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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3161 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3161 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 96, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 421, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 276, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 403, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 358, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 463, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Ad Hoc Networks
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.53
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 11  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1570-8705
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • More efficient key establishment protocol for smart grid communications:
           design and experimental evaluation on ARM-based hardware
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Dariush Abbasinezhad-Mood, Morteza Nikooghadam, Sayyed Majid Mazinani, Abolfazl Babamohammadi, Arezou Ostad-Sharif The aging infrastructure of the existing power grid is envisioned to be replaced by smart grid. The main achievement of this new technology is the bidirectional digital communications. These types of communications are susceptible to numerous security threats. The key establishment protocols play a vital role in offering the secure communication channels. Hereupon, in recent years, a number of key establishment protocols have been suggested to be used in the context of smart grid. Nonetheless, delving into the existing protocols of this field demonstrates that the secure schemes are not quite lightweight to be used by the resource-constrained smart meters and most of the recently-published ones are insecure against well-known attacks. Therefore, to remedy these challenges, this paper proposes a novel key establishment protocol that not only is secure under the strict Canetti and Krawczyk threat model, but also is more efficient in terms of both running time and communication overhead than the protocols presented thus far. The security analysis, which is done in both a descriptive informal manner and using an automatic formal verifier, together with an exhaustive comparative efficiency analysis confirm the claim of this paper. Moreover, to give realistic running time on a proper hardware for the smart meters, we have taken the advantage of an ARM microcontroller from the STM Company in order to implement the different cryptographic elements, which are used in the proposed scheme, and to evaluate its efficiency under two use case scenarios. We hope that the achieved results be beneficial for similar future researches in this field.
  • Distributed task allocation algorithm based on connected dominating set
           for WSANs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Yu Guo, Yun Zhang, Zhenqiang Mi, Yang Yang, Mohammad S. Obaidat Proper allocation of tasks between actors is one of the critical issues for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs), which can improve the execution efficiency of the network, prolong the network life and so on. Traditional task allocation algorithms assume that the underlying network of the wireless systems are always connected, thus the only thing they should consider is how to improve the performance of task allocation. However, due to the movements of the actors, the assumption is hard to come into existence in WSANs. To solve this problem, we proposed a task allocation algorithm named MIA-TA in this paper. This approach consists of two stages. We apply the improved connected dominating set (CDS) formation algorithm MIA to construct the backbone of the network firstly. Tasks are assigned on the basic of CDS in the second stage. By considering the network conditions of executor’s leave and arrive positions, we can ensure the entire network’s connectivity. Simulation results confirm that MIA-TA algorithm can be used to solve both task allocation and connectivity maintenance problems with reasonable movements and messages generated in the whole process.
  • Enhanced Cooperative Group Localization with identification of LOS/NLOS
           BSs in 5G Dense Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Leïla Gazzah, Leïla Najjar Many technologies in 5G networks, such as massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO), and device-to-device (D2D) communication capabilities as well as the high mobile stations (MSs) density, are beneficial for implementing the accurate locations of MSs.This paper envisages seamless localization in the era of 5G in which MSs use D2D communications, to determine their locations in a cooperative method. An improved cooperative scheme, referred to as Enhanced Cooperative Group Localization (ECGL), is proposed which reduces connectivity constraints and combines received signal strength/angle of arrival (RSS/AOA). Through massive MIMO, the directional measurement between BSs and MSs (AOA measurement) is enhanced, which would increase the localization accuracy. Also, the technologies of dense networks adopted in 5G lead to a large number of LOS links. As will be seen, such conditions help to increase the probability of detection of LOS and consequently to ameliorate the performance of the ECGL scheme.
  • QoE-driven Resource Allocation for Massive Video Distribution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Luca De Cicco, Saverio Mascolo, Vittorio Palmisano Massive video delivery systems employ the HTTP protocol and multiple Content Delivery Networks (CDNs), which serve the content to the end-users on behalf of the video providers and guarantee scalability and Quality of Experience (QoE). In this paper, a Video Control Plane (VCP) is presented which monitors the QoE delivered by any of the CDN belonging to its pool and selects the most performing one when a new video request is received. The VCP employs a continuously updated prediction of the CDNs performances based on the feedback sent by the video clients and computed through a k-NN regression algorithm. The proposed VCP has been evaluated through simulations and shows significant performance improvement in terms of QoE delivered to the user.
  • Light-Weight Hashing Method for User Authentication in Internet-of-Things
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Vidya Rao, Prema K V The goal of Internet-of-Things(IoT) is that every object across the globe be interconnected under the Internet Infrastructure. IoT is expanding its application domain to range from environmental monitoring to industrial automation thereby leading to vast research challenges. Vast presence of devices in the Internet has increased the possible challenges faced by devices and data. The devices communicate on a public channel that is more likely to be accessed by unauthorized users and disturb the privacy of genuine users. The existing solutions that ensure data authenticity and user privacy, use MD5 and SHA-family of hashing algorithms under digital signature schemes. These algorithms create a trade-off between the security concern and energy consumption of IoT devices. To provide an energy efficient authentication method, we propose a customized BLAKE2b hashing algorithm with modified elliptic curve digital signature scheme (ECDSA). The parameters considered for the evaluation of the proposed methods are signature generation time, signature verification time and hashing time. The experiments are conducted under client server model using Raspberry Pi-3. The proposed method has shown about 0.7% to 1.91% improvement in the signature generation time and 7.67 % to 9.13 % improvement in signature verification time when compared with BLAKE2b based signature generation/verification. The proposed method is resistant to Man-in-the-Middle attack, Distributed DoS attack (DDoS), pre-image resistance, second pre-image resistance and collision resistance. Based on the performance obtained by the experiments, it can be inferred that the proposed scheme is feasible for resource-constrained IoT devices.
