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A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
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Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
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Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
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Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 330, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 418, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
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Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
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American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 201, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
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Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
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Journal Cover Addictive Behaviors
  [SJR: 1.514]   [H-I: 92]   [15 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0306-4603
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3089 journals]
  • Interpersonal and intrapersonal emotional processes in individuals treated
           for alcohol use disorder and non-addicted healthy individuals
    • Authors: Maciej Kopera; Elisa M. Trucco; Andrzej Jakubczyk; Hubert Suszek; Aneta Michalska; Aleksandra Majewska; Natalia Szejko; Agata Łoczewska; Aleksandra Krasowska; Anna Klimkiewicz; Kirk J. Brower; Robert A. Zucker; Marcin Wojnar
      Pages: 8 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Maciej Kopera, Elisa M. Trucco, Andrzej Jakubczyk, Hubert Suszek, Aneta Michalska, Aleksandra Majewska, Natalia Szejko, Agata Łoczewska, Aleksandra Krasowska, Anna Klimkiewicz, Kirk J. Brower, Robert A. Zucker, Marcin Wojnar
      Introduction Prior work largely confirms the presence of various emotional processing deficits among individuals with an alcohol use disorder (AUD); however, their specificity and relevance still warrant investigation. The aim of the current study was to compare selected aspects of emotional processing (i.e., mental state recognition, alexithymia, and emotional intelligence) between individuals treated for an AUD and healthy individuals. Methods The AUD sample consisted of 92 abstinent men with AUD who were participating in an 8-week inpatient abstinence-based treatment program in Warsaw, Poland. The healthy control (HC) group consisted of 86 men recruited from the Medical University of Warsaw and the Nowowiejski Hospital administrative staff. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. Mental states recognition was assessed using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). Alexithymia was measured with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT) was used to measure emotional intelligence (EI). Results and conclusions After accounting for potentially confounding variables (demographics, severity of depression, anxiety symptoms) in MANCOVA models, patients with AUD presented deficits in identification and description of their own emotional states, as well as lower emotion regulation skills when compared to HCs. No between-group differences were observed in self-reported recognition of other people's emotions, social skills, and a behavioral measure of mental states recognition. Specific rather than general emotion-processing deficits in participants with AUD were identified, suggesting problems with processing of intrapersonal emotional signals.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
  • Improvement of the association between self-reported pill count and
           varenicline levels following exclusion of participants with misreported
           pill count: A commentary on Peng et al. (2017)
    • Authors: Annie R. Peng; Bernard Le Foll; Mark Morales; Caryn Lerman; Robert Schnoll; Rachel F. Tyndale
      Pages: 14 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Annie R. Peng, Bernard Le Foll, Mark Morales, Caryn Lerman, Robert Schnoll, Rachel F. Tyndale
      Introduction We previously reported poor associations between salivary varenicline and pill counts, and a substantial overestimation of adherence by pill counts in “Measures and predictors of varenicline adherence in the treatment of nicotine dependence” (Peng et al., 2017). We have since conducted supplementary analyses characterizing, and then excluding, individuals with established inaccurate pill count recall. Methods Based on published varenicline pharmacokinetics (including drug levels, and the long half-life) and our detection limits, conservatively we should be able to detect varenicline in anyone who took at least one pill during the 48h prior to saliva collection; thus, those reporting 1 or more pills in this time frame but who had undetectable salivary varenicline were deemed to have inaccurate pill count recall. Correlations between pill counts and salivary varenicline, and Receiver Operating Characteristics curve analyses were conducted following exclusion of participants with inaccurate pill count recall. Results Nearly 20% of our participants (N=67/376) had inaccurate self-reported pill counts. These participants were younger, non-white, lower income, and unmarried (evaluated using chi-square or Mann-Whitney U test). Following exclusion of these individuals, the correlations between salivary varenicline and pill count improved and the area under the curve (AUC) of pill counts for discriminating adherence improved modestly. Conclusion When the 20% of individuals with inaccurate pill count recall were excluded, an improved association between self-reported pill count and salivary varenicline was observed, albeit still weak. A substantial overestimation of adherence by pill counts relative to salivary varenicline is still observed even after exclusion of almost 20% of the group having established inaccurate reporting suggesting that these individuals, with identifiable inaccuracies, were only part of the overestimation of adherence.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.032
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
  • Does misuse lead to a disorder' The misuse of prescription
           tranquilizer and sedative medications and subsequent substance use
           disorders in a U.S. longitudinal sample
    • Authors: C.J. Boyd; B. West; S.E. McCabe
      Pages: 17 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): C.J. Boyd, B. West, S.E. McCabe
      Objectives We used two waves of National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data and examined whether the misuse of prescription tranquilizers or sedatives at Wave 1 was associated with either continued misuse, tranquilizer/sedative use disorder, or other substance use disorder (SUD) at Wave 2. Methods Prospective data were analyzed from structured diagnostic interviews using the Alcohol Use disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule: DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-DSM-IV). A nationally representative sample of 34,653 of U.S. adults, 18years or older at Wave 1 (2001−2002), were re-interviewed at Wave 2 (2004–2005). After applying the survey weights, the sample represented a population that was 52% female, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian and 2% Native American or other. Results An estimated 79% of adults who engaged in tranquilizer or sedative misuse at Wave 1 had stopped using these drugs at Wave 2. Only a small percentage (4.3%) of misusers at Wave 1 had a tranquilizer or sedative use disorder at Wave 2. However, 45% (45.0%) of misusers at Wave 1 had at least one other SUD at Wave 2. Among those in remission from a sedative or tranquilizer use disorder at Wave 1, 4.8% had a tranquilizer or sedative use disorder while 34.7% had at least one other SUD at Wave 2. Conclusions Most adults who engaged in the misuse of prescription tranquilizers or sedatives ceased using within 3years; however, their prior misuse was associated with higher prevalence of having a SUD three years later.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.042
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
  • The effect of N-acetylcysteine and working memory training on cocaine use,
           craving and inhibition in regular cocaine users: correspondence of lab
           assessments and Ecological Momentary Assessment
    • Authors: Mieke H.J. Schulte; Reinout W. Wiers; Wouter J. Boendermaker; Anna E. Goudriaan; Wim van den Brink; Denise S. van Deursen; Malte Friese; Emily Brede; Andrew J. Waters
      Pages: 24 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 79
      Author(s): Mieke H.J. Schulte, Reinout W. Wiers, Wouter J. Boendermaker, Anna E. Goudriaan, Wim van den Brink, Denise S. van Deursen, Malte Friese, Emily Brede, Andrew J. Waters
      Introduction Effective treatment for cocaine use disorder should dampen hypersensitive cue-induced motivational processes and/or strengthen executive control. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) and working memory (WM)-training to reduce cocaine use and craving and to improve inhibition assessed in the laboratory and during Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). The second aim was to examine correspondence between laboratory and EMA data. Methods Twenty-four of 38 cocaine-using men completed a 25-day intervention with 2400mg/day NAC or placebo and WM-training as well as two lab-visits assessing cocaine use, craving and inhibition (Stop Signal task). Additionally, cocaine use, craving and cognition (Stroop task) were assessed using EMA during treatment, with 26 participants completing 819 assessments. Results Cocaine problems according to the Drug Use Disorder Identification Test (DUDIT) decreased more after NAC than after placebo, and the proportion of cocaine-positive urines at lab-visit 2 was lower in the NAC group. No NAC effects were found on craving. For cocaine use and craving, results from the lab data were generally similar to EMA results. NAC also showed some effects on cognitive control: improved inhibition assessed with the Stop Signal task in the lab, and decreased classic Stroop performance during EMA. There were no significant effects of number of completed WM-training sessions. Conclusions Overall this study revealed mixed findings regarding the treatment of cocaine use disorders with NAC and WM-training. The effect of NAC on inhibition should be further investigated.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.044
      Issue No: Vol. 79 (2017)
  • The role of distress tolerance in the relationship between cognitive
           schemas and alcohol problems among college students
    • Authors: Raluca M. Simons; Rebecca E. Sistad; Jeffrey S. Simons; Jamie Hansen
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Raluca M. Simons, Rebecca E. Sistad, Jeffrey S. Simons, Jamie Hansen
      Introduction The current study tested the role of distress tolerance in the relationship between three early maladaptive cognitive schemas (Abandonment, Defectiveness/Shame, and Insufficient Self-Control) and alcohol problems among college students (N=364). Previous research suggests that maladaptive cognitive schemas may be a risk factor for alcohol-related problems. However, the mechanism underlying this association is unclear. One's tolerance for emotional distress may play an important role in understanding the nature of this association. Methods We tested a structural equation model where distress tolerance was expected to explain or moderate associations between early maladaptive schemas and alcohol outcomes. Results Results indicated distress tolerance partially mediated the relationships between schemas of Abandonment and Insufficient Self-Control and alcohol problems. Distress tolerance also significantly moderated the relationship between the Defectiveness/Shame schema and alcohol-related problems, reducing the strength of the association. Conclusions Distress tolerance is a modifiable risk factor and the results of this study support the inclusion of emotional regulation strategies in the prevention and treatment of alcohol problems among young adults.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.020
