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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3163 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3163 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 403, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 244, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.732, CiteScore: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 392, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 336, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 440, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 201, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)

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Journal Cover
Acta Tropica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.052
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0001-706X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • Dynamics of humoral response in naturally-infected cattle after
           vaccination against leptospirosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Gabriel Martins, Clara Oliveira Slade, Walter Lilenbaum Vaccination is one of the most important measures for the control of bovine leptospirosis. Despite the broad usage of vaccination against leptospirosis in cattle worldwide, the dynamics of the post-vaccine immune response remain controversial and many aspects are still unclear, particularly in naturally-infected animals. Thus, the objective of this study is to describe the dynamics of humoral response in naturally-infected cattle after vaccination against leptospirosis. A total of 162 cows were studied, consisting of 129 included in the experimental group (G1), and subdivided into two groups, vaccinated with two different brands of bacterins, as well as 33 in the control group (G2). Serology (MAT) was performed in all cows on D0 (vaccination), then 60 and 120 days post-vaccination. Vaccination significantly elicited the production of anti-leptospiral antibodies. Seroreactivity increased rapidly but was of short duration (up to D60). Significantly, that increase was notably higher in the vaccinated group than in the controlled. Both vaccines elicited a similar response with a higher rate of seroreactive animals, but predominately against different serogroups. In this context, our results reinforce that, although of limited duration, vaccination against leptospirosis significantly elicits a specific humoral response in naturally-infected animals. The two studied vaccines presented similar seroconversion levels, but predominantly to different serogroups, being one against Icterohaemorrhagiae and the other against Sejroe.
       
  • Could beta-myrcene be an alternative to albendazole for the treatment of
           experimental cystic echinococcosis'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): J. Fabbri, M.A. Maggiore, P.E. Pensel, C.M. Albani, G.M. Denegri, M.C. Elissondo Echinococcus granulosus causes hydatidosis or cystic echinococcosis in humans and livestock. In humans, this disease can be managed with surgery, percutaneous treatment, chemotherapy and/or observation. The chemotherapeutic agents used and approved for treatment of hydatidosis are benzimidazoles. Because of the difficulties in achieving successful treatment, considerable efforts have been made to find new natural compounds against hydatid disease. Beta-myrcene is a monoterpene presented in the essential oils of different plants. It is the principal component of essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary). The goal of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of beta-myrcene against germinal cells, protoscoleces and murine cyst of E. granulosus, as well also, investigate its chemoprophylactic activity in a murine model of cystic echinococcosis. For the in vitro assays, the parasites were incubated with beta-myrcene at 10, 5 and 1 µg/mL. The treatments were dose and time-dependent, and consistent with the observed morphological alterations. In the chemoprophylactic efficacy study, the effect of beta-myrcene was similar to albendazole, the reference drug for human echinococcosis treatment.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Ascaris lumbricoides infection induces both, reduction and increase of
           asthma symptoms in a rural community
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Josefina Zakzuk, Stephanie Casadiego, Ana Mercado, Nelson Alvis-Guzman, Luis Caraballo Several studies, in different populations and environments, have shown that severe and light helminthiases diminish and increase allergy symptoms, respectively. However, data on the simultaneous presence of these contrary effects in a single community is lacking. In a rural community from Colombia, effects of helminthiases on allergy were evaluated. In the study population, age and gender-adjusted prevalence of asthma and rhinitis symptoms in the last year was 14.6% and 34.1%, respectively (N = 739). By stool exam, ascariasis and trichuriasis were 62.5% and 35.7%, respectively. Significant odds ratio (OR) for asthma presentation were Ascaris sensitization, by specific-IgE (aOR: 2.69, 95%CI: 1.21–5.98) or skin prick test (OR: 3.59, 95%CI: 1.55–8.29). Moderate/severe ascariasis was protective from asthma (aOR: 0.34, 95%CI: 0.12-0.99) and moderate/severe trichuriasis from rhinitis (aOR: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.15-0.80). In conclusion, in a rural tropical village, ascariasis exerts risk and protective effects on asthma symptoms, an influence associated with the severity of the infection.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this articleIn endemic areas, the intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides infection is inversely proportional to the parasite-specific IgE response (sensitization) and asthma risk. Dotted line indicates the threshold to develop asthma. Vertical arrows indicate that these populations are almost uniformly exposed to helminthes, but some individuals could have more environmental exposure than others.
       
  • Assessment of Insecticide Resistance in Primary Dengue Vector, Aedes
           aegypti (Linn.) From Northern Districts of West Bengal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Minu Bharati, Dhiraj Saha Aedes mosquitoes are the major vectors transmitting several arboviral diseases such as dengue, zika and chikungunya worldwide. Northern districts of West Bengal is home to several epidemics vectored by mosquito including dengue infections, proper control of which depends on efficient vector control. However the onset of insecticide resistance has resulted in failure of vector control approaches. This study was carried out to unveil the level of insecticide resistance prevailing among the primary dengue vector in this dengue endemic region of India. It was observed that, field caught populations of Ae. aegypti were moderately to severely resistant to majority of the insecticide classes tested, i.e. Organochlorine (DDT), Organophosphates (temephos, malathion), Synthetic Pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin and permethrin) and carbamate (propoxur). In majority of the populations, metabolic detoxification seemed to play the underlying role behind the development of insecticide resistance. This study seems to be the first report revealing the pattern of insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti from Northern West Bengal. Efficient disease management in this region can only be achieved through proper insecticide resistance management. This study may help the concerned authorities in the formulation of an effective vector control strategy throughout this region incorporating the knowledge gained through this study.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Biological study of Trypanosoma caninum under co-culture with
           different feeder layer cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Tatiana S. Fonseca-Oliveira, Juliana Helena S. Barros, Juliana Bernardo Madeira, Raquel da Silva Pacheco, Carlos Roberto Alves, Luzia M.C. Côrtes, Mauro Célio de A. Marzochi, Maria de Fatima Madeira Trypanosoma caninum is a parasite isolated from domestic dogs, of which several biological aspects remain unknown, including evolutive forms found in vertebrate hosts. The objective of this study was to evaluate co-cultures of T. caninum with different cell lines as feeder layers to monitor the differentiation process and investigate infective potential. The study was performed using DH-82, MDCK, and Lulo cell lines. T. caninum from axenic culture was added to the cultured adherent cells. At intervals over 30 days, aliquots of the supernatant were collected for quantification and assessment of differentiation. Infectivity assays were performed on the aforementioned cell lines seeded on glass coverslips and evaluated after 6, 24, and 72 hours. In the supernatant of the feeder layer, T. caninum presented similar growth profiles, with epimastigote and trypomastigote forms in binary and multiple divisions. During co-culture with DH-82 and MDCK cells, a higher level of differentiation to trypomastigotes was observed. This study shows that the differentiation process of this parasite can vary according to culture conditions and that DH-82 and MDCK lineages could be applied to the study of trypomastigote forms. All forms of T. caninum described until now (aflagellar epimastigotes, typical epimastigotes, or trypomastigotes) were unable to infect the cell line Finally, this study provides additional data about morphobiological aspects. Although the biological cycle of T. caninum has not been established, the present data suggest the importance of feeder layers in promoting the growth and differentiation of this new parasite.
       
  • The occurrence, diversity and blood feeding patterns of potential vectors
           of Dengue and Yellow fever in Kacheliba, West Pokot County, Kenya
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): E. Chepkorir, M. Venter, J. Lutomiah, F. Mulwa, S. Arum, D.P. Tchouassi, R. Sang IntroductionYellow fever (YF) and dengue (DEN) viruses are important re-emerging mosquito-borne viruses sharing similar vectors and reservoirs. The last documented YF outbreak in Kenya occurred in 1992-95. However, YF virus is re-emerging in bordering countries including Uganda, Ethiopia and South Sudan with the potential for spread to the neighboring regions in Kenya. Dengue is endemic in Kenya with outbreaks being detected in various towns in the north and the coast. This study reports on the Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquito species occurrence, diversity, and blood feeding patterns, as means of measuring the risk of transmission of YF and DEN in Kacheliba sub-county, West Pokot County, which borders previous YF outbreak areas in eastern Uganda.MethodologyAdult mosquitoes were collected using CO2-baited BG Sentinel traps at three time points during the rainy season. Mosquitoes were identified to the species level. Species abundance during the three sampling periods were compared, with emphasis on Aedes aegypti and other Stegomyia species, using generalized linear models that included mosquito diversity. Individually blood-fed mosquitoes were analyzed by DNA amplification of the 12S rRNA gene followed by sequencing to determine the source of blood meal.ResultsOverall, 8605 mosquitoes comprising 22 species in 5 genera were collected. Sampled Stegomyia species included Ae. aegypti (77.3%), Ae. vittatus (11.4%), Ae. metallicus (10.2%) and Ae. unilineatus (1.1%). Ae. aegypti dominated the blood-fed specimens (77%, n = 68) and were found to have fed mostly on rock hyraxes (79%), followed by goats (9%), humans and cattle (each 4%), with a minor proportion on hippopotamus and rock monitor lizards (each comprising 1%).ConclusionOur findings reveal the presence of important Stegomyia species, which are known potential vectors of YF and DEN viruses. In addition, evidence of more host feeding on wild and domestic animals (hyrax and goat) than humans was observed. How the low feeding on humans translates to risk of transmission of these viruses, remains unclear, but calls for further research including vector competence studies of the mosquito populations for these viruses. This forms part of a comprehensive risk assessment package to guide decisions on implementation of affordable and sustainable vaccination (YF) and vector control plans in West Pokot County, Kenya.
       
  • Enzyme activity of Schistosoma japonicum cercarial elastase SjCE-2b
           ascertained by in vitro refolded recombinant protein
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Ting Zhang, Xiao-Jin Mo, Bin Xu, Zhong Yang, Geoffrey N. Gobert, Shuai Yan, Zheng Feng, Wei HuABSTRACTCercarial elastase (CE) secreted from cercariae is evinced to play a pivotal role in initial skin penetration of mammalian host. SjCE-2b, a Schistosoma japonicum CE orthologous to SmCE-2b in S. mansoni, was previously found present in cercarial stage to aid skin invasion, but its enzyme activity has not been validated due to the insolubility and altered conformation when expressed recombinantly in bacteria as inclusion bodies. We report here for the first time a bioactive and soluble recombinant SjCE-2b recovered successfully from inclusion bodies by refolding approaches, enabling our biochemical and immunological investigation of this enzyme. Using a “two-step-denaturing and refolding” method, we recovered an 83% yield with 90% purity of refolded protein. Proteolytic activity of rSjCE-2b was demonstrated and characterized by enzymatic assay, showing a Km of 0.116 mM and a specific activity of 1900 nmol p-nitroaniline/min/mg protein. A significant immunoprotective response was evidenced in mice immunized with refolded rSjCE-2b. The result of immunoprotection test is at apparent variance with previously reported findings using S. mansoni CE preparation, which was poorly immunogenic in immunized animals. This work extends the knowledge of schistosome cercarial protease, and presents a bioactive form of S. japonicum recombinant CE with high yield and good quality. This will allow further biochemical and biological investigations to explore schistosome CE activity and better understand the molecular mechanisms associated with cercarial skin invasion of the mammalian host.Graphical Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Circulation of Chikungunya virus in Aedes aegypti in Maranhão, Northeast
           Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 186Author(s): Carine Fortes Aragão, Ana Cecília Ribeiro Cruz, Joaquim Pinto Nunes Neto, Hamilton Antonio de Oliveira Monteiro, Eliana Vieira Pinto da Silva, Sandro Patroca da Silva, Aylane Tamara dos Santos Andrade, Wanderli Pedro Tadei, Valéria Cristina Soares Pinheiro The simultaneous circulation of Dengue virus (DENV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) arboviruses have placed Brazil among the main worldwide endemic areas. Brazilian Northeast region concentrates the highest incidence of infections caused by CHIKV and ZIKV. In Maranhão, the second biggest northeastern state, there are cases of human infections caused by these three arboviruses and presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus vectors. In this context, this study aimed to investigate the circulation of CHIKV, DENV and ZIKV in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes collected in urban areas of Barra do Corda, Caxias, Codó, São Luís and São Mateus do Maranhão municipalities in the state of Maranhão through Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) technique. 428 Ae. aegypti and 1 Ae. albopictus were collected, which formed 44 pools. Three of these showed positive results for CHIKV: AR832767 (five Ae. aegypti female collected in Caxias), AR832784 and AR832785 (both composed of 20 Ae. aegypti female collected in São Mateus do Maranhão). This study consolidates information about CHIKV circulation in state of Maranhão, as well as the role of Ae. aegypti in the transmission of CHIKV in urban area.
       
