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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3183 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3183 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 102, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 436, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 311, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 421, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 383, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 475, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 254, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 223, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Acta Tropica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.052
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0001-706X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3183 journals]
  • DNA barcoding and fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae:
           Phlebotominae) from Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Yokomi N Lozano-Sardaneta, Luís E. Paternina, Sokani Sánchez-Montes, Alejandro Quintero, Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal, Víctor Sánchez-Cordero, Eduar Elías Bejarano, Ingeborg Becker Mexico has great diversity of phlebotomine sand flies related to cases of leishmaniasis, yet few studies have dressed the molecular taxonomy of these sand fly species. The use of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene, as a DNA Barcode has facilitated the molecular identification of sand flies species worldwide. We use the DNA barcode as a useful tool for the identification of phlebotomine sand flies of the natural reserve Los Tuxtlas from Veracruz, México. A fragment of 536 bp of the COI gene was obtained from 36 individuals belonging to eight species of five genera (Dampfomyia, Lutzomyia, Psathyromyia, Psychodopygus and Brumptomyia) with coverage between 92–100%, and found similarities ranging from 93–98% with other New World phlebotomine sand flies. The NJ dendogram grouped sand flies into eight clusters according to identified species, supported by bootstrap of 97%–100%. In conclusion, all phlebotomine sand flies were correctly identified and agree with the morphological identification, also could separate genetics the isomorphic females of the genus Brumptomyia.Graphical abstractCOI Barcode as a useful tool for the identification of eight phlebotomine sand flies species of the natural reserve Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz.Image, graphical abstract
  • The effect of Benznidazole dose among the efficacy outcome in the murine
           animal model. A quantitative integration of the literature
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Israel Molina, Luisa Perin, Augusto Sao Aviles, Paula Melo de Abreu Vieira, Katia da Silva Fonseca, Lucas Maciel Cunha, Claudia M. Carneiro Despite more than 100 years since it was firstly described Chagas disease, only two drugs are available to treat Chagas disease: Nifurtimox launched by Bayer in 1965 and benznidazole launched by Roche in 1971.Drug discovery initiatives have been looking for new compounds as an alternative to these old drugs.Although new platforms have been used with the latest technologies, a critical step on that process still relies on the in vivo model.Unfortunately, to date, available animal models have limited predictive value and there is no standardization.With the aim to better understand the role of benznidazole, the current standard of care of Chagas disease, we performed this review. We intend to analyze the influence of the experimental design of the most used animal model, the murine model, in the assessment of the efficacy endpoint.
  • Real-time PCR to differentiate among Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus,
           Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis:
           application on Brazilian clinical samples
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Aurora Diotallevi, Gloria Buffi, Marcello Ceccarelli, Herintha Coeto Neitzke-Abreu, Laisa Vieira Gnutzmann, Manoel Sebastião da Costa Lima, Alice Di Domenico, Mauro De Santi, Mauro Magnani, Luca Galluzzi Leishmaniasis is a complex disease caused by Leishmania species belonging to subgenera Leishmania and Viannia. In South America, L. (L.) infantum is considered the most important causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, while L. (L.) amazonensis and Viannia subgenus species are responsible for the different cutaneous or mucocutaneous forms. In our previous work, we developed a diagnostic approach for Leishmania species discrimination based on two qPCRs (qPCR-ML and qPCR-ama) targeting the minicircle kDNA followed by melting analysis. This approach allowed to (i) differentiate the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia, and (ii) distinguish between L. (L.) infantum and L. (L.) amazonensis. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the applicability of the approach previously described, using human and canine clinical samples and strains from a Brazilian region, where L. (L.) infantum, L. (L.) amazonensis and Viannia subgenus species coexist. After validation on New World strains, the diagnostic approach was applied blindly to 36 canine clinical samples (peripheral blood and bone marrow) and 11 human clinical samples (peripheral blood and bone marrow). The sensitivity was 95.6% (95% confidence interval 77.3-100%) and 100% (95% confidence interval 76.9-100%) in the canine bone marrow samples and human (peripheral blood and bone marrow) samples, respectively, compared to conventional PCR assays. Concerning the Leishmania species identification, the conventional and qPCR-based methods showed kappa value of 0.876 (95% confidence interval 0.638-1.000), indicating good agreement. Therefore, this approach proved to be useful in both veterinary and human clinical context in regions co-endemic for L. (L.) infantum, L. (L.) amazonensis, and Viannia subgenus, helping to provide rapid diagnosis and to allow studies of species distribution.
  • Functional insight into the glycosomal peroxiredoxin of
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Helena Castro, Maria Inês Rocha, Ricardo Silva, Filipe Oliveira, Ana Georgina Gomes-Alves, Tânia Cruz, Margarida Duarte, Ana Maria Tomás Glycosomes of trypanosomatids are peroxisome-like organelles comprising unique metabolic features, among which the lack of the hallmark peroxisomal enzyme catalase. The absence of this highly efficient peroxidase from glycosomes is presumably compensated by other antioxidants, peroxidases of the peroxiredoxin (PRX) family being the most promising candidates for this function. Here, we follow on this premise and investigate the product of a Leishmania infantum gene coding for putative glycosomal PRX (LigPRX). First, we demonstrate that LigPRX localizes to glycosomes, resorting to indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Second, we prove that purified recombinant LigPRX is an active peroxidase in vitro. Third, we generate viable LigPRX-depleted L. infantum promastigotes by classical homologous recombination. Surprisingly, phenotypic analysis of these knockout parasites revealed that promastigote survival, replication, and protection from oxidative and nitrosative insults can proceed normally in the absence of LigPRX. Noticeably, we also witness that LigPRX-depleted parasites can infect and thrive in mice to the same extent as wild type parasites. Overall, by disclosing the dispensable character of the glycosomal peroxiredoxin in L. infantum, this work excludes this enzyme from being a key component of the glycosomal hydroperoxide metabolism and contemplates alternative players for this function.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Is Amazonian Toxoplasmosis a real risk for Brazil'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Claudio Bruno Silva de Oliveira
  • Foodborne Intestinal Flukes: A Brief Review of Epidemiology and
           Geographical Distribution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Jong-Yil Chai, Bong-Kwang Jung Foodborne intestinal flukes are highly diverse consisting of at least 74 species with a diverse global distribution. Taxonomically they include 28 species of heterophyids, 23 species of echinostomes, and 23 species of miscellaneous groups (amphistomes, brachylaimids, cyathocotylids, diplostomes, fasciolids, gymnophallids, isoparorchiids, lecithodendriid-like group, microphallids, nanophyetids, plagiorchiids, and strigeids). The important heterophyid species (15 species) include Metagonimus yokogawai, M. takahashii, M. miyatai, Heterophyes heterophyes, H. nocens, Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Heterophyopsis continua, Centrocestus formosanus, Pygidiopsis genata, P. summa, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Stictodora fuscata, and S. lari. The echinostome species of public health significance (15 species) include Echinostoma revolutum, E. cinetorchis, E. lindoense, E. ilocanum, Isthmiophora hortensis, Echinochasmus japonicus, E. perfoliatus, E. liliputanus, E. fujianensis, E. caninus, Acanthoparyphium tyosenense, Artyfechinostomum malayanum, A. sufrartyfex, A. oraoni, and Hypoderaeum conoideum. Among the other zoonotic intestinal flukes, Gastrodiscoides hominis, Brachylaima cribbi, Neodiplostomum seoulense, Fasciolopsis buski, Gymnophalloides seoi, Caprimolgorchis molenkampi, Phaneropsolus bonnei, Microphallus brevicaeca, Nanophyetus salmincola, and N. schikhobalowi (10 species) have drawn considerable medical attention causing quite a fair number of human infection cases. The principal mode of human infections include ingestion of raw or improperly cooked fish (heterophyids and echinostomes), snails including oysters (echinostomes and G. seoi), amphibians and reptiles (N. seoulense), aquatic vegetables (amphistomes and F. buski), and insect larvae or adults (C. molenkampi and P. bonnei). Epidemiological characteristics such as the prevalence, geographical distribution, and clinical and public health significance are poorly known in many of these species. Praziquantel has been proved to be highly effective against most species of intestinal fluke infections. Surveys and detection of human infection cases are urgently required for better understanding of the global status and public health significance of each species.
