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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3043 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 348, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 353, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Acta Tropica
  [SJR: 1.059]   [H-I: 77]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-706X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Regional and seasonal effects on the gastrointestinal parasitism of
           captive forest musk deer
    • Authors: Xiao-Long Hu; Gang Liu; Yu-Ting Wei; Yi-Hua Wang; Tian-Xiang Zhang; Shuang Yang; De-Fu Hu; Shu-Qiang Liu
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Xiao-Long Hu, Gang Liu, Yu-Ting Wei, Yi-Hua Wang, Tian-Xiang Zhang, Shuang Yang, De-Fu Hu, Shu-Qiang Liu
      Parasite infections can cause adverse effects on health, survival and welfare of forest musk deer. However, few studies have quantified the parasite infection status and evaluated the parasite temporal dynamics and differences between breeding centers for captive forest musk deer. The purpose of this study was to assess seasonal and regional effects on the parasite prevalence, shedding capacity, diversity, aggregation and infracommunity to establish baseline data on captive forest musk deer. The McMaster technique was applied to count parasite eggs or oocysts in 990 fecal samples collected at three breeding centers located in Qinling Mountains and Tibetan Plateau during spring, summer, and winter. Five gastrointestinal parasite groups were found in musk deer, and Eimeria spp. were dominant (mean oocysts per gram=1273.7±256.3). A positive correlation between Eimeria spp. and Strongyloides spp. (r=0.336, p<0.001) based on shedding capacity data was found, as well as a negative correlation between Eimeria spp. and Moniezia spp. (r=−0.375, p=0.003). Both seasonal and regional differences in diversity, prevalence, shedding capacity, aggregation and infracommunity were observed for five parasite groups. The low level of aggregation and high shedding capacity of Eimeria spp. and Strongyloides spp. might reflect the contaminated environment, and indicate that host-parasite relationships are unstable. The high degree of aggregation of Trichuris spp., Ascaris spp., and Moniezia spp. also suggests that some individual hosts had less ability to resist pathogens and greater transmission potential than others. These conclusions suggest that a focus on disease control strategies could improve the health of forest musk deer in captivity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T04:42:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.021
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Advantages of bioconjugated silica-coated nanoparticles as an innovative
           diagnosis for human toxoplasmosis
    • Authors: Ibrahim Aly; Eman E. Taher; Gehan EL nain; Hoda EL Sayed; Faten A. Mohammed; Rabab S. Hamad; Elsayed M. Bayoumy
      Pages: 19 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Ibrahim Aly, Eman E. Taher, Gehan EL nain, Hoda EL Sayed, Faten A. Mohammed, Rabab S. Hamad, Elsayed M. Bayoumy
      Nanotechnology is a promising arena for generating new applications in Medicine. To successfully functionalised nanoparticles for a given biomedical application, a wide range of chemical, physical and biological factors have to be taken into account. Silica-coated nanoparticles, (SiO2NP) exhibit substantial diagnostic activity owing to their large surface to volume ratios and crystallographic surface structure. This work aimed to evaluate the advantage of bioconjugation of SiO2NP with PAb against Toxoplasma lyzate antigen (TLA) as an innovative diagnostic method for human toxoplasmosis. This cross-sectional study included 120 individuals, divided into Group I: 70 patients suspected for Toxoplasma gondii based on the presence of clinical manifestation. Group II: 30 patients harboring other parasites than T. gondii Group III: 20 apparently healthy individuals free from toxoplasmosis and other parasitic infections served as negative control. Detection of circulating Toxoplasma antigen was performed by Sandwich ELISA and Nano-sandwich ELISA on sera and pooled urine of human samples. Using Sandwich ELISA, 10 out of 70 suspected Toxoplasma-infected human serum samples showed false negative and 8 out of 30 of other parasites groups were false positive giving 85.7% sensitivity and 84.0% specificity, while the sensitivity and specificity were 78.6% and 70% respectively in urine samples. Using Nano-Sandwich ELISA, 7 out of 70 suspected Toxoplasma-infected human samples showed false negative results and the sensitivity of the assay was 90.0%, while 4 out of 30 of other parasites groups were false positive giving 92.0% specificity, while the sensitivity and specificity were 82.6% and 80% respectively in urine samples. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that loading SiO2 nanoparticles with pAb increased the sensitivity and specificity of Nano-sandwich ELISA for detection of T.gondii antigens in serum and urine samples, thus active (early) and light infections could be easily detected.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.024
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Clinical, laboratory, and demographic determinants of hospitalization due
           to dengue in 7613 patients: A retrospective study based on hierarchical
    • Authors: Natal Santos da Silva; Eduardo A. Undurraga; Elis Regina da Silva Ferreira; Cássia Fernanda Estofolete; Maurício Lacerda Nogueira
      Pages: 25 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Natal Santos da Silva, Eduardo A. Undurraga, Elis Regina da Silva Ferreira, Cássia Fernanda Estofolete, Maurício Lacerda Nogueira
      In Brazil, the incidence of hospitalization due to dengue, as an indicator of severity, has drastically increased since 1998. The objective of our study was to identify risk factors associated with subsequent hospitalization related to dengue. We analyzed 7613 dengue confirmed via serology (ELISA), non-structural protein 1, or polymerase chain reaction amplification. We used a hierarchical framework to generate a multivariate logistic regression based on a variety of risk variables. This was followed by multiple statistical analyses to assess hierarchical model accuracy, variance, goodness of fit, and whether or not this model reliably represented the population. The final model, which included age, sex, ethnicity, previous dengue infection, hemorrhagic manifestations, plasma leakage, and organ failure, showed that all measured parameters, with the exception of previous dengue, were statistically significant. The presence of organ failure was associated with the highest risk of subsequent dengue hospitalization (OR=5·75; CI=3·53–9·37). Therefore, plasma leakage and organ failure were the main indicators of hospitalization due to dengue, although other variables of minor importance should also be considered to refer dengue patients to hospital treatment, which may lead to a reduction in avoidable deaths as well as costs related to dengue.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.025
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Natural infection of Ctenodactylus gundi by Leishmania major in Tunisia
    • Authors: Wissem Ghawar; Jihène Bettaieb; Sadok Salem; Mohammed-Ali Snoussi; Kaouther Jaouadi; Rihab Yazidi; Afif Ben-Salah
      Pages: 89 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Wissem Ghawar, Jihène Bettaieb, Sadok Salem, Mohammed-Ali Snoussi, Kaouther Jaouadi, Rihab Yazidi, Afif Ben-Salah
      Incriminating new rodent species, as reservoir hosts of Leishmania parasites is crucial for understanding the transmission cycle of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia. Ctenodactylus (C.) gundi was previously described as extremely abundant in all Tunisian Leishmania (L.) tropica foci in south Tunisia besides its presence in L. major endemic area. The aim of this study was to detect Leishmania species parasites among C. gundi in two endemic regions in Tunisia: Sidi Bouzid and Tataouine. Total DNA was isolated from the spleens and the livers of 92C. gundi. Leishmaniasis clinical manifestations were detected among 11 rodents (12%). Leishmania parasites were detected in 30 (32.6%) rodents using direct exam method. Leishmania DNA was detected in 40 (43.5%) C. gundi by combining results among spleens and livers using ITS1-PCR. Positive samples were confirmed to be L. major except for only one specimen which was L. tropica. These results demonstrated, for the first time, the high natural infection rate of C. gundi with L. major parasites in Tunisia. Hence, C. gundi should be considered as potential reservoir host of Leishmania parasites causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T06:48:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.022
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Molecular confirmation of Hepatozoon canis in Mauritius
    • Authors: Aikaterini Alexandra Daskalaki; Angela Monica Ionică; Keshav Jeetah; Călin Mircea Gherman; Andrei Daniel Mihalca
      Pages: 116 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Aikaterini Alexandra Daskalaki, Angela Monica Ionică, Keshav Jeetah, Călin Mircea Gherman, Andrei Daniel Mihalca
      In this study, Hepatozoon species was molecularly identified and characterized for the first time on the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of the Hepatozoon isolates were analysed from three naturally infected dogs. The sequences of H. canis were similar to the 18S rRNA partial sequences (JX112783, AB365071 99%) from dog blood samples from West Indies and Nigeria. Our sequences were deposited in the GenBank database.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T06:48:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Investigation of infectious reproductive pathogens of large ruminants: Are
           neosporosis, brucellosis, leptospirosis and BVDV of relevance in Lao
    • Authors: L. Olmo; M.T. Dye; M.P. Reichel; J.R. Young; S. Nampanya; S. Khounsy; P.C. Thomson; P.A. Windsor; R.D. Bush
      Pages: 118 - 126
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): L. Olmo, M.T. Dye, M.P. Reichel, J.R. Young, S. Nampanya, S. Khounsy, P.C. Thomson, P.A. Windsor, R.D. Bush
