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Showing 1 - 200 of 3031 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 79, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 389, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Ad Hoc Networks
  [SJR: 0.967]   [H-I: 57]   [11 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1570-8705
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Predicting encounter and colocation events
    • Authors: Karim Karamat Jahromi; Matteo Zignani; Sabrina Gaito; Gian Paolo Rossi
      Pages: 11 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Karim Karamat Jahromi, Matteo Zignani, Sabrina Gaito, Gian Paolo Rossi
      Although an extensive literature has been devoted to mine and model mobility features, forecasting where, when and whom people will encounter/colocate still deserve further research efforts. Forecasting people’s encounter and colocation features is the key point for the success of many applications ranging from epidemiology to the design of new networking paradigms and services such as delay tolerant and opportunistic networks. While many algorithms which rely on both mobility and social information have been proposed, we propose a novel encounter and colocation predictive model which predicts user’s encounter and colocation events and their features by exploiting the spatio-temporal regularity in the history of these events. We adopt a weighted features Bayesian predictor and evaluate its accuracy on two large scales WiFi and cellular datasets. Results show that our approach could improve prediction accuracy w.r.t standard naïve Bayesian and some of the state of the art predictors.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T20:27:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • Cognitive Channel Selection and Scheduling for Multi-Channel Dynamic
           Spectrum Access Networks Considering QoS Levels
    • Authors: Gulnur Selda Uyanik; Sema Oktug
      Pages: 22 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Gulnur Selda Uyanik, Sema Oktug
      Dynamic spectrum access (DSA) networks are composed of unprivileged users, called secondary users (SUs), that utilize the spectrum opportunities produced by the absence of co-located privileged primary users (PUs) via their cognitive capabilities. Providing a certain level of quality of service (QoS) to these users is a very challenging problem whilst providing protection to licensed PUs and contenting with nearby SUs. Even though centralized solutions may lead to better solutions in terms of network efficiency, the dynamic nature of DSA networks make the distributed solution approaches more attractive. In this paper, we present a fast, distributed, PU temporal-activity-estimation-aided spectrum assignment scheme for a multi-channel DSA system, including several multi-interface capable SUs with traffic demands at differentiated QoS levels. We first developed the proposed cognitive channel selection method, considering a simplified network having single channel and investigated its performance. Second, considering multi-channel environment, along with contending multi-SUs each of which can utilize multiple channels using their multi-interface property, we adopted the designed algorithm and coupled the proposed spectrum selection scheme with a distributed spectrum sharing mechanism that we devised to increase the overall network utility further. We modeled our scheme along with the network model using MATLAB® and evaluated its performance via several simulations. The extensive simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed channel assignment scheme in terms of the Figure of Merit we defined, composed of the weighted sum of the throughput ratio values for packets of different QoS levels that successfully reached at the destination. The results also show the superior performance of the proposed scheme with respect to a native scheme that utilizes every spectrum opportunity in favor of the most demanding traffic flow.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T20:27:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 62 (2017)
  • On the design of an embedded wireless sensor network for aircraft
           vibration monitoring using efficient game theoretic based MAC protocol
    • Authors: Dhouha Krichen; Walid Abdallah; Noureddine Boudriga
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 61
      Author(s): Dhouha Krichen, Walid Abdallah, Noureddine Boudriga
      This paper presents the design of a wireless sensor network architecture suitable for monitoring vibration on an aircraft. The main objective is to improve the flight safety by detecting vibration intensity among all the components of the airplane structure and communicating this information to the cockpit computer to react before any component can reach resonance. Therefore, the study of sensor nodes deployment for specific types of airplanes and the definition of appropriate network topology are conducted. Furthermore, to enhance the responsiveness of the structural health monitoring system, a medium access protocol based on game theory was developed. The main idea is to adjust the wake time period of a sensor node according to the sensed vibration level. This parameter will be used to configure the game-based medium access protocol. The performance evaluation work shows that the proposed vibration and game-based communication scheme enhances the transmission efficiency as it reduces the packet loss and the average transmission delay.

      PubDate: 2017-03-22T10:55:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2017)
  • Bypassing holes in sensor networks: Load-balance vs. latency
    • Authors: Fan Zhou; Goce Trajcevski; Roberto Tamassia; Besim Avci; Ashfaq Khokhar; Peter Scheuermann
      Pages: 16 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 61
      Author(s): Fan Zhou, Goce Trajcevski, Roberto Tamassia, Besim Avci, Ashfaq Khokhar, Peter Scheuermann
      This work addresses problems that arise when geographic routing is used in the presence of holes in wireless sensor networks. We postulate that relying on the existing algorithms for bypassing a coverage hole may cause more severe depletion of the energy reserves among the nodes at (or near) that hole’s boundary. This, in turn, will render some of those nodes useless for any routing (and/or sensing) purposes, thereby effectively enlarging the size of existing hole and inducing longer communication delays for certain (source, sink) pairs. We propose heuristics that address these complementary problems: (1) relieving some of the routing-load for the nodes around the boundary of a given hole, for the purpose of extending their lifetime; and (2) reducing the latency of the packets-delivery by using routes that are within certain bounds from the route based on the shortest-path. Our approaches are based on the idea that some of the packets that would (otherwise) need to be routed along the boundary of a given hole, should instead start to deviate from their original path further away from that hole. To investigate the potential benefits, we introduce approximations of the hole’s boundary with a rectangle, a circle and an ellipse, respectively. We derive the bounds on reducing the routing latency for these three approximations. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed approaches not only increase the lifetime of the nodes along the boundary of a given hole and yield a more uniform depletion of the energy reserves in its vicinity, but also reduce the communication latency, compared to the traditional face routing.