  • Epidemiological survey of fasciolosis in yaks and sheep living on the
           Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Xing Gao, Lihong Zhang, Xiaole Tong, Hui Zhang, Khalid Mehmood, Xiong Jiang, Jiakui Li Fasciolosis is one of the biggest threats to livestock and human population. For this purpose, the seroprevalence of Fasciola hepatica was investigated in yaks and sheep living on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China by piloting commercial ELISA kits. A total of 3276 yaks and 1092 sheep were incorporated in this study. The prevalence of the parasite in yaks and sheep was 38.3% and 26.4%, respectively. The serological results revealed a relatively high prevalence of F. hepatica infection in yaks and sheep, respectively. The present study may greatly contribute to the prevention of this parasitic zoonosis and great importance should be given to the potential threat caused by F. hepatica in this special plateau.
  • Human Hookworm Infection: Is Effective Control Possible' A Review of
           Hookworm Control Efforts and Future Directions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Matthew S. Haldeman, Melissa S. Nolan, Kija R.N. Ng'habi Human hookworm, a soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection caused by either Necator americanus or Anclystoma duodenale, is a major cause of morbidity globally and predominantly affects the world's poorest populations. Transmitted primarily by larval invasion of exposed skin, the adults inhabit the host small intestine, where they consume host blood. The resultant chronic iron deficiency anemia can lead to stunted growth and cognitive deficits in children, reduced work capacity in adults, and a variety of pregnancy complications. Historically, successful STH elimination has only been achieved in regions with concomitant significant economic growth. Since 2001, control of the STHs has been attempted via single-dose mass deworming of at-risk school-aged and preschool-aged children within STH-endemic countries, with the goal of morbidity reduction. Research questioning this strategy has grown in recent years, and current studies are evaluating the effectiveness of novel deworming strategies, including multidrug regimens and expansion of deworming to entire communities. While footwear campaigns may be associated with reduced odds of hookworm infection, the evidence supporting the impact of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions upon hookworm is mixed. Progress towards a human hookworm vaccine continues, with promising results from recent Phase 1 trials and several others ongoing. Integrated STH control programs, which combine mass deworming with WASH interventions, are relatively unstudied but may be a promising advancement. Whether interruption of STH transmission can be achieved apart from significant economic growth remains unanswered, but likely the implementation of intensive, integrated control programs will be necessary to achieve that goal.
  • Do albendazole-loaded lipid nanocapsules enhance the bioavailability of
           albendazole in the brain of healthy mice'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Julia Fabbri, Juan Pablo Espinosa, Patricia Eugenia Pensel, Sandra Karina Medici, Gabriela Ullio Gamboa, Jean Pierre Benoit, María Celina Elissondo Neurocysticercosis is a neglected tropical disease that affects the central nervous system and is the most common cause of human epilepsy acquired in developing countries. Therapeutic failures attributed to medical management of neurocysticercosis with albendazole (ABZ) have been primarily linked to the poor drug absorption rate resulting in low drug level in plasma and brain tissue. The aim of the current work was to characterize and compare the brain pharmacokinetic behavior of ABZ formulated as a suspension or lipid nanocapsules (ABZ-LNCs) in healthy mice. The relative availability in brain tissue of the active metabolite ABZ sulphoxide increased 183% when ABZ was administered as LNCs, in relation to ABZ suspension. The parent drug was also detected for a short period of time. The bioavailability of ABZ in ABZ-LNCs treated mice increased more than 2 fold compared with ABZ suspension group. The enhanced drug brain exposure observed after administration of ABZ-LNCs to healthy mice has potential usefulness for the treatment of human neurocysticercosis.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Combination of quercetin and ivermectin: in vitro and in vivo effects
           against Haemonchus contortus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Dyego Gonçalves Lino Borges, Marcelo Augusto de Araújo, Carlos Alexandre Carollo, Aline Regina Hellmann Carollo, Adrian Lifschitz, Mário Henrique Conde, Mariana Green de Freitas, Zelina dos Santos Freire, Juliane Francielle Tutija, Matheus Takemi Muchon Nakatani, Fernando de Almeida Borges The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of quercetin combined with ivermectin (IVM) on Haemonchus contortus larvae and adults with different resistance profiles and demonstrate the in vivo anthelmintic action of this combination when used in sheep naturally infected. The effect of combination was evaluated based on the analysis of the mean effective concentration (EC50) obtained for larvae using the larval migration inhibition test and for adults using the motility test on females. The tests with larvae and adults were conducted using isolates with different degrees of susceptibility to IVM (sensitive, intermediate and highly resistant). The in vivo effect was evaluated based on the reduction in the egg count (FEC) and reduction in the count of adult helminths recovered after parasitological necropsy. Using the combination of quercetin with IVM, it was observed that in larvae, quercetin did not significantly reduce the EC50 for IVM in the sensitive and highly resistant isolates, but led to a significant reduction in the EC50 for IVM in the intermediate isolate. In adults, quercetin did not significantly reduce the EC50 for IVM in any of the isolates. No significant effect of the combination was found regarding the reduction in FEC or total count of parasites. The results of the in vitro and in vivo tests performed in the present study on quercetin activity underscore the importance of evaluating resistance-reversing agents among different stages of parasite development as well as among isolates with different resistance profiles. The action of quercetin combined with IVM on the motility of H. contortus larvae and adults was influenced by the degree of resistance and development stage of the parasite. The combination was effective only on intermediate resistant larvae. No action of the combination against adults was found. Moreover, this combination, when administered through the intra-abomasal route, was not effective at reducing the FEC and parasite load of naturally infected sheep.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Genotyping of Enterocytozoon bieneusi among captive long-tailed macaques
           (Macaca fascicularis) in Hainan Province: high genetic diversity and
           zoonotic potential
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Wei Zhao, Huanhuan Zhou, Hairong Jin, Lijie Sun, Pingyung Li, Meicen Liu, Mingyan Qiu, Liulian Xu, Feiyang Li, Tianming Ma, Shanshan Wang, Feifei Yin, Lihua Li, Xiuji Cui, Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Gang Lu Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a potentially important zoonotic pathogen. However, there is no information on E. bieneusi infection of captive long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Hainan Province, China. Here 193 fecal specimens of M. fascicularis were collected from a breeding base in Hainan Province, China, housing non-human primates for experimental use. E. bieneusi was identified and genotyped by nested PCR analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene. A total of 59 (30.6%) specimens were PCR-positive for E. bieneusi and 16 ITS genotypes were identified including nine known genotypes: Type IV (n = 19), D (n = 11), CM1 (n = 8), PigEBITS7 (n = 4), Pongo2 (n = 4), Peru8 (n = 3), Peru11 (n = 1), WL21 (n = 1) and CM2 (n = 1) and seven novel genotypes HNM-I to HNM-VII (one each). Importantly, genotypes D, Type IV, Peru8, PigEBITS7, and Peru11, which were the predominant (38/59, 64.4%) genotypes identified among captive M. fascicularis in this study, are also well-known human-pathogenic genotypes. All the genotypes of E. bieneusi identified here, including the seven novel ones, belonged to zoonotic Group 1. This is the first report of the identification of E. bieneusi in M. fascicularis in Hainan Province, China. The finding that the numerous known human-pathogenic types and seven novel genotypes of E. bieneusi all belong to zoonotic Group 1 indicates the possibility of transmission of this important pathogenic parasite between M. fascicularis and humans.
  • The combination of Cytokines and albendazole therapy for prophylaxis and
           treatment of experimental ./hydatid cyst
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): M. Rahdar, A. Rafiei, R. Valipour- Nouroozi Albendazole is appropriate chemotherapy for treatment and prophylaxis of cystic echinococcosis (CE). The recent studies show Cytokine therapy could be useful for chronic and progressive diseases, therefore, the use of cytokine in prophylaxis and treatment of hydatidosis could be considerable. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of interleukin-12 + interferon-gamma, in combination with albendazole for prophylaxis and treatment of CE in Balb/c mice. Albendazole and cytokines were administrated for prophylaxis and treatment in CE. The efficacy of this agents were determined by measuring of size, weight, number of cysts, histology and lymphocyte response. Lymphocyte stimulation index and production of interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma were measured by MTT assay and ELISA respectively. Combination of albendazole and cytokines was very effective for prophylaxis and treatment in experimental CE.
