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Showing 1 - 200 of 3031 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 79, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 389, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Acta Tropica
  [SJR: 1.059]   [H-I: 77]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-706X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Rodent-borne Trypanosoma from cities and villages of Niger and Nigeria: A
           special role for the invasive genus Rattus?
    • Authors: C. Tatard; M. Garba; P. Gauthier; K. Hima; E. Artige; D.K.H.J. Dossou; S. Gagaré; G. Genson; P. Truc; G. Dobigny
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): C. Tatard, M. Garba, P. Gauthier, K. Hima, E. Artige, D.K.H.J. Dossou, S. Gagaré, G. Genson, P. Truc, G. Dobigny
      Although they are known to sometimes infect humans, atypical trypanosomes are very poorly documented, especially in Africa where one lethal case has yet been described. Here we conducted a survey of rodent-borne Trypanosoma in 19 towns and villages of Niger and Nigeria, with a special emphasis on Niamey, the capital city of Niger. The 1298 rodents that were captured yielded 189 qPCR-positive animals from 14 localities, thus corresponding to a 14.6% overall prevalence. Rats, especially black rats, displayed particularly elevated prevalence (27.4%), with some well sampled sites showing 40–50% and up to 68.8% of Trypanosoma-carrying individuals. Rattus were also characterized by significantly lower Ct values than in the other non-Rattus species. DNA sequences could be obtained for 43 rodent-borne Trypanosoma and corresponded to 41 T. lewisi (all from Rattus) and 2 T. microti (from Cricetomys gambianus). These results, together with data compiled from the available literature, suggest that Rattus may play a particular role for the maintaining and circulation of Trypanosoma, especially T. lewisi, in Africa. Taken into account its strong abilities to invade coastal and inland regions of the continent, we believe that this genus deserves a particular attention in regards to potentially under-looked but emerging atypical trypanosome-related diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-04-15T14:19:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.027
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Characterization of the zoonotic potential of Toxoplasma gondii in horses
           from Rio de Janeiro State
    • Authors: Sabrina S. Venturi; Andressa F. da Silva; Edwards Frazão-Teixeira; Francisco C.R. de Oliveira; Angélica Consalter; Felipe G.F. Padilha; Ana Beatriz M. Fonseca; Ana M. Reis Ferreira
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Sabrina S. Venturi, Andressa F. da Silva, Edwards Frazão-Teixeira, Francisco C.R. de Oliveira, Angélica Consalter, Felipe G.F. Padilha, Ana Beatriz M. Fonseca, Ana M. Reis Ferreira
      The aim of this study was to perform a survey on the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in horses from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. From 2012 to 2013, a total of 624 blood samples were collected from horses from the eight regions comprising Rio de Janeiro State (Baixadas Litorâneas, Serrana, Norte Fluminense, Noroeste Fluminense, Centro-Sul, Metropolitana, Médio Paraíba, and Costa Verde). All sera samples were tested for anti-T. gondii antibodies by performing the modified agglutination test with a cut-off of 1:25. Positive serology for T. gondii was detected in 22.8% (142/624) of the horses studied. Seropositivity was detected in all regions sampled; furthermore, statistical significance was observed when all locations were compared at once. The Médio Paraíba region had the highest number of positive animals 54.76% (23/42) in the Bonferroni correction among Costa Verde, Centro Sul, Metropolitana, and Serrana (p<0.001). Seropositivity was 39.58% (38/96) in Norte Fluminense, which was the second most prevalent region. The results indicated that the T. gondii parasite is widely distributed in horses in Rio de Janeiro State and represents a risk to public and animal health. These findings emphasize the need to increase control and prevention of this disease in horses.

      PubDate: 2017-04-15T14:19:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.036
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Expression, purification and in vitro refolding of the recombinant
           truncated Saposin-like protein 2 antigen for development of diagnosis of
           human fascioliasis
    • Authors: Abolfazl Mirzadeh; Zarrintaj Valadkhani; Asiyeh Yoosefy; Jalal Babaie; Majid Golkar; Ahmad Reza Esmaeili Rastaghi; Elham Kazemi-Rad; Keyhan Ashrafi
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Abolfazl Mirzadeh, Zarrintaj Valadkhani, Asiyeh Yoosefy, Jalal Babaie, Majid Golkar, Ahmad Reza Esmaeili Rastaghi, Elham Kazemi-Rad, Keyhan Ashrafi
      Early diagnosis of fascioliasis is critical in prevention of injury to the liver and bile ducts. Saposin-like protein (FhSAP-2) is probably the most ideal antigen of Fasciola hepatica for development of ELISA kits. SAP-2 has a conserved tertiary structure containing three disulfide bonds and conformational epitopes. Therefore, antigenicity of SAP-2 is greatly depends on disulfide bond formation and proper folding. We produced the recombinant truncated SAP-2 (rtSAP-2) in the SHuffle® T7 and Rosetta strain of Escherichia coli, in soluble and insoluble forms, respectively and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). The refolding process of denatured rtSAP-2 was performed using dialysis and dilution methods in the presence of chemical additives, along with reduced/oxidized glutathione (in vitro). Physicochemical studies, including non-reducing gel electrophoresis, Ellman's assay, Western blotting and ELISA showed the most antigenicity and likely correct folding of rtSAP-2, which was obtained by dialysis method. An IgG ELISA test was developed using rtSAP-2 refolded by dialysis and compared with excretory/secretory products of parasite with 52 positive fascioliasis samples, 79 other parasitic samples and 70 negative controls samples. The results exhibited 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity for rtSAP-2, also, 100% and 95.3% for excretory/secretory (E/S) antigen, respectively. In conclusion, it is suggested that rtSAP-2 with the correct folding could be used as a candidate antigen for detection of human fascioliasis.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-15T14:19:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Occurrence and molecular characterization of hemoplasmas in domestic dogs
           and wild mammals in a Brazilian wetland
    • Authors: Keyla Carstens Marques de Sousa; Heitor Miraglia Herrera; Caroline Tostes Secato; André do Vale Oliveira; Filipe Martins Santos; Fabiana Lopes Rocha; Wanessa Teixeira Gomes Barreto; Gabriel Carvalho Macedo; Pedro Cordeiro Estrela de Andrade Pinto; Rosangela Zacarias Machado; Mirela Tinucci Costa; Marcos Rogério André
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Keyla Carstens Marques de Sousa, Heitor Miraglia Herrera, Caroline Tostes Secato, André do Vale Oliveira, Filipe Martins Santos, Fabiana Lopes Rocha, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes Barreto, Gabriel Carvalho Macedo, Pedro Cordeiro Estrela de Andrade Pinto, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Mirela Tinucci Costa, Marcos Rogério André
      Hemotropic mycoplasmas are known to cause anemia in several mammalian species. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Mycoplasma spp. in wild mammals, domestic dogs and their respective ectoparasites, in southern Pantanal region, central-western Brazil. Between August 2013 and March 2015, 31 Nasua nasua, 78 Cerdocyon thous, seven Leopardus pardalis, 42 dogs, 110 wild rodents, and 30 marsupials were trapped and ectoparasites (ticks and fleas) found parasitizing the animals were collected. Mammals and ectoparasites DNA samples were submitted to conventional PCR assays for Mycoplasma spp. targeting 16S rRNA and RnaseP genes. Twenty-four N. nasua, three C. thous, two domestic dogs, one L. pardalis and one wild rodent were positive for 16S rRNA PCR protocols. Fourteen N. nasua samples were also positive in RnaseP PCR. No marsupial or arthropod showed positivity for Mycoplasma spp. The phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene showed that all sequences obtained from dogs, two sequences obtained from C. thous and ten sequences obtained from N. nasua showed to be closely related to Mycoplasma haemocanis/Mycoplasma haemofelis species. Genotypes closely related to ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and Mycoplasma haemomuris were detected in the L. pardalis and in the wild rodent, respectively. Probably a novel Mycoplasma genotype, closely related to a sequence obtained from a Brazilian capybara was detected in 14 N. nasua, based on a concatenated phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and RnaseP genes. The present study revealed that wild animals in southern Pantanal region, Brazil, are exposed to different species of hemoplasmas.

