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AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 81, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
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Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 328, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
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Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 124, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
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Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
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Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
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Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
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Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
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Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 339, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
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Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 308, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 422, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
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Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
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Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
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Journal Cover Addictive Behaviors
  [SJR: 1.514]   [H-I: 92]   [15 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0306-4603
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Psychometric properties of the Chinese Internet Gaming Disorder Scale
    • Authors: Leif Sigerson; Angel Y.-L. Li; Mike W.-L. Cheung; Jeremy W. Luk; Cecilia Cheng
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 74
      Author(s): Leif Sigerson, Angel Y.-L. Li, Mike W.-L. Cheung, Jeremy W. Luk, Cecilia Cheng
      To develop a consensus on the definition and measurement of Internet gaming disorder (IGD), several recent studies have used the DSM-5's proposed criteria for IGD as the basis in scale construction. This study contributes to this emerging consensus by developing and validating a new Chinese Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (C-IGDS) based on the DSM-5 criteria. A representative sample of Hong Kong community adults (n =502, 50% men, mean age=37.1, age range=18–60) was recruited for a telephone survey with random digit dialing. Various statistical techniques were used to assess the psychometric properties of the C-IGDS. The C-IGDS had good reliability (Cronbach's α=0.91) and structural validity (CFA model fit: RMSEA=0.027, CFI=0.991, TLI=0.988) in our sample. Moderate to moderately strong correlations with depressive symptoms (r =0.617, p<0.001), social anxiety symptoms (r =0.366, p<0.001), and gaming hours (r =0.412, p<0.001) supported the criterion validity of the C-IGDS. In addition, the C-IGDS exhibited strict measurement invariance for sex and at least strong measurement invariance for age. In addition to providing the first Chinese scale for measuring IGD based on the DSM-5′s proposed criteria, this study provides empirical support for the validity of these diagnostic criteria as the basis for a universal measure of IGD. Most important, this study is the first to reveal the criteria's measurement invariance, thereby indicating their suitability for use with diverse demographic groups.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T20:42:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.031
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2017)
  • Relationship between substance use and attitudes towards seeking
           professional psychological help among veterans filing PTSD claims
    • Authors: Sarah Meshberg-Cohen; Lorig Kachadourian; Anne C. Black; Marc I. Rosen
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 74
      Author(s): Sarah Meshberg-Cohen, Lorig Kachadourian, Anne C. Black, Marc I. Rosen
      Introduction Veterans in distress often do not seek mental health treatment, even when such services are available. Substance use may further undermine treatment-seeking, given its association with negative treatment views. This study examined attitudes towards seeking psychological help in a sample of veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with and without co-occurring substance use disorders (SUD). Methods Altogether, 143 male OEF/OIF veterans filing service-connected benefits claims for PTSD completed the Attitudes Towards Seeking Professional Psychological Help-Short Form (ATSPPH-SF) and other baseline assessments. Treatment attitudes were compared among veterans with (n =34) and without (n =109) SUD using ANCOVA, controlling for demographic covariates. Post-hoc ANCOVA compared means on the two ATSPPH-SF subscales: Openness to Seeking Treatment, and Value/Need in Seeking Treatment. Results Overall, ATSPPH-SF scores were similar to those reported in other samples of young men. Controlling for demographic covariates, veterans with co-occurring SUD held significantly less favorable attitudes towards seeking help than veterans without comorbid SUD. In subscale analyses, valuation of treatment was significantly lower among veterans with SUDs, but openness towards treatment was not. Conclusions Substance-using veterans' lower valuation of treatment may reflect opinions that problems resolve on their own, psychotherapy is ineffective, or concerns that SUDs complicate treatment. Thus an approach towards engaging these veterans in treatment that addresses a general skepticism towards the value of psychological help is warranted.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T20:42:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.024
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2017)
  • Binge-drinking and non-partner aggression are associated with gambling
           among Veterans with recent substance use in VA outpatient treatment
    • Authors: Alan K. Davis; Erin E. Bonar; Jason E. Goldstick; Maureen A. Walton; Jamie Winters; Stephen T. Chermack
      Pages: 27 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 74
      Author(s): Alan K. Davis, Erin E. Bonar, Jason E. Goldstick, Maureen A. Walton, Jamie Winters, Stephen T. Chermack
      Background Gambling is relatively under-assessed in Veterans Affairs (VA) substance use disorder (SUD) treatment settings, yet shared characteristics with substance addiction suggest the importance of understanding how gambling behaviors present in Veterans seeking SUD care. Method We evaluated substance use, mental health, and violence-related correlates of past 30-day gambling among 833 Veterans (93% male, M age 48years, 72% Caucasian) seeking treatment in VA outpatient mental health and SUD clinics who completed screening for a randomized clinical trial. Results A total of 288 (35%) Veterans reported past 30-day gambling. Among those who gambled, 79% had cravings/urges to gamble, whereas between 20%–27% of gamblers reported perceived relationship, legal, and daily life problems related to gambling, as well as difficulty controlling gambling. A logistic regression analysis revealed that age, recent binge-drinking, and non-partner physical aggression were associated with recent gambling. Conclusions Gambling was associated with binge-drinking and non-partner physical aggression, supporting potential shared characteristics among these behaviors such as impulsivity and risk-taking, which may complicate SUD treatment engagement and effectiveness. Findings support the need to screen for gambling in the VA, and to adapt treatments to include gambling as a potential behavioral target or relapse trigger, particularly among heavy drinking patients.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T15:07:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.022
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2017)
  • Current suicidal ideation in treatment-seeking individuals in the United
           Kingdom with gambling problems
    • Authors: Silvia Ronzitti; Emiliano Soldini; Neil Smith; Marc N. Potenza; Massimo Clerici; Henrietta Bowden-Jones
      Pages: 33 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 74
      Author(s): Silvia Ronzitti, Emiliano Soldini, Neil Smith, Marc N. Potenza, Massimo Clerici, Henrietta Bowden-Jones
      Background Studies show higher lifetime prevalence of suicidality in individuals with pathological gambling. However, less is known about the relationship between pathological gambling and current suicidal ideation. Objectives We investigated socio-demographic, clinical and gambling-related variables associated with suicidality in treatment-seeking individuals. Methods Bivariate analyses and logistic regression models were generated on data from 903 individuals to identify measures associated with aspects of suicidality. Results Forty-six percent of patients reported current suicidal ideation. People with current suicidal thoughts were more likely to report greater problem-gambling severity (p <0.001), depression (p <0.001) and anxiety (p <0.001) compared to those without suicidality. Logistic regression models suggested that past suicidal ideation (p <0.001) and higher anxiety (p <0.05) may be predictive factors of current suicidality. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the severity of anxiety disorder, along with a lifetime history of suicidal ideation, may help to identify treatment-seeking individuals with pathological gambling with a higher risk of suicidality, highlighting the importance of assessing suicidal ideation in clinical settings.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T15:07:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.032
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2017)
  • Impulsivity and history of behavioral addictions are associated with drug
           use in adolescents
    • Authors: Cheng-Wei I. Chuang; Steve Sussman; Matthew D. Stone; Raina D. Pang; Chih-Ping Chou; Adam M. Leventhal; Matthew G. Kirkpatrick
