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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3161 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3161 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 94, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 411, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 397, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 341, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 446, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Acta Tropica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.052
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0001-706X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Prevalence and risk factors for IgG antibodies to Neospora spp. in three
           types of equids from Southern Punjab, Pakistan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Muhammad Mudasser Nazir, Muhammad Mazhar Ayaz, Atif Nisar Ahmed, Imran Rasheed, Asim Faraz, Qaisar Akram, Saleem Akhtar, Azhar Maqbool, Shahida Tabassum, Yadong Zheng, David S. LindsayAbstractEquine hosts suffer from neurological disease, congenital infection, and reproductive problems associated with Neospora spp. infection. We conducted a cross sectional study using sera from 631 equids (324 horses, 218 donkeys and 89 mules) from the southern region of Punjab province, Pakistan to determine the prevalence of antibodies against Neospora spp. in this diverse group of equines. Fisk factors associated with seropositivity were evaluated statistically based on equine type, breed, age, husbandry, breeding methods, and reproductive history. Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora spp. was detected using a commercially available competitive ELISA kit. We detected IgG antibodies to Neospora spp. in 23.3% of the equids with prevalence by host being 16.0% in horses, 32.6% in donkeys and 26.9% in 89 mules. Statistically significant (P0.05) difference in prevalence was noted among age groups. Prevalence was significantly (P
       
  • Coxiella burnetii in Tunisian dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius):
           Seroprevalence, associated risk factors and seasonal dynamics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Selmi Rachid, Mamlouk Aymen, Ben Yahia Houcine, Abdelaali Hedi, Ben Said Mourad, Sellami Khalil, Daaloul-Jedidi Monia, Jemli Mohamed Habib, Messadi LiliaAbstractQ fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a zoonotic disease responsible of abortion in ruminants. Few studies have investigated the prevalence of this infection in camels (Camelus dromedarius). The present report aimed to highlight the epidemiological status and identify the risk factors associated with C. burnetii infection in one-humped dromedary that is the most productive livestock species in arid areas. A total of 534 sera of healthy camels were collected in eight governorates from southern and central Tunisia. Samples were tested by an indirect Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results were analyzed using the Chi-square test and logistic regression. Overall, 237 camels (44%, 95%CI: 0.40-0.49) were seropositive to C. burnetii. Statistical analysis pointed out four potential risk factors associated with infection. A meaningful high seropositivity was observed in female camels with a previous history of abortion (70%) (OR = 4.186, 95%CI: 2.05-8.51). Seroprevalence was higher in aged camels (>10 years-old) (48%) (OR = 2.91, 95%CI: 1.37-6.17). Besides, camels, intended for meat production from small herds showed a high level of infection (52%) (OR = 2.43, 95%CI: 1.3-4.5). Coxiellosis evolved in dromedary herds throughout the year, however infection was significantly important in autumn (60%) (OR = 4.13, 95%CI: 1.86-9.17) and winter (56%) (OR = 5.52, 95%CI: 2.50-12.16). Bioclimatic stage, gender, tick infestation and contact with other ruminants were not risk factors in camel’s infection by C. burnetii. Our reports confirm that Tunisian one-humped dromedaries had been exposed to this bacterium and could contribute to its dissemination among farmers and other livestock animals. Furthers studies are required to evaluate the prevalence of Q fever among people professionally exposed like farmers, veterinarians and slaughterhouse workers.
       
  • A checklist of the Anopheles mosquito species (Diptera:
           Culicidae) in Bhutan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Rinzin Namgay, Tobgyel Drukpa, Tenzin Wangdi, Dechen Pemo, Ralph E. Harbach, Pradya SomboonThe present paper records, for the first time, the Anopheles fauna of Bhutan, determined from surveys conducted from 2007 to early 2018. Adult mosquitoes were collected mainly on cattle bait and occasionally in human landing catches. Collections of immature stages were performed in various aquatic habitats. Larvae were preserved or reared to adults. Identification was based on morphological characters using available keys. A total of 30 species were identified, including nine species of subgenus Anopheles and 21 species of subgenus Cellia. Distribution and collection data are provided with notes on the locations and habitats of the species. Anopheles pseudowillmori is suspected to be a vector of malarial parasites in the plains and hilly forested areas of the country because it is widely distributed and the most common species collected in human landing catches. Notes also include observed morphological variation observed in An. baileyi and An. lindesayi, which differ from the type forms. Corrections are made for previous reports of Anopheles in Bhutan. The need for further surveys and molecular identification of members of species complexes and morphological variants is emphasized.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Machine learning approaches in GIS-based ecological modeling of the sand
           fly Phlebotomus papatasi, a vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in
           Golestan province, Iran
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Abolfazl Mollalo, Ali Sadeghian, Glenn D. Israel, Parisa Rashidi, Aioub Sofizadeh, Gregory E. GlassABSTRACTThe distribution and abundance of Phlebotomus papatasi, the primary vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in most semi-/arid countries, is a major public health challenge. This study compares several approaches to model the spatial distribution of the species in an endemic region of the disease in Golestan province, northeast of Iran. The intent is to assist decision makers for targeted interventions. We developed a geo-database of the collected Phlebotominae sand flies from different parts of the study region. Sticky paper traps coated with castor oil were used to collect sand flies. In 44 out of 142 sampling sites, Ph. papatasi was present. We also gathered and prepared data on related environmental factors including topography, weather variables, distance to main rivers and remotely sensed data such as normalized difference vegetation cover and land surface temperature (LST) in a GIS framework. Applicability of three classifiers: (vanilla) logistic regression, random forest and support vector machine (SVM) were compared for predicting presence/absence of the vector. Predictive performances were compared using an independent dataset to generate area under the ROC curve (AUC) and Kappa statistics. All three models successfully predicted the presence/absence of the vector, however, the SVM classifier (Accuracy = 0.906, AUC = 0.974, Kappa = 0.876) outperformed the other classifiers on predicting accuracy. Moreover, this classifier was the most sensitive (85%), and the most specific (93%) model. Sensitivity analysis of the most accurate model (i.e. SVM) revealed that slope, nighttime LST in October and mean temperature of the wettest quarter were among the most important predictors. The findings suggest that machine learning techniques, especially the SVM classifier, when coupled with GIS and remote sensing data can be a useful and cost-effective way for identifying habitat suitability of the species.
       
  • Morphology of immature blow fly Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot) (Diptera:
           Calliphoridae), a potential species of forensic importance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Sangob Sanit, Kwankamol Limsopatham, Tunwadee Klong-klaew, Chutharat Samerjai, Thippawan Yasanga, Kom Sukontason, Jeffery K. Tomberlin, Kabkaew L. SukontasonAbstractBlow flies of the genus Hypopygiopsis are forensically-important, as their larvae are commonly associated with human corpses. Within a forensic entomology context, species identification of specimens collected from human corpses is the initial mandatory step in the investigation. Without identification, complete interpretation of entomological evidence is challenged. In this study, the ultrastructures of eggs, all instars, and puparia of Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot) are presented based on assessment with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM). Distinctive features used for species identification of all stages are highlighted. Eggs have a slightly widening median area extending almost the entire length. Larvae are vermiform-shaped, creamy white, and have a smooth integument. The pseudocephalon of larvae bears sensory structures (i.e., antennal dome, maxillary palpus and ventral organ). In the first instar, two tufts of cirri are observed along the dorsal margin of the mouth opening. In the second and third instars, six minute tubercles are present along the peripheral rims of the last abdominal segment. The anterior spiracle of the second, third instar, and puparia is fan-shape of single row, comprising 9-11 papillae. The cuticular spines between the 1st and 2nd thoracic segments of the third instar possess many rows of posteriorly-projecting acuminate spines in clusters. In puparia, at the latero-dorsal edge of the 1st abdominal segment, a cluster of ~92 bubble membranes is present in young puparia (20-24 h). The peristigmatic tufts adjacent to the posterior spiracle of the second instar, third instar, and puparia are heavily branches of long, fine hairs. Our results demonstrate the morphology of eggs, larvae, and puparia of H. infumata are similar to other species in Hypopygiopsis. This study highlighted the main features of cephaloskeleton of H. infumata larvae as observed under LM. Particular attention is given to oral sclerite and rough surface of dorsal cornua which can distinguish between H. infumata and H. tumrasvini.
       
  • The effect of commercial herbicide exposure on the life history and
           insecticide resistance phenotypes of the major malaria vector Anopheles
           arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Shüné V. Oliver, Basil D. BrookeHerbicides, such as atrazine and glyphosate, are common agrochemicals known to pollute surface ground water. As such, aquatic invertebrates associated with agricultural activities can be exposed to varying doses of these xenobiotics. Anopheles arabiensis, a major malaria vector species in southern Africa, is often closely associated with agricultural activities. This study aimed to examine the effects of larval atrazine or glyphosate exposure on larval and adult life history traits on two laboratory strains of An. arabiensis; one insecticide susceptible (SENN), the other selected for resistance (SENN DDT). Atrazine delayed time to pupation in both strains, but markedly more so in SENN DDT. Glyphosate treatment reduced time to pupation in SENN DDT. Larval atrazine exposure decreased adult longevity in SENN, while both herbicide treatments significantly increased adult longevity in SENN DDT. Larval glyphosate exposure was the more potent enhancer of insecticide tolerance in adult mosquitoes. In SENN DDT, it reduced deltamethrin and malathion-induced mortality, and the LT50 s for these insecticides were increased in association with herbicide exposure. Glyphosate exposure also increased the LT50 s for malathion and deltamethrin in SENN. Exposure to both herbicides had contrasting effects on detoxification enzyme activities. Although both increased cytochrome P450 activity, they had opposite effects on those enzymes involved in reactive oxygen species detoxification. Glyphosate decreased glutathione S-transferase activity, but increased catalase activity with atrazine having the opposite effect. This study demonstrates that larval exposure to the herbicides atrazine and glyphosate can affect the insecticide susceptibilities and life history traits of epidemiological importance in An. arabiensis, with glyphosate being the more potent effector of insecticide resistance.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this articleLarval exposure to the herbicides glyphosate and atrazine differentially affects larval development, adult longevity and insecticide tolerance in insecticide resistant and susceptible laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis.
       
