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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3161 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3161 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 97, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 418, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 266, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 405, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 351, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 465, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Acta Tropica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.052
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0001-706X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • The use of ErpY-like recombinant protein from Leptospira interrogans in
           the development of an immunodiagnostic test for swine leptospirosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Bárbara Couto Roloff Padilha, Henrique Queiroz Simão, Thaís Larré Oliveira, Daiane Drawanz Hartwig Swine leptospirosis poses a major problem in the agricultural sector. The gold standard for serodiagnosis of leptospirosis is Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). However, the limitations of this technique make the search for alternative diagnostic methods inevitable. In the present study, ErpY-like recombinant protein (rErpY-like), produced in Escherichia coli and used as antigen in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was evaluated for its efficacy as a novel diagnostic tool for swine leptospirosis. For the study, 72 samples of swine sera characterized by microscopic agglutination test (MAT), were evaluated by indirect ELISA. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values obtained from the analysis were 96.8%, 100%, and 99%, respectively, thereby suggesting that rErpY-like ELISA being a sensitive and specific method for antibodies detection in swine populations could be used as an alternative for diagnosis of swine leptospirosis.
  • Evolutionary and Biogeographic History of the Black Fly Simulium wayani
           (Diptera: Simuliidae) on the Island of Timor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Peter H. Adler, Hiroyuki Takaoka, Mohd Sofian-Azirun, Chee Dhang Chen, I. Wayan Suana A recently described species of black fly, Simulium wayani Takaoka and Chen, from the island of Timor was chromosomally mapped to provide insights into its evolutionary and biogeographic history. The morphologically based species status of S. wayani is supported by a suite of fixed chromosomal rearrangements and unique sex chromosomes derived primarily from a large pool of polymorphisms in the S. ornatipes complex in Australia. The banding patterns of its polytene chromosomes indicate that S. wayani is closely related to a pair of homosequential cryptic species (S. norfolkense Dumbleton and S. ornatipes cytoform A2) in the S. ornatipes Skuse complex on mainland Australia; all three species uniquely share the same amplified band in their chromosomal complement. The low level of polymorphism and heterozygosity in S. wayani, relative to Australian populations of the S. ornatipes complex, suggests few colonization events from the larger land mass.
  • Detection of mixed Leishmania infections in dogs from an endemic area in
           southeastern Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Natália Alves Souza Carvalhais, Rodrigo de Souza Leite, Soraia de Oliveira Silva, Michele Groenner Penna, Liza Figueiredo Felicori Vilela, Maria Norma Melo, Antero Silva Ribeiro de Andrade In Brazil, the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by Leishmania infantum, while the tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) etiological agents are mainly Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania amazonensis. The canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis is an important step of the VL control program in Brazil, which involves the elimination of infected dogs, the main urban VL reservoirs. The current serology-based diagnostic tests have shown cross-reactivity between these three species, whereas molecular diagnosis allows high sensitivity and specie identification. In the present study, 349 dogs of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais state) were screened by conjunctival swab and the samples analyzed by ITS-1 nested PCR. Thirty dogs (8.5%) tested positive. The RFLP of amplicons using HaeIII demonstrated that 17/30 samples presented a banding pattern compatible with L. infantum, 4/30 matched with L. amazonenis, 1/30 with L. braziliensis and 8/30 showed a mixed infection pattern. The samples that were distinct of L. infantum or presented a mixed pattern were submitted to RFPL with the RsaI enzyme that confirms the mixed pattern. Such patterns were also confirmed by Sanger Sequencing. The results pointed eight dogs with mixed infections and the establishment of TL causing species in the Belo Horizonte dog population. These findings highlight the need for more comprehensive epidemiological studies, since the TL transmission profile might be changing. This study also shows the potential of the ITS1-nPCR associated with RFLP for the proper Leishmania diagnosis and typing in the dog population.
  • First report of family clusters of Chagas disease seropositive blood
           donors in Mexico City and their epidemiological relevance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Espinoza Bertha, Martínez Ignacio, Schabib-Hany Muslim BackgroundChagas disease is an important health problem in Latin America. Relatives of T. cruzi seropositive donors could also test positive in serological assays. Therefore, the study of Chagas diseases in family clusters has become important to accurately evaluate the problem that this infectious disease represents.Objectiveto investigate family cluster from blood donors, their serological, clinical and epidemiological status.Methods53 family clusters consisting of index case and a variable number of relatives were studied. All the participants had ELISA and Western blot assays, as well as, clinical tests including an electrocardiogram and chest x ray.ResultsWe found that 24.52% of the family clusters had at least one T. cruzi seropositive family member, in addition to the blood donor. Importantly, 20.75% of the index cases and 5.0% of the relatives presented pathological manifestations associated to Chagas disease. Several epidemiological conditions are associated to being T. cruzi seropositive.Conclusionblood donor’s family clusters have several seropositive to T. cruzi members. Mother-child pairs were also seropositive, suggesting vertical transmition. Pathological symptom associated to Chagas Diseases were present in index cases and family member. These results highlight the importance of studying family clusters to clarify the true magnitude of Chagas disease in Mexico.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Mara Urdapilleta, Pedro Marcos Linardi, Marcela Lareschi Fleas from the Paranaense Forest in northeastern Argentina are studied. Herein we provided a list of specimens identified, which includes host species and geographical distribution for each taxa, as well as some comments on the morphology, distribution and epidemiological importance when available. The following eight species and subspecies of fleas belonging to four families were identified: Ctenocephalides felis felis (Pulicidae), Craneopsylla minerva minerva (Stephanocircidae), Polygenis (Polygenis) platensis, Polygenis (Polygenis) roberti beebei, Polygenis (Neopolygenis) pradoi, Polygenis (Neopolygenis) pygaerus (Rhopalopsyllidae), Adoratopsylla (Adoratopsylla) antiquorum antiquorum, and Adoratopsylla (Tritopsylla) intermedia intermedia (Ctenophthalmidae). The results obtained increase to eleven the known diversity of fleas in the Argentinean Paranaense Forest area. Seven new flea-host associations are reported for the first time. In addition, all the species and subspecies are mentioned for the first time for the province of Misiones. Besides, the results contribute to the knowledge of mammal ectoparasites and to their biodiversity of the Province, necessary to a better understanding of their role as parasites themselves and vectors of zoonotic importance.
  • Morphological Study of the urotergite I process in Ten Species of the
           Genus Triatoma (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Lisardo Osório-Quintero, Walter Ceretti, Daniel Pagotto Vendrami, João Aristeu da Rosa, Jader de Oliveira, Marcos Takashi Obara, José Maria Soares Barata The insects of subfamily Triatominae exhibit many morphological features used for taxonomic identification. In some species, however, these features are very similar. The authors have proposed by first time the description of the structure referred as urotergite I process. The objective of the study was analyse the use of urotergite I process in the species of the genus Triatoma as a taxonomic feature that may contribute to the more precise and correct identification of these Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 vectors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to describe the structure of urotergite I process in ten Triatoma (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) species: Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911; Triatoma circummaculata Stål, 1859; Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834); Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848); Triatoma pseudomaculata Corrêa & Espínola, 1964; Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843); Triatoma sordida (Stål, 1859); Triatoma tibiamaculata (Pinto, 1926); Triatoma vitticeps (Stål, 1859) and Triatoma wygodzinskyi Lent, 1951. The morphological description of the urotergite I process reflects the taxonomic value of the structure for separating and identifying species of ten specimens of the genus Triatoma. The morphological pattern of the urotergite I process on these ten species was compared, and interspecific variability was observed. We suggest the use of the urotergite I process as a complementary character to identify insects of the subfamily Triatominae. In the future, the use of the urotergite I process in dichotomic keys to identify triatomines may contribute to the improvement of the entomological surveillance of Chagas' disease.
  • Parasites of Gymnodactylus darwinii Gray, 1845 (Squamata,
           Phyllodactylidae) from an Atlantic Rainforest fragment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Leonardo Pessoa Cabus Oitaven, Felipe da Silva Ribeiro, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa de Moura, Jaqueline Bianque de Oliveira Gymnodactylus darwinii is an endemic lizard from Atlantic Rainforest. Ecological aspects of your parasitic fauna are still unknown. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to know the composition of parasitic fauna of G. darwinii in an Atlantic Rainforest fragment, as well to test the influence of the size, sex and seasonality on parasitological indices. The study was carried out in two conservation units: Mata do Camucim and Mata do Tapacurá, both located in the municipality of São Lourenço da Mata, Pernambuco state, northeast region of Brazil. Sixty-five specimens were collected, of which 39 (56,9%) were parasitized by cystacanths of Acanthocephala (prevalence 43%; mean intensity 4 ± 9.9; mean abundance 3.82 ± 7.87), Geckobia sp. (Acari, Pterygosomatidae) (prevalence 30.7%; mean intensity 4 ± 15.0; mean abundance 3.74 ± 9.54), Physaloptera sp. larvae (Nematoda, Physalopteridae) (prevalence 4.6%; mean intensity 1 ± 0.47; mean abundance 0.06 ± 0.47) and Paradistomum rabusculum (Trematoda, Dicrocoeliidae) (prevalence 1.2%; mean intensity 1; mean abundance 0.02). Acanthocephalans presented a significant relation with the animal length (r² = 0.31, p = 0.006, n = 28). Infestation by Geckobia sp. was more frequent during the dry season (BLM: p = 0.001), while the infection by Acanthocephalans was frequent in dry and rainy seasons, with no significant variation (BLM: p = 0.78). In addition, the most prevalent parasites showed no significant difference in relation to sex: males and females showed similar infestation intensity by Geckobia sp. (BLM: p = 0.31) and infection by Acanthocephala (BLM: p = 0.34). This is the first study about the parasitic ecology of G. darwinii, representing a significant contribution to the conservation of this species and the ecosystem in which they inhabit.