      Pages: 41 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 74
      Author(s): Cheng-Wei I. Chuang, Steve Sussman, Matthew D. Stone, Raina D. Pang, Chih-Ping Chou, Adam M. Leventhal, Matthew G. Kirkpatrick
      Background Previous literature suggests that trait impulsivity and engagement in non-drug-related behavioral addictions (e.g., Internet addiction, food addiction) are two risk factors for drug use. Here we further investigated the potential impact of having one or both of these risk factors on drug use in Los Angeles area adolescents. Method High school students (N =1612; Mean age=14.1) completed self-report surveys measuring two potential risk factors (impulsivity, lifetime history of several behavioral addictions), and past 6-month use of tobacco, alcohol and marijuana. Participants who reported never using drugs completed questionnaires assessing their susceptibility for future use. Results In general, adolescents who endorsed either impulsivity alone or at least two behavioral addictions alone were more likely to have used tobacco, alcohol, or marijuana compared to individuals who had neither risk factor (OR=2.50–4.13), and individuals who endorsed both impulsivity and three or more behavioral addictions were the most likely to have used these drugs (OR=9.40–10.13). Similarly, among those who had never tried a drug, individuals with this combined set of risk factors were the most likely to be susceptible to future drug use (OR=3.37–5.04). Discussion These results indicate that the combination of trait impulsivity and a history of behavioral addictions increases the risk for current and future drug use in adolescents, to a greater extent than either risk factor alone. It may be useful for drug prevention efforts to target impulsive adolescents who also actively engage in other non-drug-related addictive behaviors.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T15:07:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.021
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2017)
  • Perceived parental monitoring and adolescent internet addiction: A
           moderated mediation model
    • Authors: Qingwen Ding; Dongping Li; Yueyue Zhou; Hongning Dong; Jinjing Luo
      Pages: 48 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 74
      Author(s): Qingwen Ding, Dongping Li, Yueyue Zhou, Hongning Dong, Jinjing Luo
      Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological model focuses on the interrelation between different contexts and the interaction between individuals and their proximal contexts. Based on this theory, the present study tested a moderated mediation model of family, peer, and individual characteristics to investigate how they impact adolescent Internet addiction. Specifically, we examined whether deviant peer affiliation partially mediated the relation between perceived parental monitoring and adolescent Internet addiction, and whether this indirect relation was moderated by effortful control. A total of 747 Chinese middle school students filled out anonymous questionnaires concerning perceived parental monitoring, deviant peer affiliation, effortful control, and Internet addiction. The findings indicated that while the impact of parental monitoring on Internet addiction was partially mediated by deviant peer affiliation, effortful control moderated the first stage of the indirect relationship. For low effortful control adolescents, perceived parental monitoring negatively predicted deviant peer affiliation. Conversely, the indirect path was not significant for high effortful control adolescents. These findings highlight the need to consider family, peer and individual factors simultaneously when evaluating risks associated with adolescent Internet addiction and have important implications for the prevention and intervention of adolescent Internet addiction.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T15:07:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.033
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2017)
  • Is Internet addiction transitory or persistent? Incidence and prospective
           predictors of remission of Internet addiction among Chinese secondary
           school students
    • Authors: Joseph T.F. Lau; Anise M.S. Wu; Danielle L. Gross; Kit-man Cheng; Mason M.C. Lau
      Pages: 55 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 74
      Author(s): Joseph T.F. Lau, Anise M.S. Wu, Danielle L. Gross, Kit-man Cheng, Mason M.C. Lau
      Background Internet addiction (IA) is prevalent among adolescents but it is potentially revertible. Only three Taiwan adolescent studies reported IA remission and a few related factors. We investigated incidence and predictors of remission among Hong Kong Chinese secondary school students with a 12-month longitudinal study. Methods IA was defined as Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) score>63. Validated measures were used to assess students' psychosocial wellbeing at baseline and follow-up. Results Of 1545 students with IA at baseline, 1296 (83.9%) provided matched baseline/12-month follow-up data; their data were analyzed. Incidence of remission (CIAS≤63 at follow-up) was 59.29/100 person-years. Significant predictors included: 1) baseline CIAS score (ORa=.95), 2) baseline health belief model (HBM) constructs [perception of having severe IA (ORa=.34), perceived susceptibility to IA (ORa=0.82), perceived barrier (ORa=0.95), cue to action from parents (ORa=0.82), and self-efficacy for reducing Internet use (ORa=1.13)], and 3) baseline psychosocial health measures [self-esteem (ORa=1.03), severe depression (ORa=0.72) and social anxiety (ORa=0.96)] and their changes over time [depression (ORa=.95), anxiety (ORa=.94), loneliness (ORa=.93), self-esteem (ORa=1.07), positive affect (ORa=1.10) and family support (ORa=1.03)]. Two-thirds (64.3%) of the remission group presented reduced CIAS score>1.5 SD, and recorded larger improvements in psychosocial status over time than the non-remission group. Conclusion Without noticeable interventions, incidence of remission was high and related to improvements in psychosocial health. Most of the HBM constructs, and baseline/changes in psychosocial measures predicted remission. Interventions to increase remission should modify these factors.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T15:07:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.034
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2017)
  • Coming to the new D.A.R.E.: A preliminary test of the officer-taught
           elementary keepin' it REAL curriculum
    • Authors: L. Edward Day; Michelle Miller-Day; Michael L. Hecht; Desiree Fehmie
      Pages: 67 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 74
      Author(s): L. Edward Day, Michelle Miller-Day, Michael L. Hecht, Desiree Fehmie
      The present study reports a preliminary evaluation of D.A.R.E.'s new elementary school keepin' it REAL substance abuse prevention program. Given the widespread dissemination of D.A.R.E., this evaluation, even though of short term effects, has important implications for national prevention efforts. The new prevention curriculum teaches social and emotional competencies such as decision making and resistance skills. Social and emotional competencies and other risk factors were examined among students (N =943) in 26 classrooms, 13 classrooms in the treatment condition (n =359) and 13 classrooms in the control condition (n =584) using a quasi-experimental matched group design. Pretest comparisons of treatment and control groups were completed, along with attrition analyses, and hierarchical logistic and linear regressions were computed to assess the intervention. The results revealed that the intervention produced significant effects on preventative factors such as the likelihood of resisting peer pressure, increased responsible decision making knowledge and decision-making skills, and confidence in being able to explain why they would refuse offers of cigarettes. The results of this study suggest that D.A.R.E.'s elementary keepin' it REAL program has promise as a social and emotional learning (SEL) based prevention program.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T13:13:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.025
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2017)
  • Parent-adolescent relationships in Hispanic versus Caucasian families:
           Associations with alcohol and marijuana use onset
    • Authors: Oswaldo Moreno; Tim Janssen; Melissa J. Cox; Suzanne Colby; Kristina M. Jackson
      Pages: 74 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 74
      Author(s): Oswaldo Moreno, Tim Janssen, Melissa J. Cox, Suzanne Colby, Kristina M. Jackson
      Parent-adolescent relationship (PAR) factors such as social support and negative interactions are associated with initiation of alcohol and marijuana use during adolescence. However, few studies have examined whether the relationship between PAR, especially the paternal role, and substance use onset varies by ethnicity. This is important given that ethnic group differences have been related to alcohol and marijuana use, cultural values and parenting. This study examines whether ethnicity moderates the prospective prediction of substance use onset by PAR factors. The sample comprised 124 adolescents who self-identified as Hispanic and 795 adolescents who self-identified as non-Hispanic Whites, and was drawn from an ongoing longitudinal survey on adolescent substance use. Discrete-time survival modeling was used to prospectively predict age at onset of substance use among participants who were substance-naïve at baseline. Interactions between ethnicity and PAR factors indicated that PAR factors had a larger influence on age of alcohol and marijuana onset for Hispanics than for Caucasians. Among Hispanics, greater social support from and greater negative interactions with the father-figure were more predictive of earlier onset of alcohol, and greater social support from the mother-figure was more predictive of later alcohol onset, compared to Caucasians. Similarly, greater negative interactions with the father-figure were more predictive of earlier onset of marijuana use among Hispanics than among Caucasians. These findings suggest the influence of PAR on alcohol and marijuana use onset may be larger for Hispanics than for Caucasians. Incorporating these parenting factors in substance use prevention programs advances public health in a culturally sensitive manner that is relevant to at-risk Hispanic adolescents.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T13:23:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.029