  • Gender beyond male and female: Occurrence of a gynandromorph in the
           Japanese encephalitis vector Culex sitiens (Diptera: Culicidae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Van Lun Low, Meng Li Wong, Jonathan Wee Kent Liew, Sandthya Pramasivan, Nantha Kumar Jeyaprakasam, Indra Vythilingam A gynandromorph of Culex sitiens Wiedemann (Diptera: Culicidae) was attracted to a human during a mosquito surveillance programme conducted in Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia on July 20, 2019. Gynandromorphism was observed in antennae, maxillary palps, legs and wings of the specimen, with distinct male characters on the left and female characters on the right, though the left maxillary palp is slightly shorter than the proboscis of a typical male. The abdomen, however, displays well-developed male genitalia. This study represents the first report of oblique gynandromorphism in Cx. sitiens, one of the vectors of Japanese encephalitis in Asia.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Intestinal microbiome profiles in Oncomelania hupensis in
           mainland China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Yuwan Hao, Wei Guan, Haonan Wu, Lanhua Li, Eniola Michael Abe, Jingbo Xue, Zhiqiang Qin, Qiang Wang, Shan Lv, Jing Xu, Wei Wang, Shizhu Li Oncomelania hupensis plays a significant role in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica, which remains a major public health concern in China. Understanding the biological characteristics of O. hupensis is a prerequisite for its control; however, there are currently no studies investigating the intestinal microbiota of the O. hupensis snail. This study aimed to profile the intestinal microbiome of O. hupensis across different ecological landscapes in mainland China. DNA was extracted from the intestines of the collected snails and the bacterial communities were detected using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 3,799 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained, and Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were identified as the dominant bacterial taxa at the phylum level. Bacillus and Lactococcus were the most common genera in samples obtained from the four ecological landscapes. Snail specimens were clustered into three clades according to microbial community diversity, and thirty-seven genera that contributed to differential microbiota distributions were identified. Co-occurrence network analysis indicated a symbiotic relationship for the intestinal microbiota of O. hupensis, and PICRUSt analysis predicted forty-one metabolic functions in all snail samples, including membrane transport, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, replication and repair, energy metabolism, as well as xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism. These findings improve our understanding of bacterial ecology in the O. hupensis intestine; further studies will focus on the relationship between O. hupensis intestinal microbiota and the microbiota in their specific ecological environments.
  • Development of a Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Juan Jose Lauthier, Paula Ruybal, Paola Andrea Barroso, Yoshihisa Hashiguchi, Jorge Diego Marco, Masataka Korenaga Since the description of the Leishmania genus, its identification and organization have been a challenge. A high number of molecular markers have been developed to resolve phylogenetic differences at the species level and for addressing key epidemiological and population genetics questions. Based on Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes have been developed using different gene candidates. From 38 original gene targets proposed by other authors, 27 of them were chosen. In silico selection was made by analyzing free access genomic sequence data of 33 Leishmania species, one Paraleishmania representative, and one outgroup, in order to select the best 15 loci. De novo amplifications and primers redesign of these 15 genes were analyzed over a panel of 20 reference strains and isolates. Phylogenetic analysis was made at every step. Two MLST schemes were selected. The first one was based on the analysis of three-gene fragments, and it is suitable for species assignment as well as basic phylogenetic studies. By the addition of seven-genes, an approach based on the analysis of ten-gene fragments was also proposed. This is the first work that two optimized MLST schemes have been proposed, validated against a phylogenetically diverse panel of Leishmania isolates. MLST is potentially a powerful phylogenetic approach, and most probably the new gold standard for Leishmania spp. characterization.
  • Pulmonary cryptococcosis: report of the first confirmed autochthonous case
           in Nepal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Ranjit Sah, Anand Jaiswal, Sonam Singla, Ashish Kumar Prakash, Sandeep Kumar Mittal, Ankit Aggarwal, Shubhank Singh, Samikshya Neupane, Sanjit Sah, Ranjana Sah, Andreas Neumayr We report a case of cryptococcal pneumonia in a 53 years old female Nepali patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus type 2 who empirically received multiple broad-spectrum antibiotics and standard anti-tubercular treatment as well as glucocorticosteroids for suspected sarcoidosis before the diagnosis was finally established. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed autochthonous case of cryptococcosis reported from Nepal.
  • Trans-stadial fate of the gut bacterial microbiota in Anopheles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Yadira Galeano-Castañeda, Priscila Bacuñán, David Serre, Margarita M. Correa Gut microbiota communities in mosquitoes are influenced among others, by developmental stage. There is evidence that the aquatic environment where larvae feed influences the mosquito gut bacterial community composition with only a subgroup of these bacteria been transmitted trans-stadially to adults. This study evaluated the gut bacterial composition of Anopheles albimanus larvae, emerged and circulating mosquitoes, as well as water from the larval habitat, to elucidate transitions in these bacterial communities and determine the final composition in circulating mosquitoes. A 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing allowed to determine that Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in larvae (72.4%), emerged mosquitoes (75%), circulating adults (45.4%) and water from the larval habitat (79.1%). A core microbiome analysis evidenced that Enterobacter, Bacillus and Staphylococcus genera were the core bacterial microbiota (OTUs detected in>90%) in the four groups evaluated. PCoA cluster based on Jaccard and Bray Curtis distances showed two main bacterial clusters, one comprising the emerged and circulating adults, and the other the larvae. The results indicated that the gut microbiota of An. albimanus larvae is composed of bacteria acquired from the larval habitat; then, a rearrangement of the bacterial communities occurs in the trans-stadial passage. However, the higher bacterial richness detected in circulating adults suggests bacterial acquisition from the terrestrial environment where the mosquito feeds. Finally, the trans-stadially passage of some bacteria makes of interest their evaluation as candidates for paratransgenic control.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • A hyperendemic focus of porcine cystic echinococcosis in the Banke
           District of Nepal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Meritxell Donadeu, Charles G. Gauci, Ishab Poudel, Keshav Sah, Dinesh Kumar Singh, Abdul Jabbar, Marshall W. Lightowlers Detailed post mortem analyses of 68 free-ranging, slaughter-age pigs from two sites in the Banke District of Nepal identified 36% as being infected with Echinococcus granulosus. The cysts ranged from infertile, immature cysts a few millimetres in diameter to fertile cysts>10 centimetres in diameter. PCR RFLP and DNA sequencing identified the cysts as being E. granulosus sensu stricto. The Banke district has recently been identified as having a high prevalence of porcine cysticercosis. These data suggest that cestode zoonoses in this, and possibly other parts of Nepal may be a serious concern for human health. An assessment of the level of human cystic echinococcosis and neurocysticercosis, in the region is warranted and the introduction of control measures are required to limit the parasites’ transmission.
  • Serological tests reveal significant cross-reactive human antibody
           responses to Zika and Dengue viruses in the Mexican population
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Mussaret Bano Zaidi, Leticia Cedillo-Barron, María Elena González y Almeida, Julio Garcia-Cordero, Freddy D. Campos, Karime Namorado-Tonix, Freddy Perez Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the Americas. Given its association with severe congenital defects including microcephaly, distinguishing infections caused by ZIKV from those caused by dengue virus (DENV) is of primordial importance. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the recombinant proteins rEIII-ZIKV (Envelope protein domain III) and rNS1ß-leader-ZIKV (non-structural protein 1) for the serological diagnosis of ZIKV in the Mexican population. We also evaluated potential cross-reactivity in commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) based on the ZIKV NS1 and DENV NS1 proteins. rEIII-ZIKV and rNS1ß-leader-ZIKV proteins were tested with sera from 30 PCR-confirmed ZIKV cases, 50 ZIKV-naïve, DENV-exposed subjects with no acute febrile disease, (asymptomatic subjects, AS), and 50 ZIKV-naive and DENV naïve AS. Commercial ELISA tests were evaluated with sera from 57 ZIKV and 20 DENV PCR-confirmed cases, and 50 ZIKV-naïve, DENV-exposed AS. In-house ELISA assays showed that IgM antibody levels against rEIII-ZIKV and rNS1ß-ZIKV were higher in ZIKV naïve, DENV-exposed AS than in acutely infected ZIKV individuals. IgG reactivity was highest for rEIII-ZIKV, and indistinguishable between acutely infected ZIKV cases and DENV exposed AS. Positivity for the Euroimmun Zika IgM assay at 7-10 days was considerably higher in DENV-naïve ZIKV patients (86%) than in DENV-exposed ZIKV patients (33%), while 39% of the latter had false-negative anti-ZIKV IgG before 7 days of onset. DENV-exposed ZIKV patients presented lower anti-ZIKV IgM and higher IgG responses similar to a secondary dengue response. Forty-four percent of DENV- exposed acute ZIKV patients were DENV IgM positive with the Panbio Dengue assay, and two (15%) of the DENV-naïve ZIKV patients presented false DENV IgG conversion. Given the extensive cross-reactivity to both the NS1 and EDIII proteins in current serological methods, the development of sensitive and specific serological tests to distinguish ZIKV from DENV infections is an urgent priority.
