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Showing 1 - 200 of 3175 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 375, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 374, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 335, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 429, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Ad Hoc Networks
  [SJR: 0.967]   [H-I: 57]   [11 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1570-8705
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • A novel self-adaptive content delivery protocol for vehicular networks
    • Authors: Rodolfo I. Meneguette; Azzedine Boukerche; Fabrício A. Silva; Leandro Villas; Linnyer B. Ruiz; Antonio A. F. Loureiro
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 73
      Author(s): Rodolfo I. Meneguette, Azzedine Boukerche, Fabrício A. Silva, Leandro Villas, Linnyer B. Ruiz, Antonio A. F. Loureiro
      Content Delivery Network (CDN) has been successfully adapted to deliver content on the traditional Internet. CDNs help reduce the load on the origin server by transferring part of the responsibility to surrogate servers. Content delivery is even more challenging in vehicular networks given their particular characteristics, such as dynamic topology and large-scale scenarios. In order to overcome these challenges, we propose an effective mobile content delivery solution for vehicular networks. The main contribution to adaptation is the use of the dissemination protocol along with the concepts of CDN, in order to increase content availability without compromising network overhead, regardless of traffic conditions and road networks. Some simulations were performed through the NS3 simulator in which the proposed solution presented an excellent performance compared with other six baseline solutions, in both urban and highway road networks, in terms of content availability and network resource consumption through a high coverage about 80% in highways and 98% in urban environments with a low amount of packet loss (approximately 5% in highway scenarios and 15% in urban scenarios).

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T17:23:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2018)
  • Privacy-preserving mobile crowd sensing in ad hoc networks
    • Authors: Zhijie Wang; Dijiang Huang
      Pages: 14 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 73
      Author(s): Zhijie Wang, Dijiang Huang
      The presence of a rich set of embedded sensors on mobile devices has been propelling various sensing applications regarding individual activities and their surrounding environment, and these persuasive sensing-capable mobile devices are pushing the new paradigm of Mobile Crowd Sensing (MCS) from sketch to reality. MCS aims to outsource sensing data collection to Mobile Device Owner (MDO) and it could revolutionize the conventional ways of sensing data collection and processing. Nonetheless, the widespread deployment of MCS gives rise to the privacy concerns from both the MDOs and the Sensing Service Consumers (SSC), especially in the case where MCS relies on untrustworthy third-party infrastructures. This paper proposes three protocols to address the privacy issues of MCS in ad hoc network without depending on any third-parties. It first presents Privacy-Preserving Summation (PPS) protocol to protect the privacy of the SSCs. Next, it puts forward Privacy-Preserving Difference Rank Computation (PPDRC) protocol to ensure the privacy of the MDOs. Finally, it proposes Approximate K-Nearest Neighbor with Privacy Preservation(AKN2P2) to approximately identify the k-nearest neighbors without privacy leaks of both the MDOs and the SSCs. The performance evaluations demonstrate the computation overhead in different settings.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T17:23:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2018)
  • Improving network lifetime and reliability for machine type communications
           based on LOADng routing protocol
    • Authors: Deepthi Sasidharan; Lillykutty Jacob
      Pages: 27 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 73
      Author(s): Deepthi Sasidharan, Lillykutty Jacob
      With the advent of machine type communication (MTC) as part of the Internet of Things (IoT), there is an increasing need to address the challenges for the machine to machine (M2M) communications. Among the two routing protocols specifically designed for low-power lossy networks, RPL has limited support for M2M communications; whereas, LOADng can address the resource constraints of the nodes and demands for M2M communication. This paper proposes a new composite routing metric, LRRE, for LOADng to address the node congestion due to heavy traffic through the node and early node death. The LOADng with LRRE is implemented in ns-3 simulator. The simulation results show improved performance of LOADng with LRRE compared to that with the traditional hop count and residual energy metrics. We also propose a new multipath data forwarding scheme, namely, weighted forwarding (WF) to distribute the load evenly across the network. We extend the ns-3 simulation module for LOADng to multipath routing and integrate it with the newly proposed routing metric and multipath data forwarding technique. The simulation results show a significant improvement in network lifetime, packet delivery ratio, and energy utilization with the proposed LRRE metric and WF multipath data forwarding scheme. Analytical results are also obtained for simplified cases.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T17:23:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2018)
  • Key predistribution schemes for wireless sensor networks based on
           combinations of orthogonal arrays
    • Authors: Qiang Gao; Wenping Ma; Wei Luo
      Pages: 40 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 73
      Author(s): Qiang Gao, Wenping Ma, Wei Luo
      In general, combinatorial key predistribution schemes (KPSs) have higher local connectivity but lower resilience against a node capture attack than random KPSs for a given key storage. We seek to find an approach to improving the weakness of combinatorial KPSs while maintaining the strength as much as possible. In this paper, by combining a class of saturated symmetric orthogonal arrays (OAs), a family of KPSs are proposed and the explicit formulas for local connectivity and resilience of the resulting KPSs are also derived. KPSs are typically designed to provide a trade-off between the key storage, the local connectivity and the resilience. It is found that in the resulting schemes, any two nodes can communicate directly with each other and for a given key storage, the resilience against node capture increases as the number of OAs increases so that the resilience can be enhanced without degrading the other two metrics.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T17:23:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2018)
  • Use ’em or lose ’em: On unidirectional links in reactive
           routing protocols
    • Authors: Thomas Clausen; Juan-Antonio Cordero; Jiazi Yi; Yuichi Igarashi
      Pages: 51 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 73
      Author(s): Thomas Clausen, Juan-Antonio Cordero, Jiazi Yi, Yuichi Igarashi
      In reactive unicast routing protocols, Route Discovery aims to include only bidirectional links in discovered routing paths. This is typically accomplished by having routers maintain a “blacklist” of links recently confirmed (through Route Reply processing) to be unidirectional – which is then used for excluding subsequent Route Discovery control messages received over these links from being processed and forwarded. This paper first presents an analytical model, which allows to study the impact of unidirectional links being present in a network, on the performance of reactive routing protocols. Next, this paper identifies that despite the use of a “blacklist”, the Route Discovery process may result in discovery of false forward routes, i.e.,routes containing unidirectional links – and proposes a counter-measure denoted Forward Bidirectionality Check. This paper further proposes a Loop Exploration mechanism, allowing to properly include unidirectional links in a discovered routing topology – with the goal of providing bidirectional connectivity even in absence of bidirectional paths in the network. Finally, each of these proposed mechanisms are subjected to extensive network simulations in static scenarios. When the fraction of unidirectional links is moderate (15–50%), simulations find Forward Bidirectionality Check to significantly increase the probability that bidirectional routing paths can be discovered by a reactive routing protocol, while incurring only an insignificant additional overhead. Further, in networks with a significant fraction of unidirectional links ( ≥ 50%), simulations reveal that Loop Exploration preserves the ability of a reactive routing protocol to establish bidirectional communication (possibly through non-bidirectional paths), but at the expense of a substantial additional overhead.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T17:23:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 73 (2018)
  • Dynamic multiple node failure recovery in distributed storage systems
    • Authors: May Itani; Sanaa Sharafeddine; Islam ElKabani
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 72
      Author(s): May Itani, Sanaa Sharafeddine, Islam ElKabani