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2017)
  • Modelling the contribution of negative affect, outcome expectancies and
           metacognitions to cigarette use and nicotine dependence
    • Authors: Ana V. Nikčević; Leyla Alma; Claudia Marino; Daniel Kolubinski; Adviye Esin Yılmaz-Samancı; Gabriele Caselli; Marcantonio M. Spada
      Pages: 82 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 74
      Author(s): Ana V. Nikčević, Leyla Alma, Claudia Marino, Daniel Kolubinski, Adviye Esin Yılmaz-Samancı, Gabriele Caselli, Marcantonio M. Spada
      Background Both positive smoking outcome expectancies and metacognitions about smoking have been found to be positively associated with cigarette use and nicotine dependence. The goal of this study was to test a model including nicotine dependence and number of daily cigarettes as dependent variables, anxiety and depression as independent variables, and smoking outcome expectancies and metacognitions about smoking as mediators between the independents and dependents. Methods The sample consisted of 524 self-declared smokers who scored 3 or above on the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND: Uysal et al., 2004). Results Anxiety was not associated with either cigarette use or nicotine dependence but was positively associated with all mediators with the exception of stimulation state enhancement and social facilitation. Depression, on the other hand, was found to be positively associated with nicotine dependence (and very weakly to cigarette use) but was not associated with either smoking outcome expectancies or metacognitions about smoking. Only one smoking outcome expectancy (negative affect reduction) was found to be positively associated with nicotine dependence but not cigarette use. Furthermore one smoking outcome expectancy (negative social impression) was found to be positively associated with cigarette use (but not to nicotine dependence). All metacognitions about smoking were found to be positively associated with nicotine dependence. Moreover, negative metacognitions about uncontrollability were found to be positively associated with cigarette use. Conclusions Metacognitions about smoking appear to be a stronger mediator than smoking outcome expectancies in the relationship between negative affect and cigarette use/nicotine dependence. The implications of these findings are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T13:23:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2017)
  • Diverging effects of nicotine on motor learning performance: Improvement
           in deprived smokers and attenuation in non-smokers
    • Authors: J. Grundey; R. Amu; G. Batsikadze; W. Paulus; M.A. Nitsche
      Pages: 90 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 74
      Author(s): J. Grundey, R. Amu, G. Batsikadze, W. Paulus, M.A. Nitsche
      Nicotine modulates cognition and neuroplasticity in smokers and non-smokers. A possible mechanism for its effect on learning and memory performance is its impact on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). As neuroplasticity is closely connected to learning processes, we aimed to explore the effect of nicotine in healthy, young smokers and non-smokers on performance of the serial reaction time task (SRTT), a sequential motor learning paradigm. 20 nicotine-deprived smokers and 20 non-smokers participated in the study and were exposed to nicotine or placebo medication. Deprived smokers under placebo medication displayed reduced performance in terms of reaction time and error rates compared to the non-smoking group. After application of nicotine, performance in smokers improved while it deteriorated in non-smokers. These results indicate a restituting effect of nicotine in smokers in terms of cognitive parameters. This sheds further light on the proposed mechanism of nicotine on learning processes, which might be linked to the addictive component of nicotine, the probability of relapse and thus needs also be addressed in cessation treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T13:23:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.017
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2017)
  • A rural/urban comparison of privacy and confidentiality concerns
           associated with providing sensitive location information in epidemiologic
           research involving persons who use drugs
    • Authors: Abby E. Rudolph; April M. Young; Jennifer R. Havens
      Pages: 106 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 74
      Author(s): Abby E. Rudolph, April M. Young, Jennifer R. Havens
      Background Analyses that link contextual factors with individual-level data can improve our understanding of the “risk environment”; however, the accuracy of information provided by participants about locations where illegal/stigmatized behaviors occur may be influenced by privacy/confidentiality concerns that may vary by setting and/or data collection approach. Methods We recruited thirty-five persons who use drugs from a rural Appalachian town and a Mid-Atlantic city to participate in in-depth interviews. Through thematic analyses, we identified and compared privacy/confidentiality concerns associated with two survey methods that (1) collect self-reported addresses/cross-streets and (2) use an interactive web-based map to find/confirm locations in rural and urban settings. Results Concerns differed more by setting than between methods. For example, (1) rural participants valued interviewer rapport and protections provided by the Certificate of Confidentiality more; (2) locations considered to be sensitive differed in rural (i.e., others' homes) and urban (i.e., where drugs were used) settings; and (3) urban participants were more likely to view providing cross-streets as an acceptable alternative to providing exact addresses for sensitive locations and to prefer the web-based map approach. Conclusion Rural-urban differences in privacy/confidentiality concerns reflect contextual differences (i.e., where drugs are used/purchased, population density, and prior drug-related arrests). Strategies to alleviate concerns include: (1) obtain a Certificate of Confidentiality, (2) collect geographic data at the scale necessary for proposed analyses, and (3) permit participants to provide intersections/landmarks in close proximity to actual locations rather than exact addresses or to skip questions where providing an intersection/landmark would not obfuscate the actual address.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T13:23:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2017)
  • Diagnostic accuracy of a two-item Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-2)
    • Authors: Quyen Q. Tiet; Yani E. Leyva; Rudolf H. Moos; Brandy Smith
      Pages: 112 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 74
      Author(s): Quyen Q. Tiet, Yani E. Leyva, Rudolf H. Moos, Brandy Smith
      Objective Drug use is prevalent and costly to society, but individuals with drug use disorders (DUDs) are under-diagnosed and under-treated, particularly in primary care (PC) settings. Drug screening instruments have been developed to identify patients with DUDs and facilitate treatment. The Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) is one of the most well-known drug screening instruments. However, similar to many such instruments, it is too long for routine use in busy PC settings. This study developed and validated a briefer and more practical DAST for busy PC settings. Method We recruited 1300 PC patients in two Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) clinics. Participants responded to a structured diagnostic interview. We randomly selected half of the sample to develop and the other half to validate the new instrument. We employed signal detection techniques to select the best DAST items to identify DUDs (based on the MINI) and negative consequences of drug use (measured by the Inventory of Drug Use Consequences). Performance indicators were calculated. Results The two-item DAST (DAST-2) was 97% sensitive and 91% specific for DUDs in the development sample and 95% sensitive and 89% specific in the validation sample. It was highly sensitive and specific for DUD and negative consequences of drug use in subgroups of patients, including gender, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, educational level, and posttraumatic stress disorder status. Conclusions The DAST-2 is an appropriate drug screening instrument for routine use in PC settings in the VA and may be applicable in broader range of PC clinics.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T13:23:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.06.008
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2017)
  • Daily-level associations between PTSD and cannabis use among young sexual
           minority women
    • Authors: Emily R. Dworkin; Debra Kaysen; Michele Bedard-Gilligan; Isaac C. Rhew; Christine M. Lee
      Pages: 118 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 74
      Author(s): Emily R. Dworkin, Debra Kaysen, Michele Bedard-Gilligan, Isaac C. Rhew, Christine M. Lee
