traits have been consistently implicated: anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, sensation seeking, and impulsivity. Published studies on personality as a predictor of prescription drug abuse are limited, however, by a primary focus on overall prescription drug use, inconsistent operationalisation of misuse, and failure to control for alcohol use. Sample sizes have been small and non-specific. We sought to better understand how personality predicted the overall use, the medically-sanctioned use, and the misuse of prescription sedatives/tranquilizers, opioids, and stimulants. A large (N = 1755) sample of first year Canadian undergraduate students (mean age = 18.6 years; 68.9% female) was used. We predicted that: anxiety sensitivity would be related to sedatives/tranquilizers, hopelessness to opioids, sensation seeking to stimulants, and impulsivity to all three. Save for the impulsivity to opioid use path, predictions were fully supported in our “any use” model. For medically-sanctioned use: anxiety sensitivity predicted sedative/tranquilizers, hopelessness predicted opioids, and impulsivity predicted stimulants. For misuse: anxiety sensitivity (marginally) predicted sedatives/tranquilizers, sensation seeking predicted stimulants, and impulsivity predicted all three. Our models support using personality-matched interventions. Specifically, results suggest targeting anxiety sensitivity for sedative/tranquilizer misuse, sensation seeking for stimulant misuse, and impulsivity for unconstrained prescription drug misuse. Interventions with early coping skills that pertain to all four traits might be useful for preventing prescription drug uptake and later misuse.
  • Hookah use as a predictor of other tobacco product use: A longitudinal
           analysis of Texas college students
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Kathleen R. Case, MeLisa R. Creamer, Maria R. Cooper, Alexandra Loukas, Cheryl L. Perry IntroductionHookah use is particularly prevalent among U.S. college students; however, few studies have investigated whether hookah use is a risk factor for the initiation of other tobacco products. This study examined whether hookah use predicted subsequent initiation of other combustible tobacco products (conventional cigarettes and cigar products) and Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) among Texas college students during a 2.5-year study period.MethodsThis study involved a longitudinal analysis of data from Waves 1–6, with 6 months between each wave, of the Marketing and Promotions Across Colleges in Texas Project (Project M-PACT). Two separate multilevel discrete-time survival analyses were used to model the associations between past 30-day hookah use and subsequent initiation of 1) other combustible tobacco products, and 2) ENDS during the 2.5 year study period, after controlling for demographic, other tobacco use, and risk-taking personality characteristics (i.e. sensation seeking and impulsivity).ResultsAfter controlling for covariates, past 30-day hookah use was associated with significantly higher odds of subsequent initiation of other combustible tobacco products. Past 30-day hookah use also predicted subsequent initiation of ENDS after controlling for covariates.ConclusionsThis study is one of the first to demonstrate that hookah use is a predictor of subsequent initiation of other combustible tobacco products and ENDS among college students. These findings suggest that hookah may prime individuals to use other tobacco products, which has important implications for prevention programs and future research.
  • Alcohol-related problem behaviors among Latin American immigrants in the
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Christopher P. Salas-Wright, Michael G. Vaughn, Trenette Clark Goings, Daniel P. Miller, Jina Chang, Seth J. Schwartz BackgroundPrior research indicates that Latino immigrants are less likely than US-born individuals to use alcohol and meet criteria for an alcohol use disorder. However, our understanding of alcohol-related problem behaviors among Latino immigrants remains limited. We report the prevalence of alcohol-related problem behaviors among Latino immigrants vis-à-vis the US-born and examine the relationship between alcohol-related problem behavior and key migration-related factors and injury/receipt of emergency medical care.MethodsThe data source used for the present study is the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III, 2012–2013), a nationally representative survey of 36,309 civilian, non-institutionalized adults ages 18 and older in the US. Logistic regression was employed to examine the relationship between immigrant status and key outcomes.ResultsForeign-born Latinos were less likely to report one or more alcohol-related problems compared to US-born Latinos (AOR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.33–0.50) and the US-born general population (AOR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.32–0.46). Latino immigrants arriving as children were, compared to those arriving later in life, significantly more likely to report alcohol-related problem behaviors, and experiences of discrimination were linked with greater risk of alcohol-related problem behavior as well. Latino immigrants reporting recurrent injury/emergency medical care utilization were more likely to report alcohol-related problem behavior.ConclusionsLatino immigrants are significantly less likely than US-born Latinos and the US-born general population to operate a vehicle under the influence of alcohol, take part in risky behaviors or fight while drinking, or to be arrested due to alcohol consumption.
