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Showing 1 - 200 of 3089 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 363, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 360, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 330, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 418, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 201, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Acta Tropica
  [SJR: 1.059]   [H-I: 77]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-706X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3089 journals]
  • Investigating the association between African spontaneously fermented
           dairy products, faecal carriage of Streptococcus infantarius subsp.
           infantarius and colorectal adenocarcinoma in Kenya
    • Authors: Dasel W.M. Kaindi; Wambui Kogi-Makau; Godfrey N. Lule; Bernd Kreikemeyer; Pierre Renault; Bassirou Bonfoh; Esther Schelling; Jakob Zinsstag; Christophe Lacroix; Leo Meile; Christoph Jans; Jan Hattendorf
      Pages: 10 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Dasel W.M. Kaindi, Wambui Kogi-Makau, Godfrey N. Lule, Bernd Kreikemeyer, Pierre Renault, Bassirou Bonfoh, Esther Schelling, Jakob Zinsstag, Christophe Lacroix, Leo Meile, Christoph Jans, Jan Hattendorf
      Consumption of traditional fermented dairy products (tFDP) in Africa leads to the ingestion of up to 108 Streptococcus infantarius subspecies infantarius (Sii) per millilitre of spontaneously fermented milk. Sii is a member of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) for which some members are associated particularly with colorectal cancer or endocarditis. The extent of health risks to tFDP consumers is largely unknown. A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi (Kenya) on 80 cases and 193 controls that were selected exhaustively from patients attending colonoscopy at the hospital. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex and residency were used in the statistical analysis. Consumption of tFDP was not associated with CRC (odds ratio (OR) 1.4; 95% Confidence interval (CI) 0.7–2.7; p=0.34). Risk factors associated with CRC included age above 40 years, and consumption of processed meat and alcohol. Faecal carriage of Sii was significantly higher in persons with colon tumours and polyps compared to controls (8.4% vs 21.6%: OR: 4.6; CI 1.3–15.9). Patients with haemorrhoids represented an unexpected carrier group with significantly higher Sii faecal carriage (30.4%, CI: 17.7–45.8). Consumption of tFDP does not represent risk factors for CRC whereas Sii seems to be associated with CRC. However, there is urgent need to assess this finding also in the general population, investigate the causality of SBSEC, Sii and CRC as well as compare the phylogenetic, functional and genomic relationship between human and dairy Sii with regards to the ongoing application of Sii in FDP production.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T18:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.018
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Modeling and comparative study of the spread of zoonotic visceral
           leishmaniasis from Northern to Central Tunisia
    • Authors: Belhassen Kaabi; Elyes Zhioua
      Pages: 19 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Belhassen Kaabi, Elyes Zhioua
      During the last twenty years, zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) spread from the north characterized by humid, sub-humid, and semi-arid bio-climates to the arid areas located in Central Tunisia. In order to understand the eco-epidemiological factors involved in the distribution of ZVL, both a sero-epidemiological and an entomological investigation were performed in two governorates situated in two different bio-geographical areas: Bizerte in the north and Kairouan in the center. A mathematical model for transmission of ZVL was built, describing the disease dynamic in these areas. Among 108 sera collected from clinically healthy owned dogs used for guarding houses in the governorate of Bizerte and tested for anti-L. infantum antibodies by indirect immune-fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), 8.3% were positive. From a total of 191 serum samples collected from clinically healthy owned dogs used for guarding houses in the governorate of Kairouan and tested for anti-L. infantum antibodies by IFAT, 26.7% were sero-positive. The cumulative incidences of ZVL in humans in the governorates of Bizerte and Kairouan were 39.17/100,000 and 0.2/100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The infection rates of sand flies with Leishmania DNA in the governorate of Bizerte and Kairouan were 3.8% and 9.4%, respectively. It is important to point out that ZVL epidemic in humans is preceded or concomitant to a high prevalence of Leishmania infantum in dogs and in sand flies. The model showed also a non-linear relationship between dog infection and ZVL in humans. These results suggest an important force of infection (R0) in emerging foci such as the governorate of Kairouan leading to an increased incidence of ZCL in humans. A high prevalence of L. infantum in dogs will result in high prevalence in the vector and obviously high probability to infect human; that it is a key factor for triggering transmission to humans, and subsequently it is an important parameter in the control of ZVL transmission.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T18:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.013
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Molecular epidemiology and in vitro evidence suggest that Leishmania
           braziliensis strain helps determine antimony response among American
           tegumenary leishmaniasis patients
    • Authors: Silvana C. Silva; Luiz Henrique Guimarães; Juliana A. Silva; Viviane Magalhães; Lilian Medina; Adriano Queiroz; Paulo Roberto L. Machado; Albert Schriefer
      Pages: 34 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Silvana C. Silva, Luiz Henrique Guimarães, Juliana A. Silva, Viviane Magalhães, Lilian Medina, Adriano Queiroz, Paulo Roberto L. Machado, Albert Schriefer
      Antimony is the first line drug for treating American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil. In this country, Leishmania braziliensis causes at least three distinct forms of disease: localized cutaneous (CL), mucosal (ML) and disseminated leishmaniasis (DL). All forms can be found in Corte de Pedra, Northeast Brazil. ML and DL respond poorly to antimony, in contrast to CL. The L. braziliensis population causing ATL in Corte de Pedra is genetically very diverse, with strains of the parasite associating with the clinical form of leishmaniasis. We tested the hypotheses that antimony refractoriness is associated with L. braziliensis genotypes, and that parasites from ML and DL present greater in vitro resistance to antimony than L. braziliensis from CL. Comparison of geographic coordinates of living sites between antimony responders and non-responders by Cusick and Edward́s test showed that refractoriness and responsiveness to the drug were similarly wide spread in the region (p>0.05). Parasites were then genotyped by sequencing a locus starting at position 425,451 on chromosome 28, which is polymorphic among L. braziliensis of Corte de Pedra. Haplotype CC- in CHR28/425,451 was associated with risk of treatment failure among CL patients (Fisheŕs exact test, p=0.03, odds ratio=4.65). This haplotype could not be found among parasites from ML or DL. Finally, sensitivity to antimony was evaluated exposing L. braziliensis promastigotes to increasing concentrations of meglumine antimoniate in vitro. Parasites from ML and DL were more resistant to antimony at doses of 2mg/100μL and beyond than those isolated from CL (Fisher’s exact test, p=0.02 and p=0.004, respectively). The intrinsically lower susceptibility of L. brazliensis from ML and DL to antimony parallels what is observed for patients’ responsiveness in the field. This finding reinforces that ML and DL patients would benefit from initiating treatment with drugs currently considered as second line, like amphotericin B.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-29T18:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Potential exposure of humans to Rickettsia felis in Greece
    • Authors: Dimosthenis Chochlakis; Antonios Germanakis; Georgios Chaliotis; Stefania Kapetanaki; Loukia Kalogeraki; Elliona Gkika; Nikolaos Partalis; Georgia Polymili; Yannis Tselentis; Anna Psaroulaki
      Pages: 40 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Dimosthenis Chochlakis, Antonios Germanakis, Georgios Chaliotis, Stefania Kapetanaki, Loukia Kalogeraki, Elliona Gkika, Nikolaos Partalis, Georgia Polymili, Yannis Tselentis, Anna Psaroulaki
      Rickettsia felis is a flea-transmitted pathogen however, in Greece, much work has been done on another flea-borne pathogen, R. typhi; human cases have been described and high-risk areas have been characterized. Nevertheless, little is known about human infections caused by R. felis in the country since human cases are not routinely tested for antibodies against this pathogen. During the past seven years, we have set up a protocol at the National Reference Centre in order to improve the testing of tick-borne diseases in Greece. Based on this protocol, R. conorii, R. typhi R. slovaca, R. felis, and R. mongolotimonae have been added into the routine analysis; during these last years, eight (8) cases of potential exposure to R. felis were identified by serology. On an environmental investigation carried out at the residences of the patients, the pathogen was detected in C. felis only. The demonstration of R. felis potential presence highlights the need for better testing and surveillance of the pathogen.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-29T18:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.020
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Biogenic silver nanoparticles inducing Leishmania amazonensis promastigote
           and amastigote death in vitro
    • Authors: Jacqueline Rodrigues Fanti; Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier; Milena Menegazzo Miranda-Sapla; Allan Henrique Depieri Cataneo; Célia Guadalupe Tardeli de Jesus Andrade; Carolina Panis; Jean Henrique da Silva Rodrigues; Pryscilla Fanini Wowk; Diogo Kuczera; Idessania Nazareth Costa; Celso Vataru Nakamura; Gerson Nakazato; Nelson Durán; Wander Rogério Pavanelli; Ivete Conchon-Costa
      Pages: 46 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Jacqueline Rodrigues Fanti, Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier, Milena Menegazzo Miranda-Sapla, Allan Henrique Depieri Cataneo, Célia Guadalupe Tardeli de Jesus Andrade, Carolina Panis, Jean Henrique da Silva Rodrigues, Pryscilla Fanini Wowk, Diogo Kuczera, Idessania Nazareth Costa, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Gerson Nakazato, Nelson Durán, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Ivete Conchon-Costa
      American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) is a zoonosis caused by Leishmania protozoa. The ACL chemotherapy available is unsatisfactory motivating researches to seek alternative treatments. In this study, we investigated the action of biogenic silver nanoparticle (AgNp-bio) obtained from Fusarium oxysporium, against Leishmania amazonensis promastigote and amastigote forms. The AgNp-bio promastigote treatment results in promastigote death leading to apoptosis-like events due an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), loss of mitochondrial integrity, phosphatidylserine exposure and damage on promastigotes membrane. In L. amazonensis infected macrophages, AgNp-bio treatment was still able to reduce the percentage of infected macrophages and the amount of amastigotes per macrophage, consequently, the amount of promastigotes recovered. This leishmanicidal effect was also accompanied by a decrease in the levels of ROS and nitric oxide. By observing the ultrastructural integrity of the intracellular amastigotes, we found that the AgNp-bio treatment made a significant damage, suggesting that the compound has a direct effect on intracellular amastigotes. These results demonstrated that AgNp-bio had a direct effect against L. amazonensis forms and acted on immunomodulatory ability of infected macrophages, reducing the infection without inducing the synthesis of inflammatory mediators, which continuous stimulation can generate and aggravate leishmaniotic lesions. Overall, our findings suggest that the use of AgNp-bio stands out as a new therapeutic option to be considered for further in vivo investigations representing a possible treatment for ACL.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.027
