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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3177 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3177 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 105, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 448, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 433, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 388, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 488, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 272, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 217, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 230, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Acta Tropica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.052
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 7  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0001-706X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Molecular epidemiology of Anaplasma spp. related to A. phagocytophilum in
           Mediterranean small ruminants
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Rosanna Zobba, Mourad Ben Said, Hanène Belkahia, Marco Pittau, Carla Cacciotto, Maria Luisa Pinna Parpaglia, Lilia Messadi, Alberto AlbertiAbstractThe genus Anaplasma currently comprises 6 bacterial species mostly pathogenic to animals and/or human, including the zoonotic species Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever (TBF) of ruminants, and of granulocytic anaplasmosis of horses, dogs and human. Recently, novel potentially non-pathogenic strains related to A. phagocytophilum have been identified in Japan, China, and Tunisia. This paper reports the identification, molecular typing, and evolutionary history of novel Anaplasma strains (A. phagocytophilum-like 1 and 2), related to but distinct from A. phagocytophilum in Mediterranean area of Europe and Africa. PCR-RFLP and phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA provided evidence for the circulation of A. phagocytophilum-like 1 strains in Europe. Phylogeny based on groEL gene showed the inclusion of Sardinian and Tunisian A. phagocytophilum-like 1 strains in a unique clade distinct from, but related to that of Japanese strains. Results suggest that genetic diversity within the genus Anaplasma is much greater than expected and provide information useful for the development of specific and effective diagnostic and prophylactic tools.
  • Anthropophilic phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia species and search for the
           natural Leishmania infections in an area endemic for cutaneous
           leishmaniasis in Ecuador
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Yoshihisa Hashiguchi, Eduardo A. Gomez, Lenin N. Velez, Nancy V. Villegas, Makoto Kubo, Tatsuyuki Mimori, Kazue Hashiguchi, Hirotomo KatoBy employing protected human bait landing and modified Shannon light trap, a total of 1,924 phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia spp. were captured in an area from which L. (V.) guyanensis was reported as the causative parasite of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The sand flies captured alive were dissected and identified at species level, based mainly on their spermathecae. At the same time, the sand flies dissected were searched for the Leishmania parasites by microscopic-test, and later on by PCR-test. No positive sand flies were detected by both tests, while considerable numbers of anthropophilic sand fly species of the genus Lutzomyia were observed as probable vectors of the Leishmania parasite in the areas. Those were eight species, Lu. robusta, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. maranonensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. shannoni, Lu. migonei, Lu. punctigeniculata and Lu. spathotrichia. Among them, the first two species Lu. robusta and Lu. trapidoi were most dominant, suggesting probable vectors of the Leishmania parasite prevailing in the area. Lu. punctigeniculata and Lu. spathotrichia were for the first time recorded for the Manabí province, Ecuador. These findings provide basic information useful for future planning of the control and management of the disease in the areas, though further study to incriminate the vector sand fly remains.Graphical Map of study area and a CL patient house. Sandfly collection was performed in and around the house from which an infantile case was reported. Image, graphical abstract
  • Diagnostic performance of two specific Schistosoma japonicum immunological
           tests for screening Schistosoma haematobium in school children in Zambia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Li-Juan Zhang, Victor Mwanakasale, Jing Xu, Le-Ping Sun, Xiao-Mei Yin, Jian-Feng Zhang, Ming-Chuang Hu, Wu-Min Si, Xiao-Nong ZhouAbstractDipstick Dye Immunoassay (DDIA) and Indirect Haemagglutination Assay(IHA), are two commercially available kits which have been widely used for screening Schistosoma japonicum in P.R. China. Whether they can be used for screening of Schistosoma haematobium are not clear. In order to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of DDIA and IHA for screening Schistosoma haematobium, serum samples were collected from pupils in endemic areas in Zambia, Southern Africa, and tested by DDIA and IHA by single-blind manner. Meanwhile, the pupils were microscopically examined by infection with Schistosoma and soil-transmitted helminths, visually observed for parasite eggs. Of the enrolled 148 pupils, 61% tested positive for S. haematobium infection, while 31% and 36% of pupils were infected with hookworm and Ascaris respectively. Regarding the parasitological tests as reference standard, for the diagnosis of S. haematobium infection, IHA performed higher sensitivity (74%, 95% CI: 65%-83%) than that of DDIA (60%, 95%CI: 49%-70%). The sensitivities of IHA and DDIA are significant higher in 10-14 years old students than those of 7-9 years old group. The specificity of DDIA and IHA were 61% (95%CI: 49%-74%) and 72% (95%CI: 60%-84%), respectively. The co-infection with STHs decreased the specificity of DDIA but had no impact on that of IHA. Our study indicated that IHA has more potential as an alternative diagnostic tool for identifying schistosomiasis haematobium but need further improvement.
  • An overview of rickettsiae in Southeast Asia: vector-animal-human
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Van Lun Low, Tiong Kai Tan, Jing Jing Khoo, Fang Shiang Lim, Sazaly AbuBakarAbstractRickettsioses are emerging, and re-emerging diseases caused by obligate intracellular arthropod-borne bacteria that infect humans and animals worldwide. Various rickettsiae such as Orientia, Rickettsia, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia have been circulated in companion, domesticated and wild animals through bites of infected ticks, fleas, lice or mites. This review summarizes the infections of rickettsiae, including the newly discovered regional species Rickettsia thailandii, Candidatus Rickettsia sepangensis, Candidatus Rickettsia johorensis, Candidatus Rickettsia laoensis, Candidatus Rickettsia mahosotii, Candidatus Rickettsia khammouanensis, Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii, and other novel genotypes in vectors, humans and animals in Southeast Asia. Issues on some unidentified rickettsiae that elicit immune responses and production of antibodies that are cross-reactive with the antigens used are discussed. Knowledge gaps which required attention are also identified in this review.
  • Changes in the epidemiological profile of intestinal parasites after a
           school-based large-scale treatment for soil-transmitted helminths in a
           community in northeastern Brazil: Epidemiological profile after
           large-scale school-based treatment for STH
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Yvanna L.D.C. Oliveira, Luciana M. Oliveira, Yrna L.M. Oliveira, Ana M.D. Nascimento, Roseli La Corte, Ricardo M. Geraldi, Luciene Barbosa, Pedro H. Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ricardo T. Fujiwara, Lilian L. Bueno, Silvio S. DolabellaAbstractIntestinal parasites cause a significant public health problem worldwide due to the associated morbidities, mainly in infected school-aged children (SAC). The strategy of large-scale deworming in SAC to control the transmission of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) has been advocated by the World Health Organization and was recently adopted in Brazil; however, the long-term effects of mass deworming on the larger parasitological profile have been less studied. After a five-year period of school-based large-scale treatment for STH using an annual single dose of albendazole in a community of Sergipe state, Brazil, a marked reduction in prevalence was observed (15.4% vs.7.4% for Ascaris sp., 6.0% vs. 0.4% for hookworm, and 12.8% vs. 4.5% for Trichuris trichiura), with the exception of Strongyloides stercoralis, which had no statistically significant change in prevalence. There was, however, an increase in the prevalence of intestinal protozoans, specifically Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (0.0% vs. 36.0%), Blastocystis hominis (0.0% vs. 40.1%), and Giardia duodenalis (5.6% vs. 14.5%). Although the findings showed a dramatic reduction in the prevalence of STH after four rounds of preventive chemotherapy, there was an increase in intestinal protozoan infections, indicating a change in the epidemiological profile.
  • Phoenix dactylifera, Mentha piperita and Montanide™ ISA-201 as
           Immunological Adjuvants in a chicken model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Kamelia M. Osman, Osama E Kamal, Heba N. Deif, Marwa M AhmedAbstractThis study evaluated plant-based immune-adjuvants from crude extracts of Phoenix dactylifera and Mentha piperita as promising adjuvants for vaccines because of the limited side effects associated with plant extracts. In addition, Montanide™ ISA 201 previously used in vaccines in cattle. Eight different infectious coryza (IC) vaccines were prepared from three serovars [A (W strain and local strain), C (Modesto strain) and B (0222 strain)] with eight Avibacterium. paragallinarum vaccines adjuvants formulae using liquid paraffin, Montanide™ ISA 71, Montanide™ ISA 201, and Montanide™ Gel adjuvants, P. dactylifera and M. piperita as immune-stimulants at a concentration of 1 mg and 2 mg incorporated with or without liquid paraffin oil as an adjuvant. These vaccines were applied in a chicken model. After a single immunization, the eight vaccine formulations were evaluated using the ELISA and Microplate agglutination test. Evidence of protection in the immunized birds was based on the results after challenge and bacterial isolation. The incorporation of the crude aqueous extract of P. dactylifera or M. piperita at a concentration of 2 mg in a liquid paraffin oil adjuvanted IC vaccine could be employed as an efficient adjuvant for chicken to IC vaccine to enhance immune responses. Also,Montanide™ ISA 201 may be the best adjuvant to be used to enhance the protective response against Av. paragallinarum. Our results confirm that aqueous extracts of M. piperita leaves and P. dactylifera fruit have immunomodulatory potentials in vivo and elevated serum antibodies against Av. Paragallinarum.
  • Ecological aspects of potential arbovirus vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) in
           an urban landscape of Southern Amazon, Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Carla Julia da Silva Pessoa Vieira, Sirlei Franck Thies, David José Ferreira da Silva, Janaína Rigotti Kubiszeski, Eriana Serpa Barreto, Hamilton Antônio de Oliveira Monteiro, Adriano Mondini, Christine Steiner São Bernardo, Roberta Vieira de Morais BronzoniAbstractAmazon has been under intense human pressure, especially in the so-called “Arc of Deforestation” in the Eastern and Southern regions. Changes in biodiversity due to landscape disturbance in municipalities at the Arc of Deforestation are likely to impact mosquito species leading to the potential for emergence of arboviruses. Our aim was to describe the composition and structure of culicids in Sinop, a municipality located in the Southern Amazon at the State of Mato Grosso, as well as their presence in urban habitats, analyzing climate variables and potential risk of arbovirus transmission. Mosquitoes were collected in four habitats located in urban environments for 12 months. We recovered 5,210 adult mosquitoes from mosquito traps. Among the 33 species identified, 19 are associated with arbovirus transmission. Higher abundance, richness, diversity, and equitability of mosquito species were observed in urban forest parks and in new neighborhoods located in the outskirts of the city, nearby forest fragments and agricultural areas. As the environment consolidates as urban, both abundance and richness decrease. Highly urbanized neighborhoods had higher dominance of Culex quinquefasciatus, a mosquito associated with different arboviruses, including West Nile and Saint Louis encephalitis virus. The medically important species Cx. declarator, Cx. (Melanoconion) ssp., Aedeomyia squamipennis and Aedes scapularis were found in the four habitats. It is possible that these mosquitoes are adapting to different habitats and as a consequence, they are reaching urbanized areas. Mosquito abundance was higher in the days of high temperature and low precipitation in urban forest parks and in highly urbanized neighborhoods. These results suggest that Sinop region is a key area for surveillance of arbovirus vectors.