      PubDate: 2017-03-22T10:55:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2017)
  • A survey of attacks and detection mechanisms on intelligent transportation
           systems: VANETs and IoV
    • Authors: Fatih Sakiz; Sevil Sen
      Pages: 33 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 61
      Author(s): Fatih Sakiz, Sevil Sen
      Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have become one of the most promising and fastest growing subsets of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). They are comprised of smart vehicles and roadside units (RSU) which communicate through unreliable wireless media. By their very nature, they are very susceptible to attacks which may result in life-endangering situations. Due to the potential for serious consequences, it is vital to develop security mechanisms in order to detect such attacks against VANETs. This paper aims to survey such possible attacks and the corresponding detection mechanisms that are proposed in the literature. The attacks are classified and explained along with their effects, and the solutions are presented together with their advantages and disadvantages. An evaluation and summary table which provides a holistic view of the solutions surveyed is also presented.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T11:44:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2017)
  • C-Sync: Counter-based synchronization for duty-cycled wireless sensor
    • Authors: Kok-Poh Ng; Charalampos Tsimenidis; Wai Lok Woo
      Pages: 51 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 61
      Author(s): Kok-Poh Ng, Charalampos Tsimenidis, Wai Lok Woo
      Different variants of synchronous duty-cycle MAC protocols have been designed for wireless sensor networks to reduce energy consumption. However, the synchronization process of these protocols remains a significant contributor to the energy consumption. In this paper, a new energy-efficient synchronization algorithm referred to as C-Sync is proposed. C-Sync reduces energy consumption by adaptively regulating the synchronization traffic and synchronization wakeup period based on the changing network neighborhood conditions through counter-based and exponential-smoothing algorithms. Extensive simulations of multi-hop multi-neighborhood network scenarios are performed using ns-2. We compare C-Sync with the fixed periodic synchronization (F-Sync) algorithm and the 1-Sync algorithm and show that C-Sync outperforms F-Sync and 1-Sync in energy-efficiency over a wide range of node densities, drift rates and duty cycles.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T11:44:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2017)
  • Optimized cost effective and energy efficient routing protocol for
           wireless body area networks
    • Authors: Navneet Kaur; Sukhwinder Singh
      Pages: 65 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 61
      Author(s): Navneet Kaur, Sukhwinder Singh
      The increase in average lifespan and huge costs for health treatments have resulted in cost effective solutions for healthcare management. Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a promising technology for delivering quality healthcare to its users. Low power devices attached to the body have limited battery life. It is desirable to have energy efficient routing protocols that maintain the required reliability value for sending the data from a given node to the sink. The current work proposes two protocols: Optimized Cost Effective and Energy Efficient Routing protocol (OCER) and Extended-OCER (E-OCER). In OCER, optimization using Genetic Algorithm (GA) is applied to the multi-objective cost function with residual energy, link reliability and path loss as its parameters for selecting the most optimal route from a given body coordinator to the sink. Distance between any two sensor nodes is reduced by applying multi-hop approach. E-OCER extends the work of OCER by considering inter-BAN communication. Performance of OCER is compared with other existing energy aware routing protocols by considering different parameters. A comparison of the performance of E-OCER with OCER is made to study the effect of on-body sensors communication on the energy consumption and throughput of the network. This paper also provides a comprehensive energy model to calculate the total energy consumption of the network. In addition to the radio transmission and receiving energy, other basic energy consumption sources viz. processing energy, sensor sensing, transient energy and transmission/reception on/off energy have also been taken into account. The results show an improved performance of the proposed protocols in terms of energy efficiency.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T00:54:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2017)
  • Securing multi-channel selection using distributed trust in cognitive
           radio ad hoc networks
    • Authors: Jingyu Feng; Xu Du; Guanghua Zhang; Wei Shi
      Pages: 85 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 61
      Author(s): Jingyu Feng, Xu Du, Guanghua Zhang, Wei Shi
      Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs) which are independent with infrastructure and fixed spectrum allocation policy, have been developed rapidly in the environment of scarce spectrum resources. However, the nature of multi-channel makes CRAHNs offers opportunities for malicious SUs. Cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) is the key function of CRAHNs to identify the idle spectrum as the available channel by aggregating sensing data. Malicious SUs can launch spectrum sensing data falsification (SSDF) attack against CSS, and thus causing the disturbance of finding multi-channel. Recently, a lot of efforts with trust schemes have been paid to combating SSDF attack in central cognitive radio environments, but little attention to the distributed environments. In this paper, we propose a distributed trust evaluation (DTE) scheme from the perspective of direct experience and neighbor help to counter SSDF attack, which can be implemented at each SU in CRAHNs rather than a central authority. To secure multi-channel selection fully, it is very important to avoid the conflict among SUs for competing idle channels. We also design a distributed trust implementation protocol to manage CSS with the DTE scheme in a distributed manner. Simulation results show that our scheme can successfully suppress SSDF attack at a low cost, and thus ensure the security of multi-channel selection in CRAHNs.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T00:54:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2017)
  • Comparison between TCP scheduling strategies in IEEE 802.11ac based
           wireless networks
    • Authors: Oran Sharon; Yaron Alpert
      Pages: 95 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 61
      Author(s): Oran Sharon, Yaron Alpert
      In this paper we investigate two models for traffic transmission of two Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connections with one connection in Uplink direction and the other in Downlink direction, between an Access Point and a station over an IEEE 802.11ac channel. In one model the traffic of the two connections is mapped to a single Traffic Stream, and in the second model the traffic of the two TCP connections is split into two different Traffic Streams. We assume Error-Free and Error-Prone channels, the Two-Level aggregation method and the Reverse Direction capability of IEEE 802.11ac. The Goodput of the two models is about the same, however, in the first model shorter dedicated transmission periods, denoted Transmission Opportunities (TXOP), are sufficient to achieve the optimal Goodput because TCP Acks are interleaved. Also, using Reverse Direction prevents collisions and improves the Goodput by 10 − 15 % over contension based access.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T00:54:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2017)
  • Distributed resource allocation in D2D communication networks with energy
           harvesting relays using stable matching
    • Authors: S. Kishk; N.H. Almofari; F.W. Zaki
      Pages: 114 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 61
      Author(s): S. Kishk, N.H. Almofari, F.W. Zaki
      Fifth Generation (5G) cellular networks are expected to provide high data rates by using emerging technologies such as multi-tier heterogeneous networks, Device to Device (D2D) communication and densification of small base stations. D2D uses direct transmission between two cellular devices to increase the system throughput. Relays are used to reduce the loss in user data rate when the D2D users are far from each other and the relay nodes are used to serve the cellular users when the channel is not good enough. To get good performance from D2D relay assisted network, suitable, robust and low complexity resource allocation algorithm must be used. In this paper, an algorithm for user association, resource blocks allocation and power control when considering the energy harvesting relays in heterogeneous multi-tier network is presented. This paper introduces a centralized solution using time sharing strategy and a distributed low complexity solution using stable matching theory.

