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Showing 1 - 200 of 3030 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 79, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
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Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 304, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 390, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Addictive Behaviors
  [SJR: 1.514]   [H-I: 92]   [15 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0306-4603
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3030 journals]
  • Place over traits? Purchasing edibles from medical marijuana
           dispensaries in Los Angeles, CA
    • Authors: Nancy Jo Kepple; Bridget Freisthler
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Nancy Jo Kepple, Bridget Freisthler
      Objectives To examine discrete purchasing behaviors of marijuana-infused edibles from medical marijuana dispensaries with the aim to identify potential venue- and individual-level targets for prevention. Methods Two-stage, venue-based sampling approach was used to randomly select patrons exiting 16 medical marijuana dispensaries in Los Angeles, California during Spring 2013. Hierarchical generalized linear modeling was used to examine the likelihood of purchasing edibles among 524 patrons reporting a discrete purchase regressed on characteristics of the sampled dispensaries and their patrons. Results At a venue level, patrons were more likely to purchase edibles from dispensaries located within Census tracts with higher median incomes or in close proximity to a higher number of dispensaries. At an individual level, patrons who identified as Black or Hispanic were associated with a lower likelihood of purchasing edibles when compared to patrons who identified as other non-White, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity. Conclusions Place-based policies focused on regulating edible sales through dispensaries may be fruitful in influencing access to edibles. Additionally, social marketing campaigns may benefit from targeting both locations where edible purchases are more likely and populations who are more likely to purchase edibles.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T00:41:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Cannabis and cue-induced craving in cocaine-dependent individuals: A pilot
    • Authors: K. Giasson-Gariépy; S. Potvin; M. Ghabrash; J. Bruneau; D. Jutras-Aswad
      Pages: 4 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): K. Giasson-Gariépy, S. Potvin, M. Ghabrash, J. Bruneau, D. Jutras-Aswad
      Background Cannabis consumption is common among cocaine users; however, little is known about its effect on cocaine craving. The objective of this study was to assess whether cannabis co-use is associated with lower cue-induced cocaine craving in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals. Methods Data from twenty-eight cocaine-dependent men were analyzed in this pilot study. Cocaine-dependent subjects (n =12) were compared with cocaine-dependent subjects who also abused or were dependent on cannabis (n =16). After at least 72h of cocaine abstinence, verified using the Timeline Followback and a drug screening test, subjects participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging session during which neutral and drug cue video sequences were presented. Each sequence comprised four video blocks alternating with resting blocks. We report here subjective craving measures that were collected using the Visual Analog Scale, administered before and after each video block as per standard craving measurement paradigms. Results Cocaine craving was successfully induced, with no significant difference in cue-induced craving between the two groups. However, post-hoc analyses revealed a significant increase in pre-video cocaine craving scores over time among individuals with cannabis use disorders. Conclusion We could not highlight significant differences in cocaine craving induction between groups, but we observed a possible deficit in craving decay in the cocaine and cannabis group. In light of this finding, methodology of craving assessment in non-treatment-seeking users, particularly when different substances are combined, should possibly include outcomes linked to craving decay. Studies examining the association between cocaine craving decay and other outcome measures, such as relapse, are also warranted.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T00:59:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.025
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Cigarette dependence and depressive symptoms as predictors of smoking
    • Authors: Gemma Nieva; Marina Comín; Sergi Valero; Eugeni Bruguera
      Pages: 9 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Gemma Nieva, Marina Comín, Sergi Valero, Eugeni Bruguera
      Workplace smoking cessation interventions increase quit rates compared to no treatment or minimal interventions. However, most studies report data up to one year. This study aims to evaluate long-term effects of a worksite smoking cessation intervention based on cognitive behavioral cessation groups combined with first-line medications, and determine to what extent cigarette dependence (FTCD) and depressive symptoms may influence results at five-year follow-up. Participants were invited to answer a short survey five years after starting the program. A total of 90.4% (n=227) of those who had attended at least one treatment session and were alive, completed the survey. At the five-year follow-up, 29.5% participants reported continuous abstinence. Low scores in the FTCD and low depressive symptoms at baseline predicted continuous abstinence. Three out of four continuous abstainers at twelve months remained abstinent at the five-year follow-up. The study shows that workplace smoking cessation interventions have long-term effects and supports the traditional one-year follow-up period to assess smoking cessation.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T00:59:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • Trait mindfulness and protective strategies for alcohol use: Implications
           for college student drinking
    • Authors: Emma I. Brett; Thad R. Leffingwell; Eleanor L. Leavens
      Pages: 16 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Emma I. Brett, Thad R. Leffingwell, Eleanor L. Leavens
      Introduction The use of Protective Behavioral Strategies (PBS) has been strongly linked with decreased experience of alcohol-related consequences, making them a potential target for intervention. Additionally, mindfulness is associated with decreased experience of alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a model of PBS as a mediator of the effect of mindfulness on alcohol-related consequences. Additionally, mindfulness as a moderator of the relationship between PBS and alcohol use and consequences was examined. Methods College students (N=239) at a large South Central university completed self-report measures of demographics, alcohol use and consequences, use of PBS, and trait mindfulness. Results Results indicated that both higher levels of mindfulness and using more PBS predicted decreased alcohol-related consequences and consumption, with PBS mediating both relationships (p <0.01). Those with higher levels of mindfulness were more likely to use PBS, with individuals using more PBS experiencing fewer alcohol-related consequences and consuming fewer drinks per week. Mindfulness moderated the relationship between PBS and consequences, with a significantly stronger negative relationship for those with lower levels of mindfulness. Conclusions Individuals who are higher in trait mindfulness are more likely to use PBS, which leads to a decrease in the experience of alcohol-related consequences. Furthermore, for individuals lower in mindfulness, low PBS use may lead to increased experience of alcohol consequences. Interventions that incorporate PBS may be most beneficial for students who are low in mindfulness and unlikely to engage in drinking control strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T00:59:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • The role of negative affect and message credibility in perceived
           effectiveness of smokeless tobacco health warning labels in Navi Mumbai,
           India and Dhaka, Bangladesh: A moderated-mediation analysis
    • Authors: Seema Mutti-Packer; Jessica L. Reid; James F. Thrasher; Daniel Romer; Geoffrey T. Fong; Prakash C. Gupta; Mangesh S. Pednekar; Nigar Nargis; David Hammond
      Pages: 22 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 73
      Author(s): Seema Mutti-Packer, Jessica L. Reid, James F. Thrasher, Daniel Romer, Geoffrey T. Fong, Prakash C. Gupta, Mangesh S. Pednekar, Nigar Nargis, David Hammond
      Objective There is strong evidence showing that pictorial health warnings are more effective than text-only warnings. However, much of this evidence comes from high-income countries and is limited to cigarette packaging. Moreover, few studies have identified mechanisms that might explain the impact of warnings. Methods The current study examined the potential mediating role of negative affect and the moderating influence of message credibility in perceived effectiveness of smokeless tobacco warnings in two low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Field interviews were conducted in India and Bangladesh, with adult (19+ years) smokeless tobacco users (n =1053), and youth (16–18years) users (n =304) and non-users (n =687). Respondents were randomly assigned to view warnings in one of four conditions: (1) Text-only, (2) pictorial with symbolic imagery, (3) pictorial with graphic images of health effects, or (4) pictorial with personalized graphic images plus a personal testimonial. Results The findings provide support for the mediating influence of negative affect in perceived effectiveness, for adult and youth smokeless tobacco users who viewed pictorial warnings (vs. text-only), and graphic health warnings (vs. personal testimonials). Among adults, message credibility moderated the indirect effect; the association was stronger when credibility was high and weaker when it was low. Among youth users and non-users, message credibility did not moderate the indirect effect. Conclusions Consistent with research from high-income countries, these findings highlight the importance of selecting imagery that will elicit negative emotional reactions and be perceived as credible. Differential effects among adults and youth highlight the importance of pre-testing images.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T00:59:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2017)
  • The clinical implications of legalizing marijuana: Are physician and
           non-physician providers prepared?