      N. caninum, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, Brucella abortus and Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo are globally significant reproductive pathogens that cause abortion and reproductive loss in large ruminants. Prevalence information is lacking in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Laos) despite the poor reproductive performance of cattle and buffalo. Serological examination of frozen cattle (n =90) and buffalo (n =61) sera by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays provided the first reported screening of some of these pathogens in Laos. Seroprevalence differed amongst these large ruminant species, with N. caninum, BVDV and L. interrogans serovar Hardjo antibodies found in 68.9% (95% CI±11.6), 4.9% (95% CI±5.4) and 3.3% (95% CI±4.5) of buffalo sera, respectively, and in 7.8% (95% CI±5.5), 10.0% (95% CI±6.2) and 22.2% (95% CI±8.6) of cattle sera, respectively. Buffalo sera had a significantly higher seroprevalence of N. caninum compared to cattle (p< 0.001) and cattle sera had a significantly higher seroprevalence of L. interrogans serovar Hardjo compared to buffalo (p = 0.003). Variability was also observed across provinces for N. caninum in buffalo (p = 0.007) and for L. interrogans serovar Hardjo in cattle (p = 0.071), suggesting provincial risk factors conducive to pathogen transmission. BVDV and N. caninum seropositivity were negatively associated in buffalo (p = 0.018) and cattle (p = 0.003). In buffalo, L. interrogans serovar Hardjo and BVDV seropositivity were associated (p = 0.035, p =0.039). The identification of antibodies against three major abortifacient pathogens in Laos prompts further research to determine if infection is associated with low reproductive efficiency and the risk factors for infection. This is needed for the development of evidence based prevention strategies for improved large ruminant reproductive management among smallholders in Laos.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T06:48:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Ecohealth research in Africa: Where from—Where to'
    • Authors: Robert Bergquist; Norbert W. Brattig; Moses J. Chimbari; Jakob Zinsstag; Jürg Utzinger
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 175
      Author(s): Robert Bergquist, Norbert W. Brattig, Moses J. Chimbari, Jakob Zinsstag, Jürg Utzinger
      Epidemiological mapping and risk profiling build on the idea that diseases are tied to social-ecological systems that govern the distribution and abundance of transmissible pathogens, vectors and hosts. This is the heart of the emerging field of ecohealth, which examines how biological, cultural, demographic, economic, physical, political and social environments change and how these changes affect the health and wellbeing of humans, animals and ecosystems and the services they provide. This paper is an overview of a special issue of Acta Tropica, whose 15 publications reflect a geographically and epidemiologically diverse landscape of ecohealth. Nowhere is an ecohealth approach better suited than in Africa and its myriad of landscapes that include contexts varying from profuse expanses of tropical rain forests to the world’s greatest desert. The publication of African ecohealth-related projects displays a biological, cultural and social diversity in health system contexts and a wide variety of contributions pertaining to different, often neglected, tropical diseases, including brucellosis, Buruli ulcer, fascioliasis, malaria, Q fever, rabies, Rift Valley fever and schistosomiasis. Pursuing an ecohealth approach provides a platform that brings together community members, decision makers, scientists and other stakeholders with a view to understand how ecosystem changes affect health conditions. Taken together, the presentation of this variety of papers dealing with environmental variables associated with health inaugurates the vital concept of ecohealth. By emphasizing that all organisms are part of social-ecological systems, the long-term wellbeing of both people and animals depending on healthy and productive ecosystems is highlighted.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.015
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2017)
  • Community engagement practices in Southern Africa: Review and thematic
           synthesis of studies done in Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa
    • Authors: Rosemary Musesengwa; Moses J. Chimbari
      Pages: 20 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 175
      Author(s): Rosemary Musesengwa, Moses J. Chimbari
      Community Engagement (CE) is intended to enhance the participation of community stakeholders in research. CE is usually mentioned in publications as researchers discuss how they carried out community entry, consent and retained study participants but the actual CE activities are not always well documented. This paper reviews CE strategies employed in health research in Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe with reference to the development of a CE strategy for a multi-centre study to be conducted in these countries. The search was conducted using JANE (Journal/Author Name Estimator), Google Scholar and PubMed with known institutions and researchers providing context-specific material. The final synthesis includes 35 publications, 2 reports and 2 abstracts. There is evidence of CE being practiced in health research and eight closely related CE strategies were revealed. We conclude that since communities are heterogeneous and unique, CE activities will not have similar results in different settings. Even though there was insufficient evidence to determine which CE strategy is most effective, the review provides sufficient information to develop a CE strategy for a multi-centre study using the various strategies and activities described.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.03.021
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2017)
  • Memories of environmental change and local adaptations among molapo
           farming communities in the Okavango Delta, Botswana—A gender perspective
    • Authors: B.N. Ngwenya; O.T. Thakadu; L. Magole; M.J. Chimbari
      Pages: 31 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 175
      Author(s): B.N. Ngwenya, O.T. Thakadu, L. Magole, M.J. Chimbari
      This paper focuses on ways in which three riparian communities (Xobe, Shorobe and Tubu) practising flood recession (molapo) farming along the fringes of the Okavango Delta in Ngamiland District in north-western Botswana, present memories of experiential impacts of and adaptation to key environmental and anthropogenic change events. Participatory methodological tools were used to capture local knowledge of people who had resided in the Okavango wetlands for many years. Findings indicate that key environmental change events were characterized by intergenerational experiences of severe and frequent droughts, floods, and recurrent outbreaks of human and animal disease. These events had impacted livelihoods and well-being of communities. Community adaptation strategies were embedded in local institutions of governance, especially chieftainship and the Kgotla, as legitimate platforms for community re-organization against unpredictable environmental change. We concluded that policy/program formulation processes need to take cognisance of local communities’ historical knowledge of environmental change and adaptation. In particular it emerged that men and women, and people of different ages have differentiated memories of historical events which are complementary and necessary in developing a comprehensive adaptation strategy.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.11.029
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2017)
  • Agroecology and healthy food systems in semi-humid tropical Africa:
           Participatory research with vulnerable farming households in Malawi
    • Authors: Hanson Nyantakyi-Frimpong; Joseph Kangmennaang; Rachel Bezner Kerr; Isaac Luginaah; Laifolo Dakishoni; Esther Lupafya; Lizzie Shumba; Mangani Katundu
      Pages: 42 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 175
      Author(s): Hanson Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Joseph Kangmennaang, Rachel Bezner Kerr, Isaac Luginaah, Laifolo Dakishoni, Esther Lupafya, Lizzie Shumba, Mangani Katundu
      This paper assesses the relationship between agroecology, food security, and human health. Specifically, we ask if agroecology can lead to improved food security and human health among vulnerable smallholder farmers in semi-humid tropical Africa. The empirical evidence comes from a cross-sectional household survey (n =1000) in two districts in Malawi, a small country in semi-humid, tropical Africa. The survey consisted of 571 agroecology-adoption and 429 non-agroecology-adoption households. Ordered logistics regression and average treatment effects models were used to determine the effect of agroecology adoption on self-reported health. Our results show that agroecology-adoption households (OR=1.37, p =0.05) were more likely to report optimal health status, and the average treatment effect shows that adopters were 12% more likely to be in optimal health. Furthermore, being moderately food insecure (OR=0.59, p =0.05) and severely food insecure (OR=0.89, p =0.10) were associated with less likelihood of reporting optimal health status. The paper concludes that with the adoption of agroecology in the semi-humid tropics, it is possible for households to diversify their crops and diets, a condition that has strong implications for improved food security, good nutrition and human health.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.10.022
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2017)
  • Indigenous environmental indicators for malaria: A district study in
    • Authors: Margaret Macherera; Moses J. Chimbari; Samson Mukaratirwa
      Pages: 50 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 175
      Author(s): Margaret Macherera, Moses J. Chimbari, Samson Mukaratirwa
      This paper discusses indigenous environmental indicators for the occurrence of malaria in ward 11, 15 and 18 of Gwanda district, Zimbabwe. The study was inspired by the successes of use of indigenous knowledge systems in community based early warning systems for natural disasters. To our knowledge, no study has examined the relationship between malaria epidemics and climatic factors in Gwanda district. The aim of the study was to determine the environmental indicators for the occurrence of malaria. Twenty eight key informants from the 3 wards were studied. Questionnaires, focus group discussions and PRA sessions were used to collect data. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. The local name for malaria was ‘uqhuqho’ literally meaning a fever. The disease is also called, “umkhuhlane wemiyane” and is derived from the association between malaria and mosquitoes. The findings of our study reveal that trends in malaria incidence are perceived to positively correlate with variations in both temperature and rainfall, although factors other than climate seem to play an important role too. Plant phenology and insects are the commonly used indicators in malaria prediction in the study villages. Other indicators for malaria prediction included the perceived noise emanating from mountains, referred to as “roaring of mountains” and certain behaviours exhibited by ostriches. The results of the present study highlight the importance of using climatic information in the analysis of malaria surveillance data, and this knowledge can be integrated into the conventional health system to develop a community based malaria forecasting system.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.08.021
