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Showing 1 - 200 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 348, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
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Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 353, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
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Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
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Journal Cover Addictive Behaviors
  [SJR: 1.514]   [H-I: 92]   [15 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0306-4603
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • The intergenerational transmission of problem gambling: The mediating role
           of offspring gambling expectancies and motives
    • Authors: N.A. Dowling; E. Oldenhof; K. Shandley; G.J. Youssef; S. Vasiliadis; S.A. Thomas; E. Frydenberg; A.C. Jackson
      Pages: 16 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): N.A. Dowling, E. Oldenhof, K. Shandley, G.J. Youssef, S. Vasiliadis, S.A. Thomas, E. Frydenberg, A.C. Jackson
      Introduction The risk for developing a gambling problem is greater among offspring who have a problem gambling parent, yet little research has directly examined the mechanisms by which this transmission of problem gambling occurs. For this reason, the present study sought to examine the degree to which children's expectancies and motives relating to gambling explain, at least in part, the intergenerational transmission of problem gambling. Methods Participants (N=524; 56.5% male) were recruited from educational institutions, and retrospectively reported on parental problem gambling. Problem gambling was measured using the Problem Gambling Severity Index and a range of positive and negative expectancies and gambling motives were explored as potential mediators of the relationship between parent-and-participant problem gambling. Results The relationship between parent-and-participant problem gambling was significant, and remained so after controlling for sociodemographic factors and administration method. Significant mediators of this relationship included self-enhancement expectancies (feeling in control), money expectancies (financial gain), over-involvement (preoccupation with gambling) and emotional impact expectancies (guilt, shame, and loss), as well as enhancement motives (gambling to increase positive feelings) and coping motives (gambling to reduce or avoid negative emotions). All mediators remained significant when entered into the same model. Conclusions The findings highlight that gambling expectancies and motives present unique pathways to the development of problem gambling in the offspring of problem gambling parents, and suggest that gambling cognitions may be potential candidates for targeted interventions for the offspring of problem gamblers.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Psychosocial and cessation-related differences between tobacco-marijuana
           co-users and single product users in a college student population
    • Authors: Matthew N. Masters; Regine Haardörfer; Michael Windle; Carla Berg
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Matthew N. Masters, Regine Haardörfer, Michael Windle, Carla Berg
      Limited research has examined psychosocial factors that differ among cigarette users, marijuana users, and co-users and influence their cessation efforts. We examined: 1) sociodemographic, mental health, and other substance use in relation to user category; and 2) associations among these factors in relation to recent quit attempts and readiness to quit among single product versus co-users. We used a cross-sectional design to study college students aged 18–25 from seven Georgia campuses, focusing on the 721 reporting cigarette and/or marijuana use in the past 4months (238 cigarette-only; 331 marijuana-only; 152 co-users). Multinomial logistic regression showed that correlates (p's<0.05) of cigarette-only versus co-use included attending public or technical colleges (vs. private) and not using little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs), e-cigarettes, and alcohol. Correlates of marijuana-only versus co-use included being Black or Hispanic (vs. White), not attending technical school, and not using LCCs and e-cigarettes. Importance was rated higher for quitting cigarettes versus marijuana, but confidence was rated lower for quitting cigarettes versus marijuana (p's<0.001). Co-users were more likely to report readiness to quit and quit attempts of cigarettes versus marijuana (p's<0.001). While 23.26% of marijuana-only and 15.13% of cigarette-only users reported readiness to quit, 41.18% of cigarette-only and 21.75% of marijuana-only users reported recent quit attempts (p's<0.001). Binary logistic regressions indicated distinct correlates of readiness to quit and quit attempts of cigarettes and marijuana. Cessation efforts of the respective products must attend to co-use with the other product to better understand relative perceptions of importance and confidence in quitting and actual cessation efforts.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Reasons for quitting smoking in young adult cigarette smokers
    • Authors: Robert J. Wellman; Erin K. O’Loughlin; Erika N. Dugas; Annie Montreuil; Hartley Dutczak; Jennifer O’Loughlin
      Pages: 28 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Robert J. Wellman, Erin K. O’Loughlin, Erika N. Dugas, Annie Montreuil, Hartley Dutczak, Jennifer O’Loughlin
      Background Although most young adult smokers want to quit smoking, few can do so successfully. Increased understanding of reasons to quit in this age group could help tailor interventions, but few studies document reasons to quit in young adults or examine reasons to quit by smoker characteristics. Methods In 2011–12, 311 current smokers (age 22–28, M =24.1; 48.9% male, 51.1% female; 50.4% daily smokers) from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study completed the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting scale. We assessed differences in the importance of 15 reasons to quit by sex, education, smoking frequency, quit attempt in the past year, perceived difficulty in quitting, and motivation to quit. We also examined differences between participants who discounted the importance of long-term health risks and those who acknowledged such risks. Results Concerns about getting sick or still smoking when older were considered very important by >70% of participants. Median scores were higher among daily smokers, those who had tried to quit or who expressed difficulty quitting, and those with strong motivation to quit. Discounters (14.5% of participants) were primarily nondaily, low-consumption smokers. Their Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scores did not differ from non-discounters', and 11% (vs. 35.7% of non-discounters) were ICD-10 tobacco dependent. Conclusions Novel smoking cessation interventions are needed to help young adult smokers quit by capitalizing on their health concerns. Discounters may need educational intervention to better understand the impact of even “light” smoking on their health before or in conjunction with quit interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Effect of brief exercise on urges to smoke in men and women smokers
    • Authors: Alicia M. Allen; Nermine M. Abdelwahab; Samantha Carlson; Tyler A. Bosch; Lynn E. Eberly; Kola Okuyemi
      Pages: 34 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Alicia M. Allen, Nermine M. Abdelwahab, Samantha Carlson, Tyler A. Bosch, Lynn E. Eberly, Kola Okuyemi
      Introduction Although smoking urges have been demonstrated to vary by gender and also be influenced by exercise, it is unknown if exercise has a differential effect on smoking urges by gender. This study aimed to explore gender-specific effects of an acute bout of exercise on cessation-related symptoms in men and women smokers during acute abstinence. Methods We enrolled smokers (≥5 cigarettes/day) who were 18–40years old for a study on exercise and smoking behavior. Participants abstained from smoking for at least 3h, prior to measurement of their maximal oxygen consumption tested, which was the acute bout of exercise. Prior to and after the exercise, participants completed the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges – Brief and the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale. Results Participants (n=38; 61% women) were, on average, 30.0±0.9years old and smoked 13.0±0.8 cigarettes/day. All measured aspects of cessation-related symptoms significantly improved after the exercise in both men and women. In women there was a significant decline in anticipated relief from negative affect after the exercise (women: −0.45±0.20, p=0.0322; men: −0.41±0.26, p=0.1312). In men there was a significant decline in the intention to smoke after the exercise (men: −0.77±0.23, p=0.0053; women: −0.66±0.37, p=0.0909). Conclusions An acute bout of exercise reduced smoking urges in both men and women smokers during an acute state of abstinence. Additional research is needed to replicate these observations in a larger, more diverse sample, and to explore the implication of these observations on cessation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Item Response Theory analysis of Fagerström Test for Cigarette
    • Authors: Andrea Svicher; Fiammetta Cosci; Marco Giannini; Francesco Pistelli; Karl Fagerström
      Pages: 38 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Andrea Svicher, Fiammetta Cosci, Marco Giannini, Francesco Pistelli, Karl Fagerström