      Our daily lives are getting more and more dependent on data centers and distributed storage systems in general, whether at the business or at the personal level. With the advent of fog computing, personal mobile devices in a given geographical area may also comprise a very dynamic distributed storage system. These paradigm changes call for the urgent need of devising efficient and reliable failure recovery mechanisms in dynamic scenarios where failures become more likely and nodes join and leave the network more frequently. Redundancy schemes in distributed storage systems have become essential for providing reliability given the fact of frequent node failures. In this work, we address the problem of multiple failure recovery with dynamic scenarios using the fractional repetition code as a redundancy scheme. The fractional repetition (FR) code is a class of regenerating codes that concatenates a maximum distance separable code (MDS) with an inner fractional repetition code where data is split into several blocks then replicated and multiple replicas of each block are stored on various system nodes. We formulate the problem as an integer linear programming problem and extend it to account for three dynamic scenarios of newly arriving blocks, nodes, and variable priority blocks allocation. The contribution of this paper is four-fold: i. we generate an optimized block distribution scheme that minimizes the total system repair cost of all dependent and independent multiple node failure scenarios; ii. we address the practical scenario of having newly arriving blocks and allocate those blocks to existing nodes without any modification to the original on-node block distribution; iii. we consider new-comer nodes and generate an updated optimized block distribution; iv. we consider optimized storage and recovery of blocks with varying priority using variable fractional repetition codes. The four problems are modeled using incidence matrices and solved heuristically. We present a range of results for our proposed algorithms in several scenarios to assess the effectiveness of the solution approaches that are shown to generate results close to optimal.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:56:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2018)
  • An energy consumption model for IEEE 802.11ah WLANs
    • Authors: Albert Bel; Toni Adame; Boris Bellalta
      Pages: 14 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 72
      Author(s): Albert Bel, Toni Adame, Boris Bellalta
      One of the main challenges when designing a new self-powered Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) technology is the vast operational dependence on its scarce energy resources. Therefore, a thorough identification and characterisation of the main energy consumption processes may lay the foundation for developing novel mechanisms aimed to make a more efficient use of devices’ batteries, as well as for planning future network deployments. This paper provides an analytical energy consumption model for IEEE 802.11ah WLANs, which are expected to become one of the technology drivers in the future development of the Internet of Things (IoT). Given the network characteristics, the presented analytical model is able to provide an estimation of the average energy consumed by a station in the network, predicting its battery lifetime, based on a set of closed-form equations. In addition, this model can be used as a tool to understand the effects of the main network parameters on the network energy consumption, and to find the most suitable network configuration for a given application scenario.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:56:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2018)
  • Intelligent slots allocation for dynamic differentiation in IEEE 802.15.6
    • Authors: Hend Fourati; Hanen Idoudi; Leila Azouz Saidane
      Pages: 27 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 72
      Author(s): Hend Fourati, Hanen Idoudi, Leila Azouz Saidane
      eHealth applications have become essential in everyday life healthcare especially for elderly and sick individuals. To provide efficiency to such applications, many standards emerged for WBANs. However, WBANs standards showed their limits in terms of QoS and priorities differentiation depending on applications need. In this paper, we investigate IEEE 802.15.6 MAC performance efficiency and we define TA-802.15.6, an enhanced IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA/CA channel access mechanism. We aim to differentiate all IEEE 802.15.6 priorities traffics and to improve IEEE 802.15.6 based networks performances. Our main contribution is the enhancement of IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA/CA retransmission and packet drop processes. We also defined a new algorithm for dynamic backoff bounds assignment according to IEEE 802.15.6 priorities and to the network traffic state. We make an analytical evaluation through a new 4D Markov chain and by simulation based on Castalia. Results validate that the enhanced IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA/CA version provides a better service differentiation through accentuating priority differentiation and a better QoS in terms of reliability, throughput and energy consumption.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:56:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2018)
  • Quality-aware incentive mechanism based on payoff maximization for mobile
    • Authors: Yufeng Zhan; Yuanqing Xia; Jinhui Zhang
      Pages: 44 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 72
      Author(s): Yufeng Zhan, Yuanqing Xia, Jinhui Zhang
      Recent years, we have witnessed the explosion of smart devices. These smart devices are more and more powerful with a set of built in sensor devices, such as GPS, accelerometer, gyroscope, camera, etc. The large scale and powerful smart devices make the mobile crowdsensing applications which leverage public crowd equipped with various mobile devices for large scale sensing tasks be possible. In this paper, we study a critical problem of payoff maximization in mobile crowdsensing system with incentive mechanism. Due to the influence of various factors (e.g. sensor quality, noise, etc.), the quality of the sensed data contributed by individual users varies significantly. Obtaining the high quality sensed data with less expense is the ideal of sensing platforms. Therefore, we take the quality of individuals which is determined by the sensing platforms into incentive mechanism design. We propose to maximize the social welfare of the whole system, due to that the private parameters of the mobile users are unknown to the sensing platforms. It is impossible to solve the problem in a central manner. Then a dual decomposition method is employed to divide the social welfare maximization problem into sensing platforms’ local optimization problems and mobile users’ local optimization problems. Finally, distributed algorithms based on an iterative gradient descent method are designed to achieve the close-to-optimal solution. Extensive simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed incentive mechanism.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:56:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2018)
  • Active data dissemination for mobile sink groups in wireless sensor
    • Authors: Jeongcheol Lee; Seungmin Oh; Soochang Park; Yongbin Yim; Sang-Ha Kim; Euisin Lee
      Pages: 56 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 72
      Author(s): Jeongcheol Lee, Seungmin Oh, Soochang Park, Yongbin Yim, Sang-Ha Kim, Euisin Lee
      In wireless sensor networks, a mobile sink group brings out many challenging issues with regard to data dissemination due to its twofold mobility: group mobility and individual one. All member sinks of a group should move together toward the same destination in relation to the group mobility, but each member sink can also move randomly within a certain group area in relation to the individual mobility. For supporting such groups, geocasting may decrease data delivery ratio due to continuous group area shifting by the group mobility, and multicasting may increase energy consumption due to frequent multicast tree reconstructions by the individual sink mobility. Recently, mobile geocasting protocols have been proposed, which enable a mobile sink group to periodically register its current group area information to a source and member sinks in the group to passively receive data from the source by flooding within the registered group area. However, due to the passive data dissemination, they suffer from excessive energy consumption of sensor nodes due to flooding data within the large group area and result in high data delivery failures of member sinks on edge of the group due to asynchrony between the registered group area and the actual group area. Therefore, we propose an active data dissemination protocol that exploits a local data area constructed by considering the moving direction and pattern of a mobile sink group. In the proposed protocol, a source sends data to nodes in the local data area in advance, and member sinks in the group actively receive the data from the local data area when they potentially pass it. To efficiently construct a local data area, we investigate the pattern of group mobility and classify into three major categories according to the prediction level: a regular movement, a directional movement, and a random movement. We then present three different data dissemination schemes with an efficient local data area to effectively operate for each mobility pattern. Experimental results conducted in various environments show that the proposed protocol has better performance than previous protocols in terms of the data delivery ratio and the energy consumption.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:56:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2018)
  • A heterogeneous network selection algorithm based on network attribute and
           user preference
    • Authors: He-Wei Yu; Biao Zhang
      Pages: 68 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 72
      Author(s): He-Wei Yu, Biao Zhang