    • Authors: Elizabeth Brooks; Doris C Gundersen; Erin Flynn; Ashley Brooks-Russell; Sheana Bull
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Elizabeth Brooks, Doris C Gundersen, Erin Flynn, Ashley Brooks-Russell, Sheana Bull
      Introduction Passage of voter-driven marijuana reform laws signals a shift in public attitudes for marijuana use. For providers, legalization may necessitate practice modifications, particularly regarding patient-provider conversations about use and risk. We examined healthcare providers' knowledge of marijuana laws and health implications, professional practice behaviors, and attitudes about training. Materials and methods We surveyed 114 Colorado-based providers who care for children, adolescents, pregnant and breastfeeding women using a Venue-Day-Time survey methodology throughout Colorado. The survey captured providers' (e.g., physicians, nurses, medical assistants) knowledge of state marijuana laws, risk perceptions, counseling practices, and continued training needs. Results Providers were knowledgeable about marijuana laws, cautious supporting legalization, and perceived moderate to high risks, particularly for certain groups. About 50% of providers working with adolescents and pregnant or breastfeeding women assessed marijuana use “every” or “most” visits; 23% of those working with children reported such behavior. Conversations about specific risks varied between groups. Few providers felt completely knowledgeable about marijuana health risks and lacked confidence talking to patients about this issue. Conclusions Providers frequently assess patients' marijuana use; however, they are uncomfortable and inconsistent talking to patients about specific marijuana health effects. Additional education is warranted, particularly as it relates to talking to patients about the danger of second hand smoke exposure, underage use, safe storage, and the over-consumption of edibles.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T20:51:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Time-specific and cumulative effects of exposure to parental externalizing
           behavior on risk for young adult alcohol use disorder
    • Authors: Alexis C. Edwards; Sara L. Lönn; Katherine J. Karriker-Jaffe; Jan Sundquist; Kenneth S. Kendler; Kristina Sundquist
      Pages: 8 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Alexis C. Edwards, Sara L. Lönn, Katherine J. Karriker-Jaffe, Jan Sundquist, Kenneth S. Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
      Background Previous studies indicate that parental externalizing behavior (EB) is a robust risk factor for alcohol use disorder (AUD) in their children, and that this is due to both inherited genetic liability and environmental exposure. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of exposure to parental EB vary as a function of timing and/or chronicity. Methods We identified biological parents with an alcohol use disorder, drug abuse, or criminal behavior, during different periods of their child's upbringing, using Swedish national registries. Logistic regression was used to determine whether the effect of parental EB exposure during different developmental periods differentially impacted children's risk for young adult AUD (ages 19–24). In addition, we tested how multiply affected parents and/or sustained exposure to affected parents impacted risk. Results While parental EB increased risk for young adult AUD, timing of exposure did not differentially impact risk. Having a second affected parent increased the risk of AUD additionally, and sustained exposure to parental EB across multiple periods resulted in a higher risk of young adult AUD than exposure in only one period. Conclusions In this well-powered population study, there was no evidence of “sensitive periods” of exposure to national registry-ascertained parental EB with respect to impact on young adult AUD, but sustained exposure was more pathogenic than limited exposure. These findings suggest developmental timing does not meaningfully vary the impact, but rather there is a pervasive risk for development of young adult AUD for children and adolescents exposed to parental EB.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T20:51:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Cannabis use patterns and motives: A comparison of younger, middle-aged,
           and older medical cannabis dispensary patients
    • Authors: Nancy A. Haug; Claudia B. Padula; James E. Sottile; Ryan Vandrey; Adrienne J. Heinz; Marcel O. Bonn-Miller
      Pages: 14 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Nancy A. Haug, Claudia B. Padula, James E. Sottile, Ryan Vandrey, Adrienne J. Heinz, Marcel O. Bonn-Miller
      Introduction Medical cannabis is increasingly being used for a variety of health conditions as more states implement legislation permitting medical use of cannabis. Little is known about medical cannabis use patterns and motives among adults across the lifespan. Methods The present study examined data collected at a medical cannabis dispensary in San Francisco, California. Participants included 217 medical cannabis patients who were grouped into age-defined cohorts (younger: 18–30, middle-aged: 31–50, and older: 51–72). The age groups were compared on several measures of cannabis use, motives and medical conditions using one-way ANOVAs, chi-square tests and linear regression analyses. Results All three age groups had similar frequency of cannabis use over the past month; however, the quantity of cannabis used and rates of problematic cannabis use were higher among younger users relative to middle-aged and older adults. The association between age and problematic cannabis use was moderated by age of regular use initiation such that earlier age of regular cannabis use onset was associated with more problematic use in the younger users, but not among older users. Middle-aged adults were more likely to report using medical cannabis for insomnia, while older adults were more likely to use medical cannabis for chronic medical problems such as cancer, glaucoma and HIV/AIDS. Younger participants reported cannabis use when bored at a greater rate than middle-aged and older adults. Conclusions Findings suggest that there is an age-related risk for problematic cannabis use among medical cannabis users, such that younger users should be monitored for cannabis use patterns that may lead to deleterious consequences.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T23:10:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Perceived health and alcohol use in individuals with HIV and Hepatitis C
           who use drugs
    • Authors: Jennifer C. Elliott; Deborah S. Hasin; Don C. Des Jarlais
      Pages: 21 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Jennifer C. Elliott, Deborah S. Hasin, Don C. Des Jarlais
      Background Individuals who use illicit drugs are at heightened risk for HIV and/or Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Despite the medical consequences of drinking for drug-using individuals with these infections, many do drink. In other studies, how individuals perceive their health relates to their engagement in risk behaviors such as drinking. However, among drug-using individuals with HIV and HCV, whether perceived health relates to drinking is unknown. Objective We examine the association between perceived health and drinking among drug-using individuals with HIV and/or HCV. Methods In a large, cross-sectional study, we utilized samples of individuals with HIV (n =476), HCV (n =1145), and HIV/HCV co-infection (n =180), recruited from drug treatment centers from 2005 to 2013. In each sample, we investigated the relationship between perceived health and drinking, using ordinal logistic regressions. We present uncontrolled models as well as models controlled for demographic characteristics. Results Among samples of drug using individuals with HIV and with HCV, poorer perceived health was associated with risky drinking only when demographic characteristics were taken into account (Adjusted Odds Ratios: 1.32 [1.05, 1.67] and 1.16 [1.00, 1.34], respectively). In the smaller HIV/HCV co-infected sample, the association of similar magnitude was not significant (AOR=1.32 [0.90, 1.93]). Conclusions Drug using patients with HIV or HCV with poor perceived health are more likely to drink heavily, which can further damage health. However, when demographics are not accounted for, these effects can be masked. Patients' reports of poor health should remind providers to assess for health risk behaviors, particularly heavy drinking.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T23:10:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Pathway of protection: Ethnic identity, self-esteem, and substance use
           among multiracial youth
    • Authors: Sycarah Fisher; Tamika C.B. Zapolski; Chelsea Sheehan; Jessica Barnes-Najor
      Pages: 27 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Sycarah Fisher, Tamika C.B. Zapolski, Chelsea Sheehan, Jessica Barnes-Najor
      Fifty percent of adolescents have tried an illicit drug and 70% have tried alcohol by the end of high school, with even higher rates among multiracial youth. Ethnic identity is a protective factor against substance use for minority groups. However, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate its protective effects, and even less is known about this relationship for multiracial youth. The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective effect of ethnic identity on substance use and to determine whether this relationship operated indirectly through self-esteem, a strong predictor of substance use for among adolescent populations. Participants included 468 multiracial youth in grades six through 12 (53% female). The results found that ethnic identity was indeed related to substance use, partially through changes in self-esteem. Findings from this study contribute to our understanding and development of models of risk and protection for an understudied population.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T23:10:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Emotion dysregulation explains the relation between insomnia symptoms and
           negative reinforcement smoking cognitions among daily smokers
    • Authors: Brooke Y. Kauffman; Samantha G. Farris; Candice A. Alfano; Michael J. Zvolensky
      Pages: 33 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Brooke Y. Kauffman, Samantha G. Farris, Candice A. Alfano, Michael J. Zvolensky
      Introduction Insomnia co-occurs with smoking. However, mechanisms that may explain their comorbidity are not well known. Method The present study tested the hypothesis that insomnia would exert an indirect effect on negative reinforcement smoking processes via emotion dysregulation among 126 adult non-treatment seeking daily smokers (55 females; Mage =44.1years, SD =9.72). Negative reinforcement smoking processes included negative reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies, negative reinforcement smoking motives, and two negative expectancies from brief smoking abstinence (somatic symptoms and harmful consequences). Results Insomnia symptoms yielded a significant indirect effect through emotion dysregulation for negative reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies, negative reinforcement smoking motives, and harmful consequences expectancies from brief smoking abstinence. In contrast to prediction, however, insomnia was not associated with somatic symptom expectancies from brief smoking abstinence through emotion dysregulation. Conclusions These data may suggest that the indirect effect of emotion dysregulation is more relevant to cognitive-affective negative reinforcement processes rather than somatic states. Overall, the present findings contribute to a growing body of literature linking emotion dysregulation as an explanatory mechanism for insomnia and smoking and uniquely extend such work to an array of clinically significant negative reinforcement smoking processes.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T23:10:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Resolving an identity crisis: Implicit drinking identity and implicit
           alcohol identity are related but not the same
    • Authors: Jason J. Ramirez; Cecilia C. Olin; Kristen P. Lindgren
      Pages: 41 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Jason J. Ramirez, Cecilia C. Olin, Kristen P. Lindgren