  • Effectiveness of vinpocetine and isosorbide-5-mononitrate on experimental
           schistosomiasis mansoni: Biochemical and immunohistochemical study
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 186Author(s): Samar M. Alhusseiny, Samar N. El-Beshbishi, Maha M. Abu Hashim, Hosam El-dein E. El-nemr, Aya E. Handoussa Schistosomiasis is one of the most important tropical and subtropical devastating diseases, where praziquantel is the sole drug of choice. Praziquantel effectively kills the adult worms, however, drug resistance has been repeatedly reported. Moreover, there is currently no efficient anti-fibrotic therapy available for chronic schistosomiasis. So, novel drugs which exert anti-fibrotic efficacy are urgently needed. This research is complementary to our previous work that evaluated the anti-schistosomal effects of the anti-inflammatory vinpocetine, as well as the vasodilator and the anti-oxidant isosorbide-5-mononitrate. In the present study, we assessed the therapeutic efficacies of drugs in Swiss albino female mice experimentally infected with an Egyptian strain of Schistosoma mansoni, using some biochemical and immunohistochemical parameters. Our results revealed that both vinpocetine and isosorbide-5-mononitrate monotherapy significantly decreased hepatic nuclear factor-kappaB, 10 weeks post infection. The best effects were seen in mice administered praziquantel combined with isosorbide-5-mononitrate, as detected by reduction in hydroxyproline and collagen contents of the liver, and significant increase in the hepatic nitric oxide content. The data provides insight into the potential effects of the assessed drugs with isosorbide-5-mononitrate being more superior to vinpocetine, hence it can be used as novel adjuvant to praziquantel to alleviate schistosomal hepatic fibrosis. However, molecular mechanism/s and clinical trials are worthy to be scrutinized.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The Clean India Mission: Public and animal health benefits
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 186Author(s): Rashmi Thakur, Balbir Bagicha Singh, Prateek Jindal, Rabinder Singh Aulakh, Jatinder Paul Singh Gill The Clean India Mission is a national campaign that aims for complete elimination of open defecation from the country. In India, 564 million people do not have access to toilets and defecate in the open environment. The ‘Millennium development goals’ have given increased weightage to elimination of open defecation for improving health, nutrition and productivity of developing country populations. The Indian economy bears an estimated annual total loss (in terms of health, education, access time and tourism) of US$ 54 billion due to lack of toilets, poor hygiene and over US$ 38.5 billion in treatment costs for diseases occurring due to poor hygiene. Out of 1415 human pathogens, at least more than 10% of pathogens are transmitted through the faecal-oral route. The practice of open defecation helps pathogens persist in the environment and cause diseases. This review focuses on the current status and harms of open defecation, as well as the public and animal health benefits of implementing ‘The Clean India Mission’ in India.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • In silico analysis of putative dormancy genes in Plasmodium
           vivax
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 186Author(s): Ricardo de Souza Ribeiro, Daniela de Melo Resende, Jerônimo Conceição Ruiz, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito Plasmodium vivax is the most widely spread species causing human malaria. The control of malaria caused by P. vivax has been largely hampered by its ability to develop a dormant liver stage that can generate a new blood infection at different periods of time. Unfortunately, the mechanisms of dormancy in P. vivax have not been thoroughly elucidated to date. In this study, the putative dormancy genes were analyzed to select genes with less genetic variability to maintain the function of relapsing. Expression data concerning these genes were searched to support the selection. Protein interactions among selected gene products were identified based on known and predicted protein-protein interaction using String database. Potentially interacting proteins (n = 15) were used to propose a mechanism involved in dormancy based on the differential vesicular transport due to the iron available in the hepatocyte.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Corrigendum to “Epidemiology and population structure of Staphylococcus
           aureus in various population groups from a rural and semi urban area in
           Gabon, Central Africa” [Acta Trop. 124 (2012) 42–47]
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Ulysse Ateba Ngoa, Frieder Schaumburg, Ayola Akim Adegnika, Katrin Kösters, Tina Möller, Elisabeth Gaus, Jose Francisco Fernandes, Abraham Alabi, Saadou Issifou, Karsten Becker, Martin Peter Grobusch, Peter Gottfried Kremsner, Bertrand Lell
       
  • Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis caused by Toxoplasma gondii strain
           ToxoDB#65
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Cinara Cássia Brandão de Mattos, Rubens Camargo Siqueira, Fábio Batista Frederico, Isabelle Martins Ribeiro Ferreira, Ana Iara Costa Ferreira, Mariana Previato, Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola, Luiz Carlos de Mattos Ocular toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is the most common cause of inflammation in the back of the eye. Analysis of the infecting strain may provide information regarding disease behavior and recurrence. Here, we describe clinical and epidemiological data for toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis in two Brazilian women infected by T. gondii strain ToxoDB#65, living in an urban region of São Paulo State, Brazil.
       
  • Identification, Characterization, Immunolocalization, and Biological
           Activity of Lucilin Peptide
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Germán Alberto Téllez, Jesica Alejandra Zapata, Lily Johana Toro, Diana Carolina Henao, Juan Pablo Bedoya, Juan David Rivera, Juan Valentin Trujillo, Bruno Rivas-Santiago, Richard Onalbi Hoyos, Jhon Carlos Castano Maggots from the Lucilia sp. genus are used for debridement of infected and necrotic wounds. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity has been described in the excretion/secretions (ES1) of these larvae. This study identifies the genetic sequence of a cecropin-like antimicrobial peptide from Lucilia eximia. Total RNA was extracted and used for PCR-RACE amplification of a cecropin, the native peptide was immunolocalized in the tissues and secretions of the larvae, and a synthetic analog was used to explore its antimicrobial, cytotoxic, LPS neutralizing and wound-healing activities in vitro. The genetic cDNA sequence of a cecropin-like antimicrobial peptide in L. eximia called “Lucilin” was amplified, corresponding to 63 aa completed protein and 40 aa mature peptide; the structure of the mature peptide was predicted as an α-helix. The peptide was immunolocalized in the salivary glands, fat body, the ES, and hemolymph of the maggots. Lucilin synthetic peptide analog was active against E. coli DH10B with a MIC2 of 7.8 μg/mL, E. coli extended spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL) (MIC: 15.6 μg/mL), and Enterobacter cloacae (MIC: 125 μg/mL), but it was not active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis; and had no cytotoxic or hemolytic activity. It showed immunomodulatory activity against human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with LPS, reducing the TNF-α production when treated at 17 μg/mL and induces cell migration of Hacat at 5 and 50 μg/mL.Lucilin is a cecropin-like peptide from L. eximia with antimicrobial activity against Gram negative bacteria and immunomodulatory activities, decreasing the TNF-α production in PBMCs and inducing cellular migration in human keratinocytes.
       
  • Screening of natural Wolbachia infection in Aedes aegypti, Aedes
           taeniorhynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus from Guadeloupe (French West
           Indies)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): D. Goindin, A. Cannet, C. Delannay, C. Ramdini, J. Gustave, C. Atyame, A. Vega-Rúa Guadeloupe islands are threatened by several mosquito-borne viruses such as Dengue, Chikungunya, Zika and West Nile virus. It appears essential to look for alternative mosquito control methods such as the incompatible insect technique (ITT) aiming at sterilizing wild females by inundative releases of incompatible males. Before considering the implementation of such a strategy, the characterization of genetic diversity of the endocellular bacterium Wolbachia regarding the local mosquito populations is a critical issue. Here, for the first time, we describe the prevalence and diversity of Wolbachia in natural populations of three mosquito species from Guadeloupe: Aedes aegypti, Aedes taeniorhynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus. The detection of Wolbachia in natural Ae. aegypti, Ae. taeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus populations was conducted by studying Wolbachia 16S ribosomal RNA gene using a TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR and results were confirmed by conventional PCR and sequencing. In addition, molecular typing of wPip strains in Cx. quinquefasciatus was done by PCR-RFLP. We did not find Wolbachia infection in any of Ae. aegypti and Ae. taeniorhynchus studied populations. Natural Wolbachia infection was detected in Cx. quinquefasciatus with prevalence varying from 79.2% to 95.8%. In addition, no polymorphism was found between the Wolbachia strains infecting Cx. quinquefasciatus specimens, all carrying an infection from the same Wolbachia genetic wPip-I group. These results pave the way for the evaluation of the feasibility of IIT programs to fight against these medically-important mosquito species in Guadeloupe.Graphical abstractNatural Wolbachia infection and diversity in Aedes aegypti, Aedes taeniorhynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus populations from Guadeloupe (French West Indies).Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Daily activity patterns of movement and refuge use in Triatoma
           gerstaeckeri and Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), vectors of the
           Chagas disease parasite
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Jillian D. Wormington, Cassidy Gillum, Alyssa C. Meyers, Gabriel L. Hamer, Sarah A. Hamer Transmission risk for vector borne disease is greatest during periods of heightened vector activity. Triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), which transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, are generally considered nocturnal, but their patterns of activity in controlled settings have rarely been studied. We quantified activity patterns across a 24-hour period in nymphs of two triatomine species: (1) Triatoma gerstaeckeri Stål, a North American triatomine which is closely associated with sylvatic and peridomestic hosts, and (2) Rhodnius prolixus Stål, a Central and South American triatomine that thrives in the domestic environment. T. gerstaeckeri showed activity throughout the night, with peaks around midnight, 3:00, and again around dawn. Refuge use was highest in the pre-dawn hours then again after the dawn activity peak. We hypothesize that the dawn activity peak may represent a period of host seeking for this sylvatic species that targets nocturnal hosts returning to their home at dawn. In contrast, R. prolixus displayed high activity near 23:00 and again around noon. This study provides a baseline understanding of diel activity for future behavioral experiments and identifies periods of time that may represent the greatest risk of host exposure to triatomines and T. cruzi.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Reproductive aspects of Chagas disease vectors (Hemiptera, Triatominae)
           with anatomical teratologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi, Yuri Augusto, Jader de Oliveira, Tiago Belintani, Lucas Abrantes da Silva, João Aristeu da Rosa, Maria Tercília Vilela Azeredo-Oliveira As Chagas disease has no cure, vector control is the most effective method of preventing this neglected disease. Generally the anatomical teratologies are associated with hormonal dysfunction of the corpus allatum (juvenile hormone), presents genetic basis or unfavorable conditions, and are recessive and not sex linked. Thus, we characterize the male gonads and spermatogenesis of triatomines with anatomical teratologies to evaluate if the malformations interfere in the gametogenesis of these vectors. All teratogenic triatomines analyzed did not present presented gonadal dysgenesis and alterations in spermatogenesis. Thus, we characterize the presence of anatomical teratologies in some species of triatomines and demonstrate that these malformations in the external morphology do not interfere in the gonads and gametogenesis of these vectors. In addition, although new studies with the corpus allatum should be conducted we suggesting that the use of juvenile hormones does not present effectiveness in the reproductive control of these vectors.
       