      Introduction The Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence (FTCD) and the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) are the gold standard measures to assess cigarette dependence. However, FTCD reliability and factor structure have been questioned and HSI psychometric properties are in need of further investigations. The present study examined the psychometrics properties of the FTCD and the HSI via the Item Response Theory. Methods The study was a secondary analysis of data collected in 862 Italian daily smokers. Confirmatory factor analysis was run to evaluate the dimensionality of FTCD. A Grade Response Model was applied to FTCD and HSI to verify the fit to the data. Both item and test functioning were analyzed and item statistics, Test Information Function, and scale reliabilities were calculated. Mokken Scale Analysis was applied to estimate homogeneity and Loevinger's coefficients were calculated. Results The FTCD showed unidimensionality and homogeneity for most of the items and for the total score. It also showed high sensitivity and good reliability from medium to high levels of cigarette dependence, although problems related to some items (i.e., items 3 and 5) were evident. HSI had good homogeneity, adequate item functioning, and high reliability from medium to high levels of cigarette dependence. Significant Differential Item Functioning was found for items 1, 4, 5 of the FTCD and for both items of HSI. Conclusions HSI seems highly recommended in clinical settings addressed to heavy smokers while FTCD would be better used in smokers with a level of cigarette dependence ranging between low and high.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Transitioning from adequate to inadequate sleep duration associated with
           higher smoking rate and greater nicotine dependence in a population sample
    • Authors: Freda Patterson; Michael A. Grandner; Alicia Lozano; Aditi Satti; Grace Ma
      Pages: 47 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Freda Patterson, Michael A. Grandner, Alicia Lozano, Aditi Satti, Grace Ma
      Introduction Inadequate sleep (≤6 and ≥9h) is more prevalent in smokers than non-smokers but the extent to which sleep duration in smokers relates to smoking behaviors and cessation outcomes, is not yet clear. To begin to address this knowledge gap, we investigated the extent to which sleep duration predicted smoking behaviors and quitting intention in a population sample. Methods Data from current smokers who completed the baseline (N=635) and 5-year follow-up (N=477) assessment in the United Kingdom Biobank cohort study were analyzed. Multivariable regression models using smoking behavior outcomes (cigarettes per day, time to first cigarette, difficulty not smoking for a day, quitting intention) and sleep duration (adequate (7–8h) versus inadequate (≤6 and ≥9h) as the predictor were generated. All models adjusted for age, sex, race, and education. Results Worsening sleep duration (adequate to inadequate) predicted a more than three-fold higher odds in increased cigarettes per day (OR=3.18; 95% CI=1.25–8.06), a more than three-fold increased odds of not smoking for the day remaining difficult (OR=3.90; 95% CI=1.27–12.01), and a >8-fold increased odds of higher nicotine dependence (OR=8.98; 95% CI=2.81–28.66). Improving sleep duration (i.e., inadequate to adequate sleep) did not predict reduced cigarette consumption or nicotine dependence in this population sample. Conclusion Transitioning from adequate to inadequate sleep duration may be a risk factor for developing a more “hard-core” smoking profile. The extent to which achieving healthy sleep may promote, or optimize smoking cessation treatment response, warrants investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T17:42:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • The effects of nicotine on conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement in
    • Authors: Alexandra N. Palmisano; Eleanor C. Hudd; Courtney M. McQuade; Harriet de Wit; Robert S. Astur
      Pages: 51 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Alexandra N. Palmisano, Eleanor C. Hudd, Courtney M. McQuade, Harriet de Wit, Robert S. Astur
      Nicotine has been shown to enhance the reinforcement and reward-responsiveness of non-nicotine stimuli. To determine whether nicotine enhances the strength of conditioning to context, undergraduate participants with varying levels of nicotine dependence were recruited for a two-day study and tested on a virtual reality (VR) conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. On day one, participants explored two virtual rooms where they received multiple pairings of M&M rewards in one room and no rewards in the other room, followed by a free-access test session with no rewards. On day two, participants received three test sessions to assess extinction. Subsequently, participants received M&Ms. in a novel context and were then tested for reinstatement. Prior to testing on each day, subjects were administered either nicotine (4mg) or placebo lozenges, in a between-subjects, four-group, 2×2 design (nicotine or placebo on days 1 and 2). After conditioning on day one, only participants who received placebo exhibited a CPP by spending significantly more time in the room previously-paired with M&Ms. Contrary to our hypothesis, nicotine-treated participants did not display a significant CPP, and there were no significant differences between treatment groups. However, post hoc analysis indicated that in a subset of participants with greater nicotine dependence, the nicotine group displayed a CPP by rating the M&M-paired room as significantly more enjoyable than those who received placebo. Additionally, while neither treatment group showed significant place preferences during the first two extinction sessions on Day 2, individuals who received nicotine on Day 1 or placebo on Day 2 spent significantly more time in the M&M-paired room during the final extinction session. Finally, those who received nicotine on Day 2 exhibited significantly greater reinstatement compared to placebo-treated participants. These results partially support preclinical evidence that nicotine can affect learning, extinction, and reinstatement.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T17:42:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • The effects of a brief mindfulness exercise on state mindfulness and
           affective outcomes among adult daily smokers
    • Authors: Christina M. Luberto; Alison C. McLeish
      Pages: 73 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Christina M. Luberto, Alison C. McLeish
      Brief, single session mindfulness training has been shown to reduce emotional distress, craving, and withdrawal symptoms among smokers when they are nicotine-deprived. However, no research has examined the efficacy of brief mindfulness training for non-nicotine-deprived smokers, or explored its effects on smokers' ability to tolerate emotional distress. Smokers progress differently through various stages as they attempt to change their smoking behavior and evidence-based strategies are needed for smokers at all levels of nicotine deprivation. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of a brief mindfulness exercise on state mindfulness, distress, distress tolerance, and smoking urges following a distressing laboratory task among 86 non-nicotine-deprived adult daily smokers (M age =46years, 55% male, 74% African-American) who completed behavioral tasks and self-report measures before and after randomization to a 10-min mindfulness or control exercise. As hypothesized, the mindfulness exercise significantly increased state mindfulness [F =14.24, p =0.00, η 2 partial =0.15] and demonstrated a non-significant small to medium effect on decreased distress levels [F =3.22, p =0.08, η 2 partial =0.04]. Contrary to prediction, it was not associated with improvements in self-reported [F =2.68, p =0.11, η 2 partial =0.03] or behavioral distress tolerance [F(1)=0.75, p =0.39, η 2 partial =0.01], or smoking urges following a stressor [F =0.22, p =0.64, η 2 partial =0.00.] These findings suggest that brief mindfulness exercises successfully induce states of mindfulness in non-nicotine-deprived smokers. These exercises might also improve current moment levels of distress, but they do not appear to improve self-report or behavioral indices of distress tolerance.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T17:42:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.013
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Effects of a stand-alone web-based electronic screening and brief
           intervention targeting alcohol use in university students of legal
           drinking age: A randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Thomas Ganz; Michael Braun; Marion Laging; Karin Schermelleh-Engel; Johannes Michalak; Thomas Heidenreich
      Pages: 81 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Thomas Ganz, Michael Braun, Marion Laging, Karin Schermelleh-Engel, Johannes Michalak, Thomas Heidenreich
      Background Many intervention efforts targeting student drinking were developed to address US college students, which usually involves underage drinking. It remains unclear, if research evidence from these interventions is generalizable to university and college students of legal drinking age, e.g., in Europe. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a translated and adapted version of the eCHECKUP TO GO, applied as stand-alone web-based electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI), in German university students at risk for hazardous drinking. Methods A fully automated web-based two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted. Participants were randomized to an e-SBI or assessment-only (AO) condition. The current paper analyzed students with baseline AUDIT-C scores ≥3 for women and ≥4 for men (sample at baseline: e-SBI [n =514], AO [n =467]; 3-month follow-up: e-SBI [n =194], AO [n =231]; 6-month follow-up: e-SBI [n =146], AO [n =200]). The primary outcome was prior four weeks' alcohol consumption. Secondary outcomes were frequency of heavy drinking occasions, peak blood alcohol concentration, and number of alcohol-related problems. Results Mixed linear model analyses revealed significant interaction effects between groups and time points on the primary outcome after 3 and 6months. Compared to students in the AO condition, students in the e-SBI condition reported consuming 4.11 fewer standard drinks during the previous four weeks after 3months, and 4.78 fewer standard drinks after 6months. Mixed results were found on secondary outcomes. Conclusions The results indicate that evidence on and knowledge of web-based e-SBIs based on US college student samples is transferable to German university students of legal drinking age. However, knowledge of what motivates students to complete programs under voluntary conditions, although rare, is needed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T21:11:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.017
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Organizational downsizing and alcohol use: A national study of U.S.