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • KIR-like activating natural killer cell receptors and their association
           with complicated malaria in north India
    • Authors: Swayam Prakash; Prabhat Ranjan; Ujjala Ghoshal; Suraksha Agrawal
      Pages: 55 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Swayam Prakash, Prabhat Ranjan, Ujjala Ghoshal, Suraksha Agrawal
      Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) genomic regions have been suggested to influence malaria pathogenesis and infection susceptibility. KIRs are known as activating natural killer (NK) cell receptors, which upon binding to their corresponding human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ligands cause lysis of any infected cell. We have examined the potential association of KIR genes with complicated malaria (CM) among north Indians in this study and further evaluated the KIR receptor-HLA ligand association on the severity of the disease considering the uncomplicated malaria (UCM) subjects as control. Molecular profiling of KIR and HLA was carried out using the PCR-SSP method. Susceptible association was found for individuals possessing KIR2DS2 (OR=1.76, p-value=0.0390), KIR2DL1 (OR=2.87, p-value=0.0005) and KIR2DL3 (OR=2.74, p-value=0.0011) genes with CM. This was supported by the strong linkage disequilibrium observed for 2DS2-2DL2 (D́=0.87, r2 =0.54) with CM. Whereas the receptor-ligand association has revealed risk association against KIR2DS2-HLAC1 (OR=2.08, p-value=0.0229), KIR2DL3-HLAC1 (OR=1.79, p-value=0.0301), and KIR2DL1-HLAC2 (OR=2.10, p-value=0.0175) combinations for complicated malaria. The frequency of different KIR genes are more or less similar to that observed in African population showing not much genetic diversity at KIR level in context to malarial infection. In conclusion, our data indicates KIR gene loci differentially influenced the malarial outcome in north Indians and in particular the KIR2DS2 gene appeared to be associated with disease severity.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.026
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Seroprevalence of Schmallenberg virus in dairy cattle in Ethiopia
    • Authors: Berhanu Sibhat; Gelagay Ayelet; Endrias Zewdu Gebremedhin; Eystein Skjerve; Kassahun Asmare
      Pages: 61 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Berhanu Sibhat, Gelagay Ayelet, Endrias Zewdu Gebremedhin, Eystein Skjerve, Kassahun Asmare
      Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a recently identified member of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae. It is an arbovirus transmitted by different members of Culicoides spp of biting midges. The virus is more recognized for its effect on reproductive disorders in ruminants characterised by abortion, stillbirth and birth of congenitally defective newborns with hydranencephaly-arthrogryposis syndrome. The current study was undertaken with the objectives of exploring the presence of SBV exposure and identification of factors affecting its distribution among dairy cattle in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1379 dairy cattle sampled from 149 dairy herds in central, southern and western Ethiopia during September 2011 to May 2012. Serum samples were examined using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Data on hypothesised risk factors were collected from farm records where available and semi-structured questionnaire-based interview. The apparent seroprevalence of exposure to SBV was 56.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 53.9–59.3). True prevalence adjusted for sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA kit used was 58.3% (95% CI 55.7–60.9). Among the sampled herds, 82.6% (95% CI: 75.5–88.3) had at least one seropositive animal. Seropositive cattle were found in all of the 15 conurbations studied. Adult dairy cows [odds ratio (OR)=1.6] were more commonly affected than young heifers. Dairy cattle kept in commercial (OR=1.6) and breeding farms (OR=3.5) and Midland agroecology (OR=2.5) showed statistically significant seroconversion than cattle kept under small-holder dairy farms and Highland agroecology respectively (p<0.05). Reproductive disorders including abortion, retention of the fetal membranes, and metritis were associated with serostatus of SBV. In conclusion, the seroprevalence of SBV is high and widely distributed in the studied parts of Ethiopia. This being the first study of its kind on SBV in Ethiopia, further longitudinal studies on isolation of the virus and its impact on reproductive disorders are recommended.

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.024
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Triatoma infestans relies on salivary lysophosphatidylcholine to enhance
           Trypanosoma cruzi transmission
    • Authors: Michele Souza Lima; Alan Brito Carneiro; Thaís Souto-Padron; José Jurberg; Mário Alberto Cardoso Silva-Neto; Georgia Correa Atella
      Pages: 68 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Michele Souza Lima, Alan Brito Carneiro, Thaís Souto-Padron, José Jurberg, Mário Alberto Cardoso Silva-Neto, Georgia Correa Atella
      Triatoma infestans is a mandatory haematophagous vector of Chagas disease in Brazil. Despite a large number of studies on the anti-haemostatic molecules present in its saliva, the role of its salivary components on parasite transmission is poorly understood. Here, we show that the bioactive lipid molecule, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), is present in the salivary gland of T. infestans. We characterized the lipid profiles of each unit of the T. infestans salivary gland. We noticed that LPC is present in the three units of the salivary gland and that the insect feeding state does not influence its proportion. T. infestans saliva and LPC can enhance T. cruzi transmission to mice by dramatically altering the profile of inflammatory cells at the site of inoculation on mouse skin, facilitating the transmission of T. cruzi to the vertebrate host. Consequently, the mortality curves of either saliva- or LPC-injected mice display significant higher mortality rates than the control. Altogether, these results implicate LPC as one of key salivary molecule involved in Chagas disease transmission.

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.022
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Gold nanoparticles – against parasites and insect vectors
    • Authors: Giovanni Benelli
      Pages: 73 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Giovanni Benelli
      Nanomaterials are currently considered for many biological, biomedical and environmental purposes, due to their outstanding physical and chemical properties. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is of high interest for research in parasitology and entomology, since these nanomaterials showed promising applications, ranging from detection techniques to drug development, against a rather wide range of parasites of public health relevance, as well as on insect vectors. Here, I reviewed current knowledge about the bioactivity of Au NPs on selected insect species of public health relevance, including major mosquito vectors, such as Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The toxicity of Au NPs against helminths was reviewed, covering Schistosoma mansoni trematodes as well as Raillietina cestodes. Furthermore, I summarized the information available on the antiparasitic role of Au NPs in the fight against malaria, leishmaniosis, toxoplasmosis, trypanosomiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and microsporidian parasites affecting human and animals health. Besides, I examined the employ of Au NPs as biomarkers, tools for diagnostics and adjuvants for the induction of transmission blocking immunity in malaria vaccine research. In the final section, major challenges and future outlooks for further research are discussed, with special reference to the pressing need of further knowledge about the effect of Au NPs on other arthropod vectors, such as ticks, tsetse flies, tabanids, sandflies and blackflies, and related ecotoxicology assays.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.021
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Seasonal distribution of Phlebotomine sandfly in a vulnerable area for
           tegumentary leishmaniasis transmission in Córdoba, Argentina
    • Authors: Iliana M. Ontivero; Mauricio D. Beranek; Juan R. Rosa; Francisco F. Ludueña-Almeida; Walter R. Almirón
      Pages: 81 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Iliana M. Ontivero, Mauricio D. Beranek, Juan R. Rosa, Francisco F. Ludueña-Almeida, Walter R. Almirón
      Thirty-seven sandfly species are listed for Argentina distributed in 14 provinces and Leishmaniasis cases extend from the north of the country to Unquillo City (Córdoba Province), but potential vectors are found further to the south. This is the first study on diversity, spatial and temporal distribution of sandflies on the outskirts of the temperate Córdoba City, and the factors that influence their presence. Migonemyia migonei, record here for Córdoba City for the first time, and the Evandromyia cortelezzii-sallesi Complex was found, also Ev. cortelezzii males were captured for the first time, these sandflies being more abundant during the warm months due to meteorological factors and the presence of blood meal sources. At least the eastern outskirts of Córdoba City, the second most important city of the country, are at risk of Leishmaniasis transmission if Leishmania spp. enters into the area due to the presence of competent vectors and adequate vertebrate hosts, in a favorable socio-economic context.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.028
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • A multiplex microfluidic loop-mediated isothermal amplification array for
           detection of malaria-related parasites and vectors
    • Authors: Rui Mao; Ge Ge; Zhuo Wang; Rongzhang Hao; Guohao Zhang; Zhenzhou Yang; Bincheng Lin; Yajun Ma; Hongtao Liu; Yuguang Du
      Pages: 86 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Rui Mao, Ge Ge, Zhuo Wang, Rongzhang Hao, Guohao Zhang, Zhenzhou Yang, Bincheng Lin, Yajun Ma, Hongtao Liu, Yuguang Du
      Malaria infection poses a great threaten to public health even nowadays. The conventional diagnosis tools of malaria parasites and vectors require systematic training for the observers accompanied by the low throughput. In this study, a new detection system, i.e., multiplex microfluidic loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mμLAMP) array, was developed to provide a convenient, rapid and economical detection system for malaria diagnosis. A microfluidic-based detection chip was designed and developed, targeting the conserved gene of four Anopheles and two Plasmodium species responsible for most of the malaria cases occurred in China. The DNA preparation of Anopheles and Plasmodium samples was realized by using a newly-developed DNA extraction method. For this mμLAMP array system, the detection limit was determined to be 1pg of targeting DNA with high sensitivity (>95%) and specificity (100%). Further, the accuracy of such mμLAMP analysis was evaluated by the analysis of 48 Anopheles mosquito samples, of which 30 were termed to be target Anopheles, displaying high consistency with that by morphological analysis. In conclusion, the mμLAMP detection system was proved to be a visible, sensitive, specific and high-throughput diagnostic tool. Considering the portable manipulation of such detection system, our studies shed light on its potential application of malaria surveillance on the spot.