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Decreased pain tolerance before surgery and increased postoperative
           narcotic requirements in abstinent tobacco smokers
    • Authors: Ling Shen; Kai Wei; Qianbo Chen; Haibo Qiu; Yong Tao; Qiang Yao; Jinchao Song; Chengjian Li; Liang Zhao; Yantao Liu; Zhijie Lu
      Pages: 9 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Ling Shen, Kai Wei, Qianbo Chen, Haibo Qiu, Yong Tao, Qiang Yao, Jinchao Song, Chengjian Li, Liang Zhao, Yantao Liu, Zhijie Lu
      Introduction The clinical influence of smoking cessation on pain tolerance before surgery and postoperative pain perception is not fully understood. This clinical study investigated the effect of smoking cessation on pain threshold during the perioperative period in patients undergoing hepatic resection. Methods We enrolled 148 male patients (68 non-smokers and 80 abstinent smokers) who underwent hepatic resection and received postoperative patient-controlled intravenous analgesia. Patients were tested for preoperative pain thresholds in response to electrical stimuli. We recorded the cumulative amount of extra morphine equivalent required during the first 48h after surgery. Pain intensity was evaluated at 1h, 6h, 24h and 48h after surgery using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Additionally, button-pressing consumption was recorded by a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump. Results The groups did not differ with respect to baseline clinical characteristics. Compared with non-smokers, abstinent smokers exhibited lower pain thresholds before surgery and demanded a larger quantity of extra morphine equivalent during the first 48h after surgery. Abstinent smokers also exhibited more severe postoperative pain than non-smokers. Postoperative complications, such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, sedation, and respiratory depression, did not significantly differ between the two groups. Conclusions In this study, smokers deprived of cigarettes exhibited decreased pain tolerance before surgery and required a larger quantity of postoperative extra morphine equivalent than non-smokers. Health care providers must be aware of the potential for increased narcotic requirements in smokers.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.024
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • A detailed examination of the longitudinal associations between individual
           and team sports and alcohol use
    • Authors: Anne-Sophie Denault; François Poulin
      Pages: 15 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Anne-Sophie Denault, François Poulin
      This study examined the longitudinal associations between participation in individual and team sports and indicators of alcohol use during the high school years and beyond. A total of 310 youths were surveyed over six waves of data collection (ages 12, 14 to 17, and 19). Participation in individual and team sports was measured through phone interviews, whereas frequency of alcohol use, frequency of intoxication, and problematic alcohol use were self-reported. Control variables included participation in other types of organized activities, sex, family income and structure, parental education and knowledge, problem behaviors, deviant peers, and peer status. The results of autoregressive latent trajectory models revealed reciprocal associations between time spent in individual sports and frequency of alcohol use and intoxication. The results also revealed that time spent in team sports predicted an increase in frequency of alcohol use in middle adolescence. Lastly, the only significant finding at age 19 suggested that the initial number of hours spent in individual sports predicted lower scores on alcohol intoxication. These findings suggest that team sports act as a risk factor for less severe forms of alcohol use in middle adolescence, whereas individual sports act as a protective factor against more severe forms of alcohol use during adolescence and beyond.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.019
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • An examination of heavy drinking, depressed mood, drinking related
           constructs, and consequences among high-risk college students using a
           person-centered approach
    • Authors: Irene M. Geisner; Kimberly Mallett; Lindsey Varvil-Weld; Sarah Ackerman; Bradley M. Trager; Rob Turrisi
      Pages: 22 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Irene M. Geisner, Kimberly Mallett, Lindsey Varvil-Weld, Sarah Ackerman, Bradley M. Trager, Rob Turrisi
      Introduction Research has identified college students who experience depressed mood and consume alcohol are at an increased risk for experiencing alcohol problems. The present study identified profiles of differential alcohol use, depression, key psychosocial indicators of drinking (e.g., normative perceptions) and examined the relationship between these profiles and alcohol-related consequences. Method Students with a history of risky drinking and elevated depressed mood (n=311; 62.4% female) completed a web-based survey assessing typical and peak drinking, depressive symptoms, descriptive norms, drinking to cope motives, protective behavioral strategies, and alcohol-related consequences. RESULTS: Latent profile analysis was used to classify participants into distinct profiles focusing on alcohol use patterns and level of depressed mood and drinking related constructs. Profiles were then compared based on their association with reported rates of alcohol-related consequences. Four profiles emerged: 1) Mild Depression, Heavy Drinkers; 2) Mild Depression, Severe Drinkers; 3) Moderate Depression, Heavy Drinkers; and 4) Moderate Depression, Severe Drinkers. Findings revealed significant differences between the four profiles on both risky drinking and alcohol-related consequences. Conclusion These findings suggest the importance of assessing and addressing depressive symptoms among college students in order to reduce rates of risky drinking and alcohol-related consequences.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.022
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • An ecological momentary intervention for smoking cessation: The
           associations of just-in-time, tailored messages with lapse risk factors
    • Authors: Emily T. Hébert; Elise M. Stevens; Summer G. Frank; Darla E. Kendzor; David W. Wetter; Michael J. Zvolensky; Julia D. Buckner; Michael S. Businelle
      Pages: 30 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Emily T. Hébert, Elise M. Stevens, Summer G. Frank, Darla E. Kendzor, David W. Wetter, Michael J. Zvolensky, Julia D. Buckner, Michael S. Businelle
      Background Smartphone apps can provide real-time, tailored interventions for smoking cessation. The current study examines the effectiveness of a smartphone-based smoking cessation application that assessed risk for imminent smoking lapse multiple times per day and provided messages tailored to current smoking lapse risk and specific lapse triggers. Methods Participants (N=59) recruited from a safety-net hospital smoking cessation clinic completed phone-based ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) 5 times/day for 3 consecutive weeks (1week pre-quit, 2weeks post-quit). Risk for smoking lapse was estimated in real-time using a novel weighted lapse risk estimator. With each EMA, participants received messages tailored to current level of risk for imminent smoking lapse and self-reported presence of smoking urge, stress, cigarette availability, and motivation to quit. Generalized linear mixed model analyses determined whether messages tailored to specific lapse risk factors were associated with greater reductions in these triggers than messages not tailored to specific triggers. Results Overall, messages tailored to smoking urge, cigarette availability, or stress corresponded with greater reductions in those triggers than messages that were not tailored to specific triggers (p's=0.02 to <0.001). Although messages tailored to stress were associated with greater reductions in stress than messages not tailored to stress, the association was non-significant (p=0.892) when only moments of high stress were included in the analysis. Conclusions Mobile technology can be used to conduct real-time smoking lapse risk assessment and provide tailored treatment content. Findings provide initial evidence that tailored content may impact users' urge to smoke, stress, and cigarette availability.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.026
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Prospective prediction of arrests for driving under the influence from
           relationship patterns with family and friends in adolescence
    • Authors: William E. Pelham; Thomas J. Dishion
      Pages: 36 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): William E. Pelham, Thomas J. Dishion
      Driving under the influence (DUI) is dangerous and costly, yet there are few prospective studies on modifiable risk and protective processes that would inform prevention. Middle adolescence, when most individuals are first learning to drive and first using alcohol, may be a particularly salient period for family and friendship influences on DUI risk. In the present study, youth's family and friendship environments were observed and measured at age 16 in a diverse community sample (n =999), and then court records were used to document arrest for DUI through the age of 32years. We first examined the univariate effects of family and friendship variables on later DUI and then fit more comprehensive structural equation models to test predictive effects on the level of construct (e.g., parental monitoring) and environment (e.g., family). Results indicate that parental monitoring (Odds Ratio [OR]=0.77), positive family relations (OR=0.84), prosocial peer affiliation (OR=0.77), and deviant peer affiliation (OR=1.43) at age 16 were individually predictive of arrests for DUI from ages 16 to 32, even after controlling for both teen and parent alcohol use. The comprehensive, multivariate models indicated that the friendship environment was most predictive of arrests for DUI during the follow-up period. Together, these results are consistent with a model in which attenuated family ties contribute to substance-use-based friendships at age 16, which in turn contribute to an increased likelihood of arrest for DUI in later adolescence and early adulthood. Implications for prevention are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Trends in self-efficacy to quit and smoking urges among homeless smokers
           participating in a smoking cessation RCT
    • Authors: Erika Ashley Pinsker; Deborah Jane Hennrikus; Darin J. Erickson; Kathleen Thiede Call; Jean Lois Forster; Kolawole Stephen Okuyemi
      Pages: 43 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Erika Ashley Pinsker, Deborah Jane Hennrikus, Darin J. Erickson, Kathleen Thiede Call, Jean Lois Forster, Kolawole Stephen Okuyemi