      PubDate: 2017-04-15T14:19:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.030
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Molecular characterization of Camelpox virus isolates from Bikaner, India:
           Evidence of its endemicity
    • Authors: Shyam Singh Dahiya; Sachin Kumar; Sharat Chandra Mehta; Raghvendar Singh; Kashi Nath; Shirish D. Narnaware; Fateh Chand Tuteja
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Shyam Singh Dahiya, Sachin Kumar, Sharat Chandra Mehta, Raghvendar Singh, Kashi Nath, Shirish D. Narnaware, Fateh Chand Tuteja
      Camelpox is an important viral disease of camels, which may produce mild skin lesions or severe systemic infections. Camelpox virus (CMLV) isolates retrieved from an incidence of camelpox in camels at Bikaner, India were characterized on the basis of genotype and pathotype. Histopathological examination of the CMLV scab revealed intracytoplasmic-eosinophilic inclusion bodies. The phylogenetic analysis of all eight CMLV isolates for C18L gene nucleotide sequence revealed its clustering with its strains M-96 from Kazakhstan and CMS from Iran. The study will help to understand the transmission chain, pathobiology, and epidemiology of circulating CMLV strains. The full genome sequencing of some of the exemplary samples of CMLV is recommended in order to plan and implement a suitable control strategy.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T21:15:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • What is the future of intestinal parasitic diseases in developing
    • Authors: Elizabeth Brito da Silva Alves; Maria José Conceição; Valmir Laurentino Silva; Ana Beatriz Monteiro Fonseca; Daniela Leles
      Pages: 6 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Elizabeth Brito da Silva Alves, Maria José Conceição, Valmir Laurentino Silva, Ana Beatriz Monteiro Fonseca, Daniela Leles

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T21:15:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Probing the efficacy of a heterologous Leishmania/L. Viannia braziliensis
           recombinant enolase as a candidate vaccine to restrict the development of
           L. infantum in BALB/c mice
    • Authors: Thaís T.O. Santos; Vívian T. Martins; Daniela P. Lage; Lourena E. Costa; Beatriz C.S. Salles; Ana M.R.S. Carvalho; Daniel S. Dias; Patrícia A.F. Ribeiro; Miguel A. Chávez-Fumagalli; Ricardo A. Machado-de-Ávila; Bruno M. Roatt; Danielle F. de Magalhães-Soares; Daniel Menezes-Souza; Eduardo A.F. Coelho; Mariana C. Duarte
      Pages: 8 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Thaís T.O. Santos, Vívian T. Martins, Daniela P. Lage, Lourena E. Costa, Beatriz C.S. Salles, Ana M.R.S. Carvalho, Daniel S. Dias, Patrícia A.F. Ribeiro, Miguel A. Chávez-Fumagalli, Ricardo A. Machado-de-Ávila, Bruno M. Roatt, Danielle F. de Magalhães-Soares, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Eduardo A.F. Coelho, Mariana C. Duarte
      In the present study, the Leishmania braziliensis enolase protein was evaluated as a vaccine candidate against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The DNA sequence was cloned and the recombinant protein (rEnolase) was evaluated as a vaccine, associated with saponin, as an immune adjuvant. The protective efficacy of the rEnolase plus saponin combination was investigated in BALB/c mice against Leishmania infantum infection. The results revealed that the vaccine induced higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, and GM-CSF when a capture ELISA and flow cytometry were performed, as well as an antileishmanial nitrite production after using in vitro stimulation with rEnolase and an antigenic Leishmania preparation. The vaccinated animals, when compared to the control groups, showed a lower parasite burden in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and paws’ draining lymph nodes when both a limiting dilution technique and RT-PCR assay were performed. In addition, these mice showed low levels of antileishmanial IL-4, IL-10, and anti-Leishmania IgG1 isotype antibodies. Partial protection was associated with IFN-γ production, which was mainly mediated by CD4+ T cells. In conclusion, the present study’s data showed that the L. braziliensis enolase protein could be considered a vaccine candidate that offers heterologous protection against VL.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T10:07:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Immunization with Toxoplasma gondii aspartic protease 3 increases survival
           time of infected mice
    • Authors: Guanghui Zhao; Xiaojie Song; Xiangnan Kong; Ning Zhang; Shaoling Qu; Wei Zhu; Yanyan Yang; Qian Wang
      Pages: 17 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Guanghui Zhao, Xiaojie Song, Xiangnan Kong, Ning Zhang, Shaoling Qu, Wei Zhu, Yanyan Yang, Qian Wang
      Aspartic proteases in the Toxoplasma gondii, called TgASP1, 2, 3, and 5, play essential roles in the life cycle. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that TgASP1 is an antigen that prolongs survival time of infected mice. As an in-depth study, we have investigated the protective immunity of TgSAP3. A bioinformatic analysis was used to predict the linear B-cell epitopes and potential Th-cell epitopes on TgASP3, the results suggested that it has a large number of excellent epitopes. Mice were inoculated with a recombinant eukaryotic expression vector to evaluate the immune protection against an infection with the virulent RH strain of T. gondii. The enhanced immune response and increased survival time (up to 18days) were observed for vaccinated mice, showing that the TgASP3 antigen can provides partial protection.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T10:07:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.02.030
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Transdermal delivery of oleanolic acid attenuates pro-inflammatory
           cytokine release and ameliorates anaemia in P. berghei malaria
    • Authors: Happiness Sibiya; Cephas T. Musabayane; Musa V. Mabandla
      Pages: 24 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Happiness Sibiya, Cephas T. Musabayane, Musa V. Mabandla
      Malaria remains a major health problem in many tropical areas. Severe malaria infection is associated with secondary complications including anaemia leading to a need for the search of affordable antimalarial agents that can clear the parasitaemia and ameliorate anaemia during infection. The current study investigated the effects of transdermally delivered OA on malaria parasites, HCT and selected plasma cytokine concentrations in P. berghei-infected male Sprague-Dawley rats. The study was carried out over a period of 21days, divided into pre-treatment (day 0–7), treatment (day 8–12) and post-treatment (day 13–21) periods. Parasitaemia, HCT, RBC count, Hgb, plasma TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations were monitored in non-infected and infected rats following a once-off application of an OA-pectin patch (34mg/kg). Animals treated with drug-free pectin and CHQ (30mg/kg, p.o) twice daily for 5 consecutive days acted as negative and positive controls respectively. Infected control animals exhibited increased percentage parasitaemia, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and a reduction in HCT. Interestingly, OA-pectin patch application cleared the malaria parasites and increased HCT values back to normalcy. Furthermore, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were reduced by day 12 of the study. These findings suggest that the OA-pectin patch delivers therapeutic doses of OA which are able to attenuate cytokine release and ameliorate anaemia during malaria infection. Therefore, transdermally delivered OA may be a potent therapeutic agent for malaria and amelioration of anaemia.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T10:07:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Bionomics of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic region of
           Sungai Nyamuk village, Sebatik Island – North Kalimantan, Indonesia
    • Authors: Sugiarto; Upik Kesumawati Hadi; Susi Soviana; Lukman Hakim
      Pages: 30 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Sugiarto, Upik Kesumawati Hadi, Susi Soviana, Lukman Hakim
      The bionomics of Anopheles was investigated in coastal Sungai Nyamuk Village, Nunukan District, North Kalimantan Province from August 2010 to January 2012. Mosquitoes were captured using human landing collections. A total of 5103 Anopheles mosquitoes comprising 11 species were caught and 2259 adult parous females were tested by ELISA for Plasmodium antigen. Anopheles vagus, An. sundaicus and An. subpictus were the most abundant species caught. Overall, Anopheles vagus were zoophilic and exophagic, but there was variation between species. Anopheles sundaicus and An. subpictus were anthropophilic and endophagic. Anopheles peditaeniatus and An. sundaicus collected biting humans outdoors were positive for P. falciparum protein and were incriminated as the likely vectors of malaria in Sungai Nyamuk Village. This research also showed that malaria transmission in Sungai Nyamuk Village occurred outdoors. Residual house spraying therefore would not protect the human population from vector contact, so that combination use of long lasting nets and personel protection is needed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T10:07:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Gene expression modulation of ABC transporter genes in response to
           permethrin in adults of the mosquito malaria vector Anopheles stephensi
    • Authors: Valentina Mastrantonio; Marco Ferrari; Sara Epis; Agata Negri; Giulia Scuccimarra; Matteo Montagna; Guido Favia; Daniele Porretta; Sandra Urbanelli; Claudio Bandi
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Valentina Mastrantonio, Marco Ferrari, Sara Epis, Agata Negri, Giulia Scuccimarra, Matteo Montagna, Guido Favia, Daniele Porretta, Sandra Urbanelli, Claudio Bandi
      Living organisms have evolved an array of genes coding for detoxifying enzymes and efflux protein pumps, to cope with endogenous and xenobiotic toxic compounds. The study of the genes activated during toxic exposure is relevant to the area of arthropod vector control, since these genes are one of the targets upon which natural selection acts for the evolution of insecticide resistance. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters participate to insecticide detoxification acting as efflux pumps, that reduce the intracellular concentration of toxic compounds, or of their metabolic derivatives. Here we analyzed the modulation of the expression of six genes coding for ABC transporters, after the exposure of adult females and males of the mosquito Anopheles stephensi, a major malaria vector in Asia, to permethrin. Male and female mosquitoes were exposed to insecticide for one hour, then the expression profiles of the ABC transporter genes AnstABCB2, AnstABCB3, AnstABCB4, AnstABCBmember6, AnstABCC11, and AnstABCG4 were analysed after one and 24h. Our results showed that three genes (AnstABCB2, AnstABCBmember6, AnstABCG4) were up-regulated in both sexes; two of these (AnstABCBmember6 and AnstABCG4) have previously been shown to be up-regulated also in larval stages of An. stephensi, supporting a role for these genes in permethrin defence in larvae as well as in adults. Finally, the same ABC transporter genes were activated both in females and males; however, the timing of gene induction was different, with a prompter induction in females than in males.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T10:07:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax
           malaria among outpatients at Shawa Robit Health Care Centre, North-East
    • Authors: Seble Seifu; Ahmed Zeynudin; Endalew Zemene; Sultan Suleman; Abdissa Biruksew
      Pages: 44 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Seble Seifu, Ahmed Zeynudin, Endalew Zemene, Sultan Suleman, Abdissa Biruksew
      Nearly 40% of all malaria infection in Ethiopia is caused by Plasmodium vivax. Chloroquine (CQ) is the first line treatment for confirmed P. vivax malaria in the country. However, the efficacy of this drug has been compromised by CQ resistant P. vivax (CRPv) strains. Therefore, the present study was aimed at assessing the therapeutic efficacy of CQ for treatment of P. vivax malaria at Shawa Robit Health Care Centre, North-Ease Ethiopia. A one-arm, 28-day follow-up, in vivo therapeutic efficacy study was conducted from October 2013 to February 2014. Eighty-seven patients with microscopically confirmed P. vivax mono – infection aged between 1 and 65 years were enrolled and treated with a 25mg/kg CQ administered for three consecutive days under supervision. Socio-demographic and clinical information were collected. Blood smears were prepared and examined for parasite clearance or recurrence of parasitaemia. Clinical examination was performed at all follow-up visits. Haematocrit determination was made. Percentages, frequencies, Kaplan–Meier survival probability analysis and statistical associations were computed. P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. From the total 87 patients included in the study 76 (87.4%) completed their 28-day follow-up; four patients were excluded due to P. falciparum infection during the follow up (on day 2, day 7 and day 14) and seven cases were lost to follow-up (on day 3, day 7 and day 14). Among those P. vivax infected individuals, 44 (50.6%) subjects were febrile on day of admission and the remaining had history of fever. From the 76 study participants who completed the 28-day follow up period, late parasitological failure (LPF) was observed in five (6.6%) cases. The geometric mean of parasite density was 8723.9/μl and mean haematocrit value was 35.45%. Besides, survival analysis showed that the cumulative incidence of success and failure rates at day 28 was 93.4% (95% CI=0.849–0.972) and 7.04% (95% CI=0.028–0.151), respectively. The current study unveils possible emergence of CRPv malaria in the study area. Regular and periodic evaluation of the efficacy of CQ should be conducted to monitor the spread of CRPv strains.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T10:07:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.02.027
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • The natural history of cystic echinococcosis in untreated and
           albendazole-treated patients
    • Authors: N. Solomon; M. Kachani; E. Zeyhle; C.N.L. Macpherson
