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Showing 1 - 200 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 83, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 331, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 343, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Acta Tropica
  [SJR: 1.059]   [H-I: 77]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-706X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Diversity and altitudinal distribution of phlebotomine sand flies
           (Diptera: Psychodidae) in visceral leishmaniasis endemic areas of
           northwest Ethiopia
    • Authors: Solomon Yared; Araya Gebresilassie; Essayas Akililu; Kebede Deribe; Meshesha Balkew; Alon Warburg; Asrat Hailu; Teshome Gebre-Michael
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Solomon Yared, Araya Gebresilassie, Essayas Akililu, Kebede Deribe, Meshesha Balkew, Alon Warburg, Asrat Hailu, Teshome Gebre-Michael
      Background The Leishmaniases are caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and are transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female phlebotomine sand flies. Both visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases are widely distributed in different parts of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and altitudinal distribution of phlebotomine sand flies from Kafta Humera to Gondar town in northwest Ethiopia. Methods Seven localities were selected with distinct altitudinal variations between 550m above sea level (m a.s.l) and 2300m a.s.l. In each locality, sand flies were collected using standard CDC light traps and sticky traps during the active sand fly season from December 2012 to May 2013. Shannon-Weiner species diversity index and Jaccard’s coefficient were used to estimate species diversity and similarity between altitudes and localities, respectively. Results A total of 89,044 sand flies (41,798 males and 47, 246 females) were collected from the seven localities/towns throughout the study period. Twenty-two species belonging to 11 species in the genus Phlebotomus and 11 species in the genus Sergentomyia were documented. Of these, Sergentomyia clydei (25.87%), S. schwetzi (25.21%), S. africana (24.65%), S. bedfordi (8.89%), Phlebotomus orientalis (6.43%), and S. antennata (4.8%) were the most prevalent species. The remaining 10 Phlebotomus species and six Sergentomyia were less frequent catches. In CDC light trap and sticky trap, higher species diversity and richness for both male and female sand flies was observed at low altitude ranging from 550 to 699m a.s.l in Adebay village in Kafta Humera district whereas low species richness and high evenness of both sexes were also observed in an altitude 1950–2300m a.s.l. Conclusion The results revealed that the presence of leishmaniasis vectors such as P. orientalis, P. longipes, P. papatasi, and P. duboscqi in different altitudes in northwest Ethiopia. P. orientalis a vector of L. donovani, occurred between altitude 500–1100m a.s.l, the area could be at high risk of VL. P. longipes a vector of L. aethiopica, was recorded in the highland area in Tikil-Dingay and Gondar town, implicating the possibility of CL transmission. Hence, further investigation into vector competence in relation to leishmaniasis (VL and CL) in the region is very vital.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.008
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • The echinococcoses in Asia: The present situation
    • Authors: Akira Ito; Christine M. Budke
      Pages: 11 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Akira Ito, Christine M. Budke
      Human alveolar and cystic echinococcosis, caused by the accidental ingestion of eggs of the tapeworms Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, respectively, are endemic in Asia. Various Echinococcus species are maintained in domesticated and/or wild mammals through predator-prey interactions. Molecular analysis is used to help differentiate infecting parasite species and genotypes, with the goal of better understanding parasite life cycles in order to aid in the planning and implementation of control programs. This paper discusses the various echinococcoses in Asia, with limited reference to neighboring areas, including parts of Central Asia, Russia, Europe and North America.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.013
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Distribution pattern of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by
           Leishmania tropica in Western Afghanistan during 2013-2014
    • Authors: Mahdi Fakhar; Mehdi Karamian; Mohammad Amin Ghatee; Walter Robert Taylor; Hossein Pazoki Ghohe; Sayed Abobakar Rasooli
      Pages: 22 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Mahdi Fakhar, Mehdi Karamian, Mohammad Amin Ghatee, Walter Robert Taylor, Hossein Pazoki Ghohe, Sayed Abobakar Rasooli
      Anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), caused by Leishmania tropica, is the main cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Herat province, Western Afghanistan. We investigated the role of environmental factors on ACL distribution in Herat. Epidemiological data from 2457 patients were retrieved from the local WHO sub-office. Shapefile layers of districts, cities, villages, land cover, soil type and digital elevation model (DEM) of the Herat province were used to assess, by logistic regression modelling, the effects of land cover, soil types, elevation, and proximity to the Harirud river on the distribution of ACL. The key determinants of distribution were: (i) close proximity to the Harirud river, (ii) elevation between 700 and 1200m, (iii) intensive and intermittent irrigated cultivated land, and (iv) Haplocalcids with Torriorthents and Torrifluvents soil types. No ACL cases were found below 700m, and a few cases were present at >1200m in irrigated areas around the Harirud river. These findings suggest that moist soil and the humidity from irrigated areas found between 700 and 1200m provide suitable breeding sites of Phlebotomus sergenti, the main sandfly vector of L. tropica in Afghanistan. The effect of elevation also explains the predominance of ACL over ZCL in this region. The present study showed that distribution of ACL is strongly associated with environmental factors in West Afghanistan where the political and socio-economic conditions may also affect the epidemiology of CL.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.028
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • New insights into the factors affecting synonymous codon usage in human
           infecting Plasmodium species
    • Authors: Shivani Gajbhiye; P.K. Patra; Manoj Kumar Yadav
      Pages: 29 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Shivani Gajbhiye, P.K. Patra, Manoj Kumar Yadav
      Codon usage bias is due to the non-random usage of synonymous codons for coding amino acids. The synonymous sites are under weak selection, and codon usage bias is maintained by the equilibrium in mutational bias, genetic drift and selection pressure. The differential codon usage choices are also relevant to human infecting Plasmodium species. Recently, P. knowlesi switches its natural host, long-tailed macaques, and starts infecting humans. This review focuses on the comparative analysis of codon usage choices among human infecting P. falciparum and P. vivax along with P. knowlesi species taking their coding sequence data. The variation in GC content, amino acid frequencies, effective number of codons and other factors plays a crucial role in determining synonymous codon choices. Within species codon choices are more similar for P. vivax and P. knowlesi in comparison with P. falciparum species. This study suggests that synonymous codon choice modulates the gene expression level, mRNA stability, ribosome speed, protein folding, translation efficiency and its accuracy in Plasmodium species, and provides a valuable information regarding the codon usage pattern to facilitate gene cloning as well as expression and transfection studies for malaria causing species.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.025
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Detection of selected arboviral infections in patients with history of
           persistent fever in Pakistan
    • Authors: Tahir Yaqub; Muhammad Zubair Shabbir; Nadia Mukhtar; Zarfishan Tahir; Tariq Abbas; Ehab Amir; Gabriel Defang
      Pages: 34 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Tahir Yaqub, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Nadia Mukhtar, Zarfishan Tahir, Tariq Abbas, Ehab Amir, Gabriel Defang
      Surveillance is a valuable tool for understanding prevailing and previously undiagnosed infections in a geographic area. We examined 480 archived serum samples from patients with history of persistent fever (>40°C, 60–72h) who were referred to hospitals in Rawalpindi/Islamabad, Lahore, and Faisalabad districts for dengue antibody detection in 2014-15. Each sample was processed for detection of antigens and seroconversion, using real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, against dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) virus serotypes 1–4, West Nile virus fever (WNVF), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), and Chikungunya virus (CGV). The presence of antigens and antibodies to at least one of the studied viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) was detected in 465 (96.8%, 95% CI: 94.9–98.1) and 442 samples (92.1%, 95% CI: 89.3–94.2), respectively. No sera were found positive to CCHF. There was a significant association between gender and positivity to at least one of the VHFs (χ2 =8.12, df=1, p <0.005). Except for DHF serotype 2 and 3 (ττ=0.41), Goodman and Kruskal's Tau statistic revealed no significant association for occurrence of different viruses within the studied population (ττ=0–0.06). Cosinor analysis confirmed significant seasonality, with a higher number of cases of persistent fever in August through November, peaking in October. The study suggests circulation of multiple arthropod-borne viral infections and, in addition to DHF, ascertain the needs for screening patients for CGV and WNVF too. It also demonstrates the necessity of well-integrated disease surveillance in several geographic regions and at-risk populations in Pakistan to develop appropriate disease and vector control strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.019
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Morphology and small subunit rDNA-based phylogeny of a new Henneguya
           species, infecting the ornamental fish Corydoras leucomelas from the
           Peruvian Amazon
    • Authors: Patrick D. Mathews; Juliana Naldoni; Edson A. Adriano
      Pages: 51 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Patrick D. Mathews, Juliana Naldoni, Edson A. Adriano
      A new species of Myxosporea, Henneguya loreotoensis n. sp. is described parasitizing the gill filaments from 17 of 35 specimens (48.5%) of Corydoras leucomelas (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) caught in the Nanay River, near village Ninarumi, in the Loreto state, Peru. Mature spores were ellipsoidal in shape from the frontal view, measuring 36.2±0.1μm (36.1–36.3) in total length, 14.3±0.1μm (14.2–14.4) in body length, 5.1±0.1μm (4.9–5.3) in width and 21.9±0.1μm (21.8–22.0) in the caudal process. The two polar capsules were symmetrical and elongated, measuring 5.1±0.1μm (4.9–5.3) in length and 2.4±0.2μm (2.1–2.7) in width, containing a polar filament with five coils arranged obliquely to the longitudinal axis. The sporoplasm was binucleate. Partial sequencing of the ssu-rDNA of H. loretoensis n. sp. resulted in a total of 1676 nucleotides, and this sequence did not match any of the myxozoan available in the GenBank. The phylogenetic analysis shows H. loretoensis n. sp. as a sister species of Henneguya paraensis, another amazonian myxozoan parasite of Cichla temensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae).
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      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.017
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Andrographolide induces oxidative stress-dependent cell death in
           unicellular protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei
    • Authors: Malabika Banerjee; Debaprasad Parai; Pranab Dhar; Manab Roy; Rajib Barik; Subrata Chattopadhyay; Samir Kumar Mukherjee
      Pages: 58 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Malabika Banerjee, Debaprasad Parai, Pranab Dhar, Manab Roy, Rajib Barik, Subrata Chattopadhyay, Samir Kumar Mukherjee
      African sleeping sickness is a parasitic disease in humans and livestock caused by Trypanosoma brucei throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Absence of appropriate vaccines and prevalence of drug resistance proclaim that a new way of therapeutic interventions is essential against African trypanosomiasis. In the present study, we have looked into the effect of andrographolide (andro), a diterpenoid lactone from Andrographis paiculata on Trypanosoma brucei PRA 380. Although andro has been recognized as a promosing anti-cancer drug, its usefulness against Trypanosoma spp remained unexplored. Andro showed promising anti-trypanosomal activity with an IC50 value of 8.3μM assessed through SYBR Green cell viability assay and also showed no cytotoxicity towards normal murine macrophages. Cell cycle analysis revealed that andro could induce sub-G0/G1 phase arrest. Flow cytometric analysis also revealed that incubation with andro caused exposure of phosphatidyl serine to the outer leaflet of plasma membrane in T. brucei PCF. This event was preceded by andro-induced depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δym) and elevation of cytosolic calcium. Andro also caused elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as lipid peroxidation level, and depletion in reduced thiol levels. Taken together, these data indicate that andro has promising antitrypanosomal activity mediated by promoting oxidative stress and depolarizing the mitochondrial membrane potential and thereby triggering an apoptosis-like programmed cell death. Therefore, this study merits further investigation to the therapeutic possibility of using andro for the treatment of African trypanosomiasis.