      Introduction In the U.S., approximately 73% of homeless adults smoke cigarettes and they experience difficulty quitting. Homeless smokers report low self-efficacy to quit and that smoking urges are a barrier to quitting. Self-efficacy to quit and smoking urges are dynamic and change throughout smoking cessation treatment. This study examines changes in self-efficacy to quit and smoking urges throughout a smoking cessation intervention among the homeless and identifies predictors of change in these characteristics. Methods Homeless smokers (n=430) participating in a smoking cessation randomized controlled trial in the U.S. completed surveys at baseline, and weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 26 on demographic and smoking characteristics (i.e., confidence to quit, self-efficacy to refrain from smoking, and smoking urges). A growth curve analysis was conducted by modeling change in the smoking characteristics over time and examining the variability in the change in smoking characteristics by demographic characteristics and treatment group. Results Among the full sample, self-efficacy to refrain from smoking increased linearly over time, confidence to quit increased until the midpoint of treatment but subsequently decreased, and smoking urges decreased until the midpoint of treatment but subsequently increased. There were race differences in these trajectories. Racial minorities experienced significantly greater increases in self-efficacy to refrain from smoking than Whites and Blacks had higher confidence to quit than Whites. Conclusions White participants experienced less increase in self-efficacy to refrain from smoking and lower confidence to quit and therefore may be a good target for efforts to increase self-efficacy to quit as part of homeless-targeted smoking cessation interventions. Sustaining high confidence to quit and low smoking urges throughout treatment could be key to promoting higher cessation rates among the homeless.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.025
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Social media e-cigarette exposure and e-cigarette expectancies and use
           among young adults
    • Authors: Pallav Pokhrel; Pebbles Fagan; Thaddeus A. Herzog; Linnea Laestadius; Wayne Buente; Crissy T. Kawamoto; Hye-Ryeon Lee; Jennifer B. Unger
      Pages: 51 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Pallav Pokhrel, Pebbles Fagan, Thaddeus A. Herzog, Linnea Laestadius, Wayne Buente, Crissy T. Kawamoto, Hye-Ryeon Lee, Jennifer B. Unger
      A vast majority of U.S. young adults use social media such as Facebook and Instagram daily. Research suggests that young adults are commonly exposed to e-cigarette-related marketing or user-generated content on the social media they use. Currently, however, there is limited empirical evidence as to how social media e-cigarette exposure is associated with e-cigarette use beliefs and behavior. In particular, limited evidence exists to support the proposition that social media e-cigarette exposure is uniquely associated with e-cigarette use, even after adjusting for the effects of e-cigarette use in young adults' in-person or ‘offline’ social networks. This study was conducted to test the hypotheses that 1) social media e-cigarette exposure is associated with e-cigarette use outcome expectancies and current e-cigarette use; and 2) the association between social media and e-cigarette use is linked via outcome expectancies. We collected cross-sectional data from a sample of 470 young adult college students in Hawaii. Hypotheses were tested by fitting a structural equation model to the data. The model accounted for the associations of demographic variables, cigarette smoking history, as well as e-cigarette use in individuals' actual social networks with expectancies and behavior. Results indicated that social media e-cigarette exposure was associated with current e-cigarette use indirectly through two of the four positive outcome expectancies examined, namely, positive “smoking” experience and positive sensory experience. We discuss the implications of the findings in the context of tobacco control efforts.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.017
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Tobacco and alcohol use disorders: Evaluating multimorbidity
    • Authors: R. Ross MacLean; Mehmet Sofuoglu; Robert Rosenheck
      Pages: 59 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): R. Ross MacLean, Mehmet Sofuoglu, Robert Rosenheck
      . There is growing interest in applying the multimorbidity model for mental health disorders – i.e. the interactive effects of co-occurring diagnoses. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and tobacco use disorder (TUD) often occur together, but distinctive correlates of their co-occurrence have not been studied. Veterans treated by the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nationally in FY 2012 with diagnoses of both AUD and TUD were compared to those with only AUD or only TUD on socio-environmental factors, medical and psychiatric diagnoses, and service use. Multimorbid effects were defined as those in which patients with both AUD and TUD had more serious problems greater likelihood of specific co-occurring conditions than those with either AUD alone or TUD alone. Veterans with concurrent AUD and TUD (N=153,397), as compared to those with AUD only (N=191,900) or with TUD only (N=643,377), had significantly higher rates of homelessness [odd ratios (ORs)=1.24, 1.68], hepatic disease (ORs=1.11, 2.18), substance use disorders (ORs=1.42, 3.14), receipt of a VA disability pension (ORs=1.26, 1.30) and use of substance and mental health outpatient services (ORs=1.04, 1.12). Veterans with AUD and TUD appear to have more severe problems in some, but not all, socio-environmental, medical, psychiatric, and service use domains than veterans with either of these diagnoses alone. The combination of AUD and TUD yield generally more adverse effects in diverse areas and thus reflect an emergent phenomenon that may a require a distinctive treatment approach.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • E-cigarette marketing exposure and combustible tobacco use among
           adolescents in the United States
    • Authors: Rehab Auf; Mary Jo Trepka; Moaz Selim; Ziyad Ben Taleb; Mario De La Rosa; Miguel Ángel Cano
      Pages: 74 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Rehab Auf, Mary Jo Trepka, Moaz Selim, Ziyad Ben Taleb, Mario De La Rosa, Miguel Ángel Cano
      E-cigarette advertising has been shown to be associated with use of e-cigarettes, but its association with tobacco use has not been studied. Therefore, we examined the association between e-cigarettes advertisement and tobacco use. Data from nationally representative 22,007 middle and high school students (grades 6–12) were used to conduct the analysis. Logistic regression models estimated the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of ever and current use of cigarette, hookah, cigar, and polytobacco use. Odds ratios were weighted and adjusted for study design, non-response rates, school level, gender, race/ethnicity, e-cigarette use, and smoking at home. E-cigarette marketing exposure was significantly associated with ever use of cigarettes (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1–1.5), hookah (AOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2–1.7), cigars (AOR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.4–1.6), and polytobacco (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5–1.8). Likewise, E-cigarette marketing exposure was significantly associated with current use of cigarettes (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1–1.6), hookah (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.03–1.7), cigars (AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1–1.6), and polytobacco use (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.5–2.1). The results suggest that e-cigarette advertisement is associated with use of cigarettes, hookah, cigars, and polytobacco products. These results add to the evidence about the risks of e-cigarette marketing and highlight the need for stricter regulation of e-cigarette advertisements.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Prevalence and motives for drugged driving among emerging adults
           presenting to an emergency department
    • Authors: Erin E. Bonar; Brooke J. Arterberry; Alan K. Davis; Rebecca M. Cunningham; Frederic C. Blow; R. Lorraine Collins; Maureen A. Walton
      Pages: 80 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Erin E. Bonar, Brooke J. Arterberry, Alan K. Davis, Rebecca M. Cunningham, Frederic C. Blow, R. Lorraine Collins, Maureen A. Walton
      Objectives Drugged driving [DD] is a public health concern, particularly among emerging adults who have the highest rates of drug use. Understanding involvement with DD could inform prevention efforts for this population. We evaluated the prevalence of, motives for, and correlates of past-year DD among emerging adults from an urban, under-resourced community. Methods Emerging adults (N =586) ages 18–25years (54% male, 56% African American, 34% European American) seeking care in an urban emergency department completed past-year surveys of demographics, frequency of DD within 4h of substance use, reasons for DD, and substance use. Results DD was reported by 24% of participants (with 25% of those engaging in high frequency DD). DD after cannabis use was most common (96%), followed by prescription opioids, sedatives, and stimulants (9%–19%). Common reasons for DD were: needing to go home (67%), not thinking drugs affected driving ability (44%), not having to drive far (33%), and not feeling high (32%). Demographics were not associated with DD, but, as expected, those with DD had riskier substance use. Conclusions In this clinical sample, using a conservative measure, DD, particularly following cannabis use, was relatively common among emerging adults. Based on these data, clinical interventions for cannabis and other drug use should include content on prevention of DD, with particular attention to motives such as planning ahead for alternatives to get home safely and weighing benefits and risks of DD.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Polysubstance use profiles among electronic dance music party attendees in
           New York City and their relation to use of new psychoactive substances
    • Authors: Fermín Fernández-Calderón; Charles M. Cleland; Joseph J. Palamar
      Pages: 85 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Fermín Fernández-Calderón, Charles M. Cleland, Joseph J. Palamar
      Background Electronic Dance Music (EDM) party attendees are often polysubstance users and are at high risk for use of new psychoactive substances (NPS). We sought to identify patterns of use of common illegal drugs among EDM party attendees, sociodemographic correlates, and use of NPS as a function of patterns of use of more common drugs to inform prevention and harm reduction. Method Using time-space-sampling, 1045 individuals aged 18–40 were surveyed entering EDM parties in New York City. We queried past-year use of common illegal drugs and 98 NPS. We conducted latent class analysis to identify polysubstance use profiles of use of eight common drugs (i.e., ecstasy, ketamine, LSD, mushrooms, powder cocaine, marijuana, amphetamine, benzodiazepines). Relationships between drug classification membership and sociodemographics and use of drugs within six NPS categories were examined. Results We identified four profiles of use of common drugs: non-polysubstance use (61.1%), extensive polysubstance use (19.2%), moderate polysubstance use/stimulants (12.8%), and moderate polysubstance use/psychedelics (6.7%). Those in the moderate/psychedelic group were at higher odds of using NPS with psychedelic-type effects (2C, tryptamines, and other “new” psychedelics; Ps<0.05). Extensive polysubstance users were at increased odds of reporting use of 2C drugs, synthetic cathinones (“bath salts”), tryptamines, other new (non-phenethylamine) psychedelics, new dissociatives, and synthetic cannabinoids (Ps<0.05). Conclusion NPS preference is linked to the profile of use of common drugs among individuals in the EDM scene. Most participants were identified as non-polysubstance users, but findings may help inform preventive and harm reduction interventions among those at risk in this scene.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • The impact of a brief cessation induction intervention for waterpipe
