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Showing 1 - 200 of 3177 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 386, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 243, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 384, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 337, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 435, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Acta Tropica
  [SJR: 1.059]   [H-I: 77]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-706X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Open data mining for Taiwan’s dengue epidemic
    • Authors: ChienHsing Wu; Shu-Chen Kao; Chia-Hung Shih; Meng-Hsuan Kan
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 183
      Author(s): ChienHsing Wu, Shu-Chen Kao, Chia-Hung Shih, Meng-Hsuan Kan
      By using a quantitative approach, this study examines the applicability of data mining technique to discover knowledge from open data related to Taiwan’s dengue epidemic. We compare results when Google trend data are included or excluded. Data sources are government open data, climate data, and Google trend data. Research findings from analysis of 70,914 cases are obtained. Location and time (month) in open data show the highest classification power followed by climate variables (temperature and humidity), whereas gender and age show the lowest values. Both prediction accuracy and simplicity decrease when Google trends are considered (respectively 0.94 and 0.37, compared to 0.96 and 0.46). The article demonstrates the value of open data mining in the context of public health care.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T13:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Spatiotemporal responses of dengue fever transmission to the road network
           in an urban area
    • Authors: Qiaoxuan Li; Wei Cao; Hongyan Ren; Zhonglin Ji; Huixian Jiang
      Pages: 8 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Qiaoxuan Li, Wei Cao, Hongyan Ren, Zhonglin Ji, Huixian Jiang
      Urbanization is one of the important factors leading to the spread of dengue fever. Recently, some studies found that the road network as an urbanization factor affects the distribution and spread of dengue epidemic, but the study of relationship between the distribution of dengue epidemic and road network is limited, especially in highly urbanized areas. This study explores the temporal and spatial spread characteristics of dengue fever in the distribution of road network by observing a dengue epidemic in the southern Chinese cities. Geographic information technology is used to extract the spatial location of cases and explore the temporal and spatial changes of dengue epidemic and its spatial relationship with road network. The results showed that there was a significant “severe” period in the temporal change of dengue epidemic situation, and the cases were mainly concentrated in the vicinity of narrow roads, the spread of the epidemic mainly along the high-density road network area. These results show that high-density road network is an important factor to the direction and scale of dengue epidemic. This information may be helpful to the development of related epidemic prevention and control strategies.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T13:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.03.026
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • A perspective for improving the sensitivity of detection: The application
           of multi-epitope recombinant antigen in serological analysis of buffalo
    • Authors: Chao Lv; Zhiqiang Fu; Ke Lu; Ruili Yue; Tao Wang; Xiaodan Cao; Chuangang Zhu; Hao Li; Yang Hong; Jiaojiao Lin
      Pages: 14 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Chao Lv, Zhiqiang Fu, Ke Lu, Ruili Yue, Tao Wang, Xiaodan Cao, Chuangang Zhu, Hao Li, Yang Hong, Jiaojiao Lin
      The sensitivity and specificity are two crucial aspects of addressing the efficacy of diagnostic antigens. Achilles' heel of low sensitivity rate exists in current diagnostic recombinant antigens for schistosomiasis detection. This study focused on the diagnosis of water buffalo schistosomiasis japonica and a perspective of improving recombinant antigens’ sensitivity was assessed using archived 220 water buffalo sera (114 positive sera, 92 negative sera and 14 Paramphistomum-infected sera) and the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The subjects included two trivalent recombinant proteins, one bivalent antigen and two single-molecular antigens. The crude antigen SEA (soluble egg antigen) was employed as reference antigen. The highest sensitivity rate in the five recombinant antigens assigned to the trivalent multi-epitope antigen PA4 (95.61%, 109/114), no significant difference with SEA (100%, 114/114, p = .836), and showing remarkable differences with the two single-molecular antigens (p < 0.01). In term of specificity, two trivalent multi-epitope antigens PA4 (97.83%, 90/92), PA5 (100%, 92/92) and the bivalent antigen PA3 (98.91%, 91/92) had few differences with one monovalent antigens PA1 (97.83%, 90/92, p = .304/0.103/0.640), significant differences with another monovalent antigens PA2 (92.39%, 85/92, p < 0.01) and SEA (82.61%, 76/92, p < 0.01). Additional, all the recombinant antigens had low cross-reactivity (7.14%, 1/14, 0% for PA5) with serum samples of paramphistomiasis, contrast with that of SEA (50%, 7/14, p < 0.01). The results indicated that multi-epitope antigens have the possibility to improve diagnostic sensitivity and the trivalent multi-epitope antigen PA4 possesses greater likelihood to be a diagnostic antigen for water buffalo schistosomiasis.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T13:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.03.025
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Coxiella burnetii in dairy goats with a history of reproductive disorders
           in Brazil
    • Authors: Júnior Mário Baltazar de Oliveira; Tatiana Rozental; Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos; Danielle Forneas; Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora; Wagnner José Nascimento Porto; Andréa Alice da Fonseca Oliveira; Rinaldo Aparecido Mota
      Pages: 19 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Júnior Mário Baltazar de Oliveira, Tatiana Rozental, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos, Danielle Forneas, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, Wagnner José Nascimento Porto, Andréa Alice da Fonseca Oliveira, Rinaldo Aparecido Mota
      Coxiella burnetii, an intracellular bacterium, is the agent of Q fever/coxiellosis, a worldwide zoonosis. Dairy animals are the primary reservoirs of C. burnetii, and although the disease is usually asymptomatic or subclinical, abortion is a serious clinical outcome among small ruminants. This study was conducted to investigate C. burnetii seroprevalence and infection In a flock of dairy goats in Brazil. Serum samples from 312 goats collected from a dairy goat flock with a history of reproductive failure were tested by a commercial ELISA (LSIVet Ruminant Q Fever − Serum/Milk; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Lissieu, France) for anti-C. burnetii IgG antibodies. Samples of cotyledons from 23 placentas were analyzed by nested PCR for the presence of the bacterial DNA. ELISA seroreactivity was found in 55.1% (172/312; 95% CI = 49.4%–60.7%) of the serum samples analyzed. C. burnetii DNA was detected in 8.7% (2/23) of the placental samples tested, where both animals were also seropositive. This study reports the first description of C. burnetii infection in an abortion outbreak in goats in Brazil. The results point out to the importance of including this disease in animal and public health surveillance programs as well as into the list of abortive diseases in goats in Brazil.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T13:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • What makes an effective Chagas disease vector' Factors underlying
           Trypanosoma cruzi-triatomine interactions
    • Authors: José A. de Fuentes-Vicente; Ana E. Gutiérrez-Cabrera; A. Laura Flores-Villegas; Carl Lowenberger; Giovanni Benelli; Paz M. Salazar-Schettino; Alex Córdoba-Aguilar
      Pages: 23 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 183
      Author(s): José A. de Fuentes-Vicente, Ana E. Gutiérrez-Cabrera, A. Laura Flores-Villegas, Carl Lowenberger, Giovanni Benelli, Paz M. Salazar-Schettino, Alex Córdoba-Aguilar
      The Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which infect blood-feeding triatomine bugs to finally reach mammal hosts. Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America, and is ranked among the 13 neglected tropical diseases worldwide. Currently, an estimate of 7 million people is infected by T. cruzi, leading to about 22 000 deaths per year throughout the Americas. As occurs with other vectors, a major question towards control programs is what makes a susceptible bug. In this review, we focus on findings linked to insect gut structure and microbiota, immunity, genetics, blood sources, abiotic factors (with special reference to ambient temperature and altitude) to understand the interactions occurring between T. cruzi and triatomine bugs, under a co-evolutionary scenario. These factors lead to varying fitness benefits and costs for bugs, explaining why infection in the insect takes place and how it varies in time and space. Our analysis highlights that major factors are gut components and microbiota, blood sources and temperature. Although their close interaction has never been clarified, knowledge reviewed here may help to boost the success of triatomine control programs, reducing the use of insecticides.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T13:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.04.008
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Invasive Pomacea snails as important intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus
           cantonensis in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam: Implications for outbreaks of
           eosinophilic meningitis
    • Authors: Shan Lv; Yun-Hai Guo; Hung Manh Nguyen; Muth Sinuon; Somphou Sayasone; Nathan C. Lo; Xiao-Nong Zhou; Jason R. Andrews
      Pages: 32 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Shan Lv, Yun-Hai Guo, Hung Manh Nguyen, Muth Sinuon, Somphou Sayasone, Nathan C. Lo, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Jason R. Andrews
      The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis causes human eosinophilic meningitis and it is endemic in Southeast Asia, but little is known about its distribution in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. We conducted a multi-country survey for A. cantonensis in these countries to estimate its prevalence in snails along the Mekong River and the east coast of Vietnam. We identified Angiostrongylus species by morphological and molecular analysis. We found A. cantonensis in the invasive snail, Pomacea spp. The wide accessibility of Pomacea snails, along with their infection by A. cantonensis, indicates that this snail species could be used in surveillance for preventing outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T13:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.03.021