  • Myotoxicity induced by Cerastes cerastes venom: Beneficial effect of
           heparin in skeletal muscle tissue regeneration
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Zohra Nourreddine Fatima, Habiba Oussedik-Oumehdi, Fatima Laraba-DjebariAbstractMyonecrosis is a relevant tissue damage induced by snakes of Viperidae family often leading to permanent tissue and function loss and even amputation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heparin on skeletal muscle tissue regeneration after Cerastes cerastes envenomation. Mice received either the venom (1 LD50) by i.m. route, or the venom followed, by heparin administration by i.v. route at 15 min and 4 hours. Obtained results showed that Cerastes cerastes venom induced deep tissue structure alterations, characterized mainly by edema, hemorrhage, myonecrosis and inflammation. Myotoxicity was correlated with increased CK levels in sera, concomitant with their decrease in muscle tissue homogenates. Muscle wet weight was restored within 2 weeks after heparin treatment and 28 days in the envenomed group. Heparin treatment significantly decreased MPO activity, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. NO, HGF, VEGF and G-CSF levels were increased after heparin administration. These mitogenic factors constitute potent stimuli for satellite and endothelial cells improving, thus, muscle regeneration.This study showed that muscle tissue recovery was significantly enhanced after heparin treatment. Heparin use seems to be a promising therapeutic approach after viper envenomation.
  • Intracellular cyclic AMP levels modulate differential adaptive responses
           on epimastigotes and cell culture trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Tamara Sternlieb, Alejandra C. Schoijet, Guillermo D. AlonsoAmong the many environmental challenges the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi has to overcome to complete its life cycle through different hosts, oxidative stress plays a central role. Different stages of this parasite encounter distinct sources of oxidative stress, such as the oxidative burst of the immune system, or the Heme released from hemoglobin degradation in the triatomine's midgut. Also, the redox status of the surroundings functions as a signal to the parasite, triggering processes coupled to differentiation or proliferation. Intracellular second messengers, like cAMP, are responsible for the transduction of environmental queues and initiating cellular processes accordingly. In trypanosomatids cAMP is involved in a variety of processes, including proliferation, differentiation, osmoregulation and quorum sensing. Trypanosomatid phosphodiesterases (PDE) show atypical pharmacological properties and some have been involved in key processes for the survival of the parasites, which validates them as attractive therapeutic targets. Our work here shows that cAMP modulates different processes according to parasite stage. Epimastigotes become more resistant to oxidative stress when pre-treated with cAMP analogs, while in trypomastigotes an increase in intracellular cAMP doesn't seem to aid in this response, although it does increase the number of amastigotes obtained 48 h after infection, compared to the control group. Also, we show that TcrPDEA1, a functionally enigmatic phosphodiesterase with very high Km, is involved in the epimastigotes response to oxidative stress.Graphical abstractSummary of current hypothesis regarding redox status through the insect vector's midgut and its effect on Trypanosoma cruzi proliferation, differentiation and cAMP transduction pathway. Image, graphical abstract
  • Impacts of residual insecticide spraying on the abundance and habitat
           occupancy of Triatoma sordida and co-occurrence with Triatoma infestans: a
           three-year follow-up in northeastern Argentina
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Lucía I. Rodríguez-Planes, M. Sol Gaspe, Gustavo F. Enriquez, Ricardo E. GürtlerTriatoma infestans, the main vector in the Gran Chaco region, may competitively displace other sympatric species such as Triatoma sordida. We conducted a three-year longitudinal study of site- and house-level infestation and abundance of triatomine bugs before and after an area-wide insecticide spraying campaign followed by sustained vector surveillance in a well-defined rural section of the Argentine Chaco encompassing 368-411 houses. Here, we tested whether insecticide applications targeting and virtually suppressing T. infestans reduced the abundance of T. sordida and modified its habitat occupancies, and whether their joint spatial distribution was random, aggregated or uniform, and varied over time. Systematic timed-manual searches of 18,031 sites yielded 2,226 T. sordida over seven postintervention surveys. Triatoma sordida failed to colonize human sleeping quarters after interventions, and its prime and secondary habitats remained virtually unmodified. Residual insecticide spraying and seasonality best described variations in the house-level abundance of T. sordida as determined using a generalized estimating equation model. Two-species foci occurred in 3.2% of sites ever positive for any species. The habitat-adjusted relative odds of catching one species was 10.8 times greater when the other species was present, with no evidence of heterogeneity among ORs, suggesting no antagonistic interactions throughout the follow-up. The spatial occurrence of both species was significantly aggregated within 300-500 m before and after interventions, and was random at broader spatial scales. The habitat occupancies of T. sordida may be used as a proxy for potential infestation with T. infestans and to guide targeted vector control actions.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • In vitro models for investigation of the host-parasite interface -
           possible applications in acute Chagas Disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Natália Martins Breyner, Mariana Hetch, Nadjar Nitz, Ester Rose, Juliana Lott de CarvalhoChagas disease (CD), caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is the main parasitic disease in the Western Hemisphere, with an increasing number of cases, especially in non-endemic regions. The disease is characterized by cardiomegaly and mega viscera, nevertheless, the clinical outcome is hard to predict, underscoring the need for further research into the pathophysiology of CD. Even though most basic and translational research involving CD is performed using in vivo models, in vitro models arise as an ethical, rapidly evolving, and physiologically relevant alternative for CD research. In the present review, we discuss the most past and recent in vitro cardiac and intestinal models available to study the host-parasite interface in CD, critically analyzing the possibilities and limitations of state-of-the-art alternatives for the CD host-parasite investigation.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Two new Phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the
           Highlands of Madagascar
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Fano José Randrianambinintsoa, Vincent Robert, Antoine Blavier, Nicole Léger, Jérôme DepaquitThe Malagasy phlebotomine sandfly fauna includes 17 species: five belong to the genus Phlebotomus, ten to the genus Sergentomyia, and two to the genus Grassomyia. The current article describes Sergentomyia brunhesi sp. nov. and Sergentomyia vistellei sp. nov. from the Malagasy highlands. Females were described morphologically from specimens collected at Ranomafana – Ifanadiana and Andringitra. Partial molecular sequences of cyt b and 28S rDNA were retrieved for Se. vistellei sp. nov. Waiting new data, we consider these species as ungrouped Sergentomyia. Two new species of Sergentomyia are recorded at higher altitudes in Madagascar. Knowledge of local biodiversity is increasing. New investigations have to be carried out to describe males, to understand their bionomics, and to identify other potential new species at higher altitudes.Graphical Phase contrast microphotography of the cibarium of Sergentomyia vistellei Depaquit, Randrianambinintsoa & Léger sp. nov. Image, graphical abstract
  • The impact of canine leishmaniosis vaccination with CaniLeish® in
           Leishmania infantum infection seroprevalence studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): R. Velez, E. Domenech, J. Cairó, M. GállegoEffective vaccines against Leishmania parasites are a goal for the scientific community working with both canine and human leishmaniosis. However, possible side effects of vaccination should also be considered and evaluated, preferably before vaccine licensing and marketing. One of these possible effects is the cross-reaction of vaccine-induced antibodies with standard serological tests for detection of Leishmania infantum infection. Longitudinal studies were performed on the type of humoral profile induced by Brazilian marketed canine leishmaniosis vaccines, but little is known regarding the European situation. In this study, an annual follow-up of 85 CaniLeish® vaccinated dogs and 83 non-vaccinated control dogs was performed. Blood samples were taken for all animals at pre-determined time points: before vaccination; immediately before each one of the two following vaccine doses (at 21 days intervals); and then one, four, six, nine and 12 months after finishing the vaccination course. All samples were tested by an in-house ELISA, using a whole promastigote antigen, for the presence of anti-L. infantum antibodies. Humoral response detectable by the used serological diagnostic method was significantly higher in the vaccine group when compared with the control group (p
  • Geographic Plasmodium falciparum sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase
           (PfSERCA) genotype diversity in India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 July 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Shelly Goomber, Neelima Mishra, Anup Anvikar, Neena ValechaAbstractPlasmodium falciparum sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (PfSERCA) is sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane bound transporter to regulate cytosol Ca2+ ions. Ca2+ act as secondary messenger and play important role in differentiation of parasite during its life cycle. Present study is epidemiological surveillance of PfSERCA (Pf3D7_0106300) gene fragment harboring 263, 402, 431 codon to look for its single nucleotide polymorphism which is well documented to be associated with Artemisinin tolerance. Filter paper with finger pricked blood samples for Plasmodium falciparum infected uncomplicated malaria patients were obtained for region as diverse as down the longitude from east to west of India i.e. Mizoram, Tripura, Meghalaya, Jharkhand, Odhisa. There observed no mutation for codon 263 at all study sites. Mizoram showed highest PfSERCA diversity with well known SNPs of L402 V, E431 K, A438 V and novel mutations as well i.e. A338 V, S357Y, S379Y. Tripura reported highest proportion of Plasmodium isolates (18.5%) with E431 K single nucleotide polymorphism. Moving towards the west i.e. Meghalaya, Jharkhand, Odhisa showed no occurrence of most prevalent PfSERCA 431, 402 polymorphism worldwide but some novel mutations and its haplotypes. In present study, significantly increased proportion of novel PfSERCA polymorphism among children suggests the susceptibility of these Plasmodium falciparum strains to acquired immunity. Mizoram, sharing open international border with south east asia, demonstrated highest PfSERCA diversity. Spatial PfSERCA diversity from far north east India to moving towards west implies its association with antimalarial susceptibility.
  • Impact of Rural Doctors' Historical Changes on Schistosomiasis Epidemics
           in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Dong XiaoyanAbstractObjective By combing the changes of rural doctors and schistosomiasis epidemic in different historical periods, this paper summarizes the correlation between the two, analyzes the causes, and provides suggestions for the current schistosomiasis control work. Methods The historical data and statistical data of different periods were selected to restore the changes of rural doctors and the actual situation of schistosomiasis epidemic. Results The number, preventive function of rural doctors and the intervention of political forces in rural areas were negatively correlated with schistosomiasis epidemic. Conclusions First, it is urgent to stabilize the team of rural doctors, and it is also necessary to train a group of health workers in areas where the epidemic situation is serious. Second, the preventive function of rural doctors should be improved. Third, the ability of rural areas to prevent disease depends to some extent on political power.