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of small ruminant and porcine
           trypanosomiasis prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa (1986 to 2018)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): F. Ebhodaghe, J.A. Ohiolei, C. IsaacAbstractThe appraisal of the disease burden of African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) in some livestock at country level could invite a re-evaluation of AAT-control strategy. This study thus estimates small ruminant and porcine trypanosomiasis prevalence in sub-Saharan African countries. It also describes Trypanosoma species prevalence in small ruminants and pigs and attempts identification of factors explaining between-study variations in prevalence. Articles reporting animal trypanosomiasis prevalence in sheep, goats, and pigs in countries within sub-Saharan Africa were retrieved from different databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and African Journal Online) and reference lists of relevant literatures. A total of 85 articles from 13 countries published between 1986 and 2018 were included in the analysis. Overall random-effects meta-analytic mean prevalence estimates were: 7.67% (95% CI: 5.22-10.49), 5.84% (95% CI: 3.81-8.23), and 19.46% (95% CI: 14.61-24.80) respectively, for sheep, goats, and pigs with substantial heterogeneity (I2 =>95.00%. p 
       
  • Haemoproteus paraortalidum n. sp. in captive Black-fronted Piping-guans
           Aburria jacutinga (Galliformes, Cracidae): High prevalence in a population
           reintroduced into the wild
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Francisco C. Ferreira, Daniela de Angeli Dutra, Nelson R.S. Martins, Gediminas Valkiūnas, Érika M. BragaHaemosporidian parasites of the genus Haemoproteus are widespread and can cause disease and even mortality in birds under natural and captive conditions. The Black-fronted Piping-guan (Aburria jacutinga) is an endangered Neotropical bird of the Cracidae (Galliformes) going through a reintroduction program to avoid extinction. We used microscopic examination and partial cytochrome b DNA sequencing to describe a new Haemoproteus species infecting Black-fronted Piping-guans bred and raised in captivity that were reintroduced into the Atlantic rainforest. Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) paraortalidum n. sp. was detected in the blood of 19 out of 29 examined birds. The new species is distinguished from other haemoproteids due to the shape of gametocytes, which have pointed ends in young stages, and due to the presence of vacuole-like unstained spaces in macrogametocytes and numerous volutin granules both in macro- and microgametocytes. Illustrations of the new species are provided. Phylogenetic inference positioned this parasite in the Parahaemoproteus subgenus clade together with the other two Haemoproteus genetic lineages detected in cracids up to date. We discuss possible implications of the reintroduction of birds infected with haemosporidian parasites into the wild. Treatment of Haemoproteus infections remains insufficiently studied, but should be considered for infected birds before reintroduction to improve host reproductive and survival rates after release.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of the epidemiology of bovine viral
           diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy cattle in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Xuhua Ran, Xiaohong Chen, Lili Ma, Xiaobo Wen, Junjun Zhai, Miaomiao Wang, Xiaodan Tong, Guangyu Hou, Hongbo NiABSTRACTBovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection causes significantly economic losses to cattle industry worldwide, also including China. The epidemiological prevalence of infection associated with BVDV in dairy cattle has not been systematically assessed in China. Therefore, we undertook this study to evaluate prevalent of BVDV infection. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of data from papers on the BVDV incidence and prevalence in dairy cattle in China by searching China Science and Technology Journal Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wan Fang Database and PubMed for publication from March 2003 to March 2018. The 41 studies reporting the prevalence of BVDV in cattle in China were selected upon our inclusion criterion. The pooled BVDV prevalence in dairy cattle in China was estimated to 53.0% (95% CI 40.2-65.7) based on the data obtained from the 27530 cows tested using serological or virological assay in the qualified papers published during the periods (χ² = 51861.0, I2 = 99.9%). The highest BVDV positive rate in dairy flocks reached 90.0% in Fujian province of China, followed by Shaanxi (88.9%) and Shandong (83.3%). The prevalence in the six administrative districts of China was validated to be highly variable (25.7%-72.2%) and reached 72.2% in dairy cattle flocks of Northern China. Besides, the BVDV-RNA positive rate was estimated 27.1% (95% CI 17.3-37.0) based on 6 studies, comparatively, the pooled BVDV seroprevalence based on 35 studies was about 57.0% (95% CI 44.4-69.5) in China. This systematic review and meta-analysis firstly established an estimated prevalence of BVDV in dairy herds in China, indicating that the BVDV infection is escalating, though there is a bias in the number of studies between 2003-2009 and 2010-2018 timescales. This study may help understand the status of BVDV infection in dairy herds in China. Further extensive and comprehensive investigation is recommended, and effective intervention measures for preventing and controlling BVDV spread in dairy herds should be deployed, especially herds that have been exposed to BVDV.
       
  • The hygiene hypothesis at a glance: early exposures, immune mechanism and
           novel therapies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Gabriel M. Alexandre-Silva, Pablo A. Brito-Souza, Ana C.S. Oliveira, Felipe A. Cerni, Umberto Zottich, Manuela B. PuccaAbstractThe hygiene hypothesis was proposed almost three decades ago. Nevertheless, its mechanism still remains with relevant controversies. Some studies defend that early exposures during childhood to microbes and parasites are key determinants to prevent allergies and autoimmune diseases; however, other studies demonstrated that these early exposures can even potentiate the clinical scenario of the diseases. Based on several studies covering the influences of microbiome, parasites, related theories and others, this review focuses on recent advances in the hygiene hypothesis field. In addition, the main immunological mechanisms underlying the hygiene hypothesis are also discussed. We also strongly encourage that researchers do not consider the hygiene hypothesis as a theory based strictly on hygiene habits, but a theory combining diverse influences, as illustrated in this review as the hygiene hypothesis net.
       
  • DNA barcoding of the medically important freshwater snail Physa acuta
           reveals multiple invasion events into Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Scott P. Lawton, Fiona Allan, Polly M. Hayes, Nico J. SmitThe medically important freshwater snail Physa acuta is highly invasive and has been reported in several freshwater environments across Africa. To identify species and provide initial insights into the origins of P. acuta into African fresh water environments standard molecular barcoding analyses, using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI), was performed on P. acuta isolates from Angola, Burundi and South Africa. Phylogenetic analyses Isolates from Africa could not be distinguished from P. acuta populations from other countries using Comparisons of COI sequences between isolates of P. acuta showed there to be no geographically specific clusters and the African isolates were distributed across four distinct unrelated clades suggesting several independent invasion events. Haplotype analyses indicated that there were a high number of haplotypes with low variation between them, which led to significant differences in AMOVA analyses between countries. This was further evidence of multiple invasion events suggesting multiple novel haplotypes being continually and independently introduced to each country. This approach not only provides initial insight into the invasion of Africa by P. acuta but a molecular method to monitor and manage the use of an agent of biological control.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The impact of industrial activities on vector-borne disease transmission
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Robert T. Jones, Lucy S. Tusting, Hugh M.P. Smith, Sylvester Segbaya, Michael B. Macdonald, Michael J. Bangs, James G. LoganABSTRACTIndustrial activities have produced profound changes in the natural environment, including the mass removal of trees, fragmentation of habitats, and creation of larval mosquito breeding sites, that have allowed the vectors of disease pathogens to thrive. We conducted a review of the literature to assess the impact of industrial activities on vector-borne disease transmission. Our study shows that industrial activities may be coupled with significant changes to human demographics that can potentially increase contact between pathogens, vectors and hosts, and produce a shift of parasites and susceptible populations between low and high disease endemic areas. Indeed, where vector-borne diseases and industrial activities intersect, large numbers of potentially immunologically naïve people may be exposed to infection and lack the knowledge and means to protect themselves from infection. Such areas are typically associated with inadequate access to quality health care, thus allowing industrial development and production sites to become important foci of transmission. The altered local vector ecologies, and the changes in disease dynamics that changes affect, create challenges for under-resourced health care and vector-control systems.
       
  • Evaluation of multiplex PCR assay for detection of Babesia spp, Ehrlichia
           canis and Trypanosoma evansi in dogs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Palavesam Azhahianambi, Jyothimol G, Baranidharan GR, Aravind M, Ram Narendran R, Bhaskaran Ravi Latha, Raman MA multiplex PCR test was evaluated to detect the DNA of three important dog haemoparasites by comparing with singular PCR counterpart on clinical blood samples of dogs in and around Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Initial screening of samples was done by microscopic examination of peripheral blood smear and singular PCR and those found exclusively positive for Babesia spp, Ehrlichia canis and Trypanosoma evansi and concurrent infections were used to standardize multiplex PCR. Amplicons of 619 bp, 377 bp and 227 bp corresponding to Babesia spp (18S rRNA gene), E. canis (VirB9 gene), and T.evansi (VSG gene) respectively were amplified, without any non-specific amplification. The laboratory sensitivity (91.7% to 100%) and specificity (100%) of the multiplex PCR were calculated using ‘true positive’ and ‘true negative’ dog blood samples obtained in the initial screening process. Clinical blood samples from 287 dogs were screened using singular PCR and multiplex PCR tests for the presence of genome of Babesia spp, E. canis and T. evansi. The multiplex PCR was found to have high level of diagnostic specificity (97.5% to 100%) in the detection of all three dog blood parasites and high level of diagnostic sensitivity (95%) in the detection of T. evansi from field level clinical blood samples compared to the singular PCR. However, the diagnostic sensitivity of the multiplex PCR was found to be low to moderate (40.45% to 66.7%) in detection of Babesia spp and E. canis from field level clinical blood samples. The strength of agreement between singular and multiplex PCR assays was ‘moderate’ (0.445), ‘good’ (0.708) and ‘very good’ (0.968) in detection of DNA of Babesia spp, E. canis and T. evansi. The multiplex PCR was found to be 10 fold less sensitive in comparison with the singular PCR counterpart.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The conserved hypothetical protein Tb427.10.13790 is required for
           cytokinesis in Trypanosoma brucei
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Celestin Nzanzu Mudogo, Salesia Franziska Werner, Stefan Mogk, Christian Betzel, Michael DuszenkoAbstractTrypanosoma brucei, a flagellated protozoan causing the deadly tropical disease Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), affects people in sub-Saharan Africa. HAT therapy relies upon drugs which use is limited by toxicity and rigorous treatment regimes, while development of vaccines remains elusive, due to the effectiveness of the parasite´s antigenic variation. Here, we evaluate a hypothetical protein Tb427.10.13790, as a potential drug target. This protein is conserved among all kinetoplastids, but lacks homologs in all other pro- and eukaryotes. Knockdown of Tb427.10.13790 resulted in appearance of monster cells containing multiple nuclei and multiple flagella, a considerable enlargement of the flagellar pocket and eventually a lethal phenotype. Furthermore, analysis of kinetoplast and nucleus division in the knockdown cell line revealed a partial cell cycle arrest and failure to initiate cytokinesis. Likewise, overexpression of the respective protein fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein was also lethal for T. brucei. In these cells, the labelled protein appeared as a single dot near kinetoplast and flagellar pocket. Our results reveal that Tb427.10.13790 is essential for the parasite´s viability and may be a suitable new anti-trypanosomatid drug target candidate. Furthermore, we suggest that it might be worthwhile to investigate also other of the many so far just annotated trypanosome genes as a considerable number of them to lack human homologs but may be of critical importance for the kinetoplastid parasites.
       