           tobacco smoking: A pilot randomized clinical trial
    • Authors: Eleanor L.S. Leavens; Ellen Meier; Alayna P. Tackett; Mary Beth Miller; Noor N. Tahirkheli; Emma I. Brett; Dana M. Carroll; Leslie M. Driskill; Michael P. Anderson; Theodore L. Wagener
      Pages: 94 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Eleanor L.S. Leavens, Ellen Meier, Alayna P. Tackett, Mary Beth Miller, Noor N. Tahirkheli, Emma I. Brett, Dana M. Carroll, Leslie M. Driskill, Michael P. Anderson, Theodore L. Wagener
      Background Waterpipe (WP) tobacco smoking delivers many of the same harmful toxicants as cigarette smoking and is on the rise in the US. This study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of a brief personalized feedback intervention in affecting changes in WP smoking among current WP smokers. Methods Participants (N=109) were recruited as they entered WP lounges and completed a questionnaire and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) testing before entering the WP lounge. Participants were cluster-randomized to assessment-only control (AOC) or intervention conditions. The intervention condition received health risk information and personalized feedback on pre- and post-WP session eCO levels. Participants completed a survey at the end of the WP session and at 3-month follow-up. Results Compared to control, the intervention was effective in increasing knowledge of WP-related harms, correcting risk perceptions, increasing importance of quitting WP smoking, and increasing confidence in ability to quit WP smoking at post-WP session (p<0.05). Differences were maintained for knowledge of WP-related harms, risk perceptions, and commitment to quitting WP at 3-month follow-up; however, no significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in WP smoking (i.e., days smoked and number of WPs smoked) at 3-month follow-up between the intervention (M =3.97days, SD =9.83; M =6.45 bowls, SD =19.60) and control conditions (M =3.32days, SD =5.24; M =3.49 bowls, SD =5.10). Conclusions The current research supports the use of personalized feedback as a useful intervention method to increase commitment to quit WP, but suggests more intensive interventions may be necessary to achieve WP cessation.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:13:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.023
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Industry interests in gambling research: Lessons learned from other forms
           of hazardous consumption
    • Authors: S. Cowlishaw; S.L. Thomas
      Pages: 101 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): S. Cowlishaw, S.L. Thomas
      Research indicates that the evidential bases for many harm reduction policies targeting hazardous consumptions (including tobacco, alcohol and gambling) have been distorted by commercial industries that derive revenue from such commodities. These distortions are best illustrated by research on tobacco and alcohol, which indicates similar tactics used by industries to determine favourable policy environments through engineering of evidence, among other approaches. Although there is concern that gambling research is similarly vulnerable to commercial interests, the relevant literature lags far behind other fields and the aim of this paper is to increase familiarity with tactics used by industries for influencing research. It summarises the conceptual and empirical bases for expecting conflicts between goals of public health and companies that profit from hazardous consumptions. It also summarises evidence describing practices deployed by tobacco corporations, which include third-party techniques and the selective funding of research to manufacture doubt and deflect attention away from the consequences of smoking. It then reviews both early and emerging evidence indicating similar strategies used by alcohol industry, and uses this literature to view practices of the gambling industry. It argues that parallels regarding selective funding of research and third-party techniques provide grounds for strong concern about commercial influences on gambling research, and implementation of precautionary approaches to management of vested interests.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T17:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • The association between adolescent cannabis use and anxiety: A parallel
           process analysis
    • Authors: Jacqueline Duperrouzel; Samuel W. Hawes; Catalina Lopez-Quintero; Ileana Pacheco-Colón; Jonathan Comer; Raul Gonzalez
      Pages: 107 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Jacqueline Duperrouzel, Samuel W. Hawes, Catalina Lopez-Quintero, Ileana Pacheco-Colón, Jonathan Comer, Raul Gonzalez
      Introduction Associations between anxiety symptoms and cannabis use have been previously explored, yet the directionality of these associations remains highly debatable. The present study aims to prospectively examine patterns of cannabis use and anxiety during adolescence focusing on their co-development and bidirectional influences. Methods Adolescents (n =250) of predominantly Hispanic ethnicity, aged 14–17 at baseline, exposed to drugs, alcohol, or cigarettes completed three (bi-annual) assessments across a 1-year period. Latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) and parallel process growth curves were conducted to examine potential associations in the joint development of anxiety and cannabis use. Results Our results suggest that, during adolescence, early cannabis use has a greater influence on prospective reports of anxiety, than vice versa. Specifically, adolescents exhibiting higher initial levels of cannabis use displayed more persisting self-reported anxiety across time, as compared to those with less frequent use (b=0.28, p =0.024). In contrast, early levels of anxiety were not found to influence rates of change in cannabis use. These analyses considered concurrent depression, alcohol, and nicotine use. Conclusions Our findings suggest that prevention and targeted intervention programs for cannabis use in adolescence would benefit from anxiety management strategies; in order to reduce subsequent anxiety associated with cannabis use. Future studies should continue to employ longitudinal designs across larger time periods and aim to replicate these findings with more diverse samples.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T17:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Examining characteristics associated with quitting smoking during
           pregnancy and relapse postpartum
    • Authors: Farnaaz Kia; Nicole Tosun; Samantha Carlson; Sharon Allen
      Pages: 114 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Farnaaz Kia, Nicole Tosun, Samantha Carlson, Sharon Allen
      Introduction Smoking during pregnancy is a significant public health concern that can cause adverse health outcomes for both the mother and fetus. Studies have shown only 40% of women quit smoking during pregnancy, with more than half relapsing within 6months, and up to 90% relapsing within one year. This study investigates differences in demographics and smoking-related symptomatology between pregnant smokers and pregnant quitters, as well as factors associated with postpartum relapse. Methods Data on pregnant smokers and pregnant quitters were obtained from two separate parent studies. Data on smoking demographics and smoking-related symptomatology were collected at screening visits. Results Compared to pregnant smokers, pregnant quitters had more favorable smoking characteristics (e.g., smoked fewer cigarettes per day, reported higher motivation for abstinence and less dependency). They also had more favorable relationship characteristics (e.g., were more likely to be married, less likely to have a significant other who smokes) and had less reproductive liability (e.g., fewer pregnancies, fewer children). In terms of symptomatology, pregnant quitters reported more positive affect, negative affect, physical symptoms and withdrawal but less craving. Predictors of postpartum relapse included increased maternal age, having a significant other who smokes and an increased likelihood of returning to smoking after pregnancy (self-reported prior to delivery). Conclusions Several demographics and smoking-related symptomatology were significantly different between pregnant quitters and pregnant smokers. In addition, multiple factors predicting postpartum relapse were identified. This information can inform personalized interventions for high risk pregnant smokers and pregnant quitters at risk for postpartum relapse.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T17:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Social discomfort moderates the relationship between drinking in response
           to negative affect and solitary drinking in underage drinkers
    • Authors: Carillon Skrzynski; Kasey G. Creswell; Rachel L. Bachrach; Tammy Chung
      Pages: 124 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Carillon Skrzynski, Kasey G. Creswell, Rachel L. Bachrach, Tammy Chung
      Objective Research shows that solitary drinking is associated with negative reinforcement motives (i.e., relieving negative affect). An untested hypothesis proposes that this association may be especially strong for individuals who experience social discomfort. This study aimed to 1) replicate findings linking solitary drinking to social discomfort (i.e., loneliness, social anxiety, and lack of perceived social support), alcohol problems, and drinking in response to negative affect (i.e., drinking to cope motives and inability to resist alcohol during negative affect), and 2) investigate whether greater social discomfort moderates the relationship between drinking in response to negative affect and solitary drinking in underage drinkers. Method Current alcohol drinkers ages 18 to 20 (N =664) recruited from a TurkPrime panel reported the percentage of time they drank solitarily and completed measures assessing social discomfort, drinking in response to negative affect, and alcohol involvement. Structural equation modeling was used to test the moderation model. Results Results replicated prior literature supporting the first aim. For the second aim, analyses indicated a positive association between solitary drinking and drinking in response to negative affect across all individuals, but contrary to prediction, this relationship was stronger for individuals with lower, rather than higher, social discomfort. Conclusion Underage drinkers with lower, rather than higher, social discomfort appear to be at greater risk for drinking alone. These findings may inform our understanding of individuals at greatest risk for drinking alone and promote new avenues for intervention.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T17:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Who is watching user-generated alcohol posts on social media'