  • Diagnostic performance of CellaVision DM96 for Plasmodium vivax and
           Plasmodium falciparum screening in peripheral blood smears
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Jung Yoon, Jung Ah Kwon, Soo Young Yoon, Woong Sik Jang, Dong June Yang, Jeonghun Nam, Chae Seung Lim Microscopic examination of blood smears is the standard method for malaria diagnosis but is labor-intensive and requires expert staff. CellaVision DM96 (CellaVision, Lund, Sweden) is a digital hematology analyzer available for advanced morphological analysis of blood films including intracellular parasites. Here, we evaluated the CellaVision DM96 Advanced RBC Application for malaria detection in stained peripheral blood (PB) smears.Two hundred and twenty thin PB smear slides (84 P. vivax, 14 P. falciparum, 122 negative controls) were stained with Wright-Giemsa using automated slidemaker/strainers of Beckman Coulter hematology systems (LH780, Beckman Coulter Inc., Miami, FL). The slides were automatically analyzed by CellaVision, and images were manually reviewed by experts. The results of automatic and manual detection by CellaVision were compared to those of microscopic examination.The sensitivity and specificity of automatic detection by CellaVision were 23.5% (23/98) and 81.1% (99/122), respectively. When CellaVision images were manually reviewed, the sensitivity and specificity increased to 65.3% (64/98) and 90.2% (110/122), respectively. The detection of P. falciparum showed the highest sensitivity by both the automated (33.3%) and the manual (85.7%) method. CellaVision misinterpreted malaria parasites as Howell-Jolly bodies in 57.1%, as Pappenheimer bodies in 84.7%, and as basophilic stipplings in 75.5% of the slides.Malaria diagnosis using CellaVision DM96 requires further improvements. Manual review improves CellaVision performance, but confirmation by conventional microscopy remains essential.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this articleScreenshots of the CellaVision Advanced RBC Application. Image of scanned red blood cells from peripheral blood smear slide by CellaVision and its preclassification results (A). CellaVision image with visible image area of 1.17 high-power field (HPF) and 0.05 HPF, the maximal magnification (box), from a P. vivax-positive slide (B), P. falciparum-positive slide (C), and negative control slide with suspected platelet on the red blood cell resembling a malaria parasite (D).
  • Insecticide resistance in Aedes albopictus Skuse from sub-Himalayan
           districts of West Bengal, India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Minu Bharati, Priyanka Rai, Dhiraj Saha Dengue is one of the most rapidly spreading infectious diseases prevalent throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. In absence of specific medications and vaccines, the sole method of disease prevention relies on vector control mainly using insecticides. But with the advent of Insecticide resistance, worldwide vector control programs are facing failure. In this study, eleven different Ae. albopictus population from sub-Himalayan districts of West Bengal, India were investigated as per WHO protocols to find out the current status of insecticide susceptibility against DDT, permethrin and propoxur. Also the role of three insecticide detoxifying enzymes underlying observed resistance was investigated through quantitative and synergistic assays to unveil the mechanism of insecticide resistance. It was found that majority of studied populations were resistant to 4% DDT. Two populations, namely Alipurduar (APD) and Jalpaiguri (JPG) were severely resistant to 0.75% permethrin, whereas only JPG population was found to exhibit severe resistance against 0.1% propoxur. Moreover, the involvement of detoxifying enzymes was also noted in conferring resistance against DDT and Permethrin. This study indicates the inefficacy of DDT in controlling Ae. albopictus populations in the study region. This study may help in implementation of an efficient vector control and insecticide resistance management strategies.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Current insecticide resistance status in Anopheles sacharovi and Anopheles
           superpictus populations in former malaria endemic areas of Turkey
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Sare İlknur Yavaşoglu, Esra Örenlili Yaylagül, Muhammet Mustafa Akıner, Celal Ülger, Selim Sualp Çağlar, Fatih Mehmet ŞimşekGraphical abstractGraphical abstract for this articleBioassay analysis were implemented to test the mortality rates of An. sacharovi and An. superpictus populations. Biochemical analyses results indicated the detoxification enzymes might have a role in resistance.
  • Multilocus fragment analysis of Cryptosporidium parvum from
           pre-weaned calves in Colombia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Catalina Avendaño, Ana Ramo, Claudia Vergara-Castiblanco, Luis V. Monteagudo, Caridad Sánchez-Acedo, Joaquín Quílez The intra-species genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium parvum in dairy cattle farms in the central area of Colombia was investigated using a multilocus fragment typing approach with nine variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci and the gp60 gene. Genomic DNA of 70 C. parvum isolates from pre-weaned calves in 32 farms was analysed. Most markers showed two (ML1, MSB, CP47, and MSC6-7) or three alleles (5B12, Cgd2_3850, and Cgd6_5400), although they exhibited a major allele accounting for more than 69% of specimens, which explains their low discriminatory index. The TP14 microsatellite was monomorphic while a total of six alleles were found at the ML2 microsatellite. The two novel allelic variants (219bp, 245bp) exhibited by more than 36% of specimens at the latter locus were a remarkable finding. The 10-markers typing tool provided a Hunter-Gaston discriminatory value of 0.940 (95% CI, 0.918 – 0.961) and differentiated 22 multilocus subtypes (MLTs). Nevertheless, the combination of the three most informative markers (ML2, gp60, and Cgd2_3850) differentiated 68% of MLTs and hardly impaired the discriminatory index. The fact that many MLTs (13/22) were distinctive for individual farms provides evidence for the endemic nature of the infection and the major role played by transmission within farms. The eBURST algorithm suggested a low degree of genetic divergence. All but three MLTs were clustered in a clonal complex with a star-like topology typical of clonal expansion, however linkage analysis did not find evidence of linkage disequilibrium. Bayesian analysis also identified a genetic structure with K = 3 being the best estimation of ancestral clusters, although a large proportion of isolates (35%) could not be allocated to a single population, which indicates their mixed origin. The results confirm the genetic distinctiveness of C. parvum in cattle farms in this geographical area. This is the first multilocus analysis on the intra-specific variability of Cryptosporidium from calves in South America.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Anaplasmataceae, Borrelia and Hepatozoon agents in ticks (Acari:
           Argasidae, Ixodidae) from Chile
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Sebastián Muñoz-Leal, Marcos G. Lopes, Arlei Marcili, Thiago F. Martins, Daniel González-Acuña, Marcelo B. Labruna Microorganisms harbored by Chilean autochthonous ticks have been scarcely studied and current knowledge is restricted to three species of hard ticks only. The current study aimed to assess the presence of Anaplasmataceae, Borrelia and Hepatozoon agents in ticks collected directly from the environment, on reptiles, birds and mammals in twelve localities from northern, central and southern regions of the country and Antarctica. Ticks were identified by means of a morphological and molecular approach. PCR detections point the occurrence of an Anaplasma-like agent and a relapsing fever Borrelia sp. in Ornithodoros spheniscus; an Ehrlichia sp. and a Hepatozoon sp. in Ornithodoros atacamensis; “Candidatus Neoehrlichia chilensis”, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s. l.), and Hepatozoon in Ixodes ticks morphologically related to the Ixodes sigelos group; and B. burgdorferi s. l. in Ixodes auritulus. Supported by phylogenetic analyses of characterized microorganisms, this study introduces putative vector roles and initial evidence on possible new agents detected in Chilean ticks.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and psychiatric disorders
           in Zhejiang, Southeastern China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Xiaojian Chen, Bi Chen, Xiangqing Hou, Cunqing Zheng, Xunjun Yang, Jiangqiong Ke, Xin Hu, Feng Tan Increased rates of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii have been found in patients with psychiatric disorders globally, but there is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in psychiatric patients in Zhejiang Province, Southeastern China. In a case-control survey, we measured IgG and IgM class antibodies against T. gondii in 798 patients from a public psychiatric hospital in the city of Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, and in 681 non-psychiatric controls from the general population in the same region. Subjects in each group were matched by sex and age with an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies in psychiatric patients (13.3%, 106/798) was significantly higher than in the control population (9.4%, 64/681) (P =  0.022). Anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies were also significantly higher in the psychiatric patients (4.1%, 33/798) than in the control group (1.9%, 13/681) (P =  0.016). Additionally, we found significantly elevated seropositive rates of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM in patients with schizophrenia, as well as those with bipolar disorder. The identification of specific anti-Toxoplasma antibodies in psychiatric patients may be useful for assessing infection and timely initiation of treatment.
  • Plant extracts for developing mosquito larvicides: from laboratory to the
           field, with insights on the modes of action
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Roman Pavela, Filippo Maggi, Romilde Iannarelli, Giovanni Benelli In the last decades, major research efforts have been done to investigate the insecticidal activity of plant-based products against mosquitoes. This is a modern and timely challenge in parasitology, aimed to reduce the frequent overuse of synthetic pesticides boosting resistance development in mosquitoes and causing serious threats to human health and environment. This review covers the huge amount of literature available on plant extracts tested as mosquito larvicides, particularly aqueous and alcoholic ones, due to their easy formulation in water without using surfactants. We analysed results obtained on more than 400 plant species, outlining that 29 of them have outstanding larvicidal activity (i.e., LC50 values below 10 ppm) against major vectors belonging to the genera Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, among others. Furthermore, synergistic and antagonistic effects between plant extracts and conventional pesticides, as well as among selected plant extracts are discussed. The efficacy of pure compounds isolated from the most effective plant extracts and – when available – their mechanism of action, as well as their impact on non-target species, is also covered. These belong to the following class of secondary metabolites: alkaloids, alkamides, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, sterols, flavonoids, coumarins, anthraquinones, xanthones, acetogenonins and aliphatics. Their mode of action on larvae ranges from neurotoxic effects to inhibition of detoxificant enzymes and larval development and midugut damages. In the final section, current drawbacks as well as key challenges for future research, including technologies to synergize efficacy and improve stability - thus field performances - of the selected plant extracts, are outlined. Unfortunately, despite the huge amount of laboratory evidences about their efficacy, only a limited number of studies was aimed to validate their efficacy in the field, nor the epidemiological impact potentially arising from these vector control operations has been assessed. This strongly limits the development of commercial mosquito larvicides of botanical origin, at variance with plant-borne products developed in the latest decades to kill or repel other key arthropod species of medical and veterinary importance, as well as mosquito adults. Further research on these issues is urgently needed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Novel High Resolution Melting (HRM) and Snapback Assays for Simultaneous
           Detection and Differentiation of Plasmodium ovale spp.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Aline Lamien-Meda, Hans-Peter Fuehrer, Harald Noedl Plasmodium ovale spp. are two of the six species of apicomplexan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium commonly causing disease in humans. A recent phylogeny study has identified both Plasmodium ovale species (P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri) as two sympatric occurring species. The actual prevalence and clinical relevance of P. ovale spp. are likely underestimated due to low parasitemia and mixed infections, which pose a major challenge to microscopic diagnosis and are frequently undetectable using malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs).The aim of this work is to develop a HRM-based assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi. Thirty three well-documented P. ovale spp. samples from previous studies were used for this study. The newly developed High Resolution Melting (HRM) assay targeting the apicoplast genome was highly specific to both P. ovale species. Adding a snapback tail at the 5’ end of the forward primer for a nested HRM PCR, increased the melting temperature (Tm) difference between the two species.To our knowledge this study reports the first direct HRM assay developed on the apicoplast genome, specific for both P. ovale species. This method provides added value to the WHO open request of developing new practical malaria diagnostic methods for the malaria elimination program and could contribute to a quick and efficient diagnosis of low-level parasitemia, symptomatic or asymptomatic, as well as mixed or single P. ovale infections.