  • Expansion of the range of Necromys lasiurus (Lund, 1841) into open areas
           of the Atlantic Forest biome in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and the role
           of the species as a host of the hantavirus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Fernando de Oliveira Santos, Bernardo Rodrigues Teixeira, José Luis Passos Cordeiro, Rute Hilário Albuquerque de Sousa, Camila dos Santos Lucio, Pablo Rodrigues Gonçalves, Hudson Lemos, Renata Carvalho de Oliveira, Jorlan Fernandes, Gabriel Rosa Cavalcanti, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos, Paulo Sérgio D'AndreaAbstractNecromys lasiurus is a generalist rodent that is thought to be the main reservoir of the Araraquara hantavirus, which causes Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, in the Brazilian Cerrado savanna. This species occurs naturally in the open habitats of the Cerrado, Pantanal and Caatinga biomes, where it often occurs at high densities, although the distribution of the species has recently been observed expanding into the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. This study aimed to map the occurrence of N. lasiurus within the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro state and discuss the potential role of the species as a reservoir of the Araraquara hantavirus in these areas. The study was based on a comprehensive literature search and four expeditions for the collection of specimens in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The data were used to predict the distribution of N. lasiurus, confirm the distribution of the species in the state, and detect the rates of hantavirus infection in these rodents. Necromys lasiurus has been recorded at 16 localities in 10 municipalities of Rio de Janeiro state. The relative abundance of N. lasiurus was low at all localities, except for the REBIO Poço das Antas and APA-BRSJ, two protected areas. Necromys lasiurus was associated primarily with landscapes dominated by farmland (plantations or pasture) at relatively low altitudes in the vicinity of bodies of water. A total of 204 serum samples were collected, but none were reactive for hantavirus. The distribution of N. lasiurus is expanding into many areas of the anthropogenic matrix, but it is not usually either abundant or dominant in these areas. The relatively reduced abundance of N. lasiurus in Rio de Janeiro and the lack of infection in all the areas investigated indicate that it is unlikely to be a reservoir of hantavirus in this region in the near future.
       
  • Molecular characterization of pathogenic Leptospira sp. in small mammals
           captured from the human leptospirosis suspected areas of Selangor state,
           Malaysia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Nurul Natasya Azhari, Siti Nur Alia, Narcisse Joseph, Noraini Philip, Nooreen Farzana Mustapha, Siti Nabilah Ishak, Farah Shafawati Mohd-Taib, Shukor MD Nor, Muhammad Afif Yusof, Shahrul Anuar Mohd Sah, Mohd Nasir Bin Mohd Desa, Garba Bashiru, Caio Graco Zeppelini, Federico Costa, Zamberi Sekawi, Vasantha Kumari NeelaLeptospirosis is caused by the spirochetal bacterium Leptospira of which rodents are considered the most important reservoir. This study aims to determine and characterize virulent Leptospira species among rodents and small mammals found in human settlements and recreational spots within the Hulu Langat and Gombak districts of Selangor, Malaysia; regions that frequently report probable human leptospirosis cases. Molecular analysis revealed an overall Leptospira detection rate of 14.3% among the 266 small mammals captured, and the human settlements were found to have the highest number of isolates (15.1%), followed by recreational sites (14.5%). The molecular characterization conducted based on the lipL32, secY genes and MLST revealed that the strains belonged to four different species, including; Leptospira interrogans (29; 76.3%; ST50, ST238, ST243), L. kirschneri (5; 13.15%; ST110), L. borgpetersenii (3; 8%; ST143) and L. weilii (1; 2.63%; ST242). The study revealed genotypes of circulating strains among small mammals in Malaysia, which include Leptospira locus ST110 L. kirschneri, ST 50 L. interrogans, ST143 L. borgpetersenii and ST242 L. weilii. Among the small mammals studied, 17/105 (16.2%) Rattus norvegicus, 7/59 (11.9%) of Rattus rattus, 5/24 (20.8%) of Maxomys whiteheadi, 4/18 (22.2%) of Sundamys muelleri, 2/22 (9%), Tupaia gliss, 2/16 (12.5%) Rattus tiomanicus and 1/4 (25%) of Suncus murinus carried pathogenic leptospires. The data from the present study may imply that, in addition to rodents, other small mammals also serve as maintenance hosts for Leptospira. Hence, much remains unknown about Leptospira maintenance hosts, and there is need for further investigation to ascertain the prevailing serovars of pathogenic Leptospira in Malaysia. This will assist in the development of efficient diagnostic assays with improved microscopic agglutination test (MAT) panels, and in the implementation of suitable prevention and control measures.Graphical Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Development of Antiviral Inhibitor Against Dengue 2 Targeting Ns3 Protein:
           In Vitro And In Silico Significant studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): P. Padmapriya, S. Gracy Fathima, Giriprasath Ramanathan, Yuvaraj. V, Sheriff. A Khaleefathullah, K. Kaveri, P. Gunasekaran, Uma Tirichurapalli Sivagnanam, Sathiah ThennarasuAbstractDengue fever is a severe, widespread disease with more than 2 million diagnosed infections per year. The Dengue virus protease represents a cardinal target for prudent drug design. Among the four serotypes Dengue 2 is known for the occurrence of its frequent epidemics. The new compound inhibited the Dengue-2 in the low-micromolar range in cells. At the moment, protease inhibitors are not actively tried against dengue virus as therapeutic option. We have identified thiosemicarbazones derived phenyl-acetyl ketones as candidate for a novel class of protease inhibitors. Here, we report the selective and non-competitive inhibition of the Dengue virus serotype 2 in vitro and in silico. Molecular docking suggests binding at a specific active site. In addition to the docking assays, few techniques were developed to interpret these molecules’s antiviral profile in vitro.
       
  • Intestinal Parasitism and Nutritional Status among Indigenous Children
           from the Argentinian Atlantic Forest: Determinants of enteroparasites
           infections in Minority Populations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): MR Rivero, C De Angelo, P Nuez, M Salas, S LiangAbstractObjectiveIntestinal parasitoses, especially in the less favored populations of tropical and subtropical areas, are a scourge of high impact in public health. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to investigate the prevalence of helminths and protozoa pathogens, malnutrition, and their determinants in children from indigenous Mbyá Guaraní villages of Iguazú, in the subtropical Atlantic Forest of Argentina.MethodsParasitological assessment was performed using a combination of flotation, sedimentation, and centrifugation techniques, as well as temporal and permanent stains. Nutritional assessment was based on nutritional indicators derived from anthropometric measurements. Statistical analysis of socio-demographic determinants was assessed by Generalized Linear Mixed Models at individual, household, and village levels.ResultsA total of 303 children from 140 families from Fortin Mbororé and Yriapú Jungle villages participated, and 87.8% of them resulted positive to at least one parasite. Multiparasitism reached 70% and children with up to six different parasites were detected. Thirteen genera were identified, of which eight were pathogenic. The most frequent soil-transmitted helminths were hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis with 60.7 and 41.9%, respectively. Enterobius vermicularis was detected in 28.4% of children. Giardia duodenalis was the main protozoan and reached the 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 38.9% and 6.9%, whereas for overweight and obesity were 28.1% and 12.9%, respectively. An association was observed between stunting in older children and the presence of parasites, multiparasitism, and giardiasis. Individual conditions and habits were important determinants for most of the parasitoses.ConclusionsWe evidenced that the community is affected by the double burden of malnutrition and parasitoses. To face this alarming situation, public policies are needed to improve sanitation, hygiene education access, community deworming programs, and quality nutrition on a regular basis of intercultural approaches.
       
  • AN INSIGHT INTO THE ECOBIOLOGY, VECTOR SIGNIFICANCE AND CONTROL OF
           HYALOMMA TICKS (ACARI: IXODIDAE): A REVIEW
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): M.S. Sajid, A. Kausar, A. Iqbal, H. Abbas, Z. Iqbal, M.K. JonesAbstractTicks (Acari:Ixodoidea) are important ectoparasites infesting livestock and human populations around the globe. Ticks can cause damage directly by affecting the site of infestation, or indirectly as vectors of a wide range of protozoa, bacteria and viruses which ultimately lead to lowered productivity of livestock populations. Hyalomma is a genus of hard ticks, having more than 30 species well-adapted to hot, humid and cold climates. Habitat diversity, vector ability, and emerging problem of acaricidal resistance in enzootic regions typify this genus in various countries around the world. This paper reviews the epidemiology, associated risk factors (temperature, climate, age, sex, breed etc.), vector role, vector-pathogen association, and reported control strategies of genus Hyalomma. The various proteins in saliva of Hyalomma secreted into the blood stream of host and the prolonged attachment are responsible for the successful engorgement of female ticks in spite of host immune defense system. The various immunological approaches that have been tried by researchers in order to cause tick rejection are also discussed. In addition, the novel biological control approaches involving the use of entomo-pathogenic nematodes and Bacillus thuringiensis (B. thuringiensis) serovar thuringiensis H14; an endotoxin, for their acaricidal effect on different species and life cycle stages of Hyalomma are also presented.
       