      Introduction Sexual minority women have elevated trauma exposure and prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to heterosexual women and they are also more likely to use cannabis, although no research has examined relationships between PTSD and cannabis use in this population. Daily-level methodologies are necessary to examine proximal associations between PTSD and use. Methods This study included 90 trauma-exposed young adult women who identified as sexual minorities (34.4% identified as lesbian and 48.9% identified as bisexual) and evaluated daily-level associations between their PTSD symptoms and cannabis use. Participants were assessed at two measurement waves, one year apart, each consisting of 14 consecutive daily assessments. Results Cannabis use occurred on 22.8% of the days. Results from generalized linear mixed effects models showed that a person's mean level of PTSD symptom severity across days was strongly associated with same-day likelihood of cannabis use (OR =2.67 for 1 SD increase in PTSD score; p <0.001). However, daily deviation from one's average PTSD score was not associated with cannabis use on the same day. Conclusions Findings suggest that PTSD severity may confer general risk for cannabis use, rather than being a state-dependent risk factor.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T13:23:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.06.007
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2017)
  • Treatment of substance use disorders: Effects on patients with higher or
           lower levels of PTSD symptoms
    • Authors: Carol E.M. Wieferink; Hein A. de Haan; Boukje A.G. Dijkstra; Martine Fledderus; Tim Kok
      Pages: 122 - 126
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 74
      Author(s): Carol E.M. Wieferink, Hein A. de Haan, Boukje A.G. Dijkstra, Martine Fledderus, Tim Kok
      While guidelines advise integrated treatment of patients with substance use disorder (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), recent studies and reviews find no convincing evidence of different outcomes following treatment between non-trauma focused integrated programs and SUD treatment alone. In this study, we analyzed whether SUD patients with higher levels of PTSD symptoms receiving standard, non-integrated SUD treatment (N =145) differed in outcomes compared to patients with lower levels of PTSD symptoms (N =152). Patients with higher levels of PTSD symptoms showed no difference in days of substance use, but significantly more craving and psychiatric symptoms (depression, anxiety and stress) were measured at baseline. After 3 and 6months of SUD treatment, there was no difference between the groups in decreased days of substance use. After 6months of SUD treatment, depression, anxiety and stress were significantly diminished in both groups. However, those with higher levels of PTSD symptoms at the start of the SUD treatment still reported significantly higher scores on depression, anxiety and stress after 6months of SUD treatment. These findings corroborate earlier studies that SUD patients with PTSD symptoms do not necessarily have poorer addiction treatment outcomes. However, as anxiety and PTSD symptoms predict relapse, future research should note the effect of higher symptom levels on long-term SUD treatment results. Additionally, more research is needed to determine which patients need additional treatment in conjunction with or following SUD treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T13:27:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2017)
  • Waterpipe smoking patterns and symptoms of nicotine dependence: The
           Waterpipe Dependence in Lebanese Youth Study
    • Authors: Raed Bahelah; Joseph R. DiFranza; Kenneth D. Ward; Thomas Eissenberg; Fouad M. Fouad; Ziyad Ben Taleb; Rana Jaber; Wasim Maziak
      Pages: 127 - 133
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 74
      Author(s): Raed Bahelah, Joseph R. DiFranza, Kenneth D. Ward, Thomas Eissenberg, Fouad M. Fouad, Ziyad Ben Taleb, Rana Jaber, Wasim Maziak
      Introduction Waterpipe typically is smoked intermittently over long smoking sessions. Waterpipe is addictive and its users show symptoms of nicotine dependence (ND). This study examined the risk of developing ND symptoms across waterpipe use patterns among Lebanese youth. Methods Waterpipe use patterns (length of smoking session, smoking a whole waterpipe without sharing, past-30day use frequency, number of waterpipes smoked) were assessed. Symptoms of ND were assessed using the 10-item Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC; endorsement of ≥1 symptom) and the 6 criteria of the International Classification of Diseases-10th revision (ICD-10 ND; presence of ≥3 criteria during 12months). Results Both the proportion of participants endorsing ND symptoms and the average number of endorsed ND symptoms increased with increasing waterpipe use frequency, number of waterpipes smoked, and length of smoking session. The risk of endorsing≥1 HONC symptom increased with increasing number of waterpipes smoked in the past 30-days (≥10 vs. <4 waterpipes; Hazard ratio (HR)=2.05, 95% CI: 1.52–2.58, p=0.007), and session length (>60min vs. <30min; HR=2.87, 95% CI: 2.83–2.91, p=0.001). The risk of attaining ICD-10 ND increased with increasing number of waterpipes used in the past 30-days (≥10 vs. <4 waterpipes; HR=2.56, 95% CI: 1.89–3.22, p=0.006), and smoking every day/almost every day vs. less than once weekly (HR=2.86, 95% CI: 2.12–3.60, p=0.007). Conclusions Increasing use frequency, number of waterpipes smoked, and longer smoking sessions were associated with higher risk of ND. The length of smoking session emerged as a novel indicator of ND among waterpipe smokers.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T13:27:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2017)
  • Patterns of high-intensity drinking among young adults in the United
           States: A repeated measures latent class analysis
    • Authors: Megan E. Patrick; Yvonne M. Terry-McElrath; John E. Schulenberg; Bethany C. Bray
      Pages: 134 - 139
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 74
      Author(s): Megan E. Patrick, Yvonne M. Terry-McElrath, John E. Schulenberg, Bethany C. Bray
      Objective Using a national sample of young adults, this study identified latent classes of alcohol use including high-intensity drinking (10+ drinks) from ages 18 to 25/26, and explored associations between time-invariant covariates measured at age 18 and class membership. Method Longitudinal data from the national Monitoring the Future study were available for 1078 individuals (51% female) first surveyed as 12th grade students in 2005–2008, and followed through modal age 25/26. Repeated measures latent class analysis was used to identify latent classes based on self-reported alcohol use: no past 30-day drinking, 1–9 drinks per occasion in the past 2weeks, and 10+ drinks per occasion. Results Four latent classes of alcohol use from ages 18 to 25/26 were identified: (1) Non-Drinkers (21%); (2) Legal Non-High-Intensity Drinkers (23%); (3) Persistent Non-High-Intensity Drinkers (40%); and (4) High-Intensity Drinkers (16%). Membership in the High-Intensity Drinkers class was characterized by higher than average probabilities of high-intensity drinking at all ages, with the probability of high-intensity drinking increasing between ages 18 and 21/22. Both gender and race/ethnicity significantly differentiated class membership, whereas neither parental education (a proxy for socioeconomic status) nor college plans at 12th grade showed significant associations. Conclusions More than one in seven individuals who were seniors in high school experienced a long-term pattern of high-intensity drinking lasting into middle young adulthood. Young adult high-intensity drinking is often preceded by high-intensity drinking in high school, suggesting the importance of screening and prevention for high-intensity drinking during adolescence.

      PubDate: 2017-06-20T13:31:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 74 (2017)
  • Cannabis and cue-induced craving in cocaine-dependent individuals: A pilot
    • Authors: K. Giasson-Gariépy; S. Potvin; M. Ghabrash; J. Bruneau; D. Jutras-Aswad
      Pages: 4 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): K. Giasson-Gariépy, S. Potvin, M. Ghabrash, J. Bruneau, D. Jutras-Aswad
      Background Cannabis consumption is common among cocaine users; however, little is known about its effect on cocaine craving. The objective of this study was to assess whether cannabis co-use is associated with lower cue-induced cocaine craving in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals. Methods Data from twenty-eight cocaine-dependent men were analyzed in this pilot study. Cocaine-dependent subjects (n =12) were compared with cocaine-dependent subjects who also abused or were dependent on cannabis (n =16). After at least 72h of cocaine abstinence, verified using the Timeline Followback and a drug screening test, subjects participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging session during which neutral and drug cue video sequences were presented. Each sequence comprised four video blocks alternating with resting blocks. We report here subjective craving measures that were collected using the Visual Analog Scale, administered before and after each video block as per standard craving measurement paradigms. Results Cocaine craving was successfully induced, with no significant difference in cue-induced craving between the two groups. However, post-hoc analyses revealed a significant increase in pre-video cocaine craving scores over time among individuals with cannabis use disorders. Conclusion We could not highlight significant differences in cocaine craving induction between groups, but we observed a possible deficit in craving decay in the cocaine and cannabis group. In light of this finding, methodology of craving assessment in non-treatment-seeking users, particularly when different substances are combined, should possibly include outcomes linked to craving decay. Studies examining the association between cocaine craving decay and other outcome measures, such as relapse, are also warranted.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T00:59:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.025
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Cigarette dependence and depressive symptoms as predictors of smoking
    • Authors: Gemma Nieva; Marina Comín; Sergi Valero; Eugeni Bruguera