      Mobile terminals are often in the dynamic environment of heterogeneous networks. For some reasons, they need to switch between different networks, namely vertical handover. At this moment, it is a very crucial issue for the mobile terminal to select the best suitable one rapidly from all detected alternative networks on condition that the selection result can avoid the ping-pong effect as much as possible. This paper proposes a heterogeneous network selection algorithm based on the combination of network attribute and user preference. Taking full account of user preferences for each candidate network and the actual situation of heterogeneous networks, the algorithm combines three typical MADM methods, namely FAHP, Entropy and TOPSIS. We first use FAHP to calculate the subjective weights of network attributes and the subjective utility values of all alternatives for four typical traffic classes, and then use Entropy and TOPSIS to respectively get the objective weights of network attributes and the objective utility values of all alternatives. Finally, according to the comprehensive utility value of every candidate network and a threshold, the most appropriate network, whose comprehensive utility value is maximum and greater than the corresponding value of the current network of the mobile terminal, is selected to access. The proposed algorithm not only avoids the one-sided nature of a single algorithm, but also dynamically adjusts the proportion of each algorithm in the final result according to the actual requirements. Simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm can accurately select the optimal access network, significantly reduce the number of vertical handovers and provide the required QoS and QoE in terms of the quantified benefit from vertical handoff, compared with three existing hybrid algorithms.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:56:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2018)
  • Key establishment scheme for wireless sensor networks based on polynomial
           and random key predistribution scheme
    • Authors: Jianmin Zhang; Hua Li; Jian Li
      Pages: 68 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 71
      Author(s): Jianmin Zhang, Hua Li, Jian Li
      Establishing communication keys for pairs of neighbouring sensor nodes is the foundation of the security in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, due to the resource constraints on nodes, this task is challenging for the constrained memory, energy, and computational capabilities of sensor nodes. This paper proposes a novel key predistribution scheme based on the polynomial pool-based key predistribution scheme and random key predistribution. In the proposed scheme, parts of the preloaded information in each sensor node are the polynomial shares and the rest of the preloaded information are the keys generated by the polynomial shares preloaded in the sensor nodes. Performance analyses and comparisons with other schemes are performed in this paper. The comparison of security results confirm that the proposed scheme has better resilience against node compromising attacks when compared to previous schemes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:56:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2018)
  • An efficient provably-secure certificateless signature scheme for
           Internet-of-Things deployment
    • Authors: Xiaoying Jia; Debiao He; Qin Liu; Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo
      Pages: 78 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 71
      Author(s): Xiaoying Jia, Debiao He, Qin Liu, Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo
      With the growing popularity of Internet of Things (IoT) in a wide range of applications, ensuring the communication security of IoT devices is important. Certificateless signature schemes are one of several viable approaches to providing data integrity and user identification security in resource-limited IoT devices. However, designing provably-secure and efficient certificateless signature schemes remains a challenging task. In this paper, we point out two shortcomings in Yeh et al.’s certificateless signature scheme, by explaining how an adversary can easily impersonate the key generation center to issue the partial private key for any user without being detected. Moreover, the scheme cannot resist public key replacement attacks. Then, we present an improved scheme and prove its unforgeability against super adversaries in the random oracle model. Furthermore, we demonstrate the efficiency of our scheme is comparable to that of Yeh’s scheme in terms of computational and communication costs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:56:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2018)
  • LEEF: Latency and energy efficient federation of disjoint wireless sensor
    • Authors: Sookyoung Lee; Mohamed Younis; Ben Anglin; Meejeong Lee
      Pages: 88 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 71
      Author(s): Sookyoung Lee, Mohamed Younis, Ben Anglin, Meejeong Lee
      In hostile environments where explosives and natural calamities probably occur, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are susceptible to multiple collocated failures and could be partitioned into disjoint segments. Federating the segments would be essential for restoring connectivity and enabling data sharing in the network. The federation may be achieved by populating relay nodes and providing perpetual inter-segment paths. In this paper, we tackle the federation problem while considering constrained relay availability, i.e., a limited number (k) of mobile relays to provide intermittent inter-segment connectivity that makes the problem more challenging. We propose LEEF, a novel algorithm for achieving energy-efficient federation with low inter-segment data delivery latency. LEEF strives to group the segments into k clusters in a star topology where a cluster at the center of the area serves as a hub between each pair of segment-clusters. Each cluster is served by a distinct mobile relay. In addition, LEEF opts to equalize the energy consumed by the k mobile relays due to travel and wireless communication. We analyze the properties of LEEF mathematically and validate its performance through extensive simulation experiments.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:56:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2018)
  • Connectivity analysis of underground sensors in wireless underground
           sensor networks
    • Authors: Hoang Thi Huyen Trang; Le The Dung; Seong Oun Hwang
      Pages: 104 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 71
      Author(s): Hoang Thi Huyen Trang, Le The Dung, Seong Oun Hwang
      Wireless underground sensor networks consist of sensors that are buried under the ground and communicate through soil medium. Due to channel characteristics, the connectivity analysis of wireless underground sensor networks is more complicated than that in the traditional over-the-air wireless sensor networks. This paper focuses on analyzing the connectivity of underground sensors in wireless underground sensor networks in terms of the probability of node isolation and path probability which captures the effects of the environment parameters such as soil moisture and soil composition, and system parameters such as sensor node density and propagation techniques. Throughout this paper, both qualitative and quantitative comparisons between electromagnetic wave system and ordinary magnetic induction system for underground communications are provided. More specifically, we derive the exact closed-form mathematical expressions for the probability of node isolation of these two communication systems and validate the correctness of analytical models through simulations. We also provide the simulation-based path connectivity of these two communication systems. The results obtained in this paper provide useful guidelines on the design of reliable wireless underground sensor networks.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:56:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2018)
  • A comprehensive review on energy harvesting MAC protocols in WSNs:
           Challenges and tradeoffs
    • Authors: Hafiz Husnain Raza Sherazi; Luigi Alfredo Grieco; Gennaro Boggia
      Pages: 117 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 71
      Author(s): Hafiz Husnain Raza Sherazi, Luigi Alfredo Grieco, Gennaro Boggia
      Nowadays, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are broadly used to set up distributed monitoring infrastructures in self-healing, self-configuring, and self-managing systems. They are composed by many elementary devices (or motes) equipped with basic sensing, computing, and communications capabilities, which interact on a collaborative basis to sense a target environment and report collected data to one or more sinks. WSNs are expected to be operational for very long periods of time, even if each mote cannot bring large energy storage units. Accordingly, Energy Harvesting mechanisms can greatly magnify the expected lifetime of WSNs. Over the years, Energy Harvesting-Wireless Sensor Networks (EH-WSN) have been thoroughly studied by the scientific and industrial communities to bridge the gap from the vision to the reality. A critical facet of EH-WSN lies in the interplay between EH techniques and MAC protocols. In fact, while EH technologies feed motes with energy, the MAC layer is responsible for a significant quota of spent energy because of message transmission/reception and channel sensing operations. In addition, the energy brought by EH technologies is not easily predictable in advance because of time-varying nature: this makes the design of the MAC protocol even more challenging. To draw a comprehensive review of the state of the art on this subject, the present manuscript first provides a detailed analysis on existing energy harvesting systems for WSNs; then it extensively illustrates pros and cons of key MAC protocols for EH-WSNs with a special focus on: fundamental techniques, evaluation approaches, and key performance indicators. Finally, it summarizes lessons learned, provides design guidelines for MAC protocols in EH-WSNs, and outlooks the impact on Internet of Things.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:56:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2018)