      Two variations of the Implicit Association Test (IAT), the Drinking Identity IAT and the Alcohol Identity IAT, assess implicit associations held in memory between one's identity and alcohol-related constructs. Both have been shown to predict numerous drinking outcomes, but these IATs have never been directly compared to one another. The purpose of this study was to compare these IATs and evaluate their incremental predictive validity. US undergraduate students (N=64, 50% female, mean age=21.98years) completed the Drinking Identity IAT, the Alcohol Identity IAT, an explicit measure of drinking identity, as well as measures of typical alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking. When evaluated in separate regression models that controlled for explicit drinking identity, results indicated that the Drinking Identity IAT and the Alcohol Identity IAT were significant, positive predictors of typical alcohol consumption, and that the Drinking Identity IAT, but not the Alcohol Identity IAT, was a significant predictor of hazardous drinking. When evaluated in the same regression models, the Drinking Identity IAT, but not the Alcohol Identity IAT, was significantly associated with typical and hazardous drinking. These results suggest that the Drinking Identity IAT and Alcohol Identity IAT are related but not redundant. Moreover, given that the Drinking Identity IAT, but not the Alcohol Identity IAT, incrementally predicted variance in drinking outcomes, identification with drinking behavior and social groups, as opposed to identification with alcohol itself, may be an especially strong predictor of drinking outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-04-03T17:31:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Descriptive drinking norms in Native American and non-Hispanic White
           college students
    • Authors: Kylee J. Hagler; Matthew R. Pearson; Kamilla L. Venner; Brenna L. Greenfield
      Pages: 45 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Kylee J. Hagler, Matthew R. Pearson, Kamilla L. Venner, Brenna L. Greenfield
      Objective College students tend to overestimate how much their peers drink, which is associated with higher personal alcohol use. However, research has not yet examined if this phenomenon holds true among Native American (NA) college students. This study examined associations between descriptive norms and alcohol use/consequences in a sample of NA and non-Hispanic White (NHW) college students. Method NA (n =147, 78.6% female) and NHW (n =246, 67.8% female) undergraduates completed an online survey. Results NAs NHWs showed similar descriptive norms such that the “typical college student,” “typical NA student,” and “typical NHW student” were perceived to drink more than “best friends.” “Best friends” descriptive norms (i.e., estimations of how many drinks per week were consumed by participants' best friends) were the most robust predictors of alcohol use/consequences. Effect size estimates of the associations between drinking norms and participants' alcohol use were consistently positive and ranged from r =0.25 to r =0.51 across the four reference groups. Negative binomial hurdle models revealed that all descriptive norms tended to predict drinking, and “best friends” drinking norms predicted alcohol consequences. Apart from one interaction effect, likely due to familywise error rate, these associations were not qualified by interactions with racial/ethnic group. Conclusions We found similar patterns between NAs and NHWs both in the pattern of descriptive norms across reference groups and in the strength of associations between descriptive norms and alcohol use/consequences. Although these results suggest that descriptive norms operate similarly among NAs as other college students, additional research is needed to identify whether other norms (e.g., injunctive norms) operate similarly across NA and NHW students.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T23:10:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • The impact of military service and traumatic brain injury on the substance
           use norms of Army Reserve and National Guard Soldiers and their spouses
    • Authors: J.A. Devonish; D.L. Homish; B.M. Vest; R.C. Daws; R.A. Hoopsick; G.G. Homish
      Pages: 51 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): J.A. Devonish, D.L. Homish, B.M. Vest, R.C. Daws, R.A. Hoopsick, G.G. Homish
      Introduction Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and substance use are highly prevalent conditions among military populations. There is a significant body of evidence that suggests greater approval of substance use (i.e., norms) is related to increased substance use. The objective of this work is to understand the impact of TBI and military service on substance use norms of soldiers and their partners. Data are from the baseline assessment of Operation: SAFETY, an ongoing, longitudinal study of US Army Reserve/National Guard (USAR/NG) soldiers and their partners. Methods Multiple regression models examined associations between alcohol, tobacco, illicit drug use, and non-medical use of prescription drug (NMUPD) norms within and across partners based on current military status (CMS) and TBI. Results Male USAR/NG soldiers disapproved of NMUPD, illicit drug use and tobacco use. There was no relation between military status and alcohol use. Among females, there was no relation between CMS and norms. The NMUPD norms of wives were more likely to be approving if their husbands reported TBI symptoms and had separated from the military. Husbands of soldiers who separated from the military with TBI had greater approval of the use of tobacco, NMUPD, and illicit drugs. Conclusion Overall, there is evidence to suggest that, while generally disapproving of substance use, soldiers and partners become more accepting of use if they also experience TBI and separate from the military. Future research should examine the longitudinal influence of TBI on substance use norms and subsequent changes in substance use over time.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:36:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Mindfulness facets and problematic Internet use: A six-month longitudinal
    • Authors: Esther Calvete; Manuel Gámez-Guadix; Nerea Cortazar
      Pages: 57 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Esther Calvete, Manuel Gámez-Guadix, Nerea Cortazar
      Introduction The aim of this study was to study the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between mindfulness facets and problematic Internet use in adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 609 adolescents (313 girls, 296 boys; Mean age=14.21years, SD=1.71; age range 11–18). Participants completed a measure of five facets of mindfulness (describing, observing, acting with awareness, non-judging and non-reacting) at the beginning of the year, and measures of several components of problematic Internet use (preference for online social interactions, the use of the Internet to regulate mood, deficient self-regulation and negative outcomes) at beginning of the year and six months later. Results Findings indicated that non-judging is the only dimension of mindfulness that predicts a decrease in preference for online social interactions over face-to-face relationships. Moreover, non-judging indirectly predicted reductions in the rest of the problematic Internet use components. The observing and acting with awareness dimensions of mindfulness directly predicted less deficient self-regulation of Internet use and indirectly predicted less negative outcomes through their impact on deficient self-regulation. Thus, these dimensions seem to act when the maladaptive use of the Internet is consolidated. Conclusions These findings suggest that interventions should include approaches to develop those mindfulness facets that protect against the development of problematic Internet use.

      PubDate: 2017-04-03T17:31:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Moderators of outcome in a technology-based intervention to prevent and
           reduce problem drinking among adolescents
    • Authors: Raquel Paz Castro; Severin Haug; Tobias Kowatsch; Andreas Filler; Michael P. Schaub
      Pages: 64 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Raquel Paz Castro, Severin Haug, Tobias Kowatsch, Andreas Filler, Michael P. Schaub

      PubDate: 2017-04-03T17:31:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Depressive symptom domains and alcohol use severity among Hispanic
           emerging adults: Examining moderating effects of gender
    • Authors: Miguel Ángel Cano; Marcel A. de Dios; Virmarie Correa Fernández; Sarah Childress; Jocelyn L. Abrams; Angelica M. Roncancio
      Pages: 72 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Miguel Ángel Cano, Marcel A. de Dios, Virmarie Correa Fernández, Sarah Childress, Jocelyn L. Abrams, Angelica M. Roncancio
      Objective A limited amount of research has examined the effects of unique depressive symptom domains on alcohol use behavior among Hispanics of any developmental stage. This study aimed to (a) examine the respective associations between depressive symptom domains (e.g., negative affect, anhedonia, interpersonal problems, and somatic complaints) and alcohol use severity among Hispanic emerging adults, and (b) examine if gender moderates each respective association. Method 181 Hispanic emerging adults (ages 18–25) completed an anonymous cross-sectional online survey. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire, the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and the Center Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to estimate respective associations of negative affect, anhedonia, interpersonal problems, and somatic complaints in relation to alcohol use severity. Moderation tests were also conducted to examine if gender functioned as an effect modifier between respective depressive symptom domains and alcohol use severity. Results Findings indicated higher levels of anhedonia were associated with higher alcohol use severity (β=0.20, p =0.02). Moderation analyses indicated that somatic complaints (β=−0.41, p =0.02) and interpersonal problems were associated with greater alcohol use severity among men (β=−0.60, p <0.001), but not women. Conclusions Findings underscore the need to examine the relationship between specific depressive symptom domains and alcohol use; and the importance of accounting for potential gender differences in these associations.

      PubDate: 2017-04-03T17:31:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Latent class analysis of gambling subtypes and impulsive/compulsive
           associations: Time to rethink diagnostic boundaries for gambling disorder?
    • Authors: Samuel R. Chamberlain; Jan Stochl; Sarah A. Redden; Brian L. Odlaug; Jon E. Grant
      Pages: 79 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Samuel R. Chamberlain, Jan Stochl, Sarah A. Redden, Brian L. Odlaug, Jon E. Grant
      Background Gambling disorder has been associated with cognitive dysfunction and impaired quality of life. The current definition of non-pathological, problem, and pathological types of gambling is based on total symptom scores, which may overlook nuanced underlying presentations of gambling symptoms. The aims of the current study were (i) to identify subtypes of gambling in young adults, using latent class analysis, based on individual responses from the Structured Clinical Interview for Gambling Disorder (SCI-GD); and (ii) to explore relationships between these gambling subtypes, and clinical/cognitive measures. Methods Total 582 non-treatment seeking young adults were recruited from two US cities, on the basis of gambling five or more times per year. Participants undertook clinical and neurocognitive assessment, including stop-signal, decision-making, and set-shifting tasks. Data from individual items of the Structured Clinical Interview for Gambling Disorder (SCI-GD) were entered into latent class analysis. Optimal number of classes representing gambling subtypes was identified using Bayesian Information Criterion and differences between them were explored using multivariate analysis of variance. Results Three subtypes of gambling were identified, termed recreational gamblers (60.2% of the sample; reference group), problem gamblers (29.2%), and pathological gamblers (10.5%). Common quality of life impairment, elevated Barratt Impulsivity scores, occurrence of mainstream mental disorders, having a first degree relative with an addiction, and impaired decision-making were evident in both problem and pathological gambling groups. The diagnostic item ‘chasing losses’ most discriminated recreational from problem gamblers, while endorsement of ‘social, financial, or occupational losses due to gambling’ most discriminated pathological gambling from both other groups. Significantly higher rates of impulse control disorders occurred in the pathological group, versus the problem group, who in turn showed significantly higher rates than the reference group. The pathological group also had higher set-shifting errors and nicotine consumption. Conclusions Even problem gamblers who had a relatively low total SCI-PG scores (mean endorsement of two items) exhibited impaired quality of life, objective cognitive impairment on decision-making, and occurrence of other mental disorders that did not differ significantly from those seen in the pathological gamblers. Furthermore, problem/pathological gambling was associated with other impulse control disorders, but not increased alcohol use. Groups differed on quality of life when classified using the data-driven approach, but not when classified using DSM cut-offs. Thus, the current DSM-5 approach will fail to discriminate a significant fraction of patients with biologically plausible, functionally impairing illness, and may not be ideal in terms of diagnostic classification. Cognitive distortions related to ‘chasing losses’ represent a particularly important candidate treatment target for early intervention.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:36:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.020