  • Geometric morphometrics approach towards discrimination of three member
           species of Maculatus group in Thailand
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Tanawat Chaiphongpachara, Patchara Sriwichai, Yudthana Samung, Jiraporn Ruangsittichai, Ronald Enrique Morales Vargas, Liwang Cui, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Jean-Pierre Dujardin, Suchada Sumruayphol Members of the Maculatus group are important malaria vectors in the border regions of Thailand. However, the role of each species in malaria transmission remains unclear because of their highly similar morphologies, making them difficult to be differentiated. Whereas An. pseudowillmori may be identified by the color pattern of some scales on abdomen and wings, the distinction between An. maculatus and An. sawadwongporni relies on the wings only. Scales are labile structures, as they may be accidentally removed during capture and transportation to the laboratory. To discriminate among the species of this complex, we tested the suitability of geometric techniques. Shape variables were used as input for discriminant analyses and validated reclassification. Both landmark- and outline-based geometric techniques disclosed significant differences between the three species. For the delicate An. maculatus - An. sawadwongporni distinction, the outline-based approach appeared as the most promising, with validated reclassification scores reaching 93%, as compared to 77% obtained by landmark data. For An. pseudowillmori, reclassification scores were 100% and 94%, respectively. Geometric morphometrics may provide an alternative and useful complement for discriminating members of the Maculatus group.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • The diverse echinostomes from East Africa: with a focus on species that
           use Biomphalaria and Bulinus as intermediate hosts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Martina R. Laidemitt, Sara V. Brant, Martin W. Mutuku, Gerald M. Mkoji, Eric S. Loker Echinostomes are a diverse group of digenetic trematodes that are globally distributed. The diversity of echinostomes in Africa remains largely unknown, particularly in analyses using molecular markers. Therefore, we were interested in the composition and host usage patterns of African echinostomes, especially those that also use schistosome transmitting snails as intermediate hosts. We collected adults and larval stages of echinostomes from 19 different localities in East Africa (1 locality in Uganda and 18 in Kenya). In this study we provide locality information, host use, museum vouchers, and genetic data for two loci (28S and nad1) from 98 samples of echinostomes from East Africa. Combining morphological features, host use information, and phylogenetic analyses we found 17 clades of echinostomes in East Africa. Four clades were found to use more than one genus of freshwater snails as their first intermediate hosts. We also determined at least partial life cycles (2 of the 3) of four clades using molecular markers. Of the 17 clades, 13 use Biomphalaria or Bulinus as a first intermediate host. The overlap in host usage creates opportunities for competition, including against human schistosomes. Thus, our study can be used as a foundation for future studies to ascertain the interactions between schistosomes and echinostomes in their respective intermediate hosts.
  • The increasead of neglected cutaneous leishmaniasis in Gaziantep province
           of Turkey after mass human migration
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Fadime Eroglu, Orhan Ozgoztasi Outbreaks of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) due to war-related factors have been reported in different areas in Turkey and Syria. CL has become the most serious of the infectious diseases which have been reported in Gaziantep in southeast Turkey, during the last three years due to the influx of Syrian refugees. The present research involves an analytical cross-sectional epidemiological study of CL cases diagnosed in the Gaziantep Leishmaniasis Diagnosis and Treatment Center. The patient demographic data, the location of the lesions, the number of the lesions, the duration of the lesions, and the treatment of the lesions are included. The diagnosis of CL was made by microscopic examination of smears in all cases, and 81.1% (900/1110) of which were found to be positive. Out of 900 CL patients, 93.8% (845/900) were Syrian citizens and 6.2% (55/900) were Turkish citizens. The disease was more frequent in females with 53.5% (482/900) and in the age group between 0-20 years with 68.3% (615/900). Distribution of lesions in the body showed that the face was the most affected location with 37% (333/900), and the generation time of lesions was 0-6 months with 71.2% (641/900). 94.7% (852/900) of the CL patients healed without relapse, and 5.3% (48/900) of the CL patients relapsed. CL patients have re-emerged in Gaziantep, located in the southeast of Turkey, as a result of Syrian refugees. The increase in CL frequency is alarming and requires control and prevention measures in highly infected areas including this region.
  • Modeling asymptomatic infections and work-related human circulation as
           drivers of unstable malaria transmission in low-prevalence areas: a study
           in the Northern Peruvian Amazon
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Francesco Pizzitutti, Carlos F Mena, Beth Feingold, William Pan BackgroundDespite relatively successful control campaigns, malaria remains a relevant public health problem in the Peruvian Amazon. Several studies suggest that malaria persistence in the area can be connected with a high prevalence of asymptomatic infections, which were subsequently shown to be connected with work-related exposure in areas of hyperendemic transmission. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the infection reservoir represented by asymptomatic carriers in the northern Peruvian Amazon, combined with circular human movement to and from hyperendemic working areas, can capture the observed hypoendemic malaria transmission.MethodsWe designed a set of agent-based models that represent local-scale malaria transmission in a typical riverine community in the northern Peruvian Amazon. The models include asymptomatic individuals as well as a full representation of human movements within the community and between the community and external hyperendemic working places. Several theoretical scenarios are explored to verify if and how malaria clinical immunity prevalence and human work-related movements influence the malaria morbidity registered in the community.ResultsAgent-based simulations suggest that malaria incidence observed through passive case detection can be reproduced as exclusively generated by the asymptomatic infection reservoir. Scenarios analysis also show that, even if asymptomatic infections are completely eliminated, human movements to and from hyperendemic working areas generate a flow of imported cases that is enough to permit the persistence of transmission in the community. Simulation results were verified over a wide range of clinical immunity prevalence values and over a wide range of percentages of people working in remote hyperendemic areas. This context of unstable malaria transmission is observed to be vulnerable to severe outbreaks.ConclusionsAsymptomatic malaria infection and occupational circular human movement to hyperendemic transmission areas are designated by agent-based models as possible exclusive causes of residual hypoendemic malaria transmission observed in the Peruvian Amazon. Control strategies are proposed to decrease asymptomatic infection prevalence and to block transmission from asymptomatic individuals to the malaria susceptible population.
  • In vitro and in vivo leishmanicidal activity of a ruthenium nitrosyl
           complex against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Nilberto Robson Falcão do Nascimento, Francisco Léo Nascimento de Aguiar, Cláudia Ferreira Santos, Angélica Maria Luna Costa, Daiana de Jesus Hardoim, Kátia da Silva Calabrese, Fernando Almeida-Souza, Eduardo Henrique Silva de Sousa, Luiz Gonzaga de França Lopes, Maria Jania Teixeira, Vandbergue Santos Pereira, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. There are many complications presented by the current treatment, as high toxicity, high cost and parasite resistance, making the development of new therapeutic agents indispensable. The present study aims to evaluate the leishmanicidal potential of ruthenium nitrosyl complex cis-[Ru(bpy)2(SO3)(NO)](PF6) against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. The effect of this metal complex on parasite-host interaction was evaluated by in vitro efficacy test in dermal fibrobast cells in the presence of different concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 µM) and by in vivo efficacy tests performed in the presence of two different concentrations of complex (100 µg/kg/day or 300 µg/kg/day) evaluating its effect on the size of the lesion and the number of parasites present in the draining lymph nodes in hamsters. Even at the lowest concentration of 1 µM of ruthenium complex, it was observed a significant decrease of the infected cells, after 24 hours exposure in vitro, with total reduction at 50 µM of the ruthenium complex. In the in vivo cutaneous infection model, administration of daily doses of 300 µg/kg/day of complex reduced significantly lesion size by 51% (p 
  • Imbalance in the glutathione system in Opisthorchis felineus infected
           liver promotes hepatic fibrosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Ekaterina A. Perina, Vladimir V. Ivanov, Alexandra G. Pershina, Natalya A. Perekucha, Anna N. Dzyuman, Ilya P. Kaminskii, Irina V. Saltykova, Alexey E. Sazonov, Ludmila M. Ogorodova Although data on oxidative stress during liver fluke infection have been previously presented, a comprehensive study of the glutathione system that plays a crucial role in scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and detoxification of primary and secondary oxidation products has not been addressed yet. In the present study, the hepatic glutathione system was investigated in a hamster model of experimental opisthorchiasis infection. It was shown that chronic oxidative stress in an Opisthorchis felineus infected liver, evidenced by abundant hydroperoxide accumulation, leads to strong imbalance in the hepatic glutathione system, namely the depletion of reduced form of glutathione (GSH), lowering of the GSH/GSSG ratio, and a decrease in the glutathione peroxidase and glyoxalase 1 activity. O. felineus infection provokes hepatocellular damage that results in the progression of liver fibrosis, accompanied by an increase in collagen deposition in the hepatic tissue. Modulation of hepatic GSH levels in the O. felineus infected liver through N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or L-buthionine-S, R-sulfoxinine (BSO) treatments lead to changes in expression and activity of glutathione S-transferase and glyoxalase I as well as markedly decreases or increases collagen content in the O. felineus infected liver and the severity of liver fibrosis, respectively. Thus, the glutathione system can be considered as a target for liver protection from O. felineus-induced injury.