  • Japanese Encephalitis in Indonesia: An Update on Epidemiology and
           Transmission Ecology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Triwibowo Ambar Garjito, Widiarti, Yusnita Mirna Anggraeni, Sitti Alfiah, Tri Baskoro Tunggul Satoto, Achmad Farchanny, Gina Samaan, Aneta Afelt, Sylvie Manguin, Roger Frutos, Tjandra Yoga AditamaAbstractThe Japanese Encephalitis (JE) virus circulation in Indonesia was first documented in Lombok in 1960, and the virus was first isolated in 1972 from Culex tritaeniorhynchus in Bekasi, West Java and Kapuk, West Jakarta. Since then, Indonesia has been recognized as an endemic country for JE transmission. Up to now, JE cases have been found in at least 29 provinces, with Bali, West Kalimantan, East Nusa Tenggara, West Java and East Java, being the areas of highest incidence. However, routine surveillance on JE has not been established at the national level even though many surveys were conducted. JEV has been isolated from 10 mosquito species: Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. gelidus, Cx. vishnui, Cx. fuscocephala, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Anopheles vagus, An. kochi, An. annularis, and Armigeres subalbatus. Culex tritaeniorhynchus is the main JE vector in Indonesia. JE has been detected throughout the Indonesian archipelago from West to East. However, due to a lack of routine, systematic and standardized diagnostic approaches, the JE burden has still not been clearly established yet. Long term and systematic JE surveillance across Indonesia is a priority, the burden needs to be better assessed and appropriate control measures must be implemented.
       
  • Mapping the potential distributions of etiological agent, vectors, and
           reservoirs of Japanese Encephalitis in Asia and Australia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Abdallah M. Samy, Abdelghafar A. Alkishe, Stephanie Thomas, Liya Wang, Wenyi ZhangAbstractJapanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a substantial cause of viral encephalitis, morbidity, and mortality in South-East Asia and the Western Pacific. World Health Organization recognized Japanese Encephalitis (JE) as a public health priority in demands to initiate active vaccination programs. Recently, the geographic distribution of JEV has apparently expanded into other areas in the Pacific islands and northern Australia; however, major gaps exist in knowledge in regard to its current distribution. Here, we mapped the potential distribution of mosquito vectors of JEV (Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. vishnui, Cx. fuscocephala, Cx. gelidus), and reservoirs (Egretta grazetta, E. intermedia, Nycticorax nycticorax) based on ecological niche modeling approach. Ecological niche models predicted all species to occur across Central, South and South East Asia; however, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, E. garzetta, E. intermedia, and N. nycticorax had broader potential distributions extending west to parts of the Arabian Peninsula. All predictions were robust and significantly better than random (P 
       
  • Looking for the right mate – What we really known on the courtship and
           mating of Lucilia sericata (Meigen)'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Giovanni Benelli, Donato RomanoLucilia sericata is well known for causing myiasis in humans, livestock, pets and wildlife. It also vectors various pathogens, including paratuberculosis agents. This species can be exploited in maggot therapy to treat necrotic wounds, particularly those infected by multidrug-resistant pathogens. Despite the high medical and veterinary importance of this species, our knowledge about its courtship and mating behavior is still limited. In this study, we quantified the courtship and mating behavior of L. sericata, shedding light on the impact of lateralization of selected behavioral traits during sexual interactions. When a male identified a female, he approached her with head pushing followed by foreleg tapping acts. Courtship lasted 7.65 ± 0.4 s. During copulation attempts, the male continued foreleg tapping acts on the female body, and tried to achieve genital contact. Copula lasted 14.88 ± 0.41 min, while male mating success was 85%. Several courtship and mating traits were found lateralized at population-level. Most of males approached the female with head pushing acts on her left side of the body. Both during courtship and copulation attempt phases, males mainly used the right foreleg to perform leg tapping acts on females. However, the impact of lateralized head pushing and foreleg tapping on the main behavioral parameters characterizing L. sericata courtship and mating was not significant, except for a higher number of foreleg tapping acts during copulation attempts displayed by right-biased males over left-biased ones. Overall, results reported here contribute to improve our basic knowledge on the reproductive behavior of L. sericata. Besides, selected behavioral parameters characterized here can be exploited as benchmarks to monitor mate quality during mass-rearing, as well as to select males with boosted mating competitiveness, helping to improve the success of SIT programs and behavior-based control tools.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Morphology and 18S rDNA sequencing of Henneguya peruviensis n. sp.
           (Cnidaria: Myxosporea), a parasite of the Amazonian ornamental fish
           Hyphessobrycon loretoensis from Peru: A myxosporean dispersal approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Patrick D. Mathews, Omar Mertins, José O.L. Pereira, Antonio A.M. Maia, Edson A. AdrianoABSTRACTMyxosporean are endoparasitic cnidarians of wide distribution and responsible for important economic losses in fisheries and aquaculture. A new myxosporean species, Henneguya peruviensis n. sp., is herein described as obtained from the gill filaments of Hyphessobrycon loretoensis caught in the Nanay River, Department of Loreto, Peru. The parasite was found in 37 of 45 (82.2%) examined H. loretoensis. The new species was characterized based on morphological features and 18S rDNA gene sequence data. The sequencing of the 18S rDNA gene from the spores of H. peruviensis n. sp. resulted in 1632 nucleotides and this sequence did not match any of the myxozoan available in the GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis showed that H. peruviensis n. sp. closed together with H. leporinicola. Nonetheless, the 18S rDNA sequences of H. peruviensis n. sp. and H. leporinicola have only 82% similarity. This is the first description and molecular study of a Myxozoa parasitizing fish of the genus Hyphessobrycon in the Amazon basin. Given the importance of the ornamental fish industry in translocation of aquatic organisms worldwide, the international movement of myxosporeans in infected fish is discussed in terms of disease outbreaks and the need for preventative action.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Rabbit trypanosome detection in Phlebotomus perniciosus sand flies from
           the leishmaniasis outbreak in Madrid, Spain
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): E. González, R. Molina, M. JiménezPhlebotomine sand flies are known vectors of several pathogens. In Spain, Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus ariasi are the proven vectors of Leishmania infantum. Since 2010 a human leishmaniasis outbreak has been notified in Madrid region, central Spain. Studies have shown that P. perniciosus is the only vector confirmed in the focus area and that rabbits and hares are the wild reservoirs incriminated in the cycle of the parasite in the outbreak. Trypanosoma nabiasi is a trypanosomatid found in wild rabbits and its presence has been reported in wild rabbits from southern Spain. Moreover, co-infection with L. infantum was found in some of these animals. However, in Madrid region, there is no information about the transmission of this trypanosome in rabbits. Hence, in this study we investigate if T. nabiasi could be circulating in the aforementioned leishmaniasis focus. Wild P. perniciosus female sand flies were captured in the affected area and analyzed using molecular methods. T. nabiasi DNA was detected in 20 out of 155 female sand flies fed on rabbits by amplification and subsequent sequencing of ITS1 and SSU rRNA fragments. Therefore, we describe for the first time the presence of T. nabiasi and its co-infection with L. infantum in P. perniciosus female sand flies. More investigation is needed in order to elucidate the role of P. perniciosus in the transmission of T. nabiasi among rabbits and its potential consequences.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this articleThis study reports the first detection of Trypanosoma nabiasi in Phlebotomus perniciosus sand flies and its co-infection with Leishmania infantum. The study was carried out in sand flies - fed on rabbits - from the human leishmaniasis outbreak in Madrid, Spain.
       
  • Efficiency of flubendazole-loaded mPEG-PCL nanoparticles: A promising
           formulation against the protoscoleces and cysts of Echinococcus granulosus
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Mehdi Farhadi, Ali Haniloo, Kobra Rostamizadeh, Soghrat FaghihzadehAbstractNone of the existing drugs can effectively treat the human cystic echinococcosis. This study aimed to improve the efficacy of flubendazole (FLBZ) against the protoscoleces and cysts of Echinococcus granulosus by preparing polymeric FLBZ-loaded methoxy polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone (mPEG-PCL) nanoparticles. The protoscoleces and microcysts were treated with FLBZ-loaded mPEG-PCL nanoparticles (FLBZ-loaded nanoparticles) and free FLBZ at the final concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL for 27 and 14 days, respectively. The chemoprophylactic efficacy of the drugs was evaluated in experimentally infected mice. The nanoparticles were stable for 1 month, with an average size of 101.41 ± 5.14 nm and a zeta potential of -19.13 ± 2.56 mV. The drug-loading and entrapment efficiency of the FLBZ-loaded nanoparticles were calculated to be 3.08 ± 0.15% and 89.16 ± 2.93%, respectively. The incubation of the protoscoleces with the 10-μg/mL nano-formulation for 15 days resulted in 100% mortality, while after incubation with the 10-μg/mL free FLBZ, the viability rate of the protoscoleces was only 44.0% ± 5.22%. Destruction of the microcysts was observed after 7 days’ exposure to the FLBZ-loaded nanoparticles at a concentration of 10 μg/mL. The in vivo challenge showed a significant reduction in the weight and number of the cysts (P 
       