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2017)
  • Reprint of “Modelling the influence of temperature and rainfall on
           malaria incidence in four endemic provinces of Zambia using semiparametric
           Poisson regression”
    • Authors: Nzooma M. Shimaponda-Mataa; Enala Tembo-Mwase; Michael Gebreslasie; Thomas N.O. Achia; Samson Mukaratirwa
      Pages: 60 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 175
      Author(s): Nzooma M. Shimaponda-Mataa, Enala Tembo-Mwase, Michael Gebreslasie, Thomas N.O. Achia, Samson Mukaratirwa
      Although malaria morbidity and mortality are greatly reduced globally owing to great control efforts, the disease remains the main contributor. In Zambia, all provinces are malaria endemic. However, the transmission intensities vary mainly depending on environmental factors as they interact with the vectors. Generally in Africa, possibly due to the varying perspectives and methods used, there is variation on the relative importance of malaria risk determinants. In Zambia, the role climatic factors play on malaria case rates has not been determined in combination of space and time using robust methods in modelling. This is critical considering the reversal in malaria reduction after the year 2010 and the variation by transmission zones. Using a geoadditive or structured additive semiparametric Poisson regression model, we determined the influence of climatic factors on malaria incidence in four endemic provinces of Zambia. We demonstrate a strong positive association between malaria incidence and precipitation as well as minimum temperature. The risk of malaria was 95% lower in Lusaka (ARR=0.05, 95% CI=0.04–0.06) and 68% lower in the Western Province (ARR=0.31, 95% CI=0.25–0.41) compared to Luapula Province. North-western Province did not vary from Luapula Province. The effects of geographical region are clearly demonstrated by the unique behaviour and effects of minimum and maximum temperatures in the four provinces. Environmental factors such as landscape in urbanised places may also be playing a role.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.014
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2017)
  • Malaria incidence during early childhood in rural Burkina Faso: Analysis
           of a birth cohort protected with insecticide-treated mosquito nets
    • Authors: Sabrina Wehner; Gabriele Stieglbauer; Corneille Traoré; Ali Sie; Heiko Becher; Olaf Müller
      Pages: 78 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 175
      Author(s): Sabrina Wehner, Gabriele Stieglbauer, Corneille Traoré, Ali Sie, Heiko Becher, Olaf Müller
      Background Even in the high transmission areas of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the incidence of falciparum malaria varies greatly depending on factors such as age, rainfall pattern, distance to breeding places, quality of houses, and existing vector control measures. Insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITN) have now become the vector control standard in nearly all of SSA. This study aims to describe and analyse the incidence of malaria in a cohort of young children protected with ITN in rural West Africa. Methods Data of a subsample from a large community trial in rural north-western Burkina Faso consisting of 420 children were analysed. The main aim of the trial was to evaluate the long-term effects of ITNs in two groups of new-borns; Group A was protected with ITN from birth onwards while Group B was protected only from month six onwards. The primary objective of this study was to describe malaria incidence in detail with an analysis of the impact of potentially relevant determinants of malaria incidence, in particular age, sex, ITN protection, village, month and season as secondary objective. Bivariate negative binomial regression analysis was used to calculate incidence rate ratios of malaria incidence. Moreover, relevant variables were included in a multivariate negative binomial regression model to examine possible risk factors for malaria. Results Out of the 420 study children 387 (92.1%) developed a total of 1822 falciparum malaria episodes; the malaria incidence rate was 7.6 per 1000 child days. Group A children had lower malaria incidence rates compared to group B, but only in early infancy. Malaria incidence varied significantly between villages and increased with age, but no sex-specific differences were observed; these findings were confirmed in the multi-variate analysis. Malaria incidence peaked sharply towards the end of the rainy season in September but there were no differences in the seasonal pattern by study group. Conclusions The study, carried out in a high-transmission West African area, shows that malaria incidence remains high in spite of maximum ITN coverage.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2017)
  • Risk factors for schistosomiasis transmission among school children in
           Gwanda district, Zimbabwe
    • Authors: Zibusiso Nyati-Jokomo; Moses J. Chimbari
      Pages: 84 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 175
      Author(s): Zibusiso Nyati-Jokomo, Moses J. Chimbari
      Introduction A nationwide cross sectional schistosomiasis survey conducted in 2011 in 280 primary schools found a prevalence rate of 22.7%. This warranted an intervention with Mass Drug Administration at all schools in line with WHO guidelines. This study aimed to identify risk factors for schistosomiasis transmission among Grade 3 children at two primary schools in Gwanda district. Methods A descriptive cross sectional survey which was part of a larger study on Malaria and Bilharzia in Southern Africa (MABISA) was conducted. Grade 3 children (n =120) attending two purposively selected rural primary schools in Dombo and Ntalale in Gwanda were respondents. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors which included knowledge and practices were collected using a pretested interviewer administered questionnaire. Results Of the 120 children, 98 (81.7%) of the children indicated that they did not consistently use the toilet. The other risk factors for schistosomiasis were bathing and swimming in rivers and dams 80 (66.7%), watering the vegetable gardens using unprotected water sources 77 (64.7%) and crossing rivers on their way to school barefooted 31.7%. History of schistosomiasis cases based on self-reporting indicated that of the 9 children 7 were girls. There was poor knowledge of schistosomiasis among the children with 54% of the children indicating that they had never heard about the disease. Misconceptions on the causes of schistosomiasis which included drinking dirty water, mosquitoes and flies as the causes of schistosomiasis were reported by the children. Parents were cited as the least disseminators of information on schistosomiasis with only 4 out of the 120 children having received information from their parents. Conclusion Frequent contact with unprotected water sources, non-use of the toilet, and lack of information on schistosomiasis could predispose the children to infection. There is need to raise awareness about schistosomiasis in schools and the community to reduce the risk of contracting schistosomiasis due to risky behaviour.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.033
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2017)
  • Treatment of human and livestock helminth infections in a mobile
           pastoralist setting at Lake Chad: Attitudes to health and analysis of
           active pharmaceutical ingredients of locally available anthelminthic drugs
    • Authors: Helena Greter; Noemi Cowan; Bongo N. Ngandolo; Hamit Kessely; Idriss O. Alfaroukh; Jürg Utzinger; Jennifer Keiser; Jakob Zinsstag
      Pages: 91 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 175
      Author(s): Helena Greter, Noemi Cowan, Bongo N. Ngandolo, Hamit Kessely, Idriss O. Alfaroukh, Jürg Utzinger, Jennifer Keiser, Jakob Zinsstag
      Mobile pastoralists face challenges in accessing quality health care and medication for managing human and animal diseases. We determined livestock disease priorities, health seeking behaviour of people bearing helminthiases and − placing particular emphasis on trematode infections − treatment strategies and outcome satisfaction among mobile pastoralists of four ethnic groups in the Lake Chad area using focus group discussions. People suffering from schistosomiasis were interviewed about symptoms, health seeking behaviour and their satisfaction with respect to the provided treatment. Anthelminthic drugs for human and veterinary use obtained from various health care structures were analysed for active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and quantity, using high pressure liquid chromatography-UV and liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry. Most people suffering from schistosomiasis sought treatment at health care centres. Yet, they also consulted informal providers without medical training. Regarding animal health, self-mediated therapy was common to manage suspected livestock fascioliasis. Self-reported treatment satisfaction for human schistosomiasis and trematodiasis treatment outcome in livestock were low. Mobile pastoralists perceived the purchased drugs to be of low quality. Among 33 products locally sold as anthelminthic drugs for human or veterinary use, 27 contained albendazole or mebendazole, varying between 91% and 159% of the labelled amount. Six products were sold loosely with incomplete information and their API could not be identified. No counterfeit anthelminthic drugs were detected. None of the samples contained praziquantel or triclabendazole, the drugs of choice against schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. The perceived unsatisfactory treatment outcomes in humans and animals infected with trematodes are most likely due to empiric diagnosis and the resulting use of inadequate therapy for human schistosomiasis and the lack of efficacious drugs against livestock fascioliasis.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.05.012
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2017)
  • Rabies awareness and dog ownership among rural northern and southern
           Chadian communities—Analysis of a community-based, cross-sectional
           household survey
    • Authors: Céline Mbilo; Monique Léchenne; Jan Hattendorf; Séraphin Madjadinan; Franziska Anyiam; Jakob Zinsstag
      Pages: 100 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 175