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.025
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Laboratory assessment of divaricatic acid against Biomphalaria glabrata
           and Schistosoma mansoni cercariae
    • Authors: H.A.M.F. Silva; W.N. Siqueira; J.L.F. Sá; L.R.S Silva; M.C.B. Martins; A.L. Aires; F.F. Amâncio; E.C. Pereira; M.C.P.A Albuquerque; A.M.M.A. Melo; N.H. Silva
      Pages: 97 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): H.A.M.F. Silva, W.N. Siqueira, J.L.F. Sá, L.R.S Silva, M.C.B. Martins, A.L. Aires, F.F. Amâncio, E.C. Pereira, M.C.P.A Albuquerque, A.M.M.A. Melo, N.H. Silva
      In this study, the molluscicidal and antiparasitic activities of divaricatic acid was evaluated, targeting the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata and cercariae of the helminth Schistosoma mansoni. In addition, the environmental toxicity of divaricatic acid was assessed by bioassay using the microcrustacean Artemia salina. Divaricatic acid showed high toxicity against both adult snails (5μg/mL) and embryos (20μg/mL after 6h of exposure). Similar activity was observed in Schistosoma mansoni cercariae after only a short exposure time (10μg/mL after 30min of exposure). The divaricatic acid did not show toxicity in the acute test using Artemia salina at concentrations equal to or below 200μg/mL. The divaricatic acid proved to be a promising substance for the elimination of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, an intermediate host of schistosomiasis, as well as the cercariae of the pathogen, while being non-toxic to the Artemia salina at the same concentrations. This is the first experimental observation of the molluscicidal and cercaricide activity of divaricatic acid.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.019
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • A rapid high-resolution melting method for differentiation of Leishmania
           species targeting lack gene
    • Authors: Ziwei Kuang; Chunying Zhang; Huasheng Pang; Ying Ma
      Pages: 103 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Ziwei Kuang, Chunying Zhang, Huasheng Pang, Ying Ma
      Objectives The aim of this research is to verify that if lack gene can be used for differentiation of Leishmania under HRM assay. Methods Two specific primers were designed targeting polymorphic sites on the lack gene sequence. DNA from promastigotes of six species of Leishmania based on reference strains were tested following a HRM protocol. We also tested ten Chinese isolates in blind to validate our method. Results Combined with amplicon of the two primers, the six reference strains can be easily discriminated without the effect of initial concentration of DNA templates. Ten Chinese isolates detected by our HRM method resulted in full accord with the standard identification results in previous study. Conclusion HRM is a rapid and reproducible method to discriminate different Leishmania species and lack gene is a potential novel biological characteristic for easy differentiation of Leishmania isolates in China.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T22:29:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.016
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Reciprocal contribution of clinical studies and the HP10 antigen ELISA for
           the diagnosis of extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis
    • Authors: R. Michael E. Parkhouse; Arturo Carpio; Alfredo Campoverde; Patricia Sastre; Glenda Rojas; María Milagros Cortez
      Pages: 119 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): R. Michael E. Parkhouse, Arturo Carpio, Alfredo Campoverde, Patricia Sastre, Glenda Rojas, María Milagros Cortez
      To evaluate diagnosis of active neurocysticercosis, paired cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from 24 neurocysticercosis (NCC) patients and 17 control neurological patients were assayed in the HP10 Taenia antigen (Ag) ELISA. The CSF samples were also tested with an HP10 Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). The HP10 Ag was detected by ELISA in the CSF of 5/5 patients with Definitive extraparenchymal NCC, and in 4/5 of the corresponding sera. In the Definitive parenchymal group, on the other hand, the HP10 Ag was absent in 2/3 CSF (with a very low value in the one positive sample) and all the corresponding serum samples. Samples of CSF from 4/7 patients in the Probable parenchymal group, were also significantly HP10 Ag positive, suggesting the presence of extraparenchymal cysts not identified by the imaging studies. With the possible exception of one patient, the corresponding serum samples of the Probable parenchymal NCC group, were all HP10 Ag negative. Samples of CSF from 9 NCC patients diagnosed with Mixed parenchymal and extraparenchymal NCC were all significantly HP10 Ag positive, confirming the presence of extraparenchymal cysts, with only 7/9 of the corresponding serum samples being HP10 positive. Thus detection of the HP10 Ag indicates extraparenchymal and not parenchymal cyst localization and is more sensitive with CSF than serum. Three neurological patients clinically diagnosed as subarachnoid cyst, hydrocephalus and tuberculoma, respectively, were clearly positive for HP10 Ag. Of these, two were confirmed as NCC by subsequent imaging; the third died prior to further examination. Thus, a total of 8 patients had their clinical diagnosis questioned. Finally, there was good agreement between the HP10 Ag ELISA and LFA with CSF samples giving an optical density ≥0.4 in the ELISA assay. In conclusion, the HP10 Ag assay should provide a valuable and reciprocal tool in the clinical diagnosis and follow up of extraparenchymal NCC.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-21T10:19:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • High heterogeneity, mixed infections and new genotypes in human congenital
           toxoplasmosis cases in the mega-metropolis of Central Mexico
    • Authors: Claudia Patricia Rico-Torres; Luis Fernando Valenzuela-Moreno; Héctor Luna-Pastén; Ricardo Figueroa-Damián; Valeria Gómez-Toscano; Lorena Hernández-Delgado; Mónica Patricia Escobedo-Torres; Dolores Correa
      Pages: 124 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Claudia Patricia Rico-Torres, Luis Fernando Valenzuela-Moreno, Héctor Luna-Pastén, Ricardo Figueroa-Damián, Valeria Gómez-Toscano, Lorena Hernández-Delgado, Mónica Patricia Escobedo-Torres, Dolores Correa
      Mexico presents high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection, including the congenital form, but there are few data about the genetic diversity of the parasite, so we attempted parasite isolation and genotyping in nine mother/children pairs with congenital toxoplasmosis (CT), living in the Valley of Mexico, who were part of a 30 cases cohort that started 12 years ago. They were recruited through research projects which included pre- and postnatal screening of congenital infections or directly CT, and cases referred to INP for management because they had clinical abnormalities. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP of SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico markers, followed by sequencing. Sixty seven percent of samples were typed for the SAG3 locus, 39% for Apico and 33% for BTUB, while Alt. SAG2, GRA6 and c29-2 types could be labelled in less cases. Type I alleles predominated, followed by II and III. We isolated the first strain obtained from humans in Mexico and found three genotypes not previously found in the world. The presence of ToxoDB#10 clonal type was documented in one pair, as well as mixed infections in five mothers. No relation of genotype or parasite load with clinical signs was found. In conclusion, we encountered great genetic diversity and mixed T. gondii infections among mother/children pairs with congenital toxoplasmosis in the mega-metropolis of the Valley of Mexico.
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      PubDate: 2017-12-02T11:28:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Th-17 cytokines are associated with severity of Trypanosoma cruzi chronic
           infection in pediatric patients from endemic areas of Mexico
    • Authors: Mariana De Alba-Alvarado; Paz María Salazar-Schettino; Luis Jiménez-Álvarez; Margarita Cabrera-Bravo; Cecilia García-Sancho; Edgar Zenteno; Clara Vazquez-Antona; Alfredo Cruz-Lagunas; Joaquín Zúñiga; Martha Irene Bucio-Torres
      Pages: 134 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Mariana De Alba-Alvarado, Paz María Salazar-Schettino, Luis Jiménez-Álvarez, Margarita Cabrera-Bravo, Cecilia García-Sancho, Edgar Zenteno, Clara Vazquez-Antona, Alfredo Cruz-Lagunas, Joaquín Zúñiga, Martha Irene Bucio-Torres
      In Chagas disease the clinical, acute and chronic manifestations are the result of the interaction between the parasite and the host factors. The balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune responses is essential for the increase or resolution of the manifestations in individuals infected with T. cruzi. To identify if children with chronic Chagas disease and heart injury is related with non-regulated Th1, Th2 and Th17 responses. We included 31 children with T. cruzi confirmed chronic infection from endemic areas of Mexico. Subsequently, they were separated according to their ECHO and ECG results into three groups according to the severity of cardiac involvement. Circulating Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine profiles were performed by Luminex assays and the results were analyzed by bivariate and multivariable analysis. Patients were classified in asymptomatic chronic (group 1, N=12); individuals with IRBBB in ECG and incipient lesions in ECHO (Group 2, N=8) and Patients with severe chronic symptomatic disease (Group 3, N=11). The analysis of immune mediators revealed that patients with severe cardiac manifestations had significant higher levels (p <0.05) of Th17 related cytokines including IL-17 and IL-6 as well as IFN-γ and IL-2. Also patients with severe cardiomyopathy exhibit increased levels of IL-13 (p <0.05) after multivariate analysis. High levels of Th17 related cytokines including IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-2 and pro-fibrotic factors such as IL-13 could be associated to the severity of cardiac involvement in children with chronic T. cruzi infection. These cytokines could be useful as indicators for the early identification of cardiac damage associated to the T. cruzi infection.