  • Evaluation of Opisthorchis viverrini calreticulin for potential
           host modulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Wanlapa Chaibangyang, Amornrat Geadkaew-Krenc, Peter M. Smooker, Smarn Tesana, Rudi GramsThe multifunctional calreticulin (CALR) was identified as a major calcium-binding protein of the endoplasmic reticulum before being recognized as a chaperone in the same place. Only later were activities of calreticulin outside the endoplasmic reticulum described that for example affect cell proliferation and the innate immune system. In the present work we have investigated those extracellular activities of CALR from the cancerogenic human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (OvCALR), as they might be important in host/parasite interaction. We first demonstrate that OvCALR is released from the parasite and stimulates a specific humoral immune response. Recombinant OvCALR is then shown to suppress proliferation of primary endothelial cells, their motility and sprouting activities. The potential of OvCALR to interfere with the complement system is established, firstly by demonstrating its direct binding to C1q and, secondly by suppression of hemolysis of sensitized red blood cells. These findings suggest that OvCALR is an important parasite antigen that could modulate diverse host functions and support parasite survival.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Potassium Usnate Toxicity Against Embryonic Stages of the Snail
           Biomphalaria glabrata and Schistosoma mansoni Cercariae
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Hallysson D.A de Araújo, Ana M.M.A. Melo, Williams N. Siqueira, Mônica C.B. Martins, André L. Aires, Mônica C.P.A. Albuquerque, Nicácio H. da Silva, Vera L.M. LimaThe snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector for Schistosoma mansoni. Control of this vector to prevent the spread of schistosomiasis is currently performed with the application of a niclosamide molluscicide, which is highly toxic to the environment. Screening of substances that show embryotoxic molluscicidal potential as well as have detrimental effects on cercariae is very relevant for the control of schistosomiasis, as the efficacy of prevention of the disease is increased if it acts as a molluscicide as well as on the cercariae of S. mansoni. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of potassium usnate derived from usnic acid on different stages of embryonic development of B. glabrata and on S. mansoni cercariae. After 24 h of exposure, potassium usnate showed embryotoxic activity across all embryonic stages. The values obtained from the LC50 for the embryonic stages were the following: blastula 5.22 μg/mL, gastrula 3.21 μg/mL, trochophore 3.58 μg/mL, veliger 2.79, and hippo stage 2.52 μg/mL. Against S. mansoni cercariae, it had LC90 and 100% mortality at concentrations of 2.5 and 5 μg/mL in 2 h of exposure. In conclusion, this is the first report of potassium usnate toxicity on the embryonic stages of B. glabrata and cercariae of S. mansoni, and this study shows the potassium usnate as a promising agent for the control of mansoni schistosomiasis.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Epizootological study on Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in the
           Czech Republic
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Eva Bártová, Radka Lukášová, Roman Vodička, Jiří Váhala, Lukáš Pavlačík, Marie Budíková, Kamil SedlákAbstractToxoplasma gondii is protozoan parasite with ability of causing disease in wide-spectrum of animals; many species of animals in captivity died of clinical toxoplasmosis. The monitoring of T. gondii antibodies in zoo animals can be an important indicator of T. gondii circulation in zoo. The aim of this study was to examine sera of animals from eight Czech zoos by latex agglutination test with statistical evaluation and detect T. gondii DNA in stray cats and rodents captured in the zoos. T. gondii antibodies were detected in 33 % of 1043 zoo animals without statistical difference between birds (27 %, n = 74) and mammals (33 %, n = 969). In birds, the chance to be infected with T. gondii was higher in Accipitriformes (71 %) compared to Pelecaniformes (6 %) (p 
       
  • The prevalence and distribution ofBurkholderia pseudomallei in rice paddy
           within Hainan, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Sufang Dong, Wu Lixian, Fuquan Long, Wu Qiang, Xiang Liu, Hua Pei, Xu Ke, Lu Yajun, Ying Wang, Yingzi Lin, Qianfeng XiaAbstractMelioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, mainly found in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. In Hainan, sporadic cases were first described in 1990; since then, more cases have been identified. No systematic study has yet been done to detect the environmental source of the organism and its true extent in Hainan. This study is aimed to confirm the prevalence of B. pseudomallei in soil samples in Hainan. 1080 soil samples from 18 different counties were collected from 3 sampling points of 360 sites. They were screened for the presence of B. pseudomallei by Ashdown selective media. Suspected colonies of B. pseudomallei were confirmed by biochemical test and a specific PCR assay. 48 of 360 sites (13.3%) were positive for B. pseudomallei, including all coastal counties in Hainan Island. This study revealed the prevalence and distribution of B. pseudomallei in the soil environment in Hainan Island of southern China and may be helpful to understand the distribution of B. pseudomallei and to access its epidemiological importance.
       
  • Finding a model for the study of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana
           infection: The Yucatan Deer mouse (Peromyscus yucatanicus) as a suitable
           option
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Elsy Nalleli Loría-Cervera, Erika Ivett Sosa-Bibiano, Nicole R. Van Wynsberghe, Fernando José Andrade-NarváezFor more than four decades, the murine model has been employed extensively to understand immunological mechanisms associated with Leishmania infection. Although the use of laboratory mice has been very informative, mainly for L. (L.) major infection, the extrapolation to other Leishmania species and more importantly to human disease has been limited. Particularly in the case of L. (L.) mexicana, most infected mouse strains are highly susceptible and never presented asymptomatic infection, which is the main outcome in human. Thus, we postulated the use of Peromyscus yucatanicus, a primary reservoir of L. (L.) mexicana in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, as an experimental model to study Leishmania infection. This rodent species can produce both asymptomatic and clinical infections therefore they seem more appropriate for studying host-pathogen interactions. In this review, we recapitulate the immunological findings observed in the traditional murine model of L. (L.) mexicana highlighting the differences with humans’ infection and demonstrate the pertinence of P. yucatanicus as the experimental model for studying L. (L.) mexicana infection.Graphical abstractPeromyscus yucatanicus is a good experimental model since it reproduces L. (L.) mexicana infection outcomes.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Bio-efficacy of LifeNet, a deltamethrin incorporated long-lasting
           insecticidal net, as assessed in experimental huts against Anopheles
           fluviatilis, a major malaria vector in east-central India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Kasinathan Gunasekaran, Sudhansu Sekhar Sahu, Tharmalingam Vijayakumar, Swaminathan Subramanian, Purushothaman JambulingamABSTRACTLifeNet, a deltamethrin incorporated long-lasting insecticidal (polypropylene) net (LLIN), was qualified by the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) for Phase-II trial in India. The purpose of this trial was to assess the bio-efficacy of unwashed and 20 and 30 times washed LifeNet in comparison to the nets conventionally treated with deltamethrin against the natural population of Anopheles fluviatilis, a major malaria vector, in terms of deterring hut entry, inhibiting blood feeding, inducing exophily and causing mortality. The trial was carried out in six experimental huts constructed at Kandhaguda village in Malkangiri district, Odisha State. The efficacy of unwashed and washed (20 or 30 times) LifeNet was compared with untreated polypropylene and conventionally treated (with deltamethrin) polyester net washed to just before exhaustion or washed 20 times. The study showed a significant reduction of entry (treatment: 1.61–4.78; control: 7.61 per hut) and an increase in exit (50.7–64.4% and 39.1%) of An. fluviatilis in the treated arms compared to the control arm (untreated net) (P 
       
  • Efficacy of mebendazole in paediatric patients with giardiasis: a
           systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Angel A. Escobedo, Pedro Almirall, Eduardo González-Fraile, Javier BallesterosAbstractMebendazole (MBZ), a benzimidazole compound, has received attention in treating patients with giardiasis because it has shown beneficial effects both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to assess with a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) the efficacy of MBZ compared to other antigiardial agents in children. We searched RCTs of MBZ for the treatment of Giardia infections published in PubMed and EBSCOhost. Application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, data extraction, and assessment of methodological quality were independently performed in duplicate. The primary outcome was the parasitological cure. We included 7 RCTs in the systematic review (639 patients). There was no clinical difference in the parasitological cure between MBZ and metronidazole (MTZ). The relative risk (RR) was 0.81 [95% 95% Confidence Interval 0.61 to 1.09], with high heterogeneity (4 trials, I2 = 81%). The prediction interval expected to cover the results of a new trial was wide enough (0.22 to 2.96) to support both a clinically relevant difference favouring either MBZ or MTZ. The decision to support any treatment should be based not only on efficacy but also safety and cost. Although our results suggest that MBZ may be an effective treatment option for children with Giardia infection, they should also be interpreted and translated into clinical practice with caution, as the evidence is based on a limited number of RCTs presenting high heterogeneity.
       
  • North American scorpion species of public health importance with a
           reappraisal of historical epidemiology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Edmundo González-Santillán, Lourival D. PossaniScorpionism is a severe threat to public health in North America. Historically, few species of Centruroides have been considered to be the offending taxa, but we know now that their diversity is greater and our knowledge incomplete. Current distribution maps are inadequate for some species. Epidemiologic studies are sporadic and local, and a complete synthesis for North America is missing. We analyze historical and recent knowledge about the identity, distribution and epidemiology of species of medical importance in North America. PubMed, Google Scholar, the National Collection of Arachnids, and results of recent field work were consulted in the preparation of our analysis. We recognized 21 species and one subspecies of medically important scorpions in need of precise geographical delimitation. All these species are found in Mexico, which is clearly a hotspot for scorpionism. Although mortality has been steadily decreasing, deaths still occur, and morbidity remains high. Mortality is most common at age classes of 0–10 years and>50. Morbidity is highest in age class 15–50 years, including the most economically active segment of the population. The season of the highest incidence of scorpion sting peaks between spring and summer but there appears to be a second, lower peak at the end of the summer. Although the systematics of the genus Centruroides has advanced considerably, our knowledge of its diversity remains fragmentary. There is a disconnection between the actual distribution of the scorpions and the incidence maps constructed from scorpion sting records. Despite a historically robust knowledge of the distribution of well-known species, most recently described species are known from only a few localities. Some of the epidemiological parameters are consistent among studies reported herein.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Herd-level risk factors associated with Brucella sero-positivity in
           cattle, and perception and behaviours on the disease control among
           agro-pastoralists in Tanzania
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 187Author(s): Shingo Asakura, George Makingi, Rudovick Kazwala, Kohei MakitaAbstractBrucellosis is endemic in Tanzania, particularly in agro-pastoral areas. This study investigated the herd-level sero-prevalence and risk factors for Brucella sero-positivity in cattle, and perception and behaviours associated with brucellosis control among agro-pastoralists in Morogoro Region, Tanzania. A cross-sectional study involving herd milk diagnosis by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and questionnaire survey was conducted in 124 farms. Questions included potential risk factors, knowledge of brucellosis, willingness-to-pay for cattle vaccination, and item count technique (ICT) for selling behaviour of cows that experienced abortion. Risk factor analysis for Brucella sero-positivity in cattle and analysis of factors associated with willingness-to-pay were conducted using classical tests and generalised linear models. Most farmers had little knowledge about brucellosis (disease name: 13.7%, symptoms: 3.2%, transmission from cattle to human: 2.4%, and Brucella vaccine: 2.4%). The proportion of Brucella sero-positive herd was 44.4% (55/124, 95%CI: 35.5–53.5). No risk factors for Brucella sero-positivity were identified; however, using a veterinary service was identified as a preventive factor (OR = 0.39, 95%CI: 0.18–0.84, p =  0.02). For scenarios of vaccinating all cattle and only calves, 59.7% and 89.5% of farmers were willing to pay for vaccination, respectively. Being a Maasai tribe member was a hesitating factor for vaccinating all cattle (OR = 0.39, 95%CI: 0.19–0.83, p =  0.01) and using a veterinary service was an encouraging factor for vaccinating calves (OR = 4.0, 95%CI: 1.2–13.0, p =  0.02). The ICT found that 45.1% of farmers sold cows that experienced abortion. This estimate was not statistically different from that obtained by direct questioning (34.1%, SE = 7.5%, binomial p value = 0.27, factor score = 1.32), suggesting that farmers did not hesitate to sell such cows. The Maasai conducted more risky behaviours for human infection such as drinking raw milk (p = 0.06) or blood (p 
       