      PubDate: 2017-04-05T00:54:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2017)
  • Multi-hop consensus time synchronization algorithm for sparse wireless
           sensor network: A distributed constraint-based dynamic programming
    • Authors: Niranjan Panigrahi; Pabitra Mohan Khilar
      Pages: 124 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 61
      Author(s): Niranjan Panigrahi, Pabitra Mohan Khilar
      The recent consensus time synchronization algorithms designed for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are mostly one-hop in nature, i.e., every node communicates with its one-hop neighbors and performs clock parameters averaging to reach to the consensus or synchronized state. As per consensus theory, apart from the averaging scheme employed by the consensus algorithm, another factor that affects the consensus-based algorithms’ performance is the topological connectivity of the networks. In topologies of lower degree of connectivity like sparse network, these one-hop consensus synchronization algorithms have exhibited poor performance in terms of convergence speed and synchronization accuracy. This motivates the design of multi-hop consensus time synchronization algorithm for sparse WSNs. In this paper, we have proposed a multi-hop consensus time synchronization algorithm, multi-hop Selective Average Time Synchronization (SATS), for sparse and multi-hop WSNs. A distributed, constraint-based dynamic programming approach is suggested for multi-hop clock parameters estimation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms some recent, state-of-the-art one-hop consensus time synchronization algorithms within a restricted hop count.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T01:46:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2017)
  • Wireless charging for weighted energy balance in populations of mobile
    • Authors: Sotiris Nikoletseas; Theofanis P. Raptis; Christoforos Raptopoulos
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 May 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 60
      Author(s): Sotiris Nikoletseas, Theofanis P. Raptis, Christoforos Raptopoulos
      Wireless energy transfer is an emerging technology that is used in networks of battery-powered devices in order to deliver energy and keep the network functional. Existing state-of-the-art studies have mainly focused on applying this technology on networks of relatively strong computational and communicational capabilities (wireless sensor networks, ad-hoc networks); also they assume energy transfer from special chargers to regular network nodes. Different from these works, we study how to efficiently transfer energy wirelessly in populations of battery-limited devices, towards prolonging their lifetime. In contrast to the state-of-the-art, we assume a much weaker population of distributed devices which are exchanging energy in a “peer to peer” manner with each other, without any special charger nodes. We address a quite general case of diverse energy levels and priorities in the network and study the problem of how the system can efficiently reach a weighted energy balance state distributively, under both loss-less and lossy power transfer assumptions. Three protocols are designed, analyzed and evaluated, achieving different performance trade-offs between energy balance quality, convergence time and energy efficiency.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2017)
  • Probability-based prediction query algorithm
    • Authors: Yushuang Yan; Qingqi Pei; Xiang Wang; Yong Wang
      Pages: 52 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 May 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 60
      Author(s): Yushuang Yan, Qingqi Pei, Xiang Wang, Yong Wang
      Advances in wireless communication and ubiquitous mobile networks have resulted in location-based services (LBSs) contributing significantly to entertainment services for mobile users by utilizing their location data. However, for the request of a mobile user with a limited time frame, such as “where is the gas station nearest to me? The anonymous server should return the optimal result to me within a few minutes,” the anonymous server immediately generates the cloaking region based on the user’s current location information and the k-anonymity requirement privacy level to ensure location privacy protection when receiving the LBS request in most existing approaches. Unfortunately, mobility by the mobile user could cause the smaller cloaking region generated by the server. The existing algorithm would return the sub-optimal cloaking region. This problem prompted us to develop a novel probability-based prediction query (PBPQ) algorithm. On the server side, our method firstly predicts the probability of the mobile user being on each road, followed the final probability of the user entering the cloaking region. Our proposed algorithm can generate the optimal cloaking region generated within the limited time required by users. The experimental results show that our PBPQ algorithm can predict the optimal cloaking region effectively at the highly successful rate of more than 90%. Thus, the PBPQ algorithm can decrease the size of the cloaking region considerably while maintaining good QoS.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T10:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2017)
  • A convex optimization model for topology control in
           network-coding-based-wireless-sensor networks
    • Authors: M. Khalily-Dermany; M. Shamsi; M.J. Nadjafi-Arani
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 59
      Author(s): M. Khalily-Dermany, M. Shamsi, M.J. Nadjafi-Arani
      The energy consumption is one of the most common issues in the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Since the communication usually accounts as a major power consumption, there is some techniques, such as topology control and network coding, to decrease the activity of sensors’ transceivers. If we utilize the techniques synchronously, then may overall performance do not increase as expected. This paper provides an optimization problem for energy consumption in WSNs, where the network employs both topology control and network-coding-based multi-cast simultaneously. This approach improves overall performance in comparison with employing them distinctly. The proposed optimization problem is transformed into a convex problem which leads to a numerous theoretical and conceptual advantages. Then the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) optimality conditions are presented to derive analytical expressions of the globally optimal solution. Simulation results show that the proposed approach decrease end-to-end delay and has a significantly lower energy consumption than conventional ones.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T10:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
  • Probabilistic modeling to achieve load balancing in Expert Clouds
    • Authors: Shiva Razzaghzadeh; Ahmad Habibizad Navin; Amir Masoud Rahmani; Mehdi Hosseinzadeh
      Pages: 12 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 59
      Author(s): Shiva Razzaghzadeh, Ahmad Habibizad Navin, Amir Masoud Rahmani, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh
      Expert Cloud as a new class of Cloud computing systems enables its users to request the skill, knowledge and expertise of people without any information of their location by employing Internet infrastructures and Cloud computing concepts. Effective load balancing in a heterogeneous distributed environment such as Cloud is important. Since the differences in the human resource (HRs) capabilities and the variety of users' requests causes that some HRs are overloaded and some others are idle. The task allocation to the HR based on the announced requirements by the user may cause the imbalanced load distribution among HRs as well. Hence resource management and scheduling are among the important cases to achieve load balancing. Using static and dynamic algorithms, the ant colony, and the method based on searching tree all are among the methods to achieve load balancing. This paper presents a new method in order to distribute the dynamic load based on distributed queues aware of service quality in the Cloud environment. In this method, we utilize the colorful ants as a ranking for making distinction among the HRs capabilities. In this paper, we perform the mapping among the tasks and HRs using allocating a label to each HR. We model the load balancing and mapping process based on Poisson and exponential distribution. This model allows us to allocate each task to the HR which is able to execute it with maximum power using the distributed queues aware of the service quality. Simulation results show that the expert Cloud can reduce the execution and tardiness time and improve HR utilization. The cost of using resources as an effective factor in load balancing is also observed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T10:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
  • An adaptive sinkhole aware algorithm in wireless sensor networks
    • Authors: Ghazaleh Jahandoust; Fatemeh Ghassemi
      Pages: 24 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 59
      Author(s): Ghazaleh Jahandoust, Fatemeh Ghassemi
      In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), nodes collectively collaborate to sense the environment and inform the base station. Sinkhole attack aims at attracting the traffic of nodes in its vicinity by advertising itself as the shortest path to the base station, and hence disturbs the functionality of such networks. We propose a distributed adaptive framework based on the subjective logic and probabilistic extension of timed automata to reason about the probability of each node being affected by sinkhole attacks. The outcome is announced to the nodes to adjust the probabilities of their next hops in the probabilistic extension of AODVv2-12 routing protocol to route packets over the most reliable nodes. The subjective logic models at the base station compute the probabilities iteratively based on positive and negative observations about the behaviors of nodes collected by the distributed monitor nodes or received data packets. To adaptively tune the parameters of positive and negative observations, an abstract probabilistic model based on timed automaton that captures the behavior of the whole network is generated at the runtime in the base station. The combination of the formal models results in an effective adaptive algorithm, robust to the dynamism of network, with low packet loss rate as the routes are selected over the reliable nodes. Furthermore, the false positive and false negative results reduce as the network converges.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T10:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
  • Enhancing privacy for ad hoc systems with predeployment key distribution
    • Authors: Marek Klonowski; Piotr Syga
      Pages: 35 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 59
      Author(s): Marek Klonowski, Piotr Syga