      Author(s): Céline Mbilo, Monique Léchenne, Jan Hattendorf, Séraphin Madjadinan, Franziska Anyiam, Jakob Zinsstag
      Canine rabies represents a major – but preventable – public health threat in Chad. In preparation for a nation-wide canine parenteral mass vaccination campaign we conducted a community-based, cross-sectional multi-stage cluster survey in 40 villages in two southern and two northern regions of Chad. Our objective was to investigate rabies awareness and dog-ownership among the rural population. Almost half of the households (45%) owned dogs, with an overall dog:human ratio of 1:7.8. Southern households owned almost two thirds (701/918) of all dogs and the number of dogs per household was twice as high compared to the north (2.7 vs. 1.3, respectively). This translates into a dog:human ratio of 1:5.2 in the south and 1:16.4 in the north. Only 76% of the respondents had heard of rabies. Respondents who (1) were male, (2)>19 years, (3) had primary education or higher and (4) were of Muslim faith were more likely to have heard of rabies (p<0.01). High level of rabies knowledge was positively associated with (1) southern residence, (2) any kind of education and (3) Christian or “other” religions. In contrast to rabies awareness, high level of knowledge was negatively associated with increasing age. 11% of respondents reported that at least one family member had been bitten by a dog in the past year and half of these bite victims were children. 31% of respondents knew someone who had died of rabies and twice as many (58%) reported having encountered a rabid animal. Most of the respondents could identify classical rabies symptoms (58–94%), however they lacked knowledge about rabies prevention and appropriate wound management. Only 2 out of 963 (0.5%) reported to have vaccinated their dog. A major proportion of our study population is at great risk of rabies (likely higher than 7 rabies death per million per year) due to lack of awareness of the disease, inappropriate post-bite treatment and insufficient knowledge about preventive measures. This reflects the urgent need for advocacy programs to raise rabies awareness among the community. Close intersectoral collaboration between the public health and veterinary sector and integration of local authorities, is a key element in the fight against rabies
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2017)
  • Cost-estimate and proposal for a development impact bond for canine rabies
           elimination by mass vaccination in Chad
    • Authors: Franziska Anyiam; Monique Lechenne; Rolande Mindekem; Assandi Oussigéré; Service Naissengar; Idriss Oumar Alfaroukh; Celine Mbilo; Daugla Doumagoum Moto; Paul G. Coleman; Nicole Probst-Hensch; Jakob Zinsstag
      Pages: 112 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 175
      Author(s): Franziska Anyiam, Monique Lechenne, Rolande Mindekem, Assandi Oussigéré, Service Naissengar, Idriss Oumar Alfaroukh, Celine Mbilo, Daugla Doumagoum Moto, Paul G. Coleman, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Jakob Zinsstag
      Close to 69,000 humans die of rabies each year, most of them in Africa and Asia. Clinical rabies can be prevented by post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, PEP is commonly not available or not affordable in developing countries. Another strategy besides treating exposed humans is the vaccination of vector species. In developing countries, the main vector is the domestic dog, that, once infected, is a serious threat to humans. After a successful mass vaccination of 70% of the dogs in N’Djaména, we report here a cost-estimate for a national rabies elimination campaign for Chad. In a cross-sectional survey in four rural zones, we established the canine : human ratio at the household level. Based on human census data and the prevailing socio-cultural composition of rural zones of Chad, the total canine population was estimated at 1,205,361 dogs (95% Confidence interval 1,128,008–1,736,774 dogs). Cost data were collected from government sources and the recent canine mass vaccination campaign in N’Djaména. A Monte Carlo simulation was used for the simulation of the average cost and its variability, using probability distributions for dog numbers and cost items. Assuming the vaccination of 100 dogs on average per vaccination post and a duration of one year, the total cost for the vaccination of the national Chadian canine population is estimated at 2,716,359 Euros (95% CI 2,417,353–3,035,081) for one vaccination round. A development impact bond (DIB) organizational structure and cash flow scenario were then developed for the elimination of canine rabies in Chad. Cumulative discounted cost of 28.3 million Euros over ten years would be shared between the government of Chad, private investors and institutional donors as outcome funders. In this way, the risk of the investment could be shared and the necessary investment could be made available upfront – a key element for the elimination of canine rabies in Chad.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2017)
  • Brucellosis in cattle and micro-scale spatial variability of pastoral
           household income from dairy production in south western Uganda
    • Authors: Pius Mbuya Nina; Samuel Mugisha; Herwig Leirs; Gilbert Isabirye Basuta; Patrick Van Damme
      Pages: 130 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 175
      Author(s): Pius Mbuya Nina, Samuel Mugisha, Herwig Leirs, Gilbert Isabirye Basuta, Patrick Van Damme
      Brucellosis in cattle and humans has received world-wide research attention as a neglected and re-emerging zoonotic disease with many routes of transmission. Studies of brucellosis in Uganda have emphasized occupational exposures and also revealed variations in prevalence levels by region and cattle production systems. To date, research linking pastoralist household income from dairy production to brucellosis and its transmission risk pathways do not exist in Uganda. We assessed whether spatial differences in unit milk prices can be explained by brucellosis prevalence in cattle along a distance gradient from Lake Mburo National Park in Uganda. Semi-structured interviews administered to 366 randomly selected household heads were supplemented with serological data on brucellosis in cattle. Statistical analysis included Pearson correlation test, multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS version 17. Serological results showed that 44% of cattle blood samples were sero-positive for brucellosis. The results obtained from interviews put the statistical mean of household reported cattle abortions at 5.39 (5.08–5.70 at 95% CI, n=366). Post-hoc analysis of variance revealed that both sero-positive cattle and reported cattle abortions significantly were much lower when moving outwards from the park boundary (p<0.05), while the price of milk increased significantly (p<0.05) along the same distance gradient. Further studies should identify public and private partnerships needed to create and strengthen good zoonotic brucellosis management practices at the nexus of wildlife and livestock in Uganda.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.11.030
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2017)
  • Characteristics and epidemiological profile of Buruli ulcer in the
           district of Tiassalé, south Côte d’Ivoire
    • Authors: Raymond T.A.S. N’krumah; Brama Koné; Guéladio Cissé; Marcel Tanner; Jürg Utzinger; Gerd Pluschke; Issaka Tiembré
      Pages: 138 - 144
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 175
      Author(s): Raymond T.A.S. N’krumah, Brama Koné, Guéladio Cissé, Marcel Tanner, Jürg Utzinger, Gerd Pluschke, Issaka Tiembré
      Buruli ulcer (BU) is a cutaneous infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. It is the third most common mycobacterial disease in the world in the immunocompetent patient and second in Côte d’Ivoire after tuberculosis. This study aimed to assess the characteristics and epidemiological profile of BU in the district of Tiassalé, an important focus of the disease in south Côte d’Ivoire, in order to better direct actions for prevention and control. Retrospective clinical data of BU cases in the period 2005–2010 from all 19 district health centres were collected and linked with geographical and environmental survey data. A total of 1145 cases of BU were recorded between 2005 and 2010 in the district of Tiassalé. Children under the age of 15 years were the most affected (53.0%) with a higher prevalence among males compared to females (54.7% versus 45.3%). Among individuals aged 15–49 years, females had a higher prevalence than males (54.2% versus 45.8%). The villages of Ahondo, Léléblé and Taabo, located in close proximity to the man-made Lake Taabo that was constructed in the late 1970s by damming the Bandama River, and the village of Sokrogbo located downstream of the dam, showed the highest BU rates in the sub-prefecture of Taabo. In the sub-prefecture of Tiassalé, the villages of Affikro, Morokro and N’Zianouan, located near N’Zi River, a tributary of the Bandama River, were the most affected. The distribution of BU is associated with environmental patterns (i.e. distance between village and Lake Taabo or Bandama River and its tributary N’Zi River). Awareness campaigns, coupled with early diagnosis and improved clinical management of BU, have been implemented in the district of Tiassalé and the incidence of BU has declined.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.12.023
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2017)
  • Development of a multiplex PCR assay for the detection and differentiation
           of Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia
           thailandensis, and Burkholderia cepacia complex
    • Authors: Irina Zakharova; Natalya Teteryatnikova; Andrey Toporkov; Dmitry Viktorov
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Irina Zakharova, Natalya Teteryatnikova, Andrey Toporkov, Dmitry Viktorov
      Two species of Burkholderia pseudomallei complex (Bpc), B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, can cause severe life-threatening infections. Rapidly discerning individual species within the group and separating them from other opportunistic pathogens of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is essential to establish a correct diagnosis and for epidemiological surveillance. In this study, a multiplex PCR assay based on the detection of an individual set of chromosomal beta-lactamase genes for single-step identification and differentiation of B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, B. thailandensis, and Bcc was developed. Two pairs of primers specific to a distinct class of B metallo-beta-lactamase genes and a pair of primers specific to the oxacillin-hydrolyzing class D beta-lactamase gene were demonstrated to successfully discriminate species within Bpc and from Bcc. The assay sensitivity was 9561 genomic equivalents (GE) for B. pseudomallei, 7827 GE for B. mallei, 8749 GE for B. thailandensis and 6023 GE for B. cepacia.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.016