      Pages: 9 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Gemma Nieva, Marina Comín, Sergi Valero, Eugeni Bruguera
      Workplace smoking cessation interventions increase quit rates compared to no treatment or minimal interventions. However, most studies report data up to one year. This study aims to evaluate long-term effects of a worksite smoking cessation intervention based on cognitive behavioral cessation groups combined with first-line medications, and determine to what extent cigarette dependence (FTCD) and depressive symptoms may influence results at five-year follow-up. Participants were invited to answer a short survey five years after starting the program. A total of 90.4% (n=227) of those who had attended at least one treatment session and were alive, completed the survey. At the five-year follow-up, 29.5% participants reported continuous abstinence. Low scores in the FTCD and low depressive symptoms at baseline predicted continuous abstinence. Three out of four continuous abstainers at twelve months remained abstinent at the five-year follow-up. The study shows that workplace smoking cessation interventions have long-term effects and supports the traditional one-year follow-up period to assess smoking cessation.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T00:59:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Trait mindfulness and protective strategies for alcohol use: Implications
           for college student drinking
    • Authors: Emma I. Brett; Thad R. Leffingwell; Eleanor L. Leavens
      Pages: 16 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Emma I. Brett, Thad R. Leffingwell, Eleanor L. Leavens
      Introduction The use of Protective Behavioral Strategies (PBS) has been strongly linked with decreased experience of alcohol-related consequences, making them a potential target for intervention. Additionally, mindfulness is associated with decreased experience of alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a model of PBS as a mediator of the effect of mindfulness on alcohol-related consequences. Additionally, mindfulness as a moderator of the relationship between PBS and alcohol use and consequences was examined. Methods College students (N=239) at a large South Central university completed self-report measures of demographics, alcohol use and consequences, use of PBS, and trait mindfulness. Results Results indicated that both higher levels of mindfulness and using more PBS predicted decreased alcohol-related consequences and consumption, with PBS mediating both relationships (p <0.01). Those with higher levels of mindfulness were more likely to use PBS, with individuals using more PBS experiencing fewer alcohol-related consequences and consuming fewer drinks per week. Mindfulness moderated the relationship between PBS and consequences, with a significantly stronger negative relationship for those with lower levels of mindfulness. Conclusions Individuals who are higher in trait mindfulness are more likely to use PBS, which leads to a decrease in the experience of alcohol-related consequences. Furthermore, for individuals lower in mindfulness, low PBS use may lead to increased experience of alcohol consequences. Interventions that incorporate PBS may be most beneficial for students who are low in mindfulness and unlikely to engage in drinking control strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T00:59:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • The role of negative affect and message credibility in perceived
           effectiveness of smokeless tobacco health warning labels in Navi Mumbai,
           India and Dhaka, Bangladesh: A moderated-mediation analysis
    • Authors: Seema Mutti-Packer; Jessica L. Reid; James F. Thrasher; Daniel Romer; Geoffrey T. Fong; Prakash C. Gupta; Mangesh S. Pednekar; Nigar Nargis; David Hammond
      Pages: 22 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Seema Mutti-Packer, Jessica L. Reid, James F. Thrasher, Daniel Romer, Geoffrey T. Fong, Prakash C. Gupta, Mangesh S. Pednekar, Nigar Nargis, David Hammond
      Objective There is strong evidence showing that pictorial health warnings are more effective than text-only warnings. However, much of this evidence comes from high-income countries and is limited to cigarette packaging. Moreover, few studies have identified mechanisms that might explain the impact of warnings. Methods The current study examined the potential mediating role of negative affect and the moderating influence of message credibility in perceived effectiveness of smokeless tobacco warnings in two low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Field interviews were conducted in India and Bangladesh, with adult (19+ years) smokeless tobacco users (n =1053), and youth (16–18years) users (n =304) and non-users (n =687). Respondents were randomly assigned to view warnings in one of four conditions: (1) Text-only, (2) pictorial with symbolic imagery, (3) pictorial with graphic images of health effects, or (4) pictorial with personalized graphic images plus a personal testimonial. Results The findings provide support for the mediating influence of negative affect in perceived effectiveness, for adult and youth smokeless tobacco users who viewed pictorial warnings (vs. text-only), and graphic health warnings (vs. personal testimonials). Among adults, message credibility moderated the indirect effect; the association was stronger when credibility was high and weaker when it was low. Among youth users and non-users, message credibility did not moderate the indirect effect. Conclusions Consistent with research from high-income countries, these findings highlight the importance of selecting imagery that will elicit negative emotional reactions and be perceived as credible. Differential effects among adults and youth highlight the importance of pre-testing images.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T00:59:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Integrated, exposure-based treatment for PTSD and comorbid substance use
           disorders: Predictors of treatment dropout
    • Authors: Derek D. Szafranski; Alexandra Snead; Nicholas P. Allan; Daniel F. Gros; Therese Killeen; Julianne Flanagan; Irene Pericot-Valverde; Sudie E. Back
      Pages: 30 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Derek D. Szafranski, Alexandra Snead, Nicholas P. Allan, Daniel F. Gros, Therese Killeen, Julianne Flanagan, Irene Pericot-Valverde, Sudie E. Back
      High rates of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) have been noted in veteran populations. Fortunately, there are a number of evidence-based psychotherapies designed to address comorbid PTSD and SUD. However, treatments targeting PTSD and SUD simultaneously often report high dropout rates. To date, only one study has examined predictors of dropout from PTSD/SUD treatment. To address this gap in the literature, this study aimed to 1) examine when in the course of treatment dropout occurred, and 2) identify predictors of dropout from a concurrent treatment for PTSD and SUD. Participants were 51 male and female veterans diagnosed with current PTSD and SUD. All participants completed at least one session of a cognitive-behavioral treatment (COPE) designed to simultaneously address PTSD and SUD symptoms. Of the 51 participants, 22 (43.1%) dropped out of treatment prior to completing the full 12 session COPE protocol. Results indicated that the majority of dropout (55%) occurred after session 6, with the largest amount of dropout occurring between sessions 9 and 10. Results also indicated a marginally significant relationship between greater baseline PTSD symptom severity and premature dropout. These findings highlight inconsistencies related to timing and predictors of dropout, as well as the dearth of information noted about treatment dropout within PTSD and SUD literature. Suggestions for procedural changes, such as implementing continual symptom assessments during treatment and increasing dialog between provider and patient about dropout were made with the hopes of increasing consistency of findings and eventually reducing treatment dropout.

      PubDate: 2017-05-01T22:42:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Predictive validity of cannabis consumption measures: Results from a
           national longitudinal study
    • Authors: Anne Buu; Yi-Han Hu; Sanjana Pampati; Brooke J. Arterberry; Hsien-Chang Lin
      Pages: 36 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Anne Buu, Yi-Han Hu, Sanjana Pampati, Brooke J. Arterberry, Hsien-Chang Lin
      Background Validating the utility of cannabis consumption measures for predicting later cannabis related symptomatology or progression to cannabis use disorder (CUD) is crucial for prevention and intervention work that may use consumption measures for quick screening. This study examined whether cannabis use quantity and frequency predicted CUD symptom counts, progression to onset of CUD, and persistence of CUD. Methods Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) at Wave 1 (2001–2002) and Wave 2 (2004–2005) were used to identify three risk samples: (1) current cannabis users at Wave 1 who were at risk for having CUD symptoms at Wave 2; (2) current users without lifetime CUD who were at risk for incident CUD; and (3) current users with past-year CUD who were at risk for persistent CUD. Logistic regression and zero-inflated Poisson models were used to examine the longitudinal effect of cannabis consumption on CUD outcomes. Results Higher frequency of cannabis use predicted lower likelihood of being symptom-free but it did not predict the severity of CUD symptomatology. Higher frequency of cannabis use also predicted higher likelihood of progression to onset of CUD and persistence of CUD. Cannabis use quantity, however, did not predict any of the developmental stages of CUD symptomatology examined in this study. Conclusions This study has provided a new piece of evidence to support the predictive validity of cannabis use frequency based on national longitudinal data. The result supports the common practice of including frequency items in cannabis screening tools.