           workers during the Great Recession
    • Authors: Michael R. Frone
      Pages: 107 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Michael R. Frone
      Organizational downsizing, which represents the reduction of an organization's workforce, results in a stressful work environment for those who survive the downsizing. However, we know little about the association between surviving an organizational downsizing and employee alcohol use. This study explored the association between exposure to organizational downsizing and four dimensions of alcohol use during the Great Recession. Also explored were the moderating influences of length of recession exposure, state drinking culture, gender, age, education, family income, and financial demands. Data for this study came from a national telephone survey of U.S. workers that was conducted from December 2008 to April 2011 (N =2296). The results revealed that exposure to organizational downsizing was positively associated with usual frequency of drinking, number of drinks consumed per usual drinking occasion, and both the frequency of binge drinking and drinking to intoxication. Length of exposure to the recession moderated the association between organizational downsizing exposure and usual number of drinks consumed. The conditional effects revealed that this association became stronger as length of exposure to the recession increased. Furthermore, age moderated the associations between organizational downsizing exposure and the usual number of drinks consumed and the frequency of binge drinking and intoxication. The conditional effects revealed that these associations were positive and significant among young survivors (ages 40 or younger), but were nonsignificant among middle-aged survivors (over 40years of age). State drinking culture, gender, education, family income, and financial demands did not moderate the associations between organizational downsizing exposure and alcohol use.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.016
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • When the party continues: Impulsivity and the effect of employment on
           young adults' post-college alcohol use
    • Authors: I.M. Geisner; J. Koopmann; P. Bamberger; M. Wang; M.E. Larimer; I. Nahum-Shani; S. Bacharach
      Pages: 114 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): I.M. Geisner, J. Koopmann, P. Bamberger, M. Wang, M.E. Larimer, I. Nahum-Shani, S. Bacharach
      Background The transition from college to work is both an exciting and potentially high risk time for young adults. As students transition from academic settings to full-time employment, they must navigate new social demands, work demands, and adjust their drinking behaviors accordingly. Research has shown that there are both protective factors and risk factors associated with starting a new job when it comes to alcohol use, and individual differences can moderate these factors. Method 1361 students were recruited from 4 geographically diverse universities and followed 1month pre- and 1month post-graduation. Drinking frequency, quantity, consequences, and impulsivity were assessed. Results Full-time employment was related to increased drinking quantity but not related to changes in other drinking outcomes. However, impulsivity moderated the relationship between employment and drinking. For those reporting higher levels of impulsivity at baseline, full-time employment was associated with an increase in drinking variables (quantity and frequency), whereas drinking was unaffected by full-time employment status among those reporting lower levels of impulsivity. Implications for future research are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Smoking and drinking behaviors of military spouses: Findings from the
           Millennium Cohort Family Study
    • Authors: Daniel W. Trone; Teresa M. Powell; Lauren M. Bauer; Amber D. Seelig; Arthur V. Peterson; Alyson J. Littman; Emily C. Williams; Charles C. Maynard; Jonathan B. Bricker; Edward J. Boyko
      Pages: 121 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Daniel W. Trone, Teresa M. Powell, Lauren M. Bauer, Amber D. Seelig, Arthur V. Peterson, Alyson J. Littman, Emily C. Williams, Charles C. Maynard, Jonathan B. Bricker, Edward J. Boyko
      Introduction: The associations between stressful military experiences and tobacco use and alcohol misuse among Service members are well documented. However, little is known about whether stressful military experiences are associated with tobacco use and alcohol misuse among military spouses. Methods: Using 9872 Service member–spouse dyads enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Family Study, we employed logistic regression to estimate the odds of self-reported cigarette smoking, risky drinking, and problem drinking among spouses by Service member deployment status, communication regarding deployment, and stress associated with military-related experiences, while adjusting for demographic, mental health, military experiences, and Service member military characteristics. Results: Current cigarette smoking, risky drinking, and problem drinking were reported by 17.2%, 36.3%, and 7.3% of military spouses, respectively. Current deployment was not found to be associated with spousal smoking or drinking behaviors. Communication about deployment experiences with spouses was associated with lower odds of smoking, but not with risky or problem drinking. Spouses bothered by communicated deployment experiences and those who reported feeling very stressed by a combat-related deployment or duty assignment had consistently higher odds of both risky and problem drinking. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that contextual characteristics about the deployment experience, as well as the perceived stress of those experiences, may be more impactful than the simple fact of Service member deployment itself. These results suggest that considering the impact of deployment experiences on military spouses reveals important dimensions of military community adaptation and risk.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.015
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Testing weight motives and guilt/shame as mediators of the relationship
           between alcohol use and physical activity
    • Authors: Tonya Dodge; Paige Clarke
      Pages: 131 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Tonya Dodge, Paige Clarke
      Objectives Test whether weight motives and guilt/shame mediate the positive relationship between physical activity and alcohol use among college-attending young adults. Design A longitudinal design was employed. Method Young adults who were attending college (N =371) completed two self-administered questionnaires separated by approximately one month. Heavy episodic drinking was assessed at Time 1. Vigorous physical activity, moderate physical activity, weight motives, and guilt/shame were assessed at Time 2. Results Results are consistent with weight motives as a mediator of the positive relationship between heavy episodic drinking and vigorous physical activity. Results were inconsistent with guilt/shame as a mediator of this relationship. There was no statistically significant relationship between heavy episodic drinking and moderate physical activity. Conclusions Heavy episodic drinking was related to vigorous but not to moderate physical activity in the subsequent 30-days. Furthermore, the results are consistent with weight motives as a mediator of the relationship between alcohol use and vigorous physical activity.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.018
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • E-cigarette use among treatment-seeking smokers: Moderation of abstinence
           by use frequency
    • Authors: Emily N. Subialka Nowariak; Rebecca K. Lien; Raymond G. Boyle; Michael S. Amato; Laura A. Beebe
      Pages: 137 - 142
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Emily N. Subialka Nowariak, Rebecca K. Lien, Raymond G. Boyle, Michael S. Amato, Laura A. Beebe
      Introduction Emerging literature suggests that frequency of use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be an important moderating variable in the relationship between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation. However, few studies have focused specifically on treatment-seekers, a group that may differ in important ways from smokers in the general population. This study looks at the relationship between e-cigarette use frequency and abstinence among a sample of treatment-seeking tobacco users. Methods Seven-month follow-up survey data from N =2760 treatment-seeking tobacco users who utilized statewide tobacco quitlines in three states were used to assess the relationship between 30-day point prevalence abstinence and e-cigarette use frequency at follow-up. E-cigarette use was examined in two ways. First, we looked at any use in the past 30days versus no use. Additionally, past 30-day e-cigarette use frequency was categorized into four groups: 0days, 1–5days – infrequent, 6–29days – intermediate, 30days – daily. Logistic regression models were constructed predicting 30-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence. Results Both infrequent (AOR=0.35; CI=0.20–0.59) and intermediate (AOR=0.50; CI=0.32–0.80) past 30-day e-cigarette use were associated with lower rates of tobacco abstinence versus no past 30-day use. However, daily e-cigarette users (AOR=1.16; CI=0.71–1.70) had similar 30-day abstinence when compared to non-users. Conclusions Results from this study of treatment-seekers support findings from studies of general population tobacco users that suggest frequency of e-cigarette use is an important moderating variable in the relationship between e-cigarette use and tobacco cessation. Future studies should employ more refined measures of e-cigarette use.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.023
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Sexual orientation disparities in prescription drug misuse among a
           nationally representative sample of adolescents: Prevalence and correlates
    • Authors: Dennis H. Li; Blair C. Turner; Brian Mustanski; Gregory L. Phillips
      Pages: 143 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Dennis H. Li, Blair C. Turner, Brian Mustanski, Gregory L. Phillips