      Pages: 52 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): N. Solomon, M. Kachani, E. Zeyhle, C.N.L. Macpherson
      The World Health Organization (WHO) treatment protocols for cystic echinococcosis (CE) are based on the standardized ultrasound (US) classification. This study examined whether the classification reflected the natural history of CE in untreated and albendazole-treated patients. Data were collected during mass US screenings in CE endemic regions among transhumant populations, the Turkana and Berber peoples of Kenya and Morocco. Cysts were classified using the WHO classification. Patient records occurring prior to treatment, and after albendazole administration, were selected. 852 paired before/after observations of 360 cysts from 257 patients were analyzed. A McNemar-Bowker χ2 test for symmetry was significant (p<0.0001). 744 observations (87.3%) maintained the same class, and 101 (11.9%) progressed, consistent with the classification. Regression to CE3B occurred in seven of 116 CE4 cyst observations (6.0%). A McNemar-Bowker χ2 test of 1414 paired before/after observations of 288 cysts from 157 albendazole-treated patients was significant (p<0.0001). 1236 observations (87.4%) maintained the same class, and 149 (10.5%) progressed, consistent with the classification. Regression to CE3B occurred in 29 of 206 CE4 observations (14.1%). Significant asymmetry confirms the WHO classification’s applicability to the natural history of CE and albendazole-induced changes. Regressions may reflect the stability of CE3B cysts.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T11:11:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Malaria overdiagnosis and subsequent overconsumption of antimalarial drugs
           in Angola: Consequences and effects on human health
    • Authors: Sylvie Manguin; Vincent Foumane; Patrick Besnard; Filomeno Fortes; Pierre Carnevale
      Pages: 58 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Sylvie Manguin, Vincent Foumane, Patrick Besnard, Filomeno Fortes, Pierre Carnevale
      Microscopic blood smear examinations done in health centers of Angola demonstrated a large overdiagnosis of malaria cases with an average rate of errors as high as 85%. Overall 83% of patients who received Coartem® had an inappropriate treatment. Overestimated malaria diagnosis was noticed even when specific symptoms were part of the clinical observation, antimalarial treatments being subsequently given. Then, malaria overdiagnosis has three main consequences, (i) the lack of data reliability is of great concern, impeding epidemiological records and evaluation of the actual influence of operations as scheduled by the National Malaria Control Programme; (ii) the large misuse of antimalarial drug can increase the selective pressure for resistant strain and can make a false consideration of drug resistant P. falciparum crisis; and (iii) the need of strengthening national health centers in term of human, with training in microscopy, and equipment resources to improve malaria diagnosis with a large scale use of rapid diagnostic tests associated with thick blood smears, backed up by a “quality control” developed by the national health authorities. Monitoring of malaria cases was done in three Angolan health centers of Alto Liro (Lobito town) and neighbor villages of Cambambi and Asseque (Benguéla Province) to evaluate the real burden of malaria. Carriers of Plasmodium among patients of newly-borne to 14 years old, with or without fever, were analyzed and compared to presumptive malaria cases diagnosed in these health centers. Presumptive malaria cases were diagnosed six times more than the positive thick blood smears done on the same children. In Alto Liro health center, the percentage of diagnosis error reached 98%, while in Cambambi and Asseque it was of 79% and 78% respectively. The percentage of confirmed malaria cases was significantly higher during the dry (20.2%) than the rainy (13.2%) season. These observations in three peripheral health centers confirmed what has already been noticed in other malaria endemic regions, and highlight the need for an accurate evaluation of the Malaria control programme implemented in Angola.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T11:11:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.022
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Domestic dogs as reservoir hosts for Leishmania donovani in the
           southernmost Western Ghats in India
    • Authors: P. Jambulingam; N. Pradeep Kumar; S. Nandakumar; K.P. Paily; R. Srinivasan
      Pages: 64 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): P. Jambulingam, N. Pradeep Kumar, S. Nandakumar, K.P. Paily, R. Srinivasan
      The peripheral blood samples from domestic dogs (n=47) and wild rats (n=25) in the Kani Tribe settlements, located southernmost part of the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India were examined for Leishmania infection. This area is known for cases of leishmaniasis with cutaneous manifestations and sandfly abundance. The tribes domesticate dogs to protect them from untoward activities of wild animals. Leishmania donovani parasite DNA was detected only from 6.4% (n=3) of the blood samples collected from the domestic dogs by amplification of the diagnostic kinetoplast mini-circle DNA and PCR-RFLP analysis of the UTR region of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene. None of the blood samples collected from rats was positive. Through sequencing, L. donovani infection among dogs was confirmed. The DNA sequences generated for hsp70 were deposited with the GenBank. The GenBank accession numbers of these samples are KR905363, KR905364 and KR905365 for hsp70 genes. The results indicated that the DNA isolates from dog blood samples matched precisely with that of our earlier isolates from skin lesions of Kani tribes and also from P. argentipes vector. Thus, the role of dogs as reservoirs for L. donovani parasite in the Kani tribe settlements is confirmed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T11:11:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Detection of high Leishmania infantum loads in Phlebotomus perniciosus
           captured in the leishmaniasis focus of southwestern Madrid region (Spain)
           by real time PCR
    • Authors: Estela González; Ana Álvarez; Sonia Ruiz; Ricardo Molina; Maribel Jiménez
      Pages: 68 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Estela González, Ana Álvarez, Sonia Ruiz, Ricardo Molina, Maribel Jiménez
      Since 2010 a human leishmaniasis outbreak has been notified in southwestern Madrid region that still remains active. Entomological surveys have been carried out in the affected area in order to obtain information about species diversity, distribution, and density of sand flies. Moreover, molecular identification of blood meal preferences of sand flies and molecular detection of Leishmania infantum has been performed. In this work, we optimized a real time PCR assay in order to determine parasite loads in unfed and blood-fed Phlebotomus perniciosus female sand flies caught in the focus area. Results showed elevated parasite loads in nearly 70% of the studied positive sand flies. Furthermore, significantly higher parasite loads were observed in females without blood in their guts. In conclusion, high L. infantum loads found in P. perniciosus sand flies from the Madrid focus support the exceptional characteristics of this outbreak.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T11:11:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.023
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Response of iNOS and its relationship with IL-22 and STAT3 in macrophage
           activity in the polar forms of leprosy
    • Authors: Jorge Rodrigues de Sousa; Raphael Primo Martins de Sousa; Tinara Leila de Souza Aarão; Leonidas Braga Dias; Francisca Regina Oliveira Carneiro; Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma
      Pages: 74 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Jorge Rodrigues de Sousa, Raphael Primo Martins de Sousa, Tinara Leila de Souza Aarão, Leonidas Braga Dias, Francisca Regina Oliveira Carneiro, Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma
      Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection that manifests as different clinical forms related to the immunological response. The aim of the study was to evaluated the response of IL-22, STAT3, CD68 and iNOS in leprosy skin lesions. The mean number IL-22 positive cells was 12.12±1.90cells/field in the TT form and 31.31±2.91cells/field in the LL form. STAT3 positive cells was 5.29±1.96 cells/field in the TT form, while this number was 11.13±3.48cells/field in the LL form. The mean number of CD68 positive cells was 25.18±6.21cells/field in the TT form and 62.81±8.13cells/field in the LL form. Quantitative analysis of iNOS revealed a significant difference, with the mean number of cells expressing the enzyme being 30.24±2.88cells/field in the TT form compared to 35.44±4.69cells/field in the LL form. Linear correlations in lesions of TT patients showed a moderate positive correlations between CD68 and iNOS, STAT3 and Inos, IL-22 and STAT3, and IL-22 and iNOS. Our results demonstrate that these factors can act synergistically to induce a microbicidal activity in the population of macrophages in the leprosy lesions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T11:11:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • TsPKA-r: a potential immunodiagnostic antigen for the detection of porcine
    • Authors: Guangxue Liu; Panhong Liang; Shaohua Zhang; Aijiang Guo; Lijie Wang; Yadong Zheng; Xuenong Luo
      Pages: 80 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Guangxue Liu, Panhong Liang, Shaohua Zhang, Aijiang Guo, Lijie Wang, Yadong Zheng, Xuenong Luo
      Cysticercosis, caused by metacestodes of Taenia solium, has a significant soci-economic impact and is of considerable importance in public health. However, there are no specific diagnostic antigens to distinguish between T. solim and Taenia hydatigena. In the present study, cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit (TsPKA-r), an excretory/secretary (ES) antigen of T. solium, was used to establish a specific and sensitive diagnostic tool for detection of porcine cysticercosis. The full-length sequence encoding TsPKA-r was amplified by PCR, sequenced and then identified by bioinformatics. The fusion protein with 6×His-tags was expressed in E. coli, purified by Ni Sepharose™ 6 Fast Flow and used to test reactionogenicity by immunoblotting. TsPKA-r based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (iELISA) showed good performance in recognition of sera of pigs experimentally infected with T. solium metacestodes, with 93.88% sensitivity and 96.40% specificity. There were no cross-reactions against the sera from pigs experimentally infected with T. hydatigena, Toxoplasma gondii or Trichinella spiralis. These results indicate that the TsPKA-r is a promising immunodiagnostic antigen for detection of porcine cysticercosis.

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T11:11:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.026
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • First record of Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894) on São tomé island
    • Authors: Sandra Reis; Anthony J. Cornel; Martim Melo; Hugo Pereira; Claire Loiseau
      Pages: 86 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Sandra Reis, Anthony J. Cornel, Martim Melo, Hugo Pereira, Claire Loiseau
      Biological invasions have critical impacts on native biodiversity and human societies and especially on oceanic islands that are fragile and threatened ecosystems. The invasive tiger mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) native to Southeast Asia has been introduced during the past 30 years almost everywhere in the world, including the Americas, the Pacific, Europe and Africa. It has been reported for the first time in the Gulf of Guinea in 2000, first in Cameroon, then in Bioko Island in 2003 and more recently in Gabon in 2007. Here we report the first record of Ae. albopictus on São Tomé Island. Although we cannot estimate precisely the year of introduction on São Tomé Island, it most likely arrived within the last 10 years. By sequencing the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase gene from individual adults, we detected three haplotypes already present in mainland Africa. More studies are needed to explore the dynamics of its expansion and competition with insular native mosquitoes.

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T11:11:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.035
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Estimating occurrence of Strongyloides stercoralis in the Caribbean island
           countries: Implications for monitoring and control
    • Authors: Jennifer K. Ketzis; Anne Conan
      Pages: 90 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Jennifer K. Ketzis, Anne Conan
      Background Few data are available for the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in the Caribbean region. This frequently under diagnosed soil-transmitted helminth (STH) can result in long-term low intensity chronic infections that are asymptomatic or can cause varied intestinal disturbances. With autoinfections, infections lasting over 60 years can occur and hyperinfections lead to high morbidity and mortality. Methodology/principal findings Historical literature was searched to determine the prevalence of S. stercoralis in the Caribbean island countries with some additional countries and islands included for comparative data. A previously published model was used to calculate prevalence taking in to account the sensitivity of the diagnostic methods used. Data for 17 islands/Caribbean countries were found and sufficient data were located to calculate prevalence for 14 locations. Prevalence ranges from <1% to 20.3% and while it has decreased in many islands it has not decreased at the same rate as other STHs in the last 40 years within the Caribbean region. Conclusions/significance S. stercoralis continues to be an important STH within the Caribbean. Potential reasons for the current prevalence include: long lasting infections, populations not targeted with mass drug administration (MDA) programs being infected, low efficacy of commonly used drugs in MDA programs, and under-diagnosis resulting in infections not being treated.