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Pathways linking marijuana use to substance use problems among emerging
           adults: A prospective analysis of young Black men
    • Authors: Steven M. Kogan; Junhan Cho; Gene H. Brody; Steven R.H. Beach
      Pages: 86 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Steven M. Kogan, Junhan Cho, Gene H. Brody, Steven R.H. Beach
      Objectives Marijuana use rates peak during emerging adulthood (ages 18 to 25years). Although marijuana use quantity reliably predicts substance-related problems, considerable individual differences characterize this association. The aims of the present study were to examine the influence of community disadvantage in amplifying the effects of marijuana use on downstream substance use problems, as well as the mediating influence of social disengagement in the path linking marijuana use frequency to related problems. Method We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study with 505 Black men from rural communities in Georgia, age 20.3years at baseline. Three waves of data were collected at 18-month intervals in participants' homes or convenient community settings. Men completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews concerning their substance use, engagement in conventional roles and relationships, community characteristics, and substance use problems. Results Community disadvantage moderated the association of marijuana use with changes in substance use problems across time. In disadvantaged communities, a robust effect emerged between marijuana use frequency and related problems, whereas in less disadvantaged communities, marijuana use quantity and problems were not significantly associated. Increases in social disengagement mediated the influence of marijuana use on substance use problems in the context of community disadvantage. Conclusions For young Black men, residence in a disadvantaged neighborhood appears to amplify the impact of marijuana use on substance use problems. This effect appears to be a consequence of increases in social disengagement.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:36:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.027
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Energy Drink and Alcohol mixed Energy Drink use among high school
           adolescents: Association with risk taking behavior, social characteristics
    • Authors: Marco Scalese; Francesca Denoth; Valeria Siciliano; Luca Bastiani; Rodolfo Cotichini; Arianna Cutilli; Sabrina Molinaro
      Pages: 93 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Marco Scalese, Francesca Denoth, Valeria Siciliano, Luca Bastiani, Rodolfo Cotichini, Arianna Cutilli, Sabrina Molinaro
      Purpose The aims of the study were to: a) examine the prevalence of energy drink (ED) and alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) consumption; b) investigate the relationships between ED and AmED with alcohol, binge drinking and drugs accounting for at risk behaviors among a representative sample of Italian adolescents. Methods A representative sample of 30,588 Italian high school students, aged 15–19years, was studied. Binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the independent association of the potential predictors' characteristics with the ED and AmED drinking during the last year. Results Respectively 41.4% and 23.2% of respondents reported drinking EDs and AmEDs in the last year. Multivariate analysis revealed that consumption of EDs and AmEDs during the last year were significantly associated with daily smoking, binge drinking, use of cannabis and other psychotropic drugs. Among life habits and risky behaviors the following were positively associated: going out with friends for fun, participating in sports, experiencing physical fights/accidents or injury, engaging in sexual intercourse without protection and being involved in accidents while driving. Conclusions This study demonstrates the popularity of ED and AmED consumption among the Italian school population aged 15–19years old: 4 out of 10 students consumed EDs in the last year and 2 out of 10 AmED. Multivariate analysis highlighted the association with illicit drug consumption and harming behaviors, confirming that consumption of EDs and AmEDs is a compelling issue especially during adolescence, as it can effect health as well as risk taking behaviors.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:36:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Funder interference in addiction research: An international survey of
    • Authors: Peter Miller; Florentine Martino; Samantha Gross; Ashlee Curtis; Richelle Mayshak; Nicolas Droste; Kypros Kypri
      Pages: 100 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Peter Miller, Florentine Martino, Samantha Gross, Ashlee Curtis, Richelle Mayshak, Nicolas Droste, Kypros Kypri
      Objective Scientific research is essential to the development of effective addiction treatment and drug policy. Actions that compromise the integrity of addiction science need to be understood. The aim of this study is to investigate funder (e.g. industry, government or charity) interference in addiction science internationally. Method Corresponding authors of all 941 papers published in an international specialist journal July 2004 to June 2009 were invited to complete a web questionnaire. A sensitivity analysis with extreme assumptions about non-respondents was undertaken. Results The questionnaire was completed by 322 authors (response fraction 34%), 36% (n =117) of whom had encountered at least one episode (median=3, Interquartile range=4) of funder interference in their research: 56% in Australasia, 33% in Europe, and 30% in North America. Censorship of research outputs was the most common form of interference. The wording or writing of reports and articles, as well as where, when and how findings were released were the areas in which influence was most often reported. Conclusions Funder interference in addiction science appears to be common internationally. Strategies to increase transparency in the addiction science literature, including mandatory author declarations concerning the role of the funder, are necessary.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:36:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.026
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs: Findings from the
           2015 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS–FDA 2015)
    • Authors: Elisabeth A. Donaldson; Allison C. Hoffman; Izabella Zandberg; Kelly D. Blake
      Pages: 106 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Elisabeth A. Donaldson, Allison C. Hoffman, Izabella Zandberg, Kelly D. Blake
      Background Addiction beliefs about tobacco use are associated with intentions to use and use of tobacco products. Exposure to information about tobacco products in media sources may affect addiction beliefs. Purpose To examine the relationship between media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs. Methods A nationally representative sample of US adults (n=3738) from the 2015 National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey was used to examine addiction beliefs about cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, hookah/waterpipe tobacco, and roll-your-own cigarettes. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between media exposure and addiction beliefs. We defined media exposure by hours exposed, as well as exposure to tobacco use health effects information through media sources including social media. We categorized media sources by whether respondents actively or passively engaged with the source. Findings A majority (60.6% to 87.3%) of respondents believed that cigarettes, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes and smokeless tobacco are addictive. Less than half of respondents believed that electronic cigarettes or hookah/waterpipes are addictive (45.2% and 49.8%, respectively). Respondents exposed to messages about tobacco use health effects on active media channels (e.g., social media) had greater odds of believing that smokeless tobacco (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.48), hookah/waterpipe (AOR=1.69), and roll-your-own cigarettes (AOR=1.61) are addictive. Respondents exposed to tobacco use health effects messages on passive media channels (e.g., television), had greater odds of believing that cigarettes (AOR=2.76) and electronic cigarettes (AOR=2.12) are addictive. Conclusions US adult exposure to information about the health effects of tobacco use was associated with addiction beliefs about tobacco products.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:36:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Non-medical opioid use in youth: Gender differences in risk factors and
    • Authors: Vicki Osborne; Mirsada Serdarevic; Hannah Crooke; Catherine Striley; Linda B. Cottler
      Pages: 114 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Vicki Osborne, Mirsada Serdarevic, Hannah Crooke, Catherine Striley, Linda B. Cottler
      Background Non-medical use (NMU) of prescription opioids in youth is of concern since they may continue this pattern into adulthood and become addicted or divert medications to others. Research into risk factors for NMU can help target interventions to prevent non-medical use of opioids in youth. Method The National Monitoring of Adolescent Prescription Stimulants Study (N-MAPSS) was conducted from 2008 to 2011. Participants 10–18years of age were recruited from entertainment venues in urban, rural and suburban areas of 10 US cities. Participants completed a survey including questions on their use of prescription opioids. NMU was defined as a non-labeled route of administration or using someone else's prescription. Information on age, gender, alcohol, marijuana and tobacco use was also collected. Summary descriptive, chi-square statistics and logistic regression were conducted using SAS 9.4. Results Of the 10,965 youth who provided information about past 30day prescription opioid use, prevalence of reported opioid use was 4.8% with 3.2% reported as NMU (n =345) and 1.6% as medical use (MU) only (n =180). More males than females (55.7% vs. 44.4%) reported opioid NMU (p <0.0001). Logistic regression revealed that among males (comparing NMU to MU only), current smokers were 4.4 times more likely to report opioid NMU than non-smokers (95% CI: 1.8, 10.7). Among females (comparing NMU to MU only), current smokers and alcohol users were more likely to report opioid NMU than those who had never smoked or used alcohol (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 7.0 and OR=4.1, 95% CI: 1.7, 10.4, respectively). Conclusions These results suggest that further research on gender differences in opioid NMU is needed; interventions for opioid NMU may need to be gender specific to obtain the best results.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:36:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.024
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Drinking motives and alcohol consumption behaviors among young French
    • Authors: Tianna Loose; Didier Acier
      Pages: 120 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Tianna Loose, Didier Acier
      Introduction Numerous studies suggest that social, enhancement, conformity and coping drinking motives each lead to unique behavioral patterns related to alcohol consumption. Recently it has been suggested to study specific coping motives that distinguish feelings of anxiety and depression. This study aims primarily to 1) psychometrically validate the recent five factor questionnaire of drinking motives among young French people, 2) explore differences in mean endorsements of motives across age and sex and 3) explore the concurrent validity of drinking motives by studying their associations with alcohol consumption behaviors. Methods The French Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test were administered to 314 university students and 193 high school students. Results The 5-factor model of drinking motives provided a good fit to the data and a better fit than the 4-factor model. Conformity motives were more strongly endorsed among high school students than among university students (d =0.26). Social motives were more endorsed by men than by women (d =0.47), as were enhancement motives (d =0.48). Our study suggests that each of the studied motives transcribes a specific set of drinking behaviors. Conclusions Researchers and practitioners could effectively use this conception of drinking motives in order to better understand and prevent problematic alcohol use among young people.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:36:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.009
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • The indirect effect of panic disorder on smoking cognitions via