  • The challenge of discordant serology in Chagas disease: The role of two
           confirmatory techniques in inconclusive cases
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Zaira Moure, Elena Sulleiro, Laura Iniesta, Carmen Guillen, Israel Molina, M. Magdalena Alcover, Cristina Riera, Tomás Pumarola, Roser Fisa Serodiscordance in Chagas disease (CD) remains a challenge since individuals with inconclusive results are clinically complicated to manage. This work, conducted outside the endemic area, aims to compare two different confirmatory techniques for the diagnosis of CD in individuals without a definitive diagnosis, to analyze the performance of the screening techniques in this group of patients, and to describe the serological follow-up of these subjects over time.Sera from 48 individuals with repeatedly discordant results by one recombinant enzyme immunoassay (r-ELISA) and one native ELISA (n-ELISA), were included in the study. Confirmatory procedures were performed through TESA-blot, using trypomastigote antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi, and in-house WB (IH-WB) using a lysate from T. cruzi epimastigotes.Of the 48 sera, TESA-blot confirmed 22 (45.8%) cases and IH-WB 17 (35.4%). Both techniques showed a substantial agreement (k = 0.604). Confirmation defined as the positivity of one of the ELISA and at least one of the confirmatory tests was reached in 24/48 (50%) cases. We found a great dispersion of r-ELISA index values, especially among individuals with confirmatory negative results, ranging from 0.03–6.2. Additionally, n-ELISA yielded a better performance than r-ELISA in this cohort of patients, showing a significantly greater agreement with the confirmatory methods.Our results indicate that either confirmatory test could be an efficient tool to solve inconclusive cases regardless of which form of the parasite's life cycle they use. Also, most individuals remain with discordant serology throughout the short-term follow-up period time of study. Finally, we consider that it is necessary to establish a reference test feasible and commercialized in all areas to solve the problem of inconclusive results.
       
  • In vitro and in vivo efficacies of carbazole aminoalcohols in the
           treatment of alveolar echinococcosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Zhisheng Dang, Shuo Xu, Haobing Zhang, Weifeng Gui, Yumin Zhao, Liping Duan, Wei Hu Benzimidazoles, including albendazole and mebendazole, are the major drugs for clinical chemotherapy of echinococcosis. They mainly exert parasitostatic effects depending on high dosages for long-term. Previous studies have identified carbazole aminoalcohols as novel anti-CE (cystic echinococcosis) agents. However, it is still to be confirmed whether it is effective on alveolar echinococcosis (AE) or not. In the present study, efficacies of novel carbazole aminoalcohols, propylamine, R-propylamine and S-propylamine were evaluated under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Carbazole aminoalcohols were tested against Echinococcus multilocularis (E. multilocularis) protoscoleces (PSC) in vitro. The effects of propylamine and R-propylamine exhibited a time-dependent manner at different concentrations, while the effect of S-propylamine was very poor. At a concentration of 20 μM, the mortality of PSC achieved to 100% on the 11th day after exposure to R-propylamine. The treatment of carbazole aminoalcohols to infected mice resulted in statistically significant reductions in the cyst weights compared with those obtained from negative control mice (p  0.05). The cytotoxicity examination in rat hepatoma (RH) cells indicated that propylamine and R/S-propylamine were lower that of albendazole at a low concentration (5 μM). In addition, histopathological observation of organs (liver, spleen and kidney) for experimental mice showed mild inflammatory changes in the liver and spleen. This study reveals the potential of carbazole aminoalcohols as a class of novel anti-AE agents.
       
  • Seroprevalence of Taenia solium antibodies in a cohort of
           Bolivian immigrants in Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Andrea Angheben, Dora Buonfrate, Lorenzo Zammarchi, Marianne Strohmeyer, Federico Gobbi, Monica Degani, Mariella Anselmi, Valentina Marchese, Alessandro Bartoloni, Zeno Bisoffi We conducted a retrospective study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of anti-cysticercus antibodies in a Bolivian community settled in Italy. Seroprevalence of 9% was found, testing 495 sera with immunoblot. This study contributes to outline the epidemiological scenario of cysticercosis in immigrants living in Europe.
       
  • Clinical, laboratorial and immunological aspects of severe malaria in
           children from Guinea-Bissau
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Janine Domingos, Anaxore Casimiro, Daniela Portugal-Calisto, Luís Varandas, Fátima Nogueira, Marcelo Sousa Silva Malaria is a parasitic disease of which Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe form of the disease. The immune response against Plasmodium spp. is complex and remains unclear. The present report aimed to better understand the humoral immune response in severe malaria and analyse new immunodominant antigen candidates as possible serological marker in severe malaria in children.This study included children aged 0–16 years from Guinea-Bissau with clinical signs of severe malaria. Serological and immunochemical characterisation of different anti-P. falciparum antibodies were made by ELISA and immunoblotting using a crude protein extract of P. falciparum.Sera from 12 children with severe malaria were analysed. Nine samples were positive for total anti-P. falciparum antibodies, seven for IgM and eight for total IgG anti-P. falciparum. There was a predominance of IgG1 response, suggesting a cytophilic action in severe malaria and a major role of IgG1 over other immunoglobulins. The antigenic profile of P. falciparum showed a consistent immunoblotting pattern of approximately 180 kDa, 100 kDa and around 50–40 kDa.The serological reactivity found in protein bands makes them as immunodominant antigens and promising candidates for serological markers in the context of severe malaria.
       
  • The epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Lango region Uganda 60 years after
           Schwetz 1951: Can schistosomiasis be eliminated through mass drug
           administration without other supportive control measures'
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): M. Adriko, B. Tinkitina, E.M. Tukahebw, C.J. Standley, J.R. Stothard, N.B. Kabatereine IntroductionLango region is the only known endemic region for urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis in Uganda. Although there has been no significant improvement in sanitation and safe water supply in the region over years, the endemicity and prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, in particular, have declined, perhaps due to yearly mass treatment campaigns implemented since 2003.MethodsWe report the epidemiology of Urinary and Intestinal schistosomiasis in Lango since 1951–2011 determined through Microscopic examinations for S. mansoni and S. haematobium respectively. A retrospective data review from 195 to 2011 was done to establish the prevalence over the years in the region. We performed Poisson regression analysis to observe trends in epidemiology before and after control was initiated in 2002. In addition, malacological surveys were undertaken in 2007 to assess local transmission potential.FindingsContrary to earlier records, S. haematobium was low and confined to a few putative foci, with declined in infections from 28.2% in 1951 to 2.48% by 2011. Although this decline can be attributed to control, this was already much lower in 1967 than 1951, long before control interventions began suggesting that environmental changes may have made the habitat less suitable for the transmission of S. haematobium. Compared to the historical records S. mansoni prevalence first increased up immediately before control interventions in 2003, significantly declined (p=
       
  • Sensory organs of forensically important fly Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann,
           1818) (Diptera: Muscidae): A scanning electron microscopic study
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Garima Hore, Goutam Kumar Saha, Dhriti Banerjee Dipterans, especially the sarcosaprophagous communities are of substantial importance from medical, veterinary and forensic entomological perspectives. Muscids are generally seen to colonize carcasses at advanced stages of decomposition when the initial dominance of calliphorids and sarcophagids subsides. Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann, 1818), a muscid fly with a relatively wide distribution range is considered of decent forensic relevance as it has been reported not only from cadavers placed outdoors but also from graves and exhumed corpses. The prime objective of the present study is to analyse and interpret the ultrastructural morphology of three sensory organs, namely, the ocellar region, compound eye and antenna of adult male and female Ophyra capensis with the help of scanning electron microscopy, so as to facilitate accurate morphological identification of the species in forensic entomological investigations. SEM analysis of the ocellar region revealed that it was larger in size in females and covered with microtrichia. Ultrastructural analysis of the compound eye indicated that the antero-frontally located ommatidia were larger in size in comparison to the rest of the facets, along with notable sexual dimorphism regarding the size of the ommatidia. The ultrastructure of the antenna displayed the presence of five types of sensilla, two types of chaetic sensilla on the scape and pedicel; trichoid sensilla and two types of basiconic sensilla on the flagellum along with numerous microtrichia. Both types of basiconic sensilla displayed a multiporous surface indicating their characteristic olfactory function. The morphological characteristics of these sensilla along with their probable functions are discussed in greater details.Graphical abstractOphyra capensis displayed sexual dimorphism in certain ultrastructural features of sensory organs, as the ocellar region, pedicel, flagellum, arista and chaetic sensilla of females were found to be larger than that of males.Contributes to the presumption that these are the key players which assists the females in better vision, as well as, in olfaction to perceive chemical cues from corpse decomposition more easily, so as to help them in oviposition site detection.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Mapping the transmission risk of Zika virus using machine learning models
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Dong Jiang, Mengmeng Hao, Fangyu Ding, Jingying Fu, Meng Li Zika virus, which has been linked to severe congenital abnormalities, is exacerbating global public health problems with its rapid transnational expansion fueled by increased global travel and trade. Suitability mapping of the transmission risk of Zika virus is essential for drafting public health plans and disease control strategies, which are especially important in areas where medical resources are relatively scarce. Predicting the risk of Zika virus outbreak has been studied in recent years, but the published literature rarely includes multiple model comparisons or predictive uncertainty analysis. Here, three relatively popular machine learning models including backward propagation neural network (BPNN), gradient boosting machine (GBM) and random forest (RF) were adopted to map the probability of Zika epidemic outbreak at the global level, pairing high-dimensional multidisciplinary covariate layers with comprehensive location data on recorded Zika virus infection in humans. The results show that the predicted high-risk areas for Zika transmission are concentrated in four regions: Southeastern North America, Eastern South America, Central Africa and Eastern Asia. To evaluate the performance of machine learning models, the 50 modeling processes were conducted based on a training dataset. The BPNN model obtained the highest predictive accuracy with a 10-fold cross-validation area under the curve (AUC) of 0.966 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.965-0.967], followed by the GBM model (10-fold cross-validation AUC = 0.964[0.963-0.965]) and the RF model (10-fold cross-validation AUC = 0.963[0.962-0.964]). Based on training samples, compared with the BPNN-based model, we find that significant differences (p = 0.0258* and p = 0.0001***, respectively) are observed for prediction accuracies achieved by the GBM and RF models. Importantly, the prediction uncertainty introduced by the selection of absence data was quantified and could provide more accurate fundamental and scientific information for further study on disease transmission prediction and risk assessment.
       