      Objective Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) may be at disproportionate risk for misusing prescription psychotropic medications compared to their heterosexual peers. However, generalizable studies specific to this age group are lacking. The current study aimed to describe the prevalence of sexual orientation disparities in prescription drug misuse among a nationally representative sample of adolescents as well as to examine key correlates of misuse. Method Using data from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, we conducted stepwise multivariable weighted logistic regressions, sequentially controlling for demographics, experiences of victimization, mental health, and other illicit substance use. Results Adjusting for grade and race/ethnicity, female SMA and gay and unsure males had significantly elevated odds of ever misusing a prescription drug compared to heterosexual adolescents (ORs from 1.7–2.5). Most sexual orientation disparities among females remained significant with the addition of victimization and mental health covariates but attenuated completely after controlling for other illicit drug use. The effect for unsure males attenuated when victimization variables were included, but the effect for gay males remained significant through the final model. Controlling for other illicit drug use, mental health variables remained significant correlates for females whereas only forced sex was significant for males. Conclusion These results suggest experiences of victimization and mental health partially account for the disparities in prescription drug misuse between SMA and heterosexual adolescents, and their effects may differ by sex. A combination of structural, individual coping, and universal drug prevention approaches should be used to make the largest impact on reducing these disparities.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.021
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Predictors of short-term change after a brief alcohol intervention for
           mandated college drinkers
    • Authors: Kate B. Carey; Jennifer E. Merrill; Jennifer L. Walsh; Sarah A. Lust; Seth C. Kalichman; Michael P. Carey
      Pages: 152 - 159
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Kate B. Carey, Jennifer E. Merrill, Jennifer L. Walsh, Sarah A. Lust, Seth C. Kalichman, Michael P. Carey
      Objective Brief motivational interventions (BMIs) reduce problematic drinking for some, but not all, college students. Identifying those students who are less responsive can help to guide intervention refinement. Therefore, we examined demographic, personality, and cognitive factors hypothesized to influence change after a BMI. Method Students mandated for intervention following a campus alcohol violation (N =568; 28% female, 38% freshmen) completed a baseline assessment, then received a BMI, and then completed a 1-month follow-up. At both assessments, alcohol use (i.e., drinks per week, typical BAC, binge frequency) and alcohol-related problems were measured. Results Latent change score analyses revealed significant decrease in both alcohol use and problems 1month after the BMI. In the final model that predicted change in alcohol use, four factors (male sex, a “fun seeking” disposition, more perceived costs and fewer perceived benefits of change) predicted smaller decreases in alcohol use over time. In the final model that predicted change in alcohol-related problems, three factors (stronger beliefs about the centrality of alcohol to college life, more perceived costs and fewer perceived benefits of change) predicted smaller decreases in problems over time. Conclusions Participation in a BMI reduced alcohol use and problems among mandated college students at 1-month follow-up. We identified predictors of these outcomes, which suggest the need to tailor the BMI to improve its efficacy among males and those students expressing motives (pro and cons, and fun seeking) and beliefs about the centrality of drinking in college.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.019
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Adolescent substance use: Latent class and transition analysis
    • Authors: Hye Jeong Choi; Yu Lu; Marya Schulte; Jeff R. Temple
      Pages: 160 - 165
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Hye Jeong Choi, Yu Lu, Marya Schulte, Jeff R. Temple
      Background The prevention and intervention of adolescent substance use is a public health priority. Most adolescents will engage in some form of substance use, and a sizeable minority will transition to using multiple substances. An emerging body of research takes a person-centered approach to model adolescent substance use over time; however, the findings have been equivocal. Our study modeled adolescent substance use transition patterns over three years based on a comprehensive list of substances and examined gender as a moderator. Methods We used three annual waves of data (Time 2, Time 3, and Time 4) from an ongoing longitudinal study of an ethnically diverse sample of 1042 adolescents originally recruited from multiple high schools in southeast Texas. Participants were 56% female, 32% Hispanics, 30% Whites, 29% African Americans, and 9% other with an average of 16.1years (SD=0.79) at Time 2. Data were analyzed using latent transition analyses. Results The study identified three substance use statuses (Mild Alcohol Use, Alcohol and Moderate Marijuana Use, and Polysubstance Use) and suggested that adolescents generally remained in the same statuses over time. When they did transition, it was typically to a more harmful substance use status. Further, males were more likely than females to be polysubstance users and had higher probabilities of transiting to and remaining in a more harmful drug use status. Conclusions The study identifies overall and gender specific adolescent substance use transition patterns, which are vital to informing intervention development.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.09.022
      Issue No: Vol. 77 (2017)
  • Trajectories of risk behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood: The
           role of race and ethnicity
    • Authors: Eunhee Park; Thomas P. McCoy; Jennifer Toller Erausquin; Robin Bartlett
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Eunhee Park, Thomas P. McCoy, Jennifer Toller Erausquin, Robin Bartlett
      Introduction Despite important advances of longitudinal research in substance use behaviors, most studies stratify analyses by gender or race, which limits the ability to directly compare the likelihood of a particular developmental pathway across demographic groups. Thus, there is critical need for well-designed research to examine the associations of race/ethnicity with developmental trajectories of substance use behaviors across adolescence through adulthood. Methods Using an accelerated longitudinal design, we examined behaviors across ages 12–31 from Waves I–IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We performed growth mixture modeling, resulting in estimated trajectories over time. Next, we assessed the association between race/ethnicity and trajectory membership using multinomial logistic regression. Results Five trajectories resulted for marijuana use, four for cigarette smoking, three for smokeless tobacco use and number of days drunk, and two trajectories for heavy episodic drinking. Controlling for gender and family socioeconomic status, African Americans and Hispanics were less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to use cigarettes or smokeless tobacco early or to use alcohol heavily. Conclusions Substance use behavior development follows different pathways for US adolescents and young adults, with some individuals experimenting earlier in adolescence and others beginning to use later in adolescence or in early adulthood. We extend developmental knowledge about these behaviors by demonstrating that the patterns of behavior vary by race/ethnicity; members of lower-risk trajectories (those involving later or no initiation of substance use) are more likely to be African American or Hispanic than to be non-Hispanic White.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T12:05:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.014
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Frequency and correlates of sleep disturbance in methadone and
           buprenorphine-maintained patients
    • Authors: Kelly E. Dunn; Patrick H. Finan; D. Andrew Tompkins; Eric C. Strain
      Pages: 8 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Kelly E. Dunn, Patrick H. Finan, D. Andrew Tompkins, Eric C. Strain
      Background Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a significant public health problem, and opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) on methadone or buprenorphine is a common approach. This study characterized sleep impairment in patients maintained on methadone or buprenorphine, and evaluated its association with psychiatric and medical comorbidities. Methods Participants (N=185) maintained on methadone (N=125) or buprenorphine (N=60) for OUD completed the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS) to provide a point-prevalence assessment of sleep impairment. Measures of lifetime problems and current functioning were also examined and compared as both a function of OMT and level of sleep impairment. Results Participants reported high levels of sleep impairment on the MOS, including not getting the amount of sleep they needed (42.9%), not sleeping enough to feel rested (39.6%) and trouble falling asleep (23.3%) or falling back asleep after waking (25.8%). Few differences were observed between OMT groups, and psychiatric dysfunction emerged as the most robust predictor of sleep impairment ratings. Patients with sleep impairment, independent of OMT medications, also reported current opioid withdrawal, psychiatric impairment, negative affect, and pain. Conclusions Results demonstrate substantial and clinically-significant impairments in sleep that are associated with a variety of current problems that could impact OMT outcomes and decrease quality of life. Outcomes support the development of methods to improve sleep in OMT patients, and to examine the degree to which sleep improvements may be associated with improvements in mood and other health-related measures.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T12:05:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.016
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Injection drug use and overdose among young adults who use prescription