  • WDP formulations using a novel mosquitocidal bacteria, Bacillus
           thuringiensis subsp. israelensis/tochigiensis (VCRC B-474) – Development
           and storage stability
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Kannadasan Shankar, Gnanasundaram Prabakaran, Arulsamy M Manonmani A novel mosquito active strain, Bacillus thuringiensis (VCRC B474) sharing the antigens of 2 serotypes, namely israelensis & tochigiensis was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and SDS-PAGE. The spherical and ovoid crystals present in this strain was composed of major polypeptides the size of 28, 65, and 130 kDa respectively. The sporulated cell mass was formulated into water dispersible powder (WDP) formulations with different carrier materials and checked for activity against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae at monthly intervals for up to a year. The formulation containing chalk was the most effective with LC50 values ranging between 0.274-0.523 µg/ml compared to the formulations containing bentonite (0.335-0.775) µg/ml and talc (0.348-0.808 µg/ml). The decline in the activity of these formulations with storage period was as follows: 3 months - 14%, 22%, 20% respectively, 6 months - 25%, 35%, 37% respectively, 9 months - 39%, 50%, 47% respectively and 12 months - 52%, 43%, 40% respectively. This study demonstrated that wet biomass of bacterial isolates could be simply mixed with carrier materials, dried and used for mosquito larval control without significant loss of activity for up to 6 months at room temperature. Further, this strain of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis/tochigiensis (H14/19) can be a prospective candidate for use in mosquito control programs.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this articleScanning electron microscope of spherical crystal and ovoid spores with diameter in nm. Scale = 1 µm.
  • Leishmania infection: Misdiagnosis as cancer and tumor-promoting
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Aurélie Schwing, Christelle Pomares, Alissa Majoor, Laurent Boyer, Pierre Marty, Grégory Michel Given the prevalence of cancer and leishmaniasis worldwide, the presence of these two pathologies in the same tissue sample may be merely fortuitous. The clinical outcome of both diseases is under the control of innate and adaptive immunity, and in both cases these progressive diseases are characterized by an impaired host Th1 response. As a consequence, the Th2 cytokine microenvironment occurring in progressive leishmaniasis may potentially promote tumor cell proliferation and vice versa. On the other hand, clinical aspects of subclinical cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis sometimes closely resemble those observed in various neoplasms thus leading to misdiagnosis. In this review, we present recent findings on the association between leishmaniasis and malignant disorders. Our review includes HIV positive, HIV negative subjects and patients whose HIV status has not been established. Leishmaniasis mimicking a malignant disorder was confirmed and extended to unreported neoplastic disorders including squamous cell carcinoma, T-cell and B-cell lymphoma, oral and intranasal tumors and granulomas. Thus, leishmaniasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis and course of various cancers in Leishmania endemic areas or in patients with travel history to these areas. We also listed recent reports showing that Leishmania can promote cancer development in immunocompromised as well as in immunocompetent patients. The potential mechanisms supporting this promoting effect are discussed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Evaluation of pain, functional capacity and kinesiophobia in women in the
           chronic stage of chikungunya virus infection: a cross-sectional study in
           northeastern Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Clécio Gabriel de Souza, Jardson Faustino da Costa, Diego de Sousa Dantas, Rodrigo Pegado de Abreu Freitas, Johnnatas Mikael Lopes, Alexandre Hideki Okano Arboviral diseases have been considered a global public health problem due to their growing territorial dispersion and impact on the population around the world. Individuals affected by the chikungunya virus go through an acute febrile illness associated with severe pain and long-lasting polyarthralgia. After the initial stage, infected individuals may progress to the chronic stage, which has an epidemic character and a high rate of disability and reduced mobility, impacting negatively on their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pain, functional capacity, and kinesiophobia in individuals in the chronic stage of chikungunya virus infection. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of Natal, in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, between July and September 2018. The participants were 59 women in the chronic stage of chikungunya virus infection. Data were collected in at physical therapy outpatient clinic of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), using a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK). Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis of the time data were conducted by simple regression. The participants’ mean age was just over 50 years and average duration of virus infection was 21.54 months. Most participants had moderate to severe pain intensity that more frequent in the ankle and wrist joints. Functional capacity was low, and there was moderate fear of performing exercises and activities of daily living. Duration of infection was associated with increased pain intensity and loss of functional capacity. We can conclude that women in the chronic stage of chikungunya infection have significant pain, reduced functional capacity, and fear of performing common movements of daily living.
  • ROP9, MIC3, and SAG2 are heparin-binding proteins in Toxoplasma gondii and
           involved in host cell attachment and invasion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Dongchao Zhang, Ning Jiang, Qijun Chen Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligatory intracellular parasite that can infect varieties of warm-blooded animals, including humans and birds. Heparan sulfate (HS) is widely distributed on the eukaryotic cell surface of vertebrates and can inhibit T. gondii invasion. In this study, we investigated the transcription and expression of the level of TgROP9, TgMIC3, and TgSAG2 in T. gondii RH strain, and found that the expression levels of these three proteins in invading parasites were higher compared to those free ranging parasites. The recombinant proteins showed specific binding activity to both heparin and host cell surface. Incubation of these proteins with the host cells could block T. gondiiinvasion. Furthermore, protein-specific antibodies also blocked parasite invasion. Antibodies in the sera of T. gondii infected individuals recognized the recombinant TgROP9, TgMIC3, and TgSAG2, which suggested the exposure of these proteins to human immune system. Mice immunized with the three proteins exhibited protective immunity against lethal challenge. The data collectively suggested that these parasitic proteins may be used as candidate antigens for development of anti-toxoplasmosis vaccine.
  • Potential distribution and ecological conditions of Lonomia obliqua Walker
           1855 (Saturniidae: Hemileucinae) in Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Marília Melo Favalesso Lonomia obliqua Walker 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is a species of moth which larvae are responsible for the lonomism, a form of envenomation that has been occurring in Brazil since the 1980s. Despite the importance in public health, the geographical distribution and their ecological aspects are unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we present a potential geographical distribution map for L. obliqua in Brazil, based on the combination of different Ecology Niche Modelling (ENM) algorithms. A total of 38 occurrence points were distributed in the southern/ southeastern regions of Brazil and in the province of Misiones (Argentina), which were divided for calibration and evaluation of the model. Eight continuous climatic and soil variables were selected from 16 previously calculated for model calibration. The final model-map is composed of a combination of four algorithms (Gower, Mahalanobis, MAXENT and SVM), with samples of pseudo-absences outside a Bioclimatic Envelope (BIOCLIM) in quantity equal to the presences. This model-map was binarized from the Low Presence Threshold (LPT) and cut only to the Brazilian area. According to this map, the areas predicted as suitable for L. obliqua are restricted between latitudes ˜ 12 ° and ˜ 32 °, and longitudes ˜ 39 ° and ˜ 57 °, with extension of 1,181,604 km². The model-map was also validated with external data from samples of the species, at municipality level, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). From this information, we extracted the values ​​of variables related to climate and soil, and with additional variables related to the land use and type of vegetation, in order to contribute to the ecological knowledge of the species. In general, the map and the ecological information obtained can serve as a tool for public health agents in Brazil to adequately guide preventive strategies and attention to lonomism in the country, and with addendum on habitat loss and accident conditions with the species.
  • Effects of aestivation on survival of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos
           snails and the infection of Opisthorchis viverrini in the irrigation area
           of wet- and dry-season rice paddy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Monticha Chaiyasaeng, Phornpitcha Pechdee, Chanisala Sereewong, Apiporn Suwannatrai, Thewarach Laha, Smarn Tesana The snail Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos acts as the first intermediate host of the human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, a major cause of cholangiocarcinoma in Northeast Thailand. In this study, we investigated host-parasite interactions in wet- and dry-season rice paddy plantation. The snails that aestivated through 4-month-dried period after rice harvest had average mortality rate of 36.45% and monthly increasing from 17.76% to 54.57%. Surprisingly, at depths greater than 5 cm experienced a higher mortality rate than upper level. Average mortality rate at the depth more than 5 cm, was 42.97 %. In the initial month of aestivation, mortality rate of 0-5 and 5-10 cm depth was 9.13% and 26.39% then increase to 57.58% and 51.97%, respectively in the last 4th month. The average prevalence O. viverrini infection in snails during the study period was 0.44%. The highest prevalence of O. viverrini infection was found in the cool dry and wet season. The odds of O. viverrini infection in female snails and large snails were higher relative to male snails and medium-sized snails. The physicochemical factors involved in increased prevalence of O. viverrini infection in snail hosts were mean daily air temperature and average monthly rainfall. Short aestivation period made lower mortality in irrigation area than the previous report of non-irrigation area, that is, the aestivation is one of snail population control.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Potential of Pluronics® P-123 and F-127 as nanocarriers of
           anti-Leishmania chemotherapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Jully Oyama, Daniele Stéfanie Sara Lopes Lera-Nonose, Áquila Carolina Fernandes Herculano Ramos-Milaré, Fabiana Borges Padilha Ferreira, Camila Fabiano de Freitas, Wilker Caetano, Noboru Hioka, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi Silveira, Maria Valdrinez Campana Lonardoni Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease and drugs approved for its treatment often lead to abandonment, failure of therapy and even death. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been shown to be a promising, non-invasive and selective for a target region without requiring high-cost technology. Usually, it is employed a photosensitizing agent (PS) incorporated into nanoparticles (NP). Pluronics® P-123 and F-127 micelles are very interesting aqueous NP promoting efficient and selective delivery and less adverse effects. This study aimed to detect the activity of Pluronics® P-123 and F-127 themselves since there is a scarcity of data on these NP activities without drugs incorporation. This study evaluated, in vitro, the activity of Pluronics® against promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and also their cytotoxicities. Additionally, the determination of the mitochondria membrane potential in promastigotes, internalization of these Pluronics® in the parasite membrane and macrophages and its stability in the culture medium was evaluated. Results showed that Pluronics® did not cause significant damage to human red cells and promastigotes. The P-123 and F-127 inhibited the survival rate of L. amazonensis amastigotes, and also presented loss of mitochondrial membrane potential on promastigotes. The Pluronics® showed low cytotoxic activity on J774 A.1 macrophages, while only P-123 showed moderate cytotoxicity for BALB/c macrophages. The stability of P-123 and F-127 in culture medium was maintained for ten days. In conclusion, the NP studied can be used for incorporating potent leishmanicidal chemotherapy, due to their selectivity towards macrophages, being a promising system for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Phytochemical profiling, Antioxidant and Anticancer activities of
           Gastrocotyle hispida growing in Saudi Arabia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Abdelaaty A. Shahat, Syed Hidayathulla, Azmat A. Khan, Amer M. Alanazi, Osaid T. Al Meanazel, Ali S. Alqahtani, Mansour S. Alsaid, Ahmed A. HusseinABSTRACTThe present study aimed at isolation the phytocompounds from the aerial parts of Gastrocotyle hispida and to evaluate its antioxidant and anticancer potential using in vitro assay. Gastrocotyle hispida is belonging to the family Boraginaceae used as a refreshing drink like tea. The decoction of the leaves is diuretic and is used in the treatment of rheumatism. Phytochemical study of a methanol extract yielded five known compounds viz: β-sitosterol (GH-1), β-sitosterol 3-glucoside (GH-2), 1-O-β-glucopyranosyl-1,4-dihydroxy-2-prenylbenzene (GH-3), 6-Hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-3-chrom (GH-4) and rosmarinic acid (GH-5). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were calculated for the extract and fractions, the methanolic extract contained the highest content of total flavonoids (178 mg/g, expressed as quercetin equivalents) and total polyphenol (98.4 mg/g, expressed as gallic acid equivalent). Compounds were isolated by using column chromatography. In vitro, antioxidant activity of the extract and isolated compounds was investigated by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. The four different cell lines HepG2 (Liver), HEK-293 (Kidney) MCF-7 (Breast) and MDA-MB 231 (Breast) were used against the compounds. The isolated compounds showed dose-dependent free radical scavenging property in all tested models with the IC50 values of 10.2 μg/mL rosmarinic acid (GH-5), 52.1 μg/mL β-sitosterol (GH-1) and 85 μg/mL for β-sitosterol 3-glucoside (GH-2). The β-sitosterol (GH-1) showed significant activity against HepG2 and HEK 293 cell lines. Rosmarinic acid (GH-5) possesses potent anticancer activity against breast cancer cells (MCF7) with the IC50 value of 4.2 μg/mL. It can be concluded that Gastrocotyle hispida has potential antioxidant, anticancer activities and further used as an anticancer agent.