      PubDate: 2017-05-01T22:42:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Distinct cognitive performance and patterns of drug use among early and
           late onset cocaine users
    • Authors: Bruna Mayara Lopes; Priscila Dib Gonçalves; Mariella Ometto; Bernardo dos Santos; Mikael Cavallet; Tiffany Moukbel Chaim-Avancini; Mauricio Henriques Serpa; Sergio Nicastri; André Malbergier; Geraldo F. Busatto; Arthur Guerra de Andrade; Paulo Jannuzzi Cunha
      Pages: 41 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Bruna Mayara Lopes, Priscila Dib Gonçalves, Mariella Ometto, Bernardo dos Santos, Mikael Cavallet, Tiffany Moukbel Chaim-Avancini, Mauricio Henriques Serpa, Sergio Nicastri, André Malbergier, Geraldo F. Busatto, Arthur Guerra de Andrade, Paulo Jannuzzi Cunha
      Introduction Adolescence is a crucial period for neurodevelopment, but few studies have investigated the impact of early cocaine use on cognitive performance and patterns of substance use. Methods We evaluated 103 cocaine dependent inpatients divided in two groups: early-onset users (EOG; n=52), late-onset users (LOG; n=51), and 63 healthy controls. Neuropsychological functioning was evaluated using Digits Forward (DF) and Backward (DB), Trail Making Test (TMT), Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCFT), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), and Iowa Gambling Test (IGT). Use of alcohol and other drugs was assessed with the Addiction Severity Index (ASI-6). Results Analyses of covariance controlling for age, IQ and years of education showed that EOG presented worse performance in attention span (DF, p=0.020), working memory (DB, p=0.001), sustained attention (WCST, p=0.030), declarative memory (ROCFT, p=0.031) and general executive functioning (FAB, p=0.003) when compared with the control group. LOG presented impairments on divided attention (TMT, p=0.003) and general executive functioning (FAB, p=0.001) in relation to the control group. EOG presented higher use of cannabis and alcohol than LOG (p≤0.001). Conclusion Early-onset cocaine users display more pronounced neuropsychological alterations than controls, as well as a greater frequency of polydrug consumption than LOG. The prominent cognitive deficits in EOG probably reflect the deleterious interference of cocaine use with early stages of neurodevelopment. This may be related to more severe clinical characteristics of substance disorder in this subgroup, including polysubstance abuse.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T22:47:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.013
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Psychometric properties of the Motivational Interviewing Treatment
           Integrity coding system 4.2 with jail inmates
    • Authors: Mandy D. Owens; Lauren N. Rowell; Theresa Moyers
      Pages: 48 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Mandy D. Owens, Lauren N. Rowell, Theresa Moyers
      Motivational Interviewing (MI) is an evidence-based approach shown to be helpful for a variety of behaviors across many populations. Treatment fidelity is an important tool for understanding how and with whom MI may be most helpful. The Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity coding system was recently updated to incorporate new developments in the research and theory of MI, including the relational and technical hypotheses of MI (MITI 4.2). To date, no studies have examined the MITI 4.2 with forensic populations. In this project, twenty-two brief MI interventions with jail inmates were evaluated to test the reliability of the MITI 4.2. Validity of the instrument was explored using regression models to examine the associations between global scores (Empathy, Partnership, Cultivating Change Talk and Softening Sustain Talk) and outcomes. Reliability of this coding system with these data was strong. We found that therapists had lower ratings of Empathy with participants who had more extensive criminal histories. Both Relational and Technical global scores were associated with criminal histories as well as post-intervention ratings of motivation to decrease drug use. Findings indicate that the MITI 4.2 was reliable for coding sessions with jail inmates. Additionally, results provided information related to the relational and technical hypotheses of MI. Future studies can use the MITI 4.2 to better understand the mechanisms behind how MI works with this high-risk group.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T22:47:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.015
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • A time-varying effect model of the dynamic association between alcohol use
           and consequences over the first two years of college
    • Authors: Jennifer E. Merrill; Shannon R. Kenney; Nancy P. Barnett
      Pages: 57 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Jennifer E. Merrill, Shannon R. Kenney, Nancy P. Barnett
      College students experience myriad negative consequences from alcohol misuse. The strength of the association between level of alcohol use and consequences may change across the initial years of college, as students develop tolerance or learn to avoid negative effects of drinking. Time varying effect models (TVEM) allow for statistical examination of the changing strength of associations between two variables as they unfold across time. Goals of the present study were to test the hypothesis that the association between weekly quantity of alcohol use and the odds of an alcohol consequence that week would decrease in strength from the first week of freshman year to the end of sophomore year, and to examine gender differences in the association between use and consequences over time. Participants (N=812 college student drinkers, 60% female) completed 36 assessments of alcohol use and consequences across two years (every other week). TVEM models revealed that the proportion of those for whom alcohol use led to a consequence declined across time. Aside from the first few weeks of college, the association between alcohol use and odds of a consequence was consistently stronger for women than men. Among men, the odds of a consequence declined relatively steadily over time. Among women, the strength of this association was more dynamic. This study provides initial insight into the complex relationship between drinking and consequences. Future research focusing on understanding factors that explain the decreasing association between use and consequences with time can contribute to college student alcohol education and interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T22:47:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.022
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Attentional blink to alcohol cues in binge drinkers versus non-binge
    • Authors: Francesco M. DePalma; Natalie Ceballos; Reiko Graham
      Pages: 67 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Francesco M. DePalma, Natalie Ceballos, Reiko Graham
      Previous studies have shown alcohol-related attentional biases in social drinkers; however, the temporal dynamics of these biases are not well understood. The current study examined this issue in 94 participants (27 male) categorized as binge drinkers (BD) or non-binge drinkers (NBD). Two versions of an alcohol-related attentional blink (AB) paradigm were used: one with words and one with images. It was predicted that BDs (versus NBDs) would exhibit reduced AB for alcohol cues, which would be enhanced for the pictorial version of the task (versus words). The relationships between AB and alcohol craving, quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, symptoms of alcohol use disorder, and family history of alcohol use disorder (AUD) were also examined. While an AB was observed for both alcohol and non-alcohol targets in the NBD group, no AB was found for alcohol targets in the BD group. Furthermore, the magnitude of the AB was related to drinking, such that higher self-reported hazardous drinking was associated with smaller ABs to alcohol-related targets. However, AB was not related to craving or family history of AUD. These results suggest that alcohol-related stimuli are processed more efficiently by BDs, especially those with hazardous alcohol consumption patterns. These results may inform treatment and prevention efforts targeting binge drinkers.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T22:54:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.020
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Trajectories of positive alcohol expectancies and drinking: An examination
           of young adults in the US and Sweden
    • Authors: Kevin S. Montes; Katie Witkiewitz; Claes Andersson; Nicole Fossos-Wong; Timothy Pace; Mats Berglund; Mary E. Larimer
      Pages: 74 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Kevin S. Montes, Katie Witkiewitz, Claes Andersson, Nicole Fossos-Wong, Timothy Pace, Mats Berglund, Mary E. Larimer
      Positive alcohol expectancies and alcohol use tend to increase from adolescence to young adulthood, yet little is known about the associations between these constructs across cultures. The current study adds to the extant literature by examining the growth trajectories of positive alcohol expectancies and drinking behavior among United States (US) and Swedish participants during a critical period where significant change in these outcomes may be expected to occur. A total of 870 (US, N =362; Sweden, N =508) high school seniors completed baseline, 6-month, and 12-month assessments of alcohol expectancies and drinking (i.e., drinks per week). Changes in positive alcohol expectancies and drinking behavior were examined using a parallel process latent growth model. In both samples, higher baseline levels of positive alcohol expectancies were associated with a higher number of drinks consumed per week at baseline. In the US sample, lower baseline levels of positive alcohol expectancies were associated with a greater increase in positive alcohol expectancies at 12-month follow-up, and lower baseline levels of drinks per week were associated with a greater increase in drinks consumed per week at 12-month follow-up. In the Swedish sample, an increase in positive alcohol expectancies over time was associated with an increase in drinks consumed per week over the same period of time. Additional research is needed to examine when and for whom expectancy-based alcohol interventions are most efficacious.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T22:54:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.021
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Distress tolerance interacts with circumstances, motivation, and readiness
           to predict substance abuse treatment retention
    • Authors: Bina Ali; Kerry M. Green; Stacey B. Daughters; C.W. Lejuez
      Pages: 99 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Bina Ali, Kerry M. Green, Stacey B. Daughters, C.W. Lejuez
      Background Our understanding of the conditions that influence substance abuse treatment retention in urban African American substance users is limited. This study examined the interacting effect of circumstances, motivation, and readiness (CMR) with distress tolerance to predict substance abuse treatment retention in a sample of urban African American treatment-seeking substance users. Methods Data were collected from 81 African American substance users entering residential substance abuse treatment facility in an urban setting. Participants completed self-reported measures on CMR and distress tolerance. In addition, participants were assessed on psychiatric comorbidities, substance use severity, number of previous treatments, and demographic characteristics. Data on substance abuse treatment retention were obtained using administrative records of the treatment center. Results Logistic regression analysis found that the interaction of CMR and distress tolerance was significant in predicting substance abuse treatment retention. Higher score on CMR was significantly associated with increased likelihood of treatment retention in substance users with higher distress tolerance, but not in substance users with lower distress tolerance. Conclusions Findings of the study indicate that at higher level of distress tolerance, favorable external circumstances, higher internal motivation, and greater readiness to treatment are important indicators of substance abuse treatment retention. The study highlights the need for assessing CMR and distress tolerance levels among substance users entering treatment, and providing targeted interventions to increase substance abuse treatment retention and subsequent recovery from substance abuse among urban African American substance users.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T22:54:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.016