  • Synchronization of Data Measurements in Wireless Sensor Networks for IoT
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Konstantinos Skiadopoulos, Athanasios Tsipis, Konstantinos Giannakis, George Koufoudakis, Eleni Christopoulou, Konstantinos Oikonomou, George Kormentzas, Ioannis Stavrakakis Time synchronization is a challenging problem for wireless sensor networks, as clocks deviate and sensor measurements need to be associated with the reference clock time they took place. In Internet of Things (IoT) environments, crucial factors like energy, robustness, limited capabilities and extreme ambient conditions (e.g., when nodes are deployed in soil) lead researchers to consider various schemes of relaxing the synchronization requirements. In this paper, a lightweight synchronization algorithm is proposed for wireless sensor networks, focusing on synchronizing the particular measurements in a per hop basis as they are transmitted encapsulated in data packets towards the sink node. The aim is to synchronize data measurements instead of node clocks, and thereby, induce negligible extra overhead, since extra messages and re-synchronization periods are not required. The analysis of the proposed algorithm regarding time deviation and the corresponding variance shows a dependency on residual time (i.e., the particular time period a data packet remains within a node), distance (i.e., the number of hops between the sink node and the sensor node that sensed the data in the first place) and the average skew deviation value. Various simulations were carried out aiming to exhibit thoroughly the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, as well as the validation of the analytical results. Findings from a comparison between the proposed algorithm and a traditional synchronization algorithm along with their simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can be a suitable solution for demanding environments like IoT systems.
  • Prominent Unicast Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Criterion,
           Classification, and Key Attributes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Trilok Kumar Saini, Subhash C. Sharma Mobile ad hoc networks are decentralized networks in which participating nodes are mobile, small form-factor, equipped with the wireless interface, and have forwarding capabilities. These self-organized networks extend limited wireless range by the provision of multi-hop arrangements on the fly without any central administrator. In order to facilitate communication in a dynamic multi-hop wireless environment, routing protocols are essential to discover routes between nodes that are arbitrarily located and can move dynamically. Routing protocols are intended to discover the correct and efficient route in a timely manner so that information could be delivered to the desired destination node. Routing protocols are the backbone of the mobile ad hoc networks and are challenging to design. Several works have been proposed on routing, and systematic representation of these proposals is desirable. In this paper, we provide a survey of the wide range of routing proposals in the last twenty years for the mobile ad hoc network. We device many categories and classification criteria untouched in most of the surveys. This survey paper gives a key overview of the protocols, also classifies and arranges the routing protocols for logical illustration. Protocol classification in the paper assists to systematically access a large set of protocols and highlights the research trends in the domain.
  • Efficient Data Collection and Tracking with Flying Drones
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Christelle Caillouet, Frédéric Giroire, Tahiry Razafindralambo Data collection is an important mechanism for wireless sensor networks to be viable. This paper addresses the Aerial Data Collection Problem (ADCP) from a set of mobile wireless sensors located on the ground, using a fleet of flying devices. The objective is i) to deploy a set of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in a 3D space to cover and collect data from all the mobile wireless sensors at each time step through a ground-to-air communication, ii) to send these data to a central base station using multi-hop wireless air-to-air communications through the network of UAVs, iii) while minimizing the total deployment cost (communication and deployment) over time. The Aerial Data Collection Problem (ADCP) is a complex time and space coverage, and connectivity problem. We first present a mixed-integer linear program solving ADCP optimally for small instances. Then, we develop a second model solved by column generation for larger instances, with optimal or heuristic pricing programs. Results show that our approach provides very accurate solutions minimizing the data collection cost. Moreover, only a very small number of columns are generated throughout the resolution process, showing the efficiency of our approach.
  • Study about vehicles velocities using time causal Information Theory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Mauricio J. Silva, Tamer S.G. Cavalcante, Osvaldo A. Rosso, Joel J.P.C. Rodrigues, Ricardo A.R. Oliveira, Andre L.L. Aquino New proposals of applications and protocols for vehicular networks appear every day. It is crucial to evaluate, test and validate these proposals on a large scale before deploying them in the real world. Simulation is by far the preferred method by the researchers to evaluate their proposals in a scalable way with low costs. It is known, in vehicular network simulators, that realistic mobility models are the foremost requirement to make reliable evaluations. However, until then, the proposed mobility models are based on stochastic processes, introducing white noise in their formulations, which do not correspond to reality. This work presents the characterization of global, daily and hourly vehicles behavior through their velocities in different real scenarios. To perform this characterization was used the Bandt-Pompe methodology applied to time series from vehicular velocities. Then, the probability histogram was assigned to the following Information Theory quantifiers: Shannon Entropy, Statistical Complexity, and Fisher Information Measure. The application of this methodology, based on time causal information theory quantifiers, was possible to identify different regimes and behaviors. The results show that the vehicles velocities present correlated noise with f−k Power Spectrum ranging between 2.5 ≤ k ≤ 3 for highways traffic, 1.5 ≤ k ≤ 2 for mixed traffic, and 0.25 ≤ k ≤ 1 for denser traffic. Additionally, by using the same methodology, we verify that the mobility models used in simulation tools do not produce the same vehicular velocities dynamics observed in real scenarios, the best one presents a correlated noise with f−k Power Spectrum ranging between 0 ≤ k ≤ 2.5, for all traffic analyzed. These results suggest that these models must be improved.
  • Special Issue on Security of IoT-enabled Infrastructures in Smart Cities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Ali Ismail Awad, Steven Furnell, Abbas M. Hassan, Theo Tryfonas
  • An automatic restoration scheme for switch-based networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Jacques Carlier, Joel Lattmann, Jean-Luc Lutton, Dritan Nace, Thanh Son Pham This paper presents a fully automated distributed resilient routing scheme for switch-based or new generation router based networks. The failure treatment is done locally and other nodes in the network do not need to undertake special actions. In contrast to conventional IP routing schemes, each node routes the traffic on the basis of the entering arc and of the destination. The resulting constraint is that two flows to the same destination entering in a node by a common arc have to merge after this arc. It is shown that this is sufficient for dealing with all single link failure situations, assuming that the network is symmetric and two-link connected. Two heuristic approaches are proposed to handle the corresponding dimensioning problem for large network instances. The proposed method generalizes some methods of literature [6, 8] and provides more cost-efficient solutions.