  • The rise or fall of Neglected Tropical Diseases in East Asia Pacific
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Peter J Hotez While the East Asia Pacific (EAP) region has experienced tremendous economic growth and development, the resulting public health gains from reductions in its neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have been less than expected due to opposing forces of urbanization, political instability, food insecurity, and climate change, together with co-morbidities with non-communicable diseases, including diabetes and hypertension. To be sure there's been progress towards the elimination of lymphatic filariasis and trachoma through mass drug administration, and there are opportunities to extend MDA to yaws and scabies, but for most of the other NTDs we'll require new biotechnologies. So far, EAP's major technology hubs in China, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan have mostly failed to shift their attention towards new innovations for the NTDs, including new drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines, and vector control. Unless this situation changes the EAP could be facing a new grim reality of unhealthy megacities beset by emerging arbovirus infections, widespread antimicrobial resistance, and urban helminth infections.
  • Molecular eco-epidemiology on the sympatric Chagas disease vectors
           Triatoma brasiliensis and Triatoma petrocchiae: ecotopes, genetic
           variation, natural infection prevalence by trypanosomatids and parasite
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Tarcianne M Lima-Oliveira, Fernanda von Hertwig M Fontes, Maurício Lilioso, Dayane Pires-Silva, Marta Maria Geraldes Teixeira, Jose Gabriel Vergara Meza, Myriam Harry, Jonathan Fileé, Jane Costa, Carolina Valença-Barbosa, Elaine Folly-Ramos, Carlos Eduardo Almeida Triatoma petrocchiae is the newly member of the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex. This species overlaps with T. brasiliensis in geographic and ecotypic occupation in the sylvatic habitat because both inhabit rocky outcrops in the semi-arid portion of Brazilian northeast. In this region T. brasiliensis is the most important Chagas disease vector because it constantly colonizes domiciles. In contrast, T. petrocchiae is rarely found in peri or intradomiciliary habitats – reason why little is known about this species. Therefore, Here, we present information for the first time on. the T. petrocchiae ecotopes, genetic diversity, Trypanosoma cruzi prevalence/genotyping in comparison to T. brasiliensis. We found T. brasilensis (N=223) and T. petrocchiae (N=69) in co-habitation in rocky outcrops in three Districts of Paraíba and Rio Grande do Norte states. Forty-tree T. petrocchiae insects of eleven sampling spots (composing three geographic populations) were genotyped for the mitochondrial Cyt B gene and little geographic structure was observed. Tajima´s D test suggested that species is evolving toward a mutation-drift equilibrium in our collection range. Sylvatic T. petrocchiae had 4% (3/68) of infected insects by T. cruzi, whereas T. brasiliensis had 26% (59/223). Fluorescent Fragment Length Barcoding demonstrated that all three T. petrocchiae harbored TcI whereas T. brasiliensis had TcI, but also TcIII, TcII/TcVI and T. rangeli genotype A, sometimes under mixed infections. None of infected T. petrocchiae were carrying mixed infections. However, this result should be confirmed using a larger pool of infected bugs. We here presented the first documentation of T. rangeli infecting T. brasiliensis. The finding of infected T. petrocchiae calls for constant vector monitoring because the epidemiologic scenario is dynamic and sylvatic vectors are progressively found in adaptation to anthropic environments.
  • Molecular detection of Trypanosoma (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in
           black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thailand
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Jiraporn Thaijarern, Ubon Tangkawanit, Komgrit Wongpakam, Pairot Pramual Trypanosomes are parasitic flagellate protozoans that are important disease causing agents in humans and animals including economically significant livestock. Many blood-sucking insects are known to be vectors of trypanosomes but there is no data for the haematophagous black fly species in Asia. In this study, a molecular approach based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene was used to detect trypanosomes in black flies from Thailand. A total of 470 wild-caught adult black flies representing nine morphological species were examined. Ten (2%) specimens of two ornithophilic black fly species, Simulium asakoae complex (n = 4) and S. chumpornense (n = 6), were positive for trypanosomes. The SSU rRNA sequences revealed that all trypanosome DNA found in black flies from Thailand is closely related to Trypanosoma avium with>99% sequence similarity. This is also supported by a phylogenetic analyses in which all trypanosomes from Thai black flies were resolved in the clade of T. avium. This is the first report for trypanosomes in Asian black flies and it is suspected that these insects are potential vectors of avian Trypanosoma.Graphical Image, graphical abstract
  • Preliminary evaluation of the diagnostic potential of Schistosoma
           japonicum extracellular vesicle proteins for schistosomiasis japonica
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Yongjun Chen, Bikash Ranjan Giri, Xue Li, Xiaobing He, Zhizhong Jing, Guofeng Cheng Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the genus Schistosoma and poses a great threat to human and animal health. Identification of effective biomarkers would facilitate evaluation of drug efficacy and recognition of infected hosts, which are crucial for effective schistosomiasis control. Extracellular vesicle (EV) proteins are considered ideal biomarkers for developing invasive diagnostic tools. In this study, we evaluated the potential of Schistosoma japonicum EV (SjEV) proteins as biomarkers for diagnosing schistosomiasis. Several SjEV proteins were subject to epitope prediction using DNASTAR software, and the diagnostic potential of selected peptides was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicated that the sera showed detectable antibody levels against the two antigens in mice, rabbits, and humans infected with S. japonicum. Further analysis of the combined epitope protein demonstrated a modest sensitivity for detection of schistosomiasis japonica. Our preliminary study suggests that S. japonicum EV proteins could serve as potential biomarkers for developing diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis.
  • Rabies knowledge and practices among human and veterinary health workers
           in Chad
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Jean Mbaipago, Rolande Mindekem, Assandi Oussiguere, Ronelngar Moyengar, Kemdongarti Naïssengar, Séraphin Madjadinan, Jakob Zinsstag, Monique Léchenne To prevent human rabies deaths close communication between the veterinary and human health sector is needed for timely and adequate treatment after a bite exposure. Good practice treatment and efficient One Health communication depends heavily on the knowledge and practices (KP) of both human health and veterinary workers. We have evaluated the level of KP of both these sectors during a one-day joint training program to kick start a large scale rabies burden and vaccine demand study in selected regions of Chad. Participants were evaluated through a questionnaire before and after training to get insight into the basic knowledge of rabies and the improvement of this knowledge after the training session.In addition to 20 questions on rabies derived from the educational platform of the Global Alliance for Rabies Control, the questionnaires included a pre-training knowledge self-evaluation and a post-training evaluation of the course. Overall 247 workshop participants with varied level of educational background responded to at least one questionnaire. Around 75% of respondents were from the human health sector and 20% from the veterinary sector.Knowledge level did not differ significantly between the two sectors nor between rural or urban working backgrounds. Respondents with a university degree scored significantly higher in pre-and post-training questionnaire compared to respondents with high school level degree or lower. Knowledge was also dependent on study region and sex of the respondent. In general, the importance of a One Health approaches, such as vaccination of dogs to prevent human rabies, is well understood in both sectors. Regarding treatment, many participants did not know the adequate number of doses required for a full course of PEP, but through the training, this knowledge improved. Detailed knowledge of atypical transmission routes and pathophysiology (neurotropism of the virus) was generally lacking and did not significantly improve through the training.The study revealed considerable deficiencies and challenges in the knowledge level of both veterinary and human health workers in Chad. Rabies control programs need to anticipate these challenges to implementation and provide sufficient time and funds for training workshops and follow-up.
