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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3162 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3162 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 97, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 412, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 256, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 400, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 344, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 456, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 213, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 197, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Acta Tropica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.052
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0001-706X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Comparing vector competence of Mepraia gajardoi and Triatoma infestans by
           genotyping Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units present in naturally
           infected Octodon degus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Alejandra Sandoval-Rodríguez, Gemma Rojo, Angélica López, Sylvia Ortiz, Miguel Saavedra, Carezza Botto-Mahan, Pedro E. Cattan, Aldo Solari Chagas disease is a vector-borne disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, and transmitted by triatomine insects to several mammal species. In Chile, the wild triatomine species are the endemic Mepraia species, and the only domestic vector of Chagas disease is Triatoma infestans. The aim of this study was to determine the competence of M. gajardoi compared to T. infestans as a T. cruzi vector using the naturally infected rodent Octodon degus. M. gajardoi amplified T. cruzi present in all O. degus studied while T. infestans only in half of the infected rodents. Both triatomine species excrete metacyclic trypomastigotes and amplified the same three T. cruzi DTUs, however, M. gajardoi showed differences in their ability to amplify TcI. TcV and TcVI had the same probability to be amplified by both triatomine species. Both species amplified mixed infections, with TcI-TcVI as the most represented. This study reports the higher vector competence of M. gajardoi in comparison to T. infestans.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this articleEven though the triatomine Mepraia gajardoi doesn’t coexist with the rodent Octodon degus, it is able to acquire and excrete Trypanosoma cruzi obtained from this mammal.
       
  • Thank you to Klavs Berzins, Editor Acta Tropica
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Norbert Brattig
       
  • First report of Neospora caninum seroprevalence in farmed raccoon
           dogs in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Lan-Bi Nie, Yang Zou, Jun-Ling Hou, Qin-Li Liang, Wei Cong, Xing-Quan ZhuABSTRACTNeospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite with a worldwide distribution, which can cause abortion and stillbirth in ruminants. However, little is known of N. caninum infection in raccoon dogs in China. Thus, a total of 1181 serum samples of farmed raccoon dogs were collected from the major production areas of Jilin, Changchun in Jilin province, and Rizhao, Weihai and Yantai in Shandong province in China. The antibodies to N. caninum were examined by a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunoassay (cELISA). While the N. caninum seroprevalence in farmed raccoon dogs from different regions (cities) were not statistically significant, farmed raccoon dogs in Shandong province had a significantly higher N. caninum seroprevalence (8.99%, 95% CI 7.13-10.85) than those in Jilin province (4.46%, 95% CI 1.99-6.93) (P 
       
  • Molecular characterisation of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica
           isolates recovered from meat in South Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Ishmael Festus Jaja, Nolwazi Londiwe Bhembe, Ezekiel Green, James Oguttu, Voster Muchenje Salmonella enterica is a leading cause of human gastroenteritis in both developed and developing countries, causing significant economic losses on humans and animals worldwide. There are several routes for contracting salmonellosis, but the consumption of contaminated foods is by far the most frequent cause of human infections. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and resistance determinants of S. enterica isolates obtained from meat. Swab samples from meat were cultured for the identification of Salmonella spp., and 239 presumptive S. enterica isolates were recovered, purified and kept in glycerol stocks. The S. enterica. confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were further tested against 15 antimicrobials using the disc-diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar and the genotypic antimicrobial resistance determinants by PCR. Resistance among tetracyclines, bêta-lactams, and 3rd generation cephalosporins was found to be most frequent with a noticeable rise in the number of multi-drug resistance ranging from two to seven antimicrobials. A total of 20 resistance determinants were assessed with their prevalence and distributions obtained as follows; [aminoglycosides: aadA (89%), aacC2 (100%), aphA1 (38%), aphA2 (0%) and strA (7%)], [β-lactams: (ampC 100%), blaTEM, (33 %), blaZ (17 %) and blaOXA (10%)], [Chloramphenicol: catI (9%), catII (7 %), and cmIA1 (10 %)] and [tetracyclines: tetA (57%), tetB (30%), tetC (11 %), tetD (73 %), tetK (20%) and tetM, (43 %)], and [sulfonamides: sulI (82 %), sulII (7%)]. The findings signify a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. enterica isolates and resistance determinants indicating increased public health risks associated with the consumption of contaminated meat.
       