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Feasibility and reliability of a mobile tool to evaluate exposure to
           tobacco product marketing and messages using ecological momentary
    • Authors: Emily T. Hébert; Elizabeth A. Vandewater; Michael S. Businelle; Melissa B. Harrell; Steven H. Kelder; Cheryl L. Perry
      Pages: 105 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Emily T. Hébert, Elizabeth A. Vandewater, Michael S. Businelle, Melissa B. Harrell, Steven H. Kelder, Cheryl L. Perry
      Introduction Existing measures of tobacco marketing and messaging exposure are limited, relying on recall, recognition, or proxy measures. This study aimed to determine the feasibility and reliability of a mobile application for the measurement of tobacco and e-cigarette marketing and message exposure using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Methods Young adults from Austin, TX (n=181, ages 18–29) were instructed to use a mobile application to record all sightings of marketing or social media related to tobacco (including e-cigarettes) in real-time for 28days (Event EMAs). Tobacco product use and recall of message encounters were assessed daily using an app-initiated EMA (Daily EMAs). Results The mobile app was a feasible and acceptable method to measure exposure to tobacco messages. The majority of messages (45.0%) were seen on the Internet, and many were user-generated. Thirty-day recall of messages at baseline was poorly correlated with messages reported via Event EMA during the study period; however, the correlation between post-study 30-day recall and Event EMA was much stronger (r=0.603 for industry-sponsored messages, r=0.599 for user-generated messages). Correlations between Daily EMAs and 30-day recall of message exposure (baseline and post-study) were small (baseline: r=0.329–0.389) to large (post-study: r=0.656–0.766). Conclusions These findings suggest that EMA is a feasible and reliable method for measuring tobacco message exposure, especially given the prevalence of messages encountered online and on social media. Recall measures are limited in their ability to accurately represent marketing exposure, but might be improved by a period of priming or clearer response categories.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T22:54:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Predicting heavy episodic drinking using an extended temporal
           self-regulation theory
    • Authors: Nicola Black; Barbara Mullan; Louise Sharpe
      Pages: 111 - 118
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Nicola Black, Barbara Mullan, Louise Sharpe
      Introduction: Alcohol consumption contributes significantly to the global burden from disease and injury, and specific patterns of heavy episodic drinking contribute uniquely to this burden. Temporal self-regulation theory and the dual-process model describe similar theoretical constructs that might predict heavy episodic drinking. The aims of this study were to test the utility of temporal self-regulation theory in predicting heavy episodic drinking, and examine whether the theoretical relationships suggested by the dual-process model significantly extend temporal self-regulation theory. Methods: This was a predictive study with 149 Australian adults. Measures were questionnaires (self-report habit index, cues to action scale, purpose-made intention questionnaire, timeline follow-back questionnaire) and executive function tasks (Stroop, Tower of London, operation span). Participants completed measures of theoretical constructs at baseline and reported their alcohol consumption two weeks later. Data were analysed using hierarchical multiple linear regression. Results: Temporal self-regulation theory significantly predicted heavy episodic drinking (R 2 =48.0–54.8%, p <0.001) and the hypothesised extension significantly improved the prediction of heavy episodic drinking frequency (ΔR 2 =4.5%, p =0.001) but not peak consumption (ΔR 2 =1.4%, p =0.181). Intention and behavioural prepotency directly predicted heavy episodic drinking (p <0.01). Planning ability moderated the intention-behaviour relationship and inhibitory control moderated the behavioural prepotency-behaviour relationship (p <0.05). Conclusions: Both temporal self-regulation theory and the extended temporal self-regulation theory provide good prediction of heavy episodic drinking. Intention, behavioural prepotency, planning ability and inhibitory control may be good targets for interventions designed to decrease heavy episodic drinking.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T22:54:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.017
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • The social exigencies of the gateway progression to the use of illicit
           drugs from adolescence into adulthood
    • Authors: Roy Otten; Chung Jung Mun; Thomas J. Dishion
      Pages: 144 - 150
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Roy Otten, Chung Jung Mun, Thomas J. Dishion
      Background There is limited empirical integration between peer clustering theory and the Gateway framework. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that friendship associations partly predict gateway escalations in the use of drugs from adolescence to adulthood. Method This longitudinal study analyzed 3 waves of data from a community sample of 711 male and female participants without a history of illicit drug use reporting drug use at age 17, 22, and 27. Substance use assessments including tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, onset and abuse/dependence tendency of illicit drugs other than cannabis (i.e., cocaine, methamphetamine, and opiates), and friends' reported use of illicit drugs. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model. Results Participants' cannabis use level at age 17 was positively associated with perceived friends' drug use at age 22, which in turn predicted participants' onset of illicit drug use between ages 22 and 27. Moreover, progression of tobacco use throughout age 17 to 22 was associated with an increased onset of illicit drug use between ages 22 and 27. Apart for an effect of cannabis use at age 22 on abuse and dependence tendency to various drugs at age 28, results were similar. Conclusions During this period of development, the availability and selection of drug-using friends contributes to the progression to potentially more rewarding and damaging illicit drugs. These findings suggest the need to attend to the peer ecology in prevention and support the common practice of using abstaining peers in treatment for drug dependence.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T23:00:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.011
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Cognitive avoidance and aversive cues related to tobacco in male smokers
    • Authors: Ji Sun Hong; Sun Mi Kim; Hye Yeon Jung; Kyoung Doo Kang; Kyung Joon Min; Doug Hyun Han
      Pages: 158 - 164
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Ji Sun Hong, Sun Mi Kim, Hye Yeon Jung, Kyoung Doo Kang, Kyung Joon Min, Doug Hyun Han
      Background Treatment using aversive conditioning has been suggested for smoking cessation. The efficacy of this method is thought to be associated with cognitive avoidance. We compare differences in avoidance traits and patterns of associated brain activation in response to cues that induce cravings versus aversion between smokers and non-smokers. Methods Fifteen smokers and fifteen non-smokers completed cue reactivity tasks while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain responses to craving-inducing cues (Cr) and aversion-inducing cues (Av). Participant avoidant traits were also assessed. Results Activation of the left frontal subcallosal gyrus in response to Cr was greater in smokers than in non-smokers. Smokers showed less activation in the right temporal lobe in response to Av than did non-smokers. Brain activation in response to Cr in the left frontal subcallosal gyrus was positively correlated with Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores in smokers. Brain activation in response to Av in the right temporal lobe was negatively correlated with the Korean Version of the Cognitive Avoidance Questionnaire (KCAQ) scores in non-smokers. Conclusions Cognitive avoidance in smokers during aversive stimulation might result in sustaining addictive behaviors. On the other hand, non-smokers may be able to emotionally confront the adverse effects of smoking.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T23:00:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Treatment non-response: Associations with smoking expectancies among
           treatment-seeking smokers
    • Authors: Lorra Garey; Samar A. Taha; Brooke Y. Kauffman; Kara F. Manning; Clayton Neighbors; Norman B. Schmidt; Michael J. Zvolensky
      Pages: 172 - 177
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Lorra Garey, Samar A. Taha, Brooke Y. Kauffman, Kara F. Manning, Clayton Neighbors, Norman B. Schmidt, Michael J. Zvolensky
      Despite the high rate of smoking cessation treatment non-response, relatively little empirical work has examined predictors of treatment non-response. The present study sought to explore the effect of smoking outcome expectancies on treatment response in a sample of treatment-seeking adult daily smokers (N =182; 53.3% female; Mage =40.67; SD=13.63). Results indicated that expectancies for smoking to reduce negative affect were related to an increased likelihood of treatment non-response (OR=0.73, CI: 0.54, 0.98). These findings remained significant after controlling for sex, presence of Axis I disorder, tobacco-related health problems, tobacco dependence, anxiety sensitivity, and condition assignment as well as other smoking expectancy dimensions. Post hoc analyses revealed that this relation was stronger for smokers in the integrated care condition vs. the standard care condition (Interaction: OR=1.69, CI: 1.05, 2.73). Additionally, expectancies for smoking to enhance positive affect and provide sensory satisfaction were associated with an increased likelihood of treatment response in the standard care condition. The current findings suggest expectancies that smoking will alleviate negative affect may be a risk factor of smoking cessation treatment non-response. Additionally, findings provide evidence that the relation between smoking expectancies and treatment non-response may differ by smoking cessation treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T20:38:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.013
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Correlates of khat use during pregnancy: A cross-sectional study
    • Authors: Motohiro Nakajima; Mulusew G. Jebena; Mohammed Taha; Markos Tesfaye; Esayas Gudina; Andrine Lemieux; Richard Hoffman; Mustafa al'Absi
      Pages: 178 - 184
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Motohiro Nakajima, Mulusew G. Jebena, Mohammed Taha, Markos Tesfaye, Esayas Gudina, Andrine Lemieux, Richard Hoffman, Mustafa al'Absi
      Objectives Khat is widely used in East African countries including Ethiopia. A growing body of evidence indicates that long-term khat use is associated with various health consequences. The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude and correlates of khat use in pregnant women. Methods This study used a cross-sectional, face-to-face interview design that included 642 pregnant women receiving antenatal care services at primary care centers in Ethiopia. A series of chi-square tests and regression models were conducted to examine whether khat use status (i.e., 123 current khat users, 41 former khat users, and 478 non-users) was associated with socio-demographic, mental distress, and substance use measures. Results As compared with non-users, current and former khat users had higher levels of depressive symptoms and distress. Khat users minimized potential health risks associated with khat use. Social and motivational factors related to khat use were different between current and former khat users. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest a substantial prevalence of khat use among pregnant women in Ethiopia and highlight the role of socio-demographic and cultural influences on khat use during pregnancy. Health care professionals in the region where khat is available are encouraged to ask their female patients about khat use and encourage them to refrain from use while they are pregnant. The positive link between khat and mental distress warrants further research focusing on biological, psychological, and social mechanisms of this relationship.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T20:38:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.008
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Is subclinical gambling really subclinical?