  • Cross-Layer Greedy position-based routing for multihop wireless sensor
           networks in a real environment
    • Authors: Ali Benzerbadj; Bouabdellah Kechar; Ahcène Bounceur; Bernard Pottier
      Pages: 135 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 71
      Author(s): Ali Benzerbadj, Bouabdellah Kechar, Ahcène Bounceur, Bernard Pottier
      It has been shown that the maximum distance routing strategy which works well on a Unit Disk Graph (UDG), performs poorly when it is executed on a Non Unit Disk Graph (N-UDG) which reflects the radio irregularity phenomenon. This latter arises from multiple factors, such as antenna and medium type, and is accentuated by environmental factors such as obstacles (e.g., buildings, hills, mountains) and weather conditions. In this paper, we propose a Cross-Layer Greedy Routing algorithm (CL-GR) which enables a correct position-based routing on a N-UDG. It provides two novel greedy routing strategies, termed respectively, Progress towards the sink node through Symmetrical links that experience the lowest Path Loss (PSPL) and progress through symmetrical links, combining the Maximum Distance forwarding strategy and the PSPL (MDPSPL). We compare our CL-GR to an Enhanced version of the Greedy algorithm of the Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing protocol (GPSR), that we call E-GR and which can be executed on a N-UDG, and to COP _ GARE algorithm. The simulation results show that both PSPL and MDPSPL enable higher Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and energy efficiency. In terms of end-to-end delay, while the PSPL strategy significantly increases this metric, the MDPSPL strategy enables a satisfactory end-to-end delay, comparatively to E-GR and COP _ GARE.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:56:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2018)
    • Authors: Ian F. Akyildiz
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 70
      Author(s): Ian F. Akyildiz

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T17:23:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1570-8705(18)30010-6
      Issue No: Vol. 70 (2018)
  • Clustering Routing Based on Mixed Integer Programming for Heterogeneous
           Wireless Sensor Networks
    • Authors: Chunlin Li; Jingpan Bai; Jinguang Gu; Xin Yan; Youlong Luo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Chunlin Li, Jingpan Bai, Jinguang Gu, Xin Yan, Youlong Luo
      Heterogeneous wireless sensor network has the advantages of completing complex communication tasks and is widely applied to military, medical, environmental, industrial and commercial, family life and so on. But heterogeneous nodes are expensive, it is necessary to consider how to balance the energy consumption and prolong network lifetime by deploying minimum number of heterogeneous nodes. In this paper, a clustering routing algorithm for heterogeneous wireless sensor network (CHRA) is presented to balance energy and prolong the network lifetime. The proposed routing algorithm computes the optimal number of heterogeneous nodes and selects the cluster heads per round. In CHRA, all common nodes are divided into two kinds. The first kind includes the nodes which transmit data to Sink by heterogeneous node and the others belong to the second kind. Furthermore, the common nodes are clustered per round by LEACH-C. The performance analysis and numerical results show that the proposed routing algorithm can availably prolong network lifetime and stable period. And it also can balance the energy consumption significantly.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:56:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.02.001
  • 6LowPSec: An End-to-End Security Protocol for 6LoWPAN
    • Authors: Ghada Glissa; Aref Meddeb
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Ghada Glissa, Aref Meddeb
      6LoWPAN has radically changed the IoT (Internet of Things) landscape by seeking to extend the use of IPv6 to smart and tiny objects. Enabling efficient IPv6 communication over IEEE 802.15.4 LoWPAN radio links requires high end-to-end security rules. The IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer implements several security features offering hardware hop-by-hop protection for exchanged frames. In order to provide end-to-end security, researchers focus on lightweighting variants of existing security solutions such as IPSec that operates on the network layer. In this paper, we introduce a new security protocol referred to as ”6LowPSec”, providing a propitious end-to-end security solution but functioning at the adaptation layer. 6LowPSec employs existing hardware security features specified by the MAC security sublayer. A detailed campaign is presented that evaluates the performances of 6LowPSec compared with the lightweight IPSec. Results prove the feasibility of an end-to-end hardware security solution for IoT, that operates at the adaptation layer, without incurring much overhead.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:56:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.01.013
  • Exact Secrecy Throughput Capacity Study in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
    • Authors: Xiaochen Li; Shuangrui Zhao; Yuanyu Zhang; Yulong Shen; Xiaohong Jiang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Xiaochen Li, Shuangrui Zhao, Yuanyu Zhang, Yulong Shen, Xiaohong Jiang
      The secrecy throughput capacity (STC) performance study of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is critical for supporting their applications in security-sensitive scenarios. Despite much work on the scaling law results of MANET STC, the exact STC study of such networks remains an open problem. This paper, for the first time, investigates the exact STC of a cell-partitioned MANET with group-based scheduling scheme from the physical layer (PHY) security perspective. We first propose two secure transmission schemes based on the PHY security technology, i.e., secrecy guard zone based and cooperative jamming based schemes. The secrecy guard zone based scheme allows transmissions to be conducted only if no eavesdroppers exist in the secrecy guard zone around transmitters. The cooperative jamming based scheme utilizes non-transmitting nodes to generate artificial noise to suppress eavesdroppers in the same cell, such that transmissions can be conducted only if all eavesdroppers in the transmission range are suppressed. We then derive exact analytical expressions for the STC performance of the concerned network under both secure transmission schemes based on the analysis of two basic secure transmission probabilities. Finally, extensive simulation and numerical results are provided to corroborate our theoretical analysis and also to illustrate the STC performance of the concerned MANET.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:56:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.01.012
  • Joint Virtual Edge-Clustering and Spectrum Allocation Scheme for Uplink
           Interference Mitigation in C-RAN
    • Authors: Abolfazl Hajisami; Dario Pompili
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Abolfazl Hajisami, Dario Pompili
      Fractional Frequency Reuse (FFR) and Coordinated MultiPoint (CoMP) processing are two of the conventional methods to mitigate the Inter-Cell Interference (ICI) and to improve the average Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise Ratio (SINR). However, FFR is associated with low system spectral efficiency and CoMP does not take any action to mitigate the inter-cluster interference. In this article, we study the challenges and problems of the current interference management techniques and explain why the clustering and spectrum allocation must be studied jointly. Then, in the context of Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN), we propose a joint virtual clustering and spectrum allocation scheme, called Cloud-CFFR, to address such problems. With respect to both FFR and CoMP, Cloud-CFFR decreases the complexity, delay, and ICI while increasing the system spectral efficiency. Since the system performance in cell-edge regions relies on the cooperation of different Virtual Base Stations (VBSs), there is no service interruption in handling handovers; moreover, in order to address the unanticipated change in capacity demand, a flexible spectrum management technique is proposed which dynamically changes the subband boundaries based on the number of active users in the clusters. Simulation results confirm the validity of our analysis and show the benefits of this novel uplink solution compared to the traditional schemes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:56:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.01.010
  • An enhanced authentication scheme in mobile RFID system
    • Authors: Shin-Yan Chiou; Shan-Yen Chang
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 71
      Author(s): Shin-Yan Chiou, Shan-Yen Chang