  • Distributed Signal Processing for Dense 5G IoT Platforms: Networking,
           Synchronization, Interference Detection and Radio Sensing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Gloria Soatti, Stefano Savazzi, Monica Nicoli, Maria Antonieta Alvarez, Sanaz Kianoush, Vittorio Rampa, Umberto Spagnolini Driven by the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0), future and emerging Internet of Things (IoT) technologies will be required to support unprecedented services and demanding applications for massive machine-type connectivity, with low latency, high reliability and distributed information processing capability. In this article, distributed signal processing methodologies are highlighted as enablers for next generation cloud-assisted IoT systems. The proposed distributed algorithms run inside a wireless cloud network (WCN) platform and are exploited for WCN self-organization, distributed synchronization, networking and sensing. The WCN can lease augmented communication and sensing services to off-the-shelf industrial wireless devices via a dense, self-organizing “cloud” of wireless nodes. The paper introduces, at first, the WCN architecture and illustrates an experimental case study inside a pilot industrial plant. Next, it proposes a re-design of consensus-based algorithms for enabling a selected set of distributed information processing functionalities within the WCN platform, with application in practical IoT scenarios. In particular, cooperative communication algorithms are adopted to support reliable communication services. Distributed timing and carrier frequency offset estimation methods are investigated to enable low-latency services through accurate synchronization. Autonomous identification of recurring interference patterns is proposed for multiple access coordination in the shared 5G spectrum. Finally, localization and vision applications based on distributed processing of wireless signals are investigated to support contact-free human-machine interfaces.
  • Recent advances on security and privacy in Intelligent Transportation
           Systems (ITSs)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Sedjelmaci Hichem, Sidi Mohammed Senouci, Nirwan Ansari, Mubashir Husain Rehmani
  • Minimizing end-to-end delay in multi-hop wireless networks with optimized
           transmission scheduling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Antonio Capone, Yuan Li, Michał Pióro, Di Yuan The problem of transmission scheduling in single hop and multi-hop wireless networks has been extensively studied. The focus has been on optimizing the efficiency of transmission parallelization, through a minimum-length schedule that meets a given set of traffic demands using the smallest possible number of time slots. Each time slot is associated with a set of transmissions that are compatible with each other according to the considered interference model. The minimum-length approach maximizes the resource reuse, but it does not ensure minimum end-to-end packet delay for multiple source-destination pairs, due to its inherent assumption of frame periodicity. In the paper we study the problem of transmission scheduling and routing aiming at minimizing the end-to-end delay under the signal-to-interference-and-noise-ratio (SINR) model for multi-hop networks. Two schemes are investigated. The first scheme departs from the conventional scheduling approach, by addressing explicitly end-to-end delay and removing the restriction of frame periodicity. The second scheme extends the first one by featuring cooperative forwarding and forward interference cancellation. We study the properties of the two schemes, and propose novel mixed-integer programming models and solution algorithms. Extensive results are provided to gain insights on how the schemes perform in end-to-end delay.
  • A Macroscopic Traffic Model-based Approach for Sybil Attack Detection in
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Marwane AYAIDA, Nadhir MESSAI, Sameh NAJEH, Kouamé Boris NDJORE Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are expected to play an important role in our lives. They will improve traffic safety and bring a revolution on the driving experience. However, these benefits are counterbalanced by possible attacks that threaten not only the vehicle’s security, but also passengers lives. One of the most common ones is the Sybil attack, which is more dangerous than others since it could be the starting point of many other attacks in VANETs. This paper proposes a distributed approach allowing the detection of Sybil attacks using the traffic flow theory. The key idea here is that each vehicle will monitor its neighbourhood in order to detect an eventual Sybil attack. This is achieved by comparing between the real accurate speed of the vehicle and the one estimated using the V2V communications with vehicles in the vicinity. This estimated speed is obtained using the traffic flow fundamental diagram of the road’s portion where the vehicles are moving.A mathematical model that evaluates the rate of Sybil attack detection according to the traffic density is proposed. Then, this model is validated through some extensive simulations conducted using the well-known NS3 network simulator together with SUMO traffic simulator.
  • Code-based physical layer secret key generation in passive optical
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Marco Baldi, Franco Chiaraluce, Lorenzo Incipini, Marco Ruffini To guarantee secure transmissions is an important target of passive optical networks (PONs). Modern standards for PONs, however, impose the adoption of symmetric encryption algorithms in downstream but do not do the same in upstream, where the secret keys may be transmitted in clear. Because of non-ideal optical network components, this exposes the PON to the risk of eavesdropping. In this paper, a novel technique for securely generating and sharing secret keys in passive optical networks is proposed. It exploits randomness at the physical layer and key distillation based on coding techniques. The main attack strategies are considered and the design parameters of the proposed protocol are discussed, both in analytical terms and through numerical examples. The cost in terms of complexity with respect to standard approaches affected by possible vulnerabilities is also assessed.
  • Collaborative Spatial Reuse in Wireless Networks via Selfish Multi-Armed
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Francesc Wilhelmi, Cristina Cano, Gergely Neu, Boris Bellalta, Anders Jonsson, Sergio Barrachina-Muñoz Next-generation wireless deployments are characterized by being dense and uncoordinated, which often leads to inefficient use of resources and poor performance. To solve this, we envision the utilization of completely decentralized mechanisms to enable Spatial Reuse (SR). In particular, we focus on dynamic channel selection and Transmission Power Control (TPC). We rely on Reinforcement Learning (RL), and more specifically on Multi-Armed Bandits (MABs), to allow networks to learn their best configuration. In this work, we study the exploration-exploitation trade-off by means of the ε-greedy, EXP3, UCB and Thompson sampling action-selection, and compare their performance. In addition, we study the implications of selecting actions simultaneously in an adversarial setting (i.e., concurrently), and compare it with a sequential approach. Our results show that optimal proportional fairness can be achieved, even when no information about neighboring networks is available to the learners and Wireless Networks (WNs) operate selfishly. However, there is high temporal variability in the throughput experienced by the individual networks, especially for ε-greedy and EXP3. These strategies, contrary to UCB and Thompson sampling, base their operation on the absolute experienced reward, rather than on its distribution. We identify the cause of this variability to be the adversarial setting of our setup in which the set of most played actions provide intermittent good/poor performance depending on the neighboring decisions. We also show that learning sequentially, even if using a selfish strategy, contributes to minimize this variability. The sequential approach is therefore shown to effectively deal with the challenges posed by the adversarial settings that are typically found in decentralized WNs.