  • Effect of nutritional state and dispersal on the reproductive efficiency
           in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)
           susceptible and resistant to deltamethrin
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): P.A. Lobbia, C. Rodríguez, G. Mougabure-Cueto The dispersal of insects is determinant in the colonization of new areas and the propagation of insecticide resistance. Nutritional status and reproductive characteristics determine the colonization capacity after the dispersal event. Studies about of the effects of dispersal on reproduction in triatomines are few and none in resistant insects. The aim was to determine the effects of nutritional state and dispersal on the subsequent reproductive potential in Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) susceptible and resistant to deltamethrin. Three nutritional states were obtained with the number of feeds (NF) offered (0, 1 or 2). The resistant females were evaluated only with NF1. The experimental arena was 10 m long and contained two shelters. Groups of 30 virgin females of each NF were released in one of the shelters and were able to move during 3 days/nights. Females without possibility of dispersal were the controls. The reproductive parameters were determined on the couples between the experimental females and males from the breeding. The results showed that most of the females dispersed by walking. The dispersal had effects on the reproduction of the deltamethrin-susceptible females and this depended on the number of feeds. Fecundity, fertility and the proportion of females that oviposited were higher in females dispersed with two feeds but was lower in females dispersed with less feeds. In addition, the effect of the dispersal on the reproduction and the life time also depended of the toxicological phenotype. The resistant insect oviposited in higher proportion and showed greater fecundity and more weeks of life when they dispersed that when they did not do it, and was opposite to that observed in susceptible ones. Finally, the resistance to insecticide had an effect on the reproduction and the life span and this effect depended on whether the insects dispersed or not.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Molecular detection and characterization of Ehrlichia ruminantium
           from cattle in Mozambique
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 191Author(s): Carlos António Matos, Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves, Inalda Angélica de Souza Ramos, Natalia Serra Mendes, Diego Carlos Souza Zanatto, Marcos Rogério André, Rosangela Zacarias Machado Heartwater caused by Ehrlichia ruminantiumis a disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important tick-borne diseases in Africa. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence and genetic diversity of E. ruminantium in blood samples from 210 cattle sampled in five districts of Maputo Province, Mozambique. DNA blood samples were initially submitted to PCR assays targeting E. ruminantium pCS20 gene fragments. Additionally, in order to assess the genetic diversity of E. ruminantium, the positive samples were submitted to a PCR assay targeting the E. ruminantium map1 gene. Finally, the amplicons were sequenced and phylogenetic position was inferred using the Maximum Likelihood method. PCR results revealed that the overall prevalence in Maputo Province was 15% of the animals sampled. E. ruminantium map1 sequences showed not to be conserved. In the phylogenetic analysis, E. ruminantium map1 genotypes were positioned into multiple-clades. This study provides information on the prevalence and genetic diversity of E. ruminantium in five localities of Maputo Province. The future immune control strategies against local E. ruminantium must be designed in the light of the genetic diversity of this parasite.
  • Increased risk of toxoplasma gondii infection in cancer patients: a
           meta-analysis of current evidence based on case-control study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Lei Liu, Peng Wang, Jing Xu, Chao-Ming Xia Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular protozoan parasite that often infects warm-blooded animals or causes opportunistic infections if exists a suppressed immunity. This study aims to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii and its odds ratio (OR) in patients with cancer in compared with healthy individuals, and to find the possible factors.Related literatures reported the seroprevalence of T. gondii in cancer/tumor patients and controls (health individuals) were retrieved from electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Web of Knowledge and The Cochrane Library from inception until Aug 31 2018. The non-weighted prevalence of T. gondii, pooled estimates of OR and its 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated through random-effect model. Between-study heterogeneity was tested with Cochrane Q, and statistic I2 was to quantify the results. Funnel plot depiction and Egger’s linear regression test were combined to evaluate the potential of publication bias.The literature identified a total of 2216 potential studies; the final 18 studies were incorporated, with 6001 cancer/tumor patients and 6067 controls. Our results demonstrated that, the cancer/tumor patients had an elevated seroprevalence of T. gondii (18.43% vs 8.19%), and an increased risk of T. gondii infection (OR = 3.18, 95% CI: 2.65–3.82) when compared with the controls. Subgroup analyses suggested that publication year, study sample size and diagnostic options are closely associated with the seroprevalence of T. gondii.Overall, our study indicates that there is an increased risk of T. gondii infection in cancer/tumor patients, suggesting a precautionary monitoring of T. gondii and related risk factors in patients with cancer/tumor.
  • Circulating Leptospira species identified in cattle of the
           Brazilian Amazon
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Israel Barbosa Guedes, Simone Aparecida de Almeida Araújo, Gisele Oliveira de Souza, Sheila Oliveira de Souza Silva, Sueli Akemi Taniwaki, Adriana Cortez, Paulo Eduardo Brandão, Marcos Bryan Heinemann The present study aimed to detect the most prevalent serogroups and circulating Leptospira species in cows from Brazilian Amazon. Samples of blood serum, urine and kidney of 208 animals were collected at a municipal slaughterhouse in the Baixo Tocantins region of Pará State, Northern Brazil. The tests used were microscopic agglutination test (MAT), bacteriological isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The frequency of MAT-reactive cows was 46.6% (97/208) with titers ranging from 100 to 3200, being Sejroe serogroup the most prevalent. There was no Leptospira isolation, but the DNA of bacterium was detected in 5.8% (12/208) of the kidney and in 14.9% (31/208) of the urine samples. DNA sequencing was performed directly from PCR products of 30 samples (3 kidneys and 27 urines), with identification of four different species: L. borgpetersenii with 56.7% (17/30), followed by L. kirschneri with 13.3% (4/30), L. interrogans with 6.7% (2/30), L. santarosai with 3.3% (1/30), and 20.0% (6/30) of samples were identified only at the genus level. These results reveal a diversity and peculiarity for bovine leptospirosis in the Amazon region, mainly due to the low frequency of L. santarosai and more surprising, the presence of L. kirschneri, differently of what is observed in other regions of Brazil.
  • Meta-analysis and discussion on challenges to translate Leishmania drug
           resistance phenotyping into the clinic
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Denis Sereno, Zoubir Harrat, Naouel Eddaikra Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens the prevention and treatment of infections caused by a large range of microorganisms. Leishmania is not an exception and treatment failure due to drug-resistant organisms is increasingly reported. Currently, no molecular methods and marker are validated to track drug-resistant organism and antimicrobial susceptibility tests are roughly not amenable to a clinical setting. Taking these facts into account, it is essential to reflect on ways to translate basic knowledge into methodologies aimed to diagnose leishmania drug resistance. As a matter of fact, a meta-analysis of the literature discloses the reliability of the promastigotes antimicrobial susceptibility tests (AST) to predict intracellular amastigotes susceptibility status. Promastigote cultures that are easy to perform, typically inexpensive and amenable to standardization should represent a candidate to diagnose resistance. Using AST performed on promastigote, we propose a way to improve leishmania drug resistance diagnosis in the framework of guidance and guideline of the bacterial drug resistance diagnosis. In this review, we highlight challenges that remained and discuss the definition of clinical breakpoints, including the epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF), to track drug-resistant isolates. Our analysis paves the ways to standardize and analyze anti-leishmania susceptibility tests output in order to guide the characterization of drug-resistant isolates, the clinical decision during treatment and the search for new molecular markers.
  • Impact of sugar composition on meal distribution, longevity, and
           insecticide toxicity in Aedes aegypti
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Paul M. Airs, Katherine E. Kudrna, Lyric C. Bartholomay Toxic Sugar Baits (TSBs) are an inexpensive and field-applicable approach to deliver a variety of insecticides to sugar-seeking mosquitoes. We reasoned that carbohydrate chemistry could alter the performance and efficacy of TSBs. In this study, the uptake, distribution, and survival of female Aedes aegypti provided with twelve different aqueous sugar meals was recorded. Sucrose, a standard control sugar used in mosquito rearing, is always diverted to the ventral diverticulum upon ingestion; but other sugars that might be found in nectar (e.g., maltose, mannose, and raffinose) dispersed to both the diverticulum and midgut. Sugar meals composed of arabinose, lactose, or cellobiose significantly reduced survival of Ae. aegypti compared to sucrose controls, with or without the addition of boric acid insecticide. The addition of arabinose to a TSB comprised of sucrose and boric acid reduced the survival of Ae. aegypti even when non-toxic sugar meals were readily available. In choice assays, Ae. aegypti were equally likely to feed on TSBs containing arabinose despite the toxicity associated with arabinose ingestion. TSBs typically contain broad spectrum insecticides; insecticidal RNA species that induce species-specific gene silencing are a potential alternative. To assess the potential of RNA delivery in a TSB, biodistribution of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), was tracked after per os delivery in different sugar meals. None of the sugars tested facilitated uptake of dsRNA into midgut epithelia or other tissues. Overall, sourcing sugar baits from sources containing sugars with toxic properties may improve TSB efficacy in the field.