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      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.023
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Field evaluation of a semi-automatic funnel trap targeted the medically
           important non-biting flies
    • Authors: Tunwadee Klong-klaew; Narin Sontigun; Sangob Sanit; Chutharat Samerjai; Kom Sukontason; Hiromu Kurahashi; Philip G. Koehler; Roberto M. Pereira; Kwankamol Limsopatham; Suttida Suwannayod; Sa-nguansak Thanapornpoonpong; Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap; Kabkaew L. Sukontason
      Pages: 68 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Tunwadee Klong-klaew, Narin Sontigun, Sangob Sanit, Chutharat Samerjai, Kom Sukontason, Hiromu Kurahashi, Philip G. Koehler, Roberto M. Pereira, Kwankamol Limsopatham, Suttida Suwannayod, Sa-nguansak Thanapornpoonpong, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap, Kabkaew L. Sukontason
      Bait-trapping is a useful approach for monitoring fly population dynamics, and it is an effective tool for physical control of pest species. The aim of this study was to test a newly developed semi-automatic funnel fly trap with some modifications of the former prototype fly trap to study medically important fly population density. The efficacy of the semi-automatic funnel trap was assessed by field sampling during July 2013-June 2014 using 1-day tainted beef offal as bait. The modified semi-automatic funnel traps were able to capture a total of 151,141 adult flies, belonging to the families: Calliphoridae (n=147,248; 97.4%), Muscidae (n=3,124; 2.1%) and Sarcophagidae (n=769; 0.5%), which are the medically important fly species. Among the total of 35 species collected, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) (n=88,273; 59.95%), Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) (n=1,324; 42.38%) and Boettcherisca peregrina (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) (n=68; 33.01%) were the predominant species of each family. High number of flies was captured in forest area, representing 42.47% (n=64,197) of total specimens. Female flies were trapped more than male with total sex ratio of 0.37 male/female. Flies were trapped throughout the year with peak population in summer. Peak activity was recorded in the afternoon (12.00–18.00h). In summary, the modified semi-automatic funnel fly trap can be used for field collection of the adult fly. By setting the timer, population dynamics, diversity, and periodic activity of adult flies were determined.
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      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.018
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • A hyperendemic focus of Taenia solium transmission in the Banke District
           of Nepal
    • Authors: Keshav Sah; Ishab Poudel; Suyog Subedi; Dinesh Kumar Singh; Jo Cocker; Peetambar Kushwaha; Angela Colston; Meritxell Donadeu; Marshall W. Lightowlers
      Pages: 78 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Keshav Sah, Ishab Poudel, Suyog Subedi, Dinesh Kumar Singh, Jo Cocker, Peetambar Kushwaha, Angela Colston, Meritxell Donadeu, Marshall W. Lightowlers
      Neurocysticercosis is a major cause of epilepsy in countries where Taenia solium is endemic and the parasite is a major cause of food-borne disease globally. Pigs are the natural intermediate host involved in transmission of the parasite. T. solium is known to be endemic in Nepal, however there is limited reliable data about the prevalence of the disease in Nepal. The aim of this study was to determine accurately the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in slaughter age pigs in an area of Nepal where pigs are known to be free-roaming. Pigs were obtained from the Udaypur Village Development Committee (VDC) and Hirminiya & Betahani VDC of the Banke district in Nepal. One hundred and ten animals of slaughter age (approximately 8–16 months old) were purchased, slaughtered and the heart, liver, brain and half the body skeletal musculature were sliced using hand knives and the number and viability of T. solium cysts determined. Thirty two of the 110 animals were found to harbour T. solium cysticerci (29%), of which 30 (27%) were found to have viable cysticerci (93% of the infected animals). This is one of the highest prevalences of porcine cysticercosis that has been reported to date from the results of necropsy on randomly selected animals. This study highlights a high rate of transmission of T. solium in the Banke District of Nepal. It encourages further investigation of human and porcine cysticercosis in Nepal, as well as implementation of efforts to reduce transmission of the parasite and the associated human disease.
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      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.022
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Over two decades of Plasmodium knowlesi infections in Sarawak: Trend and
    • Authors: Choo Huck Ooi; Mohamad Adam Bujang; Tg Mohd Ikhwan Tg Abu Bakar Sidik; Romano Ngui; Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim
      Pages: 83 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Choo Huck Ooi, Mohamad Adam Bujang, Tg Mohd Ikhwan Tg Abu Bakar Sidik, Romano Ngui, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim
      Malaria is still of great public health concern, especially in Malaysian Borneo. The aim of this study was to determine the trends of P. knowlesi infection in Sarawak, Malaysia and to forecast the incidence of P. knowlesi until the year 2040. Data on P. knowlesi malaria cases from 1992 to the year 2014 were obtained from the Sarawak Health Department, Malaysia. ARIMA model was applied to forecast the future incidence of P. knowlesi infection. The data for the whole of Sarawak and subsequently the selected six districts which have high incidence rates of P. knowlesi infection were analyzed. Results of the analysis showed that there was an increasing trend of P. knowlesi cases from the year 1992–2014 (p<0.001). The trend in the incidence started to increase in the year 2008 (p=0.029). The incidence rate per 100,000 populations was between 4.15 in the year 1992 and 42.03 in the year 2014. High incidence of P. knowlesi infections has been detected in the districts adjacent to each other within the interior region of Sarawak. The forecasted incidence and incidence rate per 100,000 populations in the year 2020 were 1229 and 44.04, respectively, while those in the year 2040 were 2056 and 62.91, respectively. The forecasted incidence showed an upward trend highlighting an urgent need to draw up strategic and holistic prevention plans to limit further the increase in P. knowlesi morbidity and mortality in Sarawak. It is imperative that these measures are customized taking into consideration the challenges faced in the interior areas of Sarawak and the behavior of the main vector of P. knowlesi (i.e., An. latens) in Sarawak.
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      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.027
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Mosquitocidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using local
           isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and their
           synergistic effect with a commercial strain of B. thuringiensis subsp.
    • Authors: Anon Thammasittirong; Kanchana Prigyai; Sutticha Na-Ranong Thammasittirong
      Pages: 91 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Anon Thammasittirong, Kanchana Prigyai, Sutticha Na-Ranong Thammasittirong
      Control of larval stages of Aedes aegypti is considered an effective approach for preventing outbreaks of dengue fever. In this work, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized using the supernatant and insecticidal proteins from local isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti). Mosquitocidal activity assays against A. aegypti larvae revealed that the highest toxicity was obtained from the Ag NPs synthesized using supernatant of Bti K55 and the inclusion proteins of Bti K46 with a lethal concentration 50 (LC50) of 0.001 and 0.008μg/mL, respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis absorption spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The synergistic studies revealed that the Ag NPs synthesized using supernatant of Bti K55 were synergized with commercial Bti cells with a synergistic factor (SF) of 3.3 and 10.0 for LC50 and LC90, respectively. In addition, the Ag NPs synthesized using inclusion proteins of Bti K46 were synergized with commercial Bti cells with a SF of 1.6 and 4.2 for LC50 and LC90, respectively. This study provided the first report of the synergistic effect between Bti and Ag NPs. Such a combination could represent an effective approach for the control of the dengue vector and possibly reducing the likelihood of increased insect resistance to chemical control.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.020
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Molecular context of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in the molluscan
           environments: A mini-review
    • Authors: Damilare Olatunji Famakinde
      Pages: 98 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Damilare Olatunji Famakinde
      Schistosoma mansoni, being transmitted by some freshwater Biomphalaria snails, is a major causative agent of human schistosomiasis. In the absence of effective vaccine and alternative drug designs to fight against the disease, and with the limitations of molluscicide application, developing more efficient strategies to interrupt the snail-mediated parasite transmission is being emphasized as potentially instrumental in the efforts toward schistosomiasis elimination, hence, necessitating thorough and comprehensive understanding of the fundamental mechanisms involved in the transmission process. Based on the current advances, this paper presents a concise exposition of the cellular, biochemical, genetic and immunological dynamics of the complex and statge-by-stage interactions between the parasite and its vector in their aquatic environment. It also highlights the possible crosstalk between the parasite’s intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) during the intramolluscan stage. Undoubtedly, decades of intensive investigation have untangled many S. mansoni-B. glabrata complexities, yet many aspects of the parasite-vector cycle which can help define potential control clues await further elucidation.
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      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.021
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Renal carriage of Leptospira species in rodents from Mediterranean Chile:
           The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) as a relevant host in agricultural
    • Authors: Juana P. Correa; Sergio A. Bucarey; Pedro E. Cattan; Carlos Landaeta-Aqueveque; Juan Ramírez-Estrada
      Pages: 105 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Juana P. Correa, Sergio A. Bucarey, Pedro E. Cattan, Carlos Landaeta-Aqueveque, Juan Ramírez-Estrada
      We evaluated the renal carriage of Leptospira species in rodent communities from Mediterranean Chile using a PCR technique. We found that animals inhabiting agricultural areas were almost three times more infected than in wild areas (14.4% vs. 4.4%). The Norwegian rat (Rattus norvegicus), an invasive murid ubiquitous in the country, was the most infected species (38.1%).
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      PubDate: 2017-08-14T01:26:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.032
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Evaluation of chemical spraying and environmental management efficacy in
           areas with minor previous application of integrated control actions for
           visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil
    • Authors: Fabiana de Oliveira Lara-Silva; Érika Monteiro Michalsky; Consuelo Latorre Fortes-Dias; Vanessa de Oliveira Pires Fiuza; Edelberto Santos Dias
      Pages: 109 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Fabiana de Oliveira Lara-Silva, Érika Monteiro Michalsky, Consuelo Latorre Fortes-Dias, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires Fiuza, Edelberto Santos Dias
      Leishmaniases are vector-borne diseases that are transmitted to humans through the bite of Leishmania-infected phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera:Psychodidae). The main proved vector of visceral leishmaniais (VL) in the New World – Lutzomyia longipalpis – is well-adapted to urban areas and has extensive distribution within the five geographical regions of Brazil. Integrated public health actions directed for the vector, domestic reservoir and humans for the control of VL are preferentially applied in municipalities with higher epidemiological risk of transmission. In this study, we evaluated the individual impact of two main vector control actions – chemical spraying and environmental management – in two districts with no reported cases of human VL. Although belonging to an endemic municipality for VL in Brazil, the integrated control actions have not been applied in these districts due to the absence of human cases. The number of L. longipalpis captured in a two-year period was used as indicator of the population density of the vector. After chemical spraying a tendency of reduction in L. longipalpis was observed but with no statistical significance compared to the control. Environmental management was effective in that reduction and it may help in the control of VL by reducing the population density of the vector in a preventive and more permanent action, perhaps associated with chemical spraying.