      PubDate: 2017-12-02T11:28:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Development of an empirical model to predict malaria outbreaks based on
           monthly case reports and climate variables in Hefei, China, 1990–2011
    • Authors: J.X. Zhai; Q. Lu; W.B. Hu; S.L. Tong; B. Wang; F.T. Yang; Z.W. Xu; S.P. Xun; X.H. Shen
      Pages: 148 - 154
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): J.X. Zhai, Q. Lu, W.B. Hu, S.L. Tong, B. Wang, F.T. Yang, Z.W. Xu, S.P. Xun, X.H. Shen
      Malaria remains a significant public health concern in developing countries. Drivers of malaria transmission vary across different geographical regions. Climatic variables are major risk factor in seasonal and secular patterns of P. vivax malaria transmission along Anhui province. The study aims to forecast malaria outbreaks using empirical model developed in Hefei, China. Data on the monthly numbers of notified malaria cases and climatic factors were obtained for the period of January 1st 1990 to December 31st 2011 from the Hefei CDC and Anhui Institute of Meteorological Sciences, respectively. Two logistic regression models with time series seasonal decomposition were used to explore the impact of climatic and seasonal factors on malaria outbreaks. Sensitivity and specificity statistics were used for evaluating the predictive power. The results showed that relative humidity (OR=1.171, 95% CI=1.090–1.257), sunshine (OR=1.076, 95% CI=1.043–1.110) and barometric pressure (OR=1.051, 95% CI=1.003–1.100) were significantly associated with malaria outbreaks after adjustment for seasonality in Hefei area. The validation analyses indicated the overall agreement of 70.42% (sensitivity: 70.52%; specificity: 70.30%). The research suggested that the empirical model developed based on disease surveillance and climatic conditions may have applications in malaria control and prevention activities.

      PubDate: 2017-12-02T11:28:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Mapping the spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
    • Authors: Fangyu Ding; Jingying Fu; Dong Jiang; Mengmeng Hao; Gang Lin
      Pages: 155 - 162
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Fangyu Ding, Jingying Fu, Dong Jiang, Mengmeng Hao, Gang Lin
      Mosquito-borne infectious diseases, such as Rift Valley fever, Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika, have caused mass human death with the transnational expansion fueled by economic globalization. Simulating the distribution of the disease vectors is of great importance in formulating public health planning and disease control strategies. In the present study, we simulated the global distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus at a 5×5km spatial resolution with high-dimensional multidisciplinary datasets and machine learning methods Three relatively popular and robust machine learning models, including support vector machine (SVM), gradient boosting machine (GBM) and random forest (RF), were used. During the fine-tuning process based on training datasets of A. aegypti and A. albopictus, RF models achieved the highest performance with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.973 and 0.974, respectively, followed by GBM (AUC of 0.971 and 0.972, respectively) and SVM (AUC of 0.963 and 0.964, respectively) models. The simulation difference between RF and GBM models was not statistically significant (p>0.05) based on the validation datasets, whereas statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were observed for RF and GBM simulations compared with SVM simulations. From the simulated maps derived from RF models, we observed that the distribution of A. albopictus was wider than that of A. aegypti along a latitudinal gradient. The discriminatory power of each factor in simulating the global distribution of the two species was also analyzed. Our results provided fundamental information for further study on disease transmission simulation and risk assessment.

      PubDate: 2017-12-02T11:28:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.020
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Molluscicidal activity of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) dubard on
           Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)
    • Authors: Robson Xavier Faria; Leandro Machado Rocha; Eloísa Portugal Barros Silva Soares Souza; Fernanda Borges Almeida; Caio Pinho Fernandes; José Augusto Albuquerque Santos
      Pages: 163 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Robson Xavier Faria, Leandro Machado Rocha, Eloísa Portugal Barros Silva Soares Souza, Fernanda Borges Almeida, Caio Pinho Fernandes, José Augusto Albuquerque Santos
      Schistosomiasis is promoted for species from Schistosoma genus affecting over 200 million people worldwide. Molluscicides are an efficient method to control this disease, being able to reduce intermediate host snail Biomphalaria glabrata number. In function of resistance cases using niclosamide, natural products are promisors to discover new drugs. Manilkara subsericea is endemic to Brazilian sandbanks of Rio de Janeiro State and wide ranges of biological activities. However, there is no studies evaluating its effects as molluscicidal agent. We tested crude extract from leaves of M. subsericea molluscicidal action, as well it ethyl-acetate fraction and isolated substances against B. glabrata. M. subsericea leaves crude extract and ethyl acetate fraction induced 80±4.13% and 86.66±4.59% mortality of adult snails at concentrations of 250ppm after 96h, and their LD50 values were 118.7±1.62 and 23.41±1.15ppm respectively. Isolated substances from M. subsericea were also considered active. Quercetin, myricetin and ursolic acid, at concentration of 100ppm (96h), were able to induce mortality levels of 100%, 80% and 53.33%, respectively. Our results suggest that M. subsericea can be considered promising as a molluscicide agent.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Sero-prevalence of Bovine Brucellosis and associated risk factors in mbeya
           region, Southern highlands of Tanzania
    • Authors: F.D. Sagamiko; J.B. Muma; E.D. Karimuribo; A.M. Mwanza; C. Sindato; B.M. Hang’ombe
      Pages: 169 - 175
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): F.D. Sagamiko, J.B. Muma, E.D. Karimuribo, A.M. Mwanza, C. Sindato, B.M. Hang’ombe
      A cross-sectional study was conducted to establish the seroprevalence of brucellosis and associated risk factors in indigenous and exotic breeds of cattle from 178 farms in Mbeya region. A total of 1211 cattle (929exotic cattle from 108 commercial farms and 282 indigenous cattle from 70 traditional farms) were tested for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (c-ELISA) as screening and confirmatory tests, respectively. The overall animal-level seroprevalence was 9.3%; 11.3% (95% CI: 9.4–13.5) in indigenous cattle and 2.8% (95% CI:1.4–5.6) in exotic cattle. Further, the overall herd level seroprevalence was 32.0%; 50.5% (95% CI: 40.9–59.9) in indigenous cattle and 4.2% (95% CI: 1.3–12.4) in exotic cattle. Infections were higher in cattle aged 6–10 years old, (39.8%; 95% CI: 31.2–49.1) followed by those aged 1–5 years (5.8%; 95% CI: 4.8–6.6) and 11–15years old (2.7%; 95% CI: 0.8–8). When compared to cattle sampled from herds size of 1–50, those sampled from the herd sizes of 51–100 and 101–150 had higher odds of brucellosis seropositivity [(OR=3.6, CI: 1.76–7.16, p<0.001) and (OR=3.0, CI: 1.09–8.04, p=0.033). The odds of seropositivity in animals which calved on pasture was 3.0 (CI: 1.1–7.8, p=0.028) compared to those that calved at home. Brucella seroprevalence was also observed to vary according to districts, with Mbarari district recording the highest (45.4%). It is evident from the study that Brucellosis is present in Mbarari, Mbeya and Momba districts of Mbeya Region. The findings of this study provide some baseline data that could contribute to the design and implementation of brucellosis control measures in the study areas.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.022
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Behavioral asymmetries in ticks – Lateralized questing of Ixodes ricinus
           to a mechatronic apparatus delivering host-borne cues
    • Authors: Giovanni Benelli; Donato Romano; Guido Rocchigiani; Alice Caselli; Francesca Mancianti; Angelo Canale; Cesare Stefanini
      Pages: 176 - 181
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Giovanni Benelli, Donato Romano, Guido Rocchigiani, Alice Caselli, Francesca Mancianti, Angelo Canale, Cesare Stefanini
      Ticks are considered among the most dangerous arthropod vectors of disease agents to both humans and animals worldwide. Lateralization contributes to biological fitness in many animals, conferring important functional advantages, therefore studying its role in tick perception would critically improve our knowledge about their host-seeking behavior. In this research, we evaluated if Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Ixodiidae) ticks have a preference in using the right or the left foreleg to climb on a host. We developed a mechatronic device moving a tuft of fox skin with fur as host-mimicking combination of cues. This engineered approach allows to display a realistic combination of both visual and olfactory host-borne stimuli, which is prolonged over the time and standardized for each replicate. In the first experiment, the mechatronic apparatus delivered host-borne cues frontally, to evaluate the leg preference during questing as response to a symmetrical stimulus. In the second experiment, host-borne cues were provided laterally, in an equal proportion to the left and to the right of the tick, to investigate if the host direction affected the questing behavior. In both experiments, the large majority of the tested ticks showed individual-level left-biased questing acts, if compared to the ticks showing right-biased ones. Furthermore, population-level left-biased questing responses were observed post-exposure to host-mimicking cues provided frontally or laterally to the tick. Overall, this is the first report on behavioral asymmetries in ticks of medical and veterinary importance. Moreover, the mechatronic apparatus developed in this research can be exploited to evaluate the impact of repellents on tick questing in highly reproducible standardized conditions.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.024
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Improvements in the CRISPR/Cas9 system for high efficiency gene disruption
           in Trypanosoma cruzi
    • Authors: Bruno A.A. Romagnoli; Gisele F.A. Picchi; Priscila M. Hiraiwa; Beatriz S. Borges; Lysangela R. Alves; Samuel Goldenberg
      Pages: 190 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Bruno A.A. Romagnoli, Gisele F.A. Picchi, Priscila M. Hiraiwa, Beatriz S. Borges, Lysangela R. Alves, Samuel Goldenberg
      Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, affects millions of individuals around the world. Although it has been known for more than a century, the study of T. cruzi has been a challenge, particularly due to the scarcity of tools for genome inquiries. Recently, strategies have been described allowing gene disruption in T. cruzi by the CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease system. Although these strategies demonstrated success in deleting some genes, several aspects could be improved to increase the efficiency of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in T. cruzi. Here, we report a strategy, based on adaptations and improvements of the two previously described systems, that results in efficient gene disruption that can be applied to any target, including the study of essential genes.