  • Autochthonous cutaneous leishmaniasis in urban domestic animals (Felis
           catus / Canis lupus familiaris) from central-western Venezuela
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): AE. Paniz Mondolfi, A. Colmenares Garmendia, Y. Mendoza Pérez, Carlos E. Hernández-Pereira, C. Medina, F. Vargas, D. Sandoval, J. Agüero, D. Román, M. Forlano-Riera, Y. Salas, M. Peraza, P. Romero, F. Aldana, T. Castillo, S. Santeliz, G. Perez, María J. Suarez-Alvarado, RJ. Morales-Panza, H. Kato Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by intracellular protozoa of the Leishmania genus that are spread and transmitted by sandflies. Natural infection and clinical disease in domestic cats and dogs appear to be rare or perhaps largely under-reported in endemic areas. However, previous reports on infected domestic animals usually implicate the same Leishmania species that affect humans in tropical and subtropical areas of the world suggesting a potential role for zoonotic transmission. In the present study we assessed a representative sample of cats and dogs from endemic urban / suburban areas of Lara state in central western Venezuela. In both dogs and cats, cutaneous disease exhibits a spectrum of manifestations that range from single papules or nodules, which may evolve into ulcerative, plaque-like or scaly lesions. Cytochrome b (cyt b) PCR gene sequence analysis revealed L. mexicana as the causative agent in all cases, including two human cases proceeding from the same study area at the same time the study was carried out. In order to improve our understanding on feline/canine infection with Leishmania mexicana, and address potential zoonotic concerns it is necessary to characterize its enzootic reservoirs and vectors as well as the possible anthropophilic players linking to the peridomestic and domestic cycles.
  • Molecular detection, characterization ofAnaplasmaspp. in domestic cats
           from Rio de Janeiro state
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Andresa Guimarães, Juliana Macedo Raimundo, Maristela Peckle Peixoto, Claudia Bezerra da Silva, Marcus Sandes Pires, Huarrisson Azevedo Santos, Cristiane Divan Baldani Species of the genus Anaplasma, in the family Anaplasmatacae, are responsible to vector-borne diseases that affecting animals and humans. Feline anaplasmosis is poorly reported in Brazil. This study aimed at investigating the occurrence of Anaplasma spp. in domestic cats from Greater Rio de Janeiro, and evaluating hematological changes associated with this rickettsial infection. Were sampled 216 cats, we performed nested PCR (nPCR) and real-time PCR (qPCR) assays targeting A. platys-16S-rDNA, A. platys-gltA and A. phagocytophilum-msp2 sequences. As evaluated with gltA-qPCR the frequency of cats positive for A. platys was 3.7% (n = 8/216) and by 16S-rDNA nested-PCR it was 0.9% (n = 2/216). No cats were positive to msp2-qPCR to A. phagocytophilum. The sequences of A. platys presented 100% similarity with previously described isolates around the world and Brazil. Two cats that were positive in the gltA-qPCR reactions have platelet inclusions in the microscopic examination. However, no significant (p > 0.05) hematological changes were observed, probably due to low parasite load. This study showed that A. platys occur in domestic cats from Greater Rio de Janeiro. Further studies are needed to more precisely characterize these organisms.
  • A new species of the Simulium (Simulium) variegatum species-group
           (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thailand
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2019Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Hiroyuki Takaoka, Wichai Srisuka, Atiporn Saeung A new species of black fly, Simulium (Simulium) luculentum, is described from specimens collected in Thailand, and is assigned to the Simulium variegatum species-group of the subgenus Simulium Latreille. This new species is distinguished from most members of this species group in the female by the mid femur and tibia entirely yellowish; and in the pupa by the gill with six filaments, which are somewhat inflated basally. This species represents the fifth member of the S. variegatum species-group recorded from Thailand.
  • Sustainable food systems, health and infectious diseases: concerns and
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Adithya Pradyumna, Florence Egal, Jürg Utzinger Food systems have been identified as one of the key issues in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Hence, food systems are embodied in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with a range of ramifications on different goals and targets. Current food systems practices are exposing the vulnerability of populations to various health issues. Indeed, several health challenges, such as malnutrition, infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance and non-communicable diseases, are caused by existing food systems practices. There is growing awareness of the seriousness of the situation across sectors, including the public health community. The recommended paradigm shift in agriculture and diet are already underway at smaller scales through local efforts. Engaging with food systems towards health, equity, sustainability and resilience is a major opportunity for, as well as responsibility of, the public health community and asks for a training, research, monitoring and advocating role to be played towards policy reform and intersectoral action.
  • Evidence of multiple point mutations in Theileria annulata cytochrome b
           gene incriminated in Buparvaquone treatment failure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Elisha Chatanga, Ehab Mosssad, Hazem Abdo Abubaker, Sondos Amin Alnour, Ken Katakura, Ryo Nakao, Bashir Salim Drug resistance is one of the emerging and re-emerging epidemics affecting both veterinary and public health sectors. Buparvaquone provides the most satisfactory means in the treatment of bovine tropical theileriosis. However, recently there has been widespread reports of development of resistance of Theileria annulata to buparvaquone. To investigate the situation in Sudan where bovine tropical theileriosis is endemic, fifty blood samples from T. annulata-positive cattle. were used for DNA extraction, PCR and cytochrome b gene nucleotide sequencing. Analysis of the two buparvaquone binding site regions Q01 (130-148) and Q02 (244-266), revealed three non- synonymous mutations at codon 146; alanine (GCT) to threonine (ACT) within the Q01 region across all 50 isolates and the other mutation at codon 129; serine (AGC) to glycine (GGC) in 18 isolates which is very close to the Q01 binding site. However, we documented another mutation at position 227; valine (GTG) to methionine (ATG) close to the close to the Q02 binding site, in three isolates with mutation at codon 129. We concluded that this study has provided evidence of point mutations in the cytochrome b gene of T. annulata that might be associated with buparvaquone treatment failure in Sudan.
  • Expression and Purification of Truncated Recombinant B8/1 Protein of
           Echinococcus granulosus for Diagnosis of Hydatid Infection in Human
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 December 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Tahereh Faramarzi, Zarrintaj Valadkhani Hydatidosis is one of the most important diseases common between animals and human beings. Caused by Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm, the disease has a global epidemic. The serological diagnostic tests that are now utilized to confirm the imaging approaches have some drawbacks such as low sensitivity and cross-reaction with the serum of the patients infected with other parasites. The application of recombinant and synthetic antigens has proven improvement in the functionality of serological diagnostic tests. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the expression and purification of truncated recombinant B8/1 (trB8/1) antigen and its application in ELISA for diagnosis of hydatid infection in human. The tEgB8/1 was colonized in the expression vector pET28b (+) and expressed in different strains of E. coli. This protein was purified by Ni2+-NTA chromatography. The antigenicity of the protein was evaluated by Western blotting and ELISA. In the test, 50 positive serum samples from hydatid infected patients, 50 samples from healthy people, and 30 serum samples from patients with other parasitic diseases were used to determine the sensitivity and the specificity of this antigen. The measured sensitivity and specificity of this antigen were identified to be 75.75% and 96.38% respectively. The P value of
  • Orthohantavirus genotype Lechiguanas in Oligoryzomys nigripes (Rodentia:
           Cricetidae): new evidence of host-switching
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 December 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Valeria C. Colombo, Julia Brignone, Carina Sen, M. Andrea Previtali, M. Laura Martin, Silvana Levis, Lucas Monje, Raúl González-Ittig, Pablo M. Beldomenico To identify and predict situations of increased risk of orthohantavirus infection in humans, it is necessary to study the relationships between the virus and its rodent hosts. The present study investigated orthohantavirus infection in an assemblage of wild Sigmodontinae rodents of the Paraná Delta, Argentina, and providing new evidence of host-switching events. Rodents belonging to the species Oxymycterus rufus (n = 187), Akodon azarae (n = 82), Oligoryzomys flavescens (n = 80), Oligoryzomys nigripes (n = 47), Scapteromys aquaticus (n = 38), Deltamys kempi (n = 7) and Holochilus brasiliensis (n = 2) were captured at 4 sampling sites during 20 trapping sessions. Blood samples were analyzed by IgG ELISA and livers by a nested reverse transcription PCR for the diagnosis of orthohantavirus infection. The amplified products of the S and M orthohantavirus genomes were sequenced and analyzed to determine similarities with species of the Orthohantavirus genus. The species of the Oligoryzomys positive to the virus were confirmed by amplifying and sequencing the complete cyt b gene. Of the 443 serum samples analyzed by IgG ELISA, A. azarae presented the highest host-specific prevalence value (10/82, 12.2%) followed by Ol. nigripes (4/47, 8.5 %) and Ox. rufus (1/187, 0.5%). All the sero-positive Ol. nigripes (n = 4) were positive to the amplification of the S and M segments of the Lechiguanas genotype (98% nucleotide identity for both segments). This is surprising given that Ol. nigripes has been previously associated with Juquitiba genotype, not Lechiguanas. The latter is generally associated with Ol. flavescens, which in our study were all sero-negative. In addition, the association Ox. rufus – Pergamino genotype found here is, to our knowledge, novel and another potential evidence of host-switching considering that Pergamino has been originally associated with A. azarae. These findings contribute to the building evidence that contradicts the one-genotype-one-reservoir species premise in the association between rodent reservoirs and orthohantaviruses, and supports the hypothesis that the community structure of sympatric host species may contribute to orthohantavirus dynamics.