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      PubDate: 2017-08-14T01:26:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.029
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Preliminary efficacy investigations of oral fipronil against Anopheles
           arabiensis when administered to Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) under field
    • Authors: Richard M. Poché; Naftaly Githaka; Frans van Gool; Rebekah C. Kading; Daniel Hartman; Larisa Polyakova; Edward Okoth Abworo; Vishvanath Nene; Saul Lozano-Fuentes
      Pages: 126 - 133
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Richard M. Poché, Naftaly Githaka, Frans van Gool, Rebekah C. Kading, Daniel Hartman, Larisa Polyakova, Edward Okoth Abworo, Vishvanath Nene, Saul Lozano-Fuentes
      Globally, malaria remains one of the most important vector-borne diseases despite the extensive use of vector control, including indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). These control methods target endophagic vectors, whereas some malaria vectors, such as Anopheles arabiensis, preferentially feed outdoors on cattle, making it a complicated vector to control using conventional strategies. Our study evaluated whether treating cattle with a capsule containing the active ingredient (AI) fipronil could reduce vector density and sporozoite rates, and alter blood feeding behavior, when applied in a small-scale field study. A pilot field study was carried out in the Samia District, Western Kenya, from May to July 2015. Four plots, each comprised of 50 huts used for sleeping, were randomly designated to serve as control or treatment. A week before cattle treatment, baseline mosquito collections were performed inside the houses using mechanical aspirators. Animals in the treatment (and buffer) were administered a single oral application of fipronil at ∼0.5mg/kg of body weight. Indoor mosquito collections were performed once a week for four weeks following treatment. Female mosquitoes were first identified morphologically to species complex, followed by PCR-based methods to obtain species identity, sporozoite presence, and the host source of the blood meal. All three species of anophelines found in the study area (An. gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis, An. funestus s.s.) were actively transmitting Plasmodium falciparum during the study period. The indoor resting density of An. arabiensis was significantly reduced in treatment plot one at three weeks post-treatment (T1) (efficacy=89%; T1 density=0.08, 95% credibility intervals [0.05, 0.10]; control plot density=0.78 [0.22, 0.29]) and at four weeks post-treatment (efficacy=64%; T1 density=0.16 [0.08, 0.14]; control plot density=0.48 [0.17, 0.22]). The reduction of An. arabiensis mosquitoes captured in the treatment plot two was higher: zero females were collected after treatment. The indoor resting density of An. gambiae s.s. was not significantly different between the treatment (T1, T2) and their corresponding control plots (C1, C2). An. funestus s.s. showed an increase in density over time. The results of this preliminary study suggest that treating cattle orally with fipronil, to target exophagic and zoophagic malaria vectors, could be a valuable control strategy to supplement existing vector control interventions which target endophilic anthropophilic species.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T01:26:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.030
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Seroprevalence and risk factors of glanders in working equines –
           Findings of a cross-sectional study in Punjab province of Pakistan
    • Authors: Muhammad Taslim Ghori; Muhammad Sarwar Khan; Jawaria Ali Khan; Masood Rabbani; Muhammad Zubair Shabbir; Haroon Rashid Chaudhry; Muhammad Asad Ali; Javed Muhammad; Mandy Carolina Elschner; Bhushan M. Jayarao
      Pages: 134 - 139
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Muhammad Taslim Ghori, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Jawaria Ali Khan, Masood Rabbani, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Haroon Rashid Chaudhry, Muhammad Asad Ali, Javed Muhammad, Mandy Carolina Elschner, Bhushan M. Jayarao
      Glanders is an infectious and contagious bacterial disease of equines. A little is known about its seroprevalence and risk factors in working equines in countries where the disease is endemic. Also, there are no reports on prevalence of the disease in areas where there is a prior evidence of Burkholderia (B.) mallei detection in soil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected districts (n=09) of Punjab province of Pakistan during 2014–2015. A total of 1008 serum samples were screened for detection of antibodies to B. mallei with complement fixation test followed by western blot. The overall seroprevalence was found to be 3.17% (95% CI: 2.25–4.44). The seropositivity was significantly higher from the sampling sites where B. mallei was detected in soil [OR: 10.66 (95% CI: 4.42–31.66), p =0.00]. Other risk factors significantly associated with animal seropositivity were: age group [OR: 1.78 (95% CI: 4.58–15.56), p =0.00], location in urban area [OR: 2.99 (95% CI: 1.46–6.51), p =0.00],body condition [OR: 3.47 (95% CI: 1.64–7.99), p =0.00], presence of farcy lesion[OR: 7.71 (95% CI: 3.47–19.50), p =0.00], proximity to water bodies [OR: 7.71 (95% CI: 3.47–19.50), p =0.00]; domestic animal population [OR: 3.20 (95% CI: 1.24–10.87), p =0.03] and number of households in sampling area [OR: 4.18 (95%CI: 1.82–11.30), p =0.00]. The study provides an estimate of prevalence of glanders and a potential link between animal seropositivity and presence of B. mallei in soil. The risk factors identified in this study can be used in surveillance and disease awareness. The high prevalence of disease in draught horses and contact of infected animals with their care-takers in developing countries signify need to initiate progressive control of the disease using one health approach.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T01:26:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.031
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Dengue serotype circulation in natural populations of Aedes aegypti
    • Authors: Taissa Pereira dos Santos; Oswaldo Gonsalvez Cruz; Keli Antunes Barbosa da Silva; Márcia Gonçalves de Castro; Anielly Ferreira de Brito; Renato Cesar Maspero; Rosilene de Alcântra; Flávia Barreto dos Santos; Nildimar A. Honorio; Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira
      Pages: 140 - 143
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Taissa Pereira dos Santos, Oswaldo Gonsalvez Cruz, Keli Antunes Barbosa da Silva, Márcia Gonçalves de Castro, Anielly Ferreira de Brito, Renato Cesar Maspero, Rosilene de Alcântra, Flávia Barreto dos Santos, Nildimar A. Honorio, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira
      Ae. aegypti is the main vector of dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV), and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. The transmission dynamics of these arboviruses, especially the arboviral circulation in the mosquito population during low and high transmission seasons in endemic areas are still poorly understood. We conducted an entomological survey to determine dengue infection rates in Ae. aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These collections were performed in 2012–2013 during a Rio de Janeiro epidemic, just before the introduction and spread of ZIKV and CHIKV in the city. MosquiTrap© and BG-Sentinel traps were installed in three fixed and seven itinerant neighborhoods each month over ten months. Mosquitoes were in supernatants pools tested and individually confirmed for DENV infection using RT-PCR. A total of 3053 Aedes mosquitos were captured and Ae. aegypti was much more frequent (92.9%) than Ae. albopictus (6.8%). Ae. aegypti females accounted for 71.8% of captured mosquitoes by MosquitTrap© and were the only species found naturally infected with DENV (infection rate=0.81%). Only one Ae. aegypti male, collected by BG-sentinel, was also tested positive for DENV. The peak of DENV-positive mosquitoes coincided the season of the highest incidence of human cases. The most common serotypes detected in mosquitoes were DENV-3 (24%) and DENV-1 (24%), followed by DENV-4 (20%), DENV-2 (8%) and DENV-1 plus DENV4 (4%), while 95% of laboratory-confirmed human infections in the period were due to DENV-4. These contrasting results suggest silent maintenance of DENV serotypes during the epidemics, reinforcing the importance of entomological and viral surveillance in endemic areas.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T01:26:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.014
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Study of antimicrobial resistance and physiological biomarkers with
    • Authors: Ikramul Haq; Aneela Zameer Durrani; Muhammad Sarwar Khan; Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq; Imtiaz Ahmad
      Pages: 144 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Ikramul Haq, Aneela Zameer Durrani, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq, Imtiaz Ahmad
      Antimicrobial resistance results in selective colonization in animals. In the present study, 447 diarrheic foals (235 horse foals, 165 donkey foals and 47 mule foal) were selected from Lahore and Sahiwal districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Fresh fecal and blood samples from diarrheic foals were collected for isolation and confirmation of Salmonella Polymerase chain reaction. Results revealed that 50 (11.25%) foals (horse n=29, donkey n=12 and mule n=9) were positive. Fifty Salmonella enterica isolates belonging to 7 serovars S. Paratyphi B (15), S. Saintpaul (7), S. Newport (6), S. Typhimu-rium (11), S. Kottbus (4), S. Lagos (2), and S. enterica ssp salamae (5). Salmonella was common in foals that visited veterinary hospital, as compared to those in stud farms and individual foals reared in low income household. Out of the total 50 samples, 92% of isolates were resistant to three or more than three antimicrobials. The highest resistance (86%) was against Sulphamethoxazole (23.75mg) and lowest (4%) against trimethoprime (5mg). The isolates also showed resistance against Doxycycline (30mg), Oxytetracycline (30mg), Streptomycin (10mg), Neomycin (30mg), Amikacin (30mg), chloramphenicol (30mg), Ampicillin (10mg), Amoxicillin (10mg), kanamycin (30mg), Norfloxacin (10mg), Gentamicin 10mg, Cefotaxime (30mg), Ciprofloxacin (5mg) and Ceftriaxone (30mg). Blood analysis of salmonella infected foals showed That Hemoglobin, PCV and TEC were significantly higher and (while) TLC, PCV, Monocytes, Lymphocytes, Basophils, Eosinophil and Neutrophils were significantly lower than normal. Albumin were lower and BNU, Biluribin, ALT and creatinine were higher than normal values.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T01:26:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Leishmaniasis in the major endemic region of Plurinational State of
           Bolivia: Species identification, phylogeography and drug susceptibility
    • Authors: Pablo Bilbao-Ramos; M. Auxiliadora Dea-Ayuela; Oscar Cardenas-Alegría; Efraín Salamanca; José Antonio Santalla-Vargas; Cesar Benito; Ninoska Flores; Francisco Bolás-Fernández
      Pages: 150 - 161
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Pablo Bilbao-Ramos, M. Auxiliadora Dea-Ayuela, Oscar Cardenas-Alegría, Efraín Salamanca, José Antonio Santalla-Vargas, Cesar Benito, Ninoska Flores, Francisco Bolás-Fernández
      The Plurinational State of Bolivia is one of the Latin American countries with the highest prevalence of leishmaniasis, highlighting the lowlands of the Department of La Paz where about 50% of the total cases were reported. The control of the disease can be seriously compromised by the intrinsic variability of the circulating species that may limit the efficacy of treatment while favoring the emergence of resistance. Fifty-five isolates of Leishmania from cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions from patients living in different provinces of the Department of La Paz were tested. Molecular characterization of isolates was carried out by 3 classical markers: the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1), the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt-b). These markers were amplified by PCR and their products digested by the restriction endonuclease enzymes AseI and HaeIII followed by subsequent sequencing of Cyt-b gene and ITS-1 region for subsequent phylogenetic analysis. The combined use of these 3 markers allowed us to assign 36 isolates (65.5%) to the complex Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, 4 isolates (7, 27%) to L. (Viannia) lainsoni. and the remaining 15 isolates (23.7%) to a local variant of L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Concerning in vitro drug susceptibility the amastigotes from all isolates where highly sensitive to Fungizone® (mean IC50 between 0.23 and 0.5μg/mL) whereas against Glucantime® the sensitivity was moderate (mean IC50 ranging from 50.84μg/mL for L. (V.) braziliensis to 18.23μg/mL for L. (L.) mexicana. L. (V.) lainsoni was not sensitive to Glucantime®. The susceptibility to miltefosine was highly variable among species isolates, being L. (L.) mexicana the most sensitive, followed by L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (V.) lainsoni (mean IC50 of 8.24μg/mL, 17.85μg/mL and 23.28μg/mL, respectively).