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Investigating unlicensed retail drug vendors’ preparedness and knowledge
           about malaria: An exploratory study in rural Uganda
    • Authors: Eric Liow; Rosemin Kassam; Richard Sekiwunga
      Pages: 9 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Eric Liow, Rosemin Kassam, Richard Sekiwunga
      Background Despite major efforts to increase the uptake of preventive measures and timely use of the first line antimalarial treatment artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT), Uganda continues to fall short of meeting its national malaria control targets. One of the challenges has been scaling up effective measures in rural and remote areas where the unlicensed private retail sector remains the first point of contact and a common source of treatment. The current paper discusses unlicensed vendors’ (1) training related to malaria case management for children aged five and under, and (2) knowledge related to the cause of malaria, preventive measures, common signs, and symptoms, diagnostic procedures, and best treatment options. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted in the rural district of Butaleja, Uganda in 2011. All 88 unlicensed drug outlets enumerated in the study area were visited by six locally recruited research assistants, with one vendor from each outlet invited to participate. The transcripts were analyzed using acceptable qualitative research protocols. Results About half of the 75 vendors interviewed had received some sort of formal training on malaria at a post-secondary institution, although only 6.7% had qualifications which met licensure requirements. The study found widespread misconceptions relating to the cause, as well as prevention and treatment of malaria. A large majority of the vendors relied primarily on non-specific symptoms and limited physical exams for diagnoses, with less than one-tenth of the vendors recognizing that rapid or microscopic blood testing was necessary to confirm a clinical diagnosis of malaria. While most recognized mosquitoes as the primary vector for malaria, over two-fifths of the vendors held misconceptions about the factors that could increase the risk of malaria, and nearly a third believed that malaria could not be prevented. With respect to acute case management, three-quarters viewed as the best option a medicine other than the government’s first-line antimalarial, artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT). Almost three-fifths specified quinine as their preferred option, with about one-fifth recommending quinine injection. Conclusion Findings from this study confirm significant gaps in unlicensed vendors’ knowledge related to malaria. With increased utilization of unlicensed drug outlets in rural and remote settings such as Butaleja, findings from this study strongly supports the need to implement strategies to improve the quality of care delivered at these outlet.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.008
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Analysis of population structure and insecticide resistance in mosquitoes
           of the genus Culex, Anopheles and Aedes from different environments of
           Greece with a history of mosquito borne disease transmission
    • Authors: Emmanouil A. Fotakis; Alexandra Chaskopoulou; Linda Grigoraki; Alexandros Tsiamantas; Stella Kounadi; Loukas Georgiou; John Vontas
      Pages: 29 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Emmanouil A. Fotakis, Alexandra Chaskopoulou, Linda Grigoraki, Alexandros Tsiamantas, Stella Kounadi, Loukas Georgiou, John Vontas
      Greece has been recently affected by several mosquito borne diseases with the West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreak in 2010 being one of the largest reported in Europe. Currently at the epicenter of an economic and refugee crisis and visited by over 16 million tourists a year the integrated management of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes is a public health and economic priority. Vector control programs rely mainly on insecticides, however data on insecticide resistance and the mosquito fauna is essential for successful applications. We determined the mosquito species composition and population dynamics in areas of increased vulnerability to vector borne disease transmission, as well as investigated the resistance status of major nuisance and disease vectors to insecticides. High mosquito densities were recorded in Thessaloniki and Evros, with Aedes caspius, a nuisance species, Culex pipiens, a known vector of WNV and Anopheles hyrcanus a potential vector of malaria being among the most prevalent species. Both vector species populations reached their peak in late summer. Aedes albopictus was recorded at high densities in Thessaloniki, but not in Evros. Notably, Cx. pipiens hybrids, which show an opportunistic biting behavior and are suspected to be involved in the transmission of the WNV, were recorded in considerable numbers in Thessaloniki and Attica. Culex pipiens and An. hyrcanus, but not Ae. caspius mosquitoes, showed moderate levels of resistance to deltamethrin. The presence of resistance in areas not exposed to vector control indicates that other factors could be selecting for resistance, i.e. pesticide applications for agriculture. Both L1014F and L101C kdr mutations were detected in Cx. pipiens populations. Anopheles hyrcanus resistance was not associated with mutations at the L1014 site. The Ace-1 mutations conferring insensitivity to organophosphates and carbamates were detected at low frequencies in all Cx. pipiens populations. Increased activity of P450s and esterases was found in Cx. pipiens individuals from Thessaloniki. Our study contributes evidence for sustainable and efficient vector control strategies and the prevention of disease outbreaks.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Toxoplasmosis: Seroprevalence in pregnant women, and serological and
           molecular screening in neonatal umbilical cord blood
    • Authors: Mahshad Shieh; Mojtaba Didehdar; Reza Hajihossein; Farzam Ahmadi; Zahra Eslamirad
      Pages: 38 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Mahshad Shieh, Mojtaba Didehdar, Reza Hajihossein, Farzam Ahmadi, Zahra Eslamirad
      Toxoplasmosis is a common zoonotic disease that can also be transmitted from the mother to the embryo, with the risk of congenital infection varying around the world. The aim of this study was to screen pregnant women and their neonates for toxoplasmosis by serologic and molecular methods and assess the impact of risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis on the rate of congenital infection. This study was conducted at a regional maternity hospital in Arak, the capital of the Markazi Province in Iran, during a period of six months. All selected pregnant women (n=261) and the corresponding cord blood samples were serologically screened for toxoplasmosis, with seropositive samples also undergoing molecular testing. Demographic data, as well as information related to the risk factors associated with the transmission of the disease, were collected from mothers and their neonates. The detection of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and the extraction of DNA from blood samples were conducted using commercial kits. Results showed that the sera of 87 maternal blood samples (33.3%) and 40 cord blood samples (15.3%) were positive for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies (IgG and/or IgM). Molecular screening of the seropositive samples only identified one positive cord blood sample. In other words, the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis was definitive in only one neonate. There was no significant association between the risk of parasite transmission and neonatal seropositivity (p >0.05). Therefore, the results showed that the prevalence of congenital toxoplasmosis in the studied area was consistent with the global rate and suggest that the implementation of newborn screening and follow-up testing could help reduce the disease risk.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • PCR-based verification of positive rapid diagnostic tests for intestinal
           protozoa infections with variable test band intensity
    • Authors: Sören L. Becker; Ivan Müller; Pascal Mertens; Mathias Herrmann; Leyli Zondie; Lindsey Beyleveld; Markus Gerber; Rosa du Randt; Uwe Pühse; Cheryl Walter; Jürg Utzinger
      Pages: 49 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Sören L. Becker, Ivan Müller, Pascal Mertens, Mathias Herrmann, Leyli Zondie, Lindsey Beyleveld, Markus Gerber, Rosa du Randt, Uwe Pühse, Cheryl Walter, Jürg Utzinger
      Stool-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for pathogenic intestinal protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis) allow for prompt diagnosis and treatment in resource-constrained settings. Such RDTs can improve individual patient management and facilitate population-based screening programmes in areas without microbiological laboratories for confirmatory testing. However, RDTs are difficult to interpret in case of ‘trace’ results with faint test band intensities and little is known about whether such ambiguous results might indicate ‘true’ infections. In a longitudinal study conducted in poor neighbourhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa, a total of 1428 stool samples from two cohorts of schoolchildren were examined on the spot for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. intestinalis using an RDT (Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip; Coris BioConcept). Overall, 121 samples were positive for G. intestinalis and the RDT suggested presence of cryptosporidiosis in 22 samples. After a storage period of 9–10 months in cohort 1 and 2–3 months in cohort 2, samples were subjected to multiplex PCR (BD Max™ Enteric Parasite Panel, Becton Dickinson). Ninety-three percent (112/121) of RDT-positive samples for G. intestinalis were confirmed by PCR, with a correlation between RDT test band intensity and quantitative pathogen load present in the sample. For Cryptosporidium spp., all positive RDTs had faintly visible lines and these were negative on PCR. The performance of the BD Max™ PCR was nearly identical in both cohorts, despite the prolonged storage at disrupted cold chain conditions in cohort 1. The Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip warrants further validation in communities with a high incidence of diarrhoea.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.012