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T11:11:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.037
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Taxonomy and polytene chromosomes of the Neotropical black fly Simulium
           perplexum (Diptera: Simuliidae)
    • Authors: Nayra Gomes da Silva; Neusa Hamada; Peter H. Adler
      Pages: 101 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Nayra Gomes da Silva, Neusa Hamada, Peter H. Adler
      Simulium perplexum Shelley, Maia-Herzog, Luna Dias & Couch is structurally similar in the pupal stage to Simulium guianense Wise, the main vector in the onchocerciasis foci of Amazonian Brazil and Venezuela. We report S. perplexum for the first time beyond its type locality (Guyana, Potaro River), describe its larva, redescribe its pupa, and provide a chromosomal comparison with S. guianense and other morphologically similar species. We collected it in two rivers in Rurópolis municipality, Pará state, Brazil. The larvae can be distinguished from those of related species by having body cuticle with microscopic, translucent, and lanceolate setae. Chromosomal comparisons of S. perplexum and similar Brazilian species with available chromosome information (S. guianense, S. hirtipupa Lutz, and S. litobranchium Hamada, Pepinelli, Mattos-Glória & Luz), using S. guianense Cytoform A as the standard, show that S. perplexum has the nucleolar organizer uniquely in the middle of the short arm of chromosome I, whereas the other three species have this marker at the base of the long arm of chromosome I. All chromosome arms, except IIS and IIIS, of S. perplexum are rearranged, compared with S. guianense Cytoform A, suggesting that it is not closely related to this species or to S. litobranchium, as suggested by some authors, based on morphological features.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T11:11:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.024
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Mosquitoes of the Caatinga: 2. Species from periodic sampling of
           bromeliads and tree holes in a dry Brazilian forest
    • Authors: Letícia Silva Marteis; Delsio Natal; Maria Anice Mureb Sallum; Antônio Ralph Medeiros-Sousa; Roseli La Corte
      Pages: 114 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Letícia Silva Marteis, Delsio Natal, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum, Antônio Ralph Medeiros-Sousa, Roseli La Corte
      The Caatinga is a dry tropical forest, located in the Brazilian semiarid region and rich in phytotelmata. This study investigated the culicid fauna of phytotelmata of the caatinga by sampling for 19 consecutive months aquatic immatures from tree holes and bromeliads. A total of 127L of water was taken from the plants, containing 6764 immature culicids of 16 species, of which 11 (69%) are undescribed and respond to 90% of the total abundance of the specimens collected. Epiphytic bromeliads harbor a large number of immature Culicidae, although terrestrial bromeliads are the most abundant and widely distributed in the region. The richness of culicid species was similar between terrestrial and epiphytic bromeliads and lower in habitats represented by tree hole phytotelmata. There was no similarity in the composition of culicid species that developed in bromeliads or tree holes. Temperature and humidity were the environmental parameters most strongly associated with the proportion of positive plants. The Caatinga has a great number of endemic species that remain unknown to science and many additional culicid species may await discovery from there.

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T11:11:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.031
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Bacterial arthropod-borne diseases in West Africa
    • Authors: C.B. Ehounoud; F. Fenollar; M. Dahmani; J.D. N’Guessan; D. Raoult; O. Mediannikov
      Pages: 124 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): C.B. Ehounoud, F. Fenollar, M. Dahmani, J.D. N’Guessan, D. Raoult, O. Mediannikov
      Arthropods such as ticks, lice, fleas and mites are excellent vectors for many pathogenic agents including bacteria, protozoa and viruses to animals. Moreover, many of these pathogens can also be accidentally transmitted to humans throughout the world. Bacterial vector-borne diseases seem to be numerous and very important in human pathology, however, they are often ignored and are not well known. Yet they are in a phase of geographic expansion and play an important role in the etiology of febrile episodes in regions of Africa. Since the introduction of molecular techniques, the presence of these pathogens has been confirmed in various samples from arthropods and animals, and more rarely from human samples in West Africa. In this review, the aim is to summarize the latest information about vector-borne bacteria, focusing on West Africa from 2000 until today in order to better understand the epidemiological risks associated with these arthropods. This will allow health and veterinary authorities to develop a strategy for surveillance of arthropods and bacterial disease in order to protect people and animals.

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T11:11:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.029
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Feeding behavior of Mimomyia (Etorleptiomyia) luzonensis (Ludlow, 1905)
           (Diptera, Culicidae) in Peninsular Malaysia
    • Authors: Kamil A. Braima; M. Muslimin; Amir-Ridhwan M. Ghazali; F. Wan-Nor; J.J. Wilson; J. Jeffery; N.M. Abdul-Aziz
      Pages: 138 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Kamil A. Braima, M. Muslimin, Amir-Ridhwan M. Ghazali, F. Wan-Nor, J.J. Wilson, J. Jeffery, N.M. Abdul-Aziz
      Mosquitoes are vectors of various human diseases in the tropics including yellow fever, dengue, malaria and West Nile virus. Mosquitoes can act as vectors between wildlife and humans, which is particularly important for diseases where wild animals serve as reservoirs of parasites in the absence of human infections. Research has mainly focused on the medical impacts of Anopheles, Aedes, Mansonia and Culex, however, very little attention has been directed towards other mosquito genera, especially those which act as vectors of diseases of wildlife. We have observed adults of Mimomyia (Etorleptiomyia) luzonensis (Ludlow, 1905) feeding on a toad, Ingerophrynus parvus, near an oil palm plantation settlement in Setia Alam, Selangor state, Peninsular Malaysia. Mimomyia is known to feed on reptiles and amphibians, and is a documented vector of several arboviruses, including West Nile virus. The observation of Mimomyia feeding on a common toad near a human settlement highlights a need to understand the relationships between mosquitoes, toads and humans from an ecological perspective. We report on-site observations of the feeding habit of Mimomyia; the first records from Malaysia.

      PubDate: 2017-04-15T14:19:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.025
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I haplotype diversity of Angiostrongylus
           cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae)
    • Authors: Praphathip Eamsobhana; Sze-Looi Song; Hoi-Sen Yong; Anchana Prasartvit; Sudarat Boonyong; Anchalee Tungtrongchitr
      Pages: 141 - 145
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Praphathip Eamsobhana, Sze-Looi Song, Hoi-Sen Yong, Anchana Prasartvit, Sudarat Boonyong, Anchalee Tungtrongchitr
      The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a food-borne zoonotic parasite of public health importance worldwide. It is the primary etiologic agent of eosinophilic meningitis and eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans in many countries. It is highly endemic in Thailand especially in the northeast region. In this study, A. cantonensis adult worms recovered from the lungs of wild rats in different geographical regions/provinces in Thailand were used to determine their haplotype by means of the mitochondrial partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequence. The results revealed three additional COI haplotypes of A. cantonensis. The geographical isolates of A. cantonensis from Thailand and other countries formed a monophyletic clade distinct from the closely related A. malaysiensis. In the present study, distinct haplotypes were identified in seven regions of Thailand – AC10 in Phitsanulok (northern region), AC11 in Nakhon Phanom (northeastern region), AC15 in Trat (eastern region), AC16 in Chantaburi (eastern region), AC4 in Samut Prakan (central region), AC14 in Kanchanaburi (western region), and AC13 in Ranong (southern region). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these haplotypes formed distinct lineages. In general, the COI sequences did not differentiate the worldwide geographical isolates of A. cantonensis. This study has further confirmed the presence of COI haplotype diversity in various geographical isolates of A. cantonensis. The COI gene sequence will be a suitable marker for studying population structure, phylogeography and genetic diversity of the rat lungworm.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-15T14:19:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.020
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Efficacy and safety of artemether–lumefantrine for the treatment of
           uncomplicated falciparum malaria at sentinel sites in Mozambique, 2015
    • Authors: Crizolgo Salvador; Bernardete Rafael; Francisco Matsinhe; Baltazar Candrinho; Rosália Muthemba; Eva De Carvalho; Eva Naueia; Jahit Sacarlal; Josephine Namboze; Armindo Tiago; Marian Warsame; Sónia Enosse
      Pages: 146 - 150
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Crizolgo Salvador, Bernardete Rafael, Francisco Matsinhe, Baltazar Candrinho, Rosália Muthemba, Eva De Carvalho, Eva Naueia, Jahit Sacarlal, Josephine Namboze, Armindo Tiago, Marian Warsame, Sónia Enosse
      The resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to anti-malarial drugs continues to challenge malaria control. We assessed the therapeutic efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL), the first-line treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, in children under five years of age in Mozambique. We conducted a prospective one-arm study to evaluate the clinical and parasitological efficacy of AL over 28days at four sentinel sites, using the WHO protocol for assessing the efficacy of antimalarial treatment. msp1, msp2 and glurp genes were analysed by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to differentiate recrudescence from re-infection with malaria parasites. Haemoglobin concentration was recorded at baseline and on days 7, 14 and 28. A total of 349 children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were recruited at the four sentinel sites. Adequate clinical and parasitological response to AL on day 28 follow-up varied from 96.3% to 100% after correction by PCR. The drug was well tolerated, and no adverse event related to the drug was reported. AL, the current first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Mozambique, remains highly efficacious at the study sites. Monitoring of the efficacy of the recommended antimalarial drugs should be continued in order to detect any emerging threat to their efficacy. Trial registration number: ACTRN12616001680459

      PubDate: 2017-04-15T14:19:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.032
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma dubitatum ticks in a spotted fever focus
           from the Brazilian Pampa
    • Authors: Bárbara Weck; Bruno Dall’Agnol; Ugo Souza; Anelise Webster; Bárbara Stenzel; Guilherme Klafke; João Ricardo Martins; José Reck
      Pages: 182 - 185
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Bárbara Weck, Bruno Dall’Agnol, Ugo Souza, Anelise Webster, Bárbara Stenzel, Guilherme Klafke, João Ricardo Martins, José Reck
      Spotted fever is an acute febrile illness, which is considered severely underreported and misdiagnosed in the Brazilian Pampa, caused by tick-borne Rickettsiae. Here, we report an eco-epidemiological investigation of Rickettsia spp. in ticks from a spotted fever focus in Toropi, southern Brazil. Ticks were collected from capybara carcasses and processed individually to obtain genomic DNA. Rickettsia was investigated using PCR that amplified the rickettsial fragments of the gltA, ompA and htrA genes. DNA from Rickettsia parkeri was found in four of 14 Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected from capybara carcasses in Toropi and the nearby municipality of Quevedos. We also tested 210 A. dubitatum ticks obtained from road-killed capybaras of other localities from the Pampa biome; none of them were positive for Rickettsiae. Thus, in Rio Grande do Sul, two Rickettsia species can be potentially associated to spotted fever: Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic Rainforest, associated with Amblyomma ovale ticks in the Atlantic Rainforest biome, and R. parkeri, associated both with Amblyomma tigrinum and A. dubitatum ticks in the Pampa biome. Our results reinforce that R. parkeri may be the agent associated with spotted fever in the Brazilian Pampa.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T14:57:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.028