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T01:26:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.026
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Development of a multiplex PCR assay for the detection and differentiation
           of Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia
           thailandensis, and Burkholderia cepacia complex
    • Authors: Irina Zakharova; Natalya Teteryatnikova; Andrey Toporkov; Dmitry Viktorov
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Irina Zakharova, Natalya Teteryatnikova, Andrey Toporkov, Dmitry Viktorov
      Two species of Burkholderia pseudomallei complex (Bpc), B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, can cause severe life-threatening infections. Rapidly discerning individual species within the group and separating them from other opportunistic pathogens of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is essential to establish a correct diagnosis and for epidemiological surveillance. In this study, a multiplex PCR assay based on the detection of an individual set of chromosomal beta-lactamase genes for single-step identification and differentiation of B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, B. thailandensis, and Bcc was developed. Two pairs of primers specific to a distinct class of B metallo-beta-lactamase genes and a pair of primers specific to the oxacillin-hydrolyzing class D beta-lactamase gene were demonstrated to successfully discriminate species within Bpc and from Bcc. The assay sensitivity was 9561 genomic equivalents (GE) for B. pseudomallei, 7827 GE for B. mallei, 8749 GE for B. thailandensis and 6023 GE for B. cepacia.
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      PubDate: 2017-06-26T13:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.016
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Investigating unlicensed retail drug vendors’ preparedness and knowledge
           about malaria: An exploratory study in rural Uganda
    • Authors: Eric Liow; Rosemin Kassam; Richard Sekiwunga
      Pages: 9 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Eric Liow, Rosemin Kassam, Richard Sekiwunga
      Background Despite major efforts to increase the uptake of preventive measures and timely use of the first line antimalarial treatment artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT), Uganda continues to fall short of meeting its national malaria control targets. One of the challenges has been scaling up effective measures in rural and remote areas where the unlicensed private retail sector remains the first point of contact and a common source of treatment. The current paper discusses unlicensed vendors’ (1) training related to malaria case management for children aged five and under, and (2) knowledge related to the cause of malaria, preventive measures, common signs, and symptoms, diagnostic procedures, and best treatment options. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted in the rural district of Butaleja, Uganda in 2011. All 88 unlicensed drug outlets enumerated in the study area were visited by six locally recruited research assistants, with one vendor from each outlet invited to participate. The transcripts were analyzed using acceptable qualitative research protocols. Results About half of the 75 vendors interviewed had received some sort of formal training on malaria at a post-secondary institution, although only 6.7% had qualifications which met licensure requirements. The study found widespread misconceptions relating to the cause, as well as prevention and treatment of malaria. A large majority of the vendors relied primarily on non-specific symptoms and limited physical exams for diagnoses, with less than one-tenth of the vendors recognizing that rapid or microscopic blood testing was necessary to confirm a clinical diagnosis of malaria. While most recognized mosquitoes as the primary vector for malaria, over two-fifths of the vendors held misconceptions about the factors that could increase the risk of malaria, and nearly a third believed that malaria could not be prevented. With respect to acute case management, three-quarters viewed as the best option a medicine other than the government’s first-line antimalarial, artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT). Almost three-fifths specified quinine as their preferred option, with about one-fifth recommending quinine injection. Conclusion Findings from this study confirm significant gaps in unlicensed vendors’ knowledge related to malaria. With increased utilization of unlicensed drug outlets in rural and remote settings such as Butaleja, findings from this study strongly supports the need to implement strategies to improve the quality of care delivered at these outlet.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T13:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.008
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Taeniasis caused by Taenia saginata in Gianyar town and Taenia solium in
           Karangasem villages of Bali, Indonesia, 2011–2016: How to detect
           tapeworm carriers, anamnesis or microscopy'
    • Authors: Kadek Swastika; Toni Wandra; Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan; I. Made Sudarmaja; John Master Saragih; Luh Putu Eka Diarthini; Luh Ariwati; Putu Ayu Asri Damayanti; Dewa Ayu Agus Sri Laksemi; Nengah Kapti; Putu Sutisna; Tetsuya Yanagida; Akira Ito
      Pages: 19 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Kadek Swastika, Toni Wandra, Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan, I. Made Sudarmaja, John Master Saragih, Luh Putu Eka Diarthini, Luh Ariwati, Putu Ayu Asri Damayanti, Dewa Ayu Agus Sri Laksemi, Nengah Kapti, Putu Sutisna, Tetsuya Yanagida, Akira Ito
      From January 2011 until September 2016, screening of taeniasis carriers was carried out in a town in Gianyar District (Taenia saginata) and in villages which consisted of several Banjars (the smallest community units) on the eastern slope of Mt. Agung, Karangasem District (Taenia solium) in Bali, Indonesia. Fecal samples from all community members who chose to participate were examined microscopically for detection of taeniid eggs each person completedwith a questionnaire to determine if they had seen whitish, noodle-like proglottids (anamnesis) in their feces. Members with egg positive feces, and those with anamnesis, were treated with niclosamide (Yomesan®, Bayer). A total of 39 T. saginata tapeworm carriers were confirmed in Gianyar after deworming based on anamnesis (100%, 39/39). Only three of them (3/39, 7.7%) and 3/173 participants (1.7%) were identified by fecal microscopy. In contrast, 20 T. solium carriers including one migrated to Gianyar were confirmed from 12 patients with eggs in their feces and from another 8 persons of 12 persons suspected to be infected due anamnesis only (8/12,66.7%) in Karangasem. The majority of carriers (12/20, 60.0%) identified by microscopy included 4 (33.3%) and 8 (66.7%) carriers confirmed microscopically with and without anamnesis, respectively. The prevalence rate was 12/1090 (1.10%) of participants. The results indicate that anamnesis is reliable for detection of T. saginata carriers, whereas it is not so reliable for detection of T. solium taeniasis (8/12, 66.7%) and that microscopy is more informative than anamnesis for T. solium. Eggs were detected more frequently in T. solium carriers (4/12, 33.3%) than in patients infected with T. saginata (3/39, 7.7%). T. solium carriers have so far been confirmed from nine of 13 Banjars examined in Karangasem. This study reveals that anamnesis is highly useful for screening of T. saginata carriers, whereas microscopy is a more valuable tool for detection of T. solium carriers.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.013
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Detection of West Nile Virus and other common equine viruses in three
           locations from the Leeward Islands, West Indies
    • Authors: Pompei Bolfa; Isaac Jeon; Amanda Loftis; Teresa Leslie; Silvia Marchi; Fortune Sithole; Cecile Beck; Sylvie Lecollinet; Stephan Zientara; Aymeric Hans; Charles J. Issel
      Pages: 24 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Pompei Bolfa, Isaac Jeon, Amanda Loftis, Teresa Leslie, Silvia Marchi, Fortune Sithole, Cecile Beck, Sylvie Lecollinet, Stephan Zientara, Aymeric Hans, Charles J. Issel
      Equines in the West Indies are used for recreational purposes, tourism industry, racing and agriculture or can be found in feral populations. Little is known in the Caribbean basin about the prevalence of some major equine infectious diseases, some with zoonotic potential, listed as reportable by the OIE. Our objective was to study the prevalence of antibodies for West Nile Virus (WNV), Equine Herpes Virus-1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), Equine Influenza (EI), Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) and Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) using a retrospective serological convenience study. We used 180 equine serum samples, 140 from horses and 40 from donkeys in St. Kitts, Nevis, and Sint Eustatius, collected between 2006 and 2015 that were tested with ELISA kits and virus neutralization (for WNV and EVA). Combining ELISA with virus neutralization testing, 25 (13.8%) equine sera were WNV positive (a mixture of indigenous and imported equines) and 3 sera (1.6%) showed doubtful results. For EHV-1, 41 equines (23.7%), mean age 6.7 years, were seropositive. For EHV-4, 138 equines were found seropositive (82.8%), mean age 6.3 years. For EI, 49 equines (27.2%), mean age 7.5 years, were seropositive on ELISA, some previously vaccinated horses. No antibodies against EAV were found on virus neutralization testing, although one animal (0.6%), was EAV positive on ELISA. All samples were EIAV negative. The seroprevalence for EHV-1 and EHV-4 is similar to other parts of the world. For the first time in the study location serologic evidence of antibodies against WNV and EI is reported. This was found in both indigenous and imported animals, highlighting the need for developing proper surveillance plans based on complementary methods of virus detection. Further studies will be needed to define the prevalence, rates of transmission, characterize local virus strains, and study their impact on these populations.