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Nanotechnology as a potential therapeutic alternative for schistosomiasis
    • Authors: Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier; Milena Menegazzo Miranda-Sapla; Laís Fernanda Machado; Bruna Taciane da Silva Bortoleti; Claudia Stoeglehner Sahd; Alan Ferreira Chagas; João Paulo Assolini; Francisco José de Abreu Oliveira; Wander Rogério Pavanelli; Ivete Conchon-Costa; Idessania Nazareth Costa; Francine Nesello Melanda
      Pages: 64 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier, Milena Menegazzo Miranda-Sapla, Laís Fernanda Machado, Bruna Taciane da Silva Bortoleti, Claudia Stoeglehner Sahd, Alan Ferreira Chagas, João Paulo Assolini, Francisco José de Abreu Oliveira, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Idessania Nazareth Costa, Francine Nesello Melanda
      Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease that affects millions of people worldwide, recognized as the most important human helminth infection in terms of morbidity and mortality. The treatment of choice presents low bioavailability and water solubility, in addition to the induction of parasite resistance. In this context, researchers have been conducting studies seeking to develop new drugs to ensure safety, quality, and efficacy against this parasitosis. In this scenario, nanotechnology arises including the drug delivery systems in nanoscale: nanoemulsions, liposomes and nanoparticles. These drug delivery systems have been extensively applied for in vitro and in vivo studies against Schistosoma spp. with promising results. This review pointed out the most relevant development scenarios regarding the treatment of schistosomiasis as well as the application of nanotechnology as a vaccine, highlighting the use of nanotechnology as an alternative therapy for both the repositioning of drugs and the use of new pharmaceutical products, with promising results regarding the aforementioned disease.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.025
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Current vector control challenges in the fight against malaria
    • Authors: Giovanni Benelli; John C. Beier
      Pages: 91 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Giovanni Benelli, John C. Beier
      The effective and eco-friendly control of Anopheles vectors plays a key role in any malaria management program. Integrated Vector Management (IVM) suggests making use of the full range of vector control tools available. The strategies for IVM require novel technologies to control outdoor transmission of malaria. Despite the wide number of promising control tools tested against mosquitoes, current strategies for malaria vector control used in most African countries are not sufficient to achieve successful malaria control. The majority of National Malaria Control Programs in Africa still rely on indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). These methods reduce malaria incidence but generally have little impact on malaria prevalence. In addition to outdoor transmission, growing levels of insecticide resistance in targeted vectors threaten the efficacy of LLINs and IRS. Larvicidal treatments can be useful, but are not recommended for rural areas. The research needed to improve the quality and delivery of mosquito vector control should focus on (i) optimization of processes and methods for vector control delivery; (ii) monitoring of vector populations and biting activity with reliable techniques; (iii) the development of effective and eco-friendly tools to reduce the burden or locally eliminate malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases; (iv) the careful evaluation of field suitability and efficacy of new mosquito control tools to prove their epidemiological impact; (v) the continuous monitoring of environmental changes which potentially affect malaria vector populations; (vi) the cooperation among different disciplines, with main emphasis on parasitology, tropical medicine, ecology, entomology, and ecotoxicology. A better understanding of behavioral ecology of malaria vectors is required. Key ecological obstacles that limit the effectiveness of vector control include the variation in mosquito behavior, development of insecticide resistance, presence of behavioral avoidance, high vector biodiversity, competitive and food web interactions, lack of insights on mosquito dispersal and mating behavior, and the impact of environmental changes on mosquito ecological traits. Overall, the trans-disciplinary cooperation among parasitologists and entomologists is crucial to ensure proper evaluation of the epidemiological impact triggered by novel mosquito vector control strategies.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.028
      Issue No: Vol. 174 (2017)
  • Immunization with LJM11 salivary protein protects against infection with
           Leishmania braziliensis in the presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva
    • Authors: Jurema M. Cunha; Melissa Abbehusen; Martha Suarez; Jesus Valenzuela; Clarissa R. Teixeira; Cláudia I. Brodskyn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Jurema M. Cunha, Melissa Abbehusen, Martha Suarez, Jesus Valenzuela, Clarissa R. Teixeira, Cláudia I. Brodskyn
      Leishmania is transmitted in the presence of sand fly saliva. Protective immunity generated by saliva has encouraged identification of a vector salivary-based vaccine. Previous studies have shown that immunization with LJM11, a salivary protein from Lutzomyia longipalpis, is able to induce a Th1 immune response and protect mice against bites of Leishmania major-infected Lutzomyia longipalpis. Here, we further investigate if immunization with LJM11 recombinant protein is able to confer cross-protection against infection with Leishmania braziliensis associated with salivary gland sonicate (SGS) from Lutzomyia intermedia or Lu. longipalpis. Mice immunized with LJM11 protein exhibited an increased production of anti-LJM11 IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a and a DTH response characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate with the presence of CD4+ IFN-γ+ T cells. LJM11-immunized mice were intradermally infected in the ear with L. braziliensis in the presence of Lu. longipalpis or Lu. intermedia SGS. A significant reduction of parasite numbers in the ear and lymph node in the group challenged with L. braziliensis plus Lu. longipalpis SGS was observed, but not when the challenge was performed with L. braziliensis plus Lu. intermedia SGS. A higher specific production of IFN-g and absence of IL-10 by lymph node cells were only observed in LJM11 immunized mice after infection. After two weeks, a similar frequency of CD4+ IFN-γ+ T cells was detected in LJM11 and BSA groups challenged with L. braziliensis plus Lu. longipalpis SGS, suggesting that early events possibly triggered by immunization are essential for protection against Leishmania infection. Our findings support the specificity of saliva-mediated immune responses and reinforce the importance of identifying cross-protective salivary antigens.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-14T06:48:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.009
  • Genetic variability and transcontinental sharing of Giardia duodenalis
           infrapopulations determined by glutamate dehydrogenase gene
    • Authors: Adel Spotin; Majid Karamat; Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei; Abbas Shahbazi; Ehsan Ahmadpour; Tahereh Mikaeili Galeh; Shirzad Fallahi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Adel Spotin, Majid Karamat, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Abbas Shahbazi, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Tahereh Mikaeili Galeh, Shirzad Fallahi
      Microevolutionary data of Giardia duodenalis sub-assemblages is a prerequisite for determining the invasion zoonotic patterns of the parasite. To infer transmission patterns that could not be differentiated by the phenotypic features, a population genetic investigation is crucial for the elucidation of the genetic structure of G. duodenalis among the continents. Forty G. duodenalis positive fecal samples were collected from different foci of Northwest Iran. The specimens were subjected to Trichrome staining and sucrose gradient flotation. DNA samples were extracted, amplified, and sequenced by targeting glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene. The global gdh sequences of sub-assemblages AII and BIV retrieved from NCBI GenBank were analyzed to estimate diversity indices, neutrality indices, and gene migration tests. Sequencing analyses indicated various levels of genetic variability of sub-assemblages AII and BIV among the five continents. Sub-assemblage BIV had greater genetic variability (haplotype diversity: 0.975; nucleotide diversity: 0.04246) than sub-assemblage AII. The statistical Fst value demonstrated that the genetic structure of sub-assemblages AII and BIV are moderately differentiated between European-American populations (Fst: 0.05352–0.15182), whereas a significant differentiation was not seen among other geographical population pairs. We conclude that a high gene flow of G. duodenalis sub-assemblages AII and BIV is unequivocally sharing among the continents. The current findings strengthen our knowledge to assess the evolutionary patterns of G. duodenalis in endemic foci of the world and it will become the basis of public health policy to control human giardiasis.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-14T06:48:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.001
  • Quality of anthelminthic medicines available in Jimma Ethiopia
    • Authors: Sileshi Belew; Sultan Suleman; Evelien Wynendaele; Matthias D’Hondt; Anne Kosgei; Luc Duchateau; Bart De Spiegeleer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Sileshi Belew, Sultan Suleman, Evelien Wynendaele, Matthias D’Hondt, Anne Kosgei, Luc Duchateau, Bart De Spiegeleer
      Soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis are major public health problems in Ethiopia. Mass deworming of at-risk population using a single dose administration of 400mg albendazole (ABZ) or 500mg mebendazole (MBZ) for treatment of common intestinal worms and 40mg of praziquantel (PZQ) per kg body weight for treatment of schistosomiasis is one of the strategies recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) in order to control the morbidity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis. Since storage condition, climate, way of transportation and distribution route could all affect the quality of medicines, regular assessment by surveys is very critical to ensure the therapeutic outcome, to minimize risk of toxicity to the patient and resistance of parasites. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the pharmaceutical quality of ABZ, MBZ and PZQ tablet brands commonly available in Jimma town (south west Ethiopia). Retail pharmacies (n=10) operating in Jimma town were selected using simple random sampling method. Samples of anthelminthic medicines available in the selected pharmacies were collected. Sample information was recorded and encompassed trade name, active ingredient name, manufacturer’s name and full address, labeled medicine strength, dosage form, number of units per container, dosage statement, batch/lot number, manufacturing and expiry dates, storage information and presence of leaflets/package insert. Moreover, a first visual inspection was performed encompassing uniformity of color, uniformity of size, breaks, cracks, splits, embedded surface spots or visual contaminations. Finally, physico-chemical quality attributes investigated encompassed mass uniformity, quantity of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), disintegration and dissolution, all following Pharmacopoeial test methods The physical characteristics of dosage form, packaging and labeling information of all samples complied with criteria given in the WHO checklists. The mass uniformity of tablets of each brand of ABZ, MBZ and PZQ complied with the pharmacopoeial specification limits, i.e no more than 2 individual masses >5% of average tablet weight, and none deviate by more than 10%. The quantity of APIs in all investigated tablet brands were within the 90-110% label claim (l.c.) limits, ranging between 95.05 and 110.09% l.c. Disintegration times were in line with the pharmacopoeial specification limit for immediate release (IR) tablets, ranging between 0.5 and 13min. However, the dissolution results (mean±SD, n=6) of one ABZ brand (i.e. Wormin®, Q=59.21±0.99% at 30min) and two PZQ brands (i.e. Bermoxel®, Q=63.43%±0.7 and Distocide®, Q=62.43%±1.67, at 75min.) showed poor dissolution, failing the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) dissolution specification limit.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T06:48:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.006
  • Evaluating the anti-leishmania activity of Lucilia sericata and
           Sarconesiopsis magellanica blowfly larval excretions/secretions in an in
           vitro model
    • Authors: Mayra Juliana; Laverde-Paz Clara Echeverry Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo Felio Bello
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Mayra Juliana Laverde-Paz, María Clara Echeverry, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Felio Jesús Bello
      Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by infection by parasites from the genus Leishmania. Clinical manifestations can be visceral or cutaneous, the latter mainly being chronic ulcers. This work was aimed at evaluating Calliphoridae Lucilia sericata- and Sarconesiopsis magellanica-derived larval excretions and secretions’ (ES) in vitro anti-leishmanial activity against Leishmania panamensis. Different larval-ES concentrations from both blowfly species were tested against either L. panamensis promastigotes or intracellular amastigotes using U937-macrophages as host cells. The Alamar Blue method was used for assessing parasite half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and macrophage cytotoxicity (LC50). The effect of larval-ES on L. panamensis intracellular parasite forms was evaluated by calculating the percentage of infected macrophages, parasite load and toxicity. L. sericata–derived larval-ES L. panamensis macrophage LC50 was 72.57μg/mL (65.35–80.58μg/mL) and promastigote IC50 was 41.44μg/mL (38.57–44.52μg/mL), compared to 34.93μg/mL (31.65–38.55μg/mL) LC50 and 23.42μg/mL (22.48–24.39μg/mL) IC50 for S. magellanica. Microscope evaluation of intracellular parasite forms showed that treatment with 10μg/mL L. sericata ES and 5μg/mL S. magellanica ES led to a decrease in the percentage of infected macrophages and the amount of intracellular amastigotes. This study produced in vitro evidence of the antileishmanial activity of larval ES from both blowfly species on different parasitic stages and showed that the parasite was more susceptible to the ES than it’s host cells. The antileishmanial effect on L. panamensis was more evident from S. magellanica ES.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
  • The reintroduction of DENV-2 in 2011 in Panama and subsequent outbreak
    • Authors: Yamilka Julio; Cisneros Hilda Paola Cordoba Jean-Paul Carrera Brechla Moreno
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Yamilka Díaz, Julio Cisneros, Hilda Guzmán, Paola Cordoba, Jean-Paul Carrera, Brechla Moreno, Rubing Chen, Juan Castillo Mewa, Lourdes García, Lizbeth Cerezo, Amelia Travassos da Rosa, Nathan D. Gundacker, Blas Armién, Scott C. Weaver, Nikos Vasilakis, Sandra López-Vergès, Robert Tesh
      The circulation of the South-east Asian/American (AS/AM) dengue 2 virus (DENV-2) genotype in the Americas has been associated with a high rate of severe disease. From 1993, the year DENV was reintroduced in Panama, until 2011 there were 29 dengue-associated deaths, 17 of which occurred in 2011, the most severe outbreak with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 44% (17 deaths out of 38 severe dengue cases). During this outbreak DENV-2 was reintroduced into the country, whereas over the prior five years DENV-1 and −3 were predominant. Herein, we describe the 2011 Panama outbreak and genetically characterize the Panamanian DENV-2 strains, which were associated with severe dengue disease in Panama. Our results suggest that the DENV-2 isolates from this outbreak belonged to the AS/AM genotype sub-clade 2BI and were genetically close to viruses described in the outbreaks in Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala and Mexico from 2006-2011. Sub-clade 2BI has previously been associated with severe disease in Nicaragua during outbreaks from 2005-2007.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
  • Discovery of human scFvs that cross-neutralize the toxic effects of B.
           jararacussu and C. d. terrificus venoms
    • Authors: Luciano Silva; Manuela Pucca Gabriela Pessenda Lucas Campos Edson Martinez
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Luciano C. Silva, Manuela B. Pucca, Gabriela Pessenda, Lucas B. Campos, Edson Z. Martinez, Felipe A. Cerni, José E. Barbosa
      Accidents involving venomous snakes are a public health problem worldwide, causing a large number of deaths per year. In Brazil, the majority of accidents are caused by the Bothrops and Crotalus genera, which are responsible for approximately 80% of severe envenoming cases. The cross-neutralization of snake venoms by antibodies is an important issue for development of more effective treatments. Our group has previously reported the construction of human monoclonal antibody fragments towards Bothrops jararacussu and Crotalus durissus terrificus’ venoms. This study aimed to select human single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) that recognize both bothropic and crotalic crude venoms following venoms neutralizing capacity in vitro and in vivo. The cross-reactivity of Cro-Bothrumabs were demonstrated by ELISA and in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that a combination of scFvs neutralizes in vitro toxic activities (e.g. indirect hemolysis and plasma-clotting) of crotalic and bothropic venoms as well as prolonged survival time of envenomed animals. Our results may contribute to the development of the first human polyvalent antivenom against Bothrops jararacussu and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, overcoming some undesirable effects caused by conventional serotherapy.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
  • Editor/Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 175

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
  • Animal and human tungiasis-related knowledge and treatment practices among
           animal keeping households in Bugiri District, South-Eastern Uganda
    • Authors: Francis Mutebi; Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna Charles Waiswa Norbert Mencke Wilfred
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Francis Mutebi, Jürgen Krücken, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Charles Waiswa, Norbert Mencke, Wilfred Eneku, Tamale Andrew, Hermann Feldmeier
      Background Zoonotic tungiasis caused by Tunga penetrans remains a serious public and animal health problem among endemic villages in Uganda and many sub Saharan African countries. Studies on human and animal tungiasis-related knowledge and treatment practices in endemic communities have never been undertaken, a limitation to development of sustainable control measures. Methods A cross sectional study using semi-structured questionnaires (Supplementary file S1) was conducted among 236 animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District, South-Eastern Uganda. Focus group discussions and observation checklists were used to validate and clarify the findings. Results Most respondents knew the aetiology (89.4%), clinical signs (98%) and the ecology of T. penetrans as well as the major risk factors of human tungiasis (65.2%). In contrast, very few respondents were aware of animal tungiasis. Only 4.8% of those with infected animals on the compound knew that some of their animals were infected and 13.6% of the respondents had ever seen tungiasis-affected animals. Pigs (13.1%, n=31) and dogs (0.85%, n=2) were the only T. penetrans animal hosts known to animal owners. Affected humans were treated by extraction of embedded sand fleas using non-sterile sharp instruments in all households that reported occurrence of human tungiasis at least once (n=227). Also, affected animals were mainly treated by mechanical removal of embedded sand fleas in households that have ever experienced animal tungiasis (four out of 12; 33.3%). In a few instances, plant and animal pesticides (n=3) and other chemicals such as grease, paraffin and wood preservative (n=3) were also used to treat animal tungiasis. Conclusion The study revealed a high level of knowledge on human tungiasis but inadequate knowledge on the zoonotic nature of tungiasis. Commonly applied methods for treatment of human and animal tungiasis are a health hazard by themselves. Concerted i.e. One Health-based efforts aiming at promoting appropriate treatment of tungiasis, adequate living conditions and increased awareness on tungiasis in the communities are indicated in order to eliminate tungiasis-associated disease.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
  • Spatial and temporal distribution of Pfmsp1 and Pfmsp2 alleles and genetic
           profile change of Plasmodium falciparum populations in Gabon
    • Authors: J.M. NdongNgomo; N.P. Yavo L.C. Bongho Mavoungou M.K. Bouyou-Akotet D.P.