  • Immigrant paradox' Generational status, alcohol use, and negative
           consequences across college
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Kaylin M. Greene, Jennifer L. Maggs The current study examined linkages between generational status, alcohol use, wanting to get drunk, and negative alcohol-related consequences during college. We tested whether immigrant students' longitudinal alcohol use trajectories converged to dominant unhealthy patterns or whether immigrant students maintained healthier patterns across college. We also examined if the weekend exerted equal risk for students of different generations. Furthermore, we explored whether patterns were consistent among Latinx and Asian American students. Stratified random sampling identified first-year students attending a US college. A longitudinal daily diary design was used; students completed web-based surveys for up to 14 days within each of 7 semesters. Each day, participants (N = 689; n1st generation = 114; n2nd generation = 244; 51% female) reported their alcohol use and consequences (N = 55,829 days). Multi-level models demonstrated that compared to 3rd generation students, 1st generation students were more likely to abstain from alcohol and less likely to binge drink and want to get drunk. First generation students also experienced fewer negative alcohol-related consequences. The protective effect of being 1st generation was maintained across college semesters, with subgroup analyses focusing on Latinx and Asian American students largely supporting the main findings. However, for abstaining and negative consequences, the weekend effect was less pronounced for immigrants than later generation students. For example, the difference in negative consequences between 1st (vs. 3rd) generation students was largest on the weekend. Additional work is needed to understand how 1st generation students leverage protective factors to abstain from alcohol use even when exposed repeatedly to “wet” drinking environments.
  • Short message service (SMS) reminders improve treatment attendance in
           alcohol dependence, but are less effective for patients high in
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Matthew J. Gullo, Kate Irvine, Gerald F.X. Feeney, Jason P. Connor Background and aimsPoor attendance increases the likelihood of relapse in alcohol dependence treatment. Evidence for improved attendance rates following introduction of short message service (SMS) appointment reminders is available in other health care domains. Patients high in impulsivity, characterized by a lack of planning, may particularly benefit from reminders. The study investigated the impact of SMS reminders on outpatient treatment attendance for alcohol dependence, and whether effects were moderated by impulsivity.DesignProspective natural history study, with historical case control. Alcohol-dependent outpatients attending treatment received SMS appointment reminders (n = 102). These were compared to a historical control group (n = 91) treated prior to the introduction of SMS (totalling 1149 scheduled sessions).SettingA metropolitan university hospital alcohol and drug outpatient clinic.Participants193 alcohol-dependent patients participated in a 12-week cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program with a treatment goal of abstinence.MeasurementsTrait impulsivity, severity of dependence, psychological distress at baseline. Attendance at each scheduled session.FindingsSMS reminders significantly increased probability of session attendance (0.90 versus 0.84, p = .02). The effect was qualified by a significant SMS x Impulsivity interaction whereby reminders became less effective with increasing patient impulsivity (p = .003).ConclusionsSMS appointment reminders improve treatment attendance for alcohol-dependent outpatients. More impulsive patients benefited less from reminders, suggesting their non-attendance may be related more to motivational factors.
  • Frequent solitary drinking mediates the associations between negative
           affect and harmful drinking in emerging adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Elena Bilevicius, Alanna Single, Karli K. Rapinda, Lindsay A. Bristow, Matthew T. Keough IntroductionDepression and anxiety are highly comorbid conditions that are associated with harmful drinking. Social learning theory proposes that depressed or anxious individuals learn that drinking can reduce negative affect, which makes them susceptible to harmful drinking. Consistent with theory, evidence suggests that negative affect increases risk for harmful drinking. But, less is known about mediators of negative affect-pathways to harmful drinking. Research has demonstrated that solitary drinking is an underlying mechanism of harmful drinking among emerging adults with high levels of negative affect. However, much of this work is cross-sectional. We conducted a longitudinal study to examine solitary drinking as a key explanatory variable in the negative-affect pathway to harmful drinking.MethodsEmerging adults (N = 308) completed online self-reports of depression and anxiety at Time 1 (the beginning of their first semester in university), and drinking context and harmful drinking at Time 2 (the end of their first semester of university).ResultsStructural equation modeling supported indirect effects from negative affect to harmful drinking via solitary drinking. Specifically, emerging adults with high levels of negative affect at the beginning of their first semester engaged in frequent solitary drinking over the rest of the semester, and subsequently experienced increased harmful drinking (controlling for Time 1 solitary/social drinking and harmful use). Social drinking was not a mediator of this effect.ConclusionsThe findings reveal that solitary drinking uniquely mediated the relation between negative affect and harmful drinking. Reducing solitary drinking might mitigate negative affect-related risk for harmful drinking in emerging adults.