  • Self-Calibration Methods for Uncontrolled Environments in Sensor Networks:
           A Reference Survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Jose M. Barcelo-Ordinas, Messaud Doudou, Jorge Garcia-Vidal, Nadjib Badache Growing progress in sensor technology has constantly expanded the number and range of low-cost, small, and portable sensors on the market, increasing the number and type of physical phenomena that can be measured with wirelessly connected sensors. Large-scale deployments of wireless sensor networks (WSN) involving hundreds or thousands of devices and limited budgets often constrain the choice of sensing hardware, which generally has reduced accuracy, precision, and reliability. Therefore, it is challenging to achieve good data quality and maintain error-free measurements during the whole system lifetime. Self-calibration or recalibration in ad hoc sensor networks to preserve data quality is essential, yet challenging, for several reasons, such as the existence of random noise and the absence of suitable general models. Calibration performed in the field, without accurate and controlled instrumentation, is said to be in an uncontrolled environment. This paper provides current and fundamental self-calibration approaches and models for wireless sensor networks in uncontrolled environments.
  • Machine Learning Based Smart Steering for Wireless Mesh Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Bulut Kuskonmaz, Huseyin Ozkan, Ozgur Gurbuz Steering actions in wireless mesh networks refer to requesting clients to change their access points (AP) for better exploiting the mesh network and achieving higher quality connections. However, steering actions for especially the sticky clients do not always successfully produce the intended outcome. In this work, we address this issue from a machine learning perspective as we formulate a classification problem in both batch (SVM) and online (kernel perceptron) setting based on various network features. We train classifiers to learn the nonlinear regions of correct decisions to maximize the overall success probability in steering actions. In particular, the presented online kernel perceptron classifier (1) performs learning sequentially at the cloud from the entire data of multiple mesh networks and (2) operates at APs for steering; both are executed in real-time. The presented algorithm is completely data driven, adaptive, optimal in its steering and real-time, hence named as Online Machine Learning for Smart Steering. Our batch algorithm is observed in our experiments to achieve -at least- 95% of classification accuracy in identifying the conditions for successful steering. Our online algorithm -on the other hand- successfully approximates the baseline accuracy by a small margin with relatively negligible space and computational complexity, allowing real-time steering.
  • Analysis of a S-TDMA Distributed Scheduler for Ad-Hoc Cellular-V2X
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Laurent Gallo, Jérôme Härri The cellular industry recently proposed a Long Term Evolution (LTE) extension supporting direct Vehicle to Everything (V2X) communication in full ad-hoc mode. Without infrastructure support, a distributed scheduler will play a critical role to the performance of such Cellular-V2X (C-V2X) technology. Self-Organizing TDMA (S-TDMA) is a reliable semi-deterministic and context aware distributed channel access algorithm, which has been considered by European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI) as an attractive alternative to its WiFi-V2X standard, ITS-G5.In this paper, we describe S-TDMA, and present an analytical model to determine its packet reception performance. We then describe and analyze the performance of a distributed Cellular-V2X scheduler based on S-TDMA. We notably illustrate half-duplex issues impacting its performance in a C-V2X context, and propose two extensions to mitigate them. We finally compare their performance against each other, confirming S-TDMA’s potential as distributed scheduler for the future cellular-based V2X technology.
  • An Intrusion Detection System for Connected Vehicles in Smart Cities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Moayad Aloqaily, Safa Otoum, Ismaeel Al Ridhawi, Yaser Jararweh In the very near future, transportation will go through a transitional period that will shape the industry beyond recognition. Smart vehicles have played a significant role in the advancement of intelligent and connected transportation systems. Continuous vehicular cloud service availability in smart cities is becoming a crucial subscriber necessity which requires improvement in the vehicular service management architecture. Moreover, as smart cities continue to deploy diversified technologies to achieve assorted and high-performance cloud services, security issues with regards to communicating entities which share personal requester information still prevails. To mitigate these concerns, we introduce an automated secure continuous cloud service availability framework for smart connected vehicles that enables an intrusion detection mechanism against security attacks and provides services that meet users’ quality of service (QoS) and quality of experience (QoE) requirements. Continuous service availability is achieved by clustering smart vehicles into service-specific clusters. Cluster heads are selected for communication purposes with trusted third-party entities (TTPs) acting as mediators between service requesters and providers. The most optimal services are then delivered from the selected service providers to the requesters. Furthermore, intrusion detection is accomplished through a three-phase data traffic analysis, reduction, and classification technique used to identify positive trusted service requests against false requests that may occur during intrusion attacks. The solution adopts deep belief and decision tree machine learning mechanisms used for data reduction and classification purposes, respectively. The framework is validated through simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of the solution in terms of intrusion attack detection. The proposed solution achieved an overall accuracy of 99.43% with 99.92% detection rate and 0.96% false positive and false negative rate of 1.53%.
  • Decentralized and Resource-efficient Self-Calibration of Visual Sensor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Jennifer Simonjan, Bernhard Rinner Many multi-camera applications rely on the knowledge of the spatial relationship among the individual nodes. However, establishing such a network-wide calibration is typically a time-consuming task and requires user interaction. In this paper we present a decentralized and resource-aware algorithm for estimating the poses of all network nodes without any user interaction. This self-calibration of the network is achieved in two steps: First, overlapping camera pairs estimate relative positions and orientations by exchanging locally measured distances and angles to detected objects. Second, calibration information of overlapping cameras is spread throughout the network such that poses of non-overlapping cameras can also be estimated. Our approach does not rely on a priori topological information and delivers the extrinsic camera parameters with respect to a common coordinate system. In a simulation study we analyze the performance of our approach concerning the achieved spatial accuracy and computational effort considering noisy measurements and different communication schemes.
  • Optimization and non-cooperative game of anonymity updating in vehicular
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Jian Wang, Nan He, Fang Mei, Daxin Tian, Yuming Ge In vehicular ad-hoc networks, a large number of vehicles in mix-zones can increase privacy but at the expense of losing communication quality. Thus, it is necessary to harmonize these two conflicting goals for privacy protection. In this study, we propose an internal optimization model and an external anonymity updating game to cross-layer joint the physical layers transmit power and MAC layers delay into a two-step non-cooperative game model, by which the communication and privacy players respectively enjoy one utility function. The first step is to establish an internal optimal model aiming to balance privacy and delay, where we can obtain the optimal transmit power. The optimal number of neighbor vehicles can be obtained by selecting the transmitting power, which can be used as the input of the second step. For the second step, we present a non-cooperative external anonymity updating game model to analyze the non-cooperative behavior of vehicles, all of which together strive to maximize the utility function at the minimum cost. We analyze the Nash equilibrium in n-player complete information game, we also derive the pure strategy Nash equilibrium. Extensive numerical calculations are conducted to comprehensively investigate the reaction of the Nash equilibrium to various combinations of parameters. The results show that the two-step non-cooperative game of anonymity updating is capable of self-adapting to the vehicular context and improving the privacy without compromising on communication quality.