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • In vitro 4-Aryloxy-7-chloroquinoline derivatives are effective in mono-
           and combined therapy against Leishmania donovani and induce mitocondrial
           membrane potential disruption
    • Authors: Elizabeth Valdivieso; Fabiola Mejías; Carlos Torrealba; Gustavo Benaim; Vladimir V. Kouznetsov; Felipe Sojo; Fernando A. Rojas-Ruiz; Francisco Arvelo; Francehuli Dagger
      Pages: 36 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Elizabeth Valdivieso, Fabiola Mejías, Carlos Torrealba, Gustavo Benaim, Vladimir V. Kouznetsov, Felipe Sojo, Fernando A. Rojas-Ruiz, Francisco Arvelo, Francehuli Dagger
      The present study evaluates in vitro the effect of two synthetic compounds of the 7-chloro-4-aryloxyquinoline series, QI (C17H12ClNO3) and QII (C18H15ClN4O2S), on Leishmania donovani parasites. The results obtained demonstrate that these compounds are able to inhibit the proliferation of L. donovani promastigotes in a dose-dependent way (QI IC50 = 13.03 ± 3.4 and QII IC50 = 7.90 ± 0.6 μM). Likewise, these compounds significantly reduced the percentage of macrophage infection by amastigotesand the number of amastigotes within macrophage phagolysosomes, the clinical relevant phase of these parasites. Compound QI showed an IC50 value of 0.66 ± 0.2 μM, while for derivative QII, the corresponding IC50 was 1.02 ± 0.17 μM. Interestingly, the amastigotes were more susceptible to the drug treatment when compared to promastigotes. Furthermore, no cytotoxic effect of these compounds was observed on the macrophage cell line at the concentrations tested. The combination of these compounds with miltefosine and amphotericin B on both parasite morphotypes was evaluated. The isobolograms showed a synergistic effect for both combinations; with a Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) Index lower than 1 for promastigotes and less than 0.3 for intracellular amastigotes. The effect of QI and QII on mitochondrial membrane potential was also studied. The combination of quinolone derivatives compounds with miltefosine and amphotericin B showed 5–8-fold stronger depolarization of membrane mitochondrial potential when compared to drugs alone. The present work validates the combination of drugs as an effective alternative to potentiate the action of anti-Leishmania agents and points to the quinoline compounds studied here as possible leishmanicidal drugs.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T13:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.03.023
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Artificial blood feeders for mosquito and ticks—Where from, where
    • Authors: Donato Romano; Cesare Stefanini; Angelo Canale; Giovanni Benelli
      Pages: 43 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Donato Romano, Cesare Stefanini, Angelo Canale, Giovanni Benelli
      Mosquito and tick feeding activity represent a key threat for humans, livestock, pets and wildlife worldwide. Rearing these vectors in laboratory conditions is extremely important to investigate basic facets of their biology, vector competence, new control strategies, as well as mechanisms of pesticide resistance. However, the use of animals or humans to provide blood for hematophagous arthropod feeding poses a strict limit to these researches, due to the accidental transmission of diseases, ethical problems concerning animal welfare, as well as expensive and time-consuming animal rearing procedures. The use of devices to artificially feed arthropod vectors can importantly leverage progresses in parasitology and entomology. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about artificial feeding of mosquitoes and ticks, focusing on key concepts and case studies about the design and fabrication of blood feeding devices. From a technical standpoint, the literature analyzed here showed little standardization of materials used for fabricating membrane interfaces, as well as in the strategy used to heat the “biomimetic host”. In addition, a lack of uniform methods to design an architecture merging complex and realistic cues with an easy-to-assemble approach have been found. Some commercial products are available, but they are quite expensive, thus hard to reach for many laboratories, especially in developing countries. An important challenge for future research is represented by the introduction of automation and bioinspired engineered solutions in these devices, improving the effectiveness of blood-feeding systems by increasing their host-mimicking features. Automation can reduce labor costs and provide interesting solutions – in line with the 3R principle “reduce, replace and refine” – aimed to minimize the employ of experimental animals in research.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T13:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.04.009
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Emergence of a genotype I variant of avian infectious bronchitis virus
           from Northern part of India
    • Authors: Subhash J. Jakhesara; Barnali Nath; J.K. Pal; Chaitanya G. Joshi; Sachin Kumar
      Pages: 57 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Subhash J. Jakhesara, Barnali Nath, J.K. Pal, Chaitanya G. Joshi, Sachin Kumar
      Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is one of the foremost causes of a persistent economic burden to poultry industries worldwide. IBV belongs to the genus Gammacoronavirus within the family Coronaviridae. The IBV infection leads to respiratory and nephrogenic symptoms in broiler chickens. In addition, its infection leads to reduced fertility and hatchability in layer birds. We determined the first complete genome sequence of a variant IBV from an outbreak in Haryana state of the Northern part of India using next generation sequencing. On phylogenetic analysis of the IBV isolate, it clustered with genotype I lineage 1 (GI-1). The deduced amino acid sequence of S gene of IBV isolates showed a high level of identity with strains isolated from Tamil Nadu and the reference vaccine strains. Our result suggests that the IBV virus isolated from unvaccinated chicken flocks in North India might be a revertant strain originally evolved from the live attenuated vaccine strains used in the region. Determination of the complete genome sequence of additional IBV isolates from India is necessary to understand the epidemiology of IBV in India.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T13:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Centers for Disease Control-type light traps equipped with high-intensity
           light-emitting diodes as light sources for monitoring Anopheles mosquitoes
    • Authors: Benedita Maria Costa-Neta; Abdias Ribeiro Lima-Neto; Apoliana Araújo da Silva; Jefferson Mesquita Brito; João Vitor Castro Aguiar; Islana Silva Ponte; Francinaldo Soares Silva
      Pages: 61 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Benedita Maria Costa-Neta, Abdias Ribeiro Lima-Neto, Apoliana Araújo da Silva, Jefferson Mesquita Brito, João Vitor Castro Aguiar, Islana Silva Ponte, Francinaldo Soares Silva
      In this study the phototactic response of anopheline mosquitoes to different luminous intensity light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was investigated. Centers for Disease Control-type light traps were changed by replacement of the incandescent lamps by 5 mm round type green (520 nm) and blue (470 nm) LEDs of different luminous intensities: green-LED traps with luminous intensities of 10,000, 15,000 and 20,000 millicandela (mcd) and the blue-LED traps with luminous intensities of 4000, 12,000 and 15,000 mcd. Our data showed that increasing luminous intensity has an effect on the attraction of anopheline mosquitoes to light traps, highlighting the importance of taking LEDs and light sources of high luminous intensity into account when using light-trap collections in monitoring populations of Anopheles species.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T13:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.04.013
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • A fine scale eco-epidemiological study on endemic visceral leishmaniasis
           in north ethiopian villages
    • Authors: Oscar David Kirstein; Laura Skrip; Ibrahim Abassi; Tamara Iungman; Ben Zion Horwitz; Araya Gebresilassie; Tatiana Spitzova; Yoni Waitz; Teshome Gebre-Michael; Petr Volf; Asrat Hailu; Alon Warburg
      Pages: 64 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Oscar David Kirstein, Laura Skrip, Ibrahim Abassi, Tamara Iungman, Ben Zion Horwitz, Araya Gebresilassie, Tatiana Spitzova, Yoni Waitz, Teshome Gebre-Michael, Petr Volf, Asrat Hailu, Alon Warburg
      Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a disseminated protozoan infection caused by Leishmania donovani that affects almost half a million people annually. In Northern Ethiopia, VL is common in migrant agricultural laborers returning from the lowland sesame fields of Metema and Humera. Recent VL foci have emerged in resident rural populations near the town. In the current study, we evaluate multilevel entomological, epidemiological and ecological factors associated with infection and disease through fine-scale eco-epidemiological analyses in three villages. Satellite images showed that villages constructed in or close to vertisols, were likely to become endemic for VL. Vertisols or black-cotton soil, are characterized by high contents of smectitic clay minerals, which swell when hydrated and shrink upon desiccation, causing extensive deep cracking during the dry season. The population densities of Phlebotomus orientalis, the vector, were negatively correlated with distance from vertisols and persons living close to vertisols were more likely to be bitten by sand flies, as evidenced by sero-positivity to Ph. orientalis saliva. Apparent (albeit non-significant) clustering of VL cases and abundant asymptomatic infections close to vertisols, suggest anthroponotic transmission around houses located close to vertisols. Comparable rates of male and female volunteers, mostly under 15 years of age, were infected with L. donovani but a significantly higher proportion of males succumbed to VL indicating a physiological gender-linked male susceptibility. Our data suggest that the abundant infected persons with high parasitemias who remain asymptomatic, may serve as reservoir hosts for anthroponotic transmission inside villages. Only limited insights on the transmission dynamics of L. donovani were gained by the study of environmental factors such as presence of animals, house structure and vegetation cover.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:33:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • DNA barcoding of five Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors (Culex