           difficulties in emotion regulation
    • Authors: Min-Jeong Yang; Michael J. Zvolensky; Teresa M. Leyro
      Pages: 126 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Min-Jeong Yang, Michael J. Zvolensky, Teresa M. Leyro
      Panic disorder (PD) and cigarette smoking are highly comorbid and associated with worse panic and smoking outcomes. Smoking may become an overlearned automatized response to relieve panic-like withdrawal distress, leading to corresponding smoking cognitions, which contribute to its reinforcing properties and difficultly abstaining. Difficulties in emotion regulation (ER) may underlie this relation such that in the absence of adaptive emotion regulatory strategies, smokers with PD may more readily rely upon smoking to manage affective distress. In the current study, the indirect relation between PD status and smoking cognitions through ER difficulties was examined among daily smokers (N =74). We found evidence for an indirect relation between PD status and negative affect, addictive and habitual smoking motives, and anticipating smoking will result in negative reinforcement and personal harm, through self-reported difficulties with ER. Our findings are aligned with theoretical models on anxiety and smoking, and suggest that reports of greater smoking cognitions may be due to ER difficulties.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:36:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.021
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Opioid users with comorbid hepatitis C spent more time in agonist therapy:
           A 6-year observational study in Taiwan
    • Authors: Horng-Maw Chen; Tsung-Hsueh Lu; Kun-Chia Chang; Kuan-Ying Lee; Ching-Ming Cheng
      Pages: 133 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Horng-Maw Chen, Tsung-Hsueh Lu, Kun-Chia Chang, Kuan-Ying Lee, Ching-Ming Cheng
      Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly prevalent among opioid agonist therapy (OAT) patients, but little is known about long-term OAT use among this population. Methods Subjects diagnosed as opioid dependence were recruited from Mar. 2006 to Jul. 2008 in a psychiatry center in southern Taiwan with the OAT censored in 2012, and their socio-demographics, drug use characteristics, and markers of blood-borne infection were assessed at entry. Correlates with HCV infection and OAT retention were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Retention (OAT utilization) was defined as the in-treatment period of OAT during the 6-year observation period. Results A total of 983 patients (88.3% men) were included. The prevalences of HCV and HIV infection were 91.4% and 17.9%, respectively. The mean duration of OAT during the study period was 2.3±0.8years. Significant correlates with HCV infection were retention of at least three years in OAT (AOR: 4.24, 95%CI: 1.49–12.03), ever sharing injection equipment (AOR: 227.04, 95%CI: 57.22–900.87), not living with family (AOR: 5.54, 95%CI: 1.45–21.16), lower educational attainment (AOR: 2.10, 95%CI: 1.15–3.82) and previous drug offense (AOR: 6.35, 95%CI: 1.69–23.83). Significant correlates with retention were HCV infection (AOR: 2.53, 95%CI: 1.30–4.93) and divorced or separation in marriage (AOR: 0.65, 95%CI: 0.44–0.96). Conclusions This six-year observational study revealed a better retention in OAT if opioid-dependent individuals had comorbid hepatitis C. This provided opportunities for OAT patients with HCV infection to obtain medical treatment while staying in an OAT program. Further research could explore the possibility of eradicating comorbid HCV infection among these long-term treatment cases.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:36:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.028
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Intentional cannabis use to reduce crack cocaine use in a Canadian
           setting: A longitudinal analysis
    • Authors: M. Eugenia Socías; Thomas Kerr; Evan Wood; Huiru Dong; Stephanie Lake; Kanna Hayashi; Kora DeBeck; Didier Jutras-Aswad; Julio Montaner; M.-J. Milloy
      Pages: 138 - 143
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): M. Eugenia Socías, Thomas Kerr, Evan Wood, Huiru Dong, Stephanie Lake, Kanna Hayashi, Kora DeBeck, Didier Jutras-Aswad, Julio Montaner, M.-J. Milloy
      Background No effective pharmacotherapies exist for the treatment of crack cocaine use disorders. Emerging data suggests that cannabinoids may play a role in reducing cocaine-related craving symptoms. This study investigated the intentional use of cannabis to reduce crack use among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD). Methods Data were drawn from three prospective cohorts of PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. Using data from participants reporting intentional cannabis use to control crack use, we used generalized linear mixed-effects modeling to estimate the independent effect of three pre-defined intentional cannabis use periods (i.e., before, during and after first reported intentional use to reduce crack use) on frequency of crack use. Results Between 2012 and 2015, 122 participants reported using cannabis to reduce crack use, contributing a total of 620 observations. In adjusted analyses, compared to before periods, after periods were associated with reduced frequency of crack use (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]=1.89, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.02–3.45), but not the intentional use periods (AOR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.51–1.41). Frequency of cannabis use in after periods was higher than in before periods (AOR=4.72, 95% CI: 2.47–8.99), and showed a tendency to lower frequency than in intentional cannabis use periods (AOR=0.56, 95% CI: 0.32–1.01). Conclusions A period of intentional cannabis use to reduce crack use was associated with decreased frequency of crack use in subsequent periods among PWUD. Further clinical research to assess the potential of cannabinoids for the treatment of crack use disorders is warranted.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:36:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Gender differences in risk factors for cigarette smoking initiation in
    • Authors: Marie-Pierre Sylvestre; Robert J. Wellman; Erin K. O'Loughlin; Erika N. Dugas; Jennifer O'Loughlin
      Pages: 144 - 150
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Marie-Pierre Sylvestre, Robert J. Wellman, Erin K. O'Loughlin, Erika N. Dugas, Jennifer O'Loughlin
      Introduction We investigated whether established risk factors for initiating cigarette smoking during adolescence (parents, siblings, friends smoke; home smoking rules, smokers at home, exposure to smoking in cars, academic performance, susceptibility to smoking, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, school connectedness, use of other tobacco products) are associated with initiation in preadolescents, and whether the effects of these factors differ by gender. Methods In spring 2005, baseline data were collected in self-report questionnaires from 1801 5th grade students including 1553 never-smokers (mean age=10.7years), in the longitudinal AdoQuest I Study in Montréal, Canada. Follow-up data were collected in the fall and spring of 6th grade (2005–2006). Poisson regression analyses with robust variance estimated the effects of each risk factor on initiation and additive interactions with gender were computed to assess the excess risk of each risk factor in girls compared to boys. Results 101 of 1399 participants in the analytic sample (6.7% of boys; 7.7% of girls) initiated smoking during follow-up. After adjustment for age, gender and maternal education, all risk factors except academic performance and school connectedness were statistically significantly associated with initiation. Paternal and sibling smoking were associated with initiation in girls only, and girls with lower self-esteem had a significant excess risk of initiating smoking in 6th grade. Conclusions Risk factors for smoking initiation in preadolescents mirror those in adolescents; their effects do not differ markedly by gender. Preventive programs targeting children should focus on reducing smoking in the social environment and the dangers of poly-tobacco use.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:36:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Drug use among transgender people in Ontario, Canada: Disparities and
           associations with social exclusion
    • Authors: Ayden I. Scheim; Greta R. Bauer; Mostafa Shokoohi
      Pages: 151 - 158
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 72
      Author(s): Ayden I. Scheim, Greta R. Bauer, Mostafa Shokoohi
      Introduction We identified the prevalence and correlates of past-year illicit drug use among transgender people in Ontario, Canada, and disparities with the age-standardized non-transgender population. Methods Data on transgender persons aged 16+ (n=406) were obtained from Trans PULSE, a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey (2009–2010). Overall and sex-specific estimates of past-year drug use (cocaine and amphetamines, based on data availability) in the reference population were obtained from Ontario residents aged 16+ (n=39, 980) in the Canadian Community Health Survey (2009–2010), and standardized to the overall and gender-specific transgender age distributions. For regression analyses with Trans PULSE data, past-year drug use included drug types associated with high risk of physical, psychological, and social harm to the user, and RDS-II weights were applied to frequencies and prevalence ratios (PR) derived from blockwise logistic regression models. Results An estimated 12.3% (95% CI: 7.7, 17.0) of transgender Ontarians had used at least one of the specified drugs in the past year, with no significant difference by gender identity. Transgender Ontarians were more likely to use both cocaine (standardized prevalence difference; SPD=6.8%; 95% CI=1.6, 10.9) and amphetamines (SPD=SPD=1.3%, 95% CI=0.2, 3.1) as compared to the age-standardized non-transgender population. History of transphobic assault, homelessness or underhousing, and sex work were associated with greater drug use among transgender persons. Conclusions The prevalence of cocaine and amphetamine use among transgender people in Ontario, Canada was higher than in the age-standardized reference population. Social exclusion predicted within-group variation in drug use among transgender persons.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T00:41:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.022
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2017)
  • Family history density of substance use problems among undergraduate
           college students: Associations with heavy alcohol use and alcohol use
    • Authors: Gregory Powers; Lisa Berger; Daniel Fuhrmann; Michael Fendrich
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 71
      Author(s): Gregory Powers, Lisa Berger, Daniel Fuhrmann, Michael Fendrich
      Purpose A family history of alcoholism has been found associated with problematic alcohol use among college students, but less research has examined the effects of family history density of substance use problems in this population. This study examined the prevalence of family history density of substance use problems and its associations with heavy alcohol use, negative alcohol consequences, and alcohol use disorder in a college sample. Methods Based on a secondary analysis of a probability sample, data were analyzed from 606 undergraduate students. Family history density of substance use problems included both first and second degree biological relatives. Heavy alcohol use was the total number of days in which participants drank five/four or more drinks for men/women, negative alcohol consequences were derived from items commonly asked in college student surveys, and an alcohol use disorder was defined as meeting diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. Point prevalence estimated rates of family history density of substance use problems, and negative binomial, ANCOVA, and logistic regression models examined associations between family history density and the alcohol variables while adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Results Family history density of substance use problems was not significantly associated with total days of heavy alcohol use. Having a second degree, a first degree, or both a first and second degree relative(s) with a substance use problem, however, was significantly associated with experiencing negative alcohol consequences. In addition, having both a first and second degree relative(s) with a substance use problem significantly increased the odds of having an alcohol use disorder. Conclusions Family history density of substance use problems may play a role in experiencing negative alcohol consequences and in having an alcohol use disorder among undergraduate college students and may be an important risk factor to assess by college health professionals.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T13:53:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.02.015