      PubDate: 2017-12-02T11:28:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.013
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Leptospira reservoirs among wildlife in Brazil: Beyond rodents
    • Authors: Felipe Fornazari; Helio Langoni; Pâmela Merlo Marson; Diego Borin Nóbrega; Carlos Roberto Teixeira
      Pages: 205 - 212
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Felipe Fornazari, Helio Langoni, Pâmela Merlo Marson, Diego Borin Nóbrega, Carlos Roberto Teixeira
      Leptospirosis is a disease of great importance in tropical regions. Infection occurs mainly through contact with water contaminated with the urine of infected animals, especially that of rodents. Despite the diversity and abundance of wild fauna in Brazil, little is known about the role of other wild species in the epidemiology of leptospirosis. This study aimed to investigate new reservoirs of Leptospira among wildlife in Brazil, using serological and molecular diagnoses in a large-sized sample. Biological samples were collected from 309 free-ranging mammals, belonging to 16 species. The majority of the animals included were opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and coatis (Nasua nasua). Blood and urine samples were subjected to the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and real-time PCR, respectively. Genetic characterization of genomospecies was performed using PCR amplicons. Statistical analysis was applied to test associations between positive diagnoses and age, sex, season and type of environment. The prevalence of infection found via MAT and PCR was 11% and 5.5%, respectively. If these tests are taken to be complementary, the overall prevalence was 16%. The most common serogroups were Djasiman and Australis, while L. santarosai was the prevalent genomospecies. Significant differences in prevalence between animal species were observed. Greater risk of infection was detected among adult opossums than among young ones. The influence of each serogroup and genomospecies was tested for the same variables, and this revealed higher risk of infection by L. santarosai among male opossums than among females. The present study highlights the exposure and carrier status of several wild species in Brazil and it indicates that coatis and other carnivores are priorities for further investigations.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.019
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Potential risk of a liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini infection brought
           by immigrants from prevalent areas: A case study in the lower Northern
    • Authors: Wilawan Pumidonming; Hirotaka Katahira; Makoto Igarashi; Doaa Salman; Abdelbaset E. Abdelbaset; Khamphon Sangkaeo
      Pages: 213 - 218
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Wilawan Pumidonming, Hirotaka Katahira, Makoto Igarashi, Doaa Salman, Abdelbaset E. Abdelbaset, Khamphon Sangkaeo
      Considering the long lifespan of the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, human mobility from prevalent regions to other neighboring areas has the possibility to disperse carriers and complicate the opisthorchiasis problem. To evaluate this, mass screening of the fluke infection was conducted in nine communities of lower Northern Thailand, combined with a questionnaire survey to distinguish the participant’s origin. The liver fluke infection was found in 70 individuals (7.2%) of the examined 971 stool samples from seven communities, with light intensity providing small numbers of eggs in the examined stool. Prevalence in the positive communities varied from 2.1% to 28.7%. As a result of generalized linear mixed models fitting, regional origin and raw-fish eating habits were stably selected as variables affecting the parasite infection while occupation and educational background were secondary ones. Majority of the infected cases (64.3%) were found from the immigrants of northeastern Thailand (the fluke prevalent region), providing 2.28–2.42 times higher infectious risk on average against the local residents. Daily consumption of raw fish averaged a 3.12–3.60 times higher risk compared to those with no raw-fish eating habit. Our findings suggest that people’s origin and moving history deserve further attentions in health promotion programs including education for safe eating.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.023
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Occurrence of Acanthamoeba genotypes in Central West Malaysian
    • Authors: Mohamad Hafiz Abdul Basher; Init Ithoi; Rohela Mahmud; Awatif Mohamed Abdulsalam; Agus Iwan Foead; Salwa Dawaki; Wahib Mohammed Mohsen Atroosh; Veeranoot Nissapatorn; Wan Omar Abdullah
      Pages: 219 - 228
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Mohamad Hafiz Abdul Basher, Init Ithoi, Rohela Mahmud, Awatif Mohamed Abdulsalam, Agus Iwan Foead, Salwa Dawaki, Wahib Mohammed Mohsen Atroosh, Veeranoot Nissapatorn, Wan Omar Abdullah
      Acanthamoeba species are ubiquitous free-living protozoa that can be found worldwide. Occasionally, it can become parasitic and the causative agent of acanthamoebic keratitis (AK) and Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE) in man. A total of 160 environmental samples and 225 naturally-infected animal corneal swabs were collected for Acanthamoeba cultivation. Acanthamoeba was found to be high in samples collected from environments (85%, 136/160) compared to infected animal corneas (24.89%, 56/225) by microscopic examination. Analysis of nucleotide sequence of 18S rRNA gene of all the 192 cultivable Acanthamoeba isolates revealed 4 genotypes (T3, T4. T5 and T15) with T4 as the most prevalent (69.27%, 133/192) followed by T5 (20.31%), T15 (9.90%) and T3 (0.52%). Genotype T4 was from the strain of A. castellanii U07401 (44.27%), A. castellanii U07409 (20.83%) and A. polyphagaAY026243 (4.17%), but interestingly, only A. castellanii U07401 was detected in naturally infected corneal samples. In environmental samples, T4 was commonly detected in all samples including dry soil, dust, wet debris, wet soil and water. Among the T4, A. castellanii (U07409) strains were detected high occurrence in dry (45%) followed by aquatic (32.50%) and moist (22.50%) samples but however A. castellanii (U07401) strains were dominant in dry samples of soil and dust (93.10%). Subsequently, genotype T5 of A. lenticulata (U94741) strains were dominant in samples collected from aquatic environments (58.97%). In summary, A. castellanii (U07401) strains were found dominant in both environmental and corneal swab samples. Therefore, these strains are possibly the most virulent and dry soil or dusts are the most possible source of Acanthamoeba infection in cats and dogs corneas.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.015
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Heterogeneous distribution of Culex pipiens, Culex quinquefasciatus and
           their hybrids along the urbanisation gradient
    • Authors: M.V. Cardo; A. Rubio; M.T. Junges; D. Vezzani; A.E. Carbajo
      Pages: 229 - 235
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): M.V. Cardo, A. Rubio, M.T. Junges, D. Vezzani, A.E. Carbajo
      The mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex, hereafter referred to as the Pipiens Assemblage, are vectors of arbovirus of worldwide concern including West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis. Given their distinct eco-physiology and vectorial capacity, accurate specimen identification and insight in the environmental drivers of their distribution are essential for the understanding of disease transmission patterns. Using a PCR-based identification protocol, we characterized the spatial distribution of Cx. pipiens, Cx. quinquefasciatus and their hybrids developing in used tyres located within the overlapping region in South America as a function of different estimators of the urbanisation gradient. Out of 84 samples collected from tyre piles of 20 sites, we identified 369 larvae which corresponded predominantly to Cx. quinquefasciatus (76.4% of immatures) all along the gradient but more frequent at the urban end. Cx. pipiens (21.4%) was more conspicuous at the low urbanised end but was also present in highly urbanised sites, whereas hybrids were collected in very low numbers (2.2%). The urbanisation estimator best associated with the heterogeneous occurrence of the Pipiens Assemblage members was the proportion of impervious surface 1km around each tyre pile, which explained 41.7% of the variability in the data, followed closely by the distance to the Capital City (38.3%). Cumulative annual precipitation, population number in a 1km radius around each pile and distance to the de la Plata River were significantly associated with the distribution of the Pipiens Assemblage at lower explanation percentages (20–23%). A thorough understanding of the ecological basis and environmental associations of the distribution of Pipiens Assemblage members will enable forecasting population trends in changing environments to develop effective control measures for mosquitoes and the diseases they transmit.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.017
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Serological evidence of Bovine herpesvirus-1, Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus
           and Schmallenberg virus infections in relation to reproductive disorders
           in dairy cattle in Ethiopia
    • Authors: Kassahun Asmare; Berhanu Sibhat; Gelagay Ayelet; Endrias Zewdu Gebremedhin; Kassaye Aragaw Lidete; Eystien Skjerve
      Pages: 236 - 241
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Kassahun Asmare, Berhanu Sibhat, Gelagay Ayelet, Endrias Zewdu Gebremedhin, Kassaye Aragaw Lidete, Eystien Skjerve
      Reproductive disorders in dairy cattle have been noted to be common in urban and peri-urban dairy production system in Ethiopia. The available reports on the causes of these disorders, however, are not conclusive. A case-control study was designed to investigate the possible association of major reproductive disorders in dairy cattle with exposure status to bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Cows with history of abortion/stillbirth were considered as cases (n=204) while, those cows with no such history were taken as control (n=359). The serological screening tests used for all the three viruses were blocking enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (B-ELISAs). Of the total 563 samples tested 58.4%, 43.8% and 32.9% were positive for SBV, BHV-1 and BVDV, respectively. Significant difference between cases and controls were noted for SBV (p =0.026) and BHV-1 exposures (p<0.001). The difference noted for BVDV serostatus was not significant (p>0.05). The highest proportion (28.9%) of concurrent exposures was noted for BHV-1 and SBV, followed by SBV and BVDV (21.5%) and BHV-1 and BVDV (20.2%). Evidence of exposures to all the three viruses were detected in 14.4% of the animals. However, significant difference between cases (39.7%) and controls (22.9%) among cattle with multiple sero-positivity was noted only for BHV-1 and SBV (p< 0.001). Proportion of uterine infection (p =0.002) and fetal membrane retention (p =0.005) increased in BHV-1 seropositive animals, while repeat breeding was common (p =0.034) among BVDV exposed ones. Seropositive animals to any of the three viruses were detected in all sampled areas and the proportion of cattle with BHV-1 and SBV exposure history had a higher risk to at least one type of the reproductive disorders mentioned compared to the corresponding sero-negative groups.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Major epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in Malaysia