      The popularization of wireless networks and mobile applications has increased the importance of RFID technologies. However, since wireless networks does not guarantee transmission channel security, putting private user information at risk for unintentional disclosure. Previous research has introduced a security mechanism to provide privacy and authentication. This mechanism is based on quadratic residue, does not require a secure channel and fits EPC Class-1 Gen-2 specifications. However, this mechanism cannot resist replay attacks, and lacks an efficient means of its server is not able to find determining validating values, making it difficult to implement. This paper proposes an improvement scheme that uses virtual IDs and time parameters. It does not need a secure channel, fits EPC Class-1 Gen-2 specifications, is resistant to replay attacks, and can efficiently find validation information. The proposed scheme is applied to mobile devices as a proof of concept for use in wireless/mobile RFID systems.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T02:05:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • A scalable data dissemination protocol based on vehicles trajectories
    • Authors: Sabri Allani; Taoufik Yeferny; Richard Chbeir
      Pages: 31 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 March 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 71
      Author(s): Sabri Allani, Taoufik Yeferny, Richard Chbeir
      Since the last decade, the emergence of affordable wireless devices in vehicle ad-hoc networks has been a key step towards improving road safety as well as transport efficiency. Informing vehicles about interesting safety and non-safety events is of key interest. Thus, the design of an efficient data dissemination protocol has been of paramount importance. A careful scrutiny of the pioneering vehicle-to-vehicle data dissemination approaches highlights that geocasting is the most feasible approach for VANET applications, more especially in safety applications, since safety events are of interest mainly to vehicles located within a specific area, commonly called ZOR or Zone Of Relevance, close to the event. Indeed, the most challenging issue in geocast protocols is the definition of the ZOR for a given event dissemination. In this paper, we introduce a new geocast approach, called Data Dissemination Protocol based on Map Splitting (DPMS). The main thrust of DPMS consists of building the zones of relevance through the mining of correlations between vehicles’ trajectories and crossed regions. To do so, we rely on the Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), which is a method of extracting interesting clusters from relational data. The performed experiments show that DPMS outperforms its competitors in terms of effectiveness and efficiency.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T02:05:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2017)
  • High density emulation platform for Wi-Fi performance testing
    • Authors: Germán Capdehourat; Germán Álvarez; Martín Álvarez; Pedro Porteiro; Fernando Bagalciague
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 70
      Author(s): Germán Capdehourat, Germán Álvarez, Martín Álvarez, Pedro Porteiro, Fernando Bagalciague
      The IEEE 802.11 standard has become the basis of one of the most successful wireless communication technologies of all time. Originally created to provide wireless connectivity for a few devices, a couple of decades later it may support thousands of users in a single wireless LAN. This fact has made 802.11 a relevant research topic, and as it happens with other wireless technologies, many of the work carried out is based on simulations. In particular, studies for scenarios with high user density are usually performed this way, in many cases leading to conclusions which do not apply to real world situations. This mismatch can be due to multiple factors, such as the specific protocol implementations or the hardware and drivers used. In this article we present a novel 802.11-based testing platform, which aims to bridge the gap between simulations and the real world, in order to carry out research work for typical high density scenarios. The platform is compatible with standard 802.11-based wireless cards on the market and it was tested with two different radios, The validation metrics considered were the TCP throughput, the airtime utilization and the effective data rate, with relative errors ranging from 0 up to 15%. The potential of the tool is illustrated with real world measurements from two example use cases in education facilities: a school classroom and a conference room. The results indicate this might be the first step towards an open platform to enable active Wi-Fi performance testing for large scale scenarios. Further emulation capabilities are shown with different application tests already integrated to the platform, such as QoE tests for YouTube video playback or e-learning platforms.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T19:12:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 70 (2017)
  • An accurate prediction method for moving target localization and tracking
           in wireless sensor networks
    • Authors: Hanen Ahmadi; Federico Viani; Ridha Bouallegue
      Pages: 14 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 70
      Author(s): Hanen Ahmadi, Federico Viani, Ridha Bouallegue
      With the large use of wireless sensor devices, the interest in positioning and tracking by means of wireless sensor networks is expected to grow further. Particularly, accurate localization of a moving target is a fundamental requirement in several Machine to Machine monitoring applications. Tracking using Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) has been frequently adopted thanks to the availability and the low cost of this parameter. In this paper, we propose an innovative target tracking algorithm which combines learning regression tree approach and filtering methods using RSSI metric. Regression Tree algorithm is investigated in order to estimate the position using the RSSI. This method is combined to filtering approaches yielding to more refined results. The suggested approach is evaluated through simulations and experiments. We also compare our method to existing algorithms available in the literature. The numerical and experimental results show the relevance and the efficiency of our method.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T19:12:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 70 (2017)
  • Survey on security in intra-body area network communication
    • Authors: Marko Kompara; Marko Hölbl
      Pages: 23 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 70
      Author(s): Marko Kompara, Marko Hölbl
      With the advances in microelectronics, embedded computing, and wireless communications, the interest in Body Sensor Networks has risen sharply and has enabled the development and implementation of such networks. A Body Sensor Network is constructed from sensor nodes distributed in and on the user's body. The nodes form a wireless network that collects physiological data and forwards it on. This sort of network has wide application prospects in the future of healthcare. The collected data is highly private and must, therefore, be protected adequately. The security mechanisms usually deployed depend heavily on the key agreement scheme. Because of the reliability requirements, energy efficiency, and hardware constraints, building a key agreement scheme for a Body Sensor Network can be quite a challenge. This paper presents a state-of-the-art overview of security in Body Sensor Networks, focusing on proposed key agreement schemes, ways they are built in, and the methods used to evaluate their security and performance. Results show that the community is very much split between the traditional key agreement schemes and schemes that take advantage of physiological or other signals to exchange a key. Security analysis is rarely performed with formal methods; instead, descriptive analysis is commonplace. There are no standards or guidelines on measuring a scheme`s efficiency. The authors therefore used different methods and, consequently, schemes can be difficult to compare.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T19:12:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 70 (2017)
  • A distributed multichannel MAC protocol for rendezvous establishment in
           cognitive radio ad hoc networks
    • Authors: Md Akbar Hossain; Nurul I Sarkar
      Pages: 44 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 70
      Author(s): Md Akbar Hossain, Nurul I Sarkar
      Rendezvous in cognitive radio ad-hoc networks is an essential step for a pair of unknown cognitive radio (CR) users to initiate a communication. Most of the existing studies address rendezvous problems as a design of a search strategy to meet on the same channel at the same time. However, in a multi-user environment, a rendezvous cannot guarantee even if two users are on the same channel at the same time due to channel contention and the multi-channel hidden node problem. To overcome problems, we propose a novel cognitive radio rendezvous (CR-RDV) protocol by integrating the rendezvous and medium access control (MAC) issues. We modify the traditional backoff strategy based on remaining transmission time and packet length to avoid the concurrent transmission with the primary users (PUs). Moreover, an additional sensing period is introduced immediately after the RTS packet to solve the blocking problem in the multi-user environment. The proposed CR-RDV protocol is analysed based on the modified Bianchi model and an absorbing Markov chain model to capture the multi-user and rendezvous channel contention. Through extensive simulations, we show that the proposed CR-RDV protocol outperforms the existing methods with respect to throughput, delay, and packet dropping.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T19:12:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 70 (2017)
  • FADS: Circular/Spherical Sector based Forwarding Area Division and
           Adaptive Forwarding Area Selection routing protocol in WSNs
    • Authors: Chao Hong; Yufang Zhang; Zhongyang Xiong; Aidong Xu; Huajun Chen; Wei Ding
      Pages: 121 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 70