           opioids non-medically
    • Authors: Elliott J. Liebling; Traci C. Green; Scott E. Hadland; Brandon D.L. Marshall
      Pages: 20 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Elliott J. Liebling, Traci C. Green, Scott E. Hadland, Brandon D.L. Marshall
      Introduction Non-medical prescription opioid (NMPO) use is a critical public health problem in the United States, with 2.1 million new initiates annually. Young adult NMPO users are at high risk for initiating injection drug use. We assessed correlates of injection drug use among young adult NMPO users in Rhode Island, a state heavily impacted by opioid overdose. Methods We used data from the Rhode Island Young Adult Prescription Drug Study (RAPiDS), which recruited 199 residents aged 18–29 who reported past-30-day NMPO use (65.3% male). We compared individuals who reported ever having injected with individuals who reported never injecting, using logistic regression to identify independent correlates of injection. Results Among eligible participants, the mean age was 24.6years and 61.3% were white. Over one-quarter (n=59, 29.6%) of the sample had ever injected drugs. The majority (n=46, 78.0%) of participants who had ever injected drugs reported injecting heroin as her/his first drug; the majority also reported previously snorting her/his first drug that was injected (n=46, 78.0%). In multivariable analyses, white race, older age, lifetime homelessness, and ever having overdosed or seen someone overdose were independently associated with an increased likelihood of ever injecting drugs. Conclusions These findings demonstrate a high prevalence of lifetime injection drug use among young adults who use prescription opioids non-medically. Given the observed associations between injection drug use and witnessing as well as experiencing overdose, interventions are urgently needed to improve overdose education and naloxone distribution to young adult NMPO users who inject drugs.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T12:05:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.017
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Perceived academic benefit is associated with nonmedical prescription
           stimulant use among college students
    • Authors: Amelia M. Arria; Irene M. Geisner; M. Dolores Cimini; Jason R. Kilmer; Kimberly M. Caldeira; Angelica L. Barrall; Kathryn B. Vincent; Nicole Fossos-Wong; Jih-Cheng Yeh; Isaac Rhew; Christine M. Lee; Geetha A. Subramaniam; David Liu; Mary E. Larimer
      Pages: 27 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Amelia M. Arria, Irene M. Geisner, M. Dolores Cimini, Jason R. Kilmer, Kimberly M. Caldeira, Angelica L. Barrall, Kathryn B. Vincent, Nicole Fossos-Wong, Jih-Cheng Yeh, Isaac Rhew, Christine M. Lee, Geetha A. Subramaniam, David Liu, Mary E. Larimer
      Introduction College students are at higher than average risk for nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NPS). A commonly identified motive among students who engage in NPS is to improve grades. Several research studies have observed that NPS most likely does not confer an academic advantage, and is associated with excessive drinking and other drug use. This study documents the proportion of the general college student population who believe that NPS will lead to improvements in academic performance. Methods This study gathered online survey data from a large, demographically diverse sample of college students to document the prevalence of perceived academic benefit of NPS for improving grades and to examine the association between such belief and NPS. Results Overall, 28.6% agreed or strongly agreed that NPS could help students earn higher grades, and an additional 38.0% were unsure. Students with a higher level of perceived academic benefit of NPS and more frequent patterns of drinking and marijuana use were more likely to engage in NPS, even after adjustment for a wide range of covariates. Conclusions The results underscore the need for interventions that simultaneously correct misperceptions related to academic benefit and target alcohol and marijuana use to reduce NPS.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T12:05:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.013
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Perceived barriers for cannabis cessation: Relations to cannabis use
           problems, withdrawal symptoms, and self-efficacy for quitting
    • Authors: Michael J. Zvolensky; Daniel J. Paulus; Lorra Garey; Kara Manning; Julianna B.D. Hogan; Julia D. Buckner; Andrew H. Rogers; R. Kathryn McHugh
      Pages: 45 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Michael J. Zvolensky, Daniel J. Paulus, Lorra Garey, Kara Manning, Julianna B.D. Hogan, Julia D. Buckner, Andrew H. Rogers, R. Kathryn McHugh
      Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance in the United States. Regular cannabis use appears to be a dynamic, chronic process consisting of multiple quit attempts, periods of reduction, periods of abstinence, and periods of continual use. Cannabis-related processes, including withdrawal, problematic consequences of use, and self-efficacy for quitting each contribute to the cycle of use and, in part, are maintained and reinforced by perceived barriers for cannabis cessation. Yet, no work has examined the association between perceived barriers for cannabis cessation and clinically-relevant processes related to cannabis use. To address this gap, the current study recruited a racially diverse sample (N =145, 63.4% Black or African American) of cannabis users from the community to test the hypothesis that greater perceived barriers for quitting cannabis was related to more cannabis use problems, more cannabis withdrawal symptoms, and lower self-efficacy for quitting cannabis. Structural equation modeling suggested that greater perceived barriers for quitting cannabis was uniquely associated with cannabis use problems (β =0.50, 95%CI [0.39, 0.65], p <0.001), greater withdrawal symptoms (β =0.39, 95%CI [0.30, 0.50], p <0.001), and lower self-efficacy for quitting (β =−0.17, 95%CI [−0.21, −0.02], p =0.028). The results of this study indicate perceived barriers for cannabis cessation may help in better understanding an array of clinically significant cannabis use processes. Indeed, the observed pattern of findings add to current theoretical models of substance use that aim to identify unique risk processes that may maintain substance use and provide valuable information that can be used to inform treatment for cannabis users.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.011
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Positive and negative affect following marijuana use in naturalistic
           settings: An ecological momentary assessment study
    • Authors: Craig S. Ross; Daniel R. Brooks; Ann Aschengrau; Michael B. Siegel; Janice Weinberg; Lydia A. Shrier
      Pages: 61 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Craig S. Ross, Daniel R. Brooks, Ann Aschengrau, Michael B. Siegel, Janice Weinberg, Lydia A. Shrier

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.020
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Effectiveness of continuing nicotine replacement after a lapse: A
           randomized trial
    • Authors: John R. Hughes; Laura J. Solomon; Catherine E. Peasley-Miklus; Peter W. Callas; James R. Fingar
      Pages: 68 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): John R. Hughes, Laura J. Solomon, Catherine E. Peasley-Miklus, Peter W. Callas, James R. Fingar
      Introduction Four post-hoc analyses of prior trials found smokers using nicotine patch following a lapse were less likely to progress to relapse compared to those using a placebo patch following a lapse. We attempted a conceptual replication test of these results via a randomized trial of instructions to continue vs. stop nicotine patch after a lapse. Methods Smokers trying to quit (n =701) received nicotine patch (21/14/7mg) and brief phone counseling (six 15-min sessions). We randomized smokers to receive instructions for and rationale for stopping vs. continuing patch after a lapse. The messages were repeated before and after cessation and following lapses via counseling, phone and written instructions. Results Among those who lapsed, those told to Continue Patch did not have a greater incidence of 7-day abstinence at 4months (primary outcome) than those told to Discontinue Patch (51% vs. 46%). Most (81%) participants in the Discontinue condition stopped patch for only 1–2days and then resumed abstinence and patch use. Analyses based on all participants randomized were similar. Adverse events were as expected and did not differ between conditions. Conclusion Instructions to continue nicotine patch after a lapse did not increase return to abstinence. These negative results may have occurred because actual use of patch after a lapse was similar in the two conditions. Also, allowing patch use while smoking may have reduced motivation to stay abstinent.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.023
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Early alcohol use with parental permission: Psychosocial characteristics
           and drinking in late adolescence
    • Authors: Craig R. Colder; Kathleen Shyhalla; Seth E. Frndak
      Pages: 82 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Craig R. Colder, Kathleen Shyhalla, Seth E. Frndak
      The earliest experiences with alcohol for many children occur in the family context with parental supervision. The current study examined individual and sociocultural characteristics associated with early (prior to age 13years) sipping and tasting alcohol with parental permission in two longitudinal community samples. Early sipping/tasting was also tested as a predictor of frequency and quantity of alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems seven years later in late adolescence. Early sipping/tasting with parental permission was associated with a sociocultural context supportive of alcohol use (e.g., parental alcohol use, permissive rules about alcohol use in the home, parental attitudes about underage drinking, perceived peer norms), adolescent sensation seeking and disinhibition (e.g., surgency, externalizing behavior) and appraisals of alcohol (negative outcome expectancies and negative implicit alcohol associations). Early sipping/tasting predicted increased frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, and increased alcohol-related problems in late adolescence, even after controlling sociocultural and individual difference variables. Findings suggest that early sipping/tasting with parental permission is not benign and is a viable target for preventive interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.030