  • Risk factors associated with early smoking onset in two large birth
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Jeremy Staff, Jennifer L. Maggs, George B. Ploubidis, Chris Bonell We use prospective data from the ongoing British Cohort Study (BCS) and Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to: 1) document changes in the prevalence of childhood smoking onset; 2) assess whether broad historic shifts in key risk factors, such as maternal education, parental smoking, and peer childhood smoking, explain observed cohort changes in childhood smoking; and 3) evaluate whether inequalities in onset have narrowed or widened during this period. The children in these two studies were born 31 years apart (i.e., BCS in 1970; MCS in 2001), and were followed from infancy through early adolescence (n = 23,506 children). Our outcome variable is child self-reports of smoking (ages 10, 11). Early life risk factors were assessed via parent reports in infancy and age 5. Findings reveal that the odds of childhood smoking were over 12 times greater among children born in 1970 versus 2001. The decline in childhood smoking by cohort was partly explained by increases in maternal education, decreases in mothers' and fathers' smoking, and declines in the number of children whose friends smoked. Results also show that childhood smoking is now more linked to early life disadvantages, as MCS children were especially likely to smoke if their mother had low education or used cigarettes, or if the child had a friend who smoked. Although the prevalence of child and adult smoking has dropped dramatically in the past three decades, policy efforts should focus on the increased social inequality resulting from the concentration of early life cigarette use among disadvantaged children.
  • Using latent transition analysis to compare effects of residency status on
           alcohol-related consequences during the first two years of college
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Michael J. Cleveland, Kimberly A. Mallett, Rob Turrisi, Nichole M. Sell, Racheal Reavy, Bradley Trager The current study examined two research aims: (1) Identify latent statuses of college students who share common patterns of single or repeated experiences with distinct types of negative alcohol-related consequences during the first two years of college; and (2) Examine how changes in students' living arrangements were associated with transitions in the consequence statuses. Using a sample of college student drinkers (N = 1706), four latent statuses were identified that distinguished among distinct combinations of single and repeated experiences across the multiple consequence subtypes: No Consequences, Physical Non-Repeaters, Multiple Consequences, and Multiple Consequences Repeaters. Students who remained in on-campus living spaces were most likely to belong to lower-risk statuses at T1, and remain in those statuses at T2. We found that moving into Greek housing had strongest effects among students who started in the No Consequences status, while students who moved to off-campus housing were most likely to remain in the Multiple Consequences status. Given that students who moved out of on-campus residences were more likely to transition into high-risk statuses, interventions that target students who intend to move to off-campus or fraternity housing should be implemented during the first year of college.
  • Gamblers seeking online help are active help-seekers: Time to support
           autonomy and competence
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): S.N. Rodda, N.A. Dowling, D.I. Lubman Research investigating rates of help-seeking for problem gambling has traditionally focused on the uptake of face-to-face gambling services alone, despite the World Health Organisation defining help-seeking as any action or activity undertaken to improve or resolve emotional, psychological or behavioural problems. The primary aim of this study is to examine the full range of help-seeking options utilised by gamblers, and to determine whether administering a comprehensive list of help options yields higher help-seeking rates than a single item measure. A one-item and expanded 14-item help-seeking Questionnaire (the Help-Seeking Questionnaire; HSQ) were administered to 277 problem gamblers seeking help online. We found the 14-item HSQ yielded a significantly higher level of lifetime professional help-seeking (70%) compared to the one-item measure (22%). When we included self-directed activities, 93% of gamblers reported they had previously attempted at least one activity to reduce their gambling. Current measurement of help-seeking appears to underestimate the range of activities currently undertaken by gamblers to reduce their gambling. Surveys need to include the one-item HSQ (over the past 12 months have you sought professional help or advice (online, by phone, or in person), support from family or friends, or did something by yourself to limit or reduce your gambling') or the three-item HSQ which measures engagement of face-to-face services (i.e., counselling, advice, groups), distance-based (i.e., anonymous telephone, online) and self-directed (i.e., activities not involving professional oversight) activities separately. The full 14-item screen can be administered when brief screens are positive to ensure accurate measurement of help-seeking.