  • Partial inhibition of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in Taenia crassiceps
           cysticerci after the in vitro exposure to a benzimidazole derivative
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Guaraciara de A Picanço, Nayana F Lima, Daniella SMM Alves, Carolina M Fraga, Tatiane L Costa, Ruy de S Lino Junior, Rafael Castillo, Alicia Hernández-Campos, Javier Ambrosio, Marina C VinaudAbstractThe benzimidazole derivative, 6-chloro-5-(2,3-dichlorophenoxy)-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-benzimidazole (RCB15), has a similar mode of action and efficacy as albendazole, a commonly used anthelminthic drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate its influence on the tricarboxylic acid cycle in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. The parasites were cultured in supplemented RPMI medium containing albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) or RCB15, for 24 hours. Then, frozen in liquid nitrogen for organic metabolites extraction. Samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and organic acids of the tricarboxylic acid cycle were detected. It was possible to observe changes in the concentrations of all acids involved in this metabolic pathway, with the exception of α-ketoglutarate, which was not detected in the control group neither in most of the treated groups. It indicates that the parasite presented a partial inhibition of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The significant increase in the concentration of citrate, oxaloacetate and succinate in the RCB15 treated groups may indicate an activation of the fumarate reductase pathway, leading to metabolic distress. Therefore RCB15 may be considered an alternative for the treatment of tissue parasitic diseases, since it induced changes in the main metabolic pathway of the parasite.
  • Efficacy of orally toxic sugar baits against contact-insecticide resistant
           Culex quinquefasciatus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Zhen Y. Gu, Ji He, Xin D. Teng, Ce J. Lan, Rui X. Shen, Yi T. Wang, Ning Zhang, Yan D. Dong, Tong Y. Zhao, Chun X. LiAbstractIn recent years, attractive toxic sugar bait has been used in the mosquito control in nature, and achieved good control effects. However, the current researches about toxic sugar bait did not focus on whether the wild mosquito population used for control is resistant or not. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the toxic sugar bait against mosquito resistant populations to test the effects of bait on the control of mosquitoes with different levels of resistance. Boric acid, dinotefuran and deltamethrin were separately formulated into toxic sugar bait to test their anti-mosquito activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Using the sugar baits formulated with boric acid and dinotefuran, the mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus resistant populations was significantly higher than that of sensitive populations at the same concentration. Conversely, with the use of sugar baits formulated with deltamethrin, the mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus resistant populations was significantly lower than that of sensitive populations at the same concentration. The results suggested that toxic sugar baits might have a good application prospect in high resistant mosquito management.
  • Parasite-derived microRNAs in plasma as novel promising biomarkers for the
           early detection of hydatid cyst infection and post-surgery follow-up
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Zahra Alizadeh, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Adel Spotin, Tohid Kazemi, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Pengfei Cai, Dariush Shanehbandi, Najibeh ShekariCurrently, cystic echinococcosis (CE) follow-up is a serious concern among surgeons. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs which are present in human body fluids in a highly stable form. Recently, it is observed that Echinococcus granulosus expresses a large number of miRNAs in its developmental stages. The current study aimed at evaluating the capacity of parasitic miRNAs to serve as plasma biomarkers for hydatid cysts before and after CE surgery. Hydatidosis patients were identified using radiological and histopathological examinations. Following RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, the expression levels of parasite-derived miRNAs including egr-miR-71 and egr-let-7 were quantitatively evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 30 hydatid cyst-infected individuals before surgery and an equal number of healthy controls. Then, three- and six-month follow-ups were performed after cystectomy. To analyze parasite-derived miRNAs, the relative fold change between uninfected and infected samples was determined and normalized to hsa-miR-16-5p as the housekeeping internal control. RT-PCR demonstrated that egr-miR-71 and egr-let-7 were specifically amplified in all the plasma samples from the infected individuals with hydatid cyst; yet they were significantly down-regulated at three and six months' post-surgery (P
  • Development and calibration of a model for the potential establishment and
           impact of Aedes albopictus in Europe
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): S. Pasquali, L. Mariani, M. Calvitti, R. Moretti, L. Ponti, M. Chiari, G. Sperandio, G. GilioliAbstractThe Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is one of the most invasive disease vectors worldwide. The species is a competent vector of dengue, chikungunya, Zika viruses and other severe parasites and pathogens threatening human health. The capacity of this mosquito to colonize and establish in new areas (including temperate regions) is enhanced by its ability of producing diapausing eggs that survive relatively cold winters. The main drivers of population dynamics for this mosquito are water and air temperature and photoperiod. In this paper, we present a mechanistic model that predicts the potential distribution, abundance and activity of Asian tiger mosquito in Europe. The model includes a comprehensive description of: i) the individual life-history strategies, including diapause, ii) the influence of weather-driven individual physiological responses on population dynamics and iii) the density-dependent regulation of larval mortality rate. The model is calibrated using field data from several locations along an altitudinal gradient in the Italian Alps, which enabled accurate prediction of cold temperature effects on population abundance, including identification of conditions that prevent overwintering of the species. Model predictions are consistent with the most updated information on species’ presence and absence. Predicted population abundance shows a clear south-north decreasing gradient. A similar yet less evident pattern in the activity of the species is also predicted. The model represents a valuable tool for the development of strategies aimed at the management of Ae. albopictus and for the implementation of effective control measures against vector-borne diseases in Europe.
  • Effects of programmed cell death protein 10 on the Schistosoma japonicum
           female reproductive system
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Yan-Ru Gao, Dong Mei, Yu-bin He, Rui-xue Chen, Jie Gao, Hai-Xia Liu, Yan Zhang, Wen-Hui Yu, Li-Xia WangAbstractThis study aimed to investigate the effects of programmed cell death protein 10 (PCDP10) on the female reproductive system of Schistosoma japonicum, one of the major infectious agents of schistosomiasis. We found that PCDP10 was widely distributed in the integument, the worm parenchymal area, and the vitellarium of the female worm, but was localized to a lesser extent in the ovary and testicles. RNAi experiments successfully achieved gene knockdown, and the ultrastructural morphology of the adult reproductive organs was observed. The results demonstrated that, compared with those of the negative control group, the number of cortical granules around oocytes decreased and the number of immature oocyte cells increased. Fusion of yolk globules occurred, and the number and the diameter of yolk droplets decreased significantly. Real-time PCR showed that the expression of yolk glands reached its peak before ovulation and then decreased. The TUNEL assay results showed that apoptosis in the RNAi group was significantly higher than that in the negative control group. These results suggested that SjPCDP10 plays an important role in the female reproductive system. In conclusion, PCD10 is involved in oocyte growth and development, especially in eggshell formation, which may provide a reference for further elucidating the molecular mechanism of PCDP10 involved in egg formation and embryo development in Schistosoma japonicum.
  • First report of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants (Mahidol
           and Acores) from malaria-endemic regions of northeast India and their
           functional evaluations in silico
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Ram Suresh Bharti, Kapil Vashisht, Naseem Ahmed, Ajay Nayak, Veena Pande, Neelima MishraG6PD deficiency results from numerous mutations in the G6PD gene and can cause alterations in enzyme function up to varying degrees. P. vivax malaria infections require G6PD deficiency screening because of the potential risk of haemolysis by the gametocytocidal drug (primaquine) during the radical treatment. . The present study investigated the incidence of G6PD deficiency from northeast India and further, molecular characterization was performed. During 2014-16, a total of 1,015 patients from four north-eastern states of India (Tripura, Mizoram, Meghalaya & Arunachal Pradesh), were screened for G6PD deficiency, using Beutler's fluorescence spot test (FST) and confirmed with SPAN kit. The deficient individuals (55/1015, 5.4%) were further characterized by PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing except one case of loss to follow up. As observed by FST, the frequency of G6PD deficient males (42/538, 7.8%) were found to be higher than females (13/477, 2.73%), (p < 0.0001). Two non-synonymous mutations; G6PD-D (Mahidol)487A (48/54, 88.9%; 36 hemizygous males, 8 homozygous and 4 heterozygous females) and G6PD-D (Acores)595T (2/54, 3.7%) were identified. Remaining (4/54, 7.4%) individuals could not be characterized. Molecular modeling and dynamic simulations were performed for the G6PD wild-type (G6PD-WT) and its variants. The in-silico results demonstrated alterations in the secondary structures & crucial loss of ligand-protein interactions, which might result in reduced enzyme function leading to deficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to document G6PD-Mahidol and G6PD-Acores variants from malaria-endemic regions of northeast India, and providing molecular insights on the varied genetic makeup of the studied population.Graphical abstractMD simulations analysis of G6PD wild-type & variants demonstrating loss of crucial ligand-protein interactions.Image, graphical abstract
  • Ivermectin concentration in breastmilk of a woman with Strongyloides
           stercoralis and human T-lymphotropic virus-I co-infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Paola Rodari, Dora Buonfrate, Elena Pomari, Gianluigi Lunardi, Isabella Bon, Zeno Bisoffi, Andrea AnghebenAbstractIvermectin is a widely used drug for the treatment of various neglected tropical diseases, such as lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, and strongyloidiasis among others. Despite its excellent safety profile, there are few published studies of the use of ivermectin in children, pregnant and nursing women. In the present study, we report clinical data on ivermectin concentrations in breastmilk of a woman with Strongyloides stercoralis and HTLV-I coinfection. Ivermectin levels in breastmilk ranged from 1.4 to 20.8 ng/ml, with a mean of 9.26 ng/ml after a single dose of 200 µg/kg. We estimated the possible ivermectin exposure of the infant to be 1.1 µg/kg, 0.55% of the weight-adjusted percentage of the maternal dose. This value is largely under the threshold established by the World Health Organization for safe breastfeeding. Our results bolster previous findings on the secretion of ivermectin into breastmilk in healthy volunteers. The findings from this case study do not support exclusion of lactating women or interrupting lactation to accommodate it.