      Achieving security in distributed systems of constrained devices (like Wireless Sensor Networks) requires methods that can be performed while very limited computational, memory and communication resources are available. Moreover, while designing security protocols one needs take into account the adversary that can eavesdrop communication or compromise some of the devices. To achieve some level of security, two communicating devices need to establish a communication key. In the setting of severely constrained devices traditional methods are infeasible due to resource limitations, and one has to incorporate other security providing methods. One of the first such protocols has been introduced in  Eschenauer and Gligor [23]. The paper followed by dozens of others relies on probabilistic key sharing among the nodes before deployment (key predistribution) in the Ad Hoc environment. In our paper, we show that regular protocols of key predistribution designed primarily for providing confidentiality of communication do not provide privacy in many natural scenarios. More precisely, even a weak adversary may “link” transmissions of the same nodes. In particular even a passive adversary that is eavesdropping the communication can easily recognize whether the same devices start communication several times. Such information not only breaches nodes’ privacy but also can be a starting point for an more advanced attacks and can give significant information about network’s activity. We define several models of adversary and introduce some general methods that can be used for addressing this issue. For the model with weaker adversary we show how to fully secure the privacy in an efficient manner. For the case of stronger adversary, we propose a method based on local key exchange allowing mitigation of the privacy threat.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T10:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
  • Topology design and cross-layer optimization for wireless body sensor
    • Authors: Yang Zhou; Zhengguo Sheng; Chinmaya Mahapatra; Victor C.M. Leung; Peyman Servati
      Pages: 48 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 59
      Author(s): Yang Zhou, Zhengguo Sheng, Chinmaya Mahapatra, Victor C.M. Leung, Peyman Servati
      Wireless Body Sensor Networks play a crucial role in digital health care nowadays. Due to the size limitation on the sensor nodes and the life critical characteristics of the signals, there are stringent requirements on network’s reliability and energy efficiency. In this article, we propose a mathematical optimization problem that jointly considers network topology design and cross-layer optimization in WBSNs. We introduce multilevel primal and dual decomposition methods and manage to solve the proposed non-convex mixed-integer optimization problem. A solution with fast convergence rate based on binary search is provided. Simulation results have been supplemented to show that our proposed method yields much better performance than existing solutions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T10:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
  • A maximum flow algorithm based on storage time aggregated graph for
           delay-tolerant networks
    • Authors: Hongyan Li; Tao Zhang; Yangkun Zhang; Kan Wang; Jiandong Li
      Pages: 63 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 59
      Author(s): Hongyan Li, Tao Zhang, Yangkun Zhang, Kan Wang, Jiandong Li
      Delay-tolerant networks (DTNs) (e.g., Internet, satellite networks, sensor networks, ad hoc networks) have attracted considerable attentions in both academia and industry. As a fundamental problem, the maximum flow is of vital importance for routing and service scheduling in networks. For solving the maximum flow problem of the DTN, an appropriate model should be built first. Compared to the conventional snapshot approach to model the DTN topology, the time aggregated graph (TAG) is capable of accurately characterizing the intermittent connectivity and time-varying capacity for each edge, and thus has been acted as a suitable model for modeling DTNs. However, existing TAG-related works only focus on solving the shortest path problem, and neither the correlation between time intervals nor nodes storage of a DTN are described in TAG, resulting in a non-trivial maximum flow problem in TAG. In this paper, we study the maximum flow problem through our proposed storage time aggregated graph (STAG) for DTNs. First, an intermediate quantity named bidirectional storage transfer series is introduced to each node in STAG, and the corresponding transfer rule is also designed for this series to model the correlation between time intervals. Next, on the basis of the storage transfer series, a STAG-based algorithm is proposed and described in detail to maximize the network flow. In addition, we analyze the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm by giving an illustrative example.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T10:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
  • Optimizing privacy-preserving DSA for mobile clients
    • Authors: Erald Troja; Spiridon Bakiras
      Pages: 71 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 59
      Author(s): Erald Troja, Spiridon Bakiras
      The exponential growth of connected wireless devices has led to a depletion of the available wireless spectrum. To this end, dynamic spectrum access (DSA) has been proposed as a viable framework for maximizing the usability of the wireless spectrum by allowing some portions of it to be accessed and used in a dynamic manner. Contrary to the legacy fixed spectrum access policy, DSA enables license-exempt users to access licensed bands during their respective owner’s idle times. Specifically, in the database-driven DSA model, mobile users issue location-based queries to a white-space database and request idle channels in their area. To preserve location privacy, existing solutions suggest the use of private information retrieval (PIR) protocols when querying the database. Nevertheless, these methods are not communication efficient and fail to take into account user mobility. In this paper, we address these shortcomings and propose an efficient privacy-preserving protocol based on the Hilbert space filling curve. We provide optimizations for mobile users that require privacy on-the-fly and users that have full a priori knowledge of their trajectory. Results from our experimentation on two real life datasets show that, compared to the current state-of-the-art protocol, our methods reduce the query processing cost at the mobile clients by a factor of 2 to 8.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T10:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
  • Benchmarking of Localization Solutions: Guidelines for the Selection of
           Evaluation Points
    • Authors: Eli De Poorter; Tom Van Haute; Eric Laermans; Ingrid Moerman
      Pages: 86 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 59
      Author(s): Eli De Poorter, Tom Van Haute, Eric Laermans, Ingrid Moerman
      Indoor localization solutions are key enablers for next-generation indoor navigation and track and tracing solutions. As a result, an increasing number of different localization algorithms have been proposed and evaluated in scientific literature. However, many of these publications do not accurately substantiate the used evaluation methods. In particular, many authors utilize a different number of evaluation points, but they do not (i) analyze if the number of used evaluation points is sufficient to accurately evaluate the performance of their solutions and (ii) report on the uncertainty of the published results. To remedy this, this paper evaluates the influence of the selection of evaluation points. Based on statistical parameters such as the standard error of the mean value, an estimator is defined that can be used to quantitatively analyze the impact of the number of used evaluation points on the confidence interval of the mean value of the obtained results. This estimator is used to estimate the uncertainty of the presented accuracy results, and can be used to identify if more evaluations are required. To validate the proposed estimator, two different localization algorithms are evaluated in different testbeds and using different types of technology, showing that the number of required evaluation points does indeed vary significantly depending on the evaluated solution.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T10:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
  • T-ROME: A simple and energy efficient tree routing protocol for low-power
           wake-up receivers
    • Authors: T. Kumberg; M. Schink; L.M. Reindl; C. Schindelhauer
      Pages: 97 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 59
      Author(s): T. Kumberg, M. Schink, L.M. Reindl, C. Schindelhauer
      Wireless sensor networks are deployed in many monitoring applications but still suffer from short lifetimes originating from limited energy sources and storages. Due to their low-power consumption and their on-demand communication ability, wake-up receivers represent an energy efficient and simple enhancement to wireless sensor nodes and wireless sensor network protocols. In this context, wake-up receivers have the ability to increase the network lifetime. In this article, we present T-ROME, a simple and energy efficient cross-layer routing protocol for wireless sensor nodes containing wake-up receivers. The protocol makes use of the different transmission ranges of wake-up and main radios in order to save energy by skipping nodes during data transfer. With respect to energy consumption and latency, T-ROME outperforms existing protocols in many scenarios. Here, we describe and analyze the cross layer multi-hop protocol by means of a Markov chain model that we verify using a laboratory test setup.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T10:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
  • Real-time link quality estimation for industrial wireless sensor networks
           using dedicated nodes
    • Authors: Ruan D. Gomes; Diego V. Queiroz; Abel C. Lima Filho; Iguatemi E. Fonseca; Marcelo S. Alencar
      Pages: 116 - 133
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 59
      Author(s): Ruan D. Gomes, Diego V. Queiroz, Abel C. Lima Filho, Iguatemi E. Fonseca, Marcelo S. Alencar
      Adaptive mechanisms, such as dynamic channel allocation or adaptive routing, are used to deal with the variations in the link quality of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). In both cases, the first step is to estimate the link quality, so that the network nodes can decide if a channel or route change is needed. This paper proposes a Link Quality Estimator (LQE) for Industrial WSN, and a new type of node, the LQE node, that estimates the link quality in real-time, using the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI), and information obtained from received data packets. The proposed LQE is capable of capturing the effects of multipath, interference, and link asymmetry. Experiments were performed in a real industrial environment using IEEE 802.15.4 radios, and models were developed to allow the use of RSSI samples to proper estimate the link quality. A comparison was performed with a state-of-the-art LQE, the Opt-FLQE, and the results showed that the proposed estimator is more accurate and reactive for the type of environment in study. Different from other LQEs in literature, in the proposed LQE the sensor nodes do not need to send broadcast probe packets. Besides, using the LQE node, the other nodes of the WSN do not need to stop their operation to monitor the link quality.