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      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.023
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Analysis of population structure and insecticide resistance in mosquitoes
           of the genus Culex, Anopheles and Aedes from different environments of
           Greece with a history of mosquito borne disease transmission
    • Authors: Emmanouil A. Fotakis; Alexandra Chaskopoulou; Linda Grigoraki; Alexandros Tsiamantas; Stella Kounadi; Loukas Georgiou; John Vontas
      Pages: 29 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Emmanouil A. Fotakis, Alexandra Chaskopoulou, Linda Grigoraki, Alexandros Tsiamantas, Stella Kounadi, Loukas Georgiou, John Vontas
      Greece has been recently affected by several mosquito borne diseases with the West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreak in 2010 being one of the largest reported in Europe. Currently at the epicenter of an economic and refugee crisis and visited by over 16 million tourists a year the integrated management of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes is a public health and economic priority. Vector control programs rely mainly on insecticides, however data on insecticide resistance and the mosquito fauna is essential for successful applications. We determined the mosquito species composition and population dynamics in areas of increased vulnerability to vector borne disease transmission, as well as investigated the resistance status of major nuisance and disease vectors to insecticides. High mosquito densities were recorded in Thessaloniki and Evros, with Aedes caspius, a nuisance species, Culex pipiens, a known vector of WNV and Anopheles hyrcanus a potential vector of malaria being among the most prevalent species. Both vector species populations reached their peak in late summer. Aedes albopictus was recorded at high densities in Thessaloniki, but not in Evros. Notably, Cx. pipiens hybrids, which show an opportunistic biting behavior and are suspected to be involved in the transmission of the WNV, were recorded in considerable numbers in Thessaloniki and Attica. Culex pipiens and An. hyrcanus, but not Ae. caspius mosquitoes, showed moderate levels of resistance to deltamethrin. The presence of resistance in areas not exposed to vector control indicates that other factors could be selecting for resistance, i.e. pesticide applications for agriculture. Both L1014F and L101C kdr mutations were detected in Cx. pipiens populations. Anopheles hyrcanus resistance was not associated with mutations at the L1014 site. The Ace-1 mutations conferring insensitivity to organophosphates and carbamates were detected at low frequencies in all Cx. pipiens populations. Increased activity of P450s and esterases was found in Cx. pipiens individuals from Thessaloniki. Our study contributes evidence for sustainable and efficient vector control strategies and the prevention of disease outbreaks.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-07T13:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Toxoplasmosis: Seroprevalence in pregnant women, and serological and
           molecular screening in neonatal umbilical cord blood
    • Authors: Mahshad Shieh; Mojtaba Didehdar; Reza Hajihossein; Farzam Ahmadi; Zahra Eslamirad
      Pages: 38 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Mahshad Shieh, Mojtaba Didehdar, Reza Hajihossein, Farzam Ahmadi, Zahra Eslamirad
      Toxoplasmosis is a common zoonotic disease that can also be transmitted from the mother to the embryo, with the risk of congenital infection varying around the world. The aim of this study was to screen pregnant women and their neonates for toxoplasmosis by serologic and molecular methods and assess the impact of risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis on the rate of congenital infection. This study was conducted at a regional maternity hospital in Arak, the capital of the Markazi Province in Iran, during a period of six months. All selected pregnant women (n=261) and the corresponding cord blood samples were serologically screened for toxoplasmosis, with seropositive samples also undergoing molecular testing. Demographic data, as well as information related to the risk factors associated with the transmission of the disease, were collected from mothers and their neonates. The detection of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and the extraction of DNA from blood samples were conducted using commercial kits. Results showed that the sera of 87 maternal blood samples (33.3%) and 40 cord blood samples (15.3%) were positive for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies (IgG and/or IgM). Molecular screening of the seropositive samples only identified one positive cord blood sample. In other words, the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis was definitive in only one neonate. There was no significant association between the risk of parasite transmission and neonatal seropositivity (p >0.05). Therefore, the results showed that the prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis in the studied area was consistent with the global rate and suggest that the implementation of newborn screening and follow-up testing could help reduce the disease risk.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T13:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • First molecular detection of Leishmania infantum in Sergentomyia minuta
           (Diptera, Psychodidae) in Alentejo, southern Portugal
    • Authors: S. Pereira; D. Pita-Pereira; T. Araujo-Pereira; C. Britto; T. Costa-Rego; J. Ferrolho; M. Vilhena; E.F. Rangel; M.L. Vilela; M.O. Afonso
      Pages: 45 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): S. Pereira, D. Pita-Pereira, T. Araujo-Pereira, C. Britto, T. Costa-Rego, J. Ferrolho, M. Vilhena, E.F. Rangel, M.L. Vilela, M.O. Afonso
      Protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania spp., are the causative agents of many insect-borne infectious diseases with medical and veterinary importance. Leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania spp., is transmitted by female phlebotomine sand flies. In the Alentejo region of Portugal, located at the north of Algarve, cases of human and canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum have been notified. However, no recent studies regarding the sand fly fauna in the region are available. We therefore aimed to explore the phlebotomine sand fly species found in both, Évora and Beja Districts, to gain an insight about the leishmaniasis epidemiology in these areas. After the identification of the insect species, PCR molecular tests were used to assess L. infantum infection rate in the sand fly captured females, together with the analysis of blood meal sources of the insect vectors. One Sergentomyia minuta female was positive for L. infantum infection and another for human blood as a meal source. The occurrence of this phlebotomine species infected with L. infantum may suggest that, in the Mediterranean basin, leishmaniasis epidemiology is changing. Also, if the importance of S. minuta for the zoonotic and anthroponotic cycle of leishmaniasis is later proven, the strategies to control its vector will inevitably to be rethought.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-07T13:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.020
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • PCR-based verification of positive rapid diagnostic tests for intestinal
           protozoa infections with variable test band intensity
    • Authors: Sören L. Becker; Ivan Müller; Pascal Mertens; Mathias Herrmann; Leyli Zondie; Lindsey Beyleveld; Markus Gerber; Rosa du Randt; Uwe Pühse; Cheryl Walter; Jürg Utzinger
      Pages: 49 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Sören L. Becker, Ivan Müller, Pascal Mertens, Mathias Herrmann, Leyli Zondie, Lindsey Beyleveld, Markus Gerber, Rosa du Randt, Uwe Pühse, Cheryl Walter, Jürg Utzinger
      Stool-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for pathogenic intestinal protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis) allow for prompt diagnosis and treatment in resource-constrained settings. Such RDTs can improve individual patient management and facilitate population-based screening programmes in areas without microbiological laboratories for confirmatory testing. However, RDTs are difficult to interpret in case of ‘trace’ results with faint test band intensities and little is known about whether such ambiguous results might indicate ‘true’ infections. In a longitudinal study conducted in poor neighbourhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa, a total of 1428 stool samples from two cohorts of schoolchildren were examined on the spot for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. intestinalis using an RDT (Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip; Coris BioConcept). Overall, 121 samples were positive for G. intestinalis and the RDT suggested presence of cryptosporidiosis in 22 samples. After a storage period of 9–10 months in cohort 1 and 2–3 months in cohort 2, samples were subjected to multiplex PCR (BD Max™ Enteric Parasite Panel, Becton Dickinson). Ninety-three percent (112/121) of RDT-positive samples for G. intestinalis were confirmed by PCR, with a correlation between RDT test band intensity and quantitative pathogen load present in the sample. For Cryptosporidium spp., all positive RDTs had faintly visible lines and these were negative on PCR. The performance of the BD Max™ PCR was nearly identical in both cohorts, despite the prolonged storage at disrupted cold chain conditions in cohort 1. The Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip warrants further validation in communities with a high incidence of diarrhoea.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T13:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.012
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Protection against mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and
    • Authors: Johirul Islam; Kamaruz Zaman; Varun Tyagi; Sanjukta Duarah; Sunil Dhiman; Pronobesh Chattopadhyay
      Pages: 56 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Johirul Islam, Kamaruz Zaman, Varun Tyagi, Sanjukta Duarah, Sunil Dhiman, Pronobesh Chattopadhyay
      Growing concern on the application of synthetic mosquito repellents in the recent years has instigated the identification and development of better alternatives to control different mosquito-borne diseases. In view of above, present investigation evaluates the repellent activity of ethyl anthranilate (EA), a non-toxic, FDA approved volatile food additive against three known mosquito vectors namely, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions following standard protocols. Three concentration levels (2%, 5% and 10% w/v) of EA were tested against all the three selected mosquito species employing K & D module and arm-in-cage method to determine the effective dose (ED50) and complete protection time (CPT), respectively. The repellent activity of EA was further investigated by modified arm-in-cage method to determine the protection over extended spatial ranges against all mosquito species. All behavioural situations were compared with the well-documented repellent N,N-diethylphenyl acetamide (DEPA) as a positive control. The findings demonstrated that EA exhibited significant repellent activity against all the three mosquitoes species. The ED50 values of EA, against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus were found to be 0.96%, 5.4% and 3.6% w/v, respectively. At the concentration of 10% w/v, it provided CPTs of 60, 60 and 30min, respectively, against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Again in spatial repellency evaluation, EA was found to be extremely effective in repelling all the three tested species of mosquitoes. Ethyl anthranilate provided comparable results to standard repellent DEPA during the study. Results have concluded that the currently evaluated chemical, EA has potential repellent activity against some well established mosquito vectors. The study emphasizes that repellent activity of EA could be exploited for developing effective, eco-friendly, acceptable and safer alternative to the existing harmful repellents for personal protection against different hematophagous mosquito species.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.024
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Nanotechnology as a potential therapeutic alternative for schistosomiasis
    • Authors: Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier; Milena Menegazzo Miranda-Sapla; Laís Fernanda Machado; Bruna Taciane da Silva Bortoleti; Claudia Stoeglehner Sahd; Alan Ferreira Chagas; João Paulo Assolini; Francisco José de Abreu Oliveira; Wander Rogério Pavanelli; Ivete Conchon-Costa; Idessania Nazareth Costa; Francine Nesello Melanda
      Pages: 64 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier, Milena Menegazzo Miranda-Sapla, Laís Fernanda Machado, Bruna Taciane da Silva Bortoleti, Claudia Stoeglehner Sahd, Alan Ferreira Chagas, João Paulo Assolini, Francisco José de Abreu Oliveira, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Idessania Nazareth Costa, Francine Nesello Melanda
      Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease that affects millions of people worldwide, recognized as the most important human helminth infection in terms of morbidity and mortality. The treatment of choice presents low bioavailability and water solubility, in addition to the induction of parasite resistance. In this context, researchers have been conducting studies seeking to develop new drugs to ensure safety, quality, and efficacy against this parasitosis. In this scenario, nanotechnology arises including the drug delivery systems in nanoscale: nanoemulsions, liposomes and nanoparticles. These drug delivery systems have been extensively applied for in vitro and in vivo studies against Schistosoma spp. with promising results. This review pointed out the most relevant development scenarios regarding the treatment of schistosomiasis as well as the application of nanotechnology as a vaccine, highlighting the use of nanotechnology as an alternative therapy for both the repositioning of drugs and the use of new pharmaceutical products, with promising results regarding the aforementioned disease.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.025
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Betulinic acid induces cell death by necrosis in Trypanosoma cruzi
    • Authors: Paloma Leão Sousa; Racquel Oliveira da Silva Souza; Louise Donadello Tessarolo; Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra de Menezes; Tiago Lima Sampaio; Jader Almeida Canuto; Alice Maria Costa Martins
      Pages: 72 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Paloma Leão Sousa, Racquel Oliveira da Silva Souza, Louise Donadello Tessarolo, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra de Menezes, Tiago Lima Sampaio, Jader Almeida Canuto, Alice Maria Costa Martins