  • DNA detection of Paragonimus westermani: Diagnostic validity of a new
           assay based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with
           a lateral flow dipstick
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Zhuo Xunhui, Kong Qingming, Tong Qunbo, Ding Haojie, Zhang Lesheng, Lou Di, Ding Jianzu, Zheng Bin, Chen Rui, Wang Tianping, Lu Shaohong Paragonimus westermani (P. westermani) is widely spread in Asian countries and is one of the most important causative agents for lung fluke diseases. The prevention and control of Paragonimiaisis mainly depends on the accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. In this study, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeted to a portion of the Ty3/gypsy-like LTR retrotransposon (Rn1) sequence coupled with a lateral flow dipstick (LFD) for the rapid detection of P. westermani-specific amplicons. The positive LAMP products were biotin-labeled and hybridized with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled probe which could be visually detected by LFD. No cross-reaction were observed with other parasitic pathogens including Trichinella spiralis, Anisakis simplex, Schistosoma japonicum and Gnathostoma spinigerum, but this LAMP assay could not distinguish P. westermani with Paragonimus skrjabini and Paragonimus heterotremus. The detection limit of the LAMP assay for P. westermani was 2.7 fg/μL, while that of PCR method was 27 fg/μL. LAMP method was applied to detect P. westermani genomic DNA in blood samples form experimental infected dogs, and results showed the parasite was detectable as early as week 2. LAMP-LFD assay applicability was successfully tested in dog blood samples collected from five cities (Wenzhou, Hangzhou, Huzhou, Jiaxing and Shaoxing) in Zhejiang province. In summary, the established LAMP-LFD assay targeted to the Rn1 sequence is a rapid and convenient method for specific detection of P. westermani.
  • Comparative serum metabolomics between SCID mice and BALB/c mice with or
           without Schistosoma japonicum infection: clues to the abnormal growth and
           development of schistosome in SCID mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Rong Liu, Feng Ye, Qin-Ping Zhong, Shu-Hong Wang, Ting Chai, Hui-Fen Dong, Zhenping Ming The small blood flukes of genus Schistosoma, which cause one of the most prevalent and serious parasitic zoonosis schistosomiasis, are dependent on immune-related factors of their mammalian host to facilitate their growth and development, and the formation of granulomatous pathology caused by eggs deposited in host's liver and intestinal wall. Schistosome development is hampered in the mice lacking just T cells, and is even more heavily retarded in the severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice lacking both T and B lymphocytes. Nevertheless, it's still not clear about the underlying regulatory molecular mechanisms of schistosome growth and development by host's immune system. This study, therefore, detected and compared the serum metabolic profiles between the immunodeficient mice and immunocompetent mice (SCID mice vs. BALB/c mice) before and after S. japonicum infection (on the thirty-fifth day post infection using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Totally, 705 ion features in electrospray ionization in positive-ion mode (ESI+) and 242 ion features in ESI- mode were identified, respectively. First, distinct serum metabolic profiles were identified between SCID mice and BALB/c mice without S. japonicum worms infection. Second, uniquely perturbed serum metabolites and their enriched pathways were also obtained between SCID mice and BALB/c mice after S. japonicum infection, which included differential metabolites due to both species differences and differential responses to S. japonicum infection. The metabolic pathways analysis revealed that arachidonic acid metabolism, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid metabolism, glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis, alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism and purine metabolism were enriched based on the differential serum metabolites between SCID mice and BALB/c mice after S. japonicum infection, which was addressed to be related to the retarded growth and development of S. japonicum in SCID mice. These findings provide new clues to the underlying molecular events of host's systemic metabolic changes on the growth and development of S. japonicum worms, and also provide quite promising candidates for exploitation of drugs or vaccines against schistosome and schistosomiasis.
  • Leptospirosis: Increasing importance in developing countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Zoey May Pheng Soo, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the pathogenic helical spirochetes, Leptospira. Symptoms include sudden-onset fever, severe headaches, muscle pain, nausea and chills. Leptospirosis is endemic in developing countries such as Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka, and Brazil where thousands of cases are reported annually. The disease risk factors include the high population of reservoirs, environmental factors, recreational factors, and occupational factors. To end the endemicity of leptospirosis, these factors need to be tackled. The management of leptospirosis needs to be refined. Early diagnosis remains a challenge due to a lack of clinical suspicion among physicians, its non-specific symptoms and a limited availability of rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests. The purpose of this review is to provide insight into the status of leptospirosis in developing countries focusing on the risk factors and to propose methods for the improved management of the disease.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Development and application of anthelminthic drugs in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Haobing Zhang, Congshan Liu, Qi Zheng China was once a country plagued by parasitic diseases. At the beginning of the founding of the People's Republic of China, nearly 80% of the population suffered from parasitic diseases because of poverty and poor sanitary conditions. After nearly 70 years of development, China has made remarkable achievements in the prevention and control of parasitic diseases, and the prevalence of parasitic diseases has been greatly reduced. In addition to organizational leadership from the government and various preventive measures, drug treatment and drug research & development are important and irreplaceable links in prevention and control work. Since the 1950s, China has begun to introduce, produce and imitate antiparasitic drugs from abroad, such as santonin, benzimidazole, and praziquantel. Chinese scientists have also contributed to the optimization of production techniques, improvements in drug formulation, the application in the clinic and the mechanisms of actions of generic drugs. At the same time, China has independently developed tribendimidine (TrBD, a broad spectrum anthelminthic), and its anthelminthic spectrum has been comprehensively studied. It is active against almost 20 parasites, is especially superior to benzimidazoles against Necator americanus, and surpasses the effectiveness of praziquantel against Clonorchis sinensis. In the treatment of tapeworm disease, the traditional Chinese medicines pumpkin seeds and betel nuts have good curative effects for taeniasis. Chinese scientists have explored the action modes and clinical administration methods of pumpkin seeds and betel nuts, which is still the main clinical regimen for the disease. This paper reviews the history and progress of the study of anthelmintics in intestinal helminth infections since the founding of the People's Republic of China and aiming to support clinicians and drug researchers in China and other countries.
  • Zombie bugs' Manipulation of kissing bug behavior by the parasite
           Trypanosoma cruzi
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): María Guadalupe Ramírez-González, A. Laura Flores-Villegas, Paz María Salazar-Schettino, Ana E. Gutiérrez-Cabrera, Eréndira Rojas-Ortega, Alex Córdoba-Aguilar The parasite manipulation hypothesis states that the parasite modifies host's behavior thereby increasing the probability that the parasite will pass from an intermediate host to its final host. We used the kissing bugs Triatoma pallidipennis and T. longipennis and two isolates of the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite (Chilpancingo and Morelos) to test these ideas. These insects are intermediate hosts of this parasite, which is the causal agent of Chagas disease. The Chilpancingo isolate is more pathogenic than the Morelos isolate, in the bugs. We expected that infected bugs would be more active and likely at detecting human-like odors. Given the differences in pathogenicity between isolates, we expected the Chilpancingo isolate to induce these effects more strongly and lead to higher parasite number than the Morelos isolate. Finally, infected bugs would gain less mass (a mechanism thought to increase bite rate, and thus transmission) than non-infected bugs. Having determined that both isolate haplotypes belong to the Tc1a group, we found that: a) young instars of both species were more active and likely to detect human odor when they were infected, regardless of the isolate; b) there was no difference in parasite abundance depending on isolate; and, c) infected bugs did not end up with less weight than uninfected bugs. These results suggest that T. cruzi can manipulate the bugs, which implies a higher risk to contract Chagas disease than previously thought.