  • First report on the occurance of intestinal Entamoeba spp. In
           pigs In China
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Wen-Chao Li, Jin-zhu Geng, Cheng Chen, Lei Qian, Tao Zhang, Jun-long Liu, Jian-xun Luo, You-fang Gu Three Entamoeba spp. including E. suis, zoonotic E. polecki, and E. histolytica, have been described in pigs to date. However, little is known about the molecular epidemiology of these neglected parasites in pigs globally. In this study we surveyed the occurrence and molecular epidemiology of porcine Entamoeba spp. in pigs in eastern China and evaluated their zoonotic potential. Five hundred fresh fecal samples, collected from seven pig farms in Anhui province, eastern China,were examined for the presence of E. histolytica, E. suis, and E. polecki ST1 and ST3 infections by a combination of nested PCR targeting the small subunit ribosomal DNA gene and subsequent sequencing.The overall occurrence of Entamoeba spp. was 45.8% (229/500). Infection with E. polecki ST1 (38.2%; 191/500) was the most common, followed by E. polecki ST3 (10.0%; 50/500), and E. suis (0.8%; 4/500). No E. histolytica infection was detected. Double infections with E. polecki ST1 and E. suis, and with E. polecki ST1 and ST3 were found in two (0.4%) and 14 (2.8%) samples, respectively. No age predisposition to infection with Entamoeba spp. was observed. PCR and subsequent sequencing confirmed the validity and feasibility of the nested PCR method used in this study in identifying species/subtypes of porcine Entamoeba spp.This is the first report to describe the occurrence and molecular epidemiology of Entamoeba species in pigs in China. The presence of two zoonotic E. polecki subtypes implies that pigs can be reservoirs for human E. polecki infections. More studiess are needed to better understand the transmission and public health significance of porcine Entamoeba spp.
       
  • Fox parasites in pre-Columbian times: Evidence from the past to understand
           the current helminth assemblages
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): M.H. Fugassa, R.S. Petrigh, P.M. Fernández, M. Carballido Catalayud, C. Belleli This work aims to increase the information on the entero-parasitism in Holocene carnivores, by examining coprolites found in Patagonia. Molecular analysis was conducted following the Authenticity Criteria to Determine Ancient DNA sequences. The nucleotide sequences showed 99% of identity with the Control Region sequences of Lycalopex culpaeus (culpeo fox). Coprolites were positive for gastrointestinal parasites. The presence of Alaria sp. and Clonorchis sp. represents the first record for pre-Columbian America. The parasitological findings suggest the importance of these carnivores for the dissemination of their own parasites and those to their prey in rockshelters, areas with high re-use of space.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Molecular characterization of Babesia microti seroreactive antigen 5-1-1
           and development of rapid detection methods for anti-B. microti antibodies
           in serum
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Yu chun Cai, Fen Wu, Wei Hu, Jiaxu Chen, Shao hong Chen, Bin Xu, Yan Lu, Lin Ai, Chun li Yang, Shimin Zhao Babesiosis has become a new global threat impacting human health, and most human babesiosis cases are caused by Babesia microti. Until now few antigens of B. microti have been described which can be used for the diagnosis of human babesiosis. In the present study, we report on the bioinformatic analysis, cloning and expression of the sequence encoding the B. microti seroreactive antigen 5-1-1 to investigate its potential incorporation in serologic diagnostic tools for babesiosis. Bioinformatic analysis and recombinant gene expression were performed to molecularly characterize seroreactive antigen 5-1-1. Enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL)-Western blot methods were used to detect specific antibodies in infected mice. Immunofluorescence antibody assays (IFA) were performed to detect the localization of BmSA5-1-1 in B. microti parasites. ELISA and immunochromatographic (ICT) tests were developed using recombinant BmSA5-1-1 to evaluate its potential use in rapid detection methods for B. microti antibodies and for the diagnosis of babesiosis. A recombinant expression plasmid was constructed by inserting the target gene fragment in the pET28a vector after double digestion with BamHI and XhoI restriction enzymes. The recombinant BmSA5-1-1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (rBmSA5-1-1) and purified by means of Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) agarose columns. Polyclonal antibodies were generated against rBmSA5-1-1. Based on indirect immunofluorescence assay results, BmSA5-1-1 appeared to localize on the surface of B. microti. ELISA tests using the rBmSA5-1-1 antigen detected specific antibodies from infected mice as early as 4 days post-infection. Our results indicate that the two methods we developed can detect specific antibodies in mice at different stages of infection with sensitivities of 100% (rBmSA5-1-1 ELISA) and 90% (ICT). The specificity of the two methods was 100%. Sera of patients suffering from other closely related parasitic diseases, such as malaria and toxoplasmosis, produced negative results. In conclusion, seroreactive antigen 5-1-1, a member of the BMN1 protein family, is expressed on the outer surface of B. microti and is a promising candidate antigen for the early diagnosis of babesiosis. rBmSA5-1-1 ELISA and ICT methods show good potential for detecting specific antibodies in mice at different stages of infection.
       
  • Development and evaluation of the first immunochromatographic test that
           can detect specific antibodies against Cryptosporidium parvum
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Ragab M. Fereig, Hanan H. Abdelbaky, Fumiaki Ihara, Yoshifumi Nishikawa Cryptosporidium parvum is a major cause of diarrhea among human and calves, resulting in severe health hazards and drastic economic losses, respectively. Although C. parvum infection leads to high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients and bovine calves, this infection remains a neglected disease. Currently available diagnostic tests for C. parvum are primarily based on detection of oocysts, DNA, or secreted antigens in fecal specimens. Demonstration of specific antibodies with a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) will be advantageous not only in providing a simple, rapid, accurate, and affordable tool but also in surveillance because of the ability to recognize recent and past infections. Herein, we developed two ICTs using the diagnostic antigen CpP23 and immunodominant antigen CpGP15 to detect C. parvum-specific antibodies in cattle sera. Because of unavailability of a reference test for antibody detection, evaluation and validation of our developed ICTs were conducted using reference cattle samples and unknown field cattle sera. Serum samples were simultaneously tested by a previously validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the same antigens (CpGP15 and CpP23). ICTs showed substantial ability to discriminate between positive and negative control cattle sera for both CpGP15 and CpP23. Even against field sera, high sensitivity, specificity, and agreement rates were recorded for ICTs compared with the previously validated ELISA with the same antigens (CpGP15 = 78.78%, 100%, and 85.11%; CpP23 = 80%, 100%, and 80.56%, respectively). Moreover, a high correlation was observed between the test band intensity of ICTs and optical density of ELISA, particularly in the case of CpP23-specific IgM. To our knowledge, this study represents the first development of ICTs that can detect C. parvum-specific antibodies. Our tests will contribute greatly to C. parvum infection control in cattle by providing a method for on-site diagnosis of early and latent infections.
       
  • Pythium insidiosum isolated from infected mosquito larvae in
           central Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Raquel Vilela, Cristian Montalva, Christian Luz, Richard A. Humber, Leonel Mendoza Pythium insidiosum is a straminopilan pathogen causing life threatening infections in mammals inhabiting temperate, tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The concept that P. insidiosum could also infect mosquitoes was mentioned earlier by investigators conducting phylogenetic analysis on available P. insidiosum isolates deposited at different culture collections. However, an official report and details on its pathological features in mosquitoes are not available. We are reporting the isolation of P. insidiosum from infected mosquito larvae during a survey conducted in central Brazil. At least three oomycotan isolates were recovered during the survey. Due to their ability to infect mosquito larvae the isolates were deposited in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service Collection of Entomopathogenic Fungi (ARSEF; Ithaca, New York) as putative Lagenidium species. The investigated isolates developed very well at 37 °C, produced typical Pythium-like vesicles containing numerous biflagellate zoospores, hydrolyzed sucrose, and their cultured extracted proteins were recognized in serological analysis by anti-P. insidiosum antibodies. Phylogenetic analyses using ITS and partial COXII DNA sequences identified the isolates as P. insidiosum within the American Cluster I. This is the first official report of P. insidiosum recovered from infected mosquito larvae, indicating that this mammalian pathogen, in addition to plants, it could also use mosquito larvae to complete its life cycle in nature.
       
  • Electroantennogram responses of the Triatoma dimidiata complex to
           volatiles produced by its exocrine glands
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): I.J. May-Concha, P.G. Guerenstein, E.A. Malo, S. Catalá, J.C. Rojas Members of the Triatoma dimidiata complex are vectors of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Morphological and genetic studies indicate that T. dimidiata complex has three principal haplogroups in Mexico. However, whether there are differences in the olfactory physiology among the haplogroups of this complex and a possible correlation with their antennal phenotype are not yet known. Antennal responses to 13 compounds released from the metasternal and Brindley´s glands, which are involved in the alarm and mating-related behaviours of T. dimidiata were investigated using electroantennography (EAG). Overall, of the 13 compounds tested, seven triggered EAG responses in both sexes of three Mexican haplogroups. The sensitivity of the EAG responses show some relationship with the total number of chemo-sensilla present on the antennae. Antennal sensitivity was different between sexes and haplogroups of the T. dimidiata complex. Discriminant analysis of EAG sensitivity was significant, separating the three haplogroups. Our finding is consistent with morphological and genetic evidence for haplogroups distinction within the complex.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • TNF-α antagonist improves oxidative stress and lipid disorders induced by
           scorpion venom in the intestinal tissue
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Imane Saidoune-Malek, Aouatef Ait-Lounis, Fatima Laraba-Djebari We previously reported that Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom induces inflammation in several tissues, however limited information is available on its role in gastrointestinal tract. Here we evaluate the involvement of TNF-α in lipid metabolism in the small intestine after Aah envenomation. To address these issues, NMRI mice (3-month-old) were pre-treated with a TNF-α antagonist, 30 min prior to Aah venom injection. Redox status, cytotoxicity and histopathological changes were analyzed in small intestine 3 and 24 h after Aah injection. Lipid metabolism was evaluated through lipid tolerance test in sera. Lipid content in small intestine was also evaluated at different times after envenomation. Obtained results showed that Aah venom affects the intestinal integrity. This cytotoxicity could be associated with lipid peroxidation and altered or insufficient antioxidant system. These results also highlight the perturbation of lipid absorption in intestine tissue of envenomed mice. The use of TNF-α antagonist prior to Aah venom injection seems to be able to improve lipid profile, oxidative stress and antioxidant activity. These findings suggest that Aah venom induces lipid alterations in the intestinal tissue mechanisms involving of TNF- α.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Detection of Leishmania DNA in saliva among patients with HIV/AIDS in
           Trang Province, southern Thailand
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Netranapha Pandey, Suradej Siripattanapipong, Saovanee Leelayoova, Jipada Manomat, Mathirut Mungthin, Peerapan Tan-ariya, Lertwut Bualert, Tawee Naaglor, Padet Siriyasatien, Atchara Phumee, Phunlerd Piyaraj Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease causing opportunistic infection among patients with HIV/AIDS. The fatal form of this disease is visceral leishmaniasis (VL). DNA of Leishmania can be detected in saliva, for which the collection is noninvasive and requires little expertise. This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a nested-PCR to amplify the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) to detect Leishmania DNA in paired saliva and buffy coat samples of 305 Thai patients with HIV/AIDS in Trang Hospital, Trang Province, southern Thailand. For asymptomatic Leishmania infection among Thai patients with HIV/AIDS, the sensitivity and specificity of the nested-PCR-ITS1 in buffy coat were 73.9 and 100%, respectively. However, the sensitivity in saliva was 26.1% and specificity was 100%. Using the nested-PCR-ITS1, saliva and buffy coat samples showed positive agreement in only 52.0% of patients. Saliva tested results with the nested-PCR-ITS1 showed positive agreement with the Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) in 46.5% of patients. Only 12.1% of the samples showed positive agreement for Leishmania infection among all the three tests: saliva, buffy coat and DAT results. Using nucleotide sequencing, at least three species of Leishmania infection were identified in saliva, i.e., L. siamensis (n = 28), L. martiniquensis (n = 9), and L. donovani complex (n = 1). As a result, buffy coat still appears to be a better specimen to diagnose asymptomatic VL infection among individuals with HIV. However, the use of both buffy coat and saliva together as clinical specimens would increase the sensitivity of Leishmania detection.
       