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Explicit drinking identity and alcohol problems: The mediating role of
           drinking to cope
    • Authors: Angelo M. DiBello; Mary Beth Miller; Chelsie M. Young; Clayton Neighbors; Kristen P. Lindgren
      Pages: 88 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Angelo M. DiBello, Mary Beth Miller, Chelsie M. Young, Clayton Neighbors, Kristen P. Lindgren
      Drinking identity, or the tendency to view one's self as a drinker, is a unique predictor of alcohol use and related consequences among young adults; yet the mechanism by which it leads to alcohol problems is poorly understood. Based on self-presentation and self-verification perspectives, we examined drinking to cope as a mediator of the association between explicit drinking identity and alcohol-related problems among two samples of young adults. Study data come from two large, longitudinal studies. Participants from Sample 1 and Sample 2 included undergraduates (55% and 59% female, respectively) who reported drinking in the previous three months. Tests of the indirect effects indicated that 3-month drinking to cope significantly mediated the positive association between baseline drinking identity and 6-month alcohol-related problems in both samples. In contrast, 3-month drinking identity did not mediate the association between baseline drinking to cope and 6-month alcohol-related problems. Findings indicate that individuals with a stronger drinking identity are more likely to use alcohol to cope and, subsequently, experience more problems. Thus, drinking identity may be an important intervention target for college students as it appears to temporally proceed drinking to cope in the prediction of alcohol-related problems.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.031
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Evaluating the utility of subjective effects measures for predicting
           product sampling, enrollment, and retention in a clinical trial of a
           smokeless tobacco product
    • Authors: Richard J. O'Connor; Bruce R. Lindgren; Liane M. Schneller; Peter G. Shields; Dorothy K. Hatsukami
      Pages: 95 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Richard J. O'Connor, Bruce R. Lindgren, Liane M. Schneller, Peter G. Shields, Dorothy K. Hatsukami
      Introduction Subjective effects of drugs, representing pharmacological and non-pharmacological effects, have been shown to be associated with future use and abuse. This also is the case for tobacco products and so measuring subjective effects, such as liking, satisfaction, and aversion, is crucial to gaining an understanding of consumer perception leading to increased use. This study examined the predictive validity of subjective drug and product effects with respect to product adoption. Methods Smokers (N=151) were enrolled in Minneapolis, Columbus, and Buffalo. Participants were shown two snus products (Camel Snus Winterchill and Robust), asked to try each of the products for 5min and to rate them using the Product Evaluation Scale (PES) and Drug Effects Questionnaire (DEQ). This was followed by a one-week use period of their preferred product and those who used at least 1 unit of Camel Snus per day (or at least 7 pouches total) were eligible to enroll in the Clinical Trial Phase assessing the impact of complete switching or dual use with smoking. Key outcomes for this study were product evaluation, extent of product use, and Clinical Trial enrollment. Results We noted no relationships between participant characteristics such as gender, age, prior smokeless use, baseline cigarettes per day (CPD), or PES and DEQ scores with any of these outcome variables. Subjective effects were weak predictors of product use, which totaled approximately 3units of snus per day. Conclusions Regardless of product, it appears that PES and DEQ ratings were uniformly poor predictors of trial enrollment and retention, though they do predict the amount of snus used during the sampling phase. Findings indicate that while subjective effects predict product preference in the short-term, they did not consistently predict extent of use or enrollment in the trial, suggesting that these initial measures have limited implications for long-term behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.025
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Predicting risky sexual behaviors among college student drinkers as a
           function of event-level drinking motives and alcohol use
    • Authors: Tess M. Kilwein; Alison Looby
      Pages: 100 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Tess M. Kilwein, Alison Looby
      Background Risky sexual behaviors (e.g., sex without protection against pregnancy or sexually transmitted infections, sexual coercion, sex with unknown partners) are common among college students. To effectively decrease these behaviors, it is necessary to further understand factors associated with their occurrence. Drinking motives are a known predictor of both alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences, which may theoretically include risky sex. This study aimed to understand how drinking motivation interacts with alcohol use to predict risky sexual behaviors among college student drinkers. Methods One-hundred and eight primarily female (83.3%) college students (age: M =19.09, SD =1.16) who endorsed past-month alcohol use and lifetime history of sexual activity completed up to four weekly Internet surveys assessing daily quantity of alcohol use, drinking motives (i.e., social, enhancement, coping, conformity), and engagement in risky sexual behavior. From 403 reported drinking episodes, four Generalized Estimating Equations were used to predict risky sex from person-centered drinking quantity and drinking motives. Results Strong social motives significantly increased the odds of engaging in risky sexual behaviors (p =0.004). Additionally, there was a significant interaction, such that the relationship between risky sex and drinking depends on enhancement motives (p =0.021). Conclusions Interventions targeting social and enhancement motives for drinking may be particularly effective in reducing the occurrence of risky sexual behaviors among college students, which may result in a reduction of the negative physical and psychological health outcomes accompanying these behaviors.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.032
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Then and now: Consumption and dependence in e-cigarette users who formerly
           smoked cigarettes
    • Authors: Matthew Browne; Daniel G. Todd
      Pages: 113 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Matthew Browne, Daniel G. Todd
      Electronic cigarette use, or vaping, continues to be a focus for regulators and policy makers in public health, particularly since it can compete with or be a substitute for smoking. This study investigated characteristics of nicotine dependence and consumption in a sample of vapers who formerly smoked cigarettes. We recruited 436 (80% male) vapers from several internet discussion forums; 95% of whom previously smoked, but ceased after commencing vaping. These participants completed a retrospective version of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND-R), as well as a version modified to suit current vaping (FTND-V), along with measures of consumption. Nicotine dependence appears to reduce markedly when smokers transition to vaping. However, ‘decoupling’ is observed in the relationship between consumption and dependence in vaping, and the FTND-V showed inadequate psychometric properties. Older and female vapers tend to employ a low-power, higher nicotine-concentration style of vaping. Overall, nicotine concentration tended to increase over time, although this effect was moderated by users' intentions to reduce their intake. Indicators of smoking addiction do not appear to be applicable to vaping, with respect to both internal consistency and relationship to consumption. This suggests that motivations for vaping are less dominated by nicotine delivery (negative reinforcement), and may be driven more by positive reinforcement factors. Nevertheless, e-liquid nicotine concentration was associated, albeit weakly, with dependence among e-cigarette users. Finally, vapers are heterogeneous group with respect to style of consumption, with a high-power/lower nicotine set-up more common among younger men.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:28:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.034
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Goal commitment predicts treatment outcome for adolescents with alcohol
           use disorder
    • Authors: Yifrah Kaminer; Christine McCauley Ohannessian; James R. McKay; Rebecca H. Burke; Kaitlin Flannery
      Pages: 122 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Yifrah Kaminer, Christine McCauley Ohannessian, James R. McKay, Rebecca H. Burke, Kaitlin Flannery
      Objective Commitment to change is an innovative potential mediator and mechanism of behavior change (MOBC) that has not been examined in adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD). The Adolescent Substance Abuse Goal Commitment (ASAGC) questionnaire is a reliable and valid 2-scale measure developed to assess the adolescent's commitment to either abstinence or harm reduction (HR) that includes consumption reduction as a stated treatment goal. The objective of this study was to examine the ASAGC's ability to predict alcohol use treatment outcome. Method During sessions three and nine of a 10-week treatment program, therapists completed the ASAGC for 170 adolescents 13–18years of age with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Drinking behaviors were assessed during and after a continued-care phase until 12-month from study onset. Results Analysis of Variance results indicated that adolescents who reported no alcohol use had significantly higher scores on the commitment to abstinence scale than adolescents who reported alcohol use. None of the ANOVA models were significant for commitment to HR. When treatment outcome was examined, commitment to abstinence consistently predicted number of drinking days, number of heavy drinking days, and the maximum number of drinks post-treatment. In contrast, commitment to HR did not predict any of the drinking outcomes. These results suggest that the more adolescents were committed to abstinence during treatment, the less they used and abused alcohol after treatment completion. Conclusions In addition to the ASAGC's ability to differentiate between commitment to abstinence and commitment to HR, study findings demonstrate that goal commitment consistently predicts AUD treatment outcome.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T18:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.035