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • Marijuana and other substance use among male and female underage drinkers
           who drive after drinking and ride with those who drive after drinking
    • Authors: Lisa Buckley; Erin E. Bonar; Maureen A. Walton; Patrick M. Carter; Diana Voloshyna; Peter F. Ehrlich; Rebecca M. Cunningham
      Pages: 7 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 71
      Author(s): Lisa Buckley, Erin E. Bonar, Maureen A. Walton, Patrick M. Carter, Diana Voloshyna, Peter F. Ehrlich, Rebecca M. Cunningham
      The study sought to describe the occurrence of adolescent driving after drinking (DD) and riding with a driver who had been drinking (RWDD) and associations with substance use for both males and females. As part of screening for a randomized controlled trial, we surveyed 16–20year olds (N =3418) recruited from an emergency department (ED) and analyzed data from those reporting past-year alcohol consumption (n =2150, 58% females). DD was reported by 22% of females and 28% of males and RWDD was reported by 39% of females and 38% of males, also in the past year. In regression models, risky alcohol use and past-year marijuana use were associated with increased odds of DD and RWDD for females and males. Marijuana use was a strong predictor, with odds increased by 2.3 and 1.7 times for DD among females and males respectively and 1.4 times for RWDD for females and males. Prescription drug misuse was also associated with RWDD for females and for both males' and females' reported DD. The findings highlight the alarming rate of DD and RWDD among both males and females and suggest ED-based injury prevention efforts consider such risky road behavior as well as consider their substance use. Future research might also further examine the effects of driving under influence of substances, particularly marijuana, and the negative synergistic effects of co-ingestion prior to driving.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T13:53:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.02.016
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • Availability of tobacco cessation services in substance use disorder
           treatment programs: Impact of state tobacco control policy
    • Authors: Amanda J. Abraham; Grace Bagwell-Adams; Jayani Jayawardhana
      Pages: 12 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 71
      Author(s): Amanda J. Abraham, Grace Bagwell-Adams, Jayani Jayawardhana
      Objective Given the high prevalence of smoking among substance use disorder (SUD) patients, the specialty SUD treatment system is an important target for adoption and implementation of tobacco cessation (TC) services. While research has addressed the impact of tobacco control on individual tobacco consumption, largely overlooked in the literature is the potential impact of state tobacco control policies on availability of services for tobacco cessation. This paper examines the association between state tobacco control policy and availability of TC services in SUD treatment programs in the United States. Methods State tobacco control and state demographic data (n=51) were merged with treatment program data from the 2012 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (n=10.413) to examine availability of TC screening, counseling and pharmacotherapy services in SUD treatment programs using multivariate logistic regression models clustered at the state-level. Results Approximately 60% of SUD treatment programs offered TC screening services, 41% offered TC counseling services and 26% offered TC pharmacotherapy services. Results of multivariate logistic regression showed the odds of offering TC services were greater for SUD treatment programs located in states with higher cigarette excise taxes and greater spending on tobacco prevention and control. Conclusions Findings indicate cigarette excise taxes and recommended funding levels may be effective policy tools for increasing access to TC services in SUD treatment programs. Coupled with changes to insurance coverage for TC under the Affordable Care Act, state tobacco control policy tools may further reduce tobacco use in the United States.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T13:53:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • Timing of nicotine lozenge administration to minimize trigger induced
           craving and withdrawal symptoms
    • Authors: Michael Kotlyar; Bruce R Lindgren; John P Vuchetich; Chap Le; Anne M Mills; Elizabeth Amiot; Dorothy K. Hatsukami
      Pages: 18 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 71
      Author(s): Michael Kotlyar, Bruce R Lindgren, John P Vuchetich, Chap Le, Anne M Mills, Elizabeth Amiot, Dorothy K. Hatsukami
      Introduction Smokers are often advised to use nicotine lozenge when craving or withdrawal symptoms occur. This may be too late to prevent lapses. This study assessed if nicotine lozenge use prior to a common smoking trigger can minimize trigger induced increases in craving and withdrawal symptoms. Methods Eighty-four smokers completed two laboratory sessions in random order. At one session, nicotine lozenge was given immediately after a stressor (to approximate current recommended use – i.e., after craving and withdrawal symptoms occur); at the other session subjects were randomized to receive nicotine lozenge at time points ranging from immediately to 30min prior to the stressor. Withdrawal symptoms and urge to smoke were measured using the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale and the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU). Results Relative to receiving lozenge after the stressor, a smaller increase in pre-stressor to post-stressor withdrawal symptom scores occurred when lozenge was used immediately (p=0.03) and 10min prior (p=0.044) to the stressor. Results were similar for factors 1 and 2 of the QSU when lozenge was used immediately prior to the stressor (p<0.03) and for factor 1 of the QSU when lozenge was used 10min prior to the stressor (p=0.028). Absolute levels of post-stressor withdrawal symptom and urge to smoke severity were lower when lozenge was given prior to versus after a stressor. Conclusions Administering the nicotine lozenge prior to a smoking trigger can decrease trigger induced craving and withdrawal symptoms. Future studies are needed to determine if such use would increase cessation rates. # NCT01522963

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T13:53:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • Polysubstance use in treatment seekers who inject amphetamine: Drug use
           profiles, injecting practices and quality of life
    • Authors: Peter J. Kelly; Laura D. Robinson; Amanda L. Baker; Frank P. Deane; Rebecca McKetin; Suzie Hudson; Carol Keane
      Pages: 25 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 71
      Author(s): Peter J. Kelly, Laura D. Robinson, Amanda L. Baker, Frank P. Deane, Rebecca McKetin, Suzie Hudson, Carol Keane
      Background The injection of amphetamine is becoming increasingly common. However, there has been a lack of research examining people who inject amphetamine as the primary drug of use, limiting the potential to ensure services address the unique needs of this group. The current study used latent class analysis to identify classes of polydrug use among people who report injecting amphetamine during the past 12months. It also examined differences between classes and drug use patterns, injecting practices, quality of life and psychological distress. Methods Participants who were attending non-government specialist alcohol and other drug treatment across New South Wales, Australia and had identified amphetamine as their principle drug of concern and reported injecting amphetamine in the previous 12months were included in the current study (N =827). Latent class analysis was performed to identify polydrug profiles of participants. Results The large majority of people in the current study (85%) demonstrated low probability of heroin or other opiate use. Three distinct classes of polydrug use were identified: (1) Low-polydrug (n =491), (2) Opiates-polydrug (n =123), and (3) Alcohol-polydrug (n =213). There was a trend for the Low-polydrug class to demonstrate better functioning and safer injecting practices than the Opiates-polydrug and Alcohol-polydrug classes. Conclusion The results suggest that the majority of people accessing treatment who inject amphetamine as their primary drug of choice have a low probability of heroin or other opiate use. It is important that future research consider whether traditional harm minimisation strategies are appropriate for people who primarily inject amphetamine.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T13:57:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • Perceived risk and benefits of e-cigarette use among college students
    • Authors: Amy L. Copeland; MacKenzie R. Peltier; Krystal Waldo
      Pages: 31 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 71
      Author(s): Amy L. Copeland, MacKenzie R. Peltier, Krystal Waldo
      Recent data demonstrates that the use of e-cigarettes is growing, especially among college students and young adults. This trend is increasingly problematic, as many of these individuals report never using traditional tobacco cigarettes, but nevertheless are using e-cigarettes. The present study sought to develop the Risks and Benefits of E-cigarettes (RABE) questionnaire to assess the perceptions about e-cigarette use among college students. College students (N =734) completed the RABE via online survey. Principal components analysis yielded two reliable scales representing perceptions about e-cigarette use. Based on the two-factor solution, subscales were named according to item content. The resulting 30 items demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Risks scale α=0.92; Benefits scale α=0.89). Subsequent confirmatory factor analysis generally supported the 2-factor structure. As an initial measure of construct validity, scale scores were compared across smoking status groups. Smoking status groups were defined by the following: “e-cigarette users” were current daily users of e-cigarettes, “conventional smokers” were daily traditional cigarette users, and “dual users” were individuals who used both e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes daily. Scale scores for perceived Benefits of e-cigarette use differed significantly across groups (p <0.001), whereby students who reported using e-cigarettes or traditional cigarettes reported benefits associated with e-cigarette use. Scale scores for perceived Risks of e-cigarette use across smoking status groups did not significantly differ. The present results indicate that the RABE is a reliable instrument to measure college student's perceived risks and benefits of e-cigarettes.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T13:57:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • US adult tobacco users' absolute harm perceptions of traditional and
           alternative tobacco products, information-seeking behaviors, and
           (mis)beliefs about chemicals in tobacco products
    • Authors: Jennifer K. Bernat; Rebecca A. Ferrer; Katherine A. Margolis; Kelly D. Blake
      Pages: 38 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 71
      Author(s): Jennifer K. Bernat, Rebecca A. Ferrer, Katherine A. Margolis, Kelly D. Blake
      Introduction Harm perceptions about tobacco products may influence initiation, continued use, and cessation efforts. We assessed associations between adult traditional tobacco product use and absolute harm perceptions of traditional and alternative tobacco products. We also described the topics individuals looked for during their last search for information, their beliefs about chemicals in cigarettes/cigarette smoke, and how both relate to harm perceptions. Methods We ran multivariable models with jackknife replicate weights to analyze data from the 2015 administration of the National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey (N=3376). Results Compared to never users, individuals reported lower perceived levels of harm for products they use. Among current tobacco users, ethnicity, thinking about chemicals in tobacco, and information-seeking were all factors associated with tobacco product harm perceptions. In the full sample, some respondents reported searching for information about health effects and cessation and held misperceptions about the source of chemicals in tobacco. Conclusions This study fills a gap in the literature by assessing the absolute harm perceptions of a variety of traditional and alternative tobacco products. Harm perceptions vary among tobacco products, and the relationship among tobacco use, information seeking, thoughts about chemicals in tobacco products, and harm perceptions is complex. Data suggest that some individuals search for information about health effects and cessation and hold misperceptions about chemicals in tobacco products. Future inquiry could seek to understand the mechanisms that contribute to forming harm perceptions and beliefs about chemicals in tobacco products.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T13:57:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.02.027