  • Insecticide susceptibility status of Phlebotomus argentipes and
           polymorphisms in voltage-gated sodium channel (vgsc) gene in Kala-azar
           endemic areas of West Bengal, India
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Ashif Ali Sardar, Pabitra Saha, Moytrey Chatterjee, Dilip Kumar Bera, Prasanta Biswas, Dipankar Maji, Subhasish Kamal Guha, Nandita Basu, Ardhendu Kumar Maji Rational use of insecticides, as advocated by World Health Organisation, plays a crucial role for vector control in eliminating visceral leishmaniasis from endemic countries. Emergence and spread of resistance among vector sand flies is of increasing concern for achieving these goals. Information on insecticide susceptibility status of sand fly populations and potential association between the former and polymorphisms in the insecticide target genes is important for formulating proper vector control measures. The present study was designed to evaluate the susceptibility status of vector sand fly species (Phlebotomus argentipes) against deltamethrin (type II pyrethroid), DDT (organochlorine) and malathion (organophosphate) and to detect polymorphisms in voltage gated sodium channel (vgsc) gene and investigating their association with type II pyrethroid and DDT susceptibility in three Kala-azar endemic districts of West Bengal, India. Adult sand flies were collected from human dwelling and cattle sheds of the study areas and subjected to insecticide bioassay using insecticide impregnated papers as per WHO protocol. Polymorphisms in domain II segment 6 of vgsc gene of pyrethroid and DDT susceptible and tolerant P. argentipes were detected by DNA sequencing. P. argentipes population of the study area was found to be susceptible to deltamethrin and malathion with corrected mortality rate between 98.02% to 98.80% and 98.81% to 100% respectively, but resistant to DDT (corrected mortality rate = 65.62%–76.33%). Two non-synonymous mutations L1014S and L1014F were detected of which L1014F was found to be associated with deltamethrin/DDT resistance. The replacement of DDT by synthetic pyrethroid is aptly done by national vector borne disease control programme (NVBDCP). The prevalence of L1014F mutation in vgsc gene and its association with type II pyrethroid tolerability is an indication of emergence of resistance against it. Malathion may be used as an alternative in the study areas if needed in future. Similar studies at a regular interval are highly suggested for monitoring susceptibility of used insecticide and to detect early signs of emergence of resistance against them.
       
  • Discrete typing units of Trypanosoma cruzi detected by real-time PCR in
           Chilean patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Catalina Muñoz-San Martín, Inés Zulantay, Miguel Saavedra, Cristián Fuentealba, Gabriela Muñoz, Werner Apt Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin America and has spread to other countries due to immigration of infected persons. 10–30% of patients with chronic Chagas disease will develop cardiomyopathy. Chagas cardiomyopathy is the worst form of the disease, due to its high morbidity and mortality. Because of its prognostic value and adequate medical monitoring, it is very important to identify infected people who could develop Chagas cardiomyopathy. The aim of this study was to determine if discrete typing units (DTUs) of Trypanosoma cruzi are related to the presence of heart disease in patients with chronic Chagas disease. A total of 86 untreated patients, 41 with cardiomyopathy and 45 without heart involvement were submitted to clinical study. Electrocardiograms and echocardiograms were performed on the group of cardiopaths, in which all important known causes of cardiomyopathy were discarded. Sinus bradycardia and prolonged QTc interval were the most frequent electrocardiographic alterations and patients were classified in group I (46%) and group II (54%) of New York Hearth Association. In all cases real-time PCR genotyping assays were performed. In the group with cardiomyopathy, the most frequent DTU was TcI (56.1%), followed by TcII (19.5%). Mixed infections TcI + TcII were observed in 7.3% of the patients. In the group without cardiac pathologies, TcI and TcII were found at similar rates (28.9 and 31.1%, respectively) and mixed infections TcI + TcII in 17.8% of the cases. TcIII and TcIV were not detected in any sample. Taken together, our data indicate that chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy in Chile can be caused by strains belonging to TcI and TcII.
       
  • Genetic diversity of the families Aeshnidae, Gomphidae and Libellulidae
           through COI gene from South China
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Saif Ul Islam, Muhammad Qasim, Habib Ali, Waqar Islam, Muhammad Arif, Chandra Kanta Dash, Wenzhong Lin, Zhenguo Du, Zujian Wu Adult dragonflies (Anisoptera) were collected from different localities of South China covering eight provinces. Representative sequences were sixty-one, including 16 species, 11 genera and three families (Aeshnidae, Gomphidae and Libellulidae), under cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. After alignment of sequences by BioEdit v6, genetic interaction and divergence were computed by MEGA 7 whereas all the indices of genetic diversity were calculated by DnaSP v5 software. Phylogenetic trees were constructed through Neighbor-Joining method under Jukes-Cantor model, and all species of respective families were assembled with each other into individual groups. Maximum divergence was observed by Trithemis genus (18.69%), followed by Orthetrum genus (18.16%), whereas a minimum value of divergence was noted for Pantala genus (0.31%). On the other hand, maximum genetic diversity was recorded for Orthetrum genus up to 142 mutations, followed by Trithemis genus (126 mutations), while the minimum value (two mutations) was observed for Pantala genus. Genetic diversity for overall and Libellulidae family sequences was much higher, up to 404 mutations and 344 mutations, respectively. Current results suggest a high diversity of odonates in the South China region and results are valuable in gaining a total obligation of the diversity of Asian odonates and conservation measures of this insect group.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Successful treatment against American cutaneous leishmaniasis by
           intralesional infiltration of a generic antimonial compound-lidocaine
           combination. A follow up study
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Néstor Añez, Agustina Rojas, José Vicente Scorza-Dagert, Carmen Morales One hundred and twenty-two lesions caused by Leishmania braziliensis in 92 patients were treated using weekly intralesional (IL) infiltrations of a generic pentavalent antimonial compound, combined with local anesthetics. The topical therapy produced satisfactory healing in all the included patients, bearing from single-small ulcers to multiple or big lesions, after receiving an average 6 ± 3 IL infiltrations (90 mgSb5+each). The rapid effect of this compound was demonstrated by the observed decrease of the Leishmania-amastigote population following microscopical grading in complicated ulcers after receiving two infiltrations. Neither discomfort nor side effects after infiltrations were recorded from the treated patients at any time. In addition, no signs of cutaneous relapse or mucosal lesion were detected during follow up after a decade clinical healing in 22% of the treated patients. Investment to produce the generic antimonial-IL treatment resulted significantly lower than the standard antimonial systemic therapy, and its cost/risk is discussed. The minimal dose of Sb5+ causing non-side effects or patient discomfort, the low production cost and the here demonstrated successful results, lead us to propose this generic antimonial compound as an alternative therapy for leishmanial-control in areas where American cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic.
       
  • Discriminating lethal concentrations for pyrethroid compounds used in
           susceptibility monitoring of Anopheles epiroticus, a malaria vector in
           Thailand
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Watcharin Phoomkhong, Michael J. Bangs, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap Anopheles epiroticus is a malaria vector in Thailand found primarily along coastal areas with brackish water habitats. Insecticides, particularly pyrethroid class compounds, are commonly used to control malaria vectors in Thailand. The lack of specific discriminating lethal concentrations for An. epiroticus has possibly compromised a more accurate assessment of physiological susceptibility to various chemicals. The routine assessment of vector response to insecticides is a key program management component to prevent or mitigate the development of resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine the discriminating (diagnostic) lethal concentrations of five common synthetic pyrethroids (deltamethrin, permethrin, bifenthrin, lambda(λ)-cyhalothrin, and alpha(α)-cypermethrin) used in Thailand for malaria control, against a susceptible colonized population of An. epiroticus. Final discriminating concentrations were 0.006% deltamethrin, 0.349% permethrin, 0.033% bifenthrin, 0.012% λ-cyhalothrin, and 0.0009% α-cypermethrin. Using concentrations established for each chemical, a field population of An. epiroticus from southern Thailand was found completely susceptible to each concentration. Periodic monitoring of insecticide susceptibility of An. epiroticus and other malaria vector species is needed to assess the efficacy of chemicals and guide insecticide policy and control programs.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Exposure of a diurnal mosquito vector to floral mimics: Foraging
           responses, feeding patterns, and significance for sugar bait technology
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Hamady Dieng, Tomomitsu Satho, Nurul Atieqah Binti Arzemi, Nur Ezzati Aliasan, Fatimah Abang, Erida Wydiamala, Fumio Miake, Wan Fatma Zuharah, Nur Faeza Abu Kassim, Ronald E. Morales Vargas, Noppawan P. Morales, Gabriel Tonga Noweg Food location by mosquitoes is mediated by resource-derived olfactory and visual signals. Smell sensation is intermittent and dependent on the environment, whereas visual signals are continual and precede olfactory cues. Success of mosquito bait technology, where olfactory cues are used for attraction, is being impeded by reduced attractiveness. Despite proof that mosquitoes respond to colored objects, including those mimicking floral shape, and that they can discriminate among flowers, the impacts of artificial flowers on foraging remain unexplored. Using artificial flowers with sugar rewards, we examined the foraging responses of Aedes aegypti to various colors in equal choice bioassays. Starved adults were exposed to single flowers with petals of a given color (Single Blue Flowers [SBFs]; Single Red Flowers [SRFs]; Single Yellow Flowers [SYFs]; Single Pink Flowers [SPIFs]; and Single Purple Flowers [SPFs]) and two others with white petals (SWFs). Discrepancies in response time, visitation, feeding, and resting of both sexes were compared between colored flowers and SWFs. Ae. aegypti exhibited shorter response times to colored flowers compared to SWFs, but this behavior was mostly seen for SBFs or SYFs in females, and SRFs, SYFs, SPIFs, or SPFs in males. When provided an option to land on colored flowers and SWFs, female visitation occurred at high rates on SBFs, SRFs, SYFs, SPIFs, and SPFs; for males, this preference for colored flowers was seen to a lesser degree on SBF and SPIFs. Both sexes exhibited preference for colored flowers as sugar sources, but with different patterns: SPIFs, SRFs, SYFs, and SPFs for females; SYFs, SPFs, SPIFs and SRFs for males. Females preferentially rested on colored flowers when in competition with SWFs, but this preference was more pronounced for SPFs, SRFs, and SBFs. Males exhibited an increased preference for SRFs, SPFs, and SYFs as resting sites. Our results indicated the attraction of Ae. aegypti to rewarding artificial flowers, in some cases in ways similar to live flowering plants. The discovery that both male and female Ae. aegypti can feed on nectar mimics held by artificial flowers opens new avenues for improving sugar bait technology and for developing new attract-and-kill devices.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Synthetic analogues of the parasitic worm product ES-62 reduce disease
           development in in vivo models of lung fibrosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Colin J. Suckling, Sambuddho Mukherjee, Abedawn I. Khalaf, Ashwini Narayan, Fraser J. Scott, Sonal Khare, Saravanakumar Dhakshinamoorthy, Margaret M. Harnett, William Harnett Parasitic worms are receiving much attention as a potential new therapeutic approach to treating autoimmune and allergic conditions but concerns remain regarding their safety. As an alternative strategy, we have focused on the use of defined parasitic worm products and recently taken this one step further by designing drug-like small molecule analogues of one such product, ES-62, which is anti-inflammatory by virtue of covalently attached phosphorylcholine moieties. Previously, we have shown that ES-62 mimics are efficacious in protecting against disease in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and skin and lung allergy. Given the potential role of chronic inflammation in fibrosis, in the present study we have focused our attention on lung fibrosis, a debilitating condition for which there is no cure and which in spite of treatment slowly gets worse over time. Two mouse models of fibrosis - bleomycin-induced and LPS-induced - in which roles for inflammation have been implicated were adopted. Four ES-62 analogues were tested – 11a and 12b, previously shown to be active in mouse models of allergic and autoimmune disease and 16b and AIK-29/62 both of which are structurally related to 11a. All four compounds were found to significantly reduce disease development in both fibrosis models, as shown by histopathological analysis of lung tissue, indicating their potential as treatments for this condition.
       