           fuscocephala, Culex gelidus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex pseudovishnui
           and Culex vishnui)
    • Authors: Pushparaj Karthika; Chithravel Vadivalagan; Durairaj Thirumurugan; Rangaswamy Ravi Kumar; Kadarkarai Murugan; Angelo Canale; Giovanni Benelli
      Pages: 84 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Pushparaj Karthika, Chithravel Vadivalagan, Durairaj Thirumurugan, Rangaswamy Ravi Kumar, Kadarkarai Murugan, Angelo Canale, Giovanni Benelli
      Culex mosquitoes can act as vectors of several important diseases, including Japanese encephalitis, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis and equine encephalitis. Besides the neurological sequelae caused in humans, Japanese encephalitis can lead to abortion in sows and encephalitis in horses. Effective vector control and early diagnosis, along with continuous serosurveillance in animals, are crucial to fight this arboviral disease. However, the success of vector control operations is linked with the fast and reliable identification of targeted species, and knowledge about their biology and ecology. Since the DNA barcoding of Culex vectors of Japanese encephalitis is scarcely explored, here we evaluated the efficacy of this tool to identify and analyze the variations among five overlooked Culex vectors of Japanese encephalitis, Culex fuscocephala, Culex gelidus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex pseudovishnui and Culex vishnui, relying to the analysis of mitochondrial CO1 gene. Variations in their base pair range were elucidated by the entropy Hx plot. The differences among individual conspecifics and on base pair range across the same were studied. The C (501–750 bp) region showed a moderate variation among all the selected species. C. tritaeniorhynchus exhibited the highest variation in all the ranges. The observed genetic divergence was partially non-discriminatory. i.e., the overall intra- and inter nucleotide divergence was 0.0920 (0.92%) and 0.125 (1.25%), respectively. However, 10X rule fits accurately intraspecies divergence <3% for the five selected Culex species. The analysis of individual scatter plots showed threshold values (10X) of 0.008 (0.08%), 0.005 (0.05%), 0.123 (1.23%), 0.033 (0.33%) and 0.019 (0.19%) for C. fuscocephala, C. gelidus, C. tritaeniorhynchus, C. pseudovishnui and C. vishnui, respectively. The C. tritaeniorhynchus haplotypes KU497604, KU497603, AB690847 and AB690854 exhibited the highest divergence range, i.e., from 0.465 −0.546. Comparatively, the intra-divergence among the other haplotypes of C. tritaeniorhynchus ranged from 0–0.056. The maximum parsimony tree was formed by distinctive conspecific clusters with appreciable branch values illustrating their close congruence and extensive genetic deviations. Overall, this study adds valuable knowledge to the molecular biology and systematics of five overlooked mosquito species acting as major vectors of Japanese encephalitis in Asian countries.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:33:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Experimental porcine cysticercosis using infected beetles with Taenia
           solium eggs
    • Authors: Luis A. Gomez-Puerta; Hector H. Garcia; Armando E. Gonzalez
      Pages: 92 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Luis A. Gomez-Puerta, Hector H. Garcia, Armando E. Gonzalez
      Beetles are intermediate hosts for human and animal parasites, and several beetle species have been shown to carry Taenia eggs. An experimental porcine cysticercosis infection model was developed using beetles (Ammophorus rubripes) infected with Taenia solium eggs and then using these beetles for oral pig challenge. A total of 18 three months-old Landrace pigs were divided in four groups. Pigs from groups 1, 2, and 3 (n = 6 pigs per group) were challenged with one, three, and six beetles infected with T. solium eggs, containing approximately 52, 156 or 312 eggs respectively. Pigs were necropsied 12 weeks after infection to assess the presence of T. solium metacestode. Porcine cysticercosis by T. solium was produced in 17 out of 18 pigs (94.4%) challenged with infected beetles, all infected pigs had viable cysts. Only one pig from group 1 was negative to the presence of cysts. The median number of metacestodes per pig in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2 (range 0–71), 26 (range 5–33) and 40 cysts (range 4–111), respectively. Experimental porcine cysticercosis infection is consistently obtained using beetles as mechanical vectors for T. solium eggs.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:33:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Morphological and molecular characterization of Paragonimus caliensis
           Little, 1968 (Trematoda: Paragonimidae) from Medellin and Pichinde,
    • Authors: Carolina Lenis; Alicia Galiano; Imelda Vélez; Iván Darío Vélez; Carlos Muskus; Antonio Marcilla
      Pages: 95 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Carolina Lenis, Alicia Galiano, Imelda Vélez, Iván Darío Vélez, Carlos Muskus, Antonio Marcilla
      Paragonimiasis is a subacute to chronic inflammatory granulomatous lung disease caused by the genus Paragonimus. In Latin America Paragonimus mexicanus Miyazaki & Ishii, 1968 is the only confirmed species to cause human infections. Paragonimus caliensis Little, 1968 is an uncommon species often regarded as a synonym of P. mexicanus. Recently, the study of two types of Paragonimus metacercariae from Costa Rica has provided new molecular and morphological evidence that P. caliensis is a separate species from P. mexicanus. In the present study, molecular, morphological and phylogenetic tools have been used to characterize two populations of Paragonimus located at west of Medellin, Antioquia and at Pichinde, Valle del Cauca (type locality of P. caliensis), Colombia. Adults and metacercariae obtained from Medellin, and metacercariae from Pichinde were analyzed. For morphological observations we used light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphology of metacercariae and adults matched with the holotype of P. caliensis. The number and arrangement of sensory papillae in the acetabulum region differs from the morphotypes reported for P. caliensis in Costa Rica. Two morphotypes in branching patterns of ovary and two morphotypes in branching patterns of testes were identified. The main morphological differences between P. caliensis and P. mexicanus corresponded to the size of gonads and their relative positions in the body, and the occasional presence of a cyst wall in P. caliensis metacercariae. The molecular and phylogenetic analyses (using nuclear ribosomal ITS2 and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 CO1 sequences) confirmed that P. caliensis from the type locality is the same species from Medellin and Costa Rica. Furthermore, these analyses also suggest genetic as well as geographical separation of P. caliensis populations between Colombia and Costa Rica. Currently, P. mexicanus and P. caliensis are sympatric in the Colombian Pacific bioregion, and specific diagnosis based on their egg size is not possible. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the biogeographic distribution ranges of both species and to implement molecular techniques to establish the role of P. caliensis in human paragonimiasis in Colombia.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:33:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.03.024
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Socio-economic burden of parasitic infections in yaks from 1984 to 2017 on
           Qinghai Tibetan Plateau of China—A review
    • Authors: Kun Li; Muhammad Shahzad; Hui Zhang; Xiong Jiang; Khalid Mehmood; Xiaodong Zhao; Jiakui Li
      Pages: 103 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Kun Li, Muhammad Shahzad, Hui Zhang, Xiong Jiang, Khalid Mehmood, Xiaodong Zhao, Jiakui Li
      Yak is an important animal for the Tibetans at Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China. The burden of parasitic diseases has been a major threat to the health of yaks at this region presenting a considerable socio-economic losses and impact to yak production and local nomads. Keeping in view, we collected the published papers from 1984 to 2017 on major parasitic infections in yaks by electronic literature search from five databases including CNKI, Google, PubMed, Science Direct and Web of Science. The prevalence of Eimeria, Babesia, Theileria, Hypodermosis, Cystic echinococcosis, Alveolar echinococcosis, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Cryptosporidium, Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Toxocara vitulorum, and Fascioliasis infection in yaks was found to be 48.02%, 13.06%, 36.11%, 59.85%, 16.93%, 0.99%, 20.50%, 5.14%, 10.00%, 3.68%, 4.07%, 22.23% and 28.7% respectively. Data presented are contemplated to enhance our current understanding on the major parasitic diseases of yaks at Qinghai Tibetan plateau, China. The main aim of this effort is to ameliorate the effects of the parasitic burden in this specie; so that, the attempts are made to minimize the incidence of these infections in future to raise the socio-economic levels of local community.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:33:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • First report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in Holstein cattle in
           the Republic of Korea
    • Authors: Du-Gyeong Han; Ji-Hyoung Ryu; Jeong-Byoung Chae; Dong-Woo Kim; Chan-Ho Kwon; Kyoung-Seong Choi
      Pages: 110 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Du-Gyeong Han, Ji-Hyoung Ryu, Jeong-Byoung Chae, Dong-Woo Kim, Chan-Ho Kwon, Kyoung-Seong Choi
      Global warming has increased the incidence and risk of tick-borne diseases in domestic animals and humans in the Republic of Korea (ROK). In this study, we investigated the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Holstein cattle (n = 214) in the ROK using specific PCR assays. A. phagocytophilum infection was detected in only two animals (0.93%, 2/214). Our findings showed that PCR assay using the 16S rRNA gene, but not groEL, was suitable for detection of A. phagocytophilum in cattle. Phylogenetic analysis based on the16S rRNA gene showed that A. phagocytophilum was divided into two clades. Clade 1 included Korean isolates, such as those from dogs, cats, Korean water deer, and ticks, while A. phagocytophilum identified in Holstein cattle formed clade 2. Our results suggest that there is genetic variability among isolates of A. phagocytophilum circulating in the ROK. This is the first study to report A. phagocytophilum infection in Holstein cattle in the ROK. As A. phagocytophilum has zoonotic potential, additional epidemiological studies are needed to investigate the prevalence and genetic characterization of A. phagocytophilum from different regions and hosts.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:33:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Newcastle disease virus strain AF2240 as an oncolytic virus: A review