  • Risk of maritime introduction of plague from Madagascar to Mayotte
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Soanandrasana Rahelinirina, Mireille Harimalala, Thomas Margueron, Tojo Ramihangihajason, François Mansotte, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Fréderic Pagès, Sébastien BoyerAbstractPlague is a rodent-borne disease caused by Yersinia pestis. Most human infections are bubonic plague, as a result of being bitten by infected rodent fleas. Madagascar, Democratic Republic of Congo and Peru are the three most affected countries. Plague was introduced into eastern Madagascar in 1898 by boat from India. It is estimated that the risk of introduction of plague from Madagascar to neighboring islands is very high due to the maritime links.We conducted a study of plague reservoirs and vectors in Longoni Port in Mayotte and Mahajanga Port in Madagascar during two seasons to highlight a non-negligible risk of introduction of Y. pestis to Mayotte. The results showed that two main reservoirs of plague in Madagascar Suncus murinus and Rattus rattus and the main flea vector Xenopsylla cheopis exists in and surrounding the port of Longoni. Y. pestis was isolated from Rattus norvegicus captured close to the port of Mahajanga during this study.Plague bacteria circulate within populations of rodent without causing rodent die-off in Mahajanga. The risk of introduction of plague from Madagascar to Mayotte exists due to the regular exchanges. Continuous surveillance of rat, shrew and flea populations is therefore necessary in all the surrounding countries that have regular exchanges with Madagascar to prevent the spread of the plague.
       
  • Prevalence of Hepatozoon and Sarcocystis spp. in rodents and their
           ectoparasites in Nigeria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Joshua Kamani, Shimon Harrus, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Ricardo Gutiérrez, Kosta Y. Mumcuoglu, Gad BanethAbstractUsing polymerase chain reaction targeting the 18S rRNA gene and DNA sequencing the prevalence and diversity of Apicomplexa and Piroplasmida infections in rodents from Nigeria was studied. Overall, 13 of 194 (7.7%) rodent blood samples tested were positive for Hepatozoon spp. while 2 (1.0%) were positive for Sarcocystis dispersa. Hepatozoon spp. DNA was detected in all the rodent species tested except Neotoma spp., and was most prevalent (50%) in the African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus), followed by Mus musculus (18.2%), Rattus rattus (6.3%) and Rattus norvegicus (4.1 %). The Hepatozoon spp. DNA sequences from the rodents were 98-100% identical to each other and to Hepatozoon spp. DNA sequence from small mammals deposited in GenBank. Five of the sequences from R. rattus (n = 2) and R. norvegicus (n = 3) were 98-99% identical to Hepatozoon felis (KY649442.1). Sarcocystis dispersa DNA was detected in one R. rattus (2.1%) and one R. norvegicus (0.8%). These findings suggest that rodents are involved in endemic cycles of Hepatozoon spp. and Sarcocystis spp. agents of veterinary importance.
       
  • Morphological and phylogenetic analysis of Lutzomyia migonei from
           three Brazilian states
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Pietra Lemos Costa, Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Giada Annoscia, Viviana Domenica Tarallo, Gioia Capelli, Domenico Otranto, Sinval Pinto Brandão-Filho, Filipe Dantas-TorresAbstractLutzomyia migonei is incriminated as a vector of Leishmania braziliensis, the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Recently, this phlebotomine sand fly species has been suggested as a vector for Leishmania infantum, which causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. Considering the widespread distribution of Lu. migonei in South America, the existence of isolated populations has been hypothesized. Three Lu. migonei populations, two from north-eastern Brazil (Machados, Pernambuco State, and Baturité, Ceará State) and other from the south-eastern region (Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State) were analysed both morphologically and genetically. Though no significant morphological differences were found amongst the sand fly specimens analysed, discriminant analysis based on specific morphometric characters (i.e., length of wing, antennal segment 3 and coxite for males, and length of wing and antennal segment 3 for females), showed that specimens from Machados were closer to Baturité than to Niterói. The molecular analysis of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene sequences also supported this observation by the distinct separation of two monophyletic clades, grouping specimens from Machados and Baturité separately from those of Niterói. Our results suggest the existence of different populations within the distribution range of Lu. migonei. Whether these populations are reproductively isolated and/or present differences in terms of vector competence/capacity for L. braziliensis and L. infantum needs to be further investigated.
       
  • A review of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco: A vertical analysis to
           determine appropriate interventions for control and prevention
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Majda Laboudi, Hamid Sahibi, Mohamed Elabandouni, Haddou Nhammi, Sanaa Ait Hamou, Abderrahim SadakLeishmaniasis is considered one of the most neglected diseases worldwide. In Morocco, cutaneous leishmaniasis is an important public health problem. Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica are the two major species in this country. Despite all efforts, monitoring and control of the cutaneous leishmaniasis is still challenging. We used for the first time a vertical analysis of the control of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco from the document review and publications. This analysis allowed us to develop an epidemiological model that emphasized key possible interventions. No evaluation studies of these interventions in Morocco were done. Global Evidence underline the effectiveness of preventive interventions produced in integrate inter-sectorial strategy framework (e.g use of insecticide-treated bednets, indoor residual spraying and rodents’ control) rather than treatments such as based thermotherapy, cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy, CO2 laser and paromomycin. Therefore, integrated vector management control (IVMC) with community participation is recommended as effective strategy. Strengthening of the IVMC with community involvement are necessary conditions to improve the program of cutaneous leishmaniasis and prevent epidemic foci appearance.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Seroepidemiological survey of human exposure to Dirofilaria spp.
           in Romania and Moldova
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Lavinia Ciuca, Fernando Simon, Laura Rinaldi, Laura Kramer, Marco Genchi, Giuseppe Cringoli, Dumitru Acatrinei, Liviu Miron, Rodrigo MorchonThe present study aimed to evaluate the extent of Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens exposure in humans from eastern and southern areas of Romania and central Moldova by serological methods. The serological screening was performed on a total of 450 serum samples (187 from Romania and 263 from Moldova). The sera were collected using a convenience sampling with the help of physicians from the hospitals of the study areas. All samples were analysed by a non-commercial ELISA test for the detection of IgG antibodies against adult somatic antigens of D. immitis and D. repens. The results showed a total of 49 (10.9%; 95% CI = 8.3-14.1%) individuals from Romania and Moldova with a positive response to IgG antibodies against both adult somatic antigens of D. immitis and D. repens. Specifically, 48 (10.7%; 95% CI = 8.0-14.0%) patients were positive for IgG-antibodies against adult somatic antigens of D. immitis, one (0.2%; 95% CI = 0.4–1.2%) against D. repens antigens, and four (0.9%; 95% CI = 0.4-3.3%). were positive for antigens of both parasites.At country level, out of 187 samples from Romania, 13 (6.9%; 95% CI = 4.1-11.5%) were positive for anti-D. immitis IgG with high exposure in the southern part of the country (Bucharest). Of the 263 people from Moldova, 36 (13.7%; 95% CI = 10.0-18.4%) were positive for D. immitis antigens from which three (1.1%, 95% CI = 0.4-3.3%) were positive for the antibodies against antigens of both parasites. Only one sample was found positive for anti-D. repens IgG.Positive IgG-ELISA results were confirmed by Western blot analysis. In addition, for further confirmation, a complementary ELISA was performed for anti-WSP IgG antibodies against Wolbachia endosymbionts. Our findings showed a noticeable exposure of humans from Romania and Moldova to Dirofilaria parasites. Serology can be useful for indicating exposure to Dirofilaria spp. in a healthy population in order to obtain useful data on the epidemiological scenario of human dirofilariosis in Eastern Europe.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Morphology of the eggs surface of ten Brazilian species of phlebotomine
           sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Ronildo Baiatone Alencar, Vera Margarete ScarpassaThe chorionic sculpturing of ten Brazilian sandfly species, Nyssomyia antunesi (Coutinho), N. whitmani (Antunes and Coutinho), Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (Mangabeira), B. olmeca nociva (Young and Arias), Evandromyia walkeri (Newstead), E. williamsi (Antunes and Coutinho), Deanemyia maruaga (Alves, Freitas and Barrett), D. samueli (Deane), Viannamyia furcata (Mangabeira) and Lutzomyia dispar (Martins and Silva), was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Eggs of the last seven species, as well as the genera Deanemyia and Viannamyia, are described for the first time. In total, five patterns of chorionic sculpturing were found: polygonal, connected parallel ridges, unconnected parallel ridges, volcano-like and placoid. The last one is a new chorionic sculpture pattern, which was observed in D. samueli. These structures are illustrated and discussed. These results show that egg morphology can be used in phlebotomine taxonomy, both at generic and specific levels.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this articleDetails of different polygonal chorionic patterns found in eggs of four Neotropical sandflies species: 1) Deanemyia maruaga; 2) Evandromyia walkeri; 3) Nyssomyia antunesi; 4) Viannamyia furcata.
       