  • Adolescents' receptivity to E-cigarette harms messages delivered using
           text messaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Seth M. Noar, Jacob A. Rohde, Casey Horvitz, Allison J. Lazard, Jennifer Cornacchione Ross, Erin L. Sutfin IntroductionE-cigarette use among adolescents has dramatically risen since 2011, yet little research has tested e-cigarette harms messages among adolescents. We conducted a pretest-posttest pilot study to examine adolescents' receptivity to e-cigarette health harms messages delivered using text messaging.MethodsN = 69 adolescents were enrolled in an 8-day pretest-posttest text messaging study. Participants completed a pretest survey on day one, were texted one of three e-cigarette health harms messages per day on days two through seven, and completed a posttest survey on day eight (88% retention). We assessed message ratings at posttest and knowledge, thoughts, and beliefs about e-cigarette harms at pretest and posttest.ResultsAdolescents rated the three messages favorably, with both the chemical and brain messages scoring higher than the nicotine message on fear arousal and perceived message effectiveness. More than one-third of adolescents showed the messages to others and talked to others about the messages. At posttest, knowledge about the harms of e-cigarettes, thinking about the risks of e-cigarettes, and perceived risks of e-cigarettes were all significantly higher compared to pretest (p 
  • Medical, psychosocial, and treatment predictors of opioid overdose among
           high risk opioid users
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Samantha Schiavon, Kathleen Hodgin, Aaron Sellers, Margaret Word, James W. Galbraith, John Dantzler, Karen L. Cropsey IntroductionDrug overdoses are the leading cause of accidental death in the United States. It is imperative to explore predictors of opioid overdose in order to facilitate targeted treatment and prevention efforts. The present study was conducted as an exploratory examination of the factors associated with having a past opioid overdose.MethodsParticipants (N = 244) from substance treatment facilities, inpatient services following ER admittance, or involved within the drug court system and who reported opioid use in the past 6 months were recruited in this study. Measures of opioid use and history were used to determine characteristics associated with previous experience of a non-fatal opioid overdose.ResultsOpioid users who were Caucasian and used a combination of prescription opioids and heroin were more likely to have experienced a prior overdose. Opioid user characteristics associated with greater odds of experiencing a prior overdose included: witnessing a friend overdose (OR 4.21), having chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (OR 2.44), reporting a higher frequency of buprenorphine treatment episodes (OR 1.55), and having a higher frequency of witnessing others overdose (OR 1.42). Greater frequency of methadone treatment episodes was related to decreased odds of experiencing an overdose (OR 0.67).ConclusionOverall, this study demonstrated certain demographic and drug use factors associated with elevated risk for an overdose. Understanding the risk factors associated with drug overdose can lead to targeted naloxone training and distribution to prevent fatal overdoses.
  • Discrimination of nicotine content in electronic cigarettes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Kenneth A. Perkins, Taylor Herb, Joshua L. Karelitz IntroductionBehavioral discrimination of nicotine has only recently been assessed in humans, administered mostly by nasal spray before the newly available Spectrum research cigarettes differing in nicotine content. Here we wanted to explore applicability of these procedures to assess discrimination of nicotine administered by e-cigarettes.MethodsIn this feasibility study, 16 adult smokers were tested on ability to discriminate e-cigarettes with nicotine concentrations of 36, 24, and 12 mg/ml, one per session (in that order), from a placebo (0 mg/ml), each identified only by letter code. Reliable discrimination was defined by accurately identifying which was which (i.e. nicotine vs placebo) on>85% of trials (i.e. ≥7 of 8; p 
  • Future directions for medication assisted treatment for opioid use
           disorder with American Indian/Alaska Natives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Kamilla L. Venner, Dennis M. Donovan, Aimee N.C. Campbell, Dennis C. Wendt, Traci Rieckmann, Sandra M. Radin, Sandra L. Momper, Carmen L. Rosa The U.S. is experiencing an alarming opioid epidemic, and although American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) are especially hard hit, there is a paucity of opioid-related treatment research with these communities. AI/ANs are second only to Whites in the U.S. for overdose mortality. Thus, the National Institute on Drug Abuse convened a meeting of key stakeholders to elicit feedback on the acceptability and uptake of medication assisted treatment (MAT) for opioid use disorders (OUDs) among AI/ANs. Five themes from this one-day meeting emerged: 1) the mismatch between Western secular and reductionistic medicine and the AI/AN holistic healing tradition; 2) the need to integrate MAT into AI/AN traditional healing; 3) the conflict between standardized MAT delivery and the traditional AI/AN desire for healing to include being medicine free; 4) systemic barriers; and 5) the need to improve research with AI/ANs using culturally relevant methods. Discussion is organized around key implementation strategies informed by these themes and necessary for the successful adoption of MAT in AI/AN communities: 1) type of medication; 2) educational interventions; 3) coordination of care; and 4) adjunctive psychosocial counseling. Using a community-based participatory research approach is consistent with a “two eyed seeing” approach that integrates Western and Indigenous worldviews. Such an approach is needed to develop impactful research in collaboration with AI/AN communities to address OUD health disparities.