  • Comparative proteomics analysis of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae
           exposed to albendazole sulfoxide stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Ruo Yu Peng, Hui Jun Ren, Chun Li Zhang, Pin Lv, Gao Hui Wei, Liang Ming The drug albendazole (ABZ) has a positive effect against Trichinella spiralis infection and has been used for the treatment and prevention of trichinellosis in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanism ofthe effects of ABZ on T. spiralis remains unknown. Albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) is the main intermediary metabolic product of ABZ, and it is often used as a substitute for ABZ in metabolism and bioavailability research. Herein, isobaric tagging reagents for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based LC–MS/MS analysis was used to identify the effect of ABZSO on the proteome of T. spiralis muscle larvae in vitro. 3795 proteins were quantified from 22974 unique peptides. Comparative proteomics analysis displayed that 417 proteins were remarkably differentially expressed in ABZSO-treated larvae, of which 213 proteins were up-regulated and 204 proteins were down-regulated. Quantitative real-time PCR of ten randomly-selected genes verified the proteomic data. Gene ontology annotation and KEGG pathway analysis showed that most of the differentially expressed proteins were involved in cell apoptosis, signal pathway, amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis/assembly/degradation and other biological processes. This study firstly provided the comprehensive proteomics data of T. spiralis in response to ABZSO, and would help us to deeply understand the molecular mechanism of ABZSO effects on T. spiralis.
       
  • A new species and a new record of the Simulium (Gomphostilbia) gombakense
           species-group (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thailand
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Hiroyuki Takaoka, Wichai Srisuka, Van Lun Low, Atiporn Saeung Larvae and adults reared from pupae of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) gombakense Takaoka & Davies from eight streams in five provinces of Thailand were genetically analyzed by using cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences. The material was composed of four lineages, of which lineages 2, 3 and 4 are genetically closely related to one another, but more distantly related to lineage 1, which is equivalent to typical S. (G.) gombakense from Peninsular Malaysia. Lineages 2, 3 and 4, which are morphologically indistinguishable, are designated as genoforms A, B and C within a species complex of S. (G.) paiense sp. nov., which is described based on specimens of lineage 2 (=genoform A). Simulium (G.) paiense sp. nov. is similar to S. (G.) gombakense from Peninsular Malaysia but appears to be barely distinguished by the relative length of the female fore basitarsus. Simulium (G.) thuathienense Takaoka & Sofian-Azirun is newly recorded from Thailand and its male is described for the first time. The female of S. (G.) gombakense is briefly described based on females reared from pupae collected from Peninsular Malaysia.
       
  • Human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (Trematoda, Opisthorchiidae) in
           Central Myanmar: New records of adults and metacercariae identified by
           morphology and molecular analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Oranuch Sanpool, Win Pa Pa Aung, Rutchanee Rodpai, Wanchai Maleewong, Pewpan M. Intapan Opisthorchis-like metacercariae were found in cyprinoid fish, Puntius brevis, bought from markets in the Bago region, Central Myanmar. Adult worms recovered from experimentally-infected hamsters resembled Opisthorchis viverrini. DNA was extracted from adults and metacercariae. A portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) regions were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced. The sequences confirmed that the flukes were O. viverrini. In phylogenetic analyses, sequences of O. viverrini, including our new sequences, clustered in a group with high bootstrap support for ITS2 (80%) and the cox1 gene (99%). Interestingly, ITS2 and cox1 sequences of O. viverrini and O. lobatus were very similar, raising a question about the identity of the latter. This is the first report of O. viverrini in cyprinoid fish in Central Myanmar, and only the second report of the species in Myanmar. It is an urgent warning against consuming raw or semi-cooked freshwater fish dishes. Development of an effective food-safety strategy should be provided for the prevention and control of opisthorchiasis and other foodborne diseases.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The biodiversity of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Indonesia
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Upik Kesumawati Hadi, Hiroyuki Takaoka Indonesia is one of the megadiversity country in the world endowed with rich and unique biodiversity insects such as blackflies species (Diptera: Simuliidae). Blackflies are found almost anywhere with running water suitable as habitat for the immature stages. This family is one of the most important groups of blood-sucking insects. This study collates the records of Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae) in previous publications related fauna of Indonesia. Based on the results of this study, there were 124 species of blackflies in Indonesian Archipelago. All species are assigned to the genus Simulium Latreille s.l., and are placed into five subgenera, i.e. Gomphostilbia Enderlein, Morops Enderlein, Nevermannia Enderlein, Simulium Latreille s.str. and Wallacellum Takaoka. Further classification into 27 species groups within the subgenera were also made. Checklists of Indonesian Simuliidae are provided including data on the distribution of each species.
       
  • Aedes aegypti(Linnaeus) larvae from dengue outbreak areas in Selangor
           showing resistance to pyrethroids but susceptible to organophosphates
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Cherng Shii Leong, Indra Vythilingam, Meng Li Wong, Wan-Yusoff Wan Sulaiman, Yee Ling Lau The resistance status of Selangor Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) larvae against four major groups of insecticides (i.e., organochlorines, carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) was investigated. Aedes aegypti were susceptible against temephos (organophosphate), although resistance (RR50 = 0.21–2.64) may be developing. The insecticides susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti larvae were found heterogeneous among the different study sites. Results showed that Ae. aegypti larvae from Klang, Sabak Bernam and Sepang were susceptible against all insecticides tested. However, other study sites exhibited low to high resistance against all pyrethroids (RR50 = 1.19–32.16). Overall, the application of synergists ethacrynic acid, S.S.S.- tributylphosphorotrithioate and piperonyl butoxide increased the toxicity of insecticides investigated. However, the application failed to increase the mortality to susceptible level (>97%) for certain populations, therefore there are chances of alteration of target site resistance involved. Biochemical assays revealed that α-esterase, (Gombak, Kuala Langat, Kuala Selangor and Sabak Bernam strains) β-esterase (Klang and Sabak Bernam strains), acetylcholinesterase (Kuala Selangor and Sabak Bernam strains), glutathione-S-transferase (Kuala Selangor and Sabak Bernam strains) and mono-oxygenases (Gombak, Hulu Langat, Hulu Selangor and Kuala Langat strains) were elevated. Spearman rank-order correlation indicated a significant correlation between resistance ratios of: DDT and deltamethrin (r = 0.683, P = 0.042), cyfluthrin and deltamethrin (r = 0.867, P =0.002), cyflyuthrin and lambdacyhalothrin (r = 0.800, P =0.010), cyfluthrin and permethrin (r = 0.770, P =0.015) deltamethrin and permethrin (r = 0.803, P =0.088), propoxur and malathion (r = 0.867, P = 0.002), malathion and temephos (r = 0.800, P = 0.010), etofenprox and MFO enzyme (r = 0.667, P =0.050). The current study provides baseline information for vector control programs conducted by local authorities. The susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti should be monitored sporadically to ensure the effectiveness of current vector control strategy in Selangor.
       
  • Characterization of Simulium (Simulium) hackeri Edwards (Diptera:
           Simuliidae) from Malaysia: Morphological description of the pupa and
           larva, and DNA barcoding
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Zubaidah Ya’cob, Hiroyuki Takaoka, Van Lun Low, Mohd Sofian-Azirun Simulium (Simulium) hackeri Edwards, 1928 of the Simulium variegatum species-group from Malaysia was described initially based on the female specimen from Cameron Highlands, Pahang. In the present study, the pupa and larva of this species are described for the first time. Their morphological characters resemble those of the Simulium variegatum species-group by having six gill filaments per side, abdomen with dorsal spine-combs at least on segments 7 and 8, cocoon with wall-pocket shaped and with or without an anterodorsal projection. Postgenal cleft of the larva medium-sized, rarely small, ventral papillae small or absent. The DNA barcode of this species is also reported herein.
       
  • Independent and interactive effect of plant- and mammalian- based odors on
           the response of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Juliah W. Jacob, David P. Tchouassi, Zipporah O. Lagat, Evan M. Mathenge, Collins K. Mweresa, Baldwyn Torto Several studies have shown that odors of plant and animal origin can be developed into lures for use in surveillance of mosquito vectors of infectious diseases. However, the effect of combining plant- and mammalian-derived odors into an improved lure for monitoring both nectar- and blood-seeking mosquito populations in traps is yet to be explored. Here we used both laboratory dual choice olfactometer and field assays to investigate responses of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, to plant- and mammalian-derived compounds and a combined blend derived from these two odor sources. Using subtractive bioassays in dual choice olfactometer we show that a 3-component terpenoid plant-derived blend comprising (E)-linalool oxide, β-pinene, β-ocimene was more attractive to females of An. gambiae than (E)-linalool oxide only (previously found attractive in field trials) and addition of limonene to this blend antagonized its attractiveness. Likewise, a mammalian-derived lure comprising the aldehydes heptanal, octanal, nonanal and decanal, was more preferred than (E)-linalool oxide. Surprisingly, combining the plant-derived 3-component blend with the mammalian derived 4-component blend attracted fewer females of An. gambiae than the individual blends in laboratory assays. However, this pattern was not replicated in field trials, where we observed a dose-dependent effect on trap catches while combining both blends with significantly improved trap catches at higher doses. The observed dose-dependent attractiveness for An. gambiae has practical implication in the design of vector control strategies involving kairomones from plant- and mammalian-based sources.
       
  • Morphology of the terminal abdominal segments in females of Triatominae
           (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Juliana Mourão dos Santos Rodrigues, João Aristeu da Rosa, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo Moreira, Cleber Galvão Triatominae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae) includes 151 extant species that are all potential vectors of Chagas disease. The relationships among these species have been recently studied based on molecular and cytogenetical approaches, and although the morphology of these insects is fairly described, wide comparative studies and cladistics analysis based on this feature are lacking. A comparative study of the terminal abdominal segments in females of 26 species of Triatominae was performed in order to evaluate their importance for the distinction of genera and species, and obtain characters to be used in cladistics analyses. The results showed that the short combined segments IX and X in dorsal view is not diagnostic for Rhodnius, and the elongated trapezoidal dorsal shape of combined segments IX and X is not exclusive of Panstrongylus. There are diagnostic features at the generic level for Rhodnius and Dipetalogaster, but not for the other genera studied. Among the structures examined, tergite IX is the most valuable for distinguishing species of Triatominae. The female terminalia is useful for the specific identification of Triatominae, but cannot be used to diagnose most genera or to directly assess supraspecific relationships. These can only be unveiled by using additional morphological and/or molecular data in broad cladistics analyses.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Investigation of anti-leishmanial efficacy of miltefosine and ketoconazole
           loaded on nanoniosomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): R. Nazari-Vanani, R. Dehdari Vais, F. Sharifi, N. Sattarahmady, K. Karimian, M.H. Motazedian, H. Heli Leishmaniasis is a group of parasitic disease caused by protozoa of Leishmania genus. Leishmania major accounts for the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The current treatments of this disease are expensive with high toxicity and are associated to difficulties of healing and parasite resistance. Miltefosine and ketoconazole have been found to be effective against CL. In this study, miltefosine- and ketoconazole-loaded nanoniosomes were prepared by the thin film-hydration method, and their anti-leishmanial effects against Leishmania major promastigotes and amastigotes were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of the nanoniosomes were determined. Release from the formulations showed enhanced and controlled dissolution of the drugs. The miltefosine- and ketoconazole-loaded nanoniosomes inhibited the growth of promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania major in vitro after 48 h of incubation and had IC50 values of 53.39 ± 0.02 and 86.38 ± 0.07 μg mL−1, respectively. The formulations provided improved anti-leishmanial activities for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Genetic analysis of Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) reveals a deep
           divergence in the original regions
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Zhang Ruiling, Liu Tongkai, Huang Zhendong, Zhuang Guifen, Ma Dezhen, Zhang Zhong Aedes albopictus has been described as one of the 100 worst invasive species in the world. This mosquito originated from southeastern Asia and currently has a widespread presence in every continent except Antarctica. The rapid global expansion of Ae. albopictus has increased public health concerns about arbovirus-related disease threats. Adaptation, adaption to novel areas is a biological challenge for invasive species, and the underlying processes can be studied at the molecular level. In this study, genetic analysis was performed using mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5), based on both native and invasive populations. Altogether, 38 haplotypes were detected with H1 being the dominant and widely distributed in 21 countries. Both phylogenetic and network analyses supported the existence of five clades, with only clade I being involved in the subsequent global spread of Asian tiger mosquito. The other four clades (II, III, IV and V) were restricted to their original regions, which could be ancestral populations that had diverged from clade I in the early stages of evolution. Neutrality tests suggested that most of the populations had experienced recent expansion. Analysis of molecular variance and the population-pair statistic FST revealed that most populations lacked genetic structure, while high variability was detected within populations. Multiple and independent human-mediated introductions may explain the present results.
       