    • Authors: Bashiru Garba; Abdul Rani Bahaman; Siti Khairani Bejo; Zunita Zakaria; Abdul Rahim Mutalib; Faruku Bande
      Pages: 242 - 247
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Bashiru Garba, Abdul Rani Bahaman, Siti Khairani Bejo, Zunita Zakaria, Abdul Rahim Mutalib, Faruku Bande
      Introduction Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a diverse pathogenic leptospira species and serovars. The disease is transmitted directly following contact with infected urine and other body fluids or indirectly after contact with water or soil contaminated with infected urine. Objectives While a wide range of domestic and wild animals are known to be reservoirs of the disease, occupation, international travel and recreation are beginning to assume a center stage in the transmission of the disease. The objective of this study is to review available literatures to determine the extent to which these aforementioned risk factors aid the transmission, increase incidence and outbreak of leptospirosis in Malaysia. Study design The review was conducted based on prevalence, incidence, and outbreak cases of leptospirosis among human and susceptible animals predisposed to several of the risk factors identified in Malaysia. Methods Literature searchers and reviews were conducted based on articles published in citation index journals, Malaysian ministry of health reports, periodicals as well as reliable newspapers articles and online media platforms. In each case, the newspapers and online media reports were supported by press briefings by officials of the ministry of health and other agencies responsible. Results The disease is endemic in Malaysia, and this was attributed to the large number of reservoir animals, suitable humid and moist environment for proliferation as well as abundant forest resources. Over 30 different serovars have been detected in Malaysia in different domestic and wild animal species. This, in addition to the frequency of flooding which has increased in recent years, and has helped increase the risk of human exposure. Occupation, recreation, flooding and rodent population were all identified as an important source and cause of the disease within the study population. Conclusion There is an urgent need for the government and other stakeholders to intensify efforts to control the spread of the disease, especially as it greatly affect human health and the tourism industry which is an important component of the Malaysian economy. The risk of infection can be minimized by creating awareness on the source and mode of transmission of the disease, including the use of protective clothing and avoiding swimming in contaminated waters. Moreover, improved diagnostics can also help reduce the suffering and mortalities that follow infection after exposure to infection source.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Isolation and molecular characterization of Leishmania infantum in urine
           from patients with visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil
    • Authors: Manoel Sebastião da Costa Lima; Andressa Cristina Lopes Hartkopf; Rosianne A. de Souza Tsujisaki; Elisa Teruya Oshiro; Julie Teresa Shapiro; Maria de Fatima Cepa Matos; Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros Dorval
      Pages: 248 - 251
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Manoel Sebastião da Costa Lima, Andressa Cristina Lopes Hartkopf, Rosianne A. de Souza Tsujisaki, Elisa Teruya Oshiro, Julie Teresa Shapiro, Maria de Fatima Cepa Matos, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros Dorval
      Leishmania infantum is a protozoan that causes visceral leishmaniasis, a potentially deadly neglected tropical disease. The gold standard for diagnosis has traditionally been detection of amastigotes in bone marrow or spleen aspirates, but this is an invasive procedure that carries the risk of serious complications. Newer PCR techniques are opening new avenues and tissues for testing. Therefore, we tested if amastigotes and DNA from L. infantum could be detected in patient urine. We detected L. infantum DNA in six out of 30 urine samples from patients with visceral leishmaniasis and the promastigotes were isolated in culture from the urine of one patient. These results suggest the feasibility of using urine samples to diagnose visceral leishmaniasis, especially in acute cases or renal infection, providing a valuable tool for doctors and clinicians to use for screening and diagnosis of leishmaniasis in patients.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.011
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Evaluation of rapid PfHRP-2/pLDH-based tests in diagnosing
           microscopy-confirmed falciparum malaria in Hodeidah governorate, Yemen
    • Authors: Ahmed A. Azazy; Ali Jamaly Alhawery; Rashad Abdul-Ghani; R.A. Alharbi; Shaia S.R. Almalki
      Pages: 252 - 257
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Ahmed A. Azazy, Ali Jamaly Alhawery, Rashad Abdul-Ghani, R.A. Alharbi, Shaia S.R. Almalki
      Along with the determination of malaria infection rate among suspected patients attending hospitals in Hodeidah governorate, the present study evaluated the accuracy of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2)/parasite-specific lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH)-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for the diagnosis of microscopy-confirmed falciparum malaria. An overall malaria infection rate of 19.3% (57/295) among suspected patients attending hospitals was microscopically confirmed. The sensitivity of thin blood films for the detection of malaria parasites was 79.0% compared to thick films and was greatly affected by the parasite density, being 65.0% or less at parasite densities of ≤1000 parasites/μl of blood. Compared to light microscopy, the present study revealed sensitivity levels of 100.0% (95% CI: 92.0–100.0) vs. 94.7% (95% CI: 84.2–98.6), specificity levels of 97.3% (95% CI: 89.8–99.5) vs. 100.0% (95% CI: 93.9–100.0), positive predictive values of 89.9% (95% CI: 88.3–99.0) vs. 100.0 (95% CI: 91.6–100.0) and negative predictive values of 100.0% (95% CI: 93.9–100.0) vs. 98.7% (95% CI: 89.3–98.7) for the PfHRP-2 and pLDH components of SD BIOLINE® RDT, respectively, for falciparum malaria diagnosis. Therefore, the overall accuracy levels of the PfHRP-2 and pLDH components of the investigated RDT for the diagnosis of microscopy-confirmed falciparum malaria are 98.5% (95% CI: 94.6–99.6) and 97.7% (95% CI: 93.5–99.2), respectively.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Adiponectin levels and insulin resistance among patients with chronic
           hepatitis C
    • Authors: Raoni Freitas Carvalho; Ajax Mercês Atta; Isabela Silva de Oliveira; Taciana Pereira Sant’Ana Santos; João Pedro A. Santos; Maria Isabel Schinoni; Maria Luiza Brito de Sousa-Atta
      Pages: 258 - 263
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Raoni Freitas Carvalho, Ajax Mercês Atta, Isabela Silva de Oliveira, Taciana Pereira Sant’Ana Santos, João Pedro A. Santos, Maria Isabel Schinoni, Maria Luiza Brito de Sousa-Atta
      Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with insulin resistance (IR), rapid disease progression, and decreased virological response to antiviral treatment. In addition, obesity is a risk factor for chronic hepatitis C evolution and is associated with IR. As adiponectin is an adipokine that is associated with obesity and IR, this study aimed to investigate serum levels of adiponectin among patients with HCV infection and IR. Thirty-three patients with untreated HCV infection underwent testing of serum adiponectin levels (capture ELISA) and were compared to 30 healthy subjects with similar body mass indexes (BMI). Data were also obtained for several homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) indexes: HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, and HOMA-adiponectin. Patients with HCV infection had higher adiponectin levels, which predominantly were observed among women. Hyperadiponectinemia was not associated with high BMI. Patients with HCV infection had higher HOMA-IR and HOMA-β values, although no difference was observed for HOMA-adiponectin. Patients with HCV infection and overweight/obese status had higher HOMA-IR values, although no association was observed for adiponectin levels. Hyperadiponectinemia and IR were not influenced by HCV load or liver fibrosis. The predictors of IR were BMI, glycemia, and serum levels of insulin and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but not adiponectin levels. Thus, patients with chronic hepatitis C have significant metabolic alterations (hyperadiponectinemia and high HOMA-IR values) that are independent of HCV viremia and liver fibrosis. Among these patients, HOMA-IR but not HOMA-adiponectin was appropriate for diagnosing IR.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador: the
           vector Lutzomyia sand flies and reservoir mammals
    • Authors: Yoshihisa Hashiguchi; Eduardo A. Gomez L.; Abraham G. Cáceres; Lenin N. Velez; Nancy V. Villegas; Kazue Hashiguchi; Tatsuyuki Mimori; Hiroshi Uezato; Hirotomo Kato
      Pages: 264 - 275
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Yoshihisa Hashiguchi, Eduardo A. Gomez L., Abraham G. Cáceres, Lenin N. Velez, Nancy V. Villegas, Kazue Hashiguchi, Tatsuyuki Mimori, Hiroshi Uezato, Hirotomo Kato
      The vector Lutzomyia sand flies and reservoir host mammals of the Leishmania parasites, causing the Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador were thoroughly reviewed, performing a survey of literatures including our unpublished data. The Peruvian L. (V.) peruviana, a principal Leishmania species causing Andean-CL in Peru, possessed three Lutzomyia species, Lu. peruensis, Lu. verrucarum and Lu. ayacuchensis as vectors, while the Ecuadorian L. (L.) mexicana parasite possessed only one species Lu. ayacuchensis as the vector. Among these, the Ecuadorian showed a markedly higher rate of natural Leishmania infections. However, the monthly and diurnal biting activities were mostly similar among these vector species was in both countries, and the higher rates of infection (transmission) reported, corresponded to sand fly’s higher monthly-activity season (rainy season). The Lu. tejadai sand fly participated as a vector of a hybrid parasite of L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana in the Peruvian Andes. Dogs were considered to be principal reservoir hosts of the L. (V.) peruviana and L. (L.) mexicana parasites in both countries, followed by other sylvatic mammals such as Phyllotis andium, Didelphis albiventris and Akodon sp. in Peru, and Rattus rattus in Ecuador, but information on the reservoir hosts/mammals was extremely poor in both countries. Thus, the Peruvian disease form demonstrated more complicated transmission dynamics than the Ecuadorian. A brief review was also given to the control of vector and reservoirs in the Andes areas. Such information is crucial for future development of the control strategies of the disease.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • CCR5 chemokine receptor gene polymorphisms in ocular toxoplasmosis