  • Oral and non-oral routes of administration among prescription opioid
           users: Pathways, decision-making and directionality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Theodore J. Cicero, Matthew S. Ellis
  • A statewide effort to reduce high-dose opioid prescribing through
           coordinated care organizations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Daniel M. Hartung, Lindsey Alley, Gillian Leichtling, P. Todd Korthuis, Christi Hildebran BackgroundOregon's Medicaid program is delivered through 16 Coordinated Care Organizations (CCOs) participating in a statewide performance improvement program to reduce high-dose opioid prescribing. CCOs were allowed flexibility to develop their own dose targets and any policies, trainings, guidelines, and/or materials to meet these targets. In this study, we characterize CCO strategies to reduce high-dose opioid prescribing across the 16 CCOs.MethodsWe reviewed relevant CCO documents and conducted semi-structured interviews with CCO administrators to acquire opioid-related policies, practices, timelines and contextual factors. We applied a systematic coding procedure to develop a comprehensive description of each CCO's strategy. We used administrative data from the state to summarize contextual utilization data for each CCO.ResultsMost CCOs selected a target daily morphine milligram equivalent (MME) dose of 90 mg. Sixteen issued quantity limits related to dose, eight restricted specific drug formulations (short-acting or long-acting), and 11 allowed for time-limited taper plan periods for patients over threshold. Many CCOs also employed provider trainings, feedback reports, and/or onsite technical assistance. Other innovations included incentive measures, electronic health record alerts, and toolkits with materials on local alternative therapy resources and strategies for patient communication. CCOs leveraging collaborations with regional partners appeared to mount a greater intensity of interventions than independently operating CCOs.ConclusionsCCOs developed a diversity of interventions to confront high-risk opioid prescribing within their organization. As healthcare systems mount interventions to reduce risky opioid prescribing, it is critical to carefully describe these activities and examine their impact on process and health outcomes.
  • Young adults' opioid use trajectories: From nonmedical prescription opioid
           use to heroin, drug injection, drug treatment and overdose
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Honoria Guarino, Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Jennifer Teubl, Elizabeth Goodbody IntroductionRecent research has begun to explore the transition from nonmedical use of prescription opioids (POs) to heroin and injection drug use, adding to earlier literature identifying factors that influence the transition from intranasal to injection use of heroin. However, little research has explored how these transitions are embedded within young people's broader opioid use trajectories – individual pathways that may also include experiences of nonfatal overdose and drug treatment.MethodsData are from a study of 539 18–29 year-old New York City residents, recruited via Respondent-Driven Sampling, who reported past-month nonmedical use of POs and/or heroin use. Participants completed structured, computer-assisted interviews that included assessment of their ages at a series of “benchmark” events and experiences, including first use of a drug or route of administration, the onset of “regular” use of a drug (i.e., 1 or more times a week for at least 1 month), first overdose and first drug treatment.ResultsResults suggest a predictable, ordered pathway by which opioid use tends to progress in this cohort of young adults. Participants initiated nonmedical PO use at age 16.8, on average, and most transitioned to heroin use (83%) and heroin injection (64%), generally within 4 years of first PO misuse. Drug treatment was not typically accessed until after participants had progressed to heroin use. First overdose occurred
  • Engagement in online pain self-management improves pain in adults on
           medication-assisted behavioral treatment for opioid use disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Marian Wilson, Myles Finlay, Michael Orr, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Naghmana Sherazi, Mary Lee A. Roberts, Matthew Layton, John M. Roll IntroductionPersistent pain has been recognized as an important motivator that can lead individuals to misuse opioids. New approaches are needed to test pain treatments that can improve outcomes for people with persistent pain in medication-assisted behavioral treatment for opioid use disorder. This study piloted an online pain self-management program to explore acceptability and treatment effects.MethodsA sample of 60 adults diagnosed with chronic non-cancer pain and receiving medication-assisted behavioral treatment at one of two clinics were randomized into either treatment group with access to an online pain management program or waitlist attention control. Participants received online surveys via email at baseline and post-treatment at week 8.ResultsThe majority of participants (n = 44; 73%) reported that their first use of opioids was in response to a painful event. Those who engaged in the online program had significantly lower pain interference, pain severity, opioid misuse measures, and depressive symptoms after eight weeks while pain self-efficacy was increased.ConclusionOur results suggest the online pain self-management program content may be helpful for managing physical and emotional symptoms experienced by individuals with co-occurring pain and opioid use disorders. To improve online engagement, more support is necessary to assist with technology access and completion of online activities.