      PubDate: 2017-03-17T10:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2017)
  • Hybrid Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
    • Authors: Qilian Liang; Tariq S. Durrani; Yiming Pi; Xin Wang
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 58
      Author(s): Qilian Liang, Tariq S. Durrani, Yiming Pi, Xin Wang

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2017)
  • 3D nested distributed massive MIMO: Modeling and performance analysis
    • Authors: Shitong Yuan; Qilian Liang
      Pages: 6 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 58
      Author(s): Shitong Yuan, Qilian Liang
      The Large Scale Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) system, also called Massive MIMO in past researches, are considering the azimuth angle only. However, in a 3D distributed antenna system, the elevation angle cannot be ignored. Nested array as a two dimensional arrays was firstly proposed to perform array processing with increased degree of freedom, using less number of sensors at the same time. This paper introduces a novel 3D MIMO antenna deployment based on nested co-array. As the difference co-arrays are invariance, in the 3D nested distributed MIMO system, we are able to calculate the covariance matrix of channels. Based on this inference, we model a 3D nested distributed MIMO system and analyze its performance with achievable sum rate. By applying the nested deployment, our proposed method could achieve a Massive MIMO with less number of physical antennas. Numerical results also provided to support our model.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2017)
  • Vehicle-to-vehicle connectivity analysis for vehicular ad-hoc networks
    • Authors: Gongjun Yan; Danda B. Rawat
      Pages: 25 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 58
      Author(s): Gongjun Yan, Danda B. Rawat
      Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) is of importance in the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) in which vehicles enlisted with wireless devices can communicate with each other. Many applications can save people’s life or time on traffic such as accident alerts or congestion prediction, etc. However, network communication over VANETs is inheritedly unstable because of the high mobility of vehicles. In this paper, we analyze vehicle to vehicle wireless connectivity by using mathematic models. We consider the effect of headway distance, acceleration, association time (i.e. connection setup time), relative speed of vehicles, transmission range and message/data size in short range based V2V communications in the models. The numerical results in simulations validate the analysis.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.11.017
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2017)
  • Implementation and analysis of Wireless Flexible Time-Triggered protocol
    • Authors: Paulo Bartolomeu; Muhammad Alam; Joaquim Ferreira; José Fonseca
      Pages: 36 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 58
      Author(s): Paulo Bartolomeu, Muhammad Alam, Joaquim Ferreira, José Fonseca
      During the last few years, wireless low-power communications experienced an increasing coexistence and traction as a result of the higher demand posed by power constrained applications. On the other hand, this increasing wireless coexistence is a growing concern and Low-power wireless communication protocols have been shown to experience a significant timeliness and reliability degradation under certain interference profiles. Therefore, the support of real-time communications over license-free bands in open environments, encompassing multiple real-time stations with an unknown number of unconstrained stations, is a challenging task. Provided that this impairment has hindered their wide adoption in demanding real-time scenarios, the Wireless Flexible Time Triggered (WFTT) protocol has been recently proposed targeting applications with stringent timeliness requirements. This protocol works on the medium access determinism granted by the bandjacking technique in open environments, where different technologies may contend for the medium. Besides providing a deeper definition of the WFTT architecture and protocol operation, this paper presents a thorough analysis addressing its specifications, implementation feasibility and testbed based results. These provide strong evidence that the WFTT protocol is able to support real-time communications, even in environments affected by high levels of interference from neighboring contention-based communication technologies such as Wi-Fi.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2017)
  • Hybrid half-duplex/full-duplex multi-hop relaying schemes: Outage
           performance and power optimization
    • Authors: Liang Han; Jiasong Mu
      Pages: 54 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 58
      Author(s): Liang Han, Jiasong Mu
      Full-duplex (FD) relays can transmit and receive simultaneously over the same frequency band, hence enable a significant improvement of spectral efficiency compared to half-duplex (HD) relays and have attracted much research interests. However, there exists severe interference for FD multi-hop relay networks in which all the relays operate in FD mode. To overcome this problem, we propose hybrid HD/FD multi-hop decode-and-forward (DF) relaying schemes, where in each time block two nodes communicate directly with each other in HD mode or communicate with the help of an FD relay. Assuming that all the channels including the residual self-interference (RSI) channel are subject to Rayleigh fading, we derive the outage probabilities of FD multi-hop relay networks and hybrid HD/FD multi-hop relaying schemes, respectively. Then we optimize the power allocation of the hybrid HD/FD relaying scheme under individual power constraint with the aim of minimizing the outage probability. Finally, we compare the performance of different transmission schemes and validate our analysis by simulation results.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2017)
  • On the uplink outage throughput capacity of hybrid wireless networks with
           Massive MIMO
    • Authors: Ganlin Zhao; Qilian Liang
      Pages: 62 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 58
      Author(s): Ganlin Zhao, Qilian Liang
      In this paper, we investigate theoretical transmission capacity limit of the uplink hybrid wireless network under infrastructure mode. Massive MIMO technology is assumed to be equipped on the base station to further increase the whole network throughput. Multi-user MIMO is preferred over Point-to-Point MIMO to achieve improved scalability and simplify UE design. Another perspective of this paper is to include the fading effect on capacity. Under favorable propagation condition, Massive MIMO greatly mitigates small scale fading effect between each user and base station antenna. Then closed-form outage capacity over large scale fading channel is derived in both low SNR and high SNR scenarios.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2017)
  • Classification of node degree based on deep learning and routing method
           applied for virtual route assignment
    • Authors: YangMin Lee
      Pages: 70 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 58
      Author(s): YangMin Lee
      In recent years, the importance of various wireless network technologies has increased. Specifically, in communication environments noted for severe conditions, such as disasters, war, and terrorism, collaboration between fixed communication infrastructure and wireless ad-hoc networks is indispensable. In this paper, the node degree of wireless communication is classified for disaster situations, and virtual routes are set according to the predetermined node degree. Then, the proposed routing method is employed with base stations as the infrastructure, such that a route may be assigned, maintained, and recovered. Our classification of wireless degree nodes uses deep learning, and virtual routes are created by employing the Viterbi algorithm. The proposed routing method is compared with existing methods (AODV, OLSR, and ZRP) from the viewpoint of route discovery times and reachability via simulations.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2017)
  • PMC2O: Mobile cloudlet networking and performance analysis based on
           computation offloading
    • Authors: Hao Jin; Shidong Yan; Chenglin Zhao; Dong Liang
      Pages: 86 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 58
      Author(s): Hao Jin, Shidong Yan, Chenglin Zhao, Dong Liang