  • A Festschrift on the occasion of the 75th birthday of Prof. Anthony
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 May 2019Source: Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 88Author(s):
  • Analytical Models of Floating Content in a Vehicular Urban Environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Gaetano Manzo, Marco Ajmone Marsan, Gianluca A. Rizzo Among the proposed opportunistic content sharing services, Floating Content (FC) is of special interest for the vehicular environment, not only for cellular traffic offloading, but also as a natural communication paradigm for location-based context-aware vehicular applications. Previously published results on the performance of vehicular FC have focused on content persistence, without addressing other important aspects of vehicular FC performance, such as the effectiveness with which content is replicated and made available, and the system conditions that enable good FC performance. This work presents a first analytical model of FC performance in vehicular networks in urban settings. It is based on a variation of the random waypoint (RWP) mobility model, and it does not require a model of the road grid geometry for its parametrization. We validate our model extensively, through numerical simulations on real-world traces, showing its accuracy on a variety of mobility patterns and traffic conditions. Through analysis and simulations, we show the feasibility of the FC paradigm in realistic urban settings over a wide range of traffic conditions.
  • Personal tributes to Mario Gerla
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Melodia Tommaso
  • Efficient Broadcast in Opportunistic Networks using Optimal Stopping
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2019Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Carlos Borrego, Joan Borrell, Sergi Robles In this paper, we present a broadcast dissemination protocol for messages in opportunistic networks (OppNet) that is efficient in terms of energy consumption and network capacity usage, while not increasing the number of excluded nodes (nodes not receiving messages). The majority of the OppNet broadcast delivery schemes proposed in the literature, do not take into consideration that reducing energy and buffer usage is of paramount importance in these wireless networks normally consisting of small devices. In our protocol, broadcast messages are limited by carefully selecting their prospective forwarders (storers). The keystone of our protocol is the use of Optimal Stopping Theory, which selects the best message storers at every stage of the algorithm, while holding back broad message dissemination until convenient conditions are met. The broadcast efficiency of the proposed protocol out competes other OppNet broadcast proposals in four well-known scenarios. Furthermore, the protocol reduces the number of both dropped messages and nodes not receiving messages, thus maximising network capacity usage, and the span of the message delivery.
  • Special Issue: Advances and Trends on Cognitive Cyber-Physical Systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): FLAVIA C. DELICATO, XIAOKANG ZHOU, KEVIN WANG, SONG GUO
  • Quality Enhancement with fault tolerant embedding in video transmission
           over WMSNs in 802.11e WLAN
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Praveen Kumar K, Govindaraj E With the ever-growing demand in video transmissions, it is essential to design an efficient compression and powerful transmission scheme to transmit a large volume of data in wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs). The main objective of this work is to maximize the network throughput and to maintain/support a better visual experience to different end-users. In this paper, we propose a predictive compression with fault-tolerant embedding based multi-path routing and concealment process to maintain the Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) in video transmission. In order to reduce the bit rate in high-efficiency videos, a Scalable High-efficiency Inter-layer Prediction based Video coding (SHIPVC) is proposed with two layer predictions such as texture color, and motion with different quantization parameters to attain the high coding efficiency. After compression, a multi-path genetic algorithm establishes a routing and fault tolerance embedding during transmission to maintain the QoS. In decoding side, QoE is maintained by concealing the Intra frame (I-frame) and Predicted frame (P-frame) separately using the motion vector estimation. Experimental results show better performances through bit rate reduction, maximum fault tolerance, and minimum delay parameters. The PSNR calculation for concealment technique shows the better result when compared to the previous standards. Hence, the proposed method performs the effective video transmission with acceptable quality measurements in WMSNs.
  • Personal tributes to Anthony Ephremides
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Jeff Wieselthier
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Jeffrey E. Wieselthier, Leandros Tassiulas, John C. Malone, Eytan Modiano
  • A Review on Safety Failures, Security Attacks, and Available
           Countermeasures for Autonomous Vehicles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Jin Cui, Lin Shen Liew, Giedre Sabaliauskaite, Fengjun Zhou Autonomous vehicles (AVs) attract a lot of attention recently. They are expected to assist/replace the human drivers in maneuvering the vehicle, thereby reducing the likelihood of road accidents caused by human error, as a means to improve the road traffic safety. However, AVs have their inherent safety and security challenges, which have to be addressed before they are ready for wide adoption. This paper presents an overview of recent research on AV safety failures and security attacks, as well as the available safety and security countermeasures.
  • Celebrating Professor Mario Gerla 75th birthday
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Melodia Tommaso
  • Network Bottlenecks in OLSR Based Ad-hoc Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Nadav Schweitzer, Ariel Stulman, Tirza Hirst, Roy David Margalit, Asaf Shabtai All nefarious players must be able to maximize profit on an attack. In the context of communication networks, part of that need translates to finding the best topological location for the attack. While in static networks this is an easily solvable problem, in mobile ad-hoc networks (manet) having constant topology fluctuations, this becomes a formidable task. Highly important asset nodes are those having numerous paths traversing through them, with bottlenecks being nodes that all data must pass through. Once such nodes are compromised, the damage can be catastrophic. Hence, network defenders must also find these nodes so they can be better protected.In this paper we propose a method that ensures finding such bottleneck nodes (assuming one exists) in olsr based manet, with linear cost. This is accomplished without adding overhead on the network. We experiment and compare, using network simulation tools, multiple types of attackers over a diverse set of topologies.