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Utility of the comprehensive marijuana motives questionnaire among medical
           cannabis patients
    • Authors: Kipling M. Bohnert; Erin E. Bonar; J. Todd Arnedt; Deirdre A. Conroy; Maureen A. Walton; Mark A. Ilgen
      Pages: 139 - 144
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Kipling M. Bohnert, Erin E. Bonar, J. Todd Arnedt, Deirdre A. Conroy, Maureen A. Walton, Mark A. Ilgen
      Background Little is known about motives for cannabis use among the population of adults using cannabis medically. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of the 12 factor, 36-item Comprehensive Marijuana Motives Questionnaire (CMMQ) among a sample of medical cannabis patients. Methods Study participants were adults ages 21years or older with scheduled appointments to obtain new or renewed medical cannabis certification from clinics in one Midwestern state (n =1116). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate properties of the CMMQ. Multiple regressions were used to estimate associations between motives and cannabis use, physical health functioning, and mental health functioning. Results Fit indices were acceptable, and factor loadings ranged from 0.57 to 0.94. Based on regression analyses, motives accounted for 7% of the variance in recent cannabis use, and independent of cannabis use, accounted for 5% and 19% of physical and mental health functioning, respectively. Regression analyses also revealed that distinct motives were associated with cannabis use and physical and mental health functioning. Conclusions Among adults seeking medical cannabis certification, the factor structure of the CMMQ was supported, and consistent with prior studies of adolescents and young adults using cannabis recreationally. Thus, individuals who use cannabis medically may have diverse reasons for use that extend beyond the management of medical symptoms. In addition, coping and sleep-related motives may be particularly salient for this population. Findings support the utility of the CMMQ in future research on medical cannabis use; however, expansion of the scale may be needed to address medical motives for use.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T18:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Neurostimulation techniques in the treatment of cocaine dependence: A
           review of the literature
    • Authors: Fady Rachid
      Pages: 145 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Fady Rachid
      Objective Cocaine use disorder is a very common condition that represents a substantial public health problem, and no effective pharmacological or psychological therapies have been identified to date. Urgent therapeutic alternatives are therefore needed such as neurostimulation techniques. The purpose of this review is to describe and discuss studies that have evaluated the safety and efficacy of these techniques for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Methods The electronic literature on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, theta-burst stimulation, deep transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, cranial electro-stimulation, and deep brain stimulation in the treatment of cocaine addiction were reviewed. Results Most of these studies which are few in numbers and with limited sample sizes found that some of these neurostimulation techniques, particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation, and transcranial direct current stimulation are safe and potentially effective in the reduction of craving to cocaine. Although deep brain stimulation showed some good results in one patient, no conclusion can be drawn so far concerning the efficacy and safety of this approach. Conclusion Given the somewhat promising results of some of the studies, future controlled studies with larger samples, and optimal stimulus parameters should be designed to confirm the short- and long-term safety and efficacy of neurostimulation techniques to treat cocaine addiction.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T18:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Caffeine's influence on gambling behavior and other types of impulsivity
    • Authors: Jon E. Grant; Samuel R. Chamberlain
      Pages: 156 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Jon E. Grant, Samuel R. Chamberlain
      Background Young adulthood is a developmental period frequently associated with occurrence of impulsive behaviors including gambling. It is estimated that 73% of children and 87% of adults in the United States regularly use caffeine. Questions remain, however, concerning the role of caffeine in the development and maintenance of impulsive behaviors such as gambling. Methods Sixty-one young adults with at least some degree of disordered gambling were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements. Caffeine intake over the preceding month was quantified using the Caffeine Use Questionnaire. Clinician rating scales, questionnaires, and cognitive tests germane to impulsivity were completed. Relationships between caffeine intake and demographic, gambling symptom, and neurocognitive measures were evaluated using the statistical technique of partial least squares (PLS). Results Average weekly caffeine intake in the gamblers was 1218.5mg (a figure higher than previously reported in the general population). PLS yielded an optimal model with one latent factor, which explained 14.8% of variation in demographic/clinical/cognitive measures and 32.3% of variation in caffeine intake. In this model, higher caffeine intake was significantly associated with earlier age at first gambling, higher personality-related impulsiveness, more nicotine consumption, older age, and more impulsive decision-making. Conclusions These data suggest a particularly strong relationship between caffeine intake, earlier age of first gambling, and certain types of impulsivity in gamblers. Providing education about healthy caffeine use may be especially valuable in gamblers. Future work should explore whether the relationship between caffeine use and gambling is due to a common predisposing factor (impulsive tendencies) or, rather, constitutes a form of self-medication in gamblers (or a means of sustaining gambling habits for longer).

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T18:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Depression and marijuana use disorder symptoms among current marijuana
    • Authors: Lisa Dierker; Arielle Selya; Stephanie Lanza; Runze Li; Jennifer Rose
      Pages: 161 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Lisa Dierker, Arielle Selya, Stephanie Lanza, Runze Li, Jennifer Rose
      Background Depression is one of the most consistent risk factors implicated in both the course of escalating substance use behaviors and in the development of substance dependence symptoms, including those associated with marijuana use. In the present study, we evaluate if depression is associated with marijuana use disorder symptoms across the continuum of marijuana use frequency. Methods Data were drawn from six annual surveys of the National Survey of Drug Use and Health to include adults who reported using marijuana at least once in the past 30days (N=28,557). Results After statistical control for sociodemographic characteristics and substance use behaviors including marijuana use, alcohol use, smoking, and use of illicit substances other than marijuana, depression was positively and significantly associated with each of the marijuana use disorder symptoms as well as the symptom total score. Adult marijuana users with depression were consistently more likely to experience marijuana use disorder symptoms and a larger number of symptoms, with the magnitude and direction of the relationship generally consistent across all levels of marijuana use frequency from 1day used in the past month to daily marijuana use. Conclusions Depression is a consistent risk factor for marijuana use disorder symptoms over and above exposure to marijuana suggesting that depressed individuals may represent an important subgroup in need of targeted substance use intervention.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T18:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.013
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Ethanol-induced autonomic responses and risk taking increase in young
           adults with a positive family history of alcohol problems
    • Authors: Florencia Caneto; Ricardo Marcos Pautassi; Angelina Pilatti
      Pages: 174 - 181
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Florencia Caneto, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi, Angelina Pilatti
      The mechanisms that underlie the greater prevalence of alcohol use disorders in individuals with a positive family history (FH+) of alcohol abuse are still under investigation. These subjects may exhibit differential sensitivity to alcohol's effects on psychomotor stimulation and impulsivity. Alcohol-induced psychomotor stimulation, measured as the heart rate (HR) response, is a proxy for the positive rewarding effects of the drug. We analyzed alcohol-induced effects on time perception (Time Production Task), risk taking (Balloon Analogue Risk Task [BART]), and HR in FH+ and FH− participants. In the FH+ and FH− groups, women and men received 0.6 and 0.7g/kg alcohol, respectively. The alcohol dose yielded a breath alcohol concentration of 0.08% throughout the experiment. The control groups received placebo, and the subjective perception of alcohol intoxication was assessed. Alcohol intoxication significantly increased HR and the adjusted average number of pumps on the BART (a measure of risk taking) in FH+ men and women but not in FH− participants. Behavioral impulsivity was unaffected by alcohol or a FH of alcohol abuse. FH− but not FH+ participants who received alcohol reported significantly greater subjective perception of alcohol's effects than their placebo counterparts. These results indicate that FH+ individuals presented heightened sensitivity to alcohol-induced HR stimulation and alcohol-induced risk taking compared with their FH− counterparts. FH+ subjects, however, were insensitive to the subjective effects of alcohol. This idiosyncratic response pattern may be a likely pathway by which a FH of alcohol problems promotes alcohol drinking.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T04:44:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.008