      The increase of smart mobile device (SMD) results in explosive growth in mobile traffic and provokes mobile users to leverage more and more compute-intensive applications through SMD. Framework of seamless mobile application execution and networking based on edge computing resources is proved to be one of the promising trends in future mobile Internet. Focusing on networking of Ad hoc cloudlet, this paper proposed a dynamic cloudlet self-networking framework based on component offloading (PMC2O). Taking node mobility into account, dynamic cloudlet behaviour is investigated, and an optimized allocation algorithm called SA-UM is presented to reduce the complexity of resolution space on component allocation algorithm. Proactive Remove decision algorithm based on Node Resource Cooperative Sharing Degree (PRDA-NRCSD) is put forward to improve user experience and optimize the load balancing of a mobile cloudlet.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2017)
  • A new hierarchical beam search algorithm for wireless ad hoc networks in
           multipath channel scenario
    • Authors: Weixia Zou; Hui Li; Ye Wang
      Pages: 105 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 58
      Author(s): Weixia Zou, Hui Li, Ye Wang
      For the beam search algorithms proposed by some existing literatures cannot always find the global optimal beam in multipath channel and the single communication link may easily be broken, the node at the edge of a wireless ad hoc network will encounter a temporary outage problem, which means it will be isolated from the network. To solve this problem, we propose a new hierarchical beam search algorithm which can be performed on some marginal nodes. The algorithm will take advantage of the multipath channel and find some available communication beams together with the global optimal beam. The main idea of our algorithm is to increase the opportunity to find multiple local optimal beams. The selected number of beams at each level is greater than or equal to the number of paths. In last level, we selectively delete beams and then obtain a plurality of local optimal beams which can be alternative communication beams for the marginal node. Furthermore, we can also get the global optimal beam simultaneously, which are included in these local optimal beams. The simulation results show that, comparing with the exhaustive search algorithm, it has almost the same success rate, but lower search complexity to get a number of alternative beams. Comparing with binary search algorithm, the proposed algorithm has higher success rate to find the global optimal communication beam in multipath environment.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2017)
  • Energy efficient distributed compressed data gathering for sensor networks
    • Authors: Wei Wang; Dan Wang; Yu Jiang
      Pages: 112 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 58
      Author(s): Wei Wang, Dan Wang, Yu Jiang
      With advances in sensing technologies and wireless sensor networks, energy consumption is a key factor for data collection in sensor network. Compressive sensing has attracted more attention for reducing energy cost due to its enabled sub-Nyquist sampling rate. In this paper, the JSM-2 model was introduced for data compressed collection for sensor network based on distribution compressive sensing theory. And we deem that the quantization configuration is also a critical factor for energy efficiency for data communication. Then, we constructed energy consumption configuration model joint distribution compressive sensing and quantization compressive sensing. The experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm can gain more energy performance than conventional QCS architecture for sensor network data collection.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2017)
  • Hybrid precoding for heterogeneous cloud radio access network based on
           nested array
    • Authors: Na Chen; Songlin Sun
      Pages: 118 - 126
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 58
      Author(s): Na Chen, Songlin Sun
      Future wireless system meets the requirements of high network capacity but is suffering from the problems of high interference and resource shortage. In this paper, we develop a hybrid precoding solution by applying the heterogeneous cloud radio access network (H-CRAN) with remote radio heads (RRHs) equipped with nested arrays for a better system control and higher efficiency. We first summarize the related work and highlight our contribution. Then we propose the hybrid precoding scheme after introducing the system model based on the H-CRAN architecture and the nested array. For the proposed hybrid precoding scheme, the RRHs first identify the interference sources around them, then report it to the baseband unit (BBU) pool. The BBU pool identifies the sources of interference and searches for available resource for the RRH. As the frequency may be reused in specific area, the eNB processes the hybrid precoding considering the null-space of the victim users so that the interference can be avoided. Finally, we evaluate the scheme and prove its performance with numerical results.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2017)
  • Capacity and contention-based joint routing and gateway selection for
           machine-type communications
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 62
      Author(s): Muhammad Omer Farooq, Cormac J. Sreenan, Kenneth N. Brown
      Typically, in machine-type communications (MTC) devices communicate with servers over the Internet. In a large-scale machine-to-machine area (M2M) network, the devices may not connect directly to the Internet due to radio transmission and energy limitations. Therefore, the devices collaborate wirelessly to relay their data to a gateway. A large-scale M2M area network may have multiple gateways, selecting a proper gateway for the devices can have immense impact on the network’s performance. We present the channel capacity and contention-based joint routing and gateway selection methods for MTC. Based on channel capacity and contention, our methods select the best gateway on per-packet, per-flow, and per-node basis. We compare the methods’ performance with existing methods using simulation and test-bed experiments. We analyse the impact of the number of gateways, physical distribution of transmitters, control overhead, and duty-cycling on the performance of the gateway selection methods. Our results demonstrate that, in duty-cycled operations, the methods’ performance depends on control overhead and making a good trade-off between load imbalance to different gateways and a forwarding path’s length. Otherwise only the latter impacts the methods’ performance. In general, our node-based best gateway selection method makes a better trade-off and exhibits lower control overhead, hence it demonstrates better performance. Moreover, our methods demonstrate better performance as compared to an existing state-of-the-art joint routing and gateway selection method.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T20:56:08Z
  • Link Selection Strategies based on Network Analysis to Determine Stable
           and Energy-Efficient Data Gathering Trees for Mobile Sensor Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Natarajan Meghanathan
      We propose three different strategies for selecting links that could be part of stable data gathering (DG) trees for mobile sensor networks (MSNs). The proposed strategies are based on metrics (such as: Neighborhood Overlap, Bipartivity Index and Algebraic Connectivity) used in complex network analysis applied on the egocentric network of an edge: a graph comprising of the end nodes of the edge and their neighbors (as vertices) and links incident on the end nodes of the edge (as edges). We hypothesize that an edge whose egocentric network has a larger neighborhood overlap or a smaller bipartivity index or a larger value for algebraic connectivity should have its end nodes share a significant fraction of their neighbors and be a short distance link that is relatively more stable. Through extensive simulations, we show that each of the above three metrics of complex network analysis could be used to determine DG trees that are significantly more stable and energy-efficient compared to the currently best known strategy of using the predicted link expiration time (LET) to determine stable DG trees for MSNs. Also, unlike the LET approach, the proposed strategies could be applied without knowledge about the location and mobility of the nodes.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T20:56:08Z
  • On the Rate of Successful Transmissions in Finite Slotted Aloha MANETs
    • Authors: Yin Chen; Jinxiao Zhu; Yulong Shen; Xiaohong Jiang; Hideyuki Tokuda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Yin Chen, Jinxiao Zhu, Yulong Shen, Xiaohong Jiang, Hideyuki Tokuda
      Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) with Aloha MAC protocol (A-MANETs) represent a class of important and attractive networks. This paper studies the Rate of Successful Transmissions (RST), a performance index that measures the average amount of successful transmissions, in a practical A-MANET with finite number of nodes and a class of “uniform-type” mobility models. We first develop a new theoretical framework for the temporal modeling of the concerned finite A-MANET, and prove that as time evolves the network converges in distribution to a Binomial point process. With the help of the convergence property of the network and stochastic geometry theory, we then provide our analysis on the RST. In particular, we show that although it is highly cumbersome (if not impossible) to derive the exact expression for the RST of the concerned network, it is possible to have very efficient approximations to the RST under the typical nearest neighbor/receiver transmission policy, which are accurate up to an additive asymptotic error vanishing exponentially with the number of network nodes. Finally, we provide extensive simulation/numerical results to illustrate the efficiency of our RST modeling and our theoretical findings.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T20:27:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.04.005
  • Maximizing the Wireless Sensor Networks Lifetime through Energy Efficient
           Connected Coverage
    • Authors: J. Roselin; P. Latha; S. Benitta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): J. Roselin, P. Latha, S. Benitta
      Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an emerging technology that is gaining much importance owing to its immense contribution in various day-to-day applications. A sensor is battery-operated, unattended low-cost device with limited computing, communication and storage capabilities. Thus the network lifetime has become the key characteristic for evaluating sensor networks in an application-specific way. There are certain approaches in literature which consider the lifetime maximization problem. However, they suffer from impulsive energy hole, coverage hole and communication hole. In this paper we propose a novel Energy Efficient Connected Coverage (EECC) scheduling to maximize the lifetime of the WSN. The EECC adheres to Quality of Service (QoS) metrics such as remaining energy, coverage and connectivity. In EECC the sensor which doesn't contribute to coverage will act as a relay node to reduce the burden of the sensing node. The sensing node senses the target whereas the relaying node communicates the sensory information to the sink. The EECC forms non-disjoint cover sets using remaining energy, coverage and connectivity of every sensor. The proposed EECC outperforms similar scheduling algorithms found in the literature in an energy efficient way with the short execution time. Through simulations the constancy of EECC in extending the lifetime of WSN is confirmed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-12T01:46:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.04.001
  • An improved AODV routing for the zigbee heterogeneous networks in 5G
    • Authors: Jiasong
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 58
      Author(s): Jiasong Mu
      A modified AODV Junior routing protocol is adopted as part of the combined routing strategy in the ZigBee networks. However, its routing overhead caused by the routing discovery and the routing table maintenance needs to be further reduced. Considering the deploying environment, the emerging 5G technology tends to be ubiquitous in the near future. Due to its native support to the smart devices and the M2M communication, the 5G terminals may be used as gateways for the ZigBee networks to improve the existing routing method. The ZigBee coordinator and the 5G terminals, which both have the accessibility to the internet, are defined as associated gateways (AG). Aiming to the higher efficiency and the shorter path, an improved ZigBee AODV (Z-AODV) routing protocol using associated gateways for the heterogeneous networks in the 5G environment is proposed in this paper. Besides the regular ZigBee function, by sharing the neighbour and routing information via IP network, the AGs are also responsible for collaboratively finding the optimum path and transmitting the packets to reduce the consumption for ZigBee devices. Moreover, an additional routing information collecting method is developed to further improve the routing performance. The proposed algorithm is evaluated based on simulation results. It is shown that our routing method outperforms the existing ones by higher picketer deliver ratio, shorter path length, lower latency, fewer packets sent per ZigBee node and lower routing overhead.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T09:51:34Z
  • On the successful transmission probability of cooperative cognitive radio
           ad hoc networks
    • Authors: Jing Gao
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 58
      Author(s): Jing Gao
      We study the successful transmission probability of cognitive radio ad hoc networks in which secondary users assist primary users on transmitting packets. We propose a half-slotted ALOHA multiple access control protocol. Primary transmitters sacrifice second half slot for the reliability improved by the cooperative transmission of secondary users. We derive the closed-form expression of successful transmission probability for both primary and secondary network in the first-half slot. In the second half, we obtain the bounds of successful transmission probability for primary network and the closed-form expression of successful transmission probability for secondary network. Numerical results show that the successful transmission probability of both networks could achieve a maximum by optimizing the intensity of secondary users in the whole time slot.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T09:51:34Z
  • Performance Evaluation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Automatic Power
           Meter Readings
    • Authors: Jose R.T. Neto; Azzedine Boukerche; Roberto S. Yokoyama; Daniel L. Guidoni; Rodolfo I. Meneguette; Jo Ueyama; Leandro A. Villas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Jose R.T. Neto, Azzedine Boukerche, Roberto S. Yokoyama, Daniel L. Guidoni, Rodolfo I. Meneguette, Jo Ueyama, Leandro A. Villas
      Typically, the electric power companies employ a group of power meter readers to collect data on the customers energy consumption. This task is usually carried out manually, which can lead to high cost and errors, causing financial losses. Some approaches have tried to minimize these problems, using strategies such as discovering the minimal route or relying on vehicles to perform the readings. However, errors in the manual readings can occur and vehicles suffer from congestion and high fuel and maintenance costs. In this work, we go further and propose an architecture to the Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) system using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The main challenge of the solution is to design a robust and lightweight protocol that is capable of dealing with wireless communication collisions. Therefore, the main contribution of this work is the design of a new protocol to ensure wireless communication from UAV to the power meters. We validated and evaluated the architecture in an urban scenario, with results showing a decrease of time and distance when compared to other approaches. We also evaluated the system proposed with Linear Flight Plan, the Ant Colony Optimization and Guided Local Search metaheuristic. Our mechanism attains an improvement of 98% in reducing the message collisions and reducing the energy consumption of the power meters.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.03.003
  • End to End Delay Modeling of Heterogeneous Traffic flows in Software
           Defined 5G Networks
    • Authors: Müge Erel Özçevi̇k; Berk Canberk; Trung Q. Duong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Müge Erel Özçevi̇k, Berk Canberk, Trung Q. Duong