  • Towards the optimization of botanical insecticides research: Aedes aegypti
           larvicidal natural products in French Guiana
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Michaël Falkowski, Arnaud Jahn-Oyac, Guillaume Odonne, Claudiane Flora, Yannick Estevez, Seindé Touré, Isabelle Boulogne, Jean-Charles Robinson, Didier Béreau, Philippe Petit, Didier Azam, Maïra Coke, Jean Issaly, Pascal Gaborit, Didier Stien, Véronique Eparvier, Isabelle Dusfour, Emeline Houël Natural products have proven to be an immeasurable source of bioactive compounds. The exceptional biodiversity encountered in Amazonia, alongside a rich entomofauna and frequent interactions with various herbivores is the crucible of a promising chemodiversity. This prompted us to search for novel botanical insecticides in French Guiana. As this French overseas department faces severe issues linked to insects, notably the strong incidence of vector-borne infectious diseases, we decided to focus our research on products able to control the mosquito Aedes aegypti. We tested 452 extracts obtained from 85 species originating from 36 botanical families and collected in contrasted environments against an Aedes aegypti laboratory strain susceptible to all insecticides, and a natural population resistant to both pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides collected in Cayenne for the most active of them. 8 species (Maytenus oblongata Reissek, Celastraceae; Costus erythrothyrsus Loes., Costaceae; Humiria balsamifera Aubl., Humiriaceae; Sextonia rubra (Mez) van der Werff, Lauraceae; Piper hispidum Sw., Piperaceae; Laetia procera (Poepp.) Eichl., Salicaceae; Matayba arborescens (Aubl.) Radlk., Sapindaceae; and Cupania scrobitulata Rich., Sapindaceae) led to extracts exhibiting more than 50% larval mortality after 48h of exposition at 100 µg/mL against the natural population and were considered active. Selectivity and phytochemistry of these extracts were therefore investigated and discussed, and some active compounds highlighted. Multivariate analysis highlighted that solvents, plant tissues, plant family and location had a significant effect on mortality while light, available resources and vegetation type did not. Through this case study we highlighted that plant defensive chemistry mechanisms are crucial while searching for novel insecticidal products.Graphical abstractFrench Guiana biodiversity was explored for the search of novel larvicidal products against both insecticide-susceptible and -resistant Aedes aegypti populations. Image, graphical abstract
  • Validation of droplet digital Polymerase Chain Reaction for the detection
           and absolute quantification of Taenia solium eggs in spiked soil samples
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Justine Daudi Maganira, Beda John Mwang'onde, Winifrida Kidima, Chacha John Mwita, Nkwengulila Gambaband Johan Höglund To enable the detection of taeniid eggs in environmental samples, a sensitive technology is required. In this study, we validated the effectiveness of a digital droplet Polymerase Chain Reaction (ddPCR) assay for detection, identification and absolute quantification of taeniid DNA from artificially contaminated soils with varying numbers of taeniid eggs using a set of universal primers, JB3 & JB4.5. The results showed that the number of cox1 copies detected increased gradually for both species with the number of taeniid eggs added to the different soil types. The highest cox1 DNA copies recovery for Taenia solium and T. lynciscapreoli was from the sand soil with lowest recovery being observed in clay soils. Therefore, ddPCR is a promising technology for screening of taeniid eggs from soil samples collected in the environment irrespective of the soil type and the number of eggs. The potential of the ddPCR protocol to detect taeniid egg DNA in spiked soil samples has great practical application for taeniid egg screening in soils from endemic areas. However, when universal primers are used in screening environmental samples, the identity of ddPCR positive samples must be confirmed by sequencing. In addition, more validation studies using species-specific primers and field soil samples is recommended.
  • Use of MALDI-TOF MS to identify the culturable midgut microbiota of
           laboratory and wild mosquitoes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Gabriel Gazzoni Araújo Gonçalves, Ana Paula Sampaio Feitosa, Nairomberg Cavalcanti Portela Júnior, Cláudia Maria Fontes de Oliveira, José Luiz de Lima Filho, Fábio André Brayner, Luiz Carlos Alves Mosquitoes are responsible for transmitting many pathogens to humans and Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus are important vectors in the world. The microbiota plays an important role in developmental studies that involve impacts on the biological cycle of mosquitoes and vector control strategies. In this study, the aim was to understand the environment plays in the microbiota culturable diversity of Aedes aegytpi, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Midgut of studied mosquitoes (laboratory-reared and wild) were dissected and analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS to identify the microbiota. Most of the bacteria identified in the microbiota of mosquitoes from the laboratory and field belong to the phylum Proteobacteria. We reported on the microbial diversity among the mosquito species studied where Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. albopictus show greater bacterial similarity. The genus Rahnella was present in all mosquito species studied, both in those from the laboratory and those from the wild. Bacillus, Ewingella, Microccocus, Klebsiella and Pantoea are genera was predominant among the mosquitoes studied. The difference of microbiota diversity between mosquitoes laboratory-reared and wild shows that the environment plays an important role in the acquisition of bacteria, mainly in Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus.
  • An overview of leishmanization experience: A successful control measure
           and a tool to evaluate candidate vaccines
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Mehdi Mohebali, Abolhassan Nadim, Ali Khamesipour Leishmanization (LZ) is an intradermal inoculation of live Leishmania to induce an artificial cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesion in a covered part of the body to protect against further natural CL lesion development. Leishmanization has been used from ancient times and when NNN medium was developed continued with using Leishmania from culture media. The objective of this study was to review LZ published experiences. This article is a review of LZ experiences and historical studies initiated since 1910 when Leishmania promastigotes were harvested from culture media and used for LZ. This review includes LZ experiences in Israel, some countries of Former Soviet Union and Iran.The results of LZ in Israel, some countries of Former Soviet Union and Iran showed that despite limitations, using this method significantly reduced the incidence rate of CL among leishmanized individuals in endemic areas.In conclusion, leishmanization using Leishmania major produced under GMP guideline is a valuable tool to protect against CL, there are limitations which need further study.
  • Toxicity and Repellency of Two Anthranilates against Aedes albopictus
           Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Ruizhen Zhao, Rulin Wang, Lianshun Zheng, Yating Zhou, Lizhi Wang, Fei Zhao, Babar Hassan, Yijuan Xu The ability of Aedes albopictus Skuse to transmit several pathogens to humans makes it a very important mosquito with public health significance. Ecofriendly products as alternatives to synthetic chemicals for the control of mosquito vectors are needed. Therefore, the larvicidal and repellent effects of two nontoxic chemicals, butyl anthranilate (BA) and ethyl anthranilate (EA), at different concentrations were compared in Ae. albopictus. The repellency persistence of BA and three commercial mosquito repellent products (Liushen repellent spray, DKB Korean, Raid repellent spray) against Ae. albopictus was compared. The results showed that 0.1% concentrations of BA and EA solutions were highly toxic to Ae. albopictus larvae, and the mortality rate was> 90% after 4 hours of treatment. We found that BA was more repellent than EA, and at 0.1% BA and 1% EA, and the repellency rates were 53.62% and 38.47%, respectively. Overall, 5% BA presented a significantly longer repellency time than the three commercial repellent products against female Ae. albopictus. These results indicate that BA has significant larvicidal and repellent effects and can be exploited further for the development of ecofriendly alternatives to existing toxic chemicals currently used for mosquito control.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Molecular identification of vector-borne organisms in Ehrlichia
           seropositive Nicaraguan horses and first report of Rickettsia felis
           infection in the horse
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Jeffrey D. Tyrrell, Barbara A. Qurollo, Susan J. Tornquist, Kathryn G. Schlaich, Jennifer Kelsey, Ramaswamy Chandrashekar, Edward B. Breitschwerdt Certain vector-borne organisms serve as etiological agents of equine disease. After previously identifying a new Ehrlichia species in horses from Mérida, we aimed to determine the infection frequency and screen for a wide range of vector-borne organisms from 93 tick-exposed, Ehrlichia seropositive horses in this region. PCR assays were performed to identify infection by organisms within the following genera: Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Ehrlichia, Leishmania, Mycoplasma, Neorickettsia, Rickettsia and Theileria. Overall, 90/93 horses (96.8%) were infected with one or more vector-borne organisms. Ninety (96.8%) horses were infected with Theileria equi and 21 (26.8%) with Babesia caballi. Nine (9.7%) horses were infected with the novel Ehrlichia species previously designated H7, reported in horses from Nicaragua and Brazil. Two horses (2.2%) were infected with Rickettsia felis. Anaplasma, Bartonella, Leishmania, Mycoplasma, or Neorickettsia species DNA was not amplified from any horse. Ticks collected from horses infected with vector-borne organisms were identified as Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato and Dermacentor nitens. Horses in Mérida are infected by a range of vector-borne organisms, including B. caballi, T. equi, Ehrlichia species H7, and R. felis. To the authors’ knowledge, this constitutes the first report of molecular detection of R. felis in horses.