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Drinking to cope with depression mediates the relationship between social
           avoidance and alcohol problems: A 3-wave, 18-month longitudinal study
    • Authors: Jamie-Lee Collins; Kara Thompson; Simon B. Sherry; Maria Glowacka; Sherry H. Stewart
      Pages: 182 - 187
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Jamie-Lee Collins, Kara Thompson, Simon B. Sherry, Maria Glowacka, Sherry H. Stewart
      Undergraduates with high social anxiety have increased alcohol problems, despite lower or equivalent alcohol use levels. Drinking motives mediate the cross-sectional relationship between social anxiety and alcohol problems, with coping and conformity motives being the most commonly observed mediators. Our study extended prior research by using a longitudinal design, examining coping with anxiety motives (CAM) and coping with depression motives (CDM) separately using path analysis, simultaneously considering a variety of drinking motives in the model, and focusing on a particularly severe form of social anxiety – namely, social avoidance. We collected data from 219 undergraduates (72.6% women, mean age of 20.59years) over three waves spaced six months apart. Results indicated CDM mediated the prospective relationship between social avoidance and alcohol problems. Findings suggest socially avoidant students' escalations in CDM explain their increased alcohol problems over time. Future research should examine involvement of depression and social isolation in contributing to this pathway to alcohol problems.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T04:44:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.020
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • PTSD symptom presentation among people with alcohol and drug use
           disorders: Comparisons by substance of abuse
    • Authors: Emily R. Dworkin; Sonya Wanklyn; Paul R. Stasiewicz; Scott F. Coffey
      Pages: 188 - 194
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): Emily R. Dworkin, Sonya Wanklyn, Paul R. Stasiewicz, Scott F. Coffey
      Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) commonly co-occur, and there is some evidence to suggest that PTSD symptom clusters are differentially related to various substances of abuse. However, few studies to date have compared PTSD symptom patterns across people with different types of SUDs, and fewer still have accounted for the presence of comorbidity across types of SUDs in understanding symptom patterns. Thus, in the current study, we use a treatment-seeking sample of people with elevated symptoms of PTSD and problem alcohol use to explore differential associations between past-year SUDs with active use and PTSD symptoms, while accounting for the presence of multiple SUDs. When comparing alcohol and drug use disorders, avoidance symptoms were elevated in those with alcohol use disorder, and hyperarousal symptoms were elevated in those who had a drug use disorder. In the subsample with alcohol use disorder, hyperarousal symptoms were elevated in people with co-occurring cocaine use disorders and numbing symptoms were elevated in people with co-occurring sedative/hypnotic/anxiolytic use disorder. These findings provide evidence for different symptom cluster patterns between PTSD and various types of SUDs and highlight the importance of examining the functional relationship between specific substances of abuse when understanding the interplay between PTSD and SUDs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T04:44:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.08.019
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Communicating accurate and complete information
    • Authors: David T. Levy
      Pages: 386 - 387
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 76
      Author(s): David T. Levy

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T17:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.01.031
      Issue No: Vol. 76 (2017)
  • Rethinking indicators of problematic cannabis use in the era of medical
           cannabis legalization
    • Authors: Sharon Sznitman; Robin Room
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Sharon R. Sznitman, Robin Room
      Introduction Recent rapid changes in medical cannabis policies and increases in medical use of cannabis have raised new research questions related to potential effects of medical cannabis legalization on cannabis use problems. In order to investigate such effects there is a need for screening tools that are sensitive to the fact that people may be using for medical and/or recreational purposes. This article critically assesses whether screening tools designed to measure cannabis use problems in recreational users are meaningful as measures of problems resulting from medical use. Results and conclusions It is possible that existing cannabis problem screening tools are not equally valid across medical and recreational users, since individual screening items have different implications for recreational and medical users. For instance, items that measure use that deviates from common patterns of recreational use (use before midday and use alone) reflect normative assumptions that non-problematic recreational use will occur in contexts of parties or social gatherings. However, use before midday and alone are how people typically take medication for chronic medical health problems. There is thus a need to develop and validate criteria for problematic use in medical cannabis patients.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T21:11:01Z
  • Emerging role for the medial prefrontal cortex in alcohol-seeking
    • Authors: Paul Klenowski
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Paul M. Klenowski
      The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays an important role in high-order executive processes and sends highly organized projections to sub-cortical regions controlling mood, motivation and impulsivity. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated alcohol-induced effects on the activity and composition of the PFC which are implicated in associative learning processes and may disrupt executive control over impulsivity, leading to an inability to self-limit alcohol intake. Animal studies have begun to dissect the role of the mPFC circuitry in alcohol-seeking behavior and withdrawal, and have identified a key role for projections to sub-cortical sites including the extended amygdala and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Importantly, these studies have highlighted that alcohol can have contrasting effects on the mPFC compared to other addictive substances and also produce differential effects on the structure and activity of the mPFC following short-term versus long-term consumption. Because of these differences, how the mPFC influences the initial aspects of alcohol-seeking behavior and how we can better understand the long-term effects of alcohol use on the activity and connectivity of the mPFC need to be considered. Given the lack of preclinical data from long-term drinking models, an increased focus should be directed towards identifying how long-term alcohol use changes the mPFC, in order to provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the transition to dependence.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T21:11:01Z
  • Efficacy and outcomes of a mobile app targeting alcohol use in young
    • Authors: Leanne Hides; Catherine Quinn Wendell Cockshaw Stoyan Stoyanov Oksana Zelenko
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Leanne Hides, Catherine Quinn, Wendell Cockshaw, Stoyan Stoyanov, Oksana Zelenko, Daniel Johnson, Dian Tjondronegoro, Lake-Hui Quek, David J. Kavanagh
      Mobile apps provide a highly accessible way of reducing alcohol use in young people. This paper determines the 1-month efficacy and 2, 3 and 6month outcomes of the Ray's Night Out app, which aims to increase alcohol knowledge and reduce alcohol use in young people. User-experience design and agile development processes, informed by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model and evidence-based motivational interviewing treatment approaches guided app development. A randomized controlled trial comparing immediate versus 1-month delayed access to the app was conducted in 197 young people (16 to 25years) who drank alcohol in the previous month. Participants were assessed at baseline, 1, 2, 3 and 6months. Alcohol knowledge, alcohol use and related harms and the severity of problematic drinking were assessed. App quality was evaluated after 1-month of app use. Participants in the immediate access group achieved a significantly greater increase in alcohol knowledge than the delayed access group at 1-month, but no differences in alcohol use or related problems were found. Both groups achieved significant reductions in the typical number of drinks on a drinking occasion over time. A reduction in maximum drinks consumed was also found at 1month. These reductions were most likely to occur in males and problem drinkers. Reductions in alcohol-related harm were also found. The app received a high mean quality (M =3.82/5, SD=0.51). The Ray app provides a youth-friendly and easily-accessible way of increasing young people's alcohol knowledge but further testing is required to determine its impact on alcohol use and related problems.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T21:11:01Z
  • Simultaneous alcohol &amp; tobacco use expectancies in young adult
    • Authors: Ryan Trim; Neal Doran
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 77
      Author(s): Ryan S. Trim, Neal Doran

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T21:11:01Z
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