    • Authors: Jeevanathan Kalyanasundram; Aini Hamid; Khatijah Yusoff; Suet Lin Chia
      Pages: 126 - 133
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Jeevanathan Kalyanasundram, Aini Hamid, Khatijah Yusoff, Suet Lin Chia
      The discovery of tumour selective virus-mediated apoptosis marked the birth of an alternative cancer treatment in the form of oncolytic viruses. Even though, its oncolytic efficiency was demonstrated more than 50 years ago, safety concerns which resulted from mild to lethal side effects hampered the progress of oncolytic virus research. Since the classical oncolytic virus studies rely heavily on its natural oncolytic ability, virus manipulation was limited, thereby, restricted efforts to improve its safety. In order to circumvent such restriction, experiments involving non-human viruses such as the avian Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was conducted using cultured cells, animal models and human subjects. The corresponding reports on its significant tumour cytotoxicity along with impressive safety profile initiated immense research interest in the field of oncolytic NDV. The varying degree of oncolytic efficiency and virulency among NDV strains encouraged researchers from all around the world to experiment with their respective local NDV isolates in order to develop an oncolytic virus with desirable characteristics. Such desirable features include high tumour-killing ability, selectivity and low systemic cytotoxicity. The Malaysian field outbreak isolate, NDV strain AF2240, also currently, receives significant research attention. Apart from its high cytotoxicity against tumour cells, this strain also provided fundamental insight into NDV-mediated apoptosis mechanism which involves Bax protein recruitment as well as death receptor engagement. Studies on its ability to selectively induce apoptosis in tumour cells also resulted in a proposed p38 MAPK/NF-κB/IκBα pathway. The immunogenicity of AF2240 was also investigated through PBMC stimulation and macrophage infection. In addition, the enhanced oncolytic ability of this strain under hypoxic condition signifies its dynamic tumour tropism. This review is aimed to introduce and discuss the aforementioned details of the oncolytic AF2240 strain along with its current challenges which outlines the future research direction of this virus.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:33:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Molecular diagnosis of protozoan parasites by Recombinase Polymerase
    • Authors: A. Castellanos-Gonzalez; A.C. White; P. Melby; B. Travi
      Pages: 4 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): A. Castellanos-Gonzalez, A.C. White, P. Melby, B. Travi
      Infections caused by protozoan parasites affect millions of people around the world. Traditionally, diagnosis was made by microscopy, which is insensitive and in some cases not specific. Molecular methods are highly sensitive and specific, but equipment costs and personnel training limit its availability only to specialized centers, usually far from populations with the highest risk of infection. Inexpensive methods that can be applied at the point of care (POC), especially in places with limited health infrastructure, would be a major advantage. Isothermal amplification of nucleic acids does not require thermocyclers and is relatively inexpensive and easy to implement. Among isothermal methods, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is sensitive and potentially applicable at POC. We and others have developed RPA diagnostic tests to detect protozoan parasites of medical importance. Overall, our results have shown high specificity with limits of detection similar to PCR. Currently, the optimization of RPA for use at the POC is under development, and in the near future the tests should become available to detect protozoan infections in the field. In this review we discuss the current status, challenges, and future of RPA in the field of molecular diagnosis of protozoan parasites.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:34:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Leptospira seroprevalence in animals in the Caribbean region: A systematic
    • Authors: Nicola Pratt; Sreekumari Rajeev
      Pages: 34 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Nicola Pratt, Sreekumari Rajeev
      This systematic review summarises the data published on the Leptospira seroprevalence, serovar diversity and distribution among animal species in the Caribbean region. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, and checklist, relevant articles were identified and data were extracted and recorded. The review provided Leptospira seroprevalence data from 16 Caribbean islands (Barbados, Trinidad, Grenada, Puerto Rico, Saint Croix, St. Kitts and Nevis, Jamaica, Antigua, Carriacou, Dominica, Guadalupe, Martinique, Monserrat, St. Lucia, St. Maarten, and St. Vincent) in a variety of animal species. Reviewing the literature highlighted the limited amount of data available from limited number of islands. Many of the studies conducted have recorded seroprevalences based on variable and small samples sizes. Besides, serovar panels used for MAT were not consistent between studies. The review indicates that the Leptospira exposure in a given geographic location may change with time and climatic and environmental conditions, and highlights the need to conduct continual surveillance in tropical countries where the climate supports the survival of Leptospira in the environment. Specific attention must be given to standardization of MAT panels and protocols and providing training across laboratories involved in testing. Further, animal and environment testing to isolate and identify circulating Leptospira spp. in a geographic region must actively be pursued. This knowledge is important to implement geographically specific control programs, as risk factors of Leptospira transmission is favoured by various factors such as change in climatic conditions, urbanization, encroachment of wildlife inhabitation, import/export of animals, increase in adventure travel, and water related recreational activities.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:34:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Ground ultra low volume (ULV) space spray applications for the control of
           wild sand fly populations (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Europe
    • Authors: Alexandra Chaskopoulou; Michael Miaoulis; Javid Kashefi
      Pages: 54 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Alexandra Chaskopoulou, Michael Miaoulis, Javid Kashefi
      The Phlebotomus sand flies are considered an important vector of both canine and human leishmaniasis. Current measures for sand fly control include mostly indoor interventions, such as residual spraying of dwellings (IRS) to target endophilic sand fly species with very limited number of vector control tools for outdoor interventions against exophilic sand flies. In this study we investigated the efficacy of ground ultra low volume (ULV) space spray applications of a deltamethrin based product against field populations of P. perfiliewi, a major nuisance and pathogen-transmitting sand fly species of the Mediterranean Basin. Sand fly flight activity patterns and flight height preference within candidate treatment sites (kennels) were determined prior to treatments in order to optimize the timing and application parameters of the spray applications. On average there was a distinct activity peak between 20.00–22.00 h for both male and female P. perfiliewi with more than 45% and 30% of the population sampled occurring between 20.00–21.00 h and 21.00–22.00 h, respectively. No significant difference was observed in sand fly numbers from sticky traps placed at 0.5 up to 1.5 m height. However, there was a significant decrease in sand fly numbers at 2 m indicating a preference of sand flies to fly below 2 m. The low and high application rate of deltamethrin resulted in mean sand fly population decrease of 18 and 66%, respectively between pre-and post-treatment trap nights. The percent mean population change in the untreated control area was a positive number (30%) indicating that there was an increase in numbers of sand flies trapped between pre- and post-treatment nights. The results of this study provide strong evidence that ground ULV space spray applications when applied properly can result in significant sand fly control levels, even in a heavily infested sand fly environment such as the kennel sites used in this study.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:34:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Detection of West Nile Virus – Lineage 2 in Culex pipiens mosquitoes,
           associated with disease outbreak in Greece, 2017
    • Authors: Konstantinos Mavridis; Emmanouil A. Fotakis; Ilias Kioulos; Spiridoula Mpellou; Spiros Konstantas; Evangelia Varela; Sandra Gewehr; Vasilis Diamantopoulos; John Vontas
      Pages: 64 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Konstantinos Mavridis, Emmanouil A. Fotakis, Ilias Kioulos, Spiridoula Mpellou, Spiros Konstantas, Evangelia Varela, Sandra Gewehr, Vasilis Diamantopoulos, John Vontas
      During July-October 2017 a WNV outbreak took place in the Peloponnese, Southern Greece with five confirmed deaths. During routine monitoring survey in the Peloponnese, supported by the local Prefecture, we have confirmed the presence of all three Culex pipiens biotypes in the region, with a high percentage of Culex pipiens/molestus hybrids (37.0%) which are considered a highly competent vector of WNV. Kdr mutations related to pyrethroid resistance were found at relatively low levels (14.3% homozygosity) while no mosquitoes harboring the recently identified chitin synthase diflubenzuron-resistance mutations were detected in the region. As an immediate action, following the disease outbreak (within days), we collected a large number of mosquitoes using CO2 CDC traps from the villages in the Argolis area of the Peloponnese, where high incidence of WNV human infections were reported. WNV lineage 2 was detected in 3 out of 47 Cx. pipiens mosquito pools (detection rate = 6.38%). The virus was not detected in any other mosquito species, such as Aedes albopictus, sampled from the region at the time of the disease outbreak. Our results show that detection of WNV lineage 2 in Cx. pipiens pools is spatially and chronologically associated with human clinical cases, thus implicating Cx. pipiens mosquitoes as the most likely WNV vector. The absence of diflubenzuron resistance mutations and the low frequency of pyrethroid (kdr) resistance mutations indicates the suitability of these insecticides for Cx. pipiens control, in the format of larvicides and/or residual spraying applications respectively, which was indeed the main (evidence based) response, following the disease outbreak.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:34:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.024
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Identification and characterization of Taenia solium enolase as a