      In ultra-dense 5th Generation (5G) wireless networks, we believe that foreground User Datagram Protocol (UDP) traffic flow is ′squeezed′ by Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) background because of increasing queue waiting time and extra transmission delay for each timeout in TCP congestion control mechanism. Therefore, traffic Heterogeneity which is defined by the rate between number of UDP over TCP traffic flows for each forwarding device, has become more significant. According to the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Release 13, conventional Long Term Evolution - Self Organize Networks (LTE-SON) does not consider Heterogeneity rate of traffic flows while balancing load between neighbor eNodeBs (eNBs). In order to reduce end to end delay (e2eDelay) of foreground TCP traffic flow, an optimal path should be selected by considering both load Intensity and traffic H e t e r o g e n e i t y level of eNBs. To do this, we propose a Software-Defined Networks (SDN)-based softwarization approach brought by 5G networks with three fold contributions: virtualization of topology graph (G), e2eDelay optimization which is run in terms of both load Intensity (ρj (t)) and Heterogeneity rate(Hj (t)), and novel Queuing Theory based OpenFlow (OF) switch model. Moreover, due to being bottleneck, centralized SDN-Controller is proposed to accelerated with novel three heuristics including shortest path and e2eDelay optimization algorithms running in parallel manner. More specifically, this process is combined into a novel closed-form expression of e2eDelay(Ti (t)) in two main parts: Data plane effect and Control plane effect. As a result, proposed SDN-based e2eDelay model serves foreground TCP traffic flow upto 74% and 98% less e2eDelay than LTE-SON and conventional LTE.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.02.006
  • TCP Performance Evaluation over Backpressure-based Routing Strategies for
           Wireless Mesh Backhaul in LTE Networks
    • Authors: Natale Patriciello; José Núñez-Martínez; Jorge Baranda; Maurizio Casoni; Josep Mangues-Bafalluy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Natale Patriciello, José Núñez-Martínez, Jorge Baranda, Maurizio Casoni, Josep Mangues-Bafalluy
      Wireless redundant networks are expected to play a fundamental role to backhaul dense LTE networks. In these scenarios, backpressure-based routing strategies such as BP-MR can exploit the network redundancy. In this paper, we perform an exhaustive performance evaluation of different TCP variants over an LTE access network, backhauled by various routing protocols (including per-packet and per-flow BP-MR variants and a static alternative, OLSR) over two different wireless topologies: a regular mesh and an irregular ring-tree topology. We compare the performance of different TCP congestion control algorithms based on loss (NewReno, Cubic, Highspeed, Westwood, Hybla, and Scalable) and delay (Vegas) under different workloads. Our extensive analysis with ns-3 on throughput, fairness, scalability and latency reveals that the underlying backhaul routing scheme seems irrelevant for delay-based TCPs, whereas per-flow variant offers the best performance irrespective of any loss-based TCP congestion control, the most used in the current Internet. We show that BP-MR per-flow highly reduces the download finish time, if compared with OLSR and BP-MR per-packet, despite showing higher round-trip-time.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T09:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.03.001
  • Analytical Framework for the Characterization of the Link Properties in
           Multi-hop Mobile Wireless Networks
    • Authors: Nabil Mesbahi; Hamza Dahmouni
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Nabil Mesbahi, Hamza Dahmouni
      The maintainability of connectivity in multi-hop mobile wireless networks is a complex task to achieve, for which various factors must be taken into account in order to avoid link failures. In addition to the bandwidth limitation, node mobility and interference are two aspects that impact directly the reliability of the communication link, leading generally to loss of wireless link connectivity. In this paper, we develop an analytical framework which determines the link and path lifetime in multi-hop mobile wireless networks. Through this model, we derive an analytical model of the link and path lifetime by taking into consideration both node mobility and interference. We find that the probability density function (PDF) of the duration of a link in presence of interference can be approximated by an exponential distribution with parameter λ which relies the transmission range R, the average speed V ¯ , the Signal-to-Interference-Plus-Noise-Ratio ( S I N R ) threshold β, the path loss exponent α, and the maximum number of interfering nodes N. We extend this model to evaluate the P D F of the link lifetime by taking into account both interference and mobility of the linked nodes. We conclude that the P D F of the overall link lifetime can be approximated by a Rayleigh distribution that is in harmony with several previous simulation based-studies. Furthermore, some properties of wireless links and multi-hop paths are evaluated and several simulations are carried out in order to investigate the multi-hop wireless network connectivity and the associated performance.

      PubDate: 2016-09-23T07:48:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.09.012
  • A Heuristic Data Update Mechanism in Unstructured Mobile P2P Systems
    • Authors: Chuan-Ming Liu; Chuan-Chi Lai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2016
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Chuan-Ming Liu, Chuan-Chi Lai
      With the advances in information and communication technology, the unstructured mobile peer-to-peer (MP2P) system based on a hybrid mobile ad-hoc network (Hybrid MANETs), where the membership between mobile nodes is more dynamic and the energy on each node is limited, becomes a trend. Since different mobile nodes may store copies of shared information, data synchronization on an MP2P system is crucial for providing the latest information. Nevertheless, the node mobility makes the communication links disconnected and the network topology changed frequently. The maintenance on data consistency in an MP2P system thus becomes challenging. In this paper, we propose a heuristic data update mechanism (HDUM) to effectively maintain the data consistency in an MP2P system with less overhead. In HDUM, each node derives safe-time values from the neighbors’ locations and speeds to determine an appropriate time to check and update data items between the neighboring nodes and itself. HDUM also considers the relative node ability, which is derived from nodes connectivity, access frequency of a data item, and the residual capacity of battery. Relative node ability indicates the ability of a node with respect to a data item. If the ability value of a node is not lower than a given threshold, this node can be notified to receive updated data items from its neighbors. To evaluate the proposed HDUM, extensive simulated experiments are performed. The experimental results show that HDUM can keep higher coverage of successfully synchronized nodes while significantly reducing a large amount of redundant messages.

      PubDate: 2016-09-18T13:27:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.09.011
  • Fuzzy clustering in radar sensor networks for target detection
    • Authors: Jing Liang; Yaoyue Hu; Huaiyuan Liu; Chengchen Mao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2016
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Jing Liang, Yaoyue Hu, Huaiyuan Liu, Chengchen Mao
      Fuzzy clustering has been an efficient tool for data science. In this paper, we present two fuzzy clustering schemes in radar sensor networks (RSN) data processing for target detection. We design cluster-head (CH) election for both intra-cluster single-hop and multi-hop data transmission on a basis of constant false alarm rate (CFAR) under fading environment. Small scale fading is considered in our fuzzy logic system (FLS) design (FLS with three-antecedents, F3) to compute the likelihood to be a CH for each radar sensor (RS) at the first stage. In case of single-hop routing, fuzzy c-means with singular value decomposition-QR (FCMSVDQR) approach is proposed to decide the final CH. As for multi-hop routing, firstly the RS with the highest FLS likelihood will be elected a CH. Secondly a graphical optimal routing selection (GORS) algorithm is applied for multi-hop data transmission. We also propose CFAR fusion approaches for both single-hop and multi-hop transmission at low SNR channel regime. Performances of our designs are compared with CHEF, a commonly adopted scheme, in terms of target detection and the lifetime of RSN. Numerical results show that F3&FCMSVDQR provides superior detection performances and the longest lifetime at large amount of residual alive RSs, while F3&GORS takes the second place in improving the detection performances at moderate-to-high SNRs, and has the same lowest power loss as CHEF&GORS at small amount of residual alive RSs.

      PubDate: 2016-09-18T13:27:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.09.008
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