  • Unraveling cryptic epizootiology of equid trypanosomosis in Punjab state
           of India by parasitological and sero-molecular techniques
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Rahul Parashar, L.D. Singla, Kanisht Batra, Rajendra Kumar, Neeraj Kashyap, Paramjit Kaur, M.S. Bal To unravel equid trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi in Punjab state of India, a cross sectional study was designed by utilizing parasitological and sero-molecular tools with objective to assess the prevalence of T. evansi in association with various risk factors in all agroclimatic zones of Punjab state of India. Parasitological Romanowksy stained thin blood smears (RSTBS) to detect patent infection, molecular techniques polymerase chain reaction I (PCR I; TBR 1/2 primers; targeting minichromosomal satellite DNA of T. evansi), polymerase chain reaction II (PCR II; TR 3/4 primers; targeting variable surface glycoprotein region DNA of T. evansi) & LAMP (Loop mediated isothermal amplification) assay to detect latent infection and serological assays card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi) & ELISA (Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) to detect exposure status of trypanosomosis were utilized in the present study. A total 429 equid blood and serum samples from all the five agroclimatic zones of Punjab state tested by these techniques showed a prevalence of 1.39% (CL: 0–15.28) by RSTBS, 6.52% (10.94–45.09) by both TBR 1/2 PCR and LAMP assay, 5.82% (11.57–38.42) by TR 3/4 PCR, 15.15% (36.57–135.42) with CATT/T. evansi and 22.84% (17.77–840.22) with ELISA. Interpretation of various risk factors revealed that the donkey/mules population (RR = 5.46, 95% [CI] = 0.15–15.56) was found to be at higher risk of T. evansi infection predominantly at ‘unorganized’ farms (RR = 4.06, 95% [CI] = 0.12–4.51). Animal used for commercial purposes (RR = 3.25, 95% [CI] = 0.06–7.42), rearing of equids with other domestic animals (RR = 2.36, 95% [CI] = 0.10–17.11) and farms without application of fly repellant/insecticides/net (RR = 3.68, 95% [CI] = 0.08-5.94) made them more prone to the disease. This comprehensive report utilizing the classical, serological and molecular diagnostic tools for epidemiology of T. evansi establishes the endemic stability of this infection in all agro climatic zones of Punjab with LAMP assay to be a promisingly sensitive and specific technique for the diagnosis of T. evansi under isothermal conditions in field situations.Graphical abstractA first report to utilize classical, serological and molecular diagnostic tools for unraveling cryptic epizootiology of Trypanosoma evansi infection from all agro climatic zones of Punjab. LAMP assay proved to be a field oriented easy diagnostic test for time and cost effectiveness and also indicate that equine population of unorganized farms with poor managemental practices were at higher risk of T. evansi infection.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Enterobacteria associated with houseflies (Musca domestica) as an
           infection risk indicator in swine production farms
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): V. Cervelin, G. Fongaro, J.B. Pastore, F. Engel, M.A. Reimers, A. Viancelli Houseflies (Musca domestica) spend part of their life development on animal or human manure. Manure is high in pathogenic microbes; thus, houseflies have been known as a mechanical vector for various important zoonotic diseases. Therefore, the present study showcases captured houseflies from intensive swine production regions (which are areas of high manure concentration) in Southern Brazil, and analyses their bodies’ to the presence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. and the sensitivity of these bacteria to various antibiotics. Additionally, Quantitative Microbiology Risk Assessment was performed simulating the contamination of lettuce by flies' bacteria and subsequent lettuce consumption by an adult human being. Houseflies were captured in swine buildings and farm houses from five farms. E. coli quantification values ranged from 104 to 106 CFU/20 flies, and all sampling sites had positive results from bacteria presence in the collected houseflies. On the other hand, Salmonella sp. presence was observed in only three farms, where the quantification ranged from 102 to 105 CFU/20 flies. The bacteria showed to be resistant to at least two from the four tested antibiotics (ampicillin, Cefalotin, Ciprofloxacin and Norfloxacin) antibiotics used in human or veterinary medicine. Infection probability analyses showed risk of human infection by E.coli, indicating possible transmission of zoonotic pathogens through flies. In this context, it was possible to conclude that there is a need for flies control, especially in swine farms where zoonotic pathogens can be abundant, to minimize the health impact of the vectorization of enteric bacteria.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A novel use of infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS and ATR-FTIR) coupled with
           variable selection algorithms for the identification of insect species
           (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) of medico-legal relevance
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Taciano M. Barbosa, Leomir A.S. de Lima, Marfran C.D. dos Santos, Simão D. Vasconcelos, Renata A. Gama, Kássio M.G. Lima Unequivocal identification of fly specimens is an essential requirement in forensic entomology. Herein, a simple, non-destructive and rapid method based on two vibrational spectroscopy techniques [Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy] coupled with variable selection techniques such as genetic algorithm-linear discriminant analysis (GA-LDA) and successive projection algorithm-linear discriminant analysis (SPA-LDA) were applied for identifying and discriminating six species of flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) native to Neotropical regions. This novel approach is based on the unique spectral “fingerprints” of their biochemical composition. One hundred sixty (160) NIRS and FT-IR specimens (120 male, 40 female) were acquired; different pre-processing methods such as baseline correction, derivative and Savitzky-Golay smoothing were also performed. In addition, the multivariate classification accuracy results were tested based on sensitivity, specificity, positive (or precision) and negative predictive values, Youden index, positive and negative likelihood ratios. Principal components analysis (PCA) was employed for male vs. female category using NIRS, strongly showing the separation between the classes with only three principal components and 99% explained variance. Differentiation between the genera Oxysarcodexia, Peckia and Ravinia was efficiently confirmed by both techniques. In comparison with other biological methods, this approach represents an effective choice for fast and non-destructive identification in forensic entomology.
       
  • Japanese encephalitis in Malaysia: An overview and timeline
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Kiven Kumar, Siti Suri Arshad, Gayathri Thevi Selvarajah, Jalila Abu, Ooi Peck Toung, Yusuf Abba, A.R. Yasmin, Faruku Bande, Reuben Sharma, Bee Lee Ong Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). It causes encephalitis in human and horses, and may lead to reproductive failure in sows. The first human encephalitis case in Malaya (now Malaysia) was reported during World War II in a British prison in 1942. Later, encephalitis was observed among race horses in Singapore. In 1951, the first JEV was isolated from the brain of an encephalitis patient. The true storyline of JE exposure among humans and animals has not been documented in Malaysia. In some places such as Sarawak, JEV has been isolated from mosquitoes before an outbreak in 1992. JE is an epidemic in Malaysia except Sarawak. There are four major outbreaks reported in Pulau Langkawi (1974), Penang (1988), Perak and Negeri Sembilan (1998–1999), and Sarawak (1992). JE is considered endemic only in Sarawak. Initially, both adults and children were victims of JE in Malaysia, however, according to the current reports; JE infection is only lethal to children in Malaysia. This paper describes a timeline of JE cases (background of each case) from first detection to current status, vaccination programs against JE, diagnostic methods used in hospitals and factors which may contribute to the transmission of JE among humans and animals in Malaysia.
       
  • Impacts of human development index and climate conditions on prevalence of
           Blastocystis: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Ehsan Javanmard, Maryam Niyyati, Erfan Ghasemi, Hamed Mirjalali, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Mohammad Reza Zali Blastocystis is a prevalent eukaryotic microorganism that has been frequently reported from the stool samples of human and animals, all over the world. The prevalence of this parasite has close correlation with the climate and hygiene situation of studied populations. For the current study, English and Persian databases were searched for the following terms: “Blastocystis hominis”, “Blastocystis sp.”, “Intestinal Parasites”, “Prevalence” and “Iran”. In order to data analysis and assess the possibility of publication bias, STATA v11 and Begg’s Funnel plot were employed respectively. From 605 searched cases, 86 publications met our criteria for the analysis. The pooled prevalence of Blastocystis was 9.1% (95%CI: 8.2%, 10.1%). The results represented that the prevalence of the parasite using molecular techniques or cultivation followed by molecular techniques (20.89%) was higher than only microscopical examination (8.96%). The prevalence rate of Blastocystis according to human development index was 7.6%, 7.2%, 11.9%, 13.4%, and 3.3% for ranks 1 to 5, respectively. This is the first study signifying the prevalence of Blastocystis regarding the human development index and climate conditions. The findings represented that although human development index, low levels of socioeconomic situations together with appropriate climate such as sufficient humidity and high temperature increase the chance of transmission of Blastocystis in a society.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Technological innovation strategies for the specific treatment of Chagas
           disease based on Benznidazole
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): Leslie Raphael de Moura Ferraz, Alinne Élida Gonçalves Alves, Débora Dolores Souza da Silva Nascimento, Isabela Araújo e Amariz, Aline Silva Ferreira, Salvana Priscylla Manso Costa, Larissa Araújo Rolim, Ádley Antonini Neves de Lima, Pedro José Rolim Neto Caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas disease is responsible for public health problems greater in magnitude than those attributed to malaria, schistosomiasis, or leishmaniasis. A factor in the socioeconomic development of poor countries, Chagas disease can cause death due to a high parasitic burden during its acute phase due and irreversible damage in organs such as the heart, esophagus, and colon during its chronic phase, even when the number of parasites is minimal. For treating Chagas disease, benznidazole (BNZ) remains the drug of choice and, in Latin America, the only drug on the market for treating the disease. However, BNZ has exhibited insufficient activity in the chronic phase of Chagas disease, required administration in large doses, prolonged treatment, and shown a high incidence of adverse reactions (vomiting, rash, peripheral neuropathy, and spinal cord depression), toxicity, and low solubility in water. As an antidote, pharmaceutical technologies have been introduced that can improve BNZ’s solubility and dissolution, as well as reduce side effects in light of its bioavailability, all of which can enhance therapy for Chagas disease. In response to that trend, by conducting a literature review, we sought to identify current pharmaceutical technologies used in tandem with BNZ to improve therapy for Chagas disease. Documented techniques include emulsion and microemulsion formation, solutions, parenteral formulas, micronization, and drug delivery systems supported by the development of nanoparticles and cyclodextrins, solid dispersions, and the use of metal–organic frameworks as innovative excipients. Such technologies increase the water solubility of BNZ by 4–25-fold on dissolution and an 85% release with efficacy in only a few minutes, as recorded during a viability experiment with nanoparticle suspensions. That experiment demonstrated the need for a lower concentration of BNZ to kill 50% of trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi, described in terms of the formation of BNZ–cyclodextrin complexes, and modulating and vectoring of the antichagasic by using metal–organic frameworks. Altogether, the promising results of research identified can enable strategies to improve solubility and efficacy of BNZ, as well as therapy for Chagas disease.Graphical abstractTechnologically innovative strategies for the specific treatment of Chagas disease with benznidazole improve the solubility and efficacy of the drug.Chemical structure of benznidazole.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Emerging role of amiodarone and dronedarone, as antiarrhythmic drugs, in
           treatment of leishmaniasis
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 185Author(s): A. Oryan, E. Bemani, S. Bahrami Leishmaniasis is a group of human and animal diseases causing 20,000–40,000 annual deaths and its etiological agents belong to the Leishmania genus. The most current treatment against leishmaniasis is chemotherapy. Pentavalent antimonials such as glucantime and pentostam have been administrated as the first-line drugs in treatment of various forms of leishmaniasis. The second-line drugs such as amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, miltefosine, pentamidine, azole drugs and paromomycin are used in resistant cases to pentavalent antimonials. Because of drawbacks of the first-line and second-line drugs including adverse side effects on different organs, increasing resistance, high cost, need to hospitalization and long-term treatment, it is necessary to find an alternative drug for leishmaniasis treatment. Several investigations have reported the effectiveness of amiodarone, the most commonly used antiarrhythmic drug, against fungi, Trypanosomes and Leishmania spp. in vitro, in vivo and clinical conditions. Moreover, the beneficial effects of dronedarone, amiodarone analogues, against Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania mexicana have recently been demonstrated and such treatment regimens resulted in lower side effects. The anti- leishmanial and anti- trypanosomal effectiveness of amiodarone and dronedarone has been attributed to destabilization of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, inhibition of sterol biosynthesis and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. Because of relative low cost, excellent pharmacokinetic properties, easy accessibility and beneficial effects of amiodarone and dronedarone on leishmaniasis, they are proper candidates to replace the current drugs used in leishmaniasis treatment.
       