      Chagas’ disease is a neglected disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and constitutes a serious health problem worldwide. The treatment is limited, with variable efficacy of benznidazole and nifurtimox. Betulinic Acid (BA), a triterpene, can be found in medicinal herbs and has a wide variety of biological and pharmacological activities. The objective was to evaluate betulinic acid effects on the cell death mechanism in Trypanosoma cruzi strain Y. BA inhibited the growth of epimastigotes in periods of 24h (IC50 =73.43μM), 48h (IC50 =119.8μM) and 72h (IC50 =212.2μM) of incubation; of trypomastigotes (IC50 =51.88μM) in periods of 24h and intracellular amastigotes (IC50 =25.94μM) in periods of 24 and 48h of incubation, no toxicity on LLC-MK2 cells at the concentrations used. Analysis of the possible mechanism of parasite cell death showed alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential, alterations in cell membrane integrity, an increase in the formation of reactive oxygen species and increase swelling of the reservosomes. In conclusion, betulinic acid was be able to inhibition all developmental forms of Trypanosoma cruzi Y strain with necrotic mechanism and involvement of mitochondrial membrane potential alteration and increase in reactive oxygen species.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Morphological and physiological characteristics of a virulent and zoonotic
           assemblage A Giardia duodenalis canine strain
    • Authors: Camila Henriques Coelho; Ana Carolina Carvalho Silva; Adriana Oliveira Costa; Ana Paula Fernandes
      Pages: 76 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Camila Henriques Coelho, Ana Carolina Carvalho Silva, Adriana Oliveira Costa, Ana Paula Fernandes
      Giardiasis is an intestinal parasitosis that affects millions of people worldwide and is considered a zoonotic disease. Frequently in contact with humans, dogs are the main host involved in this zoonotic transmission. Here, we compared some aspects of Giardia duodenalis biology between two strains: a recently isolated dog strain (BHFC1) and a human reference strain (Portland-1). Growth curve analysis revealed that BHFC1 trophozoites multiply faster than the human isolate Portland-1 in axenic culture, but has a lower rate of cysts formation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that BHFC1 trophozoites have the same conventional shape and morphological structures expected for G. duodenalis trophozoites, but presented a more prominent flange. For the best of our knowledge, this work is the first description of morphological aspects and encystation process of a G. duodenalis strain isolated from a dog. Since BHFC1 and Portland-1 have been maintained in axenic cultures for different periods of time, differences observed in growth, encystation rates and flange size may be attributed to adaptation of Portland-1 to axenic culture and lack of the environmental pressures. BHFC1 can be useful as tool for better understanding of Giardia duodenalis biology.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Novel Anaplasma and Ehrlichia organisms infecting the wildlife of two
           regions of the Brazilian Amazon
    • Authors: Herbert S. Soares; Arlei Marcili; Amália R.M. Barbieri; Antonio H.H. Minervino; Antonio F. Malheiros; Solange M. Gennari; Marcelo B. Labruna
      Pages: 82 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Herbert S. Soares, Arlei Marcili, Amália R.M. Barbieri, Antonio H.H. Minervino, Antonio F. Malheiros, Solange M. Gennari, Marcelo B. Labruna
      During 2009–2012, wild animals were sampled in the Amazon biome of Brazil. Animal tissues and blood were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting DNA of the bacterial family Anaplasmataceae (genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Wolbachia) and the genus Borrelia. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. All birds and reptiles were negative by all PCR assays, as well as all mammals for the Borrelia PCR assay. Anaplasmataceae agents were searched by PCR assays targeting two different genes, the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene and the protein-coding dsb gene. Three dsb closely related haplotypes were generated from 3 white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari). In a phylogenetic analysis inferred from dsb partial sequences, these haplotypes grouped with previously reported Ehrlichia haplotypes from jaguar (Panthera onca) and horse from Brazil, suggesting that they could all represent a single species, yet to be properly characterized. A unique dsb haplotype was generated from a sloth (Bradypus tridactylus), and could also represent a different Ehrlichia species. All these dsb haplotypes formed a clade sister to the Ehrlichia ruminantium clade. Three distinct 16S rRNA gene haplotypes were generated from a wild guinea pig (Cavia sp.), a woolly mouse opossum (Micoureus demerarae), and two from robust capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp.). In a phylogenetic analysis inferred from 16S rRNA gene partial sequence, these haplotypes grouped within the Wolbachia clade, and are likely to represent Wolbachia organisms that were infecting invertebrate metazoarians (e.g., filarids) associated with the sampled mammals. Two deer (Mazama americana) samples yielded two distinct 16S rRNA gene sequences, one identical to several sequences of Anaplasma bovis, and an unique sequence that grouped in a clade with different Anaplasma species. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Anaplasmataceae organisms, including potentially new Ehrlichia species, circulate under natural conditions in the Amazonian wildlife.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Asian genotype of Chikungunya virus circulating in Venezuela during 2014
    • Authors: Daría Camacho; Jesús Reyes; Ana Negredo; Lourdes Hernández; María Sánchez-Seco; Guillermo Comach
      Pages: 88 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Daría Camacho, Jesús Reyes, Ana Negredo, Lourdes Hernández, María Sánchez-Seco, Guillermo Comach
      Chikungunya virus emerged on Saint-Martin Island in the Caribbean in late 2013. Since then in July of 2104 Venezuela reported autochthonous cases. This study reports the first phylogenetic characterization of CHIKV autochthonous cases in Venezuela, 2014. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the CHIKV circulating in Venezuela (Aragua state) belong to the Asian genotype (Caribbean clade) and it is related to viruses that circulated in the same year in the Caribbean.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.026
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Current vector control challenges in the fight against malaria
    • Authors: Giovanni Benelli; John C. Beier
      Pages: 91 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Giovanni Benelli, John C. Beier
      The effective and eco-friendly control of Anopheles vectors plays a key role in any malaria management program. Integrated Vector Management (IVM) suggests making use of the full range of vector control tools available. The strategies for IVM require novel technologies to control outdoor transmission of malaria. Despite the wide number of promising control tools tested against mosquitoes, current strategies for malaria vector control used in most African countries are not sufficient to achieve successful malaria control. The majority of National Malaria Control Programs in Africa still rely on indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). These methods reduce malaria incidence but generally have little impact on malaria prevalence. In addition to outdoor transmission, growing levels of insecticide resistance in targeted vectors threaten the efficacy of LLINs and IRS. Larvicidal treatments can be useful, but are not recommended for rural areas. The research needed to improve the quality and delivery of mosquito vector control should focus on (i) optimization of processes and methods for vector control delivery; (ii) monitoring of vector populations and biting activity with reliable techniques; (iii) the development of effective and eco-friendly tools to reduce the burden or locally eliminate malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases; (iv) the careful evaluation of field suitability and efficacy of new mosquito control tools to prove their epidemiological impact; (v) the continuous monitoring of environmental changes which potentially affect malaria vector populations; (vi) the cooperation among different disciplines, with main emphasis on parasitology, tropical medicine, ecology, entomology, and ecotoxicology. A better understanding of behavioral ecology of malaria vectors is required. Key ecological obstacles that limit the effectiveness of vector control include the variation in mosquito behavior, development of insecticide resistance, presence of behavioral avoidance, high vector biodiversity, competitive and food web interactions, lack of insights on mosquito dispersal and mating behavior, and the impact of environmental changes on mosquito ecological traits. Overall, the trans-disciplinary cooperation among parasitologists and entomologists is crucial to ensure proper evaluation of the epidemiological impact triggered by novel mosquito vector control strategies.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.028
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Larval stress alters dengue virus susceptibility in Aedes aegypti (L.)
           adult females
    • Authors: David S. Kang; Yehonatan Alcalay; Diane D. Lovin; Joanne M. Cunningham; Matthew W. Eng; Dave D. Chadee; David W. Severson
      Pages: 97 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): David S. Kang, Yehonatan Alcalay, Diane D. Lovin, Joanne M. Cunningham, Matthew W. Eng, Dave D. Chadee, David W. Severson
      In addition to genetic history, environmental conditions during larval stages are critical to the development, success and phenotypic fate of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. In particular, previous studies have shown a strong genotype-by-environment component to adult mosquito body size in response to optimal vs stressed larval conditions. Here, we expand upon those results by investigating the effects of larval-stage crowding and nutritional limitation on the susceptibility of a recent field isolate of Aedes aegypti to dengue virus serotype-2. Interestingly, female mosquitoes from larvae subjected to a stressed regime exhibited significantly reduced susceptibility to disseminated dengue infection 14days post infection compared to those subjected to optimal regimes. Short term survivorship post-infected blood feeding was not significantly different. As with body size, dengue virus susceptibility of a mosquito population is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors and is likely maintained by balancing selection. Here, we provide evidence that under different environmental conditions, the innate immune response of field-reared mosquitoes exhibits a large range of phenotypic variability with regard to dengue virus susceptibility. Further, as with body size, our results suggest that mosquitoes reared under optimal laboratory conditions, as employed in all mosquito-pathogen studies to date, may not always be realistic proxies for natural populations.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.018
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Breeding protocol for the sand fly Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae)
           in laboratory conditions
    • Authors: Thais Marchi Goulart; Flávia Benini da Rocha Silva; Vicente Estevam Machado; Wanderson Henrique Cruz Oliveira; Camila Feitosa de Castro; Marili Villa Nova Rodrigues; Mara Cristina Pinto
      Pages: 102 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Thais Marchi Goulart, Flávia Benini da Rocha Silva, Vicente Estevam Machado, Wanderson Henrique Cruz Oliveira, Camila Feitosa de Castro, Marili Villa Nova Rodrigues, Mara Cristina Pinto
      The information in this protocol covers from the basic steps and material necessary to start a sand fly colony up to the specific details which are important to the success of a Nyssomyia neivai colony. The greatest problems in our colony of Ny. neivai were solved with specific care, for instance, using vermiculite and an adequate number of adults in oviposition containers; the control of fungus with the exact amount of diet for the larvae and humidity control; a second blood meal for females and control of the number of times animals are used for blood meals. Currently, our colony is at F22 generation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.010
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Proteasomal degradation of T. gondii ROP18 requires Derlin2
    • Authors: Yuewen Tang; Meijuan Zheng; Ran An; Lijian Chen; Lingli Gong; Haijian Cai; Kang Liu; Li Yu; Jilong Shen; Jian Du
      Pages: 106 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Yuewen Tang, Meijuan Zheng, Ran An, Lijian Chen, Lingli Gong, Haijian Cai, Kang Liu, Li Yu, Jilong Shen, Jian Du
      T. gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite, belonging to the Phylum Apicomplexa, infecting all warm-blooded animals including humans. During host cell invasion, specialized cytoskeletal and secretory organelles play a pivotal role. ROP18, as a member of the ROP2 family, has been identified as a key virulence factor mediating pathogenesis in T. gondii. Here, we identify an ER-resident protein, Derlin2, a factor implicated in the removal of misfolded proteins from the ER for cytosolic degradation, as a component of the machinery required for ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). We identified Derlin2 interacting with ROP18 by yeast two-hybrid screening system. The interaction between ROP18 and Derlin2 was further confirmed through in vitro GST pull-down and in vivo immunoprecipitation assays. By immunofluorescence assay, we found that ROP18 co-localized with Derlin2 in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using overexpression and knockdown approaches, we demonstrated that Derlin2 was required for T. gondii ROP18 degradation. Consistently, cycloheximide chase experiments showed that the degradation of ROP18 relied on the Derlin2, but not Derlin1. These results indicate that interaction between Derlin2 and ROP18 is functionally relevant and leads ultimately to degradation of ROP18. The finding provides the basis for future studies on Derlin2-dependent ERAD of T. gondii ROP18 and subsequent antigen generation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T14:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.027
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Field evaluation of a new light trap for phlebotomine sand flies
    • Authors: Gabriella Gaglio; Ettore Napoli; Luigi Falsone; Salvatore Giannetto; Emanuele Brianti
      Pages: 114 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Gabriella Gaglio, Ettore Napoli, Luigi Falsone, Salvatore Giannetto, Emanuele Brianti
      Light traps are one of the most common attractive method for the collection of nocturnal insects. Although light traps are generally referred to as “CDC light traps”, different models, equipped with incandescent or UV lamps, have been developed. A new light trap, named Laika trap 3.0, equipped with LED lamps and featured with a light and handy design, has been recently proposed into the market. In this study we tested and compared the capture performances of this new trap with those of a classical light trap model under field conditions. From May to November 2013, a Laika trap and a classical light trap were placed biweekly in an area endemic for sand flies. A total of 256 sand fly specimens, belonging to 3 species (Sergentomyia minuta, Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus neglectus) were collected during the study period. The Laika trap captured 126 phlebotomine sand flies: P. perniciosus (n=38); S. minuta (n=88), a similar number of specimens (130) and the same species were captured by classical light trap which collected also 3 specimens of P. neglectus. No significant differences in the capture efficiency at each day of trapping, neither in the number of species or in the sex of sand flies were observed. According to results of this study, the Laika trap may be a valid alternative to classical light trap models especially when handy design and low power consumption are key factors in field studies.