  • Mixed methods formative evaluation of a collaborative care program to
           decrease risky opioid prescribing and increase non-pharmacologic
           approaches to pain management
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): William C. Becker, Kristin M. Mattocks, Joseph W. Frank, Matthew J. Bair, Rebecca L. Jankowski, Robert D. Kerns, Jacob T. Painter, Brenda T. Fenton, Amanda M. Midboe, Steve Martino IntroductionOpioid prescribing and subsequent rates of serious harms have dramatically increased in the past two decades, yet there are still significant barriers to reduction of risky opioid regimens. This formative evaluation utilized a mixed-methods approach to identify barriers and factors that may facilitate the successful implementation of Primary Care-Integrated Pain Support (PIPS), a clinical program designed to support the reduction of risky opioid regimens while increasing the uptake of non-pharmacologic treatment modalities.MethodsEighteen Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) employees across three sites completed a survey consisting of the Organizational Readiness for Implementing Change (ORIC) scale; a subset of these individuals (n = 9) then completed a semi-structured qualitative phone interview regarding implementing PIPS within the VA. ORIC results were analyzed using descriptive statistics while interview transcripts were coded and sorted according to qualitative themes.ResultsQuantitative analysis based on ORIC indicated high levels of organizational readiness to implement PIPS. Interview analysis revealed several salient themes: system-level barriers such as tension among various pain management providers; patient-level barriers such as perception of support and tension between patient and provider; and facilitating factors of PIPS, such as the importance of the clinical pharmacist role.ConclusionsWhile organizational readiness for implementing PIPS appears high, modifications to our implementation facilitation strategy (e.g., establishing clinical pharmacists as champions; marketing PIPS to leadership as a way to improve VA opioid safety metrics) may improve capacity of the sites to implement PIPS successfully.
  • Naloxone access for Emergency Medical Technicians: An evaluation of a
           training program in rural communities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Xiangjun Zhang, Christopher Marchand, Bobbie Sullivan, Evan M. Klass, Karla D. Wagner IntroductionOpioid-related overdose death rates in rural communities in the United States are much higher than their urban counterparts. However, basic life support (BLS) personnel, who are more common in rural areas, have much lower rates of naloxone administration than other levels of emergency medical services (EMS). Training and equipping basic level Emergency Medical Technician (EMTs) to administer naloxone for an opioid overdose could yield positive outcomes.MethodsFollowing a legislative change that allowed EMTs to administer naloxone in one rural state, we evaluated an EMT training program by examining EMTs' opioid overdose knowledge and attitudes before and after the training.ResultsOne-hundred-seventeen rural EMTs participated the training. They demonstrated statistically significant improvements on almost all of the knowledge questions after the training (p's = 0.0469 to
  • Criminal justice continuum for opioid users at risk of overdose
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2018Source: Addictive BehaviorsAuthor(s): Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Nickolas Zaller, Sarah Martino, David H. Cloud, Erin McCauley, Andrew Heise, David Seal The United States (US) is in the midst of an epidemic of opioid use; however, overdose mortality disproportionately affects certain subgroups. For example, more than half of state prisoners and approximately two-thirds of county jail detainees report issues with substance use. Overdose is one of the leading causes of mortality among individuals released from correctional settings. Even though the criminal justice (CJ) system interacts with a disproportionately high number of individuals at risk of opioid use and overdose, few CJ agencies screen for opioid use disorder (OUD). Even less provide access to medication assisted treatment (e.g. methadone, buprenorphine, and depot naltrexone), which is one of the most effective tools to combat addiction and lower overdose risk. However, there is an opportunity to implement programs across the CJ continuum in collaboration with law enforcement, courts, correctional facilities, community service providers, and probation and parole. In the current paper, we introduce the concept of a “CJ Continuum of Care for Opioid Users at Risk of Overdose”, grounded by the Sequential Intercept Model. We present each step on the CJ Continuum and include a general overview and highlight opportunities for: 1) screening for OUD and overdose risk, 2) treatment and/or diversion, and 3) overdose prevention and naloxone provision.
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