    • Authors: Eilin K. Erevik; Ståle Pallesen; Cecilie S. Andreassen; Øystein Vedaa; Torbjørn Torsheim
      Pages: 131 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Eilin K. Erevik, Ståle Pallesen, Cecilie S. Andreassen, Øystein Vedaa, Torbjørn Torsheim
      Aim To examine students' exposure to user-generated alcohol content on social media, and identify characteristics (i.e. demographics, personality traits, alcohol use, alcohol-related cognitions, and social media factors) associated with monthly or more frequent exposure. Method College/university students (N =11,236) in Bergen, Norway, completed a web-survey measuring exposure to alcohol on social media – both frequency and interpretations of alcohol content. The survey included questions regarding demographics, personality, alcohol-related cognitions, and general use of social media and alcohol. Binary logistic regressions were run to identify characteristics associated with monthly or more frequent exposure to alcohol-related posts on social media. Results A total of 96.7% had been exposed to alcohol-related posts, exposure to posts with a positive valence of alcohol were more frequently reported than exposure to content with a negative valence of alcohol. Reports of monthly or more frequent exposure to alcohol on social media were associated with a range of characteristics, among these younger age, being native Norwegian, lower extroversion and higher agreeableness and self-monitoring scores, higher alcohol use, stronger descriptive norms for alcohol use among online-friends, and more frequent logins to social media. Conclusions Students' potential inflated alcohol norms (originating from social media) should be addressed. The results suggest that exposure may be determined by high alcohol use and membership in demographical groups associated with high alcohol use, an increased attentiveness towards others' behavior, and excessive social media use. Future studies investigating the relationship between alcohol exposure on social media and later alcohol use should control for such factors.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.023
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Characteristics of prospectively identified negative alcohol-related
           events among college students
    • Authors: Matthew K. Meisel; Shannon R. Kenney; Nancy P. Barnett
      Pages: 138 - 144
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Matthew K. Meisel, Shannon R. Kenney, Nancy P. Barnett
      Background Throughout the first two years of college, the majority of drinkers experience one or more alcohol-related consequences. Research that examines the characteristics surrounding negative consequences typically utilizes global retrospective survey methods. The objective of the current study was to apply an event-based methodology to describe the circumstances of a recent drinking episode that resulted in one or more alcohol-related consequences among first- and second-year college students. Methods We used a prospective web-based survey method to identify participants (N=296) who had one or more alcohol-related consequences in the past week. Shortly after reporting the consequence(s), participants attended an in-person interview during which they described the circumstances that preceded and followed the consequence(s), including the use of alcohol and other substances, proximal contextual factors including peer drinking, the characteristics of the negative alcohol-related consequence(s), and the reaction of others to the event. Results The majority of participants reported experiencing the event at either their own (32.4%) or a friend's (32.8%) residence, and 87.1% of participants were with peers when the event happened. Most (85.0%) of the sample indicated that their closest friend knew about their event. Conclusion The high peer involvement at all stages of the event suggest the potential for training college students to help each other avoid or prevent consequences.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.025
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Thinking while drinking: Fear of negative evaluation predicts drinking
           behaviors of students with social anxiety
    • Authors: Margo C. Villarosa-Hurlocker; Robert B. Whitley; Daniel W. Capron; Michael B. Madson
      Pages: 160 - 165
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Margo C. Villarosa-Hurlocker, Robert B. Whitley, Daniel W. Capron, Michael B. Madson
      College students with social anxiety disorder experience more alcohol-related negative consequences, regardless of the amount of alcohol they consume. Social anxiety refers to psychological distress and physiological arousal in social situations due to an excessive fear of negative evaluation by others. The current study examined within-group differences in alcohol-related negative consequences of students who met or exceeded clinically-indicated social anxiety symptoms. In particular, we tested a sequential mediation model of the cognitive (i.e., fear of negative evaluation) and behavioral (protective behavioral strategies) mechanisms for the link between social anxiety disorder subtypes (i.e., interaction and performance-type) and alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants were 412 traditional-age college student drinkers who met or exceeded the clinically-indicated threshold for social anxiety disorder and completed measures of fear of negative evaluation, protective behavioral strategies (controlled consumption and serious harm reduction), and alcohol-related negative consequences. Fear of negative evaluation and serious harm reduction strategies sequentially accounted for the relationship between interaction social anxiety disorder and alcohol-related negative consequences, such that students with more severe interaction social anxiety symptoms reported more fear of negative evaluation, which was related to more serious harm reduction strategies, which predicted fewer alcohol-related negative consequences. Future directions and implications are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.021
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Depression symptoms and reasons for gambling sequentially mediate the
           associations between insecure attachment styles and problem gambling
    • Authors: Matthew T. Keough; Trinda L. Penniston; Natalie Vilhena-Churchill; R. Michael Bagby; Lena C. Quilty
      Pages: 166 - 172
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Matthew T. Keough, Trinda L. Penniston, Natalie Vilhena-Churchill, R. Michael Bagby, Lena C. Quilty
      One of the central pathways to problem gambling (PG) is gambling to cope with negative moods, which is a cardinal feature of depression. Insecure attachment styles are also etiologically related to depression; and, therefore, by extension, those who are insecurely attached may engage in excessive gambling behaviors to cope with depression. In this study, we aimed to evaluate this and to this end predicted that depression severity and coping motives for gambling would conjointly mediate the relations between insecure attachment styles and PG. Data came from a larger investigation of PG within mood disorders. Participants exhibited a lifetime depressive or bipolar disorder and endorsed a mood episode within the past ten years. Participants (N =275) completed self-report measures during a two-day assessment. Path analysis supported two main indirect effects. First, anxious attachment predicted elevated depression, which in turn predicted increased coping motives for gambling, which subsequently predicted greater PG severity. Second, this double mediational pathway was also observed for avoidant attachment. Results suggest that insecure attachment relates to PG via depressive symptoms and coping-related gambling motives. Mood symptoms and associated gambling motives are malleable and are promising targets of gambling interventions for insecurely attached individuals.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.018
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Parachuting psychoactive substances: Pharmacokinetic clues for harm
    • Authors: Amélie Daveluy; Hélène Géniaux; Marie Baumevieille; Louis Létinier; Marie-Noëlle Matta; Aurélie Lazès-Charmetant; Françoise Haramburu; Pascale Guéroult
      Pages: 173 - 177
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Amélie Daveluy, Hélène Géniaux, Marie Baumevieille, Louis Létinier, Marie-Noëlle Matta, Aurélie Lazès-Charmetant, Françoise Haramburu, Pascale Guéroult
      Background Parachuting, also called bombing, is a way to ingest psychoactive substances wrapped into cigarette paper, toilet paper, etc. There is little data describing parachuting in terms of substances use, context of use and, most importantly, the motivations for using such wrappers, although some authors hypothesized that parachute could be used for pharmacokinetic reason. However, inconsistently, some authors report that parachutes are used for sustained-release whereas others report that users are looking for an immediate effect. Research design and methods Considering parachute as a “home-made” dosage form, we have applied the dissolution testing to characterize the dissolution performance of a substance wrapped into a parachute and to characterize whether a parachute represents an immediate-release form or not. Results This in-vitro study provides the first pharmacokinetic data for drugs wrapped in parachutes. It shows that parachute acts as sustained-release form when made with a cigarette paper wrapper, but as immediate release form in the presence of alcohol or if wrapped with toilet paper. Conclusions An important message to harm reduction is that users must be aware that a parachute can have unexpected pharmacokinetics and have to avoid taking another parachute in the absence of an immediate-effect to avoid overdose.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.021
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Understanding sexual assault risk perception in college: Associations
           among sexual assault history, drinking to cope, and alcohol use
    • Authors: Elizabeth C. Neilson; Elizabeth R. Bird; Isha W. Metzger; William H. George; Jeanette Norris; Amanda K. Gilmore
      Pages: 178 - 186
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Elizabeth C. Neilson, Elizabeth R. Bird, Isha W. Metzger, William H. George, Jeanette Norris, Amanda K. Gilmore
      Introduction Sexual assault history and alcohol use are associated with higher likelihood of subsequent sexual assault. Alcohol use and drinking to cope are associated with re-assault, but it is unclear whether these factors are associated with malleable constructs like sexual assault risk perception. This study examined typical weekly drinking and drinking to cope motive as factors underlying the association between sexual assault history and risk perception. Methods Both perceived likelihood of experiencing incapacitated sexual assault and when to leaving a hypothetical sexual assault scenario were assessed as indicators of sexual assault risk perception. 660 female college students recruited from psychology courses completed questionnaires online. Results Results revealed that sexual assault history severity was positively associated with perceived incapacitated sexual assault likelihood and when to leave a risky scenario. Drinking to cope with anxiety was positively associated with perceived incapacitated sexual assault likelihood. Among women who reported regular drinking, typical weekly drinking was positively associated with when to leave a risky scenario, such that women who reported more weekly drinks stayed in a potentially risky scenario longer than women who reported fewer weekly drinks. Conclusions These findings suggest that alcohol use and drinking to cope with anxiety are associated with risk perception. Sexual assault history was associated with both perceived incapacitated sexual assault likelihood and when to leave a hypothetical scenario. Alcohol use and drinking to cope are two potential points of intervention for sexual assault risk reduction programs, but further examination is needed.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.022