  • Plasmodium falciparum PFI1625c offers an opportunity to design potent
           anti-malarials: Biochemical characterization and testing potentials in
           drug discovery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Kimjolly Lhouvum, S.N. Balaji, Jawed Ahsan Md, Vishal Trivedi Putative PFI1625c was cloned, over-expressed and purified to homogeneity. It is a 56.2 kDa monomeric protease which preferentially catalyzes the degradation of gelatin with a Km = 30µM. It is a slow acting enzyme with optimal pH 8.5 and temperature 37 °C, and activity is sensitive to metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline. PFI1625c active site was probed with a series of heterocyclic compounds and three molecules namely, BNPC-Inh2, DDBM-Inh1 and BHPM-Inh1 from the series were inhibiting PFI1625c protease activity. These heterocyclic compounds were found to irreversible inhibiting PFI1625c protease activity. Parasite culture was treated with these inhibitors and PFI1625c isolated from culture was found to be inactive without affecting other gelatinases present in the parasite. These inhibitors were used to generate chemically knockout PFI1625c in the parasite. PFI1625c knockout parasite remained at ring stage and was unable to complete its erythrocytic schizogony. Also, these knockout parasites were incapable to multiply. More careful analysis indicate these parasites develop oxidative stress as evident by the increase in lipid peroxidation, protein-carbonyl and a decrease of GSH level. In summary, the current study has employed biochemical, computational and pharmacological approaches to explore the role of PFI1625c in the parasite, its utility as a potential drug target to develop anti-malarials.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Community-based surveillance and control of Chagas disease vectors in
           remote rural areas of the Argentine Chaco: a five-year follow-up
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): María C. Cecere, Lucía I. Rodríguez-Planes, Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec, Uriel Kitron, Ricardo E. Gürtler Prevention of Chagas disease vector-borne transmission mostly relies on the residual application of pyrethroid insecticide. Persistent or recurrent house infestation after insecticide spraying remains a serious challenge in remote, resource-poor rural areas where public health services face substantial constraints. Here we use generalized estimating equations and multimodel inference to model the fine-scale, time-lagged effects of a community-based vector surveillance-and-response strategy on house infestation and abundance of Triatoma infestans in four rural communities of the Argentine Chaco over a five-year period. Householders and community leaders were trained to detect triatomines and spray with insecticides their premises if infested. House infestation and vector abundance were consistently higher in peridomestic habitats than in human habitations (domiciles). Householders supplemented with sensor boxes detected infested domiciles (67%) more frequently than timed-manual searches (49%). Of all houses ever found to be infested by timed-manual searches, 76% were sprayed within six months upon detection. Domestic triatomine abundance was significantly related to house-level insecticide spraying during the previous year (inversely) and current peridomestic abundance (positively). Peridomestic triatomine abundance significantly increased with current domestic bug abundance and maximum peridomestic abundance during the previous year, and was unaffected by insecticide spraying. Our study provides new empirical evidence of the interconnection and flow between domestic and peridomestic populations of T. infestans under recurrent insecticide treatments, and supports targeting both habitats with appropriate tactics for longer-lasting, improved vector control. Community-directed efforts succeeded in controlling domestic infestations and interrupting domestic transmission, whereas persistent peridomestic infestations demand sustained control efforts to address domestic reinvasions.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Morphological and molecular evidence for a new species of Lutzia (Diptera:
           Culicidae: Culicini) from Thailand
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Thanari Phanitchakun, Rinzin Namgay, Ichiro Miyagi, Yoshio Tsuda, Catherine Walton, Ralph E. Harbach, Pradya Somboon We found a species of Lutzia Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) in Chiang Mai Province and other provinces in northern Thailand which bears morphological and DNA sequence differences from the three species of Lutzia, subgenus Metalutzia Tanaka, previously recorded from Thailand, namely Lt. fuscana (Wiedemann), Lt. halifaxii (Theobald) and Lt. vorax Edwards. The adults of the Chiang Mai form (CM form) have abdominal banding patterns similar to those of Lt. vorax from Japan (which includes the type locality of this species), but differ in having the mediocubital crossvein usually positioned before rather than beyond the radiomedial crossvein. The thoracic and abdominal integument of Lt. vorax larvae is covered with relatively short pointed spicules whereas it is covered by denser, longer and more acutely pointed spicules in the CM form. Some differences are also found in the development of thoracic seta 1-M, and abdominal setae 8-II and 8-III. The pupa of the CM form clearly differs from the pupa of Lt. vorax in having setae 1 and 5 of abdominal segments V and VI single rather than branched. The characters of the wing, larva and pupa of the CM form are similar to those of Lt. fuscana and Lt. halifaxii. However, whereas the phallosome of males of the CM form is similar to males of Lt. vorax and Lt. halifaxii, it is distinct from males of Lt. fuscana. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II sequences revealed that the CM form falls outside a clade comprised of specimens of Lt. vorax from Japan, Korea, Thailand and Bhutan (Kimura 2-parameter, K2P, genetic distances 3.9–5.6, and 5.1–6.6, respectively). However, the two gene sequences of the CM form are not clearly distinct from clades comprised of sequences from specimens of Lt. fuscana and Lt. halifaxii (K2P 0.2–2.4%). However, based on the combination of morphological and molecular data, the current study provides evidence that the CM form is a previously unrecognized species of the genus Lutzia.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • In vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activity of a fluoroquinoline
           derivate against Leishmania infantum and Leishmania amazonensis species
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Grasiele S.V. Tavares, Débora V.C. Mendonça, Daniela P. Lage, Luciana M.R. Antinarelli, Tauane G. Soyer, Ana J.S. Senna, Guilherme F. Matos, Daniel S. Dias, Patrícia A.F. Ribeiro, João P.T. Batista, Joana M. Poletto, Geraldo C. Brandão, Miguel A. Chávez-Fumagalli, Guilherme R. Pereira, Elaine S. Coimbra, Eduardo A.F. Coelho New therapeutics against leishmaniasis are desirable, since the current drugs applied against this disease complex presents problems, such as the toxicity, high cost and/or parasite resistance. In the present study, a new fluoroquinoline derivate, namely 7-chloro-N-(4-fluorophenethyl)quinolin-4-amine or GF1061, was evaluated regarding to its in vitro antileishmanial action against Leishmania infantum and L. amazonensis species, as well as by its toxicity in mammalian cells and efficacy in the treatment of infected macrophages. The mechanism of action of this molecule in L. amazonensis and the therapeutic efficacy in infected BALB/c mice were also evaluated. Results showed that GF1061 was effective against both parasite species, showing selectivity index (SI) of 38.7 and 42.7 against L. infantum and L. amazonensis promastigotes, respectively, and of 45.0 and 48.9 against the amastigotes, respectively. Amphotericin B (AmpB), used as control, showed SI values of 6.6 and 8.8 against L. infantum and L. amazonensis promastigotes, respectively, and of 2.2 and 2.7 against the amastigotes, respectively. The molecule was effective in treat infected macrophages, as well as it induced alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potential, increase in the reactive oxygen species production, and in the cell integrity of the parasites. Regarding to the in vivo experiments, BALB/c mice (n = 8 per group) were subcutaneously infected with 106L. amazonensis stationary promastigotes and, 60 days post-infection, they received saline or were treated during 10 days, once a day, with AmpB (1 mg/kg body weight) or GF1061 (5 mg/kg body weight). One day after the treatment, the infected tissue, spleen, liver, and draining lymph node (dLN) of the animals were collected, and the parasite load was evaluated. GF1061-treated mice, as compared to the saline and AmpB groups, showed significant reductions in the parasitism in the infected tissue (66% and 62%, respectively), liver (69% and 44%, respectively), spleen (71% and 38%, respectively), and dLN (72% and 48%, respectively). In conclusion, results suggested that GF1061 may be considered as a possible therapeutic target to be evaluated against leishmaniasis in other mammalian hosts.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Molecular characterization of new genotypes Enterocytozoon
    in Slovakia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Alexandra Valenčáková, Oľga Danišová Enterocytozoon bieneusi is characterized as a ubiquitous intestinal parasite with a wide genetic diversity, and it is capable of infecting a diverse range of hosts all around the world. Since information about the genotype diversity of E. bieneusi in pigs, calves, sheep and goats in Slovakia is very limited, we examined three farms where we mapped the occurrence of E. bieneusi and its genotypes, thus contributing to the information about geographic diversity of this pathogen worldwide. In this study we used PCR methods to examine 253 fecal samples from pigs, calves, sheep and goats with suspected microsporidiosis. Real time PCR was used to identify genotypes by amplification of SSU region and ITS region. After analysis we detected presence of E. bieneusi (7) and Microsporidia sp. (6) in 13 samples. The analysis of nucleotide sequences of ITS region of E. bieneusi shows, that the positive isolates belonged to 5 genotypes, including two known genotypes (I, F) and three new genotypes diagnosed in pigs, named SVK-S1, SVK-S2 and SVK-S3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these novel genotypes identified in present study belong to group 1, which previously has been described as a zoonotic group. Genotype I was detected in two calves and genotype F was detected in two pigs.
  • Bioinformatics analysis of four proteins of Leishmania donovani to guide
           epitopes vaccine design and drug targets selection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Jinlei He, Fan Huang, Jiao Li, Qiwei Chen, Dali Chen, Jianping Chen Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious and widespread parasitic disease caused by Leishmania donovani complex. The threat of this fatal disease continues due to the lack of ideal drugs or vaccines. In this study, we selected Amastin, CaNA2, Kmp-11 and PDI proteins of Leishmania donovani for study, which are VL vaccine candidates or possible drug targets. Eleven bioinformatics tools were used to analyze different aspects of these proteins, including amino acid composition, topology, signal peptide, secondary structure, surface properties, phosphorylation sites and kinases, protein binding sites, 3D homology modeling, B cell epitopes, MHC class Ⅰ and Ⅱ epitopes and protein-protein interactions. Finally, the functionally related amino acid sites and dominant epitopes of these proteins were founded. Some possible relationships between protein structure, phosphorylation sites, protein binding sites and epitopes were also discovered. High flexibility and random coils regions of protein have a tendency to be phosphorylated, bind proteins and present epitopes. Since some phosphorylation sites and their kinases are involved in Leishmania invasion and survival in host cells, they may be potential drug targets. Bioinformatics analysis helps us better understand protein function and find dominant epitopes to guide drug design and vaccine development.