    • Authors: Jeremiah Weinstock; Laura M. April; Selmi Kallmi
      Pages: 185 - 191
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Jeremiah Weinstock, Laura M. April, Selmi Kallmi
      Gambling disorder and substance use disorders (SUD) overlap in terms of etiology and diagnostic constructs (e.g., preoccupation, loss of control), yet diagnostic thresholds for the disorders are different. Currently, endorsing 2–3 gambling disorder criteria does not warrant a diagnosis while endorsing 2–3 SUD criteria does. The aim of this study was to examine whether subclinical gamblers (i.e., endorsing 2–3 gambling disorder criteria) experience psychosocial dysfunction equivalent to individuals who are diagnosed with mild severity SUD (i.e., 2–3 SUD criteria) and whether this level of dysfunction is significantly different from individuals with no psychopathology. Data are from the first wave of Quinte Longitudinal Study, a large epidemiological sample (N =4121). Psychometrically supported measures assessed for psychosocial functioning and the presence of Axis-I psychiatric disorders. Cross-sectional analysis examined 7 domains of psychosocial functioning using ANCOVA, which allowed for the inclusion of covariates, to test for difference between subclinical gamblers and individuals with no psychopathology and individuals with mild severity SUD. Equivalency testing compared subclinical gamblers in relation to mild severity SUD. Subclinical gamblers reported significantly poorer psychosocial functioning in relation to individuals endorsing no current psychopathology. Subclinical gamblers were also equivalent to and not significantly different from individuals with mild severity SUD. Subclinical gamblers experience similar psychosocial impairment to those individuals who endorse mild severity SUD, and this significantly differed from healthy individuals. The threshold for diagnosis of gambling disorder therefore warrants re-examination.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T20:38:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.014
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Associations of anxiety sensitivity and emotional symptoms with the
           subjective effects of alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis in adolescents
    • Authors: Raina D. Pang; Casey R. Guillot; Michael J. Zvolensky; Marcel O. Bonn-Miller; Adam M. Leventhal
      Pages: 192 - 198
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Raina D. Pang, Casey R. Guillot, Michael J. Zvolensky, Marcel O. Bonn-Miller, Adam M. Leventhal
      Maladaptive emotional traits (anxiety sensitivity [AS], fear of anxiety-related sensations and consequences) and symptoms (major depressive disorder [MDD] and generalized anxiety disorder [GAD] symptoms) could play a role in altering sensitivity to the subjective effects of drugs of abuse in adolescents. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of high school students in Los Angeles, CA, USA who completed surveys and reported past six-month use of alcohol (n =1054), cigarettes (n =297), or cannabis (n =706). At each of the four semi-annual waves during mid-adolescence (14–16years old), students reported positive and negative subjective drug effects experienced in the prior six-months. Controlling for covariates and the simultaneous covariance across the three domains of emotional dysfunction, AS was associated with more positive and negative cannabis effects (βs=0.09–0.16, ps<0.05), and MDD symptoms were associated with fewer negative cigarette effects (β =−0.13, p =0.04) and more negative cannabis effects (β =0.10, p =0.004). The acceleration of positive alcohol and cannabis effects over time was slower among adolescents with higher baseline MDD (MDD×time: β =−0.04, p =0.044) and GAD (GAD×time: β =−0.05, p =0.03) symptoms, respectively. These findings suggest that emotional dysfunction factors show differential and overlapping effects on subjective drug effects, which may vary across time. Future research should investigate emotional dysfunctions and subjective drug effects in relation to substance use across adolescence and emerging adulthood.

      PubDate: 2017-05-22T20:38:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.016
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Does self-efficacy causally influence initial smoking cessation' An
           experimental study
    • Authors: William G. Shadel; Steven C. Martino; Claude Setodji; Daniel Cervone; Katie Witkiewitz
      Pages: 199 - 203
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): William G. Shadel, Steven C. Martino, Claude Setodji, Daniel Cervone, Katie Witkiewitz
      Self-efficacy has been associated with smoking cessation outcomes in many correlational research studies, but strong causal inferences are lacking. This study tested whether self-efficacy affects initial smoking cessation in a laboratory experiment, which will allow for stronger causal inferences in this domain of inquiry. Participants (n =103 motivated adult smokers) were provided with brief cessation treatment over three days in preparation for quitting on a target quit day (TQD). In addition, participants were randomized to one of two standard self-efficacy manipulations in the form of bogus feedback about their chances of quitting smoking. Participants in the Average Chances of Quitting (ACQ) condition took a computerized test and were told (falsely) that the test showed that they had the same chances of quitting as everyone else in the study. Participants in the High Chances of Quitting (HCQ) condition took the same computerized test and were told (falsely) that the test showed that they had a greater chance of quitting compared to everyone else in the study. The main outcome was whether participants were able to quit for 24h on the TQD. Results revealed that HCQ participants had a significantly greater chance of quitting smoking compared to ACQ participants. However, these effects were not attributable to changes in self-efficacy brought about by the manipulation. An exploration of other potential mediators showed that the manipulation actually influenced smoking outcome expectancies, and changes in these outcome expectancies influenced initial smoking cessation. The results highlight the conceptual and empirical challenges with manipulating self-efficacy in the smoking literature.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T13:27:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.018
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Beyond face-to-face individual counseling: A systematic review on
           alternative modes of motivational interviewing in substance abuse
           treatment and prevention
    • Authors: Shan Jiang; Lingli Wu; Xiaoli Gao
      Pages: 216 - 235
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Shan Jiang, Lingli Wu, Xiaoli Gao
      Objectives This systematic review aimed to synthesize the evidence on the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI), delivered in modes other than face-to-face individual counseling, in preventing and treating substance abuse related behaviors. Methods Four databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library) were searched for randomised clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effectiveness of alternative modes of MI (other than face-to-face individual counseling) in preventing and treating substance abuse. Eligible studies were rated on methodological quality and their findings were qualitatively synthesized. Results A total of 25 articles (on 22 RCTs) were eligible for this review. Beyond face-to-face counseling, telephone was the most frequently used medium for delivering MI (11 studies), followed by Internet communication (4 studies) and short message service (SMS) (2 studies). Mail was incorporated as a supplement in one of the studies for telephone MI. In contrast to one-to-one individual counseling, group MI was adopted in 5 studies. The effectiveness of telephone MI in treating substance abuse was supported by all of the published RCTs we located. Internet-based MI was effective in preventing and treating alcoholism, but its outcome appeared to be inconsistent for smoking cessation and poor for abstinence from illicit drugs. SMS-based MI appeared to be useful for controlling tobacco and drinking. Group MI was attempted for quitting alcohol and drugs, with mixed findings on its outcomes. Conclusions Collectively, the studies reviewed indicate that telephone MI is a promising mode of intervention in treating and preventing substance abuse. The effectiveness of other alternative modes (SMS-based MI, Internet-based MI and group MI) remains inconclusive given the controversial findings and a limited number of studies. By synthesizing the currently available evidence, this systematic review suggested that telephone MI might be considered as an alternative to face-to-face MI for treating and preventing substance abuse. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of SMS-based MI, Internet MI, group MI and other alternative modes. Studies with methodological rigor and incorporating MI fidelity measures have great potential to advance the understanding in this field.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T20:42:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.05.023
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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