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Patterns of adverse childhood experiences and substance use among young
           adults: A latent class analysis
    • Authors: Sunny H. Shin; Shelby Elaine McDonald; David Conley
      Pages: 187 - 192
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Sunny H. Shin, Shelby Elaine McDonald, David Conley
      Introduction Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been strongly linked with subsequent substance use. The aim of this study was to investigate how different patterns of ACEs influence substance use in young adulthood. Methods Using a community sample of young individuals (N =336; ages 18–25), we performed latent class analyses (LCA) to identify homogenous groups of young people with similar patterns of ACEs. Exposure to ACEs incorporates 13 childhood adversities including childhood maltreatment, household dysfunction, and community violence. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used in an effort to examine the associations between ACEs classes and four young adult outcomes such as alcohol-related problems, current tobacco use, drug dependence symptoms, and psychological distress. Results LCA identified four heterogeneous classes of young people distinguished by different patterns of ACEs exposure: Low ACEs (56%), Household Dysfunction/Community Violence (14%), Emotional ACEs (14%), and High/Multiple ACEs (16%). Multiple regression analyses found that compared to those in the Low ACEs class, young adults in the High/Multiple ACEs class reported more alcohol-related problems, current tobacco use, and psychological symptoms, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and common risk factors for substance use such as peer substance use. Conclusions Our findings confirm that for many young people, ACEs occur as multiple rather than single experiences. The results of this research suggest that exposure to poly-victimization during childhood is particularly related to substance use during young adulthood.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.020
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Young adult e-cigarette use outcome expectancies: Validity of a revised
           scale and a short scale
    • Authors: Pallav Pokhrel; Tony H. Lam; Ian Pagano; Crissy T. Kawamoto; Thaddeus A. Herzog
      Pages: 193 - 199
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Pallav Pokhrel, Tony H. Lam, Ian Pagano, Crissy T. Kawamoto, Thaddeus A. Herzog
      The revised youth e-cigarette outcome expectancies measure adds new items informed by recent qualitative research with young adult e-cigarette users, especially in the domain of positive “smoking” experience. Positive “smoking” experience represents beliefs that use of e-cigarettes provides outcomes associated with a better “smoking” alternative: for example, an alternative that is more socially approved, more suitable for indoor use, and that provides a safer means of enjoying nicotine. In addition, we tested a short, 8-item version of the measure which may be more easily incorporated into surveys. We tested the validity of the revised measure, both long and short versions, in terms of factor structure and associations of the expectancy factors with current e-cigarette use, e-cigarette use susceptibility, and e-cigarette use dependence. Participants were young adults (N=470; 65% women; mean age=20.9, SD=2.1). Results replicated the findings of the previous study as well as highlighted the importance of the added domain of positive “smoking” experience and the validity of the short scale. Furthermore, results showed that positive outcome expectancies are strongly associated with e-cigarette use dependence. The long and short versions of the revised youth e-cigarette outcome expectancies scale appear to be valid and useful for application not only among cigarette smokers and e-cigarette users but also among never smokers and never e-cigarette users.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.019
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • Butt Why' Exploring factors associated with cigarette scavenging
           behaviors among adult smokers enrolling in a clinical trial for smoking
    • Authors: Ryan Lantini; Marie A. Sillice; Joseph L. Fava; Ernestine Jennings; Rochelle K. Rosen; Santina M. Horowitz; Bruce M. Becker; Beth C. Bock
      Pages: 200 - 204
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 78
      Author(s): Ryan Lantini, Marie A. Sillice, Joseph L. Fava, Ernestine Jennings, Rochelle K. Rosen, Santina M. Horowitz, Bruce M. Becker, Beth C. Bock
      Introduction Cigarette smoking is associated with many adverse health effects and is an important public health concern. Increased understanding of smokers' behavior is central to developing effective interventions. Cigarette scavenging, a behavior that involves smoking shared or previously used cigarettes has thus far only been shown to be prevalent among homeless or incarcerated populations. The current study examines whether cigarette scavenging is prevalent in a more general population of adult smokers enrolling in a smoking cessation clinical trial, and whether engagement in this behavior is associated with demographic or smoking-related psychosocial factors. Methods Baseline data was obtained from adult smokers (N=227) enrolling in a randomized clinical trial for smoking cessation. Cigarette scavenging was assessed using three items: a) sharing a cigarette with a stranger; b) smoking a “found” cigarette and c) smoking a previously used cigarette “butt”. Participants who endorsed engaging in at least one of these three behaviors were categorized as a scavenger. Results Approximately 32% of participants endorsed at least one cigarette scavenging behavior. A multiple logistic regression analysis found that scavengers were more likely to be: men (p<0.001), of younger age at smoking onset (p=0.012), unemployed (p=0.003), more likely to have used marijuana in the past 30days (p=0.005), single or living alone (p=0.003), and to have experienced higher withdrawal symptoms during previous quit attempts (p=0.044) as compared to non-scavengers. Conclusions Scavenging is common among adult smokers. Interventions that address cigarette scavenging behaviors may better meet the needs of this unique smoking subgroup.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.11.037
      Issue No: Vol. 78 (2017)
  • The intergenerational transmission of problem gambling: The mediating role
           of offspring gambling expectancies and motives
    • Authors: N.A. Dowling; E. Oldenhof; K. Shandley; G.J. Youssef; S. Vasiliadis; S.A. Thomas; E. Frydenberg; A.C. Jackson
      Pages: 16 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): N.A. Dowling, E. Oldenhof, K. Shandley, G.J. Youssef, S. Vasiliadis, S.A. Thomas, E. Frydenberg, A.C. Jackson
      Introduction The risk for developing a gambling problem is greater among offspring who have a problem gambling parent, yet little research has directly examined the mechanisms by which this transmission of problem gambling occurs. For this reason, the present study sought to examine the degree to which children's expectancies and motives relating to gambling explain, at least in part, the intergenerational transmission of problem gambling. Methods Participants (N=524; 56.5% male) were recruited from educational institutions, and retrospectively reported on parental problem gambling. Problem gambling was measured using the Problem Gambling Severity Index and a range of positive and negative expectancies and gambling motives were explored as potential mediators of the relationship between parent-and-participant problem gambling. Results The relationship between parent-and-participant problem gambling was significant, and remained so after controlling for sociodemographic factors and administration method. Significant mediators of this relationship included self-enhancement expectancies (feeling in control), money expectancies (financial gain), over-involvement (preoccupation with gambling) and emotional impact expectancies (guilt, shame, and loss), as well as enhancement motives (gambling to increase positive feelings) and coping motives (gambling to reduce or avoid negative emotions). All mediators remained significant when entered into the same model. Conclusions The findings highlight that gambling expectancies and motives present unique pathways to the development of problem gambling in the offspring of problem gambling parents, and suggest that gambling cognitions may be potential candidates for targeted interventions for the offspring of problem gamblers.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Psychosocial and cessation-related differences between tobacco-marijuana
           co-users and single product users in a college student population
    • Authors: Matthew N. Masters; Regine Haardörfer; Michael Windle; Carla Berg
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Matthew N. Masters, Regine Haardörfer, Michael Windle, Carla Berg
      Limited research has examined psychosocial factors that differ among cigarette users, marijuana users, and co-users and influence their cessation efforts. We examined: 1) sociodemographic, mental health, and other substance use in relation to user category; and 2) associations among these factors in relation to recent quit attempts and readiness to quit among single product versus co-users. We used a cross-sectional design to study college students aged 18–25 from seven Georgia campuses, focusing on the 721 reporting cigarette and/or marijuana use in the past 4months (238 cigarette-only; 331 marijuana-only; 152 co-users). Multinomial logistic regression showed that correlates (p's<0.05) of cigarette-only versus co-use included attending public or technical colleges (vs. private) and not using little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs), e-cigarettes, and alcohol. Correlates of marijuana-only versus co-use included being Black or Hispanic (vs. White), not attending technical school, and not using LCCs and e-cigarettes. Importance was rated higher for quitting cigarettes versus marijuana, but confidence was rated lower for quitting cigarettes versus marijuana (p's<0.001). Co-users were more likely to report readiness to quit and quit attempts of cigarettes versus marijuana (p's<0.001). While 23.26% of marijuana-only and 15.13% of cigarette-only users reported readiness to quit, 41.18% of cigarette-only and 21.75% of marijuana-only users reported recent quit attempts (p's<0.001). Binary logistic regressions indicated distinct correlates of readiness to quit and quit attempts of cigarettes and marijuana. Cessation efforts of the respective products must attend to co-use with the other product to better understand relative perceptions of importance and confidence in quitting and actual cessation efforts.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Reasons for quitting smoking in young adult cigarette smokers