           plasminogen-binding protein
    • Authors: Dolores A. Ayón-Núñez; Gladis Fragoso; Clara Espitia; Martín García-Varela; Xavier Soberón; Gabriela Rosas; Juan P. Laclette; Raúl J. Bobes
      Pages: 69 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Dolores A. Ayón-Núñez, Gladis Fragoso, Clara Espitia, Martín García-Varela, Xavier Soberón, Gabriela Rosas, Juan P. Laclette, Raúl J. Bobes
      The larval stage of Taenia solium (cysticerci) is the causal agent of human and swine cysticercosis. When ingested by the host, T. solium eggs are activated and hatch in the intestine, releasing oncospheres that migrate to various tissues and evolve into cysticerci. Plasminogen (Plg) receptor proteins have been reported to play a role in migration processes for several pathogens. This work is aimed to identify Plg-binding proteins in T. solium cysticerci and determine whether T. solium recombinant enolase (rTsEnoA) is capable of specifically binding and activating human Plg. To identify Plg-binding proteins, a 2D-SDS-PAGE ligand blotting was performed, and recognized spots were identified by MS/MS. Seven proteins from T. solium cysticerci were found capable of binding Plg: fascicilin-1, fasciclin-2, enolase, MAPK, annexin, actin, and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. To determine whether rTsEnoA binds human Plg, a ligand blotting was performed and the results were confirmed by ELISA both in the presence and absence of εACA, a competitive Plg inhibitor. Finally, rTsEnoA-bound Plg was activated to plasmin in the presence of tPA. To better understand the evolution of enolase isoforms in T. solium, a phylogenetic inference analysis including 75 enolase amino acid sequences was conducted. The origin of flatworm enolase isoforms, except for Eno4, is independent of their vertebrate counterparts. Therefore, herein we propose to designate tapeworm protein isoforms as A, B, C, and 4. In conclusion, recombinant enolase showed a strong plasminogen binding and activating activity in vitro. T. solium enolase could play a role in parasite invasion along with other plasminogen-binding proteins.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:34:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.020
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Management of arthropod vector data – Social and ecological dynamics
           facing the One Health perspective
    • Authors: Giovanni Benelli; Mary Frances Duggan
      Pages: 80 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Giovanni Benelli, Mary Frances Duggan
      Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are spread by direct and/or indirect contacts between a pathogen or parasite and their hosts. Arthropod vectors have evolved as excellent bloodsuckers, providing an elegant transportation mode for a wide number of infectious agents. The nature of pathogen and parasite transfer and the models used to predict how a disease might spread are magnified in complexity when an arthropod vector is part of the disease cycle. One Health is a worldwide strategy for expanding interdisciplinary collaborations and communications in all aspects of health care for humans, animals and the environment. It would benefit from a structured analysis to address vectoring of arthropod-borne diseases as a dynamic transactional process. This review focused on how arthropod vector data can be used to better model and predict zoonotic disease outbreaks. With enhanced knowledge to describe arthropod vector disease transfer, researchers will have a better understanding about how to model disease outbreaks. As public health research evolves to include more social-ecological systems, the roles of society, ecology, epidemiology, pathogen/parasite evolution and animal behavior can be better captured in the research design. Overall, because of more collaborative data collection processes on arthropod vectors, disease modeling can better predict conditions where EIDs will occur.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:34:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.015
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Comparative genomic analysis of Rickettsia rickettsii for identification
           of drug and vaccine targets: tolC as a proposed candidate for case study
    • Authors: Pramod Kumar Maurya; Swati Singh; Ashutosh Mani
      Pages: 100 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Pramod Kumar Maurya, Swati Singh, Ashutosh Mani
      Background Antibiotic resistance is increasing rapidly in pathogenic organisms, creating more complications for treatment of diseases. Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a neglected tropical disease in humans caused by Rickettsia rickettsii for which no effective therapeutic is available. Subtractive genomics methods facilitate the characterization of non-homologous essential proteins that could be targeted for the discovery of potential therapeutic compounds against R. rickettsii to combat RMSF. Present study followed an in-silico based methodology, involving scanning and filtering the complete proteome of Rickettsia rickettsii by using several prioritization parameters in the search of potential candidates for drug development. Further the putative targets were subjected to series of molecular dockings with ligands obtained from PDB ligand database to identify suitable potential inhibitors. The comparative genomic analysis revealed 606 non-homologous proteins and 233 essential non-homologous proteins of R. rickettsii. The metabolic pathway analysis predicted 120 proteins as putative drug targets, out of which 56 proteins were found to be associated with metabolic pathways unique to the bacteria and further subcellular localization analysis revealed that 9 proteins as potential drug targets which are secretion proteins, involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis, folate biosynthesis and bacterial secretion system. As secretion proteins are more feasible as vaccine candidates, we have selected a most potential target i.e. tolC, an outer membrane efflux protein that belongs to type I secretion system and has major role in pathogen survival as well as MDR persistence. So for case study, we have modelled the three dimensional structure of tolC (tunnel protein). The model was further subjected to virtual screening and in-silico docking. The study identified three potential inhibitors having PDB Id 19V, 6Q8 and 39H. Further we have suggested that the above study would be most important while considering the selection of candidate targets and drug or vaccine designing against R. rickettsii.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T14:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.021
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Antibody responses to P. falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen 1(AMA-1) in
           relation to haemoglobin S (HbS), HbC, G6PD and ABO blood groups among
           Fulani and Masaleit living in Western Sudan
    • Authors: Amre Nasr; Ayman M. Saleh; Muna Eltoum; Amir Abushouk; Anhar Hamza; Ahmad Aljada; Mohamed E. El-Toum; Yousif A. Abu-Zeid; Gamal Allam; Gehad ElGhazali
      Pages: 115 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Amre Nasr, Ayman M. Saleh, Muna Eltoum, Amir Abushouk, Anhar Hamza, Ahmad Aljada, Mohamed E. El-Toum, Yousif A. Abu-Zeid, Gamal Allam, Gehad ElGhazali
      Fulani and Masaleit are two sympatric ethnic groups in western Sudan who are characterised by marked differences in susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. It has been demonstrated that Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and Sickle cell trait HbAS carriers are protected from the most severe forms of malaria. This study aimed to investigate a set of specific IgG subclasses against P. falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA-1 3D7), haemoglobin variants and (G6PD) in association with malaria susceptibility among Fulani ethnic group compared to sympatric ethnic group living in Western Sudan. A total of 124 children aged 5–9 years from each tribe living in an area of hyper-endemic P. falciparum unstable malaria transmission were recruited and genotyped for the haemoglobin (Hb) genes, (G6PD) and (ABO) blood groups. Furthermore, the level of plasma IgG antibody subclasses against P. falciparum antigen (AMA-1) were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Higher levels of anti-malarial IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 but not IgG4 antibody were found in Fulani when compared to Masaleit. Individuals carrying the HbCC phenotype were significantly associated with higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2. Furthermore, individuals having the HbAS phenotype were associated with higher levels of specific IgG2 and IgG4 antibodies. In addition, patients with G6PD A/A genotype were associated with higher levels of specific IgG2 antibody compared with those carrying the A/G and G/G genotypes. The results indicate that the Fulani ethnic group show lower frequency of HbAS, HbSS and HbAC compared to the Masaleit ethnic group. The inter-ethnic analysis shows no statistically significant difference in G6PD genotypes (P value = 0.791). However, the intra-ethnic analysis indicates that both ethnic groups have less A/A genotypes and (A) allele frequency of G6PD compared to G/G genotypes, while the HbSA genotype was associated with higher levels of IgG2 (AMA-1) and IgG4 antibodies. In addition, patients carrying the G6PD A/A genotype were associated with higher levels of specific IgG2 antibody compared with those carrying the A/G and G/G genotypes. The present results revealed that the Fulani ethnic group has statistically significantly lower frequency of abnormal haemoglobin resistant to malaria infection compared to the Masaleit ethnic group.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T14:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.030
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Ultrasonographic investigation of cholangiocarcinoma in Lao PDR
    • Authors: Ju Yeong Kim; Tai-Soon Yong; Han-Jong Rim; Jong-Yil Chai; Duk-Young Min; Keeseon S. Eom; Woon-Mok Sohn; Jae Hoon Lim; Dongil Choi; Sithat Insisiengmay; Bounlay Phommasack; Bounnaloth Insisiengmay
      Pages: 128 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Ju Yeong Kim, Tai-Soon Yong, Han-Jong Rim, Jong-Yil Chai, Duk-Young Min, Keeseon S. Eom, Woon-Mok Sohn, Jae Hoon Lim, Dongil Choi, Sithat Insisiengmay, Bounlay Phommasack, Bounnaloth Insisiengmay