    • Authors: Geraldo M. de Faria Junior; Christiane M. Ayo; Amanda P. de Oliveira; Alessandro G. Lopes; Fábio B. Frederico; Aparecida P. Silveira-Carvalho; Mariana Previato; Amanda P. Barbosa; Fernando H.A. Murata; Gildásio Castello de Almeida Junior; Rubens Camargo Siqueira; Luiz C. de Mattos; Cinara C. Brandão de Mattos
      Pages: 276 - 280
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Geraldo M. de Faria Junior, Christiane M. Ayo, Amanda P. de Oliveira, Alessandro G. Lopes, Fábio B. Frederico, Aparecida P. Silveira-Carvalho, Mariana Previato, Amanda P. Barbosa, Fernando H.A. Murata, Gildásio Castello de Almeida Junior, Rubens Camargo Siqueira, Luiz C. de Mattos, Cinara C. Brandão de Mattos
      CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is a chemokine receptor that influences the immune response to infectious and parasitic diseases. This study aimed to determine whether the CCR5Δ32 and CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphisms are associated with the development of ocular toxoplasmosis in humans. Patients with positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii were analyzed and grouped as ‘with ocular toxoplasmosis’ (G1: n=160) or ‘without ocular toxoplasmosis’ (G2: n=160). A control group (G3) consisted of 160 individuals with negative serology. The characterization of the CCR5Δ32 and CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphisms was by PCR and by PCR-RFLP, respectively. The difference between the groups with respect to the mean age (G1: mean age: 47.3, SD±19.3, median: 46 [range: 18–95]; G2: mean age: 61.3, SD±13.7, median: 61 [range: 21–87]; G3: mean age: 38.8, SD±17.9, median: 34 [range: 18–80]) was statistically significant (G1 vs.G2: p-value <0.0001; t=7.21; DF=318; G1 vs.G3: p-value <0.0001; t=4.32; DF=318; G2 vs. G3: p-value <0.0001; t=9.62; DF=318). The Nagelkerke r2 value was 0.040. There were statistically significant differences for the CCR5/CCR5 (p-value=0.008; OR=0.261), AA (p-value=0.007; OR=2.974) and AG genotypes (p-value=0.018; OR=2.447) between G1 and G2. Individuals with the CCR5/CCR5 genotype and simultaneously the CCR5-59029 AA or AG genotypes have a greater risk of developing ocular toxoplasmosis (4% greater), which may be associated with a strong and persistent inflammatory response in ocular tissue.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.012
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • New paleoparasitological investigations from the pre-inca to hispanic
           contact period in northern Chile
    • Authors: Mônica Vieira de Souza; Lucélia Guedes Ribeiro da Silva; Verónica Silva-Pinto; Pablo Mendez-Quiros; Sergio Augusto de Miranda Chaves; Alena Mayo Iñiguez
      Pages: 290 - 296
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Mônica Vieira de Souza, Lucélia Guedes Ribeiro da Silva, Verónica Silva-Pinto, Pablo Mendez-Quiros, Sergio Augusto de Miranda Chaves, Alena Mayo Iñiguez
      Paleoparasitological studies have demonstrated that changes in environment or culture are reflected in the patterns of parasitic infection diseases in populations worldwide. The advent of agriculture and animal domestication, with its accompanying reduction in human mobility and expanding population involves changes in or emergence of, parasites, the so-called first epidemiological transition. Cultural processes related to territory occupation contribute to both loss and acquisition of parasites. The archaeological site Lluta 57 in the Lluta Valley, Chile, provides a chronology of the transition from the pre-Inca or Late Intermediate Period (LIP), through the Late or Inca Period (LP), to the Hispanic Contact Period (HCP), providing the possibility of evaluating this epidemiological transition. The aim of this study was to conduct a paleoparasitological investigation of to gain insight into the dynamics of parasitism in Lluta people throughout the Inca expansion. Fourteen human coprolites from the three periods were rehydrated, submitted to spontaneous sedimentation, and examined by light microscopy for the presence of intestinal parasite eggs, pollen grains, and micro-remains. Eggs of four parasites: Enterobius vermicularis, Trichostrongylus sp., Trichuris sp., and Eimeria macusaniensis were recovered. Frequency, diversity, and number of parasite eggs per sample increased over the studied time period. Trichostrongylus sp. and E. macusaniensis were recorded in the region for the first time. Enterobius vermicularis eggs, absent in the LIP, were present as a hyper-infection in LP. The presence of E. macusaniensis is likely related to exploitation of llamas, which were used for food and transport and as sacrificial offerings. The paleobotanical analysis revealed ten families of pollen grains, as well as phytoliths and floral remains. In contrast to parasitological results, a diachronic pattern was not detected. Evolution of the settlements, with the advent of larger, more densely populated, villages, could have influenced the emergence and intensification of transmission of parasites in the region. The study showed that the Inca expansion influenced host-parasite-environment relationships in the Lluta Valley.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.021
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Captive-bred neotropical birds diagnosed with Cryptosporidium Avian
           genotype III
    • Authors: Ricardo Silva Novaes; Marcus Sandes Pires; Adriana Pittella Sudré; Teresa Cristina Bergamo do Bomfim
      Pages: 297 - 302
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Ricardo Silva Novaes, Marcus Sandes Pires, Adriana Pittella Sudré, Teresa Cristina Bergamo do Bomfim
      Currently, there are only three valid species of Cryptosporidium infecting avian hosts, namely, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium galli and Cryptosporidium avium in addition to 12 genotypes of unknown species status. The objectives of this study were to microscopically diagnose the presence of Cryptosporidium in birds from a commercial aviary located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; genotypically characterize species and/or genotypes of genus Cryptosporidum; and conduct sequencing and phylogenetic analyses to compare the obtained DNA sequences with those deposited in GenBank. A total of 85 fecal samples were collected from wild captive-bred birds: 48 of family Psittacidae and 37 of family Ramphastidae. Initially, a search for the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts was conducted using the centrifugal-flotation in saturated sugar solution technique, after that, the collected samples were analyzed microscopically. Cryptosporidium infections were only detected in 24.32% of samples belonging to the family Ramphastidae. DNA was extracted from positive samples and molecular diagnostics was applied targeting the 18S rRNA gene, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III was diagnosed in this study more closely related to the gastric species. This is the first record of Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III in order Piciformes and family Ramphastidae, where three host species (Ramphastus toco, Ramphastus tucanus, and Pteroglossus bailloni) were positive for the etiologic agent. Based on the molecular data obtained, these wild birds raised in captivity do not represent a source of human cryptosporidiosis, considering that Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III does not constitute a zoonosis.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.013
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Factors responsible for the post-slaughter loss of carcass and offal’s
           in abattoirs in South Africa
    • Authors: Ishmael Festus Jaja; Borden Mushonga; Ezekiel Green; Voster Muchenje
      Pages: 303 - 310
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Ishmael Festus Jaja, Borden Mushonga, Ezekiel Green, Voster Muchenje
      Global demand for food is surging upward due to the expansion of human population. Hence food production and supply need to double with little or no waste to meet this demand. Food loss at any point in the farm to fork chain inhibits the stability of food security at household and national level. A retrospective (AR) and a post mortem meat inspection (PMMI) study to identify major causes of offal and carcass condemnation was conducted in three abattoirs namely, Adeliade, Queenstown and East London abattoirs represented as AD, QT, and EL respectively. The retrospective study revealed the main causes of tongue condemnation as abscess (0.08%, 0.03% and 0.05%) and actinobacillosis (0.02%, 0% and 0.02%) respectively. The spleen was condemned due to abscess (0.35%, 0.94% and 0.17%) and splenomegaly (0.21%, 0.55% and 0.2%). The heart was condemned due to cyst (0.24%, 0.36% and 0.2%) and inflammation (0.9%, 1.85%, and 0.75%). While the kidney, was condemned due to cyst (0.08%, 0.23% and 0.16%) and nephritis (0.94%, 1.01% and 1.18%). However, a greater percentage of condemnation was recorded during the active abattoir study. During the same period, partial carcass condemnations were mainly due to bruises (63.3%, 50.4% and 41.0%), abscess (7%, 6% and 14%) and improper evisceration (19%, 31% and 27%). The combined monetary loss due to offal’s and carcass condemnation during the AR and PMMI study was estimated as ZAR 255194.4 (34191.5 USD) and ZAR 25958.8 (2570.2 USD) respectively. This study identified major causes of offals and carcass condemnation as abscess, bruises, actinobacillosis, cyst, inflammatory conditions and improper evisceration. It can be used as starting point information for early warning on livestock diseases of economic loss in South Africa.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Effect of (-)-epicatechin, a flavonoid on the NO and NOS activity of
           Raillietina echinobothrida
    • Authors: Mitali Chetia; Robin Das
      Pages: 311 - 317
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Mitali Chetia, Robin Das