  • How clonal is Trypanosoma congolense' A necessary clarification of the
           predominant clonal evolution model
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 190Author(s): Michel Tibayrenc, Francisco J. Ayala
       
  • Towards a cysticercosis-free tropical resort island: A historical overview
           of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Bali
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 October 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Putu Sutisna, I. Nengah Kapti, Toni Wandra, Nyoman S. Dharmawan, Kadek Swastika, A.A. Raka Sudewi, Made Susilawathi Ni, I. Made Sudarmaja, Tetsuya Yanagida, Munehiro Okamoto, Takahiko Yoshida, Meritxell Donadeu, Marshall W. Lightowlers, Akira Ito Taeniasis and cysticercosis are known to be endemic in several Indonesian islands, although relatively little recent epidemiological data are available. As most Indonesian people are Muslims, taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, has a restricted presence in non-Muslim societies and is endemic only among some Hindu communities on the island of Bali. Bali has long been known to be endemic for taeniasis/cysticercosis; almost a century ago levels of cysticercosis of 20-30% were described in cattle and 2-3% in pigs. Few studies of taeniasis/cysticercosis were undertaken in Bali prior to a series of research programs commenced since the 1990s. Both Taenia saginata and T. solium continue to be endemic in Bali. Molecular studies have revealed that all T. saginata-like tapeworms detected in Bali are T. saginata. No evidence has been found for the presence of Taenia asiatica in Bali. Economic, sanitary and education improvements across much of the island over the past decades have been associated with a decline in the amount of transmission of T. solium such that the parasite now seems to be restricted to the eastern part of the island, a small area on the northeastern slope of Mt. Agung, the highest mountain in Bali. The living environment including sanitation and hygiene condition in this endemic area remains relatively poor especially during the half-year dry season, and pigs continue to roam freely. In this review, historical records and ongoing projects towards elimination of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Bali are reviewed to provide a better understanding of the present situation of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Bali towards a future, cysticercosis-free tropical resort island.
       
  • Field performance of a low cost, simple-to-build, non-motorized
           Light-Emitting Diode (LED) trap for capturing adult Anopheles mosquitoes
           (Diptera: Culicidae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 October 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Francinaldo Soares Silva, Benedita Maria Costa-Neta, Mayara de Sousa de Almeida, Eudimara Carvalho de Araújo, João Vitor Castro Aguiar In this paper, a non-powered trap equipped with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) designed for capturing small night-flying insects was field-evaluated for sampling anopheline mosquitoes. This new light trap, referred to as the Silva trap, was compared with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) miniature light trap in a livestock area in northeastern Brazil. Light traps were operated from 18:00 to 06:00 between July and August 2018, over a 12-night period. A total of 3,124 specimens and eight species were collected. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) argyritarsis was the prevalent species, followed by A. (Nys) triannulatus s.l., A. (Nys) goeldii, A. (Nys) evansae, A. (Nys) rangeli, A. (Nys) galvaoi, A. (Nys) darlingi and A. (Nys) albitarsis s.l. The total number of anopheline mosquitoes captured with the Silva trap was higher than the number of individuals captured with the CDC light trap, but no significant difference between the two trapping methods was found. Concerning the damaged specimens, the Silva trap damaged significantly less mosquitoes than the CDC light trap. According to these results, the Silva trap has acceptable performance in being an efficient tool for sampling anopheline mosquitoes, mainly in comparison with the CDC light trap. The Silva trap has a number of advantages over other trapping devices that collect questing mosquitoes and these advantages are pointed out and discussed.
       