  • Immunity and vaccine development efforts against Trypanosoma
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Lizette E. Rios, Juan Carlos Vázquez-Chagoyán, Antonio Ortega Pacheco, M. Paola Zago, Nisha J. Garg Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is the causative agent for Chagas disease (CD). There is a critical lack of methods for prevention of infection or treatment of acute infection and chronic disease. Studies in experimental models have suggested that the protective immunity against T. cruzi infection requires the elicitation of Th1 cytokines, lytic antibodies and the concerted activities of macrophages, T helper cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In this review, we summarize the research efforts in vaccine development to date and the challenges faced in achieving an efficient prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine against human CD.
  • Chronic Chagas disease: quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi in peripheral
           blood and dejections of Triatoma infestans fed by xenodiagnosis in
           patients with and without cardiopathy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Werner Apt, Daniela Carrasco, Cristian Fuentealba, Mauricio Canals, Gabriela Muñoz, Miguel Saavedra, Juan-Paul Castillo, Inés Zulantay It is not currently known which individuals with chronic Chagas disease (ChD) will develop cardiopathy in a determined period and which will be maintained asymptomatic with normal routine laboratory tests all their lives. The parasite burden is a factor that could explain this different evolution. The objective of this study was to quantify T. cruzi burden by real-time PCR in blood (qPCR-B) and dejections of triatomines fed by xenodiagnosis (qPCR-XD) in 90 individuals with chronic ChD untreated, classified according to XD results and the presence or absence of cardiopathy. All individuals came from hyperendemic areas of Chile and participated in the study under Informed Consent. The standard qPCR curves for qPCR-B and qPCR-XD were elaborated with a mixture of known concentrations of T. cruzi strains, performing DNA serial dilutions (1/10) with a dynamic range between 105 and 10−1 parasite equivalents/mL. The TaqMan® detection system was applied in a Stratagene Mx3000P thermocycler (Agilent Technologies, USA) with cruzi 1 and cruzi 2 satellite primers. 22.2% and 15.6% of cases with cardiopathy or without cardiopathy were XD positive. There was no significant difference between the groups. The positivity of qPCR-B and qPCR-XD in the positive XD group was 82.35% and 100%, respectively, while in the negative XD group was 55.26% and 42.10%, respectively. A superior qPCR value in chronic ChD patients with and without cardiopathy was determined for qPCR in cases with positive XD and positive qPCR-XD. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses show better accuracy for detecting parasite burden (area under the curve, AUC) for qPCR-XD in comparison to qPCR-B. That is to say, major performance in DNA samples obtained of positive XD (gold standard for viable T. cruzi) detected and quantified by qPCR-XD. A high percentage of cases with XD and qPCR-XD positive (80-100%) have result concordant with qPCR-B. In absence of XD, future challenges are especially related to the low parasitic load of chronic ChD patients treated with trypanocidal drugs and post-therapy parasitological evaluations by qPCR-B. Finally, no statistically significant differences were found between presence or absence of cardiopathy and XD, qPCR-B or qPCR-XD.
  • Expression of Concern
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Felipe Guhl
  • Mapping benznidazole resistance in trypanosomatids and exploring
           evolutionary histories of Nitroreductases and ABCG transporter protein
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Pamela O. Petravicius, André G. Costa-Martins, Marcelo N. Silva, João L. Reis-Cunha, Daniella C. Bartholomeu, Marta M.G. Teixeira, Bianca Zingales The nitro-heterocyclic compound benznidazole (BZ) is the first-line drug for the treatment of Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. However, therapeutic failures are common for reasons that include the influences of parasite and host genetics, the effects of toxicity on adherence to treatment, and difficulties in demonstrating parasitological cure. To obtain information on the origin of the resistance to BZ and eliminate from the scenery the participation of the host, initially we mapped the susceptibility to the drug in thirteen species of seven genera of the family Trypanosomatidae. We verified that all Trypanosoma species are sensitive to low concentrations of the drug (IC50 2.7 to 25 µM) while Non-Trypanosoma species are highly resistant to these concentrations. The two groups of parasites correspond to the major phylogenetic lineages of trypanosomatids. Next, we searched in the trypanosomatid genome databases homologs of two type-I nitroreductases (NTR-1 and OYE) and an ABC transporter (ABCG1) that have been associated with BZ resistance in T. cruzi. The predicted proteins were characterized regarding domains and used for phylogenetic analyses. Homologous NTR-1 genes were found in all trypanosomatids investigated and the structural characteristics of the enzyme suggest that it may be functional. OYE genes were absent in BZ-sensitive African trypanosomes, which excludes the participation of this enzyme in BZ bio-activation. Two copies of ABCG1 genes were observed in most BZ resistant species, while Trypanosoma species exhibit only one copy per haploid genome. Functional studies are required to verify the involvement of these genes in BZ resistance. In addition, since multiple mechanisms can contribute to BZ susceptibility, our study poses a range of organisms highly resistant to BZ in which these aspects can be investigated. Preliminary studies on BZ uptake indicate marked differences between BZ-sensitive and BZ-resistant species.Graphical abstractThe sensitivity to benznidazole (BZ) of African and American Trypanosoma species and of Non-Trypanosoma parasites is illustrated in the phylogenetic tree of Nitroreductase-1 protein homologs.Image, graphical abstract
  • Differential response to plant- and human-derived odorants in field
           surveillance of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Wyckliff P. Omondi, Eunice A. Owino, David Odongo, Joseph M. Mwangangi, Baldwyn Torto, David P. Tchouassi Linalool oxide (LO) and hexanoic acid (HA) represent plant- and human-derived odorants, respectively, previously found as attractants for the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Here, we investigated if a blend of both compounds can improve captures of this mosquito species in field trials in two dengue endemic sites, Kilifi and Busia Counties in Kenya. Ae. aegypti captures were significantly higher in Kilifi than Busia (χ21,142=170.63, P
  • In vitro activity of usnic acid potassium salt against different
           developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni: An ultrastructural study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Hallysson D.A. Araújo, Victor H.B. Santos, Fábio A. Brayner, Luiz C. Alves, Nicácio H. Silva, Mônica C.P.A. Albuquerque, André L. Aires, Vera L.M. Lima Currently, the control of schistosomiasis is based on a single drug, praziquantel, which is effective against all species of Schistosoma but only in the adult stage, presenting a schistosomicidal deficit at the other developmental stages of the parasites. Recently our research grouphas demonstrated that the potassium salt of usnic acid (PS-UA) presented schistosomicidal property against couples of adult worms of S. mansoni (Araújo et al., 2019a). Thus, the present study seeks to report for the first time the in vitro activity of PS-UA against different developmental stages of S. mansoni (schistosomules and young worms). As schistosomicide parameters, we evaluated motility, mortality, cell viability of the worms and tegument changes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After 3 h exposure, PS-UA was lethal to schistosomules at concentrations of 100 and 50 μM, whereas for concentrations 25 and 12.5 μM, 38 and 18% of mortality and 62 and 24% changes in motility, respectively, were reached. Yet for schistosomules, concentration of 25 μM caused 90 and 100% of death after 6 and 12 h, respectively. In the concentration of 12.5 μM at intervals of 12 e 24 h mortality was 68 and 100%, respectively. For young worms, after 3 h of exposure at concentrations of 200 and 100 μM caused 57 and 27% mortality, respectively. After 12 and 24 h, these concentrations caused mortality of 90 and 100% and 47 and 60% respectively. After 24 h, concentrations of 50 and 25 μM caused 80 and 30% change in motility, respectively. However, at the 12.5 μM concentration no change was observed. In addition, PS-UA reduced the cellular viability of young worms by 50.98% and 85.87% at concentrations of 100 and 200 μM, respectively. In both stages of worms and at different exposure intervals, PS-UA caused alterations such as; dorsoventral contraction, peeling, swelling, blisters, erosion, exposure of subtegumental tissue and disintegration of tegument. According to the results, changes in motility and mortality caused by PS-UA against schistosomules and young worms were concentration and time-dependents and that PS-UA, even at low concentration, able to cause profound ultrastructural changes in the integument of the worms. PS-UA it's a promising candidate as prophylactic agent in the control of schistosomiasis mansoni.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Comparison of the clinical signs, pathological and immuohistochemical
           findings in visceral organs of chickens experimentally infected with
           Salmonella Zega through three routes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Fakilahyel Musa Mshelbwala, Najume Doguwar Giginya Ibrahim, Shehu Naallah Saidu, Amina Kinta Fakilahyel Kadiri, Clara Nna Kwanashie Salmonella Zega isolated from natural outbreaks that were characterized by high mortality in poultry farms in three Southwestern States of Nigeria was used to inoculate two week-old chicks through different routes in order to determine and compare the clinical signs, pathological and immunohistochemical changes in each route of infection. The birds were divided into 4 groups of 25 each as groups A (orally inoculated), B (intraperitoneally inoculated), C (inoculated per cloaca) and D (uninoculated control). All the birds were inoculated with 0.2 ml of 1 × 108 cfu of the bacteria. Clinical signs were observed and recorded according to the route of infection, and with the days post-infection from day 0 till day 10 post-infection. Two birds from each group were sacrificed every 24 hours and examined for gross lesions, which were described and scored according to the route of infection and days post-infection. Samples of visceral organs were collected for bacteriology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Clinical signs in chicks infected orally and intraperitoneally were weakness, anoraexia lethargy, somnolescence, yellowish diarrhoea observed from 4 days till day 10 post infections. Mild sign of weakness was observed in chickes infected per cloaca, from day 3 to 7. The gross lesions were congestion, oedema and enlargement and necrosis in visceral organs from day 4 to 10 post infection in orally and intraperitoneally infected chicks, but mild vascular changes were observed in chicks infected per cloaca, except in the caecum were lesions of necrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells were moderate to severe. Microscopic lesions were necrosis of host cells and infiltration by lymphocytes, heterophils and macrophages in multiple organs observed from day 4 to 10 post infection in orally and intraperitoneally infected chicks. Immunoreactions were observed in all the visceral organs examined. Clinical signs, pathological and immunohistochemical findings were mild in chicks infected per cloaca, except caecal lesions. Salmonella Zega isolated from an outbreak in poultry farms in Abeokuta, Nigeria was highly pathogenic in chicken and produced similar findings in oral and intraperitoneal infections; while per cloacal infection showed a localized infection of the caecum.