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      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.011
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva 1912 and Cerdocyon
           thous Linnaeus 1977, in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in Brazil
    • Authors: Maria Regiane Araujo Soares; Jadson Emanuel Lopes Antunes; Ivete Lopes de Mendonça; Rogério Nora Lima; Carlos Henrique Nery Costa
      Pages: 118 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Maria Regiane Araujo Soares, Jadson Emanuel Lopes Antunes, Ivete Lopes de Mendonça, Rogério Nora Lima, Carlos Henrique Nery Costa
      Cerdocyon thous presents a wide geographic distribution in Brazil and its role as a possible Leishmania infantum reservoir in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL) transmission cycle regardless of dogs (Canis familiaris) has been discussed. From this perspective, this work describes the occurrence and use of the habitat by Cerdocyon thous in a Lutzomyia longipalpis occurrence area Teresina (Piaui − Brazil), VL endemic region. Three specimens of C. thous were monitored with the use of radio telemetry and trails and footprints, seeking to find possible natural dens in order to collect the sanflies from the site. Luminous CDC and Damasceno traps were simultaneously installed at the visited sites, where two specimens of L. longipalpis and one L. termitophila were captured. The identification of the dens and trails, allows us to infer that the dens are not used only by the C. thous. Finding the VL vector in natural C. thous natural dens, reinforces the hypothesis of transmission of Le. infantum in the outskirts of the large urban centers, in a cycle that independs from dogs.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-24T15:23:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.021
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Salivary gland transcripts of the kissing bug, Panstrongylus chinai, a
           vector of Chagas disease
    • Authors: Hirotomo Kato; Ryan C. Jochim; Eduardo A. Gomez; Shunsuke Tsunekawa; Jesus G. Valenzuela; Yoshihisa Hashiguchi
      Pages: 122 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Hirotomo Kato, Ryan C. Jochim, Eduardo A. Gomez, Shunsuke Tsunekawa, Jesus G. Valenzuela, Yoshihisa Hashiguchi
      The saliva of hematophagous arthropods injected during blood feeding contains potent pharmacologically active components to counteract the host hemostatic and inflammatory systems. In the present study, dominant salivary gland transcripts of Panstrongylus chinai, a vector of Chagas disease, were analyzed by sequencing randomly selected clones of the salivary gland cDNA library. This analysis showed that 56.5% of the isolated transcripts coded for putative secreted proteins, of which 73.7% coded for proteins belonging to the lipocalin family. The most abundant transcript of lipocalin family proteins was a homologue of pallidipin 2, an inhibitor of collagen-induced platelet aggregation of Triatoma pallidipennis. In addition, homologues of triafestin, an inhibitor of the kallikrein-kinin system of T. infestans, were identified as the dominant transcript. Other salivary transcripts encoding lipocalin family proteins had homology to triplatin (an inhibitor of platelet aggregation) and others with unknown function. Other than lipocalin family proteins, homologues of a Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor (putative anticoagulant), a hemolysin-like protein (unknown function), inositol polyphosphate 5-related protein (a regulator of membrane phosphoinositide), antigen 5-related protein (unknown function) and apyrase (platelet aggregation inhibitor) were identified.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-24T15:23:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.022
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Simplified membrane feeding of bloodsucking triatomines (Hemiptera:
    • Authors: Glennyha F. Duarte; Dayane B. Macedo; Christian Luz
      Pages: 130 - 131
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Glennyha F. Duarte, Dayane B. Macedo, Christian Luz
      Laboratory-reared hematophagous triatomines that are the main vectors of Chagas disease are generally fed on small vertebrates or on blood-filled membrane devices. Such devices allow a large-scale rearing of these vectors without sacrificing host animals but are almost always expensive, fragile, not easily purchased, and usually difficult to use because they need to be sterilized before and carefully cleaned after each feeding. We present here a simple device to feed triatomines that is composed of a circular series of alternating short pieces of stainless steel and silicon tubing connected to a pump that circulates water heated at 50° C in a water bath. An unlubricated condom filled with 50ml of blood, is fixed around each steel tube section and placed onto the screened tops of containers with triatomines. Nymphs and adults access the blood source by climbing a vertical piece of folded filter paper. After feeding, each condom can be easily and safely removed and discarded. This device consists of simple, cheap, safe and robust components that can be easily purchased, assembled and used. Contamination during or after feeding is practically excluded. The technique is successfully used in our Laboratory for almost two years.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-24T15:23:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.009
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Survey of Neospora caninum in eared doves (Zenaida auriculata) in Southern
    • Authors: Luiz Daniel de Barros; Alessandra Taroda; Thais Agostinho Martins; Ana Carolina Miura; Mércia de Seixas; Ana Sue Sammi; João Pedro Sasse; Ana Flávia Minutti; Ivo Alexandre Leme da Cunha; Odilon Vidotto; João Luis Garcia
      Pages: 132 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Luiz Daniel de Barros, Alessandra Taroda, Thais Agostinho Martins, Ana Carolina Miura, Mércia de Seixas, Ana Sue Sammi, João Pedro Sasse, Ana Flávia Minutti, Ivo Alexandre Leme da Cunha, Odilon Vidotto, João Luis Garcia
      Neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by Neospora caninum, a protozoan parasite that has worldwide distribution and is responsible for enormous economic losses in cattle. Birds are considered a good bioindicator of environmental contamination, since they feed on the ground, being exposed to N. caninum oocysts. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of antibodies against N. caninum and to verify the presence of parasite DNA in brain from free-ranging eared doves (Zenaida auriculata) from Southern Brazil. For this purpose, blood and brain samples were collected from 249 doves for ELISA and PCR analysis respectively. The prevalence of N. caninum antibodies in doves was 31.72% (79/249) and detection of parasite DNA was not observed in none of birds. This is the first report of antibodies against N. caninum in doves Z. auriculata, what show us that these birds had previously contact with the parasite but since no N. caninum DNA was detected, more studies should be performed to elucidate the real importance of doves in the epidemiologic cycle of the N. caninum.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T15:23:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • The immunomodulatory effects of the Enalapril in combination with
           Benznidazole during acute and chronic phases of the experimental infection
           with Trypanosoma cruzi
    • Authors: Ana Luisa Junqueira Leite; Guilherme de Paula Costa; Laís Roquete Lopes; Ludmilla Walter dos Reis Mota; Paula Melo de Abreu Vieira; André Talvani
      Pages: 136 - 145
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Ana Luisa Junqueira Leite, Guilherme de Paula Costa, Laís Roquete Lopes, Ludmilla Walter dos Reis Mota, Paula Melo de Abreu Vieira, André Talvani
      Trypanosoma cruzi infection triggers a chronic inflammatory process responsible for the alterations in the extracellular matrix and functionality of the heart. The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors affects T. cruzi in vitro surveillance and modulates in vivo some inflammatory mediators. In this study, we investigated the treatment with an ACE inhibitor (Enalapril) and the Benznidazole (Bz) in a single and combination therapies (CT) in C57BL/6 mice infected with VL-10 strain of the T. cruzi. Animals were treated during 20days with different doses of Bz (100, 80, 60mg/kg), Enalapril (25, 20, 15mg/kg) and their CT (100+25; 80+20; 60+15mg/kg) and euthanized at 30° (acute) and at 120° (chronic) days post infection. The plasma and heart were processed for immunopathological investigations. Our data shown that Bz and Enalapril controlled, in part, the parasite replication and reduced plasma levels of TNF, CCL2 and CCL5 in the acute and in chronic phase of infection. However, the CT doses reduced in around 20% the inflammatory parameters obtained with the Bz therapy. The CT doses of 100+25 and 80+20mg/kg increased the IL-10 levels and reduced the cardiac inflammation while Bz inhibited the collagen neogenesis in the infection. In conclusion, we assume that the CT administrated in the initial stage of infection, presents a minor immunomodulatory effect when the VL-10 strain of T. cruzi is used. In contrast, Bz and Enalapril in monotherapies persist suggesting a potential protection against cardiac damages during experimental T. cruzi infection.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-24T15:23:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • First record of natural vertical transmission of dengue virus in Aedes
           aegypti from Cuba
    • Authors: Gladys Gutiérrez-Bugallo; Rosmari Rodriguez-Roche; Gisell Díaz; Antonio A. Vázquez; Mayling Alvarez; Magdalena Rodríguez; Juan A. Bisset; Maria G. Guzman
      Pages: 146 - 148
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Gladys Gutiérrez-Bugallo, Rosmari Rodriguez-Roche, Gisell Díaz, Antonio A. Vázquez, Mayling Alvarez, Magdalena Rodríguez, Juan A. Bisset, Maria G. Guzman
      While horizontal transmission (human-mosquito-human) of dengue viruses largely determines the epidemiology of the disease, vertical transmission (infected female mosquito- infected offspring) has been suggested as a mechanism that ensures maintenance of the virus during adverse conditions for horizontal transmission to occur. The purpose of this study was to analyze the natural infection of larval stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) with the dengue virus (DENV) in Cuba. Here, we report vertical transmission of DENV-3 genotype III in natural populations of Ae. aegypti through RT-PCR detection and serotyping plus sequencing. Our report constitutes the first record of vertical transmission of DENV in Ae. aegypti from Cuba with details of its serotype and genotype.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T15:23:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.012
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Trypanosoma cruzi modulates gene expression of plasma membrane
           repair-related proteins
    • Authors: Rebecca Tavares e Silva Brígido; Paula Cristina Brígido Tavares; Marlus Alves dos Santos; Júlia de Gouveia Santos; Maria Aparecida de Souza; Isabela Maria Bernardes Goulart; Claudio Vieira da Silva
      Pages: 153 - 157
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Rebecca Tavares e Silva Brígido, Paula Cristina Brígido Tavares, Marlus Alves dos Santos, Júlia de Gouveia Santos, Maria Aparecida de Souza, Isabela Maria Bernardes Goulart, Claudio Vieira da Silva
      Plasma membrane injury and repair is particularly prevalent in muscle cells. Here, we aimed to verify dysferlin, acid sphingomyelinase and transcriptional factor EB gene expression during Trypanosoma cruzi infection in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that the parasite modulates gene expression of these proteins in a way dependent on the number of plasma membrane interacting parasites and in a rapamycin-sensitive manner.