      Author(s): Chao Hong, Yufang Zhang, Zhongyang Xiong, Aidong Xu, Huajun Chen, Wei Ding
      Without maintenance overhead make beaconless geographic routing protocol become an attractive routing scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), however, without the knowledge of topology may result in high collision rate. In this paper, we firstly analyze the reason of CTS (Clear-To-Send) collision and classify it into Same-Slot collision and Distinct-Slot collision. Then, we proposed a novel routing protocol, Circular/Spherical Sector based Forwarding Area Division and Adaptive Forwarding Area Selection (FADS), which can avoid Distinct-Slot collision, reduce the probability of Same-Slot collision, and realize dynamic load balancing. 1) Forwarding area division ensures that every node within the same forwarding subarea is capable of hearing one another, thus avoiding Distinct-Slot collision. 2) Selecting forwarder from one of subarea decreases the number of contenders(candidates), hence the probability of Same-Slot collision is reduced. 3) Adaptive forwarding area selection dynamic channelizes the traffic to each subarea, thus realizing dynamic load balancing. Compared with related protocols, no matter in the 2D or 3D scenario, simulation results show the excellent performance of FADS in terms of packet delivery ratio, End-to-End latency, and energy consumption per packet, especially in dense networks and congested networks.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T18:28:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.11.013
      Issue No: Vol. 70 (2017)
  • Time-optimized management of IoT nodes
    • Authors: Kostas Kolomvatsos
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 69
      Author(s): Kostas Kolomvatsos
      The vision of Internet of Things (IoT) aims to offer a vast infrastructure of numerous interconnected devices usually called IoT nodes. The infrastructure consists of the basis of pervasive computing applications. Applications can be built with the participation of the IoT nodes that interact in very dynamic environments. In this setting, one can identify the need for applying updates in the software/firmware of the autonomous nodes. Updates may include software extensions and patches significant for the efficient functioning of the IoT nodes. Legacy methodologies involve centralized models where complex algorithms and protocols are adopted for the distribution of the updates to the nodes. This paper proposes a distributed approach where each node is responsible to initiate and conclude the update process. We envision that each node monitors specific performance metrics (related to the node itself and/or the network) and based on a time-optimized scheme identifies the appropriate time to perform the update process.We propose the adoption of a finite horizon optimal stopping scheme. Our stopping model originates in the Optimal Stopping Theory (OST) and takes into account multiple performance metrics. The aim is to have the nodes capable of identifying when their performance and the performance of the network are of high quality. In that time, nodes could be able to efficiently conclude the update process. We provide a set of formulations and the analysis of our problem. Extensive experiments and a comparison assessment reveal the advantages of the proposed solution.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T13:01:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.10.011
      Issue No: Vol. 69 (2017)
  • Heterogeneous fault diagnosis for wireless sensor networks
    • Authors: Rakesh Ranjan Swain; Pabitra Mohan Khilar; Sourav Kumar Bhoi
      Pages: 15 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 69
      Author(s): Rakesh Ranjan Swain, Pabitra Mohan Khilar, Sourav Kumar Bhoi
      Fault diagnosis has been considered as a very challenging problem in wireless sensor network (WSN) research. Faulty nodes having different behavior such as hard, soft, intermittent, and transient fault are called as heterogeneous faults in wireless sensor networks. This paper presents a heterogeneous fault diagnosis protocol for wireless sensor networks. The proposed protocol consists of three phases, such as clustering phase, fault detection phase, and fault classification phase to diagnose the heterogeneous faulty nodes in the wireless sensor networks. The protocol strategy is based on time out mechanism to detect the hard faulty nodes, and analysis of variance method (ANOVA test) to detect the soft, intermittent, and transient faulty nodes in the network. The feed forward probabilistic neural network (PNN) technique is used to classify the different types of faulty nodes in the network. The performance of the proposed heterogeneous fault diagnosis protocol is evaluated using network simulator NS-2.35. The evaluation of the proposed model is also carried out by the testbed experiment in an indoor laboratory environment and outdoor environment.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T13:01:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.10.012
      Issue No: Vol. 69 (2017)
  • Directional MAC protocol for IEEE 802.11ad based wireless local area
    • Authors: Anique Akhtar; Sinem Coleri Ergen
      Pages: 49 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 69
      Author(s): Anique Akhtar, Sinem Coleri Ergen
      IEEE 802.11ad defines a new physical and medium access control layer for IEEE 802.11 networks to operate in the unlicensed 60 GHz millimeter wave spectrum for multi-gigabit wireless communications. Higher frequency waves have higher propagation loss but smaller antenna size. Hence, for millimeter wave networks, higher number of antennas can be packed together, enabling beamforming with very large gains. In this paper, we propose a novel Directional MAC protocol for Basic Stations (DMBS) with the goal of fully leveraging spatial reusability, and limiting deafness and hidden terminal problems with minimal overhead, and without using any complicated hardware for localization. The distinguishing features of DMBS are threefold. First, DMBS extends the association beamforming training time (A-BFT) of IEEE 802.11ad, during which the stations perform initial beamforming training with the access point (AP), by an intelligent listening mechanism. This mechanism allows the stations to passively learn about the best direction of the neighboring stations, decreasing the associated beamforming training overhead. Second, DMBS determines the best transmission direction by using multi-directional sequential (circular) RTS/CTS (Request To Send/ Clear To Send) (CRTS/CCTS) packets, and tracks the best direction by updating its beamforming table upon reception of every RTS/CTS packet, without requiring any additional hardware for localization. If the location information of the destination is up-to-date, the source station only transmits directional RTS/CTS (DRTS/DCTS) in the known direction. Third, DMBS uses two network allocation vectors (NAVs). The first NAV, denoted by NAV1, is used to reduce deafness by determining the busy nodes upon the reception of every RTS/CTS packet. The second NAV, called NAV2, is used to limit hidden terminal problem while maximizing spatial reusability by determining whether a transmission can interfere with active communication links. If NAV2 is set, then the node defers its multi-directional communication but still communicates directionally. We provide a novel Markov chain based analytical model to calculate the aggregate network throughput of DMBS. We demonstrate via extensive simulations that DMBS performs better than existing directional communication protocols in terms of throughput for different network sizes, mobilities and number of receivers.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T13:01:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 69 (2017)
  • Fast network joining algorithms in industrial IEEE 802.15.4 deployments
    • Authors: Elvis Vogli; Giuseppe Ribezzo; L. Alfredo Grieco; Gennaro Boggia
      Pages: 65 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 69
      Author(s): Elvis Vogli, Giuseppe Ribezzo, L. Alfredo Grieco, Gennaro Boggia
      Time Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) Medium Access Control (MAC) is a key feature of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, aimed at accommodating the requirements of industrial Internet of Things systems. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is a main pillar of TSCH, on top of which frequency hopping is added to increase the resilience of short range radio links. A tight synchronization among the network nodes is required in TSCH. Luckily, once a node joins the network, several lean techniques can be used to keep alive its synchronization. On contrary, the subtleties of the joining phase in TSCH still deserve investigations since they could hinder an effective usage of the TSCH MAC. To this end, the problem of acquiring the first synchronization in a TSCH network is investigated hereby, from several perspectives: (i) four novel mechanisms are proposed and implemented in real motes to speed up joining operations; (ii) their average joining time is analytically modeled with closed form expressions as a function of node density, communication reliability, and beacon transmission frequency; (iii) their effectiveness and the agreement between experimental and theoretical outcomes are evaluated in several scenarios.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T13:01:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.10.013
      Issue No: Vol. 69 (2017)
  • Device-to-Device assisted wireless video delivery with network coding
    • Authors: Cheng Zhan; Zhe Wen; Xiumin Wang; Liyue Zhu
      Pages: 76 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 69
      Author(s): Cheng Zhan, Zhe Wen, Xiumin Wang, Liyue Zhu