      Opisthorchis viverrini is a group 1 carcinogen that causes cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Although opisthorchiasis is known to be severely endemic to several areas along the Mekong River in Lao PDR, the CCA status of residents of this region is still under investigation. In this study, we analyzed the results of abdominal ultrasonography (US) performed on 6113 residents in 9 provinces (Vientiane Municipality, Savannakhet, Phongsaly, Khammouane, Saravane, Champasak, Vientiane, Xieng Khuouang, and Luang Prabang provinces) of Lao PDR from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 51 cases (0.83%) were detected with suspected CCA. The CCA rates in Vientiane Municipality and in Savannakhet and Khammouane provinces were 1.45%, 1.58%, and 1.09%, respectively. However, in the other 6 provinces, the rate of CCA averaged only 0.26%. In the 3 provinces with higher rates of CCA, bile duct dilatation (grade ≥ 2) was also significantly more prevalent (P < 0.0001). These results are concordant with previous reports showing a higher endemicity of opisthorchiasis in Vientiane Municipality and in Savannakhet and Khammouane provinces.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T14:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.031
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Degree of calcification and cyst activity in hepatic cystic echinococcosis
           in humans
    • Authors: Margherita Conchedda; Aldo Caddori; Alessia Caredda; Salvatore Capra; Gianfranco Bortoletti
      Pages: 135 - 143
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Margherita Conchedda, Aldo Caddori, Alessia Caredda, Salvatore Capra, Gianfranco Bortoletti
      To evaluate the relationship between cyst activity and calcification degree in cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans, 99 hepatic cysts at successive stages of involution, surgically excised from 72 Sardinian patients, have been analyzed. Cysts were classified into 4 groups according to calcification extent: CALC 0 (no calcification); CALC 1 (scattered punctate calcifications); CALC 2 (large coarse segmental/partial calcifications); CALC 3 (complete or nearly complete circumferential ring of calcification up to thick wall of osseous consistency/calcified content of cyst). In addition the possible correlation with antibody response has been explored analyzing IgG1, IgG4 and IgE produced against somatic PSCAg. Results showed that calcification is not restricted to the inactive WHO cyst types CE4 and CE5, but occurs to a varying extent in all morphotypes of metacestode, from active classic unilocular or multivesicular cysts to the more complicated and highly degenerate stages, where cyst wall appears massively calcified. Prevalence of calcification increases with progression of cyst degenerative process, but is not synonymous with parasite inactivity and can be misleading as signs of calcification may coexist with still metabolically active cysts. On the contrary, detection of entirely firmly solidified content seems a reliable indication of cyst inactivity. IgG4 is the dominant isotype associated particularly with the evolutive phase. Positive rates and OD levels, higher in active vs inactive stages, are stable or increase slightly in weakly and moderately calcified cysts (CALC 1/CALC 2), compared to non-calcified ones (CALC 0), strongly decreasing in highly calcified forms (CALC 3). In conclusion, evaluation of calcification extent may be pertinent for staging CE, and immunological tests, particularly for IgG4, and IgE may help to better define cyst activity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T14:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.027
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Validation of a urine circulating cathodic antigen cassette test for
           detection of Schistosoma haematobiumin uMkhanyakude district of South
    • Authors: O. Rubaba; M.J. Chimbari; W. Soko; T. Manyangadze; S. Mukaratirwa
      Pages: 161 - 165
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): O. Rubaba, M.J. Chimbari, W. Soko, T. Manyangadze, S. Mukaratirwa
      Circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) tests for schistosomiasis are fast and less complicated allowing making them good candidates for routine qualitative screening for schistosomiasis at point of care. The urine-CCA has been evaluated for detection of S. mansoni with promising results. Its specificity and consistency in detecting S. haematobium infection in different endemic regions has been variable. This study validated a rapid urine-CCA cassette test for qualitative detection of S. haematobium infection in an S. haematobium endemic area with low S. mansoni prevalence. Microscopic examination for the standard urine filtration technique was used to validate the commercially available urine-CCA cassette test (rapid medical diagnostics ®). The validation was done in a sample of primary school pupils (n = 420) aged 10–15 years in schools in the Jozini Municipality, KZN. There was a relationship between infection intensity and a positive urine-CCA test. Using the urine filtration method as the gold standard, the prevalence for S. haematobium was 40%, the accuracy of the CCA kit was 54.8%, sensitivity was 68.1% while the specificity was 45.8%. The positive predictive value was 45.82% while the negative predictive value was 68.05%. Both the urine filtration and the urine-CCA methods detected heavy (≥50 eggs/10 mL urine) and light infections at statistically significant levels. The overall accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the urine-CCA cassette test were low. The urine-CCA cassette test performed much better for heavy infections than low infections (p < 0.05) implying that the kit may not be suitable for low endemic areas.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T14:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.029
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Distribution of Giardia duodenalis (Assemblages A and B) and
           Cryptosporidium parvum amongst migrant workers in Peninsular Malaysia
    • Authors: Norhidayu Sahimin; Benacer Douadi; Ai Lian Yvonne Lim; Jerzy M. Behnke; Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain
      Pages: 178 - 184
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Norhidayu Sahimin, Benacer Douadi, Ai Lian Yvonne Lim, Jerzy M. Behnke, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain
      The influx of low skilled workers from socioeconomically deprived neighbouring countries to Malaysia has raised concerns about the transmission of communicable gastrointestinal diseases such as giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis to the local population. Therefore, a cross sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of both diseases and the genetic diversity of these pathogens in the migrant population. Microscopic examination of faecal samples from 388 migrant workers involved in five working sectors were screened and 10.8% (n = 42) were found to be positive with Giardia spp. and 3.1% (n = 12) with Cryptosporidium spp. infections. PCR amplicons at the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene were successfully obtained for Giardia duodenalis from 30 (30/388; 7.73%) samples with assemblages AII and B in 13 (13/30; 43.3%) and 17 (17/30; 56.7%) positive samples, respectively. Nine samples (9/388; 2.3%) were identified as Cryptosporidium parvum using PCR-RFLP analysis. Country of origin, duration of residence in Malaysia and working sectors significantly influenced G. duodenalis assemblage AII infections amongst the targeted population. Meanwhile, C. parvum infection was significantly associated with those working in the food service sector. Despite the low presence of pathogenic G. duodenalis and C. parvum in the study population, the results highlight the risk of anthroponotic foodborne and waterborne transmission and therefore call for implementation of control strategies through improvements in personal hygiene and sanitation standards.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T17:58:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.033
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Comparative evaluation of immunochromatographic dipstick test (ICT) rk39,
           soluble antigen ELISA and IFAT for the sero-diagnosis of visceral
           leishmaniasis in Morocco
    • Authors: Meryem Mniouil; Hajiba Fellah; Fatima Amarir; Abderrahim Sadak; Abdeslam Et-touys; Youssef Bakri; Aziza Moustachi; Fatima Zahraa Tassou; Mostapha Hida; Mohamed Lyagoubi; El Bachir Adlaoui; Mohamed Rhajaoui; Faiza Sebti
      Pages: 185 - 189
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Meryem Mniouil, Hajiba Fellah, Fatima Amarir, Abderrahim Sadak, Abdeslam Et-touys, Youssef Bakri, Aziza Moustachi, Fatima Zahraa Tassou, Mostapha Hida, Mohamed Lyagoubi, El Bachir Adlaoui, Mohamed Rhajaoui, Faiza Sebti
      A rapid, sensitive and specific tool for detection of Leishmania infantum infection in Humans would be highly desirable, because it would allow control interventions in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. This study was carried out at the Reference National Laboratory of Leishmaniasis (RNLL) in National Institute of Hygiene (NIH) Morocco, in order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of immunochromatographic dipstick test (ICT) rk39 in Moroccan suspected VL patients. A total of 49 admitted patients with strong clinical suspicion of VL and 40 healthy controls were investigated for the performance of the ICT rk39. Bone marrow smears were examined for microscopic detection of Leishmania amastigotes obtained from the admitted patients. Only PCR and smear positive cases were considered as gold standard as well as confirmed cases of VL. Out of 49 suspected patients, twenty four (48.9%) were found PCR and smear-positive and twenty three (46.9%) were positive for ICT rk39. Voluntary healthy controls, which included twenty persons from the endemic zone and twenty from non-endemic zone of VL, were found all negative for the strip test. The sensitivity in sera was 75% by ELISA and 87.5% by IFAT, compared with 95.8% for ICT rk39. Specificity was 95.8%, with both tests ELISA and IFAT, and 100% by ICT rk39 respectively. Present study findings again reinforce that the ICT rk39 is a simple, reliable and easy-to-perform non-invasive diagnostic tool for visceral leishmaniasis in the endemic area of Morocco.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T17:58:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Implications of the use of serological and molecular methods to detect
           infection by Leishmania spp. in urban pet dogs
    • Authors: Gustavo F. Paz; Jeronimo M.N. Rugani; Andreza P. Marcelino; Célia M.F. Gontijo
      Pages: 198 - 201
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Gustavo F. Paz, Jeronimo M.N. Rugani, Andreza P. Marcelino, Célia M.F. Gontijo