    • Authors: Robert J. Wellman; Erin K. O’Loughlin; Erika N. Dugas; Annie Montreuil; Hartley Dutczak; Jennifer O’Loughlin
      Pages: 28 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Robert J. Wellman, Erin K. O’Loughlin, Erika N. Dugas, Annie Montreuil, Hartley Dutczak, Jennifer O’Loughlin
      Background Although most young adult smokers want to quit smoking, few can do so successfully. Increased understanding of reasons to quit in this age group could help tailor interventions, but few studies document reasons to quit in young adults or examine reasons to quit by smoker characteristics. Methods In 2011–12, 311 current smokers (age 22–28, M =24.1; 48.9% male, 51.1% female; 50.4% daily smokers) from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study completed the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting scale. We assessed differences in the importance of 15 reasons to quit by sex, education, smoking frequency, quit attempt in the past year, perceived difficulty in quitting, and motivation to quit. We also examined differences between participants who discounted the importance of long-term health risks and those who acknowledged such risks. Results Concerns about getting sick or still smoking when older were considered very important by >70% of participants. Median scores were higher among daily smokers, those who had tried to quit or who expressed difficulty quitting, and those with strong motivation to quit. Discounters (14.5% of participants) were primarily nondaily, low-consumption smokers. Their Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scores did not differ from non-discounters', and 11% (vs. 35.7% of non-discounters) were ICD-10 tobacco dependent. Conclusions Novel smoking cessation interventions are needed to help young adult smokers quit by capitalizing on their health concerns. Discounters may need educational intervention to better understand the impact of even “light” smoking on their health before or in conjunction with quit interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Item Response Theory analysis of Fagerström Test for Cigarette
    • Authors: Andrea Svicher; Fiammetta Cosci; Marco Giannini; Francesco Pistelli; Karl Fagerström
      Pages: 38 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Andrea Svicher, Fiammetta Cosci, Marco Giannini, Francesco Pistelli, Karl Fagerström
      Introduction The Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence (FTCD) and the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) are the gold standard measures to assess cigarette dependence. However, FTCD reliability and factor structure have been questioned and HSI psychometric properties are in need of further investigations. The present study examined the psychometrics properties of the FTCD and the HSI via the Item Response Theory. Methods The study was a secondary analysis of data collected in 862 Italian daily smokers. Confirmatory factor analysis was run to evaluate the dimensionality of FTCD. A Grade Response Model was applied to FTCD and HSI to verify the fit to the data. Both item and test functioning were analyzed and item statistics, Test Information Function, and scale reliabilities were calculated. Mokken Scale Analysis was applied to estimate homogeneity and Loevinger's coefficients were calculated. Results The FTCD showed unidimensionality and homogeneity for most of the items and for the total score. It also showed high sensitivity and good reliability from medium to high levels of cigarette dependence, although problems related to some items (i.e., items 3 and 5) were evident. HSI had good homogeneity, adequate item functioning, and high reliability from medium to high levels of cigarette dependence. Significant Differential Item Functioning was found for items 1, 4, 5 of the FTCD and for both items of HSI. Conclusions HSI seems highly recommended in clinical settings addressed to heavy smokers while FTCD would be better used in smokers with a level of cigarette dependence ranging between low and high.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • The effects of nicotine on conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement in
    • Authors: Alexandra N. Palmisano; Eleanor C. Hudd; Courtney M. McQuade; Harriet de Wit; Robert S. Astur
      Pages: 51 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Alexandra N. Palmisano, Eleanor C. Hudd, Courtney M. McQuade, Harriet de Wit, Robert S. Astur
      Nicotine has been shown to enhance the reinforcement and reward-responsiveness of non-nicotine stimuli. To determine whether nicotine enhances the strength of conditioning to context, undergraduate participants with varying levels of nicotine dependence were recruited for a two-day study and tested on a virtual reality (VR) conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. On day one, participants explored two virtual rooms where they received multiple pairings of M&M rewards in one room and no rewards in the other room, followed by a free-access test session with no rewards. On day two, participants received three test sessions to assess extinction. Subsequently, participants received M&Ms. in a novel context and were then tested for reinstatement. Prior to testing on each day, subjects were administered either nicotine (4mg) or placebo lozenges, in a between-subjects, four-group, 2×2 design (nicotine or placebo on days 1 and 2). After conditioning on day one, only participants who received placebo exhibited a CPP by spending significantly more time in the room previously-paired with M&Ms. Contrary to our hypothesis, nicotine-treated participants did not display a significant CPP, and there were no significant differences between treatment groups. However, post hoc analysis indicated that in a subset of participants with greater nicotine dependence, the nicotine group displayed a CPP by rating the M&M-paired room as significantly more enjoyable than those who received placebo. Additionally, while neither treatment group showed significant place preferences during the first two extinction sessions on Day 2, individuals who received nicotine on Day 1 or placebo on Day 2 spent significantly more time in the M&M-paired room during the final extinction session. Finally, those who received nicotine on Day 2 exhibited significantly greater reinstatement compared to placebo-treated participants. These results partially support preclinical evidence that nicotine can affect learning, extinction, and reinstatement.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T17:42:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • The effects of a brief mindfulness exercise on state mindfulness and
           affective outcomes among adult daily smokers
    • Authors: Christina M. Luberto; Alison C. McLeish
      Pages: 73 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Christina M. Luberto, Alison C. McLeish
      Brief, single session mindfulness training has been shown to reduce emotional distress, craving, and withdrawal symptoms among smokers when they are nicotine-deprived. However, no research has examined the efficacy of brief mindfulness training for non-nicotine-deprived smokers, or explored its effects on smokers' ability to tolerate emotional distress. Smokers progress differently through various stages as they attempt to change their smoking behavior and evidence-based strategies are needed for smokers at all levels of nicotine deprivation. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of a brief mindfulness exercise on state mindfulness, distress, distress tolerance, and smoking urges following a distressing laboratory task among 86 non-nicotine-deprived adult daily smokers (M age =46years, 55% male, 74% African-American) who completed behavioral tasks and self-report measures before and after randomization to a 10-min mindfulness or control exercise. As hypothesized, the mindfulness exercise significantly increased state mindfulness [F =14.24, p =0.00, η 2 partial =0.15] and demonstrated a non-significant small to medium effect on decreased distress levels [F =3.22, p =0.08, η 2 partial =0.04]. Contrary to prediction, it was not associated with improvements in self-reported [F =2.68, p =0.11, η 2 partial =0.03] or behavioral distress tolerance [F(1)=0.75, p =0.39, η 2 partial =0.01], or smoking urges following a stressor [F =0.22, p =0.64, η 2 partial =0.00.] These findings suggest that brief mindfulness exercises successfully induce states of mindfulness in non-nicotine-deprived smokers. These exercises might also improve current moment levels of distress, but they do not appear to improve self-report or behavioral indices of distress tolerance.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T17:42:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.013
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Effects of a stand-alone web-based electronic screening and brief
           intervention targeting alcohol use in university students of legal
           drinking age: A randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Thomas Ganz; Michael Braun; Marion Laging; Karin Schermelleh-Engel; Johannes Michalak; Thomas Heidenreich
      Pages: 81 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Thomas Ganz, Michael Braun, Marion Laging, Karin Schermelleh-Engel, Johannes Michalak, Thomas Heidenreich
      Background Many intervention efforts targeting student drinking were developed to address US college students, which usually involves underage drinking. It remains unclear, if research evidence from these interventions is generalizable to university and college students of legal drinking age, e.g., in Europe. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a translated and adapted version of the eCHECKUP TO GO, applied as stand-alone web-based electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI), in German university students at risk for hazardous drinking. Methods A fully automated web-based two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted. Participants were randomized to an e-SBI or assessment-only (AO) condition. The current paper analyzed students with baseline AUDIT-C scores ≥3 for women and ≥4 for men (sample at baseline: e-SBI [n =514], AO [n =467]; 3-month follow-up: e-SBI [n =194], AO [n =231]; 6-month follow-up: e-SBI [n =146], AO [n =200]). The primary outcome was prior four weeks' alcohol consumption. Secondary outcomes were frequency of heavy drinking occasions, peak blood alcohol concentration, and number of alcohol-related problems. Results Mixed linear model analyses revealed significant interaction effects between groups and time points on the primary outcome after 3 and 6months. Compared to students in the AO condition, students in the e-SBI condition reported consuming 4.11 fewer standard drinks during the previous four weeks after 3months, and 4.78 fewer standard drinks after 6months. Mixed results were found on secondary outcomes. Conclusions The results indicate that evidence on and knowledge of web-based e-SBIs based on US college student samples is transferable to German university students of legal drinking age. However, knowledge of what motivates students to complete programs under voluntary conditions, although rare, is needed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T21:11:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.017
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Organizational downsizing and alcohol use: A national study of U.S.