  • Investigating Physical Security in Stealthy Lattice Wireless Sensor
           Networks Using k-Barrier Coverage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Habib M. Ammari Any unauthorized access to a critical space is a physical breach in our society that can be viewed as a physical security problem. It is essential to build a barrier that prevents any intruder's attempt to cross it and access a critical area. In this paper, we address the problem of physical security in stealthy lattice wireless sensor networks using a belt of sensors around a critical area. Precisely, we propose a theoretical framework to analyze the k-barrier coverage problem, where any path that crosses this belt intersects with the sensing range of at least k sensors, k ≥ 1. Precisely, we analyze the k-barrier coverage problem from a tiling perspective, where the sensors’ sensing disks are tangential to each other. We study two deterministic sensor deployment strategies, which yield square lattice and hexagonal lattice wireless sensor networks, respectively. First, we introduce the concept of intruder's abstract paths along a k-barrier covered sensor belt region, and compute their number. Second, we propose a polynomial representation of all abstract paths. Third, we compute the number of sensors deployed over a k-barrier covered sensor belt region for both lattices. Fourth, we define the concept of weakly k-barrier covered path crossing a k-barrier covered sensor belt region, and compute its length for both lattices. Also, we define the observability of intruder's abstract path, and compute its value for both lattices. Fifth, we generalize our results for random intruder's moves across a k-barrier covered sensor belt region. Sixth, we corroborate our analysis with simulation results.
  • An adaptive energy aware strategy based on game theory to add privacy in
           the physical layer for Cognitive WSNs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Elena Romero, Javier Blesa, Alvaro Araujo The expansion of big data and the evolution of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies will play an important role in the feasibility of Smart City initiatives. In this IoT network infrastructure Cognitive Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), as a network of nodes that work in a cooperative way to sense the spectrum and control the environment surrounding them, are one of the main technologies. Security and privacy appear as key aspects for the development of new applications and services. In this work we propose a novel artificial noise generation strategy based on game theory in order to improve the security against privacy attacks in CWSNs. Artificial noise generation consists in introducing interferences in the spectrum in order to mask the real information. The decision whether or not to introduce artificial noise is modeled through a light non-cooperative game designed for low-resources networks that balance security enhancement and energy consumption. We show, using several simulations, that even with a cognitive attacker our strategy has reduced the information obtained by the attacker (Secrecy Outage Probability) to a value under 10%. The overhead (energy consumption and spectrum occupancy) of the strategy has also been deeply analyzed. All possible cases our approach provides better results, in the ratio energy consumption - security, than not using the strategy or using a random noise generation strategy. Also, although the saturation of the radio spectrum is strongly affected, the reliability of the network is maintained in 95% of application packages received. Therefore, we can conclude that an improvement of the privacy in the physical layer is obtained, taking into account energy consumption and maintaining levels of spectrum saturation suitable for the application proposes.
  • Efficient Certificate Revocation Management Schemes for IoT-based Advanced
           Metering Infrastructures in Smart Cities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Mumin Cebe, Kemal Akkaya Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), which refers to the communication network for the collection of power data from smart meters in a Smart Grid, is expected to be used in the service of many Smart City applications such as gas and water data collection or electric vehicle charging. As the communication within the AMI needs to be secure to protect user’s power data, key management becomes a challenge due to its overhead and limited resources on smart meters. While using public-keys eliminate some of the overhead of key management as opposed to symmetric-key management, there are still challenges regarding the management of certificates that store and certify the public-keys. In particular, distribution and storage of certificate revocation list (CRL) is major a challenge due to cost of distribution and storage in AMI networks which is envisioned to utilize wireless mesh networks. Motivated by the need of keeping the CRL distribution and storage cost effective and scalable, in this paper, we present a distributed CRL management scheme by utilizing distributed hash trees (DHTs) that have been heavily employed in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. The basic idea is to share the burden of storage of CRLs among all the smart meters by exploiting the convenient wireless communication capability of the smart meters among each other. Using DHTs not only reduces the space requirements for CRLs but also makes the CRL updates more convenient. We implemented DHT-based CRL structure both on ns-3 and testbed using IEEE 802.11s mesh standard as a model for AMI and demonstrated its superior performance with respect to traditional methods of CRL management through extensive simulations.
  • DoS-resilient Cooperative Beacon Verification for Vehicular Communication
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Hongyu Jin, Panos Papadimitratos Authenticated safety beacons in Vehicular Communication (VC) systems ensure awareness among neighboring vehicles. However, the verification of beacon signatures introduces significant processing overhead for resource-constrained vehicular On-Board Units (OBUs). Even worse in dense neighborhood or when a clogging Denial of Service (DoS) attack is mounted. The OBU would fail to verify for all received (authentic or fictitious) beacons. This could significantly delay the verifications of authentic beacons or even affect the awareness of neighboring vehicle status. In this paper, we propose an efficient cooperative beacon verification scheme leveraging efficient symmetric key based authentication on top of pseudonymous authentication (based on traditional public key cryptography), providing efficient discovery of authentic beacons among a pool of received authentic and fictitious beacons, and can significantly decrease waiting times of beacons in queue before their validations. We show with simulation results that our scheme can guarantee low waiting times for received beacons even in high neighbor density situations and under DoS attacks, under which a traditional scheme would not be workable.
  • Energy Efficient Cross-layer Approach for Object Security of CoAP for IoT
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Rizwan Hamid Randhawa, Abdul Hameed, Adnan Noor Mian CoAP is an application layer protocol designed for resource-constrained devices in Internet-of-Things (IoT). Object Security of CoAP (OSCoAP) is an IETF draft for addressing security issues with CoAP messages that can arise with the use of intermediate proxies. These proxies are employed for better performance, scalability and offloading expensive operations. OSCoAP adopts the counter with cipher block chaining message authentication code (CCM) mode of authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD) that simultaneously ensures confidentiality, integrity, and authentication of the messages. The current implementation of CCM for OSCoAP is carried out in software. In this paper, we propose a cross-layer approach towards exploiting the CCM for OSCoAP using mac-layer security suite in IoT devices. The motivation is based on the fact that most of these devices are equipped with 802.15.4 radio chips. The IEEE 802.15.4 standard mandates the availability of some security features for mac-layer encryption in these radio chips including the CCM. We propose an algorithm that takes advantage of these on-board features by efficiently implementing the CCM operations for OSCoAP. The results show that our implementation of CCM is memory efficient, save up to 10 times more energy, improves battery life by 30% and is 37% faster than state of the art software implementation of CCM for OSCoAP.