  • (±)-licarin A and its semi-synthetic derivatives: in vitro and in silico
           evaluation of trypanocidal and schistosomicidal activities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Vanderlisa Rita Meleti, Viviane Rodrigues Esperandim, Luzio Gabriel Bocalon Flauzino, Anna Helena Prizantelli, Lucas Antônio de Lima Paula, Lizandra Guidi Magalhães, Wilson Roberto Cunha, Rosângela da Silva Laurentiz, Ana Paula da Rocha Pissurno, N.P. Dhammika Nanayakkara, Ana Carolina Pereira, Jairo Kenupp Bastos, Renato Luis Tâme Parreira, Renato Pereira Orenha, Márcio Luis Andrade e SilvaThis paper reports the synthesis of (±)-licarin A 1, a dihydrobenzofuran neolignan, resultant of an oxidative coupling reaction of isoeugenol and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme. Following, three semi-synthetic derivatives from this compound were obtained: benzylated (±)-licarin A 2, methylated (±)-licarin A 3 and acetylated (±)-licarin A 4. After structural elucidation and assignment by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of 1H, 13C and DEPT, all compounds were evaluated in vitro against Trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, and Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) worms, the etiologic agent of schistosomiasis. Compound (4) was the most active against S. mansoni adult worms, displaying worm viability reduction at 25 µM and mortality of all worms at 100 and 200 µM within 24 h. Compound 1 was the second most active, showing worm viability reduction at 50 µM and mortality of 25% and 100% of worms in 24h at concentrations of 100 and 200 µM, respectively. In addition, theoretical calculations aiming at finding molecular properties that showed the correlation for schistosomicidal and trypanocidal activities of (±)-licarin A and three of its semi-synthetic derivatives were also performed.Graphical Image, graphical abstract
  • Proteomic Analysis of Adult Schistosoma mekongi Somatic and
           Excretory-Secretory Proteins
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Onrapak Reamtong, Nattapon Simanona Tipparat Thiangtrongjit, Yanin Limpanont, Phiraphol Chusongsang, Yupa Chusongsang, Songtham Anuntakarun, Sunchai Payungporn, Orawan Phuphisut, Poom AdisakwattanaABSTRACTSchistosoma mekongi is a causative agent of human schistosomiasis. There is limited knowledge of the molecular biology of S. mekongi and very few studies have examined drug targets, vaccine candidates and diagnostic biomarkers for S. mekongi. To explore the biology of S. mekongi, computational as well as experimental approaches were performed on S. mekongi males and females to identify excretory-secretory (ES) proteins and proteins that are differentially expressed between genders. According to bioinformatic prediction, the S. mekongi ES product was approximately 4.7% of total annotated transcriptome sequences. The classical secretory pathway was the main process to secrete proteins. Mass spectrometry-based quantification of male and female adult S. mekongi proteins was performed. We identified 174 and 156 differential expression of proteins in male and female worms, respectively. The dominant male-biased proteins were involved in actin filament-based processes, microtubule-based processes, biosynthetic processes and homeostatic processes. The major female-biased proteins were related to biosynthetic processes, organelle organization and signal transduction. An experimental approach identified 88 proteins in the S. mekongi secretome. The S. mekongi ES proteins mainly contributed to nutrient uptake, essential substance supply and host immune evasion. This research identifies proteins in the S. mekongi secretome and provides information on ES proteins that are differentially expressed between S. mekongi genders. These findings will contribute to S. mekongi drug and vaccine development. In addition, the study enhances our understanding of basic S. mekongi biology.Graphical Image, graphical abstract
  • Optimization of a suspension culture for a Theileria
    -infected bovine cell line
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Quanying Ma, Zhi Li, Xuerong Liu, Jing Li, Muhammad Rashid, Junlong Liu, Jingming Wang, Aihong Liu, Youquan Li, Hong Yin, Guiquan Guan, Jianxun LuoAbstractTheileria annulata schizont transformed bovine lymphocytes show the feature of permanent proliferation in in vitro culture. In this study, we optimized a suitable culture medium for transformed cells to ensure a high yield of quality cells in suspension culture. As the basis for the optimized medium, we combined 75% Gibco (GB) and 25% RPMI-1640 medium. Glucose, lactic acid, ammonia, growth factors and several kinds of amino acids at specific concentrations play important roles in maintaining the maximum growth rate and the quality of cells. The metabolic flow of 17 amino acids, glucose and nutrients was determined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and cell viability analysis. The genetic stability of the TaSP and TaSE genes at different passages of the cell line in suspension culture was determined using PCR amplification. The optimal concentrations or tolerated levels of glucose, lactic acid and ammonia were 10-14, 2-5.5 and 3.5-5.5 mmol/L, respectively. Our data demonstrated that the potential utility of the medium optimized here to yield high quality cells compared with basal (normally used) medium. The medium also facilitated the easy maintenance of transformed cells with high yields and excellent quality for in vitro studies. This study also provides insight into the processes of optimization and vaccine development.
  • Recent advances in Schistosoma mekongi ecology, transcriptomics and
           proteomics of relevance to snail control
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Yanin Limpanont, Orawan Phuphisut, Onrapak Reamtong, Poom AdisakwattanaAbstractMekong schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mekongi is a public health problem that occurs along the border between southern Laos and northern Cambodia. Given its restricted distribution and low prevalence, eventual eradication via an effective control program can be expected to be successful. To achieve this goal detailed knowledge of its basic biology, molecular biology, biochemistry, and pathology is urgently required. In this regard, recent studies on transcriptome analysis of adult male and female S. mekongi worms, and proteome analysis of developmental stages have been reported and are discussed here. The biology, habitat, and distribution of the snail intermediate host Neotricula aperta, which are factors in disease transmission, are discussed in this review. These have initiated renewed interest in S. mekongi research and contributed promising data that will be utilized in the generation of effective control and prevention strategies.
  • Effects of regulatory T cells on glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
           vaccine efficacy against Schistosoma japonicum
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Chun-lian Tang, Ya-ping Xie, Wen-hui Yu, Lei Jin, Zhao-lan Xie, Xiu-rong LiAbstractGlyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a candidate subunit vaccine that induces protective immunity and elicits partial resistance to Schistosoma japonicum upon mouse and livestock vaccination. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which were defined as CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells, on the efficacy of a GAPDH vaccine against S. japonicum. BALB/c female mice were randomly divided into five groups as follows: normal, infected control, anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody (anti-CD25 mAb), GAPDH group, and co-treated with anti-CD25 mAb and GAPDH group. The worm reduction and liver egg reduction rates in the GAPDH group were 32.46% and 35.43%, respectively, which increased to 60.09% and 58.78%, respectively, after anti-CD25 mAb administration. Compared with those in the infected control group, the percentage of Tregs in the spleen decreased significantly when GAPDH and anti-CD25 mAb were used either alone or in combination. Furthermore, secretions associated with the Th1 response increased in splenocytes of the anti-CD25 mAb group, whereas the Th1 and Th2 responses increased in splenocytes of the GAPDH and co-treated groups. Compared to that in the infected control group, granuloma diameter in the GAPDH and co-treated groups increased slightly, but there were no significant differences among the groups. Our results indicate that the protective effect of the GAPDH vaccines can be improved by decreasing Tregs and enhancing the Th1- and Th2-type immune responses. Therefore, anti-CD25 mAb and GAPDH might exert synergistic effects to clear parasites by decreasing the frequency of Tregs and increasing the Th1- and Th2-type immune responses.
  • Cysticidal activity of praziquantel-mebendazole combination: in vitro and
           in vivo studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Palomares-Alonso Francisca, López-Muñoz Francisco Javier, Palencia Hernández Guadalupe, Gurrusqueta-Miranda Fernanda, Castro Nelly, Helgi Jung-Cook, González-Hernández Iliana, Rojas-Tomé Irma SusanaThe current pharmacological treatment of neurocysticercosis is based on two drugs, praziquantel (PZQ) and albendazole; however, suboptimal efficacy has been documented. Previous studies, have documented the activity of mebendazole (MBZ) against Taenia sp, and its capability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Considering this information and in an effort to search other options for neurocysticercosis treatment, the present study was designed to assess the in vitro and in vivo activity of the PZQ-MBZ combination against Taenia crassiceps metacestodes. For the in vitro studies T. crassiceps cysticerci (ORF strain) were used and the analysis of the combinations was performed using the Surface of Synergistic Interaction (SSI). For the in vivo evaluation the experimental infection model of T. crassiceps ORF in Balb-C mice was used. In vitro results showed that the combination of PZQ 121.6 nM-MBZ 5.1 nM exhibited the highest synergic cysticidal effect. In vivo, the PZQ-MBZ combination (25 mg/kg - 50 mg/kg, respectively) was more effective than each drug alone. The findings indicate that PZQ in combination with MBZ could be a promising alternative for the treatment of neurocysticercosis. Complementary studies are required to confirm its clinical applicability.Graphical abstractSummary: The present paper reports the synergistic interaction between praziquantel and mebendazole against Taenia crassiceps metacestodes in vitro and in vivo. Image, graphical abstract
  • Immunological exhaustion and functional profile of CD8+ T lymphocytes as
           cellular biomarkers of therapeutic efficacy in chronic Chagas patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Elena Pérez-Antón, Adriana Egui, Mª Carmen Thomas, Marina Simón, Manuel Segovia, Manuel Carlos LópezThe lack of useful tools for detection the impact of treatment during the follow-up of chronic Chagas disease treated patients difficult the adequate care to the affected population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional response of CD8+ T lymphocyte population, critical for the control of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, as a possible cellular biomarker of treated Chagas disease patients. Thus, we analyzed the antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell response before and after benznidazole treatment in asymptomatic (indeterminate) and cardiac chronic Chagas disease patients. A marked dysfunctional process of the CD8+ T cell population was found in patients with an advanced pathology. Thus, the cardiac patients have a higher co-expression of inhibitory receptors and a lower antigen-specific multifunctional capacity compared with that of asymptomatic patients. Remarkably, benznidazole treatment partially reverses this functional exhaustion process of CD8+ T cells in both asymptomatic and cardiac Chagas patients. Thus, the co-expression of inhibitory molecules tends to be reduced after benznidazole treatment, mainly in asymptomatic patients, finding a significant drop in the expression of inhibitory receptors such as PD-1 and 2B4. In addition, the multifunctional antigen-specific response of CD8+ T cells is enhanced after treatment in chronic patients. An increase in the subset of cells with cytotoxic capacity and production of the IFN-γ cytokine was also observed in both treated asymptomatic and cardiac chronic Chagas patients. The results derived from this study show the improvement of the functional capacity of CD8+ T cells after treatment which could be have a positive effect on parasitic control. In addition, the phenotypic and functional profile of the CD8+ T cells described could serve as a tool for monitoring the impact of benznidazole treatment.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Systematic review and meta-analysis of the cost and cost-effectiveness of
           distributing insecticide-treated nets for the prevention of malaria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Janna Wisniewski, Angela Acosta, Jan Kolaczinski, Hannah Koenker, Joshua YukichGraphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Molecular cytotaxonomy of the Triatoma brasiliensis species subcomplex
           (Hemiptera, Triatominae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi, Isadora de Freitas Bittinelli, Luiza Maria Grzyb Delgado, Fernanda Fernandez Madeira, Jader de Oliveira, Maurício Lilioso, Elaine Folly-Ramos, João Aristeu da Rosa, Maria Tercília Vilela de Azeredo-OliveiraAbstractThe Triatoma genus is paraphyletic, and its species are grouped into complexes and subcomplexes. Given the fact that species that make up a given subcomplex generally share chromosomal traits, we analyzed the distribution of AT- and CG-rich DNA of the T. brasiliensis species subcomplex, in order to establish affinities among members of the T. brasiliensis subcomplex based on chromatin and chromosome traits and develop an identification key for the four monophyletic Triatoma subcomplexes from South America. All species exhibited a CG-rich X sex chromosome and autosomes, as well as an AT-rich Y sex chromosome. This feature can be used as a diagnostic characteristic to determine whether a given species is a member of the T. brasiliensis subcomplex, because it enables the differentiation of these species from all Triatoma of South America. Thus, we confirmed the chromosomal relationship of the T. brasiliensis species subcomplex and developed a dichotomous key based on the chromocenter to differentiate the species from this subcomplex from the other monophyletic Triatoma subcomplexes from South America.