  • Molecular detection, genotyping and phylogeny of Anaplasma spp. in
           Rhipicephalus ticks from Tunisia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Hanène Belkahia, Mourad Ben Said, Raoua Ghribi, Rachid Selmi, Alaa Ben Asker, Mouna Yahiaoui, Maha Bousrih, Monia Daaloul-Jedidi, Lilia Messadi In Tunisia, most of Anaplasma species and unclassified strains have been detected in several animals, but data on the occurrence of Anaplasma spp. in ticks are still lacking. In this study, we report the molecular evidence, genetic characterization and phylogeny of Anaplasma spp. in ticks collected from small ruminants. A total of 395 ticks (178 male and 179 female) were collected from sheep (n = 215) and goats (n = 180). Tick species were identified as 232 Rhipicephalus turanicus, 99 Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, 34 Rhipicephalus bursa and 30 Rhipicephalus annulatus. Overall infection rate of Anaplasma spp. was 5.6% (20/357 analyzed ticks). All positive ticks were collected from goats and found to be infected by A. ovis. R. turanicus is the most infected tick species by A. ovis (7.9%) followed by R. sanguineus s.l. (2.5%) with an absence of infection in R. bursa and R. annulatus. A. ovis prevalence rate varied significantly according to bioclimatic areas and geographic regions. GroEL typing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that these analyzed ticks are infected with various and novel strains of A. ovis. The use of PCR-RFLP method complemented with sequencing and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene confirm that one R. turanicus tick, positive to A. ovis, is co-infected with A. phagocytophilum-like 2 (0.3%). Specific A. phagocytophilum, A. phagocytophilum-like 1, A. marginale, A. centrale, A. bovis, and A. platys and related strains were not detected in any of the tested ticks. Present data expand knowledge about tick-borne bacteria present in ticks and further clarify the transmission cycles of these bacteria and their different elements in Tunisia.
  • Supplemental diagnosis and phylogeny of Myxobolus absonus (Cnidaria,
           Myxozoa) from the eye of the freshwater fish Pimelodus maculatus
           (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Sónia Rocha, Fernanda Rocha, Graça Casal, Ivete Mendonça, Elsa Oliveira, Saleh Al-Quraishy, Carlos Azevedo Myxobolus absonusCellere et al., 2002 was originally described as having free cysts in the opercular cavity of the freshwater fish Pimelodus maculatus in Brazil. The present study provides a supplemental description of this parasite from the eye of its type host, with basis on morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular data of the SSU rRNA gene. The parasite formed spherical whitish cysts, which wall presented numerous microvilli that attached to the collagen layers of the corneal stroma. Myxospores were oval in valvular and sutural view, measuring 13.2 ± 0.4 µm in length, 8.5 ± 0.4 µm in width, and 6.6 ± 0.3 µm in thickness. Two asymmetric pyriform polar capsules were located at the anterior pole: the larger 6.2 ± 0.4 µm long and 3.6 ± 0.3 µm wide, containing a polar filament coiled in 6 turns; and the smaller 3.5 ± 0.3 µm long and 1.9 ± 0.1 µm wide, containing a polar filament coiled in 4 turns. At the posterior pole, the sporoplasm displayed two nuclei and numerous spherical sporoplasmosomes. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony revealed M. absonus clustering within a well-supported clade with poorly-resolved internal nodes, amongst the SSU rRNA sequences of other myxobolids that infect siluriform and characiform fish hosts, as well as the perciform-infecting species Myxobolus acanthogobii, Triangula percae and Cardimyxobolus japonensis. This clade appeared separated from the other clades comprising most of the species that infect siluriform and characiform hosts, showing that more than one myxobolid lineage evolved while parasitizing these taxonomic groups of fish.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this articleSupplementary description of Myxobolus absonus parasitizing the eye of the siluriform fish Pimelodus maculatus in Brazil, on the basis of microscopic and molecular procedures. Phylogenetic analysis of siluriform-infecting myxobolids.
  • Glutathione S-transferase influences the fecundity of Schistosoma
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Chun-lian Tang, Hong-hua Zhou, Ya-wen Zhu, Jin Huang, Guo-bo Wang The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase (SjGST) on the developmental stages of the parasite. We found that the mRNA levels of GST were higher in schistosomula obtained from the host and the eggs than that in other developmental stages. SjGST was mainly distributed in the egg shells, teguments of the worms, and part of the parenchyma of the worms. GST knockdown with RNA interference in S. japonicum worms resulted in a silencing rate higher than 80%. The egg reduction rate (18%) and abnormal egg ratio (28%) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the GST-silenced group than in the negative control group. These results indicate that SjGST plays an important role in the fecundity of S. japonicum, specifically in egg formation.
  • Usnic acid potassium salt from Cladonia substellata (Lichen): Synthesis,
           cytotoxicity and in vitro anthelmintic activity and ultrastructural
           analysis against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Hallysson D.A. Araújo, André L. Aires, Caroline L.R. Soares, Thaíse G.S. Brito, Weber M. Nascimento, Mônica C.B. Martins, Teresinha G. Silva, Fábio A. Brayner, Luiz C. Alves, Nicácio H. Silva, Mônica C.P.A Albuquerque, Vera L.M Lima We report for the first time the in vitro effect of Potassium Salt, derived from Usnic Acid (PS-UA), isolated from the lichen Cladonia substellata Vanio, on couples of Schistosoma mansoni. As schistosomicide parameters, we evaluated mortality, motility, cell viability of the worms and tegument changes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Exposure to a concentration of 100 μM caused 75% mortality after 3 h. After 6 h, changes in motility in concentrations of 50 and 25 μM are evidenced. After 12 h and 24h, the concentrations of 50 and 100 μM caused 6.25% and 87.5% and 50% and 100% mortality, respectively. PS-UA reduced the cell viability of the worms by 27.36% and 52.82% at concentrations 50 and 100 μM, respectively. Through SEM we observed progressive dose-and time-dependent, alterations such as swelling, blisters, dorsoventral contraction, erosion until disintegration of the tubercles in the tegument of male and female. PS-UA did not alter the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and showed high selectivity indices (IC50> 200 μM). Our results indicate that PS-UA represents a possible candidate for a new anthelmintic drug in the control of schistosomiasis.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Mechanisms of Pyrethroid Resistance in Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti from
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Angélica Aponte, R. Patricia Penilla, Américo D. Rodríguez, Clara B. Ocampo In Colombia Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is the main vector of urban arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika. This urban mosquito has a well-established capacity to develop insecticide resistance to different types of insecticides (pyrethroids, organochlorides, organophosphates), using multiple resistance mechanisms. An understanding of ongoing resistance mechanisms is critical to determining the activities of vector control programs.In order to identify the biochemical and molecular mechanisms associated with pyrethroid resistance in Colombia, three laboratory-selected strains resistant to DDT, Propoxur and lambdacyhalothrin, and 7 field-collected strains were evaluated. CDC bioassays were performed to measure the susceptibility status to pyrethroid type I (permethrin) and II (deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin), and potential cross-resistance to different types of insecticides; organochlorine (DDT), carbamates (propoxur) and organophosphates (malathion). The enzymatic activity of esterases, glutathione S-transferases (GST) and P450 monooxygenases were biochemically determined. Frequencies of kdr mutations Val1016Ile and Phe1534cys were determined through real-time PCR. The Rockefeller strain of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti was used as the susceptible control.The laboratory-selected strains “propoxur” and “lambdacyhalothrin” and one field population (Medellín (BF) F2 were resistant to all evaluated pyrethroids. Six of the seven field populations as well as the laboratory- selected “DDT” strain were resistant to permethrin. All the evaluated strains were resistant to DDT. Cross-resistance between lambdacyhalothrin and propoxur was observed in the laboratory-selected strains; however, all field-collected strains were susceptible to propoxur and no evidence of malathion resistance was found. The main biochemical mechanism for resistance observed in the field-collected strains was related to the enzyme GST. Further, the frequencies of kdr mutations alleles associated with insecticide resistance were high and ranged from 0.02 to 0.72 for Ile1016 and from 0.44 to 0.99 for Cys1534. Strains with high frequencies of both kdr mutations were resistant to both type I and II pyrethroids. These results suggest that Ae. aegypti from Colombia have developed multiple resistance mechanisms associated with pyrethroid resistance; therefore a resistance management strategy against these field populations of Ae. Aegypti, incorporating these findings is strongly recommended.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Comparison of stool examination techniques to detect Opisthorchis
           viverrini in low intensity infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Lakhanawan Charoensuk, Ittisak Subrungruang, Mathirut Mungthin, Somchai Pinlaor, Picha Suwannahitatorn Opisthorchiasis, caused by Opisthorchis viverrini, remains the public health significance in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern region. Number of parasitological techniques is available for diagnosis. However, the detection the parasite’s eggs in stool still referred as gold standard. Today, most people living in the endemic areas harbored the light infection. In this study, we compared the performance of formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT), Kato-Katz technique, fecal parasite concentrator kit (FPCK) and direct simple smear technique for O. viverrini egg examination in stool. The results revealed that the FECT gave the best sensitivity (91.0%) followed by Kato-Katz technique, FPCK and direct simple smear techniques. Interestingly, the FECT showed the highest sensitivity in both groups of egg per gram (EPG)
  • Microevolution of medically important mosquitoes – A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Lincoln Suesdek This review intends to discuss central issues of microevolution of mosquito (Culicidae) vectors of several pathogens and how this process impacts vector biology, disease transmission and vector control attempts. On the microevolutionary context, it comparatively discuss traditional points such as the current knowledge on population genetics of representatives of the genera Aedes, Anopheles and Culex and comment on insecticide resistance of culicids. It also discusses other biological aspects of culicids not usually addressed in microevolutionary studies, such as vectorial competence, endosymbiosis, and wing morphology. One of the conclusions is that mosquitoes are highly genetically variable, adaptable, fast evolving and have versatile vectorial competence. Unveiling microevolutionary patterns is fundamental for designing and maintenance of all control programs. Sampling methods for assessing microevolution must be standardized and follow meaningful guidelines, such as those of “landscape genetics”. A good understanding of microevolution requires more than a collection of study cases on population genetics and resistance. Future research could deal not only with the microevolution sensu stricto, but also with evolutionarily meaningful issues, such as inheritable characters, epigenetics, physiological cost-free plasticity, vector immunity, organisms-mosquito coevolution and environmental variables. It is proposed a genotyping panel for seeking adaptive phenotypes as part of standardization of population genetics methods. If we integrate all of suggestions to tackle mosquito evolution, a revolution can be provoked in the global scenario of vector borne diseases.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this articleMetaphorically, Microevolution and Mosquito Control are opposite weights in a balance, as control efforts are jeopardized by the rapid mosquito microevolution. The main elements of each force are represented in the weights.
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