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): J.M. NdongNgomo, N.P. M’Boundoukwé, W. Yavo, L.C. Bongho Mavoungou, M.K. Bouyou-Akotet, D.P. Mawili-Mboumba
      Plasmodium population dynamics analysis may help to assess the impact of malaria control strategies deployment. In Gabon, new strategies have been introduced, but malaria is still a public health problem marked by a rebound of the prevalence in 2011. The aim of the study was to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of P. falciparum strains in different areas in Gabon during a period of malaria transmission transition, between 2008 and 2011. A total of 109 P. falciparum isolates were genotyped using nested-PCR of Pfmsp1 and Pfmsp2 genes. 3D7, FC27 and K1 allele frequencies were comparable between sites (p=0.9); those of Ro33 (93.6%; 44/47) and Mad20 (60%; 12/20) were significantly higher in isolates from Oyem (p<0.01) and Port-Gentil (p=0.02), respectively. The frequency of multiples infections (77%) and the complexity of infection (2.66±1.44) were the highest at Oyem. Pfmsp1 gene analysis highlighted a trend of a decreasing frequency of K1 family, in Libreville and Oyem between 2008 and 2011; while that of Ro33 (p<0.01) and Mad20 (p<0.01) increased. The prevalence of multiple infections was comparable between both periods in each site: 42.2% vs 47.6% (p=0.6) in Libreville and 57.7% vs 61.7% in Oyem (p=0.8). In contrast, in 2011, the COI tends to be higher in Libreville and did not vary in Oyem. These data confirm an extended genetic diversity of P. falciparum isolates over time and according to geographic location in Gabon. Nevertheless, the impact of the deployment of malaria control strategies on the parasites genetic profile is not clearly established here.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
  • Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador: the
           causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features
    • Authors: Yoshihisa Hashiguchi; Eduardo A.L. Gomez Abraham Lenin Velez Nancy Villegas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Yoshihisa Hashiguchi, Eduardo A.L. Gomez, Abraham G. Cáceres, Lenin N. Velez, Nancy V. Villegas, Kazue Hashiguchi, Tatsuyuki Mimori, Hiroshi Uezato, Hirotomo Kato
      This study provides comprehensive information on the past and current status of the Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador, mainly focusing on the causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features. Available information and data including our unpublished works were analyzed thoroughly. Endemic regions of the Andean-CL (uta) in Peru run from the north Piura/Cajamarca to the south Ayacucho at a wide range of the Pacific watersheds of the Andes through several departments, while in Ecuador those exist at limited and spotted areas in the country’s mid-southwestern two provinces, Azuay and Chimborazo. The principal species of the genus Leishmania are completely different at subgenus level, L. (Viannia) peruviana in Peru, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana and L. (L.) major-like (infrequent occurrence) in Ecuador. The Peruvian uta is now prevalent in different age and sex groups, being not clearly defined as found in the past. The precise reasons are not known and should be elucidated further, though probable factors, such as emergence of other Leishmania parasites, non-immune peoples’ migration into the areas, etc., were discussed briefly in the text. The Andean-CL cases in Ecuador are more rural than before, probably because of a rapid development of the Leishmania-positive communities and towns, and the change of life-styles of the inhabitants, including newly constructed houses and roads in the endemic areas. Such information is helpful for future management of the disease, not only for Leishmania-endemic areas in the Andes but also for other endemic areas.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
  • Hierarchical dynamics influence the distribution of immature black flies
           (Diptera: Simuliidae)
    • Authors: Anbalagan Sankarappan; Kannan Mani Dinakaran Sundaram Balasubramanian Chelliah Krishnan Muthukalingan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Anbalagan Sankarappan, Kannan Mani, Dinakaran Sundaram, Balasubramanian Chelliah, Krishnan Muthukalingan
      Adult black flies (Simuliidae) are medically important insects and they are the sole vector of Onchocerca volvulus. Immature black flies are major components of aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in streams and play a vital role in nutrient dynamics. In this study, we examined effect of hierarchical dynamics (spatio-temporal pattern) on the distribution of immature black flies in South Indian streams. The sampling was done in streams of Western Ghats, South India. A total of 16 species belong to two subgenera: Simulium (10 species) and Gowmphostilbia (6 species) of Simulium were observed. Alpha diversity indices were analyzed, which indicate the abundance and species richness between sampling sites. Non-parametric analysis recognized the key environmental variables including latitude and stream order. Subsequently, the monsoon influences the larval assemblages and its association was high in leaf litter as revealed through statistical analyses. Although the members of the immature black fly assemblage with different environmental factors, they are very closely related to spatial and temporal organization and secondarily with other factors prevailing in streams.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
  • The roles of galectins in parasitic infections
    • Authors: Weikun Shi; Chunyu Xue; Xin-zhuan Su; Fangli Lu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Weikun Shi, Chunyu Xue, Xin-zhuan Su, Fangli Lu
      Galectins is a family of multifunctional lectins. Fifteen galectins have been identified from a variety of cells and tissues of vertebrates and invertebrates. Galectins have been shown to play pivotal roles in host–pathogen interaction such as adhesion of pathogens to host cells and activation of host innate and adaptive immunity. In recent years, the roles of galectins during parasite infections have gained increasing attention. Galectins produced by different hosts can act as pattern recognition receptors (PRR) detecting conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of parasites, while galectins produced by parasites can modulate host responses. This review summarizes some recent studies on the roles of galectins produced by parasitic protozoa, nematodes, and trematodes and their hosts. Understanding the roles of galectins in host–parasite interactions may provide targets for immune intervention and therapies of the parasitic infections.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.027
  • Presence of Borrelia spp. DNA in ticks, but absence of Borrelia spp. and
           of Leptospira spp. DNA in blood of fever patients in Madagascar
    • Authors: Ralf Matthias Hagen; Hagen Frickmann; Julian Ehlers; Andreas Krüger; Gabriele Margos; Cecilia Hizo-Teufel; Volker Fingerle; Raphael Rakotozandrindrainy; Vera von Kalckreuth; Justin Im; Gi Deok Pak; Hyon Jin Jeon; Jean Philibert Rakotondrainiarivelo; Jean Noël Heriniaina; Tsiry Razafindrabe; Frank Konings; Jürgen May; Benedikt Hogan; Jörg Ganzhorn; Ursula Panzner; Norbert Georg Schwarz; Denise Dekker; Florian Marks; Sven Poppert
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Ralf Matthias Hagen, Hagen Frickmann, Julian Ehlers, Andreas Krüger, Gabriele Margos, Cecilia Hizo-Teufel, Volker Fingerle, Raphael Rakotozandrindrainy, Vera von Kalckreuth, Justin Im, Gi Deok Pak, Hyon Jin Jeon, Jean Philibert Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Noël Heriniaina, Tsiry Razafindrabe, Frank Konings, Jürgen May, Benedikt Hogan, Jörg Ganzhorn, Ursula Panzner, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Denise Dekker, Florian Marks, Sven Poppert
      The occurrence of tick-borne relapsing fever and leptospirosis in humans in Madagascar remains unclear despite the presence of their potential vectors and reservoir hosts. We screened 255 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 148 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Zebu cattle in Madagascar for Borrelia-specific DNA. Borrelia spp. DNA was detected in 21 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 2 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. One Borrelia found in one Rhipicephalus microplus showed close relationship to Borrelia theileri based on genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses on 16S rRNA and flab sequences. The borreliae from Amblyomma variegatum could not be identified due to very low quantities of present DNA reflected by high cycle threshold values in real-time-PCR. It is uncertain whether these low numbers of Borrelia spp. are sufficient for transmission of infection from ticks to humans. In order to determine whether spirochaete infections are relevant in humans, blood samples of 1,009 patients from the highlands of Madagascar with fever of unknown origin were screened for Borrelia spp. − and in addition for Leptospira spp. − by real-time PCR. No target DNA was detected, indicating a limited relevance of these pathogens for humans in the highlands of Madagascar.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.10.002
  • Zika and Chikungunya Virus Detection in Naturally Infected Aedes aegypti
           in Ecuador
    • Authors: Varsovia Cevallos; Patricio Ponce; Jesse J. Waggoner; Benjamin A. Pinsky; Josefina Coloma; Cristina Quiroga; Diego Morales; Maria José Cárdenas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Varsovia Cevallos, Patricio Ponce, Jesse J. Waggoner, Benjamin A. Pinsky, Josefina Coloma, Cristina Quiroga, Diego Morales, Maria José Cárdenas
      The wide and rapid spread of Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses represent a global public health problem, especially for tropical and subtropical environments. The early detection of CHIKV and ZIKV in mosquitoes may help to understand the dynamics of the diseases in high-risk areas, and to design data based epidemiological surveillance to activate the preparedness and response of the public health system and vector control programs. This study was done to detect ZIKV and CHIKV viruses in naturally infected fed female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes from active epidemic urban areas in Ecuador. Pools (n=193; 22 pools) and individuals (n=22) of field collected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from high-risk arboviruses infection sites in Ecuador were analyzed for the presence of CHIKV and ZIKV using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that both ZIKV and CHIKV viruses circulating in Ecuador correspond to the Asian lineages. Minimum infection rate (MIR) of CHIKV for Esmeraldas city was 2.3% and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was 3.3%. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of ZIKV for Portoviejo city was 5.3% and for Manta city was 2.1%. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) for Portoviejo city was 6.9% and 2.6% for Manta city. Detection of arboviruses and infection rates in the arthropod vectors may help to predict an outbreak and serve as a warning tool in surveillance programs.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.029
  • Sero-epidemiology and Hemato-biochemical study of Bovine Leptospirosis in
           Flood Affected Zone of Pakistan
    • Authors: Muhammad Ijaz; Syed Nazar Abbas; Shahid Hussain Farooqi; Amjad Islam Aqib; Ghulam Ali Anwar; Abdul Rehman; Muhammad Muddassir Ali; Khalid Mehmood; Amjad Khan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Muhammad Ijaz, Syed Nazar Abbas, Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Amjad Islam Aqib, Ghulam Ali Anwar, Abdul Rehman, Muhammad Muddassir Ali, Khalid Mehmood, Amjad Khan
      The bovine leptospirosis is an economically important zoonotic disease of flood affected areas worldwide, but scarce information is available about its epidemiology in Pakistan. This is a first study on sero-epidemiology of bovine leptospirosis in Pakistan. The objectives of this study were to investigate the sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of bovine leptospirosis in flood affected zone of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 385 serum samples were randomly collected from four tehsils of district Muzaffargarh, Pakistan. The serum samples were subjected to indirect ELISA for the detection of anti-leptospira antibodies. The overall sero-prevalence of leptospirosis was 30.39%. The prevalence was significantly higher (p< 0.001) in cattle (56.25%) than buffaloes (4.66%). The key risk factors identified based on multivariable logistic regression were; confined system of rearing, flooded area, and lesser to graduate level of education as risk factors for leptospirosis. The values of hematological parameters varied significantly (p <0.05) for Hb, TEC and PCV while there was no significant (p >0.05) difference among TLC values among sero-positive and sero-negative animals. The serum biochemical profile revealed significant differences (p< 0.05) in values of ALT, AST and creatinine among the sero-positive and negative animals. Hence, it can be concluded that leptospirosis is an emerging and neglected disease in flood affected zone of Pakistan, and the disease needs to be explored comprehensively in other parts of the country to sort out solid strategies for its control and eradication.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.032
  • Editor/Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T05:49:04Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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