      Issue No: Vol. 171 (2017)
  • In vitro and in vivo cysticidal activity of extracts and isolated
           flavanone from the bark of Prunus serotina: A bio-guided study
    • Authors: Francisca Palomares-Alonso; Irma Susana Rojas-Tomé; Guadalupe Palencia Hernández; María Adelina Jiménez-Arellanes; Martha Lydia Macías-Rubalcava; Angélica González-Maciel; Andrea Ramos-Morales; Rosalba Santiago-Reyes; Nelly Castro; Iliana González-Hernández; Yadira Rufino-González; Helgi Jung-Cook
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): Francisca Palomares-Alonso, Irma Susana Rojas-Tomé, Guadalupe Palencia Hernández, María Adelina Jiménez-Arellanes, Martha Lydia Macías-Rubalcava, Angélica González-Maciel, Andrea Ramos-Morales, Rosalba Santiago-Reyes, Nelly Castro, Iliana González-Hernández, Yadira Rufino-González, Helgi Jung-Cook
      Currently, neurocysticercosis treatment involves two drugs: albendazole and praziquantel; however, their efficacy is suboptimal and new cysticidal drugs are needed. The present paper reports the cysticidal activity of extracts of the bark from Prunus serotina against Taenia crassiceps cysts and the isolation and identification of the main components of the most active extract. Results showed that all extracts displayed in vitro cysticidal activity (EC50 =17.9–88.5μg/mL), being the methanolic the most active and selective. Also, methanolic extract exhibited in vivo efficacy at 300mg/kg which was similar to that obtained with albendazole. Bio-guided fractionation of methanolic extract led the isolation of 2,3-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (naringenin, NGN), 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid and 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene. NGN exhibited in vitro activity, in a time-concentration-dependent manner (EC50 =89.3μM]. Furthermore, NGN at a dose of 376.1μmol/kg displayed similar in vivo efficacy than those obtained with albendazole at 188.4μmol/kg. NGN also caused a high level of damage in all parasite tissue in a similar manner than that observed with the methanolic extract. This study represents the first report of the cysticidal properties of the bark of P. serotina. NGN was identified as the main active compound of this specie and other studies are required to explore the potential of this flavanone as cysticidal agent.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T03:25:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.02.023
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • Parasite control and skeletal myositis in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected and
           exercised rats
    • Authors: Rômulo D. Novaes; Reggiani V. Gonçalves; Arlete R. Penitente; Marli C. Cupertino; Izabel R.S.C. Maldonado; André Talvani; Antônio J. Natali
      Pages: 8 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): Rômulo D. Novaes, Reggiani V. Gonçalves, Arlete R. Penitente, Marli C. Cupertino, Izabel R.S.C. Maldonado, André Talvani, Antônio J. Natali
      Non-pharmacological strategies have been rarely described in the treatment of infectious diseases. Although exercise training has been recently incorporated in the clinical management of Chagas disease, the rationale basis that supports this indication is poorly understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of an aerobic exercise on the parasitism, inflammation and oxidative tissue damage in a murine model of Trypanosoma cruzi-induced skeletal myositis. Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: trained not infected (TNI) and infected (TI), sedentary not infected (SNI) and infected (SI). A running training program was administered 5days/week for 9 weeks. Then, infected animals were inoculated with T. cruzi and followed up for another 9 weeks. Exercise training induced beneficial adaptations by increasing time to fatigue and lactate threshold in TNI and TI animals. SI animals presented higher parasitemia, skeletal muscle parasitism, cell necrosis, leukocyte infiltration, cytokines levels, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, carbonyl proteins, myosin heavy chain I depletion, and increased catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Beyond attenuation in all these variables, TI animals showed reduced TNF-α, CCL-2/MCP-1 and CX3CL1, and increased IL-10 muscle levels. Furthermore, these animals presented higher CAT and SOD activities and reduced lipid and protein oxidation. Taken together, our findings indicated that exercise training induced a protective phenotype in T. cruzi-infected mice, enhancing host defenses against the parasite and attenuating the pathological remodeling associated with skeletal myositis, aspects potentially associated to an improved immunological and redox balance in infected animals.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T03:25:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • Nanopharmaceuticals as a solution to neglected diseases: Is it
    • Authors: German A. Islan; Marcela Durán; Maximiliano L. Cacicedo; Gerson Nakazato; Renata K.T. Kobayashi; Diego S.T. Martinez; Guillermo R. Castro; Nelson Durán
      Pages: 16 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): German A. Islan, Marcela Durán, Maximiliano L. Cacicedo, Gerson Nakazato, Renata K.T. Kobayashi, Diego S.T. Martinez, Guillermo R. Castro, Nelson Durán
      The study of neglected diseases has not received much attention, especially from public and private institutions over the last years, in terms of strong support for developing treatment for these diseases. Support in the form of substantial amounts of private and public investment is greatly needed in this area. Due to the lack of novel drugs for these diseases, nanobiotechnology has appeared as an important new breakthrough for the treatment of neglected diseases. Recently, very few reviews focusing on filiarasis, leishmaniasis, leprosy, malaria, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, and tuberculosis, and dengue virus have been published. New developments in nanocarriers have made promising advances in the treatment of several kinds of diseases with less toxicity, high efficacy and improved bioavailability of drugs with extended release and fewer applications. This review deals with the current status of nanobiotechnology in the treatment of neglected diseases and highlights how it provides key tools for exploring new perspectives in the treatment of a wide range of diseases.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T03:25:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.02.019
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • Frequency of Toxocara spp. antibodies in umbilical cords of newborns
           attended atthe University Hospital in Southern Brazil and factors
           associated with infection
    • Authors: Paula Costa Santos; Paula Lima Telmo; Lis Maurente Lehmann; Carolina Lorenzi; Carolina Hirsch; Gabriela Torres Mattos; Gabriel Baracy Klafke; Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne; Carla Vitola Gonçalves; Carlos James Scaini
      Pages: 43 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): Paula Costa Santos, Paula Lima Telmo, Lis Maurente Lehmann, Carolina Lorenzi, Carolina Hirsch, Gabriela Torres Mattos, Gabriel Baracy Klafke, Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne, Carla Vitola Gonçalves, Carlos James Scaini
      Toxocariasis is a neglected and geographically widespread parasitic disease. The detection of specific antibodies associated with this disease is required to confirm its clinical diagnosis and to aid in prevention. Although helminth infection during pregnancy can promote foetal immune responses with long-term effects, specific information regarding the risk of Toxocara spp. infection to the human foetus during pregnancy is lacking. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the frequency of antibodies against Toxocara spp. in umbilical cord serum samples to determine the neonatal risk factors associated with Toxocara spp. infection. A cross-sectional study of the frequency of specific antibodies against Toxocara spp. was performed on umbilical cord samples of 280 neonates. A cord blood sample was obtained from each newborn after parturition, and serum samples were examined by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Epidemiological data were obtained through a questionnaire regarding obstetric history (abortion history, premature birthhistory, and pregnancy and birth numbers), general aspects (animal contact anddiet) and socio-economic factors. The frequency of anti-Toxocara spp. IgG antibodies in the umbilical cords of neonates was 20% in serum pre-adsorbed with Ascaris spp. antigen. Family income and dog ownership were considered risk factors associated with infection. No association was found between reproductive disorders and Toxocara seropositivity. The 20% frequency rate of anti-Toxocara spp. IgG antibodies in sera from umbilical cords of newborns can be related to IgG binding at the maternal-foetal interface, requiring greater care during pregnancy. Anti-Toxocara IgM and IgE antibodies no were found in umbilical cord serum samples, indicating that no vertical transmission of these parasites occurred in this population. Studies regarding antibodies against Toxocara spp. in umbilical cord sera are important for determining neonatal exposure to these parasites.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T03:25:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • No molecular epidemiological evidence supporting household transmission of
           zoonotic Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. from pet dogs and
           cats in the province of Álava, Northern Spain
    • Authors: Aida de Lucio; Begoña Bailo; María Aguilera; Guillermo A. Cardona; Juan C. Fernández-Crespo; David Carmena
      Pages: 48 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): Aida de Lucio, Begoña Bailo, María Aguilera, Guillermo A. Cardona, Juan C. Fernández-Crespo, David Carmena
      The role of pet dogs and cats as suitable source of human infections by the diarrheagenic protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. has been a topic of intense debate for long time and still remains a largely unsolved problem. In this cross-sectional molecular epidemiological survey we attempted to investigate whether zoonotic (or zooanthroponotic) disease transmission was occurring among humans and domestic dogs and cats sharing the same spatial and temporal setting in both rural and urban areas of the province of Álava, Northern Spain. A total of 268 (including 179 human, 55 canine, and 34 feline) individual faecal specimens were obtained from 63 family households during February–March and November–December 2014. Detection of G. duodenalis cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts was achieved by direct fluorescence microscopy (DFAT) and PCR-based methods targeting the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene of the parasites. Giardia-positive isolates were subsequently sub-genotyped at the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and β-giardin (BG) genes. Overall, G. duodenalis infections were identified in 3.4% (6/179) of humans, 29% (16/55) of dogs, and 5.9% (2/34) of cats, respectively. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were detected in 1.1% (2/179) of humans, 5.5% (3/55) of dogs, and 8.8% (3/34) of cats, respectively. Simultaneous infections in human and canine/feline hosts by G. duodenalis or Cryptosporidium spp. were only demonstrated in a single household in which a cat and its owner tested positive for Cryptosporidium by DFAT, but this result could not be confirmed by SSU-PCR. Infections were homogeneously distributed among the studied human or animal populations irrespectively of their sex, age group, or geographical region of origin. Inadequate washing of raw vegetables and fruits was the only risk factor significantly associated to a higher likelihood of having human giardiosis/cryptosporidiosis. Molecular characterization of G. duodenalis isolates revealed the presence of sub-assemblage BIV in a single human isolate. All dog (n =3) and cat (n =2) isolates successfully genotyped were assigned to canine- and feline-specific assemblages C and F, respectively. No mixed assemblage or sub-assemblage infections could be demonstrated. Regarding Cryptosporidium, C. canis was found infecting dogs (n =2), and C. felis a single cat. Attempts to amplify and characterize Cryptosporidium human isolates failed repeatedly. Our results suggest that pet dogs and cats do not seem to play a significant role as suitable reservoirs of human giardiosis or cryptosporidiosis in the province of Álava. We conclude, therefore, that zoonotic transmission of giardiosis or cryptosporidiosis among pet dogs and cats and their owners in this geographical region is very likely a rare event.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T16:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.02.024
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • Inhibition of autolysosome formation in host autophagy by Trypanosoma
           cruzi infection
    • Authors: Yoko Onizuka; Chiyuki Takahashi; Ami Uematsu; Shoko Shinjo; Eri Seto; Junko Nakajima-Shimada
      Pages: 57 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): Yoko Onizuka, Chiyuki Takahashi, Ami Uematsu, Shoko Shinjo, Eri Seto, Junko Nakajima-Shimada