  • Genetic diversity and geographic distribution of the Bemisia tabaci
           species complex in Bangladesh
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): M.S. Fatema Khatun, S.M. Hemayet Jahan, Sukchan Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll LeeBemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a species complex consisting of at least 40 cryptic species. Although the genetic diversity of B. tabaci has been studied in various regions, little is known about distribution in Bangladesh, which is covered by the Bengal delta, the largest delta on Earth. We conducted an extensive survey throughout the country and determined the nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) from 110 individuals. We then examined phylogenetic relationships. The results identified four cryptic species that expressed distinct interspecific variation but low intraspecific variation. Asia I was the most abundant, both Asia II 1 and Asia II 5 were moderately abundant, and Asia II 10 was found only in the central region. COI sequences of each cryptic species were distinctive and differentiated into many haplotypes. Our study provides important information to better understand the genetic diversity and geographic distribution of cryptic species in Bangladesh and nearby countries.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Two guide RNA genes are up-regulated in Leishmania infantum
           metacyclic promastigotes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Pedro J. Alcolea, Ana Alonso, Vicente LarragaAbstractThe kinetoplastid parasite Leishmania infantum is responsible for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in the mediterranean basin, where dogs are the reservoir. Differential gene expression analysis by whole genome DNA microarray hybridization revealed up-regulation of genes involved in infectivity of metacyclic promastigotes in axenic culture, together with two unidentified genes that had not been annotated in the parasite's genome sequences. Sequence analysis revealed that these genes encode for guide RNAs (gRNAs), which are located in the kinetoplast and participate in the kinetoplastid-specific uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing process. Northern blot assays confirmed that both gRNA genes are up-regulated in metacyclic promastigotes, thus suggesting that uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing contributes to metabolic shifts at this stage. A screening strategy described herein has revealed an uncharacterized 16S-like rRNA transcript as a target of one of the aforementioned gRNAs.
       
  • Preliminary evaluation of neoblast-like stem cell factor and transcript
           expression profiles in Schistosoma japonicum
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Bikash Ranjan Giri, Huimin Li, Yongjun Chen, Guofeng ChengAbstractNeoblast-like stem cell factors and transcripts are essential for cell proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation. Recent studies have demonstrated that nanos, sox, and vasa-like transcription factors are associated with neoblast-like stem cells in Schistosoma mansoni and play crucial roles in the regulation of worm development. However, these neoblast-like stem cell factors and transcripts and their expression profiles remain unknown in Schistosoma japonicum. In this study, we identified orthologs of 11 neoblast-like stem cell factors and transcripts in S. japonicum using bioinformatics and confirmed them by PCR. The expression profiles of neoblast-like stem cell factors and transcripts revealed that some of them were highly expressed in certain stages. Sex-based expression analysis revealed that nanos, polo-like kinase, PCNA, cyclin B, and H2A showed significantly higher expression in female worms, whereas ago and bruli showed higher expression in male worms. In addition, we noted that ago, bruli, and pp32 exhibited higher expression in the testes, while nanos, polo-like kinase, cyclin B, H2A, and H2B showed notable higher expression in both isolated ovaries and testes. Our preliminary results are expected to provide important information about the regulatory roles of these stem cell factors in parasite development and sexual maturation.
       
  • Meta-analysis of Prevalence of Bovine Herpes Virus 1 in Cattle in Mainland
           China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Xuelong Chen, Xin Wang, Yanping Qi, Xiaobo Wen, Chengxu Li, Xingbo Liu, Hongbo NiABSTRACTBovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), an important pathogen of cattle, can cause severe clinical syndromes including respiratory disease, genital disease, and late-term abortions, as well as neurological and systemic disease in cattle. For assessing the prevalence of BHV-1 infection in mainland China, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched English and Chinese literature databases for published paper regarding the prevalence of BHV-1 in cattle in China from inception to May 20, 2018. Search strings included if they reported the cattle samples of more than 30 cattle and provided information that allowed us to establish the prevalence of BHV-1. Moreover, we excluded repeated studies, reviews, other hosts studies, as well as studies with inconsistent data, incomplete information or only provided prevalence data, and out of mainland China data. We extracted how many cattle have BHV-1 infection from the obtained studies, moreover, and calculated pooled prevalence of BHV-1 infection in cattle. The data of 41 articles (including data on 43441 cattle) are compliant with the standards. The pooled prevalence of BHV-1 in cattle in China was 40%, the pooled prevalence of BHV-1 in cattle from Northeast China (24%) was significant lower than those from other regions. In addition, the prevalence of BHV-1 was associated with publication time of paper, detection methods, age of cattle, and clinical symptoms (pneumonia, abortion etc.).Our findings suggest that BHV-1 is common in cattle in mainland China. It is necessary to monitor the prevalence of BHV-1 in cattle and the powerful and effective regulatory measures should be taken out to prevent the spread of BHV-1.
       
  • Characterization of cattle-origin ticks from Southern China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Juan Li, Zhi-Hong Chen, Li Jiang, Cai-Yan Wu, Shen-Quan Liao, Xu-Hui Lin, Rong Xiang, Min-Na Lv, Nan-Shan Qi, Jian-Fei Zhang, Qin-Ling Chen, Ming-Fei SunAbstractTo characterize ticks in cattle from Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region, Southern China, 783 cattle in four localities were examined. Among them, 232 (29.63%) cattle were positive for tick infection. A total of 503 ticks collected in these cattle were further investigated. Two Rhipicephalus species, namely R. microplus and R. sanguineus, were firstly identified by morphological features. Thereinto, R. microplus is the prevalent species in cattle in southern China, with high prevalent in summer and autumn annually. Mixed infection of R. microplus and R. sanguineus was just found in yellow cattle. To further confirm the morphological identification of these cattle-origin ticks, a phylogeographic analysis inferred from the sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS-2) was performed, and R. microplus and R. sanguineus were identified. However, the morphological taxonomy of R. microplus has been challenged in recent years. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) marker was then used to provide higher resolution of R. mircoplus complex. The re-constructed cox1 phylogenetic tree further identified these R. mircoplus tick samples as R. microplus Clade A. These findings illustrated the prevalence and characterization of cattle-origin ticks in Southern China for the first time, and provided base-line information for further control of tick and tick-borne disease in these areas.
       
  • Effects of cross-mating on susceptibility of synonymous mosquitoes,
           Anopheles paraliae and Anopheles lesteri to infection with nocturnally
           subperiodic Brugia malayi
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Watcharatip Dedkhad, Lyric C. Bartholomay, Bruce M. Christensen, Deepak Joshi, Kritsana Taai, Chayanit Hempolchom, Atiporn SaeungIn Southeast Asia, Anopheles lesteri (recently synonymized with An. paraliae) is a competent vector for Plasmodium parasites, but its ability to transmit parasites that cause lymphatic filariasis has yet to be determined. In this study, the susceptibility of An. lesteri and An. paraliae to Brugia malayi parasites was determined by comparing with the control mosquito, Aedes togoi. We found that the infection prevalence per infected mosquito in An. paraliae was significantly lower than that in Ae. togoi in all experiments (p 
       
  • Antigen detection ELISA: A sensitive and reliable tool for the detection
           of active infection of surra
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): G.R. Rudramurthy, P.P. Sengupta, M. Ligi, H. RahmanTrypanosomosis, an endemic disease in Asia, America (central and south) and Africa causes havoc economical loss in livestock industry. The carrier animals which are symptomless and harbours low level of parasites can act as a source of infection. The level of parasitaemia fluctuates, especially during the latent infection; moreover the antibodies which are not found early in the infection may persit even after recovery or chemotherapy. The parasitological and/or serological tests always can not detect current infection or carrier animals. Hence, in the present study double antibody sandwitch antigen detection ELISA (Ag-ELISA) is developed to detect circulating trypanosomes. The new assay has been evaluated using 554 field samples comprising bovine and camel. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the new assay was found to be 97.4% and 99.0% respectively, with a Cohen’s kappa value of 0.96. The developed assay could detect 11.5 Trypanosoma evansi per mL from the experimentally infected blood, buffy coat and purified T. evansi samples. The findings revealed that the developed assay can be exploited as a potential diagnostic tool in the detection of active trypanosomal infection.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this articleSummary: The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of antigen ELISA developed in the present study was found to be 97.4% and 99.0% respectively, with a Cohen’s kappa value of 0.96.
       
  • Detection of Toxocara canis DNA in tissues of experimentally infected mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Quintana de Moura Micaele, Raquel Pegoraro de Macedo Marcia, Wesley Douglas da Silva Terto, Luciana Farias da Costa Avila, Pereira Leivas Leite Fabio, Jaime Scaini Carlos, Berne Pinto Natália, de Almeida Capella Gabriela, Leites Strothmann Adriane, Marreiro Villela Marcos, Elisabeth Aires Berne MariaGraphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A misleading description of the predominant clonal evolution model in
           Trypanosoma cruzi
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Michel Tibayrenc, Francisco J. Ayala
       
  • Dynamics of humoral response in naturally-infected cattle after
           vaccination against leptospirosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Gabriel Martins, Clara Oliveira Slade, Walter LilenbaumAbstractVaccination is one of the most important measures for the control of bovine leptospirosis. Despite the broad usage of vaccination against leptospirosis in cattle worldwide, the dynamics of the post-vaccine immune response remain controversial and many aspects are still unclear, particularly in naturally-infected animals. Thus, the objective of this study is to describe the dynamics of humoral response in naturally-infected cattle after vaccination against leptospirosis. A total of 162 cows were studied, consisting of 129 included in the experimental group (G1), and subdivided into two groups, vaccinated with two different brands of bacterins, as well as 33 in the control group (G2). Serology (MAT) was performed in all cows on D0 (vaccination), then 60 and 120 days post-vaccination. Vaccination significantly elicited the production of anti-leptospiral antibodies. Seroreactivity increased rapidly but was of short duration (up to D60). Significantly, that increase was notably higher in the vaccinated group than in the controlled. Both vaccines elicited a similar response with a higher rate of seroreactive animals, but predominately against different serogroups. In this context, our results reinforce that, although of limited duration, vaccination against leptospirosis significantly elicits a specific humoral response in naturally-infected animals. The two studied vaccines presented similar seroconversion levels, but predominantly to different serogroups, being one against Icterohaemorrhagiae and the other against Sejroe.
       