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between naturally occurring Leishmania spp. infections in dogs (Canis familiaris) and the practical implications of the use of serological and molecular methods to confirm diagnoses. The study population consisted of 96 domestic dogs in southeastern Brazil. Serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-Leishmania immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using four commercial canine visceral leishmaniasis kits. Dogs confirmed positive by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) were culled and samples from mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen border, bone marrow and ear skin were taken and submitted to DNA extraction. PCR reactions were performed using primers that amplify a 300–350 bp fragment of the Leishmania ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region. The ITS1 amplified products were analyzed by PCR-RFLP using Hae III restriction endonuclease. To confirm the Leishmania species detected by PCR, each purified sample was sequenced in duplicate. Of the 96 serum samples submitted to serological assays, 8 (8.3%) tested positive for Leishmania by IFAT, 4 (4.1%) by ELISA, 2 (2.1%) by rK39 RDT and 7 (7.3%) by DPP. Four of these infected dogs (50%) were found to be infected only by Leishmania braziliensis or Leishmania amazonensis, and their serum samples tested positive by IFAT and DPP. These findings demonstrate for the first time that cross-reactivity of L. braziliensis and L. amazonensis infection in dogs can be found using the DPP serum test. This is the first record of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis confirmed by a specific molecular marker in dogs (Canis familiaris) from Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T17:58:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Sero-epidemiology of bluetongue virus (BTV) infection in sheep and goats
           of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan
    • Authors: Amir Iftikhar Malik; Muhammad Ijaz; Tahir Yaqub; Muhammad Avais; Muhammad Zubair Shabbir; Hassaan Bin Aslam; Amjad Islam Aqib; Shahid Hussain Farooqi; Tayyebah Sohail; Awais Ghaffar; Ahmad Ali; Amjad Khan
      Pages: 207 - 211
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Amir Iftikhar Malik, Muhammad Ijaz, Tahir Yaqub, Muhammad Avais, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Hassaan Bin Aslam, Amjad Islam Aqib, Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Tayyebah Sohail, Awais Ghaffar, Ahmad Ali, Amjad Khan
      Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection is an emerging hazard in small ruminants having socio-economic impacts on animals and associated people. The current study was aimed to estimate the sero-prevalence and associated risk factors in sheep and goat from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan. Three distinct zones (northern, central and southern) with four districts (Mansehra, Abbottabad, Swabi, and Kohat) with a higher population of small ruminants were selected. A total of n = 408 sera originating from sheep (n = 212) and goats (n = 196) were randomly collected for detection of BTV group specific antibodies through competitive ELISA (c-ELISA). Univariable and multiple logistic regressions were applied to assess the potential risk factors associated with the occurrence of this disease. Results showed an overall prevalence of 50.00% (CI = 44.17–54.83) of BTV in both sheep and goats with a significant difference (p < 0.05) among different districts. The prevalence of BTV in sheep was found higher (56.60%, CI = 49.6–63.4) than goats (42.86%, CI = 35.8–50.1). The risk factors identified based on chi-square test were; 1–2 year of animals, herd size and location in sheep while, milking status, ticks infestation, location and herd size for goats (p < 0.05). On the basis of univariable analysis, 1–2 year of animals, and location for sheep while, ticks infestation and location for goats (OR > 1). Multiple logistic regressions conferred only herd size and location as potential risk factors (OR > 1) for BTV in sheep and goats. The study concluded higher prevalence of BTV in sheep than the goats, the risk factors were significantly associated with the occurrence of disease, and together ascertaining the needs to design appropriate disease management and control strategies in sheep and goats.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T17:58:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Development, characterization and application of a new epithelial cell
           line from caudal fin of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage 1878)
    • Authors: Pankaj Soni; Pravata K. Pradhan; T.R. Swaminathan; Neeraj Sood
      Pages: 215 - 222
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Pankaj Soni, Pravata K. Pradhan, T.R. Swaminathan, Neeraj Sood
      A cell line, designated as PHF, has been established from caudal fin of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. The cell line was developed using explant method and PHF cells have been subcultured for more than 72 passages over a period of 14 months. The cells were able to grow at temperatures between 24 and 32° C, with an optimum temperature of 28° C. The growth rate of PHF cells was directly proportional to FBS concentration, with optimum growth observed at 20% FBS concentration. On the basis of immunophenotyping assay, PHF cells were confirmed to be of epithelial type. Karyotyping of PHF cells revealed diploid number of chromosomes (2n = 60) at 39th and 65th passage, which indicated that the developed cell line is chromosomally stable. The origin of the cell line was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of cytochrome oxidase c subunit I and 16S rRNA genes. The cell line was tested for Mycoplasma contamination and found to be negative. The cells were successfully transfected with GFP reporter gene suggesting that the developed cell line could be utilized for gene expression studies in future. The cell line could be successfully employed for evaluating the cytotoxicity of heavy metals, namely mercuric chloride and sodium arsenite suggesting that PHF cell line can be potential surrogate for whole fish for studying the cytotoxicity of water soluble compounds. The result of virus susceptibility to tilapia lake virus (TiLV) revealed that PHF cells were refractory to TiLV virus. The newly established cell line would be a useful tool for investigating disease outbreaks particularly of viral etiology, transgenic as well as cytotoxicity studies.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T17:58:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • An ambient temperature stable and ready-to-use loop-mediated isothermal
           amplification assay for detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in outbreak
    • Authors: E.A.R. Engku Nur Syafirah; A.B. Nurul Najian; Phiaw Chong Foo; Mohammad Ridhuan Mohd Ali; Maizan Mohamed; Chan Yean Yean
      Pages: 223 - 231
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): E.A.R. Engku Nur Syafirah, A.B. Nurul Najian, Phiaw Chong Foo, Mohammad Ridhuan Mohd Ali, Maizan Mohamed, Chan Yean Yean
      Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae is a foodborne disease that frequently reported in food and water related outbreak. Rapid diagnosis of cholera infection is important to avoid potential spread of disease. Among available diagnostic platforms, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is regarded as a potential diagnostic tool due to its rapidity, high sensitivity and specificity and independent of sophisticated thermalcycler. However, the current LAMP often requires multiple pipetting steps, hence is susceptible to cross contamination. Besides, the strict requirement of cold-chain during transportation and storage make its application in low resource settings to be inconvenient. To overcome these problems, the present study is aimed to develop an ambient-temperature-stable and ready-to-use LAMP assay for the detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in low resource settings. A set of specific LAMP primers were designed and tested against 155 V. cholerae and non-V. cholerae strains. Analytical specifity showed that the developed LAMP assay detected 100% of pathogenic V. cholerae and did not amplified other tested bacterial strains. Upon testing against stool samples spiked with toxigenic V. cholerae outbreak isolates, the LAMP assay detected all of the spiked samples (n = 76/76, 100%), in contrast to the conventional PCR which amplified 77.6% (n = 59/76) of the tested specimens. In term of sensitivity, the LAMP assay was 100-fold more sensitive as compared to the conventional PCR method, with LOD of 10 fg per μL and 10 CFU per mL. Following lyophilisation with addition of lyoprotectants, the dry-reagent LAMP mix has an estimated shelf-life of 90.75 days at room temperature.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T17:58:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Liposomal amphotericin B treatment of Old World cutaneous and mucosal
           leishmaniasis: A literature review
    • Authors: Vincent Mosimann; Andreas Neumayr; Daniel H. Paris; Johannes Blum
      Pages: 246 - 250
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Vincent Mosimann, Andreas Neumayr, Daniel H. Paris, Johannes Blum
      Old World cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis is a potentially serious disease. Systemic treatment approaches with pentavalent antimonials, liposomal amphotericin B, fluconazole and miltefosine are increasingly used despite the absence of supportive evidence − to date, no prospective clinical trials have been conducted for systemic treatment of these diseases. We performed a literature search to delineate the contemporary evidence for the use of liposomal amphotericin B, and found that although cure rates of 17/20 (85%) were achieved in immune competent patients with Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis and cure rates of 10/13 (77%) for Old World mucosal leishmaniasis due to L. infantum, the available data is highly limited with high variation in total treatment dosages. The presented findings reflect a lack of consensus on the optimal treatment dosage and on the schedule of application.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T17:58:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Current status, challenges and perspectives in the development of vaccines
           against yellow fever, dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses
    • Authors: José V.J. Silva; Thaísa R.R. Lopes; Edmilson F. de Oliveira-Filho; Renato A.S. Oliveira; Ricardo Durães-Carvalho; Laura H.V.G. Gil
      Pages: 257 - 263
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): José V.J. Silva, Thaísa R.R. Lopes, Edmilson F. de Oliveira-Filho, Renato A.S. Oliveira, Ricardo Durães-Carvalho, Laura H.V.G. Gil
      Emerging and re-emerging viral infections transmitted by insect vectors (arthopode-borne viruses, arbovirus) are a serious threat to global public health. Among them, yellow fever (YFV), dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses are particularly important in tropical and subtropical regions. Although vector control is one of the most used prophylactic measures against arboviruses, it often faces obstacles, such as vector diversity, uncontrolled urbanization and increasing resistance to insecticides. In this context, vaccines may be the best control strategy for arboviral diseases. Here, we provide a general overview about licensed vaccines and the most advanced vaccine candidates against YFV, DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV. In particular, we highlight vaccine difficulties, the current status of the most advanced strategies and discuss how the molecular characteristics of each virus can influence the choice of the different vaccine formulations.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T13:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Toxocara spp. infection and risk of childhood asthma: A systematic review