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • Development and validation of a model to predict blood alcohol
           concentrations: Updating the NHTSA equation
    • Authors: Yiqi Zhang; Changxu Wu; Jingyan Wan
      Pages: 46 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 71
      Author(s): Yiqi Zhang, Changxu Wu, Jingyan Wan
      Objects To date, multiple models have been developed to estimate blood or breath alcohol concentration (BAC/BrAC). Several factors have been identified that affect the discrepancy between BACs/BrACs and retrospective estimation (eBAC) with existing equations. To the best of our knowledge, a model to quantify the effects of factors on the discrepancy between BAC/BrAC and eBAC is still nonexistent. The goal of this work was to develop a model to provide a more accurate retrospective estimation of breath alcohol concentration (eBAC). Method A laboratory study with alcohol consumption and a driving task was conducted with 30 participants (17 male and 13 female) to explore the factors that may contribute to the discrepancy between BrAC and eBAC obtained with existing models. A new eBAC model was developed to improve the estimation of BrAC by modeling effects of gender, weight, and the delay of BrAC measurement on the discrepancy. The validity of the model was tested and established with the data from the experiment conducted in this study and two published research studies, and compared with existing eBAC models. Results Results of the model validity examination indicated that the developed model had higher R squares and lower root-mean-squared errors (RMSE) in estimating BrAC in three experiments compared with the existing eBAC models, including the NHTSA equation, the Matthew equation, the Lewis equation, the Watson equation, and the Forrest equation. Conclusion The developed eBAC model had a better performance of BrAC estimation compared with existing eBAC models. The validation of the model with the data from three empirical studies indicated a high level of generalizability in estimating BrAC.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T14:02:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.02.022
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • Response Inhibition and Internet Gaming Disorder: A Meta-analysis
    • Authors: Evangelia Argyriou; Christopher B. Davison; Tayla T.C. Lee
      Pages: 54 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 71
      Author(s): Evangelia Argyriou, Christopher B. Davison, Tayla T.C. Lee
      Previous research has demonstrated that Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has multiple negative effects in psychological functioning and health. This makes the identification of its underpinnings, such as response inhibition, essential for the development of relevant interventions that target these core features of the disorder resulting in more effective treatment. Several empirical studies have evaluated the relationship between response inhibition deficits and IGD using neurocognitive tasks, but provided mixed results. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies using three neurocognitive tasks, the Go/No Go, the Stroop, and the Stop-Signal tasks, to integrate existing research and estimate the magnitude of this relationship. We found a medium overall effect size (d=0.56, 95% CI [0.32, 0.80]) indicating that compared with healthy individuals, individuals with IGD are more likely to exhibit impaired response inhibition. This finding is in alignment with literature on inhibition and addictive and impulsive behaviors, as well as with neuroimaging research. Theoretical implications regarding the conceptualization of IGD as a clinical disorder, shared commonalities with externalizing psychopathology, and clinical implications for treatment are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T14:02:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.02.026
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • Predicting drinking outcomes: Evidence from the United Kingdom Alcohol
           Treatment Trial (UKATT)
    • Authors: V. Dale; N. Heather; S. Adamson; S. Coulton; A. Copello; C. Godfrey; R. Hodgson; J. Orford; D. Raistrick; G. Tober
      Pages: 61 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 71
      Author(s): V. Dale, N. Heather, S. Adamson, S. Coulton, A. Copello, C. Godfrey, R. Hodgson, J. Orford, D. Raistrick, G. Tober
      Aims To explore client characteristics that predict drinking outcomes using data from the UK Alcohol Treatment Trial (UKATT). Methods Multiple linear regression was used to determine if there were any characteristics, measured before the start of treatment, that could predict drinking outcomes at three and 12months, as measured by percent day abstinent (PDA) and drinks per drinking day (DDD) over the preceding 90days. Results Lower baseline DDD score and greater confidence to resist drinking predicted lower DDD at both three and twelve months following entry to treatment. In addition to baseline PDA and having greater confidence to resist heavy drinking, female gender, aiming for abstinence, more satisfaction with family life and a social network that included less support for drinking were predictors of percent days abstinent. Conclusions Overall the strongest and most consistent predictors of outcome were confidence to avoid heavy drinking and social support for drinking. More predictors were identified for percent of days abstinent than for drinks per drinking day. For percent of days abstinent, a number of client characteristics at baseline consistently predicted outcome at both month three and month twelve.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T14:02:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.02.023
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks: Dose relationship with
           self-reported physiological stimulation and sedation side effects
    • Authors: Nicolas Droste; Amy Peacock; Raimondo Bruno; Amy Pennay; Lucy Zinkiewicz; Dan I. Lubman; Peter Miller
      Pages: 68 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 71
      Author(s): Nicolas Droste, Amy Peacock, Raimondo Bruno, Amy Pennay, Lucy Zinkiewicz, Dan I. Lubman, Peter Miller
      Background Negative physiological stimulation and sedation side effects are experienced by a significant proportion of consumers who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). Few studies have compared the frequency of side effects between sessions of AmED and sessions of alcohol only within-subject, and none have explored a dose relationship. Objectives Explore the occurrence of self-reported physiological stimulant and sedative side effects between sessions of AmED and alcohol only, and at varying ED dosage levels within AmED sessions. Methods A convenience sample of 2953 residents of New South Wales, Australia completed an online survey. N =731 AmED users reported daily caffeine intake, typical alcohol and AmED consumption, and past 12-month experience of physiological stimulation and sedation side effects during AmED and alcohol only sessions. Within-subject analyses compared occurrence of side effects between session types. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analyses explored the association of ED dose during AmED sessions with the experience of physiological side effects. Results There were greater odds of most stimulant side effects, and lower odds of sedation side effects, during AmED sessions compared to alcohol only sessions. Compared to one ED, consumption of three or more EDs was significantly associated with the majority of both stimulant and alcohol intoxication side effects after controlling for demographics and consumption covariates. Conclusions AmED is associated with perceived changes in physiological stimulant and sedation side effects of alcohol. Experience of side effects is positively associated with ED dosage. Future research should account for varying ED dosage, and reflect real world consumption levels.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T14:02:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.02.031
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • Difficulties in emotion regulation mediate negative and positive affects
           and craving in alcoholic patients
    • Authors: Vahid Khosravani; Farangis Sharifi Bastan; Fatemeh Ghorbani; Zoleikha Kamali
      Pages: 75 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 71
      Author(s): Vahid Khosravani, Farangis Sharifi Bastan, Fatemeh Ghorbani, Zoleikha Kamali
      The aim of this study was to assess the mediating effects of difficulties in emotion regulation (DER) on the relations of negative and positive affects to craving in alcoholic patients. 205 treatment-seeking alcoholic outpatients were included. DER, positive and negative affects as well as craving were evaluated by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Positive/Negative Affect Scales, and the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) respectively. Clinical factors including depression and severity of alcohol dependence were investigated by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) respectively. Results revealed that both increased negative affect and decreased positive affect indirectly influenced craving through limited access to emotion regulation strategies. It was concluded that limited access to emotion regulation strategies may be important in predicting craving for alcoholics who experience both increased negative affect and decreased positive affect. This suggests that treatment and prevention efforts focused on increasing positive affect, decreasing negative affect and teaching effective regulation strategies may be critical in reducing craving in alcoholic patients.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T14:02:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.02.029
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • Effectiveness of a selective alcohol prevention program targeting
           personality risk factors: Results of interaction analyses
    • Authors: Jeroen Lammers; Ferry Goossens; Patricia Conrod; Rutger Engels; Reinout W. Wiers; Marloes Kleinjan
      Pages: 82 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 71
      Author(s): Jeroen Lammers, Ferry Goossens, Patricia Conrod, Rutger Engels, Reinout W. Wiers, Marloes Kleinjan
      Aim To explore whether specific groups of adolescents (i.e., scoring high on personality risk traits, having a lower education level, or being male) benefit more from the Preventure intervention with regard to curbing their drinking behaviour. Design A clustered randomized controlled trial, with participants randomly assigned to a 2-session coping skills intervention or a control no-intervention condition. Setting Fifteen secondary schools throughout The Netherlands; 7 schools in the intervention and 8 schools in the control condition. Participants 699 adolescents aged 13–15; 343 allocated to the intervention and 356 to the control condition; with drinking experience and elevated scores in either negative thinking, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity or sensation seeking. Measurements Differential effectiveness of the Preventure program was examined for the personality traits group, education level and gender on past-month binge drinking (main outcome), binge frequency, alcohol use, alcohol frequency and problem drinking, at 12months post-intervention. Intervention and comparator Preventure is a selective school-based alcohol prevention programme targeting personality risk factors. The comparator was a no-intervention control. Findings Intervention effects were moderated by the personality traits group and by education level. More specifically, significant intervention effects were found on reducing alcohol use within the anxiety sensitivity group (OR=2.14, CI=1.40, 3.29) and reducing binge drinking (OR=1.76, CI=1.38, 2.24) and binge drinking frequency (β =0.24, p =0.04) within the sensation seeking group at 12months post-intervention. Also, lower educated young adolescents reduced binge drinking (OR=1.47, CI=1.14, 1.88), binge drinking frequency (β =0.25, p =0.04), alcohol use (OR=1.32, CI=1.06, 1.65) and alcohol use frequency (β =0.47, p =0.01), but not those in the higher education group. Post hoc latent-growth analyses revealed significant effects on the development of binge drinking (β =−0.19, p =0.02) and binge drinking frequency (β =−0.10, p =0.03) within the SS personality trait. Conclusions The alcohol selective prevention program Preventure appears to have effect on the prevalence of binge drinking and alcohol use among specific groups in young adolescents in the Netherlands, particularly the SS personality trait and lower educated adolescents.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T14:02:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.02.030
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • Predictors of tobacco abstinence in outpatient smokers with schizophrenia