  • A Quantitative Proteomic and Bioinformatics Analysis of Proteins in
           Metacyclogenesis of Leishmania tropica
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Nasrin Amiri-Dashatan, Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani, Nayebali AhmadiRecently there has a growing interest in MS-based analysis on Leishmania for biology study, host-parasite interaction and drug target discovery. The aims of this study were to analyzed protein profiles in the procyclic and metacyclic stages of L. tropica, and investigate their potential role in metacyclogenesis molecular mechanisms. Sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra mass spectrometry (SWATH-MS) analysis was used to analyze protein profiles in each of procyclic and metacyclic stages. Proteins with a fold change>2 or
  • Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in horses: A global
           systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Xi Li, Hong-Bo Ni, Wei-Xin Ren, Jing Jiang, Qing-Long Gong, Xiao-Xuan ZhangAbstractToxoplasmosis, one of the most common zoonoses worldwide, is caused by Toxoplasma gondii. T. gondii can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans. Horses are an intermediate host of T. gondii, representing a potential risk for humans. To determine the T. gondii seroprevalence in horses worldwide, a global meta-analysis was conducted. A total of 35 publications were obtained by searching the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Web of knowledge (CNKI) and Wanfang databases. A total of 12,354 horses were assessed, of which 1,580 were positive for T. gondii. The pooled overall seroprevalence of horses infected by T. gondii was 11.29%. No significant difference of T. gondii seroprevalence was observed between male and female horses. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in horses from different countries varied. Our findings suggest that toxoplasmosis is prevalent in horses worldwide. Therefore, it is necessary to implement continuous monitoring of the status of T. gondii seroprevalence in horses. Moreover, powerful regulatory measures should be implemented to prevent and control the spread of toxoplasmosis.
  • Sanguinarine has anthelmintic activity against the enteral and parenteral
           phases of Trichinella infection in experimentally infected mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Haibin Huang, Jiayun Yao, Ke Liu, Wentao Yang, Guan Wang, Chunwei Shi, Yanlong Jiang, Jianzhong Wang, Yuanhuan Kang, Dan Wang, Chunfeng Wang, Guilian YangTrichinellosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Trichinella spiralis, and it is also a widely prevalent foodborne parasitic disease. At present, albendazole and benzimidazole are the most commonly used therapeutic drugs for the clinical treatment of trichinellosis, but they have many side effects. Sanguinarine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid that has biological activity, such as antibacterial, antitumour and antiparasitic activities. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the anti-Trichinella effect of sanguinarine in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that sanguinarine had a lethal effect on muscle larvae, adults and new-borne larvae in vitro. The damage to adults treated with sanguinarine was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Sanguinarine could significantly reduce the burden of worms in mice during the pre-adult, migrating larva and encysted larva stages. The ratio of intestinal villus to crypt (V/C) in mice treated with sanguinarine was significantly higher than that in non-treated control mice. Compared with the non-treated control group, the sanguinarine-treated group exhibited a significantly increased number of small intestine goblet cells. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the serum of mice treated with sanguinarine was significantly higher than that of the control group mice in the pre-adult and encysted larva stages. This study suggests that sanguinarine is a potential drug against trichinellosis.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Comparison of BG-Lure and BG-Sweetscents attractants for field sampling of
           phlebotomine sand flies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Dennys G.S. Ortiz, Diones A. Borges, Luzia A. Trinca, Eunice, A.B. Galati, Ulla Gordon, Martin Geier, Mara C. PintoPhlebotomines are important vectors of bacteria, viruses and protozoan parasites. Protozoans of the genus Leishmania which cause visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases, are among the most important etiologic agents transmitted by sand flies. Different blends of human and animal volatiles have been evaluated for use in surveillance and/or control of hematophagous insects. With regard to phlebotomine sand flies there are few records of attraction under laboratory and field conditions. This study was carried out at two collecting sites located in a Brazilian town with a high prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of adding two kinds of commercial bait which mimic human odors to light traps to attract sand flies and compare the results with those of light traps without any additional bait. The commercial baits, BG-Lure® and BG-Sweetscent®, were developed to catch anthropophilic mosquitoes. Three treatments were evaluated: 1 - HP light trap with BG-Lure® added; 2 - HP light trap with BG-Sweetscent® added and 3- HP light trap without any attractant. A total of 3,682 sand flies were collected during the study. Constrained correspondence analysis was applied to perform ordination of the captured community of sand fly species that could be explained by attractant, sampling site and sex. The most abundant species: Pintomyia nevesi, Nyssomyia whitmani and Nyssomyia antunesi were further investigated by fitting generalized linear mixed models. Only Ny. whitmani showed a slight indication of an increase in catches with BG-Lure®.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • DNA barcoding and fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae:
           Phlebotominae) from Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Yokomi N Lozano-Sardaneta, Luís E. Paternina, Sokani Sánchez-Montes, Alejandro Quintero, Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal, Víctor Sánchez-Cordero, Eduar Elías Bejarano, Ingeborg BeckerMexico has great diversity of phlebotomine sand flies related to cases of leishmaniasis, yet few studies have dressed the molecular taxonomy of these sand fly species. The use of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene, as a DNA Barcode has facilitated the molecular identification of sand flies species worldwide. We use the DNA barcode as a useful tool for the identification of phlebotomine sand flies of the natural reserve Los Tuxtlas from Veracruz, México. A fragment of 536 bp of the COI gene was obtained from 36 individuals belonging to eight species of five genera (Dampfomyia, Lutzomyia, Psathyromyia, Psychodopygus and Brumptomyia) with coverage between 92–100%, and found similarities ranging from 93–98% with other New World phlebotomine sand flies. The NJ dendogram grouped sand flies into eight clusters according to identified species, supported by bootstrap of 97%–100%. In conclusion, all phlebotomine sand flies were correctly identified and agree with the morphological identification, also could separate genetics the isomorphic females of the genus Brumptomyia.Graphical abstractCOI Barcode as a useful tool for the identification of eight phlebotomine sand flies species of the natural reserve Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz.Image, graphical abstract
  • The effect of Benznidazole dose among the efficacy outcome in the murine
           animal model. A quantitative integration of the literature
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Israel Molina, Luisa Perin, Augusto Sao Aviles, Paula Melo de Abreu Vieira, Katia da Silva Fonseca, Lucas Maciel Cunha, Claudia M. CarneiroAbstractDespite more than 100 years since it was firstly described Chagas disease, only two drugs are available to treat Chagas disease: Nifurtimox launched by Bayer in 1965 and benznidazole launched by Roche in 1971.Drug discovery initiatives have been looking for new compounds as an alternative to these old drugs.Although new platforms have been used with the latest technologies, a critical step on that process still relies on the in vivo model.Unfortunately, to date, available animal models have limited predictive value and there is no standardization.With the aim to better understand the role of benznidazole, the current standard of care of Chagas disease, we performed this review. We intend to analyze the influence of the experimental design of the most used animal model, the murine model, in the assessment of the efficacy endpoint.
  • Real-time PCR to differentiate among Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus,
           Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis:
           application on Brazilian clinical samples
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Aurora Diotallevi, Gloria Buffi, Marcello Ceccarelli, Herintha Coeto Neitzke-Abreu, Laisa Vieira Gnutzmann, Manoel Sebastião da Costa Lima, Alice Di Domenico, Mauro De Santi, Mauro Magnani, Luca GalluzziAbstractLeishmaniasis is a complex disease caused by Leishmania species belonging to subgenera Leishmania and Viannia. In South America, L. (L.) infantum is considered the most important causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis, while L. (L.) amazonensis and Viannia subgenus species are responsible for the different cutaneous or mucocutaneous forms. In our previous work, we developed a diagnostic approach for Leishmania species discrimination based on two qPCRs (qPCR-ML and qPCR-ama) targeting the minicircle kDNA followed by melting analysis. This approach allowed to (i) differentiate the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia, and (ii) distinguish between L. (L.) infantum and L. (L.) amazonensis. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the applicability of the approach previously described, using human and canine clinical samples and strains from a Brazilian region, where L. (L.) infantum, L. (L.) amazonensis and Viannia subgenus species coexist. After validation on New World strains, the diagnostic approach was applied blindly to 36 canine clinical samples (peripheral blood and bone marrow) and 11 human clinical samples (peripheral blood and bone marrow). The sensitivity was 95.6% (95% confidence interval 77.3-100%) and 100% (95% confidence interval 76.9-100%) in the canine bone marrow samples and human (peripheral blood and bone marrow) samples, respectively, compared to conventional PCR assays. Concerning the Leishmania species identification, the conventional and qPCR-based methods showed kappa value of 0.876 (95% confidence interval 0.638-1.000), indicating good agreement. Therefore, this approach proved to be useful in both veterinary and human clinical context in regions co-endemic for L. (L.) infantum, L. (L.) amazonensis, and Viannia subgenus, helping to provide rapid diagnosis and to allow studies of species distribution.
  • Functional insight into the glycosomal peroxiredoxin of
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Helena Castro, Maria Inês Rocha, Ricardo Silva, Filipe Oliveira, Ana Georgina Gomes-Alves, Tânia Cruz, Margarida Duarte, Ana Maria TomásGlycosomes of trypanosomatids are peroxisome-like organelles comprising unique metabolic features, among which the lack of the hallmark peroxisomal enzyme catalase. The absence of this highly efficient peroxidase from glycosomes is presumably compensated by other antioxidants, peroxidases of the peroxiredoxin (PRX) family being the most promising candidates for this function. Here, we follow on this premise and investigate the product of a Leishmania infantum gene coding for putative glycosomal PRX (LigPRX). First, we demonstrate that LigPRX localizes to glycosomes, resorting to indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Second, we prove that purified recombinant LigPRX is an active peroxidase in vitro. Third, we generate viable LigPRX-depleted L. infantum promastigotes by classical homologous recombination. Surprisingly, phenotypic analysis of these knockout parasites revealed that promastigote survival, replication, and protection from oxidative and nitrosative insults can proceed normally in the absence of LigPRX. Noticeably, we also witness that LigPRX-depleted parasites can infect and thrive in mice to the same extent as wild type parasites. Overall, by disclosing the dispensable character of the glycosomal peroxiredoxin in L. infantum, this work excludes this enzyme from being a key component of the glycosomal hydroperoxide metabolism and contemplates alternative players for this function.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Is Amazonian Toxoplasmosis a real risk for Brazil'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Claudio Bruno Silva de Oliveira
  • Foodborne Intestinal Flukes: A Brief Review of Epidemiology and
           Geographical Distribution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Jong-Yil Chai, Bong-Kwang JungAbstractFoodborne intestinal flukes are highly diverse consisting of at least 74 species with a diverse global distribution. Taxonomically they include 28 species of heterophyids, 23 species of echinostomes, and 23 species of miscellaneous groups (amphistomes, brachylaimids, cyathocotylids, diplostomes, fasciolids, gymnophallids, isoparorchiids, lecithodendriid-like group, microphallids, nanophyetids, plagiorchiids, and strigeids). The important heterophyid species (15 species) include Metagonimus yokogawai, M. takahashii, M. miyatai, Heterophyes heterophyes, H. nocens, Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Heterophyopsis continua, Centrocestus formosanus, Pygidiopsis genata, P. summa, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Stictodora fuscata, and S. lari. The echinostome species of public health significance (15 species) include Echinostoma revolutum, E. cinetorchis, E. lindoense, E. ilocanum, Isthmiophora hortensis, Echinochasmus japonicus, E. perfoliatus, E. liliputanus, E. fujianensis, E. caninus, Acanthoparyphium tyosenense, Artyfechinostomum malayanum, A. sufrartyfex, A. oraoni, and Hypoderaeum conoideum. Among the other zoonotic intestinal flukes, Gastrodiscoides hominis, Brachylaima cribbi, Neodiplostomum seoulense, Fasciolopsis buski, Gymnophalloides seoi, Caprimolgorchis molenkampi, Phaneropsolus bonnei, Microphallus brevicaeca, Nanophyetus salmincola, and N. schikhobalowi (10 species) have drawn considerable medical attention causing quite a fair number of human infection cases. The principal mode of human infections include ingestion of raw or improperly cooked fish (heterophyids and echinostomes), snails including oysters (echinostomes and G. seoi), amphibians and reptiles (N. seoulense), aquatic vegetables (amphistomes and F. buski), and insect larvae or adults (C. molenkampi and P. bonnei). Epidemiological characteristics such as the prevalence, geographical distribution, and clinical and public health significance are poorly known in many of these species. Praziquantel has been proved to be highly effective against most species of intestinal fluke infections. Surveys and detection of human infection cases are urgently required for better understanding of the global status and public health significance of each species.