  • A Secure and Robust Scheme for Sharing Confidential Information in IoT
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Lake Bu, Mihailo Isakov, Michel A. Kinsy In Internet of Things (IoT) systems with security demands, there is often a need to distribute sensitive information (such as encryption keys, digital signatures, or login credentials etc.) to the devices, so that it can be retrieved for confidential purposes at a later moment. However, this piece of information cannot be entrusted to any individual device, since the malfunction of one device will jeopardize the security of the entire network. Even if the information is split among the devices, there is still a danger when attackers compromise a group of them. Therefore we have designed and implemented a secure and robust scheme to facilitate the sharing of sensitive information in IoT networks. This solution provides two important features: 1) This scheme uses Threshold Secret Sharing (TSS) to split the information into shares to be kept by all devices in the system. And so the information can only be retrieved collaboratively by groups of devices. 2) This scheme ensures the privacy and integrity of that piece of information even when there is a large amount of sophisticated and collusive attackers who can hijack the devices. It is able to identify all the compromised devices, while still keeping the secret unknown and unforgeable to attackers.
  • Network Intrusion Detection System for UAV Ad-hoc Communication From
           methodology design to real test validation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Jean-Philippe Condomines, Ruohao Zhang, Nicolas Larrieu The use of a swarm of low-cost, mission-specific drones to form a Flying Ad-hoc Network (FANET) has literally become a ’hotspot’ in the drone community. A number of studies have been conducted on how to achieve a FANET, but few have considered the security perspectives of this subject. FANET’s unique features have made it difficult to strengthen its defense against ever-changing security threats. Today, more and more FANET applications are implemented into civil airspace, but the development of FANET security has remained unsatisfactory. In this paper, we try to address this issue by proposing a new Intrusion Detection System (IDS), an hybrid method based on both spectral traffic analysis and a robust controller / observer for anomaly estimation inside UAV networks. The proposed hybrid method considers, as a preliminary step, a statistical signature of the traffic exchanged in the network. By examining the resulted signatures, the differences are used to select the accurate model for accurate estimation of that abnormal traffic. The proposed IDS design has been successfully applied to some relevant practical problems such as ad hoc networks for aerial vehicles, and the effectiveness is illustrated by using real traffic traces including Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. Our first results show promising perspectives for Intrusion Detection System (IDS) in UAV communication networks. Indeed, different types of anomaly have been considered and they are all accurately detected by the intrusion detection process we propose in this paper. Finally, both simulation-based validation and real-time real-world based implementation of our IDS are described in this article.
  • Efficient DCT-based Secret Key Generation for the Internet of Things
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): George Margelis, Xenofon Fafoutis, George Oikonomou, Robert Piechocki, Theo Tryfonas, Paul Thomas Cryptography is one of the most widely employed means to ensure confidentiality in the Internet of Things (IoT). Establishing cryptographically secure links between IoT devices requires the prior consensus to a secret encryption key. Yet, IoT devices are resource-constrained and cannot employ traditional key distribution schemes. As a result, there is a growing interest in generating secret random keys locally, using the shared randomness of the communicating channel. This article presents a secret key generation scheme, named SKYGlow, which is targeted at resource-constrained IoT platforms and tested on devices that employ IEEE 802.15.4 radios. We first examine the practical upper bounds of the number of secret bits that can be extracted from a message exchange. We contrast these upper bounds with the current state-of-the-art, and elaborate on the workings of the proposed scheme. SKYGlow applies the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) on channel observations of exchanged messages to reduce mismatches and increase correlation between the generated secret bits. We validate the performance of SKYGlow in both indoor and outdoor scenarios, at 2.4 GHz and 868 MHz respectively. The results suggest that SKYGlow can create secret 128-bit keys of 0.9978 bits entropy with just 65 packet exchanges, outperforming the state-of-the-art in terms of energy efficiency.
  • The Impact of ECDSA in a VANET routing service: Insights from Real Data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Pedro Cirne, André Zúquete, Susana Sargento, Miguel Luís Both the WAVE IEEE 1609.2 standard in USA and the ETSI ITS security standards in Europe rely on the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) to authenticate messages exchanged among vehicles. Although being faster than other equivalent algorithms, the ECDSA computational cost nevertheless affects the message validation throughput. Even worse, the number of messages that a device has to authenticate may easily exhaust its computational limits.In this article, we evaluated the impact caused by ECDSA authentication of messages of the multi-hop routing control plane used in a real Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET). Such control plane uses periodic vicinity updates to keep accurate, distributed routing paths, and ECDSA-based validation delays may force to discard many of such updates.To perform the evaluation of the impact imposed by ECDSA we considered the multiple curve parameters associated to WAVE and ETSI ITS, their implementation by different cryptographic libraries and their performance in distinct hardware. We took as reference for traffic to be authenticated with ECDSA a day-long set of messages of a VANET routing control plane. These messages were inferred from connectivity status samples from all mobile nodes of a real VANET. Emulation results with those messages show that, without high-end computing devices, ECDSA authentication would have a substantial negative impact in the routing service of the tested VANET.
  • Pairing-based Authentication Protocol for V2G Networks in Smart Grid
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Luis Fernando Arias Roman, Paulo R.L. Gondim, Jaime Lloret Vehicle to Grid (V2G) network is a very important component for Smart Grid (SG), as it offers new services that help the optimization of both supply and demand of energy in the SG network and provide mobile distributed capacity of battery storage for minimizing the dependency of non-renewable energy sources. However, the privacy and anonymity of users’ identity, confidentiality of the transmitted data and location of the Electric Vehicle (EV) must be guaranteed. This article proposes a pairing-based authentication protocol that guarantees confidentiality of communications, protects the identities of EV users and prevents attackers from tracking the vehicle. Results from computing and communications performance analyses were better in comparison to other protocols, thus overcoming signalling congestion and reducing bandwidth consumption. The protocol protects EVs from various known attacks and its formal security analysis revealed it achieves the security goals.