           and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Shima Aghaei; Seyed Mohammad Riahi; Ali Rostami; Iraj Mohammadzadeh; Mostafa Javanian; Ehsan Tohidi; Masoud Foroutan; Mohammadreza Esmaeili Dooki
      Pages: 298 - 304
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Shima Aghaei, Seyed Mohammad Riahi, Ali Rostami, Iraj Mohammadzadeh, Mostafa Javanian, Ehsan Tohidi, Masoud Foroutan, Mohammadreza Esmaeili Dooki
      Asthma is one of the most common chronic respiratory disease worldwide, with a negative impact on quality of life and socio-economic status of patients. There are some evidences to suggest that Toxocara infection is a neglected risk factor for childhood asthma. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to further understanding of this relationship. Five databases include PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science (ISI), and Google scholar were searched (up to October 2017) to identify the relevant studies. We used random-effects meta-analysis model to estimate the pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Heterogeneity was assessed with the Q-test and I2 statistic. A total of 17 studies including 11 studies with case-control design (1139 patients and 1023 controls) and six studies with cross-sectional design (a total of 5469 participants, 872 asthmatics, and 4597 non-asthmatics children) met the eligibility criteria. An increased risk for asthma was observed in children with Toxocara infection seropositivity (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.47–2.47). In sub-group analysis, the pooled ORs were (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.43–3.15) and (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.23–2.44) for case-control and cross-sectional studies, respectively. Moreover, considering to specific IgE seropositivity, a pooled OR of 2.36 (95% CI, 0.93–5.98) was observed. In conclusion, this meta-analysis revealed that children infected with Toxocara spp. are more likely to have asthma compared to non-infected children. More studies (especially longitudinal studies) are needed to further investigate the impact of Toxocara spp. infection on the onset or development of asthma.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T13:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.03.022
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Metaperiodate deglycosylation of Strongyloides venezuelensis larvae:
           immunochemical characterization and antigen production for human
           strongyloidiasis diagnosis
    • Authors: Henrique Tomaz Gonzaga; Daniela da Silva Nunes; Vanessa da Silva Ribeiro; Nágilla Daliane Feliciano; Jair Pereira da Cunha-Junior; Julia Maria Costa-Cruz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Henrique Tomaz Gonzaga, Daniela da Silva Nunes, Vanessa da Silva Ribeiro, Nágilla Daliane Feliciano, Jair Pereira da Cunha-Junior, Julia Maria Costa-Cruz
      Strongyloidiasis is an important helminthiasis affecting million people worldwide. The aim of this study was to use sodium metaperiodate (MP) treatment to immunochemically characterize Strongyloides venezuelensis filariform larvae and use MP-treated heterologous antigen to detect IgG and subclasses in serum. Samples from individuals with definitive diagnosis of strongyloidiasis (n = 50), other parasitic diseases (n = 60) and negative endemic (n = 50) were tested. TG-ROC and two-way ANOVA were applied. MP-treatment resulted on differential localization of carbohydrates at larval structure and no carbohydrate content in saline extract (SE). Electrophoretic profiles were similar before and after treatment. ELISA sensitivity and specificity were: 90%; 88.2% for SE and 92.0%; 94.6% for MP, respectively. When using MP treated antigen we observed reduction in IgG1 and IgG3 detection in strongyloidiasis group and decrease of cross reactions in control groups. Our data demonstrate the role of carbohydrate residues in cross reactions and on the recognition of anti-Strongyloides IgG and its subclasses.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.001
  • Genetic interaction and diversity of the families Libellulidae and
           Gomphidae through COI gene from China and Pakistan
    • Authors: Saif Ul Islam; Muhammad Qasim; Wenzhong Lin; Waqar Islam; Muhammad Arif; Habib Ali; Zujian Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Saif Ul Islam, Muhammad Qasim, Wenzhong Lin, Waqar Islam, Muhammad Arif, Habib Ali, Zujian Wu
      A total of 300 dragonflies (Odonata) were collected from six different localities of China and Pakistan. Sixty seven representative samples were selected to sequence their mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). An examination of the resultant sequences identified 21 different dragonfly species, belonging to 15 distinct genera, two families, Libellulidae and Gomphidae. Sequence alignment was executed using Clustal-W in BioEdit v6. The phylogenetic tree was constructed through Neighbor-joining method by using Jukes-Cantor model, and genetic divergence was calculated via Kimura 2-parameter using MEGA7, while Genetic diversity was calculated by DnaSP v5. The maximum genetic divergence was observed for Crocothemis servilia, at 20.49%, followed by Libellulidae sp. with 22.30% while minimum divergence (0.82%) was observed for Melligomphus ardens. Likewise, a significant genetic diversity was observed for all species. However, Crocothemis servilia species presented maximum value (176 mutations) followed by Libellulidae spp. (150 mutations), whereas minimum value (3 mutations) was observed by Orthetrum testaceum. Interestingly, the diversity of C. servilia, all of which are collected from a single location of China, is much higher than those from Pakistan, which were collected from 5 different places with a spatial distance exceeding 500 Kms. Our results are useful in gaining a full appreciation of the global diversity of dragonflies and the development of conservation measures of this insect.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.016
  • Characterization of Fungus Microbial Diversity in Healthy and Diarrheal
           Yaks in Gannan Region of Tibet Autonomous Prefecture
    • Authors: Kun Li; Khalid Mehmood; Hui Zhang; Xiong Jiang; Muhammad Shahzad; Xiaoqian Dong; Jiakui Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Kun Li, Khalid Mehmood, Hui Zhang, Xiong Jiang, Muhammad Shahzad, Xiaoqian Dong, Jiakui Li
      Diarrhea is a serious epidemic in yaks on Qinghai Tibet plateau, but the exact pathogen is not confirmed. Diarrhea is related to the changes in diversity of intestinal flora. The current study herein is performed for high-throughput sequencing of fungus microbial diversity in healthy adult yaks, diarrheal adult yaks and diarrheal yak calves in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. A total 446726 optimized sequences were achieved. Over 250 OTUs in species level have been indentified for each sample. The Shannon and Simpson index revealed that there was no visible difference in the flora between different yak groups (p > 0.05). However, obvious difference was watched in the principal component of microbial community structure in different yak groups by PCA analysis, especially between healthy adult yak group and diarrheal adult yak groups. There were 248 fungus species shared in three groups. Interestingly, there were 97 fungus species shared in the diarrheal groups (calves and adult yaks), which were not found in the healthy yaks, while there were 212 fungus species only found in the healthy yaks. In the Phylum level, 1 phylum (Neocallimastigomycota) was discovered to have significant difference between healthy yaks and diarrheal yak calves (p < 0.05). In the genus level, 23 genus were found obvious difference between healthy adult yaks and diarrheal adults yaks (p < 0.05); 28 genus were found significant difference between healthy adult yaks and diarrheal yak calves (p < 0.05); 23 genus were found obvious difference between diarrheal adult yaks and diarrheal yak calves (p < 0.05). The present study herein first reported an insight of the change of microbial diversity of fungus in diarrhea yaks at altitude regions, which contributed towards the solid prevention of diarrhea in yaks.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.017
  • A new species of Simulium (Simulium) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Genting
           Highlands, Malaysia
    • Authors: Zubaidah Ya’Cob; Hiroyuki Takaoka; Van Lun Low; Mohd Sofian-Azirun
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Zubaidah Ya’Cob, Hiroyuki Takaoka, Van Lun Low, Mohd Sofian-Azirun
      Simulium (Simulium) rasuli sp. nov. is described from two females collected by a Malaise trap in Genting Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia. This new species is placed in the Simulium christophersi species-group of the subgenus Simulium. The female of this new specie is characterized by the scutum with three longitudinal vittae, dark legs, claw with a small subbasal tooth, and ovipositor valve triangular with its inner margin nearly straight. This new species is distinguished in the female from all the six named species of the species-group by the entirely brownish-black femora and tibiae.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.007
  • Insecticidal activity, putative binding proteins and histopathological
           effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3(459) toxin on the lepidopteran pest
           Ectomyelois ceratoniae
    • Authors: Hanen Boukedi; Slim Tounsi; Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Hanen Boukedi, Slim Tounsi, Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati
      The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, is an important agricultural pest that is susceptible to the Vip3(459) protein. The insecticidal activity, evaluated against this lepidopteran pest, displayed an LC50 value of about 28 ng/cm2.The investigation of the mode of action of this B. thuringiensis protein demonstrated that the active form of this toxin bound to putative receptors in the BBMV of E. ceratoniae. Ligand blotting experiment proved that Vip3(459) specifically bound to two proteins of about 53 and 57 kDa, located on the midgut. This specific binding caused perturbations in midgut tissues. The histopathology of 20 midguts from Vip3(459)-feeding larvae showed cytoplasm vacuolization, brush border membrane destruction, vesicle formation in the apical region and cellular disintegration. These findings suggested that B. thuringiensis Vip3(459) could be a promising biocontrol agent to eradicate E. ceratoniae and to prevent emergence of resistance.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.006
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