  • Epidemiological survey of fasciolosis in yaks and sheep living on the
           Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Xing Gao, Lihong Zhang, Xiaole Tong, Hui Zhang, Khalid Mehmood, Xiong Jiang, Jiakui LiAbstractFasciolosis is one of the biggest threats to livestock and human population. For this purpose, the seroprevalence of Fasciola hepatica was investigated in yaks and sheep living on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China by piloting commercial ELISA kits. A total of 3276 yaks and 1092 sheep were incorporated in this study. The prevalence of the parasite in yaks and sheep was 38.3% and 26.4%, respectively. The serological results revealed a relatively high prevalence of F. hepatica infection in yaks and sheep, respectively. The present study may greatly contribute to the prevention of this parasitic zoonosis and great importance should be given to the potential threat caused by F. hepatica in this special plateau.
  • Human Hookworm Infection: Is Effective Control Possible' A Review of
           Hookworm Control Efforts and Future Directions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Matthew S. Haldeman, Melissa S. Nolan, Kija R.N. Ng'habiAbstractHuman hookworm, a soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection caused by either Necator americanus or Anclystoma duodenale, is a major cause of morbidity globally and predominantly affects the world's poorest populations. Transmitted primarily by larval invasion of exposed skin, the adults inhabit the host small intestine, where they consume host blood. The resultant chronic iron deficiency anemia can lead to stunted growth and cognitive deficits in children, reduced work capacity in adults, and a variety of pregnancy complications. Historically, successful STH elimination has only been achieved in regions with concomitant significant economic growth. Since 2001, control of the STHs has been attempted via single-dose mass deworming of at-risk school-aged and preschool-aged children within STH-endemic countries, with the goal of morbidity reduction. Research questioning this strategy has grown in recent years, and current studies are evaluating the effectiveness of novel deworming strategies, including multidrug regimens and expansion of deworming to entire communities. While footwear campaigns may be associated with reduced odds of hookworm infection, the evidence supporting the impact of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions upon hookworm is mixed. Progress towards a human hookworm vaccine continues, with promising results from recent Phase 1 trials and several others ongoing. Integrated STH control programs, which combine mass deworming with WASH interventions, are relatively unstudied but may be a promising advancement. Whether interruption of STH transmission can be achieved apart from significant economic growth remains unanswered, but likely the implementation of intensive, integrated control programs will be necessary to achieve that goal.
  • Do albendazole-loaded lipid nanocapsules enhance the bioavailability of
           albendazole in the brain of healthy mice'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Julia Fabbri, Juan Pablo Espinosa, Patricia Eugenia Pensel, Sandra Karina Medici, Gabriela Ullio Gamboa, Jean Pierre Benoit, María Celina ElissondoNeurocysticercosis is a neglected tropical disease that affects the central nervous system and is the most common cause of human epilepsy acquired in developing countries. Therapeutic failures attributed to medical management of neurocysticercosis with albendazole (ABZ) have been primarily linked to the poor drug absorption rate resulting in low drug level in plasma and brain tissue. The aim of the current work was to characterize and compare the brain pharmacokinetic behavior of ABZ formulated as a suspension or lipid nanocapsules (ABZ-LNCs) in healthy mice. The relative availability in brain tissue of the active metabolite ABZ sulphoxide increased 183% when ABZ was administered as LNCs, in relation to ABZ suspension. The parent drug was also detected for a short period of time. The bioavailability of ABZ in ABZ-LNCs treated mice increased more than 2 fold compared with ABZ suspension group. The enhanced drug brain exposure observed after administration of ABZ-LNCs to healthy mice has potential usefulness for the treatment of human neurocysticercosis.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Combination of quercetin and ivermectin: in vitro and in vivo effects
           against Haemonchus contortus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Dyego Gonçalves Lino Borges, Marcelo Augusto de Araújo, Carlos Alexandre Carollo, Aline Regina Hellmann Carollo, Adrian Lifschitz, Mário Henrique Conde, Mariana Green de Freitas, Zelina dos Santos Freire, Juliane Francielle Tutija, Matheus Takemi Muchon Nakatani, Fernando de Almeida BorgesThe aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of quercetin combined with ivermectin (IVM) on Haemonchus contortus larvae and adults with different resistance profiles and demonstrate the in vivo anthelmintic action of this combination when used in sheep naturally infected. The effect of combination was evaluated based on the analysis of the mean effective concentration (EC50) obtained for larvae using the larval migration inhibition test and for adults using the motility test on females. The tests with larvae and adults were conducted using isolates with different degrees of susceptibility to IVM (sensitive, intermediate and highly resistant). The in vivo effect was evaluated based on the reduction in the egg count (FEC) and reduction in the count of adult helminths recovered after parasitological necropsy. Using the combination of quercetin with IVM, it was observed that in larvae, quercetin did not significantly reduce the EC50 for IVM in the sensitive and highly resistant isolates, but led to a significant reduction in the EC50 for IVM in the intermediate isolate. In adults, quercetin did not significantly reduce the EC50 for IVM in any of the isolates. No significant effect of the combination was found regarding the reduction in FEC or total count of parasites. The results of the in vitro and in vivo tests performed in the present study on quercetin activity underscore the importance of evaluating resistance-reversing agents among different stages of parasite development as well as among isolates with different resistance profiles. The action of quercetin combined with IVM on the motility of H. contortus larvae and adults was influenced by the degree of resistance and development stage of the parasite. The combination was effective only on intermediate resistant larvae. No action of the combination against adults was found. Moreover, this combination, when administered through the intra-abomasal route, was not effective at reducing the FEC and parasite load of naturally infected sheep.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Genotyping of Enterocytozoon bieneusi among captive long-tailed macaques
           (Macaca fascicularis) in Hainan Province: high genetic diversity and
           zoonotic potential
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Wei Zhao, Huanhuan Zhou, Hairong Jin, Lijie Sun, Pingyung Li, Meicen Liu, Mingyan Qiu, Liulian Xu, Feiyang Li, Tianming Ma, Shanshan Wang, Feifei Yin, Lihua Li, Xiuji Cui, Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Gang LuAbstractEnterocytozoon bieneusi is a potentially important zoonotic pathogen. However, there is no information on E. bieneusi infection of captive long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Hainan Province, China. Here 193 fecal specimens of M. fascicularis were collected from a breeding base in Hainan Province, China, housing non-human primates for experimental use. E. bieneusi was identified and genotyped by nested PCR analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene. A total of 59 (30.6%) specimens were PCR-positive for E. bieneusi and 16 ITS genotypes were identified including nine known genotypes: Type IV (n = 19), D (n = 11), CM1 (n = 8), PigEBITS7 (n = 4), Pongo2 (n = 4), Peru8 (n = 3), Peru11 (n = 1), WL21 (n = 1) and CM2 (n = 1) and seven novel genotypes HNM-I to HNM-VII (one each). Importantly, genotypes D, Type IV, Peru8, PigEBITS7, and Peru11, which were the predominant (38/59, 64.4%) genotypes identified among captive M. fascicularis in this study, are also well-known human-pathogenic genotypes. All the genotypes of E. bieneusi identified here, including the seven novel ones, belonged to zoonotic Group 1. This is the first report of the identification of E. bieneusi in M. fascicularis in Hainan Province, China. The finding that the numerous known human-pathogenic types and seven novel genotypes of E. bieneusi all belong to zoonotic Group 1 indicates the possibility of transmission of this important pathogenic parasite between M. fascicularis and humans.
  • The combination of Cytokines and albendazole therapy for prophylaxis and
           treatment of experimental ./hydatid cyst
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): M. Rahdar, A. Rafiei, R. Valipour- NourooziAbstractAlbendazole is appropriate chemotherapy for treatment and prophylaxis of cystic echinococcosis (CE). The recent studies show Cytokine therapy could be useful for chronic and progressive diseases, therefore, the use of cytokine in prophylaxis and treatment of hydatidosis could be considerable. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of interleukin-12 + interferon-gamma, in combination with albendazole for prophylaxis and treatment of CE in Balb/c mice. Albendazole and cytokines were administrated for prophylaxis and treatment in CE. The efficacy of this agents were determined by measuring of size, weight, number of cysts, histology and lymphocyte response. Lymphocyte stimulation index and production of interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma were measured by MTT assay and ELISA respectively. Combination of albendazole and cytokines was very effective for prophylaxis and treatment in experimental CE.