  • Apparatus: A Framework for Security Analysis in Internet of Things Systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Orestis Mavropoulos, Haralambos Mouratidis, Andrew Fish, Emmanouil Panaousis Internet of Things (IoT) systems are ubiquitous, highly complex and dynamic event-based systems. These characteristics make their security analysis challenging. Security in IoT requires domain-specific methodologies and tools. The proposed methodologies need to be able to capture information from software and hardware constructs to security and social constructs. In this paper, in addition to refining the modeling language of the Apparatus Framework, we propose a class-based notation of the modeling language and a structured approach to transition between different models. Apparatus is a security framework developed to facilitate security analysis in IoT systems. We demonstrate the application of the framework by analyzing the security of smart public transport system. The security analysis and visualization of the system are facilitated by a software application that is developed as part of the Apparatus Framework.
  • An Efficient Privacy-Preserving Protocol for Database-driven Cognitive
           Radio Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Yali Zeng, Li Xu, Xu Yang, Xun Yi Cognitive radio is regarded as a promising technology for remedying spectrum shortage and improving spectrum utilization. However, database-driven cognitive radio networks (CRNs) are vulnerable to a series of security attacks and privacy threats, especially the privacy breach of secondary users (SUs). In this paper, we propose an efficient privacy-preserving protocol to protect the identity and trajectory privacy of each SU and to prevent the database (DB) from tracing any SU. Besides, this paper also aims at improving the efficiency of authentication and channel allocation to offer the best connectivity to SUs wherever they are and at any time. Taking advantage of the elliptic curve cryptography technique, our protocol achieves the mutual authentication between SUs and base stations (BSs), which enhances the security of CRNs communication. Based on channel pre-allocation to BSs, our protocol reduces the latency of obtaining available channels for SUs. Moreover, our protocol exploits reputation to motivate SUs to be honest and thus increases the utilization of the limited spectrum resources. The results of security analysis show that our protocol provides strong privacy preservation for SUs that the DB cannot get the entire trajectory of any SU, even the DB colludes with all BSs. Furthermore, the results also show that the proposed protocol can resist various types of attacks. The results of performance evaluation indicate the efficiency of the proposed privacy-preserving protocol.
  • On Trust Models for Communication Security in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Na Fan, Chase Q. Wu Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) are prone to various network attacks due to its open, dynamic, and distributed nature. It is of increasing importance to assess the trustworthiness of vehicle nodes and messages for communication security in such networks. In this paper, we propose an integrated security scheme to help nodes in VANETs identify the legitimacy of messages for proper decision making. Within the proposed scheme, we first construct trust models to quantify the direct and indirect reputation of a participating node. Particularly, we use the certain-factor model to measure the node’s direct reputation by observing its communication behavior, and synthesize the information from the node’s neighbors and road side unit (RSU) reports to determine its indirect reputation. Both types of reputation are then combined using the uncertain deductive method. Based on these trust models, we further design an attribute-weighted K-means method to identify legitimate messages and a routing method for message delivery in VANETs. We also design and incorporate a dynamic game model-based incentive mechanism to encourage nodes to take cooperative actions and restrain them from selfish behaviors. Extensive simulations show that the proposed security scheme exhibits superior performances over existing methods in alleviating negative effects caused by selfish or malicious nodes.
  • Efficient and Privacy Preserving Supplier Matching for Electric Vehicle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Fatih Yucel, Kemal Akkaya, Eyuphan Bulut Electric Vehicle (EV) charging takes longer time and happens more frequently compared to refueling of fossil-based vehicles. This requires in-advance scheduling on charging stations depending on the route of the demander EVs for efficient resource allocation. However, such scheduling and frequent charging may leak sensitive information about the users which may expose their driving patterns, whereabouts, schedules, etc. The situation is compounded with the proliferation of EV chargers such as V2V charging where any two EVs can charge each other through a charging cable. In such cases, the matching of these EVs is typically done in a centralized manner which exposes private information to third parties which do the matching. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose an efficient and privacy-preserving distributed matching of demander EVs with charge suppliers (i.e., public/private stations, V2V chargers) using bichromatic mutual nearest neighbor (BMNN) assignments. To this end, we use partially homomorphic encryption-based BMNN computation through local communication (e.g., DSRC or LTE-direct) between users while hiding their locations. The proposed matching algorithm provides not only a satisfactory assignment for all parties but also achieves an efficient matching in dynamic environments where new demanders and suppliers show up and some leave. The simulation results indicate that the proposed matching of suppliers and demanders can be achieved in a distributed fashion within reasonable computation and convergence times while preserving privacy of users. Moreover, due to the nature of its design, it provides a more efficient matching process for dynamic environments compared to standard stable matching algorithm, reducing the average waiting time for users until matching.
  • ACPC: Efficient revocation of pseudonym certificates using activation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2018Source: Ad Hoc NetworksAuthor(s): Marcos Vinicius M. Silva, Marcos A. Simplicio, Jefferson E. Ricardini, Eduardo Lopes Cominetti, Harsh Kupwade Patil Vehicular communication (V2X) technologies allow vehicles to exchange information about the road conditions and their own status, and thereby enhance transportation safety and efficiency. For broader deployment, however, such technologies are expected to address security and privacy concerns, preventing abuse by users and by the system’s entities. In particular, the system is expected to enable the revocation of malicious vehicles, e.g., in case they send invalid information to their peers or to the roadside infrastructure; it should also prevent the system from being misused for tracking honest vehicles. Both features are enabled by Vehicular Public Key Infrastructure (VPKI) solutions such as Security Credential Management Systems (SCMS), one of the leading candidates for protecting V2X communication in the United States. Unfortunately, though, SCMS’s original revocation mechanism can lead to large Certification Revocation Lists (CRLs), which in turn impacts the bandwidth usage and processing overhead of the system. In this article, we propose a novel design called Activation Codes for Pseudonym Certificates (ACPC), which can be integrated into SCMS to address this issue. Our proposal is based on activation codes, short bit-strings without which certificates previously issued to a vehicle cannot be used by the latter, which are periodically distributed to non-revoked vehicles using an efficient broadcast mechanism. As a result, the identifiers of the corresponding certificates do no need to remain on the CRL for a long time, reducing the CRLs’ size and streamlining their distribution and verification of any vehicle’s revocation status. Besides describing ACPC in detail, we also compare it to similar-purpose solutions such as Issue First Activate Later (IFAL) and Binary Hash Tree based Certificate Access Management (BCAM). This analysis shows that our proposal not only improves privacy (e.g., in terms of resilience against colluding system authorities), but also leads to processing and bandwidth overheads that are orders of magnitude smaller than those observed in the state of the art.
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