      Autophagy has emerged as an essential component of the defense system against intracellular pathogens. We demonstrated that Trypanosoma cruzi, an intracellular protozoan parasite, was not eliminated by the host’s autophagic machinery despite exposure to the host cell cytoplasm. Puncta of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), an autophagy marker, and LC3-II, a lipidated form of LC3, were significantly increased after infection with T. cruzi, indicating that the parasite activated the early steps of host autophagy and induced autophagosome formation. However, autolysosomes were not observed in the infected cells. In addition, T. cruzi was not enwrapped by autophagosomes, suggesting that the parasite has mechanisms to allow it to evade autophagic capture. The results of this study indicate that host autophagy is incomplete following T. cruzi infection.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T16:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.02.021
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • Outbreak of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in farmed rainbow
           trout in China
    • Authors: Ling Zhu; Xingli Wang; Kaiyu Wang; Qian Yang; Jie He; Zhenyang Qin; Yi Geng; Ping Ouyang; Xiaoli Huang
      Pages: 63 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): Ling Zhu, Xingli Wang, Kaiyu Wang, Qian Yang, Jie He, Zhenyang Qin, Yi Geng, Ping Ouyang, Xiaoli Huang
      Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a member of the Aquabirnavirus genus, which caused mass mortality (nearly 100%) in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in aquaculture farms in 2016, China. Major clinical signs included decreased appetite, mucous-like stools, and darkened pigmentation. Pathological changes in moribund fish were observed, such as marked vacuolar degeneration of the pancreatic cells with pyknotic nucleus and decreased zymogen granules, severe hemorrhage in the liver, and tumidness of respiratory epithelium in gills. In addition, the tissue fluid of diseased fish could produce a cytopathic effect (CPE) in RTG-2 cells. The presence of specific 206bp fragments by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using tissue homogenate of diseased fish and supernatant of infected cells revealed that IPNV could be confirmed. The pathogenicity test of cell culture supernatant detected cumulative mortality of 80%, and the clinical symptoms observed in the moribund and dead fish were similar to the naturally infected fish. Furthermore, the sequence analysis of VP2 gene showed that the isolated virus strain belonged to genogroup 1, and 97% homology with the Mexican IPNV isolate was found. To our knowledge, this is the first report on IPNV natural infection in the southwest of China.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T16:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.02.025
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • Chemical composition and insecticidal property of Myrsine stolonifera
           (Koidz.) walker (Family: Myrsinaceae) on Musca domestica (Diptera:
    • Authors: Xue Gui Wang; Qian Li; Su Rong Jiang; Pei Li; Ji Zhi Yang
      Pages: 70 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): Xue Gui Wang, Qian Li, Su Rong Jiang, Pei Li, Ji Zhi Yang
      Musca domestica is one of the most important pests of human health, and has developed strong resistance to many chemicals used for its control. One important approach for creating new pesticides is the exploration of novel compounds from plants. During a wide screening of plants with insecticidal properties that grow in southern China, we found that the methanolic extracts of Myrsine stolonifera had insecticidal activity against the adults of M. domestica. However, the insecticidal constituents and mechanisms of the M. stolonifera extracts remain unclear. The insecticidal components of the methanolic extracts of M. stolonifera were isolated with activity-guided fractionation. From the spectra of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS), the compounds were identified as syringing (1), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenol-1-O-β-d-glu (2), kaempferol-3-O-glu-rha-glu (3), and quercetin-3-O-glu-rha-glu (4). This study is the first to report the spectral data for compounds 3 and 4, and their LC50 values were 0.52mg/g sugar and 0.36mg/g sugar 24h after treatment of the adults of M. domestica, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 (LC25) also inhibited the activities of the enzymes carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, mixed function oxidase, and acetylcholine esterase of adult M. domestica, particularly mixed function oxidase and acetylcholine esterase. The cytotoxic effects of compounds 3 and 4 on cell proliferation, mitochondrial membrane potentials (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were demonstrated on SL-1 cells. From the extracts of M. stolonifera, quercetin-3-O-glu-rha-glu and kaempferol-3-O-glu-rha-glu have displayed comparable toxicities to rotenone on M. domestica and also exhibited cytotoxic effects on SL-1 cells; therefore, the extracts of M. stolonifera and their compounds have potential as botanical insecticides to control M. domestica.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T16:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.02.026
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • A cross-sectional epidemiological study of domestic animals related to
           human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua
    • Authors: Byron J. Flores; Tania Pérez-Sánchez; Héctor Fuertes; Jessica Sheleby-Elías; José Luis Múzquiz; William Jirón; Christianne Duttmann; Nabil Halaihel
      Pages: 79 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): Byron J. Flores, Tania Pérez-Sánchez, Héctor Fuertes, Jessica Sheleby-Elías, José Luis Múzquiz, William Jirón, Christianne Duttmann, Nabil Halaihel
      Leptospirosis is one of the most extended zoonosis worldwide and humans become infected most commonly through contact with the urine of carrier animals, either directly or via contaminated water or soil. The aim in this study was to analyse the epidemiological behaviour of Leptospira spp., from domestic animals around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua, from 2007 through 2013. We report the results of a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a non-probability sampling of blood (n =3050) and urine (n =299) from Domestic Animals (DA) around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua. We analysed data obtained through Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), in-vitro culture, real time PCR and sequencing of lfb1 locus. Frequencies of 30.31% (95% CI: 28.66–31.95) and 15.38% (95% CI: 11.12–19.64) were obtained from serological test and from in-vitro culture, respectively. Although similar frequencies from serology test (P ≥0.05) were found in DA species, in-vitro culture frequencies were significantly higher from bovine, equine and sheep (P< 0.05) in comparison with swine and canine species. Ten serogroups of pathogenic Leptospira spp. were encountered, with the highest presence of Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup 34.65% (95% CI: 29.35–39.94). We identified 7 samples homologous to L. interrogans species Pyrogenes serovar and 3 samples as L. noguchii Louisiana or Panama serovars by analysis of lfb1 sequences. We were able to establish a temporal and spatial correlation from DA and cumulative incidence of human cases. Therefore an effective epidemiological surveillance should be implemented with a specific control program toward DA in order to reduce human leptospirosis incidence.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T16:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.02.031
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • Role of socio-cultural and economic factors in cyprinid fish distribution
           networks and consumption in Lawa Lake region, Northeast Thailand: Novel
           perspectives on Opisthorchis viverrini transmission dynamics
    • Authors: Christina Sunyoung Kim; John F Smith; Apiporn Suwannatrai; Pierre Echaubard; Bruce Wilcox; Sasithorn Kaewkes; Paiboon Sithithaworn; Banchob Sripa
      Pages: 85 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): Christina Sunyoung Kim, John F Smith, Apiporn Suwannatrai, Pierre Echaubard, Bruce Wilcox, Sasithorn Kaewkes, Paiboon Sithithaworn, Banchob Sripa
      Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) is a fish-borne parasite endemic in parts of Lao PDR, Cambodia, southern Vietnam and Northeast Thailand (Isaan) where an estimated 10 million people are infected. Human Ov infection, associated with hepatobiliary complications, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), occurs when infected fish are consumed raw or undercooked, a longstanding cultural tradition in the region. This mixed- methods descriptive study was carried out in Isaan villages around Lawa Lake, Khon Kaen Province, known for their Ov endemicity. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in depth interviews (IDIs) were used to explore socio-cultural determinants underlying raw fish consumption practices, and global positioning system (GPS) devices to map local fish distribution networks. Qualitative data affirmed major socio-cultural and dietary lifestyle transitions occurring consequent on recent decades of modernization policies and practices, but also the persistence of Isaan traditional raw-fish eating practices and incorrect beliefs about infection risk avoidance. Fish traders/middlemen purchase most of the catch at the lakeshore and play the dominant role in district market fish distribution networks, at least for the larger and less likely infected, fish species. The lower economic value of the small potentially-infected cyprinid fish means local fishermen typically distribute them free, or sell cheaply, to family and friends, effectively concentrating infection risk in already highly Ov infected villages. Our study confirmed the persistence of traditional Isaan raw-fish meal practices, despite major ongoing socio-cultural lifestyle transitions and decades of Ov infection health education programs. We contend that diffuse socio-cultural drivers underpin this practice, including its role as a valued cultural identity marker. A “fish economics” factor was also evident in the concentration of more likely infected fish back into local villages due to their low economic value at district market level. The complexity of factors supporting “risky” fish-eating traditions in Isaan underscores the importance of integrated liver fluke infection control strategies to draw on transdisciplinary knowledge beyond biomedicine and also embrace participatory protocols for engaging communities in developing, implementing and evaluating interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T16:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • Antibodies elicited during natural infection in a predominantly Plasmodium
           falciparum transmission area cross-react with sexual stage-specific
           antigen in P. vivax
    • Authors: Geetha P. Bansal; Arthur Vengesai; Yi Cao; Takafira Mduluza; Nirbhay Kumar
      Pages: 105 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): Geetha P. Bansal, Arthur Vengesai, Yi Cao, Takafira Mduluza, Nirbhay Kumar
      Infections caused by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax account for more than 90% of global malaria burden. Exposure to malaria parasite elicits immune responses during natural infection and it is generally believed that the immunity is not only stage specific but also species specific. However, partial genomic similarity for various antigens in different Plasmodium spp. raises the possibility of immunological cross-reactivity at the level of specific antigens. Serum samples collected from children who were permanent residents of a P. falciparum transmission area in Zimbabwe were screened for antibody reactivity against Pfs48/45, a P. falciparum gametocyte antigen and Pvs48/45, a P. vivax homolog of Pfs48/45 using ELISA. Western blotting was used to further confirm identity of the specific antibody reactivity to the Pfs48/45 and Pvs48/45 proteins. Pan Plasmodium PCR and nested PCR were used to confirm infection with the Plasmodium species. Twenty-seven percent (49/181) of the participants were found to be sero-positive for Pfs48/45 and 73% (n=36) of these Pfs48/45 positive sera also showed reactivity with Pvs48/45. Immune cross-reactivity revealed by ELISA was also confirmed by Western blot analysis using a panel of randomly selected 23 Pfs48/45 and Pvs48/45 ELISA positive samples. Nested PCR analysis of 27 blood samples randomly selected from the 36 that showed positive ELISA reactivity to both Pfs48/45 and Pvs48/45 antigens confirmed infection with P. falciparum and generalized absence of P. vivax except for a single sample which revealed PCR positivity for both P. vivax and P. falciparum. Our studies with sera samples from a predominantly P. falciparum transmission area in Zimbabwe suggest immunological cross-reactivity with Pvs48/45, thus raising the possibility of partial species cross-reactive immunity and possible cross-boosting of immunity during co-infection with P. falciparum and P. vivax.