      Broadcasting popular data content such as videos to multiple users is widely used in mobile wireless networks. We consider a group of mobile users, within proximity of each other, who are interested in the same video or cloud services. In this scenario, users are able to use device-to-device (D2D) connections, e.g., WiFi or Bluetooth, to get the video in a cooperative way. In this paper we consider the D2D-assisted wireless network coded video broadcast problem for users with multiple interfaces to minimize the number of transmission slots. In order to obtain all needed videos, user can receive encoded packet according to cellular link and local cooperative D2D links simultaneously. We analyze the lower bound and upper bound of number of transmission slots under two different receiver models. In the first model, receiver just drop the encoded packet which cannot be decoded immediately, and we propose a joint broadcast and D2D encoding solution based on the clique partition in the graph. In the second model that receiver can buffer all received encoded packets and decode when enough packets are received, we propose an optimal solution using an integer linear programming (ILP) formulation, and we also propose an effective heuristic encoding solution based on random linear coding. Simulation results show that the proposed transmission strategy can significantly reduce the number of transmission slots in most cases, which is an important performance metric in wireless video delivery.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 69 (2017)
  • Advances in Wireless Communication and Networking for Cooperating
           Autonomous Systems
    • Authors: Enrico Natalizio; Dave Cavalcanti; Kaushik Chowdhury; Mostafa El Said
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks, Volume 68
      Author(s): Enrico Natalizio, Dave Cavalcanti, Kaushik Chowdhury, Mostafa El Said

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1570-8705(17)30196-8
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2017)
  • TROPHY: Trustworthy VANET routing with group authentication keys
    • Authors: Pedro Cirne; Susana Sargento
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Pedro Cirne, André Zúquete, Susana Sargento
      Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are a specific case of ad hoc networks where most of the nodes are vehicles. VANETs have emerged in the last few years and are likely to play a major role in the future for a wide number of applications. Routing is essential for any ad hoc network, thus security strategies for protecting VANETs’ routing are critical. In this paper we present TROPHY (Trustworthy VANET ROuting with grouP autHentication keYs), a set of protocols to manage the authentication of routing messages in a VANET, under highly demanding time conditions, capable of protecting the distribution of routing information, considering the WAVE architecture and the patented routing approach, the Service-Based Layer-2 Routing Protocol. Authorised nodes recursively receive TROPHY messages that allow them to refresh their cryptographic material and keep authentication keys updated across the network. Those messages are epidemically distributed across the network and built such that any node pinpointed as lost or physically compromised will not be able to perform the refreshment using them (and so, are excluded from the routing process). Due to the use of a Key Distribution Centre (KDC), a central entity, where all the cryptographic material is stored, we included a mechanism to recover from any unauthorised physical access and disclosure of all such material at once, without requiring the need of human intervention on devices’ re-setup.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T02:05:31Z
  • A Very Fast Tags Polling Protocol for Single and Multiple Readers RFID
           Systems, and its Applications
    • Authors: Maurizio A. Bonuccelli; Francesca Martelli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Maurizio A. Bonuccelli, Francesca Martelli
      In this paper, we present a very fast and simple protocol for polling tags in an RFID system formed by one or more readers, and a multitude of tags. Actually, the protocol is time-optimal for single reader systems, while being very fast for multiple readers systems. The main idea of the protocol described in this paper, is to associate a short and unique number (called “nickname” in the following) to each tag in the reader’s range, and by using such nicknames as the polling order. We first describe the single reader version of the protocol. For this version, the used nicknames are the integers 1, 2, ..., n if the set of tags to be polled is formed by n tags. They can be seen as the time slot in which a tag has to communicate with the reader. We also provide a procedure to assign a nickname for a new tag, as well as a way to delete a tag from the polling order, while keeping the above consecutivity property about nicknames. When polled, the tags transmit a proper (usually short) message. Polling protocols, sometime with little changes, sometime with no change, can be efficiently used for solving several practical problems related to the use of RFID systems. Some of the most prominent ones, and those considered in this paper, are the problems of exactly determine missing tags, the collection of information associated to the tags, the probabilistic determination of missing tags (useful for raising a warning), and the determination of the presence of cloned tags, again for raising a proper warning. We formally show that the protocol is time-optimal. Besides, the protocol is privacy preserving since tags ID’s are never transmitted during the polling procedure. In the protocol version for large, multireader RFID systems, we take an approach completely different from that used so far for any multireader protocol. Up to now, in the proposed protocols for this and related problems, first readers are scheduled so that those with overlapping ranges never operate at the same time. Then, single reader protocol for each so scheduled reader are applied. Here, we schedule the tags instead of the readers so that tags whose transmission can be received by a common reader, never operate at the same time. Then, we show that our polling protocol for single reader systems can be effectively used along with such a tags scheduling strategy, in multireader systems. The time performance improvement of our protocol over the known ones for multireader systems is very large, going from two to seven times, as shown by a simulation experiment we set up, and whose results are also presented.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T18:28:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.12.002
  • A Cross-interface Design for Energy-efficient and Delay-bounded Multi-hop
           Communications in IoT
    • Authors: Hua Qin; Weihong Chen; Buwen Cao; Min Zeng; Yang Peng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Hua Qin, Weihong Chen, Buwen Cao, Min Zeng, Yang Peng
      The future Internet of Things (IoT) will enable Internet connectivity for a vast amount of battery-powered devices, which usually need to wirelessly communicate with each other or to some remote gateways through multi-hop communications. Although ZigBee has become a widely used communication technology in IoT, Wi-Fi, on the other hand, has its unique advantages such as high throughput and native IP compatibility, despite its potentially higher energy consumption. With the development of IoT, more and more IoT devices are equipped with multiple radio interfaces, such as both Wi-Fi and ZigBee. Inspired by this, we propose a cross-interface power saving management (CPSM) scheme, which leverages the existing low-power ZigBee interfaces to wake up the high-power Wi-Fi interfaces on demand towards enabling multi-hop communications in IoT. The objective is to minimize the network energy consumption while satisfying certain end-to-end delay requirements. The results of extensive simulations and prototype-based experiments have demonstrated that the energy consumption of our proposed CPSM is 79.2 % and 68.9 % lower than those of the IEEE 802.11’s standard power saving scheme and a state-of-the-art scheme in moderate traffic scenarios, respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T18:28:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.12.001
  • A secure data collection scheme based on compressive sensing in wireless
           sensor networks
    • Authors: Ping Zhang; Shaokai Wang; Kehua Guo; Jianxin Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Ping Zhang, Shaokai Wang, Kehua Guo, Jianxin Wang
      The compressive sensing (CS) based data collection schemes can effectively reduce the transmission cost of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) by exploring the sparsity of compressible signals. Although many recent works explained CS as a symmetric cryptosystem, CS-based data collection schemes still face security threats, due to the complex deployment environment of WSNs. In this paper, we first propose two feasible attack models for specific applications. Then, we present a secure data collection scheme based on compressive sensing (SeDC), which enhances the data privacy by the asymmetric semi-homomorphic encryption scheme, and reduces the computation cost by sparse compressive matrix. More specifically, the asymmetric mechanism reduces the difficulty of secret key distribution and management. The homomorphic encryption allows the in-network aggregation in cipher domain, and thus enhances the security and achieves the network load balance. The sparse measurement matrix reduces both the computation cost and communication cost, which compensates the increasing cost caused by the homomorphic encryption. We also introduce a joint recovery model to improve the recovery accuracy. Experimental evaluation based on real data shows that the proposed scheme achieves a better performance compared with the most related works.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T19:12:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.11.011