           or bipolar disorder treated with varenicline and cognitive behavioral
           smoking cessation therapy
    • Authors: Randi M. Schuster; Corinne Cather; Gladys N. Pachas; Haiyue Zhang; Kristina M. Cieslak; Susanne S. Hoeppner; David Schoenfeld; A. Eden Evins
      Pages: 89 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 71
      Author(s): Randi M. Schuster, Corinne Cather, Gladys N. Pachas, Haiyue Zhang, Kristina M. Cieslak, Susanne S. Hoeppner, David Schoenfeld, A. Eden Evins
      Background The estimated mortality gap between those with and without serious mental illness (SMI) is increasing, now estimated at 28years, which is largely due to smoking-related diseases. Aims We sought to identify predictors of 14-day continuous abstinence in stable outpatient smokers with SMI. Method Adult smokers with schizophrenia spectrum (n =130) or bipolar disorder (n =23) were enrolled in a 12-week course of varenicline and cognitive-behavioral therapy for smoking cessation. Results Independent predictors of abstinence included reduction in withdrawal symptoms prior to the quit day, fewer cigarettes smoked per day at baseline, better baseline attention, remitted alcohol dependence, and lower expectation of peer support to aid quitting. Conclusions Interventions that consider these targets may improve smoking cessation outcomes in those with SMI.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T21:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.02.028
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • Delay discounting and impulsivity traits in young and older gambling
           disorder patients
    • Authors: Trevor Steward; Gemma Mestre-Bach; Fernando Fernández-Aranda; Roser Granero; José C. Perales; Juan Francisco Navas; Carles Soriano-Mas; Marta Baño; Jose A Fernández-Formoso; Virginia Martín-Romera; José M. Menchón; Susana Jiménez-Murcia
      Pages: 96 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 71
      Author(s): Trevor Steward, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Roser Granero, José C. Perales, Juan Francisco Navas, Carles Soriano-Mas, Marta Baño, Jose A Fernández-Formoso, Virginia Martín-Romera, José M. Menchón, Susana Jiménez-Murcia
      Background Impulsivity is understood to be a multidimensional construct involving aspects such as impulsive choice and impulsive traits. Delay discounting, the tendency to place greater value in immediate rewards over larger, long-term rewards, has been associated with maladaptive choices in gambling disorder (GD). Delay discounting is known to evolve with age; though no study to date has evaluated the interactions between impulsivity, GD severity and age in treatment-seeking patients. Objectives We aimed to examine whether associations between delay discounting and impulsivity traits differed between younger and older-aged GD patients. Secondly, we sought to untangle the mediating role of impulsivity in determining gambling behavior in these two age groups. Methods GD patients (N =335) were evaluated using the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale and a delay discounting task. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to explore associations between impulsivity measures and gambling severity in young (18–30years) and old (31–70) GD patients. Results No differences in delay discounting were found between young and old GD patients. Significant correlations between delay discounting and urgency levels (the tendency to act rashly under emotional states) were identified only in the young GD group. Path analyses also revealed both positive and negative urgency to be a mediator of GD severity levels in young GD patients. Discussion and conclusions Significant associations between impulsive choice and positive urgency are only present in young gamblers, suggesting that positive urgency influence choice behavior to a greater degree at younger ages. Implications for targeted interventions are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T21:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • No evidence of compensatory drug use risk behavior among heroin users
           after receiving take-home naloxone
    • Authors: Jermaine D. Jones; Aimee Campbell; Verena E. Metz; Sandra D. Comer
      Pages: 104 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 71
      Author(s): Jermaine D. Jones, Aimee Campbell, Verena E. Metz, Sandra D. Comer
      Introduction Some fear that distribution of naloxone to persons at risk of experiencing an opioid overdose may reduce the perceived negative consequences of drug use, leading to riskier patterns of use. This study assessed whether participation in naloxone/overdose training altered drug use frequency, quantity or severity among heroin users in and out of treatment. Methods Clinical interviews were performed assessing patterns of heroin and other drug use prior to, and at multiple timepoints after overdose education and naloxone training. This study compared baseline drug use to that at 1 and 3months post training. Results Both current heroin users (n =61) and former users in agonist maintenance (n =69) typically showed decreases in heroin and polydrug use at both 1 and 3months after training. The Addiction Severity Index drug composite score also decreased at follow up. Conclusions This analysis found no evidence of compensatory drug use following naloxone/overdose training among two groups of heroin users. These findings support the acceptance and expansion of naloxone distribution to at-risk populations and may assist in allaying concerns about the potential for unintended negative consequences on drug use.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T20:51:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • Gender-related psychopathology in opioid use disorder: Results from a
           representative sample of Italian addiction services
    • Authors: Beniamino Leone; Marco Di Nicola; Lorenzo Moccia; Mauro Pettorruso; Luisa De Risio; Giuseppe Nucara; Lorenzo Zamboni; Antonino Callea; Luigi Janiri; Mauro Cibin; Fabio Lugoboni
      Pages: 107 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 71
      Author(s): Beniamino Leone, Marco Di Nicola, Lorenzo Moccia, Mauro Pettorruso, Luisa De Risio, Giuseppe Nucara, Lorenzo Zamboni, Antonino Callea, Luigi Janiri, Mauro Cibin, Fabio Lugoboni
      Aims Gender and psychiatric comorbidity seem to influence patients' inter-individual response to Opioid Substitution Treatments (OST) in Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) management. The aim of the study was to assess psychopathological dimensions in an Italian sample of OUD individuals entering a methadone/buprenorphine maintenance program; secondary, we evaluated the possible gender-specific differences within the psychopathological profiles. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we recruited 1052 (792 male; 260 female) OUD subjects receiving OST. All patients underwent a clinical and psychometric evaluation assessing demographics, psychiatric history, psychopathological features via the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and were prescribed psychopharmacological treatments. Results Our results reveal gender-specific differences in a real-world sample of opioid-maintained OUD individuals attending public addiction services in Italy. Compared to men, women reported higher scores in both General Symptomatic Index (GSI) and in all the SCL-90-R sub-scales. No impact of pharmacological treatment was detected. Finally, regression analysis revealed that being in methadone-maintenance group was significantly associated with high GSI scores in the male, but not female, group. Conclusions Increasing the knowledge of psychopathological dimensions in patients with OST, with relevance to gender differences, is important for a better understanding of factors that influence the outcome and for further development in gender-tailored strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T20:51:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • Computer tablet or telephone? A randomised controlled trial exploring two
           methods of collecting data from drug and alcohol outpatients
    • Authors: Breanne Hobden; Jamie Bryant; Mariko Carey; Rob Sanson-Fisher; Christopher Oldmeadow
      Pages: 111 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 71
      Author(s): Breanne Hobden, Jamie Bryant, Mariko Carey, Rob Sanson-Fisher, Christopher Oldmeadow
      Objective Both computerised and telephone surveys have potential advantages for research data collection. The current study aimed to determine the: (i) feasibility, (ii) acceptability, and (iii) cost per completed survey of computer tablet versus telephone data collection for clients attending an outpatient drug and alcohol treatment clinic. Design Two-arm randomised controlled trial. Method Clients attending a drug and alcohol outpatient clinic in New South Wales, Australia, were randomised to complete a baseline survey via computer tablet in the clinic or via telephone interview within two weeks of their appointment. All participants completed a three-month follow-up survey via telephone. Results Consent and completion rates for the baseline survey were significantly higher in the computer tablet condition. The time taken to complete the computer tablet survey was lower (11min) than the telephone condition (17min). There were no differences in the proportion of consenters or completed follow-up surveys between the two conditions at the 3-month follow-up. Acceptability was high across both modes of data collection. The cost of the computer tablet condition was $67.52 greater per completed survey than the telephone condition. Conclusion There is a trade-off between computer tablet and telephone data collection. While both data collection methods were acceptable to participants, the computer tablet condition resulted in higher consent and completion rates at baseline, therefore yielding greater external validity, and was quicker for participants to complete. Telephone data collection was however, more cost-effective. Researchers should carefully consider the mode of data collection that suits individual study needs.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T20:51:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • Monetary costs of multiple medication use for the treatment of individuals
           in recovery from chemical dependency
    • Authors: Corry D. Bondi; Clinton P. Kassi; Erica L. Loadman; Khalid M. Kamal; Vincent J. Giannetti
      Pages: 118 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 71
      Author(s): Corry D. Bondi, Clinton P. Kassi, Erica L. Loadman, Khalid M. Kamal, Vincent J. Giannetti

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T20:51:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • What parents can do to keep their children from smoking: A systematic
           review on smoking-specific parenting strategies and smoking onset
    • Authors: Marieke Hiemstra; Rebecca N.H. de Leeuw; Rutger C.M.E. Engels; Roy Otten
      Pages: 107 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Addictive Behaviors, Volume 70
      Author(s): Marieke Hiemstra, Rebecca N.H. de Leeuw, Rutger C.M.E. Engels, Roy Otten
      Aim To provide a systematic overview of longitudinal studies on different smoking-specific parenting practices (i.e., perceived parental norms and influences, smoking-specific monitoring, availability of cigarettes at home, household smoking rules, non-smoking agreements, smoking-specific communication, and parental reactions) as useful tools in the prevention of youth smoking. Method MEDLINE and PsychINFO search identified 986 studies published from 1990 to December 2016. Two independent researchers identified eligible studies. Study quality was assessed using Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS). Results The systematic search resulted in 1 to 14 longitudinal studies per parenting practice. Studies scored between 4 and 9 on the NOS, indicating an overall moderate quality. The results of complete smoking house rules showed a preventive effect on smoking onset. Furthermore, availability of cigarettes, frequency and quality of communication, parental reaction (i.e., conflict engagement) and norms showed significant and non-significant effects. Significant results were in line with expectations: availability of cigarettes and frequent communication about smoking predicted smoking, whereas a high quality of communication, negative reactions or punishments and setting norms by parents showed a preventive effect. No effects were found for non-smoking agreements. The number of studies was too limited to draw conclusions about other parenting strategies. More research on (1) reliable and valid instruments, (2) other stages of smoking in addition to onset, and (3) potential moderators and mediators is warranted. Conclusion While evidence supports the effectiveness of smoking-specific parenting, further research is required.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T20:51:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 70 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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