  • Gender beyond male and female: Occurrence of a gynandromorph in the
           Japanese encephalitis vector Culex sitiens (Diptera: Culicidae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Van Lun Low, Meng Li Wong, Jonathan Wee Kent Liew, Sandthya Pramasivan, Nantha Kumar Jeyaprakasam, Indra VythilingamA gynandromorph of Culex sitiens Wiedemann (Diptera: Culicidae) was attracted to a human during a mosquito surveillance programme conducted in Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia on July 20, 2019. Gynandromorphism was observed in antennae, maxillary palps, legs and wings of the specimen, with distinct male characters on the left and female characters on the right, though the left maxillary palp is slightly shorter than the proboscis of a typical male. The abdomen, however, displays well-developed male genitalia. This study represents the first report of oblique gynandromorphism in Cx. sitiens, one of the vectors of Japanese encephalitis in Asia.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Intestinal microbiome profiles in Oncomelania hupensis in
           mainland China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Yuwan Hao, Wei Guan, Haonan Wu, Lanhua Li, Eniola Michael Abe, Jingbo Xue, Zhiqiang Qin, Qiang Wang, Shan Lv, Jing Xu, Wei Wang, Shizhu LiAbstractOncomelania hupensis plays a significant role in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonica, which remains a major public health concern in China. Understanding the biological characteristics of O. hupensis is a prerequisite for its control; however, there are currently no studies investigating the intestinal microbiota of the O. hupensis snail. This study aimed to profile the intestinal microbiome of O. hupensis across different ecological landscapes in mainland China. DNA was extracted from the intestines of the collected snails and the bacterial communities were detected using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 3,799 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained, and Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were identified as the dominant bacterial taxa at the phylum level. Bacillus and Lactococcus were the most common genera in samples obtained from the four ecological landscapes. Snail specimens were clustered into three clades according to microbial community diversity, and thirty-seven genera that contributed to differential microbiota distributions were identified. Co-occurrence network analysis indicated a symbiotic relationship for the intestinal microbiota of O. hupensis, and PICRUSt analysis predicted forty-one metabolic functions in all snail samples, including membrane transport, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, replication and repair, energy metabolism, as well as xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism. These findings improve our understanding of bacterial ecology in the O. hupensis intestine; further studies will focus on the relationship between O. hupensis intestinal microbiota and the microbiota in their specific ecological environments.
  • Development of a Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Juan Jose Lauthier, Paula Ruybal, Paola Andrea Barroso, Yoshihisa Hashiguchi, Jorge Diego Marco, Masataka KorenagaAbstractSince the description of the Leishmania genus, its identification and organization have been a challenge. A high number of molecular markers have been developed to resolve phylogenetic differences at the species level and for addressing key epidemiological and population genetics questions. Based on Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes have been developed using different gene candidates. From 38 original gene targets proposed by other authors, 27 of them were chosen. In silico selection was made by analyzing free access genomic sequence data of 33 Leishmania species, one Paraleishmania representative, and one outgroup, in order to select the best 15 loci. De novo amplifications and primers redesign of these 15 genes were analyzed over a panel of 20 reference strains and isolates. Phylogenetic analysis was made at every step. Two MLST schemes were selected. The first one was based on the analysis of three-gene fragments, and it is suitable for species assignment as well as basic phylogenetic studies. By the addition of seven-genes, an approach based on the analysis of ten-gene fragments was also proposed. This is the first work that two optimized MLST schemes have been proposed, validated against a phylogenetically diverse panel of Leishmania isolates. MLST is potentially a powerful phylogenetic approach, and most probably the new gold standard for Leishmania spp. characterization.
  • Pulmonary cryptococcosis: report of the first confirmed autochthonous case
           in Nepal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Ranjit Sah, Anand Jaiswal, Sonam Singla, Ashish Kumar Prakash, Sandeep Kumar Mittal, Ankit Aggarwal, Shubhank Singh, Samikshya Neupane, Sanjit Sah, Ranjana Sah, Andreas NeumayrAbstractWe report a case of cryptococcal pneumonia in a 53 years old female Nepali patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus type 2 who empirically received multiple broad-spectrum antibiotics and standard anti-tubercular treatment as well as glucocorticosteroids for suspected sarcoidosis before the diagnosis was finally established. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed autochthonous case of cryptococcosis reported from Nepal.
  • Trans-stadial fate of the gut bacterial microbiota in Anopheles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Yadira Galeano-Castañeda, Priscila Bacuñán, David Serre, Margarita M. CorreaGut microbiota communities in mosquitoes are influenced among others, by developmental stage. There is evidence that the aquatic environment where larvae feed influences the mosquito gut bacterial community composition with only a subgroup of these bacteria been transmitted trans-stadially to adults. This study evaluated the gut bacterial composition of Anopheles albimanus larvae, emerged and circulating mosquitoes, as well as water from the larval habitat, to elucidate transitions in these bacterial communities and determine the final composition in circulating mosquitoes. A 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing allowed to determine that Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in larvae (72.4%), emerged mosquitoes (75%), circulating adults (45.4%) and water from the larval habitat (79.1%). A core microbiome analysis evidenced that Enterobacter, Bacillus and Staphylococcus genera were the core bacterial microbiota (OTUs detected in>90%) in the four groups evaluated. PCoA cluster based on Jaccard and Bray Curtis distances showed two main bacterial clusters, one comprising the emerged and circulating adults, and the other the larvae. The results indicated that the gut microbiota of An. albimanus larvae is composed of bacteria acquired from the larval habitat; then, a rearrangement of the bacterial communities occurs in the trans-stadial passage. However, the higher bacterial richness detected in circulating adults suggests bacterial acquisition from the terrestrial environment where the mosquito feeds. Finally, the trans-stadially passage of some bacteria makes of interest their evaluation as candidates for paratransgenic control.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • A hyperendemic focus of porcine cystic echinococcosis in the Banke
           District of Nepal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Meritxell Donadeu, Charles G. Gauci, Ishab Poudel, Keshav Sah, Dinesh Kumar Singh, Abdul Jabbar, Marshall W. LightowlersAbstractDetailed post mortem analyses of 68 free-ranging, slaughter-age pigs from two sites in the Banke District of Nepal identified 36% as being infected with Echinococcus granulosus. The cysts ranged from infertile, immature cysts a few millimetres in diameter to fertile cysts>10 centimetres in diameter. PCR RFLP and DNA sequencing identified the cysts as being E. granulosus sensu stricto. The Banke district has recently been identified as having a high prevalence of porcine cysticercosis. These data suggest that cestode zoonoses in this, and possibly other parts of Nepal may be a serious concern for human health. An assessment of the level of human cystic echinococcosis and neurocysticercosis, in the region is warranted and the introduction of control measures are required to limit the parasites’ transmission.
  • Serological tests reveal significant cross-reactive human antibody
           responses to Zika and Dengue viruses in the Mexican population
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Mussaret Bano Zaidi, Leticia Cedillo-Barron, María Elena González y Almeida, Julio Garcia-Cordero, Freddy D. Campos, Karime Namorado-Tonix, Freddy PerezAbstractZika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the Americas. Given its association with severe congenital defects including microcephaly, distinguishing infections caused by ZIKV from those caused by dengue virus (DENV) is of primordial importance. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the recombinant proteins rEIII-ZIKV (Envelope protein domain III) and rNS1ß-leader-ZIKV (non-structural protein 1) for the serological diagnosis of ZIKV in the Mexican population. We also evaluated potential cross-reactivity in commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) based on the ZIKV NS1 and DENV NS1 proteins. rEIII-ZIKV and rNS1ß-leader-ZIKV proteins were tested with sera from 30 PCR-confirmed ZIKV cases, 50 ZIKV-naïve, DENV-exposed subjects with no acute febrile disease, (asymptomatic subjects, AS), and 50 ZIKV-naive and DENV naïve AS. Commercial ELISA tests were evaluated with sera from 57 ZIKV and 20 DENV PCR-confirmed cases, and 50 ZIKV-naïve, DENV-exposed AS. In-house ELISA assays showed that IgM antibody levels against rEIII-ZIKV and rNS1ß-ZIKV were higher in ZIKV naïve, DENV-exposed AS than in acutely infected ZIKV individuals. IgG reactivity was highest for rEIII-ZIKV, and indistinguishable between acutely infected ZIKV cases and DENV exposed AS. Positivity for the Euroimmun Zika IgM assay at 7-10 days was considerably higher in DENV-naïve ZIKV patients (86%) than in DENV-exposed ZIKV patients (33%), while 39% of the latter had false-negative anti-ZIKV IgG before 7 days of onset. DENV-exposed ZIKV patients presented lower anti-ZIKV IgM and higher IgG responses similar to a secondary dengue response. Forty-four percent of DENV- exposed acute ZIKV patients were DENV IgM positive with the Panbio Dengue assay, and two (15%) of the DENV-naïve ZIKV patients presented false DENV IgG conversion. Given the extensive cross-reactivity to both the NS1 and EDIII proteins in current serological methods, the development of sensitive and specific serological tests to distinguish ZIKV from DENV infections is an urgent priority.
  • The rise or fall of Neglected Tropical Diseases in East Asia Pacific
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Peter J HotezAbstractWhile the East Asia Pacific (EAP) region has experienced tremendous economic growth and development, the resulting public health gains from reductions in its neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have been less than expected due to opposing forces of urbanization, political instability, food insecurity, and climate change, together with co-morbidities with non-communicable diseases, including diabetes and hypertension. To be sure there's been progress towards the elimination of lymphatic filariasis and trachoma through mass drug administration, and there are opportunities to extend MDA to yaws and scabies, but for most of the other NTDs we'll require new biotechnologies. So far, EAP's major technology hubs in China, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan have mostly failed to shift their attention towards new innovations for the NTDs, including new drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines, and vector control. Unless this situation changes the EAP could be facing a new grim reality of unhealthy megacities beset by emerging arbovirus infections, widespread antimicrobial resistance, and urban helminth infections.
  • Molecular eco-epidemiology on the sympatric Chagas disease vectors
           Triatoma brasiliensis and Triatoma petrocchiae: ecotopes, genetic
           variation, natural infection prevalence by trypanosomatids and parasite
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Tarcianne M Lima-Oliveira, Fernanda von Hertwig M Fontes, Maurício Lilioso, Dayane Pires-Silva, Marta Maria Geraldes Teixeira, Jose Gabriel Vergara Meza, Myriam Harry, Jonathan Fileé, Jane Costa, Carolina Valença-Barbosa, Elaine Folly-Ramos, Carlos Eduardo AlmeidaAbstractTriatoma petrocchiae is the newly member of the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex. This species overlaps with T. brasiliensis in geographic and ecotypic occupation in the sylvatic habitat because both inhabit rocky outcrops in the semi-arid portion of Brazilian northeast. In this region T. brasiliensis is the most important Chagas disease vector because it constantly colonizes domiciles. In contrast, T. petrocchiae is rarely found in peri or intradomiciliary habitats – reason why little is known about this species. Therefore, Here, we present information for the first time on. the T. petrocchiae ecotopes, genetic diversity, Trypanosoma cruzi prevalence/genotyping in comparison to T. brasiliensis. We found T. brasilensis (N=223) and T. petrocchiae (N=69) in co-habitation in rocky outcrops in three Districts of Paraíba and Rio Grande do Norte states. Forty-tree T. petrocchiae insects of eleven sampling spots (composing three geographic populations) were genotyped for the mitochondrial Cyt B gene and little geographic structure was observed. Tajima´s D test suggested that species is evolving toward a mutation-drift equilibrium in our collection range. Sylvatic T. petrocchiae had 4% (3/68) of infected insects by T. cruzi, whereas T. brasiliensis had 26% (59/223). Fluorescent Fragment Length Barcoding demonstrated that all three T. petrocchiae harbored TcI whereas T. brasiliensis had TcI, but also TcIII, TcII/TcVI and T. rangeli genotype A, sometimes under mixed infections. None of infected T. petrocchiae were carrying mixed infections. However, this result should be confirmed using a larger pool of infected bugs. We here presented the first documentation of T. rangeli infecting T. brasiliensis. The finding of infected T. petrocchiae calls for constant vector monitoring because the epidemiologic scenario is dynamic and sylvatic vectors are progressively found in adaptation to anthropic environments.