      PubDate: 2017-03-11T00:27:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.02.032
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • Insecticide susceptibility status and major detoxifying enzymes activity
           in Aedes albopictus (Skuse), vector of dengue and chikungunya in Northern
           part of West Bengal, India
    • Authors: Minu Bharati; Dhiraj Saha
      Pages: 112 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): Minu Bharati, Dhiraj Saha
      Mosquitoes belonging to Aedes genus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus transmit many globally important arboviruses including Dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV). Vector control with the use of insecticide remains the suitable method of choice to stop the transmission of these diseases. However, vector control throughout the world is failing to achieve its target results because of the worldwide development of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. To assess the insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus from northern part of West Bengal, the susceptibility of eight different Aedes albopictus populations were tested against a commonly used larvicide (temephos) and some adulticides (malathion, deltamethrin and lambda cyhalothrin) along with the major insecticide detoxifying enzymes’ activity in them. Through this study, it was revealed that most of the populations were found susceptible to temephos except Nagrakata (NGK) and Siliguri (SLG), which showed both a higher resistance ratio (RR99) and a lower susceptibility, thereby reflecting the development of resistance against temephos in them. However, all tested adulticides caused 100% mortality in all the population implying their potency in control of this mosquito in this region of India. Through the study of carboxylesterase activity, it was revealed that the NGK population showed a 9.6 fold higher level of activity than susceptible population. The same population also showed a lower level of susceptibility and a higher resistance ratio (RR99), indicating a clear correlation between susceptibility to temephos and carboxylesterase enzymes’ activity in this population. This preliminary data reflects that the NGK population is showing a trend towards resistance development and with time, there is possibility that this resistance phenomenon will spread to other populations. With the recurrence of dengue and chikungunya, this data on insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus could help the authorities engaged in vector control programmes to formulate effective measures against this mosquito in this region.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-11T00:27:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.02.029
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • Opisthorchis viverrini infection in the snail and fish intermediate hosts
           in Central Vietnam
    • Authors: Ha Thanh Thi Dao; Veronique Dermauw; Sarah Gabriël; Apiporn Suwannatrai; Smarn Tesana; Giang Thanh Thi Nguyen; Pierre Dorny
      Pages: 120 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): Ha Thanh Thi Dao, Veronique Dermauw, Sarah Gabriël, Apiporn Suwannatrai, Smarn Tesana, Giang Thanh Thi Nguyen, Pierre Dorny
      Opisthorchis viverrini, a carcinogenic fish borne fluke, requires freshwater snails and fish as intermediate hosts. Opisthorchiasis is endemic in parts of Southeast Asia, including Central and South Vietnam. In this region the transmission by intermediate hosts has received little attention. Therefore, freshwater snails and wild fish from Bau My Tho, an opisthorchiasis endemic area in Binh Dinh Province were collected for examination of O. viverrini cercariae and metacercariae, respectively. A total of 12,000 snails belonging to six families, of which 1616 Bithynia snails representing Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos and Bithynia funiculata; as well as 754 fish representing 12 species were examined. Shedding of O. viverrini cercariae was observed only in B. s. goniomphalos and B. funiculata, at infection rates of 0.86% and 0.14%, respectively. O. viverrini infection in Bithynia spp. was significantly associated with the habitat but not with the species and the shell size of Bithynia spp. O. viverrini metacercariae were found in 10 fish species representing both Cyprinidae and non-Cyprinidae families. The prevalence of O. viverrini infection in fish was significantly associated with species. Carassius auratus, a fish species commonly eaten raw, Rasbora aurotaenia and Puntius brevis had the highest prevalence of 74.0%, 55.8% and 31.6%, respectively. Sharing of the same snail and fish intermediate host species was found for O. viverrini and a O. viverrini duck-genotype that are sympatric in the study region. This study is the first to report on the intermediate host species of O. viverrini in Central Vietnam and indicates a high risk of acquiring opistorchiasis when eating raw fish dishes.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-11T00:27:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.02.028
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • Reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration for recovery and reuse of larval
           rearing water in Anopheles arabiensis mass production: Effect of water
           quality on larval development and fitness of emerging adults
    • Authors: Wadaka Mamai; Rebecca Hood-Nowotny; Hamidou Maiga; Adel Barakat Ali; Nanwintoun S. Bimbile-Somda; Diloma Dieudonné Soma; Hanano Yamada; Rosemary Susan Lees; Jeremie R.L. Gilles
      Pages: 126 - 133
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): Wadaka Mamai, Rebecca Hood-Nowotny, Hamidou Maiga, Adel Barakat Ali, Nanwintoun S. Bimbile-Somda, Diloma Dieudonné Soma, Hanano Yamada, Rosemary Susan Lees, Jeremie R.L. Gilles
      Background Countries around the world are showing increased interest in applying the sterile insect technique against mosquito disease vectors. Many countries in which mosquitoes are endemic, and so where vector control using the sterile insect technique may be considered, are located in arid zones where water provision can be costly or unreliable. Water reuse provides an alternate form of water supply. In order to reduce the cost of mass rearing of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes, the possibility of recycling and reusing larval rearing water was explored. Methods The used rearing water (‘dirty water’) was collected after the tilting of rearing trays for collection of larvae/pupae, and larvae/pupae separation events and underwent treatment processes consisting of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis. First-instar An. arabiensis larvae were randomly assigned to different water-type treatments, 500 larvae per laboratory rearing tray: ‘clean’ dechlorinated water, routinely used in rearing; dirty water; and ‘recycled’ dirty water treated using reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration. Several parameters of insect quality were then compared: larval development, pupation rate, adult emergence, body size and longevity. Water quality of the samples was analyzed in terms of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, chloride, and phosphate concentrations after the larvae had all pupated or died. Surface water temperatures were also recorded continuously during larval development. Results Pupation rates and adult emergence were similar in all water treatments. Adult body sizes of larvae reared in recycled water were similar to those reared in clean water, but larger than those reared in the dirty larval water treatment, whereas the adult longevity of larvae reared in recycled water was significantly increased relative to both ‘clean’ and ‘dirty’ water. Dirty larval water contained significantly higher concentrations of ammonium, sulfate, phosphate and chloride and lower levels of dissolved oxygen than clean water. These parameters significantly varied during the period of larval development. After dirty water was recycled by ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, all the parameters measured were the same as those in clean water. Conclusion This study demonstrated the potential for using recycled larval rearing water to supplement clean dechlorinated water supplies. Recycling used water improved its quality and of the reared mosquitoes. As water demands and environmental pressures grow, recycling of larval rearing water will improve the sustainability and affordability of mosquito mass-rearing.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-11T00:27:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.02.033
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • Natural infection of Nesokia indica with Leishmania major and Leishmania
           infantum parasites in Damghan city, Northern Iran
    • Authors: Behrad Pourmohammadi; Sadegh Mohammadi-Azni; Mohsen Kalantari
      Pages: 134 - 139
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): Behrad Pourmohammadi, Sadegh Mohammadi-Azni, Mohsen Kalantari
      Various species of rodents are proven reservoir hosts of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in different provinces of Iran and potential reservoir hosts of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the leishmanial infection of rodents in Damghan city from April to September, 2015. Sum of 100 rodents of three species; Nesokia indica (95), Mus musculus (3), and Microtus socialis (2), were trapped alive and their tissue samples were examined using parasitological and molecular (nested-PCR) methods. A total of 71% (71/100) of examined rodents were parasitological positive for Leishmania spp. amastigotes. The highest rate (72.6%; 69/95) of infection was related to the N. indica species. The microscopic observations showed that 42% of ear samples were positive. Additionally, 12% of rodents with negative ear result were positive in liver. 16 out of 41 (39%) parasitological positive samples, belonging to the N. indica, were shown molecularly positive. Of which, 15 were L. major (13 of ear and 2 of spleen samples) and one of spleen samples was L. infantum. This is the first report of N. indica natural infection with L. infantum parasite. To understand the role of this rodent as reservoir host of L. infantum, extant ecological and epidemiological studies are needed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-11T00:27:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • Combined phylogenetic and morphometric information to delimit and unify
    • Authors: Jader Oliveira; Paula L. Marcet; Daniela M. Takiya; Vagner J. Mendonça; Tiago Belintani; Maria D. Bargues; Lucia Mateo; Vivian Chagas; Elaine Folly-Ramos; Pedro Cordeiro-Estrela; Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves; Jane Costa; João A. da Rosa; Carlos E. Almeida
      Pages: 140 - 148
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): Jader Oliveira, Paula L. Marcet, Daniela M. Takiya, Vagner J. Mendonça, Tiago Belintani, Maria D. Bargues, Lucia Mateo, Vivian Chagas, Elaine Folly-Ramos, Pedro Cordeiro-Estrela, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves, Jane Costa, João A. da Rosa, Carlos E. Almeida
      “Triatoma brasiliensis species complex” was defined as a monophyletic group of the species: T. brasiliensis, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica, and T. sherlocki. An alternative grouping scheme proposed the concept of “Brasiliensis subcomplex” which included the former species together with T. melanocephala, T. petrocchiae, T. lenti, T. tibiamaculata, and T. vitticeps. To evaluate the relationship among these taxa we combined the results obtained with four mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, COI and Cytb, adding to 1811bp) and geometric morphometric analysis of wings and heads. Panstrongylus megistus was included in the analysis as it was previously found related to T. tibiamaculata, T. melanocephala and T. vitticeps. The results of both molecular and morphometric approaches clearly grouped the species analyzed into two monophyletic units, supported by both genetic and wing variability. The first one (G1) comprises the four species originally included in the T. brasiliensis species complex plus T. lenti and T. petrocchiae. The second group (G2) was composed by T. melanocephala, T. tibiamaculata and T. vitticeps, and remarkably, P. megistus if considering wing variability and phylogenetic results. Nevertheless, geometric morphometrics of heads provided a quantitative measurement that discriminates Panstrongylus from the Triatoma species based on the position of the antennal insertion relative to eyes, as it is used as the generic distinctive character. The discrepancy among approaches questions the validity of this character to define Panstrongylus genus. Independently of the chosen group definition —“T. brasiliensis species complex” or “Brasiliensis subcomplex”—we propose to delimit it to species of G1 that are all associated with the Caatinga biome in the Brazilian Northeast. G2 are the ones associated with the Atlantic Forest biome.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-11T00:27:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.02.020
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • Chaetocin—A histone methyltransferase inhibitor—Impairs proliferation,
    • Authors: Aline Araujo Zuma; Jean de Oliveira Santos; Isabela Mendes; Wanderley de Souza; Carlos Renato Machado; Maria Cristina M. Motta
      Pages: 149 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): Aline Araujo Zuma, Jean de Oliveira Santos, Isabela Mendes, Wanderley de Souza, Carlos Renato Machado, Maria Cristina M. Motta