  • Causative agents and antimicrobial resistance patterns of human skin and
           soft tissue infections in Bagamoyo, Tanzania
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Theckla Kazimoto, Salim Abdulla, Leah Bategereza, Omar Juma, Francis Mhimbira, Maja Weisser, Jürg Utzinger, Lutz von Müller, Sören L. BeckerA b s t r a c tFew epidemiological studies have been carried out to assess the aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of pathogens giving rise to skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in sub-Saharan Africa. In the present study from six healthcare facilities in Bagamoyo, Tanzania, wound swabs from outpatients with SSTIs were analysed by a suite of methods, including microbiological culture techniques, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and resistance testing. Among 185 patients with SSTIs, 179 (97%) swabs showed microbiological growth. In total, 327 organisms were found, of which 285 were of potential aetiological relevance. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pathogen (prevalence: 71.4%), followed by the Gram-negative bacteria Enterobacter cloacae complex (14.6%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.4%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.8%). While one out of four isolates of S. aureus showed resistance to macrolides, tetracyclines, cotrimoxazole and clindamycin, only a single methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain was found. In Gram-negative bacteria, resistance to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole was common, while extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were rarely detected (
       
  • The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Hidalgo state, Mexico
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Aldo Ortega-Morales, Thomas Zavortink, Herón Huerta-Jiménez, Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal, Quetzaly Siller-Rodríguez In order to document the species richness of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and their distributions in the Mexican state of Hidalgo, collecting trips were conducted to all physiographic regions (Coastal Plain of North Gulf, Sierra Madre Oriental, and Neo-volcanic Axis) and subregions of the state. Additionally, mosquito specimens from Hidalgo deposited in the Collection of Arthropods of Medical Importance (CAIM) were reexamined. A total of 3,225 specimens were collected and studied and an additional 69 pinned mosquitoes and 15 microscope slides in CAIM were examined. The two Culicidae subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae, 8 tribes, 12 genera, 24 subgenera, and 56 species were documented. Of these, 4 tribes, 7 genera, 13 subgenera, and 26 species are new records for the mosquito fauna of Hidalgo. Nine species previously recorded were not found in the collections made during this study. Taxonomic notes, new distribution records, and comments about the medical importance of the species found are included.
       
  • Bacterial symbionts in human blood-feeding arthropods: patterns, general
           mechanisms and effects of global ecological changes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): J. Guillermo Jiménez-Cortés, Rodolfo García-Contreras, Martha I. Bucio-Torres, Margarita Cabrera-Bravo, Alex Córdoba-Aguilar, Giovanni Benelli, Paz M. Salazar-Schettino Due to their high impact on public health, human blood-feeding arthropods are one of the most relevant animal groups. Bacterial symbionts have been long known to play a role in the metabolism, and reproduction of these arthropod vectors. Nowadays, we have a more complete picture of their functions, acknowledging the wide influence of bacterial symbionts on processes ranging from the immune response of the arthropod host to the possible establishment of pathogens and parasites. One or two primary symbiont species have been found to co-evolve along with their host in each taxon (being ticks an exception), leading to various kinds of symbiosis, mostly mutualistic in nature. Moreover, several secondary symbiont species are shared by all arthropod groups. With respect to gut microbiota, several bacterial symbionts genera are hosted in common, indicating that these bacterial groups are prone to invade several hematophagous arthropod species feeding on humans. The main mechanisms underlying bacterium-arthropod symbiosis are discussed, highlighting that even primary symbionts elicit an immune response from the host. Bacterial groups in the gut microbiota play a key role in immune homeostasis, and in some cases symbiont bacteria could be competing directly or indirectly with pathogens and parasites. Finally, the effects climate change, great human migrations, and the increasingly frequent interactions of wild and domestic animal species are analyzed, along with their implications on microbiota alteration and their possible impacts on public health and the control of pathogens and parasites harbored in arthropod vectors of human parasites and pathogens.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Assessment of Fasciola hepatica glutathione S-transferase as an antigen
           for serodiagnosis of human chronic fascioliasis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Vasti Aguayo, Bianca Valdes, Ana M. EspinoABSTRACTDue to the unsatisfactory performance of parasitological diagnosis of human fascioliasis; the use of immunodiagnosis based on the detection of anti-Fasciola antibodies is traditionally used as a diagnostic alternative using total or purified parasite excretory-secretory products (ESPs). Glutathione S-transferase (GST) protein, one of the F. hepatica ESP components, possesses well-known roles in the detoxification of xenobiotic and endogenously derived toxins within the host bile environment. GST has shown to be a good target for vaccine or drug development against fascioliasis. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential of GST protein purified from a soluble crude extract of adult flukes as an antigen for serodiagnosis of chronic human fascioliasis by indirect ELISA. The study included a panel of 116 serum samples collected from individuals with confirmed fascioliasis, individuals carrying heterologous parasitic infections and healthy subjects. The parasitological examination was used as gold standard and a previously optimized ESP-ELISA was used to compare the performance of the GST-ELISA method. Results demonstrated that GST-ELISA is 94.3% sensitive, 80.2% specific and exhibits a moderate positive correlation (r = 0.555) and substantial agreement (k = 0.786) with the results obtained with the ESP-ELISA method. Moreover, because no sera from patients with early F. hepatica infection were available, GST-ELISA was then tested with sera from rabbits experimentally infected with F. hepatica metacercariae. The assay was able to detect anti-Fasciola antibodies as early as the 3rd week of infection (p 
       
  • Differential infectivity of two Trypanosoma cruzi strains in
           placental cells and tissue
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Lisvaneth Medina, Christian Castillo, Ana Liempi, Mathias Herbach, Gonzalo Cabrera, Lucía Valenzuela, Norbel Galanti, María de los Angeles Curto, Alejandro G. Schijman, Ulrike Kemmerling Congenital Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), has become epidemiologically relevant. The probability of congenital transmission depends on the maternal and developing fetal/newborn immune responses, placental factors and importantly, the virulence of the parasite. It has been proposed, that different genotypes of T. cruzi and their associated pathogenicity, virulence and tissue tropism may play an important role in congenital infection. Since there is no laboratory or animal model that recapitulates the complexities of vertical transmission in humans, here we studied parasite infectivity in human placental explants (HPE) as well as in the human trophoblast-derived cell line BeWo of the Y(DTU II) and the VD (TcVI) T. cruzi strains; the latter was isolated from a human case of congenital infection.Our results show that the VD strain is more infective and pathogenic than the Y strain, as demonstrated by qPCR and cell counting as well as by histopathological analysis.The present study constitutes the first approach to study the relationship between parasite two parasite strains from different genotypes and the infection efficiency in human placenta.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A modified PCR-RFLP method to determine genetic diversity of Giardia
           lamblia human isolates based on triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Ferial Rahimian, Javid Sadraei, Majid Pirestani, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar An infection of digestive system, Giardiasis, caused by tiny parasites called Giardia lamblia (also known Giardia intestinalis or Giardia duodenalis). Giardia sp. is the most common intestinal parasite of humans and other animals throughout the world. Isolates of G. lamblia are classified into eight assemblages based on isoenzyme and DNA analyses. Assemblages A and B infect humans and a broad range of other hosts. The purpose of this study was to genotype human isolates of G. lamblia by PCR-RFLP in Karaj city. 60 positive fecal samples of G. lamblia were collected. DNA extraction and amplification of TPI gene were successfully conducted by nested-PCR. Subsequently, all samples were positive. Sequencing on 5 samples was conducted to determine genetic differences. The presence of 2 genotypes of G. lamblia (A and B) was revealed by the alignment of the TPI sequences obtained with reference sequences. The results of RFLP technique show that 35 of 60 (58.3%) isolates belonged to assemblage A, and 17 of 60 (28.3%) belonged to assemblage B but 1(1.7%) sample was not determined. Whereas, 7 (11.6%) specimens were detected as mixed infections. The latter RFLP was carried out to identify subtypes.The final results were 100% (35/35) AII, 82.3% (14/17) BIII, and 17.7% (3/17) BIV. This study suggests that the modified RFLP method is favorably time saving and easily achievable and highly economical. Hence, the sub-assemblage AII might be dominant in Karaj city.
       
  • The contribution of the DNA microarray technology to gene expression
           profiling in Leishmania spp.: a retrospective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Ana Alonso, Vicente Larraga, Pedro J. Alcolea The first genome project of any living organism excluding viruses, the gammaproteobacteria Haemophilus influenzae, was completed in 1995. Until the last decade, genome sequencing was very tedious because genome survey sequences (GSS) and/or expressed sequence tags (ESTs) belonging to plasmid, cosmid and artificial chromosome genome libraries had to be sequenced and assembled in silico. Nowadays, no genome is completely assembled actually, because gaps and unassembled contigs are always remaining. However, most represent the whole genome of the organism of origin from a practical point of view. The first genome sequencing projects of trypanosomatid parasites were completed in 2005 following those strategies, and belong to Leishmania major, Trypanosoma cruzi and T. brucei. The functional genomics era rapidly developed on the basis of the microarray technology and has been evolving. In the case of the genus Leishmania, substantial biological information about differentiation in the digenetic life cycle of the parasite has been obtained. Later on, next generation sequencing has revolutionized genome sequencing and functional genomics, leading to more sensitive, accurate results by using much less resources. This new technology is more advantageous, but does not invalidate microarray results. In fact, promising vaccine candidates and drug targets have been found on the basis of microarray-based screening and preliminary proof-of-concept tests.
       
 
 
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