  • Preliminary evaluation of the diagnostic potential of Schistosoma
           japonicum extracellular vesicle proteins for schistosomiasis japonica
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Yongjun Chen, Bikash Ranjan Giri, Xue Li, Xiaobing He, Zhizhong Jing, Guofeng ChengAbstractSchistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the genus Schistosoma and poses a great threat to human and animal health. Identification of effective biomarkers would facilitate evaluation of drug efficacy and recognition of infected hosts, which are crucial for effective schistosomiasis control. Extracellular vesicle (EV) proteins are considered ideal biomarkers for developing invasive diagnostic tools. In this study, we evaluated the potential of Schistosoma japonicum EV (SjEV) proteins as biomarkers for diagnosing schistosomiasis. Several SjEV proteins were subject to epitope prediction using DNASTAR software, and the diagnostic potential of selected peptides was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicated that the sera showed detectable antibody levels against the two antigens in mice, rabbits, and humans infected with S. japonicum. Further analysis of the combined epitope protein demonstrated a modest sensitivity for detection of schistosomiasis japonica. Our preliminary study suggests that S. japonicum EV proteins could serve as potential biomarkers for developing diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis.
  • Rabies knowledge and practices among human and veterinary health workers
           in Chad
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Jean Mbaipago, Rolande Mindekem, Assandi Oussiguere, Ronelngar Moyengar, Kemdongarti Naïssengar, Séraphin Madjadinan, Jakob Zinsstag, Monique LéchenneAbstractTo prevent human rabies deaths close communication between the veterinary and human health sector is needed for timely and adequate treatment after a bite exposure. Good practice treatment and efficient One Health communication depends heavily on the knowledge and practices (KP) of both human health and veterinary workers. We have evaluated the level of KP of both these sectors during a one-day joint training program to kick start a large scale rabies burden and vaccine demand study in selected regions of Chad. Participants were evaluated through a questionnaire before and after training to get insight into the basic knowledge of rabies and the improvement of this knowledge after the training session.In addition to 20 questions on rabies derived from the educational platform of the Global Alliance for Rabies Control, the questionnaires included a pre-training knowledge self-evaluation and a post-training evaluation of the course. Overall 247 workshop participants with varied level of educational background responded to at least one questionnaire. Around 75% of respondents were from the human health sector and 20% from the veterinary sector.Knowledge level did not differ significantly between the two sectors nor between rural or urban working backgrounds. Respondents with a university degree scored significantly higher in pre-and post-training questionnaire compared to respondents with high school level degree or lower. Knowledge was also dependent on study region and sex of the respondent. In general, the importance of a One Health approaches, such as vaccination of dogs to prevent human rabies, is well understood in both sectors. Regarding treatment, many participants did not know the adequate number of doses required for a full course of PEP, but through the training, this knowledge improved. Detailed knowledge of atypical transmission routes and pathophysiology (neurotropism of the virus) was generally lacking and did not significantly improve through the training.The study revealed considerable deficiencies and challenges in the knowledge level of both veterinary and human health workers in Chad. Rabies control programs need to anticipate these challenges to implementation and provide sufficient time and funds for training workshops and follow-up.
  • Leptospirosis: Increasing importance in developing countries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Zoey May Pheng Soo, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Ruqaiyyah SiddiquiLeptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the pathogenic helical spirochetes, Leptospira. Symptoms include sudden-onset fever, severe headaches, muscle pain, nausea and chills. Leptospirosis is endemic in developing countries such as Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka, and Brazil where thousands of cases are reported annually. The disease risk factors include the high population of reservoirs, environmental factors, recreational factors, and occupational factors. To end the endemicity of leptospirosis, these factors need to be tackled. The management of leptospirosis needs to be refined. Early diagnosis remains a challenge due to a lack of clinical suspicion among physicians, its non-specific symptoms and a limited availability of rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests. The purpose of this review is to provide insight into the status of leptospirosis in developing countries focusing on the risk factors and to propose methods for the improved management of the disease.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • Towards the optimization of botanical insecticides research: Aedes aegypti
           larvicidal natural products in French Guiana
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Michaël Falkowski, Arnaud Jahn-Oyac, Guillaume Odonne, Claudiane Flora, Yannick Estevez, Seindé Touré, Isabelle Boulogne, Jean-Charles Robinson, Didier Béreau, Philippe Petit, Didier Azam, Maïra Coke, Jean Issaly, Pascal Gaborit, Didier Stien, Véronique Eparvier, Isabelle Dusfour, Emeline HouëlNatural products have proven to be an immeasurable source of bioactive compounds. The exceptional biodiversity encountered in Amazonia, alongside a rich entomofauna and frequent interactions with various herbivores is the crucible of a promising chemodiversity. This prompted us to search for novel botanical insecticides in French Guiana. As this French overseas department faces severe issues linked to insects, notably the strong incidence of vector-borne infectious diseases, we decided to focus our research on products able to control the mosquito Aedes aegypti. We tested 452 extracts obtained from 85 species originating from 36 botanical families and collected in contrasted environments against an Aedes aegypti laboratory strain susceptible to all insecticides, and a natural population resistant to both pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides collected in Cayenne for the most active of them. 8 species (Maytenus oblongata Reissek, Celastraceae; Costus erythrothyrsus Loes., Costaceae; Humiria balsamifera Aubl., Humiriaceae; Sextonia rubra (Mez) van der Werff, Lauraceae; Piper hispidum Sw., Piperaceae; Laetia procera (Poepp.) Eichl., Salicaceae; Matayba arborescens (Aubl.) Radlk., Sapindaceae; and Cupania scrobitulata Rich., Sapindaceae) led to extracts exhibiting more than 50% larval mortality after 48h of exposition at 100 µg/mL against the natural population and were considered active. Selectivity and phytochemistry of these extracts were therefore investigated and discussed, and some active compounds highlighted. Multivariate analysis highlighted that solvents, plant tissues, plant family and location had a significant effect on mortality while light, available resources and vegetation type did not. Through this case study we highlighted that plant defensive chemistry mechanisms are crucial while searching for novel insecticidal products.Graphical abstractFrench Guiana biodiversity was explored for the search of novel larvicidal products against both insecticide-susceptible and -resistant Aedes aegypti populations. Image, graphical abstract
  • Expression of Concern
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Felipe Guhl
  • In vitro activity of usnic acid potassium salt against different
           developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni: An ultrastructural study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Hallysson D.A. Araújo, Victor H.B. Santos, Fábio A. Brayner, Luiz C. Alves, Nicácio H. Silva, Mônica C.P.A. Albuquerque, André L. Aires, Vera L.M. LimaCurrently, the control of schistosomiasis is based on a single drug, praziquantel, which is effective against all species of Schistosoma but only in the adult stage, presenting a schistosomicidal deficit at the other developmental stages of the parasites. Recently our research grouphas demonstrated that the potassium salt of usnic acid (PS-UA) presented schistosomicidal property against couples of adult worms of S. mansoni (Araújo et al., 2019a). Thus, the present study seeks to report for the first time the in vitro activity of PS-UA against different developmental stages of S. mansoni (schistosomules and young worms). As schistosomicide parameters, we evaluated motility, mortality, cell viability of the worms and tegument changes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After 3 h exposure, PS-UA was lethal to schistosomules at concentrations of 100 and 50 μM, whereas for concentrations 25 and 12.5 μM, 38 and 18% of mortality and 62 and 24% changes in motility, respectively, were reached. Yet for schistosomules, concentration of 25 μM caused 90 and 100% of death after 6 and 12 h, respectively. In the concentration of 12.5 μM at intervals of 12 e 24 h mortality was 68 and 100%, respectively. For young worms, after 3 h of exposure at concentrations of 200 and 100 μM caused 57 and 27% mortality, respectively. After 12 and 24 h, these concentrations caused mortality of 90 and 100% and 47 and 60% respectively. After 24 h, concentrations of 50 and 25 μM caused 80 and 30% change in motility, respectively. However, at the 12.5 μM concentration no change was observed. In addition, PS-UA reduced the cellular viability of young worms by 50.98% and 85.87% at concentrations of 100 and 200 μM, respectively. In both stages of worms and at different exposure intervals, PS-UA caused alterations such as; dorsoventral contraction, peeling, swelling, blisters, erosion, exposure of subtegumental tissue and disintegration of tegument. According to the results, changes in motility and mortality caused by PS-UA against schistosomules and young worms were concentration and time-dependents and that PS-UA, even at low concentration, able to cause profound ultrastructural changes in the integument of the worms. PS-UA it's a promising candidate as prophylactic agent in the control of schistosomiasis mansoni.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
  • A case of group infections with Paraginimus species in Henan,
           Central China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Wei-qi Chen, Yan Deng, Ya-lan Zhang, Lin Ai, Jia-xu Chen, Xi-meng Lin, Xiao-bo Du, Peng Li, Rui-min Zhou, Cheng-yun Yang, Ying Liu, Hong-wei Zhang, Bian-li Xu, Yu-ling ZhaoABSTRACTIn July of 2012, mass infections with Paragonimus species were detected in the Henan province sickening 11 of 51 people. In May 2011, these individuals had participated in an excursion during which freshwater crabs were caught and served after being toasted. Before the group infections with Paraginimus species was confirmed, 5 of the 11 patients had been misdiagnosed as tuberculosis (TB) and treated with an anti-TB drug regimen for six months. The most common and typical manifestations were eosinophilia (11/11, 100%) and pulmonary manifestations including, among others, stethalgia and cough (7/11 63.6%). Sero-examination revealed that all 11 patients were seropositive for Paragonimus species. Surprisingly, in our case, one patient presented with hemoptysis and eggs in respiratory secretions, and this is the first time P. skrjabini eggs are detected in the sputum of a patient from the Henan province. Paragonimus metacercariae were collected from 6 of 11 (54.5%) crabs caught at the infection site and were identified as Paraginiumus skrjabini by morphological and molecular examinations. Epidemiological and laboratory evidence confirmed that this is a case of group infection with P. skrjabini.As one of the most neglected tropical diseases (NTD), paragonimiasis should be differentiated diagnosed from TB to avoid the delay of treatment. To our knowledge, this is the second report of a case of group infections with Paraginimus species in Henan, Central China. The first case was reported in 1995. As a kind of food-borne parasitic disease, paragonimiasis should be included in the public health education agenda.
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Heriot-Watt University
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