  • A pilot evaluation of alternative procedures for the simplification of
           LAMP-based malaria diagnosis in field conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Elisa Serra-Casas, Pieter Guetens, Driss Chiheb, Dionicia Gamboa, Anna Rosanas-Urgell Highly-sensitive and field-friendly diagnostic tools are needed for accurate detection of low-density malaria infections. Although loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) fulfills these conditions, operational challenges are still encountered during pilot population screenings in remote settings when employing LoopampTM MALARIA Pan/Pf detection kit (Eiken Chemical Co.). This study evaluates different procedures for the simplification of sample preparation and result reading steps of current LAMP protocols. The reference ‘Boil & Spin’ (B&S) pre-amplification procedure was compared to three alternative methods, along with a colorimetric staining protocol based on malachite green. Results suggested that the B&S supernatant transference step may be omitted without an impact on test performance, even when colorimetry was incorporated to facilitate results visualization. Procedures skipping centrifugation and/or heat-incubation were proved to be compatible with LAMP-based malaria DNA detection, but resulted in a low-to-moderate decrease in sensitivity and ambiguous result interpretation for the most straightforward protocol. Nevertheless, all simplified LAMP methods could still reach lower limits of detection than the currently used tools for malaria mass-screening (i.e. microscopy and rapid tests), indicating that these alternative strategies may deserve further consideration. This evaluation, therefore, demonstrates the feasibility of skipping some of the main procedural bottlenecks of LAMP-malaria protocols, a much-needed achievement to make point-of-care implementation of molecular diagnostics a reality.
  • A case of group infections with Paraginimus species in Henan,
           Central China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Wei-qi Chen, Yan Deng, Ya-lan Zhang, Lin Ai, Jia-xu Chen, Xi-meng Lin, Xiao-bo Du, Peng Li, Rui-min Zhou, Cheng-yun Yang, Ying Liu, Hong-wei Zhang, Bian-li Xu, Yu-ling ZhaoABSTRACTIn July of 2012, mass infections with Paragonimus species were detected in the Henan province sickening 11 of 51 people. In May 2011, these individuals had participated in an excursion during which freshwater crabs were caught and served after being toasted. Before the group infections with Paraginimus species was confirmed, 5 of the 11 patients had been misdiagnosed as tuberculosis (TB) and treated with an anti-TB drug regimen for six months. The most common and typical manifestations were eosinophilia (11/11, 100%) and pulmonary manifestations including, among others, stethalgia and cough (7/11 63.6%). Sero-examination revealed that all 11 patients were seropositive for Paragonimus species. Surprisingly, in our case, one patient presented with hemoptysis and eggs in respiratory secretions, and this is the first time P. skrjabini eggs are detected in the sputum of a patient from the Henan province. Paragonimus metacercariae were collected from 6 of 11 (54.5%) crabs caught at the infection site and were identified as Paraginiumus skrjabini by morphological and molecular examinations. Epidemiological and laboratory evidence confirmed that this is a case of group infection with P. skrjabini.As one of the most neglected tropical diseases (NTD), paragonimiasis should be differentiated diagnosed from TB to avoid the delay of treatment. To our knowledge, this is the second report of a case of group infections with Paraginimus species in Henan, Central China. The first case was reported in 1995. As a kind of food-borne parasitic disease, paragonimiasis should be included in the public health education agenda.
  • Geographic Plasmodium falciparum sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase
           (PfSERCA) genotype diversity in India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 July 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Shelly Goomber, Neelima Mishra, Anup Anvikar, Neena Valecha Plasmodium falciparum sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (PfSERCA) is sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane bound transporter to regulate cytosol Ca2+ ions. Ca2+ act as secondary messenger and play important role in differentiation of parasite during its life cycle. Present study is epidemiological surveillance of PfSERCA (Pf3D7_0106300) gene fragment harboring 263, 402, 431 codon to look for its single nucleotide polymorphism which is well documented to be associated with Artemisinin tolerance. Filter paper with finger pricked blood samples for Plasmodium falciparum infected uncomplicated malaria patients were obtained for region as diverse as down the longitude from east to west of India i.e. Mizoram, Tripura, Meghalaya, Jharkhand, Odhisa. There observed no mutation for codon 263 at all study sites. Mizoram showed highest PfSERCA diversity with well known SNPs of L402 V, E431 K, A438 V and novel mutations as well i.e. A338 V, S357Y, S379Y. Tripura reported highest proportion of Plasmodium isolates (18.5%) with E431 K single nucleotide polymorphism. Moving towards the west i.e. Meghalaya, Jharkhand, Odhisa showed no occurrence of most prevalent PfSERCA 431, 402 polymorphism worldwide but some novel mutations and its haplotypes. In present study, significantly increased proportion of novel PfSERCA polymorphism among children suggests the susceptibility of these Plasmodium falciparum strains to acquired immunity. Mizoram, sharing open international border with south east asia, demonstrated highest PfSERCA diversity. Spatial PfSERCA diversity from far north east India to moving towards west implies its association with antimalarial susceptibility.
  • Impact of Rural Doctors' Historical Changes on Schistosomiasis Epidemics
           in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Dong Xiaoyan Objective By combing the changes of rural doctors and schistosomiasis epidemic in different historical periods, this paper summarizes the correlation between the two, analyzes the causes, and provides suggestions for the current schistosomiasis control work. Methods The historical data and statistical data of different periods were selected to restore the changes of rural doctors and the actual situation of schistosomiasis epidemic. Results The number, preventive function of rural doctors and the intervention of political forces in rural areas were negatively correlated with schistosomiasis epidemic. Conclusions First, it is urgent to stabilize the team of rural doctors, and it is also necessary to train a group of health workers in areas where the epidemic situation is serious. Second, the preventive function of rural doctors should be improved. Third, the ability of rural areas to prevent disease depends to some extent on political power.
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Heriot-Watt University
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