      (-)-Epicatechin, a natural flavonoid reportedly has huge pharmacological properties. In this study the cestocide effect of (-)-epicatechin is demonstrated in Raillietina echinobothrida. Although the antiparasitic activity of (-)-epicatechin has been demonstrated against protozoa, helminths and ectoparasites, in the present study the cestocide activity of (-)-epicatechin is shown to be related to a decrease in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production. On exposure to 0.53mg/ml each of epicatechin, reference drug praziquantel and Ѡ Nitro-l- Arginine Methyl Ester (NOS inhibitor), the parasites attained paralysis at 10.15, 0.27 and 11.21h followed by death at 30.15, 1.21 and 35.18h respectively. Biochemical analysis showed a significant decrease in activity of NOS (57.360, 36.040 and 44.615%) and NO (41.579, 19.078 and 24.826%) in comparison to the controls. NADPH-diaphorase histochemical staining (a selective marker for NOS in neuronal tissue) demonstrated a pronounced decline in the visible staining activity in the tegument, subtegument and the peripheral nerve regions following exposure to the treatments. Strong binding affinity of (-)-epicatechin with NOS protein was also revealed through docking studies. The results strongly define the probable anthelmintic activity of our compound through its influence on the NOS activity.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T11:46:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • The epidemic typhus and trench fever are risk for public health due to
           increased migration in southeast of Turkey
    • Authors: Fadime Eroglu; Nilgün Ulutasdemir; Mustafa Tanrıverdi; Eda Icbay Dagli; Ismail Soner Koltas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Fadime Eroglu, Nilgün Ulutasdemir, Mustafa Tanrıverdi, Eda Icbay Dagli, Ismail Soner Koltas
      Pediculus humanus capitis is a small ectoparasitic insect that has lived and feds on human beings for thousands of years. Molecular techniques have been used for Pediculus species identification and evolutionary, phylogenic, and ecological studies. A total of 23 adults of P. h. capitis were collected in Gaziantep, located in southeast Turkey, and DNA was isolated from all P. h. capitis using DNA extraction kit. All DNA samples were screened for investigate of Ricettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana and Borrelia recurrentis with real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, we investigated genetic variation in DNA samples of Pediculus humanus capitis using the cytochrome oxidase I genetic DNA sequence. We found 4 (17.4%) Ricettsia prowazekii and 3 (13.1%) Bartonella quintana in DNA samples of Pediculus humanus capitis, while we did not find any Bartonella recurrentis in any of the DNA samples. We demonstrated 1.8% genetic variations in DNA samples of Pediculus humanus capitis with Bartonella quintana. The phylogenetic tree based on the cytochrome oxidase I gene revealed that P. h. capitis in southeast Turkey are classified into two clades (clade A, clade B) and Bartonella quintana was found in only clade B. However, we did not find any genetic variations in other DNA samples in this region. The genetic variations may be related to P. h.capitis vector of Bartonella quintana has found in this study. In addition, this study was shown that P. h. capitis do transmit Rickettsia prowazekii and Bartonella quintana to people, epidemic typhus and trench fever may emergence in Gaziantep southeast of Turkey in the future.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T22:29:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.003
  • The Effect of Reinfection and Mixed Trypanosoma cruzi Infections on
           Disease Progression in Mice
    • Authors: Catherine J. Perez; R.C. Andrew Thompson; Sarah K. Keatley; Audra L. Walsh; Alan J. Lymbery
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Catherine J. Perez, R.C. Andrew Thompson, Sarah K. Keatley, Audra L. Walsh, Alan J. Lymbery
      The progression of Chagas disease (CD) varies significantly from host to host and is affected by multiple factors. In particular, mixed strain infections and reinfections have the potential to exacerbate disease progression subsequently affecting clinical management of patients with CD. Consequently, an associated reduction in therapeutic intervention and poor prognosis may occur due to this exacerbated disease state. This study investigated the effects of mixed strain infections and reinfection with Trypanosoma cruzi in mice, using two isolates from different discrete typing units, TcI (C8 clone 1) and TcIV (10R26). There were no significant differences in mortality rate, body weight or body condition among mice infected with either C8 clone 1, 10R26, or a mixture of both isolates. However, the parasite was found in a significantly greater number of host organs in mice infected with a mixture of isolates, and the histopathological response to infection was significantly greater in mice infected with C8 clone 1 alone, and C8 clone 1+10R26 mixed infections than in mice infected with 10R26 alone. To investigate the effects of reinfection, mice received either a double exposure to C8 clone 1; a double exposure to 10R26; exposure to C8 clone 1 followed by 10R26; or exposure to 10R26 followed by C8 clone 1. Compared to single infection groups, mortality was significantly increased, while survival time, body weight and body condition were all significantly decreased across all reinfection groups, with no significant differences among these groups. The mortality rate over all reinfection groups was 63.6%, compared to 0% in single infection groups, however there was no evidence of a greater histopathological response to infection. These results suggest firstly, that the C8 clone 1 isolate is more virulent than the 10R26 isolate, and secondly, that a more disseminated infection may occur with a mixture of isolates than with single isolates, although there is no evidence that mixed infections have a greater pathological effect. By contrast, reinfections do have major effects on host survivability and thus disease outcome. This confirms previous research demonstrating spontaneous deaths following reinfection, a phenomenon that to our knowledge has only been reported once before.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T22:29:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.11.002
  • Editor/Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T21:24:08Z
  • Spatial and temporal distribution of Pfmsp1 and Pfmsp2 alleles and genetic
           profile change of Plasmodium falciparum populations in Gabon
    • Authors: J.M. NdongNgomo; N.P. Yavo L.C. Bongho Mavoungou M.K. Bouyou-Akotet D.P.
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): J.M. NdongNgomo, N.P. M’Boundoukwé, W. Yavo, L.C. Bongho Mavoungou, M.K. Bouyou-Akotet, D.P. Mawili-Mboumba
      Plasmodium population dynamics analysis may help to assess the impact of malaria control strategies deployment. In Gabon, new strategies have been introduced, but malaria is still a public health problem marked by a rebound of the prevalence in 2011. The aim of the study was to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of P. falciparum strains in different areas in Gabon during a period of malaria transmission transition, between 2008 and 2011. A total of 109 P. falciparum isolates were genotyped using nested-PCR of Pfmsp1 and Pfmsp2 genes. 3D7, FC27 and K1 allele frequencies were comparable between sites (p=0.9); those of Ro33 (93.6%; 44/47) and Mad20 (60%; 12/20) were significantly higher in isolates from Oyem (p<0.01) and Port-Gentil (p=0.02), respectively. The frequency of multiples infections (77%) and the complexity of infection (2.66±1.44) were the highest at Oyem. Pfmsp1 gene analysis highlighted a trend of a decreasing frequency of K1 family, in Libreville and Oyem between 2008 and 2011; while that of Ro33 (p<0.01) and Mad20 (p<0.01) increased. The prevalence of multiple infections was comparable between both periods in each site: 42.2% vs 47.6% (p=0.6) in Libreville and 57.7% vs 61.7% in Oyem (p=0.8). In contrast, in 2011, the COI tends to be higher in Libreville and did not vary in Oyem. These data confirm an extended genetic diversity of P. falciparum isolates over time and according to geographic location in Gabon. Nevertheless, the impact of the deployment of malaria control strategies on the parasites genetic profile is not clearly established here.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
  • Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador: the
           causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features
    • Authors: Yoshihisa Hashiguchi; Eduardo A.L. Gomez Abraham Lenin Velez Nancy Villegas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Yoshihisa Hashiguchi, Eduardo A.L. Gomez, Abraham G. Cáceres, Lenin N. Velez, Nancy V. Villegas, Kazue Hashiguchi, Tatsuyuki Mimori, Hiroshi Uezato, Hirotomo Kato
      This study provides comprehensive information on the past and current status of the Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador, mainly focusing on the causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features. Available information and data including our unpublished works were analyzed thoroughly. Endemic regions of the Andean-CL (uta) in Peru run from the north Piura/Cajamarca to the south Ayacucho at a wide range of the Pacific watersheds of the Andes through several departments, while in Ecuador those exist at limited and spotted areas in the country’s mid-southwestern two provinces, Azuay and Chimborazo. The principal species of the genus Leishmania are completely different at subgenus level, L. (Viannia) peruviana in Peru, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana and L. (L.) major-like (infrequent occurrence) in Ecuador. The Peruvian uta is now prevalent in different age and sex groups, being not clearly defined as found in the past. The precise reasons are not known and should be elucidated further, though probable factors, such as emergence of other Leishmania parasites, non-immune peoples’ migration into the areas, etc., were discussed briefly in the text. The Andean-CL cases in Ecuador are more rural than before, probably because of a rapid development of the Leishmania-positive communities and towns, and the change of life-styles of the inhabitants, including newly constructed houses and roads in the endemic areas. Such information is helpful for future management of the disease, not only for Leishmania-endemic areas in the Andes but also for other endemic areas.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
  • The roles of galectins in parasitic infections
    • Authors: Weikun Shi; Chunyu Xue; Xin-zhuan Su; Fangli Lu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Weikun Shi, Chunyu Xue, Xin-zhuan Su, Fangli Lu
      Galectins is a family of multifunctional lectins. Fifteen galectins have been identified from a variety of cells and tissues of vertebrates and invertebrates. Galectins have been shown to play pivotal roles in host–pathogen interaction such as adhesion of pathogens to host cells and activation of host innate and adaptive immunity. In recent years, the roles of galectins during parasite infections have gained increasing attention. Galectins produced by different hosts can act as pattern recognition receptors (PRR) detecting conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of parasites, while galectins produced by parasites can modulate host responses. This review summarizes some recent studies on the roles of galectins produced by parasitic protozoa, nematodes, and trematodes and their hosts. Understanding the roles of galectins in host–parasite interactions may provide targets for immune intervention and therapies of the parasitic infections.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.027
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