  • Generalized analytical expressions for end-to-end throughput of IEEE
           802.11 string-topology multi-hop networks
    • Authors: Kosuke Sanada; Nobuyoshi Komuro; Zhetao Li; Tingrui Pei; Young-June Choi; Hiroo Sekiya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Kosuke Sanada, Nobuyoshi Komuro, Zhetao Li, Tingrui Pei, Young-June Choi, Hiroo Sekiya
      It is an effective approach for comprehending network performance is to develop a mathematical model because complex relationship between system parameters and performance can be obtained explicitly. This paper presents generalized analytical expressions for end-to-end throughput of IEEE 802.11 string-topology multi-hop networks. For obtaining expressions, a relationship between the durations of the backoff-timer (BT) decrements and frame transmission is expressed by integrating modified Bianchi’s Markov-chain model and airtime expression. Additionally, the buffer queueing of each node is expressed by applying the queueing theory. The analytical expressions obtained in this paper provide end-to-end throughput for any hop number, any frame length, and any offered load, including most of analytical expressions presented in previous papers. The analytical results agree with simulation results quantitatively, which shows the verifications of the analytical expressions.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T19:12:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.11.009
  • Experimental Evaluation of Improved IoT Middleware for Flexible
           Performance and Efficient Connectivity
    • Authors: Soobin Jeon; Inbum Jung
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Soobin Jeon, Inbum Jung
      We previously proposed an Internet of Things (IoT) middleware called Middleware for Cooperative Interaction of Things (MinT). MinT supports thread pooling to quickly process requests from other IoT devices. However, using a thread pool with a fixed number of threads equal to the number of CPU cores can waste memory and CPU resources, and degrade the performance of the IoT device. In this paper, we propose an enhanced approach called Improved MinT (MinT-I) to efficiently improve the performance of MinT middleware by real-time adjustment of threads. We aim to improve the performance of the connection part, which is responsible for analyzing, processing, and retransmitting the received packets. The experimental results showed that MinT-I increased the average throughput by approximately 25% to 35% compared to the existing middleware. Moreover, the proposed MinT-I not only can optimize the memory and resource usage, but it can also reduce the latency and power consumption of IoT devices.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T19:12:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.11.005
  • ReSF: Recurrent Low-Latency Scheduling in IEEE 802.15.4e TSCH Networks
    • Authors: Glenn Daneels; Bart Spinnewyn; Steven Latré; Jeroen Famaey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Glenn Daneels, Bart Spinnewyn, Steven Latré, Jeroen Famaey
      The recent increase of connected devices has triggered countless Internet-of-Things applications to emerge. By using the Time-Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) mode of the IEEE 802.15.4e MAC layer, wireless multi-hop networks enable highly reliable and low-power communication, supporting mission-critical and industrial applications. TSCH uses channel hopping to avoid both external interference and multi-path fading, and a synchronization-based schedule which allows precise bandwidth allocation. Efficient schedule management is crucial when minimizing the delay of a packet to reach its destination. In networks with recurrent sensor data transmissions that repeat after a certain period, current scheduling functions are prone to high latencies by ignoring this recurrent behavior. In this article, we propose a TSCH scheduling function that tackles this minimal-latency recurrent traffic problem. Concretely, this work presents two novel contributions. First, the recurrent traffic problem is defined formally as an Integer Linear Program. Second, we propose the Recurrent Low-Latency Scheduling Function (ReSF) that reserves minimal-latency paths from source to sink and only activates these paths when recurrent traffic is expected. Extensive experimental results show that using ReSF leads to a latency improvement up to 80% compared to state-of-the-art low-latency scheduling functions, with a negligible impact on power consumption of at most 6%.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.11.002
  • Multi-Functional Secure Data Aggregation Schemes for WSNs
    • Authors: Ping Zhang; Jianxin Wang; Kehua Guo; Fan Wu; Geyong Min
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Ping Zhang, Jianxin Wang, Kehua Guo, Fan Wu, Geyong Min
      Secure data aggregation schemes are widely adopted in wireless sensor networks, not only to minimize the energy and bandwidth consumption, but also to enhance the security. Statistics obtained from data aggregation schemes often fall into three categories, i.e., distributive, algebraic, and holistic. In practice, a wide range of reasonable aggregation queries are combinations of several different statistics. Providing multi-functional aggregation support is also a primary demand for data preprocessing in data mining. However, most existing secure aggregation schemes only focus on a single type of statistics. Some statistics, especially holistic ones (e.g., median), are often difficult to compute efficiently in a distributed mode even without considering the security issue. In this paper, we first propose a new Multi-functiOnal secure Data Aggregation scheme (MODA), which encodes raw data into well-defined vectors to provide value-preservation, order-preservation and context-preservation, and thus offering the building blocks for multi-functional aggregation. A homomorphic encryption scheme is adopted to enable in-ciphertext aggregation and end-to-end security. Then, two enhanced and complementary schemes are proposed based on MODA, namely, RandOm selected encryption based Data Aggregation (RODA) and COmpression based Data Aggregation (CODA). RODA can significantly reduce the communication cost at the expense of slightly lower but acceptable security on a leaf node, while CODA can dramatically reduce communication cost with the lower aggregation accuracy. The performance results obtained from theoretic analysis and experimental evaluation of three real datasets under different scenarios, demonstrate that our schemes can achieve the performance superior to the most closely related work.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.11.004
  • Security Threats and Countermeasures of MAC Layer in Cognitive Radio
    • Authors: Mohsen Riahi Manesh; Naima Kaabouch
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Mohsen Riahi Manesh, Naima Kaabouch
      Cognitive radio is a promising technology proposed to solve the scarcity of the radio spectrum by opportunistically allocating the idle portion of the licensed users to unlicensed ones. The effectiveness of the cognitive radio is highly dependent on the fair and efficient management of the access to the unused portion of the frequency channels, which is performed by media access control (MAC) layer. Therefore, any malicious activities disrupting the operation of the MAC layer result in significant performance degradation of the cognitive radio networks. It is necessary to understand the different functionalities of the cognitive radio MAC (CR MAC) layer and to explore the possible attacks cognitive radio networks might encounter. The aim of this work is to investigate different attacks applicable to the MAC layer of cognitive radio and provide an overview of them based on CR MAC functionalities. In addition, the paper describes and compares recent defense strategies related to each attack.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T12:35:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.11.003
  • On the Packet Delivery Delay Study for Three-Dimensional Mobile Ad Hoc
    • Authors: Wu Wang; Bin Yang; Osamu Takahashi; Xiaohong Jiang; Shikai Shen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Ad Hoc Networks
      Author(s): Wu Wang, Bin Yang, Osamu Takahashi, Xiaohong Jiang, Shikai Shen
      This paper studies the packet delivery delay performance in three-dimensional mobile ad hoc networks (3D MANETs). Available work mainly focuses on the performance study in two-dimensional MANETs (2D MANETs), which cannot support delay-intensive applications in 3D MANETs. To explore the packet delivery delay performance in 3D MANETs, this paper adopts two-hop relay algorithm with packet replication for packet routing. With such an algorithm, source node can transmit a packet to at most f distinct relay nodes, which then help to forward the packet to its destination node. The algorithm is flexible such that the packet delivery process can be controlled through a proper setting of f. Specially, a general Markov chain theoretical framework is developed to model the packet delivery process under the algorithm in 3D MANETs. Based on the theoretical framework, the closed-form expressions are further derived for mean and relative standard deviation of packet delivery delay. Finally, extensive simulation and numerical results are provided to validate our theoretical models and illustrate the impact of network parameters on packet delivery delay performance in 3D MANETs.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:25:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.10.004
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