           workers during the Great Recession
    • Authors: Michael R. Frone
      Pages: 107 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Michael R. Frone
      Organizational downsizing, which represents the reduction of an organization's workforce, results in a stressful work environment for those who survive the downsizing. However, we know little about the association between surviving an organizational downsizing and employee alcohol use. This study explored the association between exposure to organizational downsizing and four dimensions of alcohol use during the Great Recession. Also explored were the moderating influences of length of recession exposure, state drinking culture, gender, age, education, family income, and financial demands. Data for this study came from a national telephone survey of U.S. workers that was conducted from December 2008 to April 2011 (N =2296). The results revealed that exposure to organizational downsizing was positively associated with usual frequency of drinking, number of drinks consumed per usual drinking occasion, and both the frequency of binge drinking and drinking to intoxication. Length of exposure to the recession moderated the association between organizational downsizing exposure and usual number of drinks consumed. The conditional effects revealed that this association became stronger as length of exposure to the recession increased. Furthermore, age moderated the associations between organizational downsizing exposure and the usual number of drinks consumed and the frequency of binge drinking and intoxication. The conditional effects revealed that these associations were positive and significant among young survivors (ages 40 or younger), but were nonsignificant among middle-aged survivors (over 40years of age). State drinking culture, gender, education, family income, and financial demands did not moderate the associations between organizational downsizing exposure and alcohol use.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.016
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • When the party continues: Impulsivity and the effect of employment on
           young adults' post-college alcohol use
    • Authors: I.M. Geisner; J. Koopmann; P. Bamberger; M. Wang; M.E. Larimer; I. Nahum-Shani; S. Bacharach
      Pages: 114 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): I.M. Geisner, J. Koopmann, P. Bamberger, M. Wang, M.E. Larimer, I. Nahum-Shani, S. Bacharach
      Background The transition from college to work is both an exciting and potentially high risk time for young adults. As students transition from academic settings to full-time employment, they must navigate new social demands, work demands, and adjust their drinking behaviors accordingly. Research has shown that there are both protective factors and risk factors associated with starting a new job when it comes to alcohol use, and individual differences can moderate these factors. Method 1361 students were recruited from 4 geographically diverse universities and followed 1month pre- and 1month post-graduation. Drinking frequency, quantity, consequences, and impulsivity were assessed. Results Full-time employment was related to increased drinking quantity but not related to changes in other drinking outcomes. However, impulsivity moderated the relationship between employment and drinking. For those reporting higher levels of impulsivity at baseline, full-time employment was associated with an increase in drinking variables (quantity and frequency), whereas drinking was unaffected by full-time employment status among those reporting lower levels of impulsivity. Implications for future research are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • The assessment and treatment of adult heterosexual men with self-perceived
           problematic pornography use: A review
    • Authors: Luke Sniewski; Panteá Farvid; Phil Carter
      Pages: 217 - 224
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Luke Sniewski, Panteá Farvid, Phil Carter
      Self-Perceived Problematic Porn Use (SPPPU) refers to an individual who self-identifies as addicted to porn because they feel they are unable to regulate their porn consumption, and that use interferes with everyday life. Although porn addiction has not been formally classified as its own distinct behavioral addiction, therapists and clinicians are advised to educate themselves on the current state of literature pertaining to pornography consumption given the widespread availability and consumption of sexually explicit material online. This review article begins with a general overview of pornography and porn use so that therapists and researchers can discern between non-intrusive and problematic pornography consumption patterns within their practice and understand the common characteristics of those that most commonly present with SPPPU. Thereafter, an overview and examination of therapeutic interventions for SPPPU will be identified and analysed. Finally, the review concludes with recommendations for therapists, clinicians, and future research.

      PubDate: 2017-10-28T17:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Emerging role for the medial prefrontal cortex in alcohol-seeking
    • Authors: Paul Klenowski
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Paul M. Klenowski
      The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays an important role in high-order executive processes and sends highly organized projections to sub-cortical regions controlling mood, motivation and impulsivity. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated alcohol-induced effects on the activity and composition of the PFC which are implicated in associative learning processes and may disrupt executive control over impulsivity, leading to an inability to self-limit alcohol intake. Animal studies have begun to dissect the role of the mPFC circuitry in alcohol-seeking behavior and withdrawal, and have identified a key role for projections to sub-cortical sites including the extended amygdala and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Importantly, these studies have highlighted that alcohol can have contrasting effects on the mPFC compared to other addictive substances and also produce differential effects on the structure and activity of the mPFC following short-term versus long-term consumption. Because of these differences, how the mPFC influences the initial aspects of alcohol-seeking behavior and how we can better understand the long-term effects of alcohol use on the activity and connectivity of the mPFC need to be considered. Given the lack of preclinical data from long-term drinking models, an increased focus should be directed towards identifying how long-term alcohol use changes the mPFC, in order to provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the transition to dependence.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T21:11:01Z
  • Efficacy and outcomes of a mobile app targeting alcohol use in young
    • Authors: Leanne Hides; Catherine Quinn Wendell Cockshaw Stoyan Stoyanov Oksana Zelenko
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Leanne Hides, Catherine Quinn, Wendell Cockshaw, Stoyan Stoyanov, Oksana Zelenko, Daniel Johnson, Dian Tjondronegoro, Lake-Hui Quek, David J. Kavanagh
      Mobile apps provide a highly accessible way of reducing alcohol use in young people. This paper determines the 1-month efficacy and 2, 3 and 6month outcomes of the Ray's Night Out app, which aims to increase alcohol knowledge and reduce alcohol use in young people. User-experience design and agile development processes, informed by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model and evidence-based motivational interviewing treatment approaches guided app development. A randomized controlled trial comparing immediate versus 1-month delayed access to the app was conducted in 197 young people (16 to 25years) who drank alcohol in the previous month. Participants were assessed at baseline, 1, 2, 3 and 6months. Alcohol knowledge, alcohol use and related harms and the severity of problematic drinking were assessed. App quality was evaluated after 1-month of app use. Participants in the immediate access group achieved a significantly greater increase in alcohol knowledge than the delayed access group at 1-month, but no differences in alcohol use or related problems were found. Both groups achieved significant reductions in the typical number of drinks on a drinking occasion over time. A reduction in maximum drinks consumed was also found at 1month. These reductions were most likely to occur in males and problem drinkers. Reductions in alcohol-related harm were also found. The app received a high mean quality (M =3.82/5, SD=0.51). The Ray app provides a youth-friendly and easily-accessible way of increasing young people's alcohol knowledge but further testing is required to determine its impact on alcohol use and related problems.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T21:11:01Z
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