  • Could beta-myrcene be an alternative to albendazole for the treatment of
           experimental cystic echinococcosis'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): J. Fabbri, M.A. Maggiore, P.E. Pensel, C.M. Albani, G.M. Denegri, M.C. ElissondoEchinococcus granulosus causes hydatidosis or cystic echinococcosis in humans and livestock. In humans, this disease can be managed with surgery, percutaneous treatment, chemotherapy and/or observation. The chemotherapeutic agents used and approved for treatment of hydatidosis are benzimidazoles. Because of the difficulties in achieving successful treatment, considerable efforts have been made to find new natural compounds against hydatid disease. Beta-myrcene is a monoterpene presented in the essential oils of different plants. It is the principal component of essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary). The goal of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of beta-myrcene against germinal cells, protoscoleces and murine cyst of E. granulosus, as well also, investigate its chemoprophylactic activity in a murine model of cystic echinococcosis. For the in vitro assays, the parasites were incubated with beta-myrcene at 10, 5 and 1 µg/mL. The treatments were dose and time-dependent, and consistent with the observed morphological alterations. In the chemoprophylactic efficacy study, the effect of beta-myrcene was similar to albendazole, the reference drug for human echinococcosis treatment.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Ascaris lumbricoides infection induces both, reduction and increase of
           asthma symptoms in a rural community
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Josefina Zakzuk, Stephanie Casadiego, Ana Mercado, Nelson Alvis-Guzman, Luis CaraballoSeveral studies, in different populations and environments, have shown that severe and light helminthiases diminish and increase allergy symptoms, respectively. However, data on the simultaneous presence of these contrary effects in a single community is lacking. In a rural community from Colombia, effects of helminthiases on allergy were evaluated. In the study population, age and gender-adjusted prevalence of asthma and rhinitis symptoms in the last year was 14.6% and 34.1%, respectively (N = 739). By stool exam, ascariasis and trichuriasis were 62.5% and 35.7%, respectively. Significant odds ratio (OR) for asthma presentation were Ascaris sensitization, by specific-IgE (aOR: 2.69, 95%CI: 1.21–5.98) or skin prick test (OR: 3.59, 95%CI: 1.55–8.29). Moderate/severe ascariasis was protective from asthma (aOR: 0.34, 95%CI: 0.12-0.99) and moderate/severe trichuriasis from rhinitis (aOR: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.15-0.80). In conclusion, in a rural tropical village, ascariasis exerts risk and protective effects on asthma symptoms, an influence associated with the severity of the infection.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this articleIn endemic areas, the intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides infection is inversely proportional to the parasite-specific IgE response (sensitization) and asthma risk. Dotted line indicates the threshold to develop asthma. Vertical arrows indicate that these populations are almost uniformly exposed to helminthes, but some individuals could have more environmental exposure than others.
       
  • Assessment of Insecticide Resistance in Primary Dengue Vector, Aedes
           aegypti (Linn.) From Northern Districts of West Bengal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Minu Bharati, Dhiraj SahaAedes mosquitoes are the major vectors transmitting several arboviral diseases such as dengue, zika and chikungunya worldwide. Northern districts of West Bengal is home to several epidemics vectored by mosquito including dengue infections, proper control of which depends on efficient vector control. However the onset of insecticide resistance has resulted in failure of vector control approaches. This study was carried out to unveil the level of insecticide resistance prevailing among the primary dengue vector in this dengue endemic region of India. It was observed that, field caught populations of Ae. aegypti were moderately to severely resistant to majority of the insecticide classes tested, i.e. Organochlorine (DDT), Organophosphates (temephos, malathion), Synthetic Pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin and permethrin) and carbamate (propoxur). In majority of the populations, metabolic detoxification seemed to play the underlying role behind the development of insecticide resistance. This study seems to be the first report revealing the pattern of insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti from Northern West Bengal. Efficient disease management in this region can only be achieved through proper insecticide resistance management. This study may help the concerned authorities in the formulation of an effective vector control strategy throughout this region incorporating the knowledge gained through this study.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Biological study of Trypanosoma caninum under co-culture with
           different feeder layer cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Tatiana S. Fonseca-Oliveira, Juliana Helena S. Barros, Juliana Bernardo Madeira, Raquel da Silva Pacheco, Carlos Roberto Alves, Luzia M.C. Côrtes, Mauro Célio de A. Marzochi, Maria de Fatima MadeiraAbstractTrypanosoma caninum is a parasite isolated from domestic dogs, of which several biological aspects remain unknown, including evolutive forms found in vertebrate hosts. The objective of this study was to evaluate co-cultures of T. caninum with different cell lines as feeder layers to monitor the differentiation process and investigate infective potential. The study was performed using DH-82, MDCK, and Lulo cell lines. T. caninum from axenic culture was added to the cultured adherent cells. At intervals over 30 days, aliquots of the supernatant were collected for quantification and assessment of differentiation. Infectivity assays were performed on the aforementioned cell lines seeded on glass coverslips and evaluated after 6, 24, and 72 hours. In the supernatant of the feeder layer, T. caninum presented similar growth profiles, with epimastigote and trypomastigote forms in binary and multiple divisions. During co-culture with DH-82 and MDCK cells, a higher level of differentiation to trypomastigotes was observed. This study shows that the differentiation process of this parasite can vary according to culture conditions and that DH-82 and MDCK lineages could be applied to the study of trypomastigote forms. All forms of T. caninum described until now (aflagellar epimastigotes, typical epimastigotes, or trypomastigotes) were unable to infect the cell line Finally, this study provides additional data about morphobiological aspects. Although the biological cycle of T. caninum has not been established, the present data suggest the importance of feeder layers in promoting the growth and differentiation of this new parasite.
       
  • Enzyme activity of Schistosoma japonicum cercarial elastase SjCE-2b
           ascertained by in vitro refolded recombinant protein
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Ting Zhang, Xiao-Jin Mo, Bin Xu, Zhong Yang, Geoffrey N. Gobert, Shuai Yan, Zheng Feng, Wei HuABSTRACTCercarial elastase (CE) secreted from cercariae is evinced to play a pivotal role in initial skin penetration of mammalian host. SjCE-2b, a Schistosoma japonicum CE orthologous to SmCE-2b in S. mansoni, was previously found present in cercarial stage to aid skin invasion, but its enzyme activity has not been validated due to the insolubility and altered conformation when expressed recombinantly in bacteria as inclusion bodies. We report here for the first time a bioactive and soluble recombinant SjCE-2b recovered successfully from inclusion bodies by refolding approaches, enabling our biochemical and immunological investigation of this enzyme. Using a “two-step-denaturing and refolding” method, we recovered an 83% yield with 90% purity of refolded protein. Proteolytic activity of rSjCE-2b was demonstrated and characterized by enzymatic assay, showing a Km of 0.116 mM and a specific activity of 1900 nmol p-nitroaniline/min/mg protein. A significant immunoprotective response was evidenced in mice immunized with refolded rSjCE-2b. The result of immunoprotection test is at apparent variance with previously reported findings using S. mansoni CE preparation, which was poorly immunogenic in immunized animals. This work extends the knowledge of schistosome cercarial protease, and presents a bioactive form of S. japonicum recombinant CE with high yield and good quality. This will allow further biochemical and biological investigations to explore schistosome CE activity and better understand the molecular mechanisms associated with cercarial skin invasion of the mammalian host.Graphical Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Hidalgo state, Mexico
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Aldo Ortega-Morales, Thomas Zavortink, Herón Huerta-Jiménez, Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal, Quetzaly Siller-RodríguezAbstractIn order to document the species richness of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and their distributions in the Mexican state of Hidalgo, collecting trips were conducted to all physiographic regions (Coastal Plain of North Gulf, Sierra Madre Oriental, and Neo-volcanic Axis) and subregions of the state. Additionally, mosquito specimens from Hidalgo deposited in the Collection of Arthropods of Medical Importance (CAIM) were reexamined. A total of 3,225 specimens were collected and studied and an additional 69 pinned mosquitoes and 15 microscope slides in CAIM were examined. The two Culicidae subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae, 8 tribes, 12 genera, 24 subgenera, and 56 species were documented. Of these, 4 tribes, 7 genera, 13 subgenera, and 26 species are new records for the mosquito fauna of Hidalgo. Nine species previously recorded were not found in the collections made during this study. Taxonomic notes, new distribution records, and comments about the medical importance of the species found are included.
       
  • The contribution of the DNA microarray technology to gene expression
           profiling in Leishmania spp.: a retrospective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Ana Alonso, Vicente Larraga, Pedro J. AlcoleaAbstractThe first genome project of any living organism excluding viruses, the gammaproteobacteria Haemophilus influenzae, was completed in 1995. Until the last decade, genome sequencing was very tedious because genome survey sequences (GSS) and/or expressed sequence tags (ESTs) belonging to plasmid, cosmid and artificial chromosome genome libraries had to be sequenced and assembled in silico. Nowadays, no genome is completely assembled actually, because gaps and unassembled contigs are always remaining. However, most represent the whole genome of the organism of origin from a practical point of view. The first genome sequencing projects of trypanosomatid parasites were completed in 2005 following those strategies, and belong to Leishmania major, Trypanosoma cruzi and T. brucei. The functional genomics era rapidly developed on the basis of the microarray technology and has been evolving. In the case of the genus Leishmania, substantial biological information about differentiation in the digenetic life cycle of the parasite has been obtained. Later on, next generation sequencing has revolutionized genome sequencing and functional genomics, leading to more sensitive, accurate results by using much less resources. This new technology is more advantageous, but does not invalidate microarray results. In fact, promising vaccine candidates and drug targets have been found on the basis of microarray-based screening and preliminary proof-of-concept tests.
       
 
 
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