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      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.06.008
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Risk factors for Toxocara spp. seroprevalence and its association with
           atopy and asthma phenotypes in school-age children in a small town and
           semi-rural areas of Northeast Brazil
    • Authors: Márcia B. Silva; Ana L.M. Amor; Leonardo N. Santos; Alana A. Galvão; Aida V. Oviedo Vera; Eduardo S. Silva; Cynara Gomes Barbosa; Marilda S. Gonçalves; Philip J. Cooper; Camila A. Figueiredo; Rita de Cassia Ribeiro; Neuza Maria Alcântara-Neves
      Pages: 158 - 164
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Márcia B. Silva, Ana L.M. Amor, Leonardo N. Santos, Alana A. Galvão, Aida V. Oviedo Vera, Eduardo S. Silva, Cynara Gomes Barbosa, Marilda S. Gonçalves, Philip J. Cooper, Camila A. Figueiredo, Rita de Cassia Ribeiro, Neuza Maria Alcântara-Neves
      Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, are roundworms that live in the intestines of dogs and cats, respectively, and are predominantly agents of human toxocariasis. Studies have suggested that Toxocara spp. seroprevalence increases levels of total and aeroallergen-specific IgE (sIgE), asthma prevalence and asthma morbidity. Nevertheless, other work reported a negative association between Toxocara spp. seropositivity with skin hypersensititity and a positive association with sIgE. The objective of the present study was to evaluate risk factors for acquiring Toxocara spp. infection and to investigate possible significant association between its seroprevalence with atopy and asthma. Students from elementary schools, residents in a small town and its surroundings of Northeast Brazil, underwent blood sampling to measure levels of anti-Toxocara spp. IgG, peripheral blood eosinophils, and specific IgE to aeroallergens. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses to assess possible risk factors for Toxocara spp. seropositivity and its association with atopy, wheeze/asthma with asthma phenotypes, in a sample of 791 elementary school children aged 6–13 years. Toxocara spp. seroprevalence reached 63.6%; 49.9% had sIgE; 7.2% and 3.3% had atopic wheeze/asthma and non-atopic wheeze/asthma respectively. Risk factors associated with Toxocara spp. seropositivity were: contact with dogs (adj. OR 2.33; 95% CI=1.70–3.19) and cats (adj. OR 3.09; 95% CI=2.10–4.55), and male sex (adj. OR 2.21; 95% CI=1.62–3.02). The presence of anti-Toxocara IgG was statistically associated with blood eosinophils >4% and >10% (adj. OR 1.84; 95% CI=1.33-2.55 and adj. OR 2.07; 95% CI=1.45–2.97, respectively), and atopy (adj. OR 2.00; 95% CI=1.49–2.68), but it was not associated with wheeze/asthma. Concluding, the results obtained in this study showing the association of Toxocara spp. seroprevalence with sIgE may suggest a possible immunological cross-reactivity between IgE epitopes from Toxocara spp. and aeroallergens.
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      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Ultrasonographic findings of small lesion of hepatic alveolar
    • Authors: Di-Ming Cai; Hui-Yao Wang; Xiao-Ling Wang; Yong Jiang; Yan Luo; Yong-Zhong Li
      Pages: 165 - 170
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Di-Ming Cai, Hui-Yao Wang, Xiao-Ling Wang, Yong Jiang, Yan Luo, Yong-Zhong Li
      Objective To investigate the features of small lesions of hepatic alveolar echinococcsis paragonimiasis (AE) on conventional ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging. Methods This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. US and CEUS features of seventeen lesions histopathologically proven hepatic AE were retrospectively reviewed. Nine patients with seventeen hepatic AE lesions who were admitted to our hospital between January 2008 and June 2015 were enrolled. All hepatic AE lesions were small (≤3cm). The US and CEUS examinations were performed with a Philips IU22 scanner with a 1–5-MHz convex transducer. After US was completed, the CEUS study was performed. Pulse-inversion harmonic imaging was used for CEUS. A bolus injection of 2.4mL of a sulfur-hexafluoride-filled microbubble contrast agent (SonoVue) was administered. The features of the lesions by US and CEUS were retrospectively reviewed. Results In total, all lesions were detected by US and CEUS. The mean size of the lesions was 1.8±0.7cm (range: 1.0–3.0cm). Five patients (55.6%, 5/9) had a lesion in the right hepatic lobe; two (22.2%, 2/9) had two lesions in the left hepatic lobe; and two patients (22.2%, 2/9) had four lesions in the right lobe. Seven lesions (41.2%, 7/17) were hypoechoic nodules and ten (58.8%, 10/17) were hyperechoic nodules. Nine lesions (52.3%, 9/17) were of mixed echogenicity type. Ten lesions (58.8%, 10/17) had a regular shape. Nine lesions (52.3%, 9/27) had a sharp margin and six (35.3%, 6/17) had indistinct margins. Four lesions (57.1%, 4/7) with hypoechoic nodule had small dotted calcifications, none was found in hyperechoic nodule. Seven nodules (41.2%, 7/17) showed short striated blood-flow signals surrounding the margin, on color Doppler flow imaging. By CEUS, All the lesions were hypoechoic with mixed content (). 12 lesions (70.1%, 12/17) were rim enhanced with irregular piece-like nonenhanced internal areas and showed nonhomogeneous hypo-enhancement during the arterial phase, with mixed echogenicity. The main pathological findings included: (1) (1) coagulative or liquefactive necrosis within the lesion with sporadic distribution of wizened alveolar hydatid cysts; and (2) hyperplasia of granulomatous and fibrous tissue around the lesion. Conclusion Hyperechogenicity, mixed echogenicity type, dotted calcification with hypoechogenicity, sharp margin, rim enhancement and piece-like nonenhanced areas could be seen as the main ultrasonographic features of small lesion of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.01.030
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Controlling Taenia solium and soil transmitted helminths in a northern Lao
           PDR village: Impact of a triple dose albendazole regime
    • Authors: Amanda Ash; Anna Okello; Boualam Khamlome; Phouth Inthavong; John Allen; R.C. Andrew Thompson
      Pages: 171 - 178
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Amanda Ash, Anna Okello, Boualam Khamlome, Phouth Inthavong, John Allen, R.C. Andrew Thompson
      Taenia solium taeniasis-cysticercosis and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are parasitic Neglected Tropical Diseases endemic throughout Southeast Asia. Within Lao PDR, a remote northern hill tribe village had previously been identified as a hyper endemic focus for T. solium. To reduce this observed prevalence, a One Health intervention covering both pigs and humans was implemented, which included two Mass drug administrations (MDA1 and MDA2) for village residents using a triple dose albendazole 400mg treatment regime. In addition to the effect on T. solium levels, the dual impact of this anthelmintic regime on STHs within the community was also monitored. Faecal samples were collected pre and post MDA1 and MDA2 and analysed for the presence of Taenia species and the STHs Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm species. The McMaster technique was used to measure the changes in both prevalence and intensity of infection. Molecular characterisation of Taenia and hookworm species was conducted to detect zoonotic species. The level of taeniasis within the sampled population decreased by 79.4% after MDA1, remained steady during the five month inter-treatment interval and decreased again by 100% after MDA2. The prevalence of STHs decreased by 65.5% and 62.8% after MDA1 and MDA2 respectively; however an increase to 62.1% of pre MDA1 levels was detected during the inter-treatment interval. Individually, hookworm prevalence decreased by 83.4% (MDA1) and 84.5% (MDA2), A. lumbricoides by 95.6% and 93.5% and T. trichiura by 69.2% and 61%. The intensity of infection within the sampled population also decreased, with egg reduction rates of 94.4% and 97.8% for hookworm, 99.4% and 99.3% for A. lumbricoides and 77.2% and 88.5% for T. trichiura. Molecular characterisation identified a T. solium tapeworm carrier from 21.6% (13/60) of households in the village. T. saginata was identified in 5% (3/60) of households. The zoonotic hookworm A. ceylanicum was detected in the resident dog population. These results suggest that the triple dose albendazole 400mg treatment regime achieved a significant reduction in the level of taeniasis whilst simultaneously reducing the STH burden within the village. The increased STH prevalence detected between MDAs reflects the need for behavioural changes and a sustained chemotherapy programme, which may also need to include the resident dog population.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.05.018
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Two new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from
           Myanmar, and their phylogenetic relationships with related species in the
           S. asakoae species-group
    • Authors: Hiroyuki Takaoka; Wichai Srisuka Van Lun Low Wanchai Maleewong Atiporn
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Hiroyuki Takaoka, Wichai Srisuka, Van Lun Low, Wanchai Maleewong, Atiporn Saeung
      Two new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia), S. (G.) myanmarense and S. (G.) monglaense, are described from females, males, pupae and larvae from Myanmar. The two new species are placed in the S. asakoae species-group, and are similar to each other in the female and male but distinguished in the pupa by the presence or absence of an anterodorsal projection of the cocoon, and in the larva by a unique pattern of colored markings on the abdomen. Taxonomic notes are given to separate these species from related species. The COI gene sequences of both species are compared with those of eight species of the S. asakoae species-group and three species of the S. ceylonicum species-group. Both new species are most closely related to each other, further supporting their morphological classification in the S. asakoae species-group.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
  • Editor/Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:22:53Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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