      The Trypanosomatidae family includes pathogenic species of medical and veterinary interest. Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America, and about 8 million people are infected worldwide. There is a need for more effective drugs for the acute, undetermined and chronic phases of the disease that, in addition, do not cause side effects, stimulating the search for identification of new drug targets, as well as new chemotherapeutic targets. Trypanosomatids contain characteristic structures, such as the nucleus that undergoes a closed mitosis without chromosome formation and variations of chromatin packing in the different protozoa developmental stages. The nuclear DNA is condensed by histones that suffer post-translational modifications, such as addition of methyl groups by histone methyltransferases (MHT) and addition of acetyl groups by acetyltransferases. These processes modulate gene expression and chromatin organization, which are crucial to transcription, replication, repair and recombination. In the present study, the effects of chaetocin, a HMT inhibitor, on T. cruzi epimastigote proliferation, viability, ultrastructure and cell cycle were investigated. Results indicate that chaetocin promoted irreversible inhibition of protozoa growth, evident unpacking of nuclear heterochromatin and intense nucleolus fragmentation, which is associated with parasite cell cycle arrest and RNA transcription blockage. Taken together, data obtained with chaetocin treatment stimulate the use of histone methyltransferase inhibitors against pathogenic trypanosomatids.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-11T00:27:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • Variable number of tandem repeats of 9 Plasmodium vivax genes among
           Southeast Asian isolates
    • Authors: Bo Wang; Myat Htut Nyunt; Seung-Gyu Yun; Feng Lu; Yang Cheng; Jin-Hee Han; Kwon-Soo Ha; Won Sun Park; Seok-Ho Hong; Chae-Seung Lim; Jun Cao; Jetsumon Sattabongkot; Myat Phone Kyaw; Liwang Cui; Eun-Taek Han
      Pages: 161 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): Bo Wang, Myat Htut Nyunt, Seung-Gyu Yun, Feng Lu, Yang Cheng, Jin-Hee Han, Kwon-Soo Ha, Won Sun Park, Seok-Ho Hong, Chae-Seung Lim, Jun Cao, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Myat Phone Kyaw, Liwang Cui, Eun-Taek Han
      The variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) provides valuable information about both the functional and evolutionary aspects of genetic diversity. Comparative analysis of 3 Plasmodium falciparum genomes has shown that more than 9% of its open reading frames (ORFs) harbor VNTRs. Although microsatellites and VNTR genes of P. vivax were reported, the VNTR polymorphism of genes has not been examined widely. In this study, 230 P. vivax genes were analyzed for VNTRs by SERV, and 33 kinds of TR deletions or insertions from 29 P. vivax genes (12.6%) were found. Of these, 9 VNTR fragments from 8 P. vivax genes were used for PCR amplification and sequence analysis to examine the genetic diversity among 134 isolates from four Southeast Asian countries (China, Republic of Korea, Thailand, and Myanmar) with different malaria endemicity. We confirmed the existence of extensive polymorphism of VNTR fragments in field isolates. This detection provides several suitable markers for analysis of the molecular epidemiology of P. vivax field isolates.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-18T03:33:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • Epidemiological characteristics of visceral leishmaniasis in Morocco
           (1990–2014): an update
    • Authors: Meryem Mniouil; Hajiba Fellah; Fatima Amarir; Abdeslamd Et-touys; Khadija Bekhti; El Bachir Adlaoui; Youssef Bakri; Haddou Nhammi; Abderrahim Sadak; Faiza Sebti
      Pages: 169 - 177
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): Meryem Mniouil, Hajiba Fellah, Fatima Amarir, Abdeslamd Et-touys, Khadija Bekhti, El Bachir Adlaoui, Youssef Bakri, Haddou Nhammi, Abderrahim Sadak, Faiza Sebti
      Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases frequent in the Mediterranean Basin. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a notifiable parasitic disease that increased in incidence in Morocco over the past few years and has recently emerged in several new foci, causing a public health problem in Morocco. The aim of this study is to describe the spatio-temporal distribution of VL in Morocco between 1990 and 2014 period in order to highlight important features and trends of VL and its epidemiology and to assess whether the activity of the unit reflects the situation of the disease at the national level and whether it could constitute an indicator of public health relevance. Two thousand four hundred and twenty one cases were reported in Morocco between 1990 and 2014 with an average annual reported incidence rate of 0.4 cases per 100.000 inhabitants. Before 1996 the average annual incidence of VL was 50 cases on average. After this date the number of cases increased and then remained stable with around 100–150 cases per year. Children whose age varies between 1 and 4 years old are the most affected with 1327 (74%) of total cases; nevertheless the adult starts to be affected by the disease. In 2000, 65% of positive cases of VL are concentrated at both northern regions: Taza-Al Hoceima- Taounate with 45% of cases, Tanger- Tetouan mainly represented by Chefchaoun with 20% of cases. The Fez-Boulemane region located in the center recorded 12% of cases. Throughout the years the map VL distribution has been progressively changed and spatial spread of the disease to the center is noted in 2007. 2014 has been marked by an even greater extension of the disease to the center and south of Morocco. Nationally in 2014, 34 of 75 provinces and prefectures are affected compared to 2000, when 22 out of 82 provinces and prefectures were affected. Leishmania infantum was identified the causative agent based on species- specific PCR-Lei70 assay. VL remains a sporadically endemic parasitic disease in Morocco with a progressive extension of its range of distribution. Such a situation would relate to the geographical succession of Phlebotomine sand fly vectors, the difficulty of actions against the canine population reservoirs of L. infantum and unfavorable socio-economic factors.
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      PubDate: 2017-03-18T03:33:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.10.016
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • Limitations to the adoption of a standardized Strongyloides stercoralis
           diagnostic method: Case study in the Caribbean
    • Authors: Jennifer K. Ketzis
      Pages: 178 - 183
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): Jennifer K. Ketzis
      Background Strongyloides stercoralis is frequently under-diagnosed due to the low sensitivity of common faecal diagnostic methods used in clinical laboratories. This leads to a belief that prevalence is low and that S. stercoralis is not an important soil-transmitted helminth (STH). S. stercoralis diagnostic methods with higher sensitivity are available but often not used. Reasons for their lack of use need to be identified and addressed in order to increase awareness of this neglected parasite. Methodology/principal findings A survey was conducted with public health (14) and private laboratories (15) within the Caribbean region to determine current diagnostic methods used and technological capabilities within the laboratories. Formal-ether concentration and direct smears were the primary methods used. Five of the laboratories used a specific method for S. stercoralis (Baermann and/or agar plate culture). A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for a modified Baermann tailored to be compatible with the technological capabilities of the laboratories was developed and demonstrated at ten laboratories to determine limitations to adopting a S. stercoralis specific method. The primary limitations were: cost of using two diagnostic methods for one submitted sample; lack of communication with the physician regarding the reason for the faecal analysis; general lack of awareness of S. stercoralis; and lack of awareness of differences in sensitivity of diagnostic methods. Conclusions/significance Changing diagnostic methods involves more than ensuring the method fits within the technological capabilities of the laboratories. Several factors that influence the method used are external to the laboratory. To improve diagnosis of any of the STHs, these external factors must be addressed. Within the laboratory, more education on the sensitivity of diagnostic methods, differences in excretion levels of diagnostic stages with low infection, and increased awareness of S. stercoralis is required.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T03:33:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • Molecular characterization of classical swine fever virus isolates from
           India during 2012–14
    • Authors: Elina Khatoon; Nagendra N. Barman; Manab Deka; Gitika Rajbongshi; Kongkon Baruah; Nipu Deka; Durlav P. Bora; Sachin Kumar
      Pages: 184 - 189
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): Elina Khatoon, Nagendra N. Barman, Manab Deka, Gitika Rajbongshi, Kongkon Baruah, Nipu Deka, Durlav P. Bora, Sachin Kumar
      Classical swine fever is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of pigs. Outbreaks of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) were recorded in different places in the Kamrup district of Assam in India between the years 2012 and 2014. The nucleotide sequences of the 10 CSFV isolates were analyzed based on the partial nucleotide sequences of the E2, 5′NTR and NS5B genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the dominance of subgroup 2.2 along with 2.1 strains in the northeast part of India. Variation in the nucleotide sequences of E2, 5′NTR and 3′NS5B genes of CSFV allows tracking changes in the virus population over time. The study will provide epidemiological information useful for assessing CSFV circulating genogroups in India.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T03:33:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • Association between enteric protozoan parasites and gastrointestinal
           illness among HIV- and tuberculosis-infected individuals in the Chowke
           district, southern Mozambique
    • Authors: María José Irisarri-Gutiérrez; Marta Hernández-de Mingo; Aida de Lucio; Horacio Gil; Lucía Morales; Raimundo Seguí; Edy Nacarapa; Carla Muñoz-Antolí; Fernando Jorge Bornay-Llinares; José Guillermo Esteban; David Carmena
      Pages: 197 - 203
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 170
      Author(s): María José Irisarri-Gutiérrez, Marta Hernández-de Mingo, Aida de Lucio, Horacio Gil, Lucía Morales, Raimundo Seguí, Edy Nacarapa, Carla Muñoz-Antolí, Fernando Jorge Bornay-Llinares, José Guillermo Esteban, David Carmena
      Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections remain major public health issues globally, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Impairment of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity by HIV and/or TB infections may limit the host’s defences against other pathogens, including the diarrheagenic protozoan Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Entamoeba histolytica. During September–December 2015 a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and molecular diversity of these enteric parasites among HIV- and/or TB-infected patients at a medical reference centre in Chowke district, southern Mozambique. A total of 99 stool specimens were initially screened by direct microscopy and further confirmed and characterised by molecular methods. DNA sequence analyses of the genes encoding the small subunit ribosomal RNA and the 60-kDa glycoprotein were used for the typing and sub-typing of Cryptosporidium isolates, respectively. G. intestinalis-positive isolates by real-time PCR were subsequently typed at the glutamate dehydrogenase locus. Differential diagnosis of E. histolytica/dispar was achieved by real-time PCR. G. intestinalis (8.1%) was the enteric protozoan more frequently detected, followed by Cryptosporidium spp. (7.1%), and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (6.1%). Two HIV-infected (but not TB-infected) patients harbour G. intestinalis and Cryptosporidium spp. co-infections. Two (29%) G. intestinalis isolates were successfully characterised, revealing the presence of known AII and novel BIV genotypes. Four (57%) Cryptosporidium isolates were unmistakeable assigned to C. hominis, identifying two (IbA10G2 and IdA22) sub-types. Cryptosporidium infections were not associated to diarrhoea in HIV-positive patients, probably because improved immune function in the affected individuals due to antiretroviral therapy. G. intestinalis was considered a non-opportunistic pathogen, whereas the presence of E. histolytica could not be confirmed by molecular methods. Based on their common presence in the studied clinical population, we recommend the effective diagnosis and treatment of these enteropathogens for improving the management of HIV and TB patients.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T21:15:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 170 (2017)
  • Phlebotomine sandflies of Botswana: a taxonomic review and a faunistic
           update with the first record of genus Phlebotomus
    • Authors: Andreas
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 171
      Author(s): Andreas Krüger
      The first records of phlebotomine sandflies from Botswana have been published only recently, comprising of four species of genus Sergentomyia. This update presents the first record of genus Phlebotomus, namely Ph. (Anaphlebotomus) rodhaini Parrot, which is also the first detection of a putative vector of leishmaniasis in Botswana. In addition, records of the Sergentomyia “bedfordi (Newstead) group” are reviewed, and the molecular taxonomy of all taxa known from Botswana is analysed based on three mitochondrial gene fragments (mtDNA). The presence of Se. congolensis (Bequaert and Walrveus) and Se. salisburiensis (Abonnenc) is confirmed, whereas the previously mentioned Se. caliginosa Davidson and unassigned specimens of the “bedfordi group” are proposed to belong to the tentatively named Se. bedfordi “Maun” form. The mtDNA analyses confirmed the species delimitations. For the first time, portions of the ND5 gene were used for the purpose of sandfly molecular taxonomy. This gene revealed a high inter-specific variability and may thus be applied as an alternative molecular marker for future studies.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-15T14:19:18Z
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