  • In vitro evaluation of the association of medicinal larvae (Insecta,
           Diptera, Calliphoridae) and topical agents conventionally used for the
           treatment of wounds
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 October 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Franciéle S. Masiero, Delvânia G. Silva, Morgana Luchese, Thaís Estércio, Nieverson V. Pérsio, Patricia J. Thyssen Wound healing is a complex process involving multiple biochemical and cellular events and represents a neglected public health issue. As a consequence, millions of people worldwide suffer from chronic wounds. The search for new treatment alternatives is therefore an important issue. In the context of wound healing, Maggot Debridement Therapy (MDT) is an inexpensive treatment with few contraindications and very promising results. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro feasibility and implications of larvae (= MDT) use when combined with topical agents as a strategy to identify additive or synergistic combinations. The weight and survival rate of Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) (Insecta, Diptera, Calliphoridae) larvae reared in an in vitro wound with either honey, hydrogel, 10% papain gel, essential fatty acids (EFA), collagenase, or silver sulfadiazine were evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 h. Hydrogel (for weight: 24 and 72 h; for survival: 24 h) and 10% papain gel (for weight: 48 h; for survival: 48 and 72 h) demonstrated the least interference in larval weight gain and survival rate, when compared to the control group. The results obtained in this study showed that the combined use of larvae and hydrogel or 10% papain gel may be promising to maximize the tissue repair. Honey, EFA and collagenase could be used to prepare the bed of the dry wounds to receive the MDT.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • New records of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) from
           Egyptian pigeons and doves (Columbiformes), with description of one new
           species
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 October 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Eslam Adly, Mohamed Nasser, Doaa Soliman, Daniel R. Gustafsson, Magdi Shehata Little information is available about the chewing lice of wild birds of Egypt, including common groups such as pigeons and doves (Columbiformes). Through this work, parasitic chewing lice of common columbiformes of Egypt were revised including new data. Three species of pigeons and doves (Streptopelia decaocto Frivaldszky 1838, Spilopelia senegalensis Linnaeus 1766 and Columba livia Gmelin 1789) were examined for chewing lice at three different localities. A total of 124 specimens of lice were collected. Nine species were identified from these samples; one species (Columbicola joudiae n. sp.) was considered a new species to science, six species were recorded from Egypt for the first time, and two species have been identified in Egypt before. Taxonomic and ecological remarks for all identified chewing lice samples are provided along with known and local hosts, measurements and material examined. Description and images of the new species are also provided.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Anopheles species composition and entomological parameters in malaria
           endemic localities of North West Colombia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Nelson Naranjo-Díaz, Mariano Altamiranda-Saavedra, Margarita M. Correa Environmental variations associated with alterations derived from human activities affect mosquito abundance and composition. The objective of this study was to evaluate species abundance, composition, biting behavior and human biting rates for Anopheles specimens collected in localities of an important malaria endemic region in NW Colombia. A total of 2,041 specimens belonging to nine species were collected in six malaria endemic localities of the Bajo Cauca region. Anopheles braziliensis was the most abundant species (n = 850, 41.7%) and exhibited the highest human biting rate (64.8 b.p.n), followed by the primary vectors Anopheles nuneztovari (n = 614, 30%) and Anopheles darlingi (n = 368, 18%). Biting activity of the main malaria vectors An. nuneztovari and An. darlingi and the opportunistic species An. braziliensis suggests high biting exposure for humans, mainly from 19:00 h to 23:00 h, and therefore, increased malaria risk at these hours. Regarding mosquito species, Puerto Astilla locality in Nechí municipality exhibited the highest α diversity, but in general, diversity in all localities was low. This information provides the bases for the implementation of targeted and effective vector control interventions directed to reduce human vector-contact.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Urbanization as a driver for temporal wing-shape variation in Anopheles
           cruzii (Diptera: Culicidae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Laura Cristina Multini, André Barretto Bruno Wilke, Mauro Toledo Marrelli Anopheles cruzii is the main vector of human and simian malaria in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. This biome, which is an important hotspot of malaria transmission, has suffered fragmentation and deforestation as a result of urban expansion. Fragmentation and deforestation occur continually in the south of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, and findings of An. cruzii in the peridomicile have consequently become more frequent in this part of the city. Although An. cruzii is of considerable epidemiological importance, the impact of urbanization on the microevolution of this species in this malaria-endemic region has not been investigated to date. In this study, we investigated temporal variation in wing shape and size in An. cruzii populations collected in sylvatic, peri-urban and urban areas over a three-year period. Our results show a slight but significant phenotypic variation in all three populations over the study period. Time was a more powerful driver for wing variation than geographic distance. Temporal wing-shape variation appears to be positively associated with urbanization, suggesting that anthropogenic changes in the environment may be a strong driver for wing-shape variation in An. cruzii. Further studies using genetic markers are needed to assess genetic differentiation in these populations.Graphical Graphical abstract for this articleThe comparison of wing shape patterns between Anopheles cruzii populations from three different areas: sylvatic, peri-urban and urban during three-year period revealed high levels of segregation. The polymorphism found for wing-shape appears to have a positive association with urbanization as greater temporal variation was observed in populations from the most urbanized environment.
       
  • Identification, characterization and expression analysis of Anopheles
           stephensi double peroxidase
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Tania Pal Choudhury, Lalita Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar Peroxidases catalyze the reduction of peroxides and that, in turn, oxidize various substrates. They have been widely reported to play an important role in mosquito innate immunity against various pathogens. Here, we have characterized double heme peroxidase (AsDBLOX) gene from the Indian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. It is a true ortholog of An. gambiae DBLOX. This 4209 bp AsDBLOX gene encodes for a protein of 1402 amino acids that has two duplicated peroxidase domains, domain I (from amino acid 61 to 527) and domain II (from amino acid 714 to 1252). The first domain has only substrate binding sites and lacks all other motifs of a functional heme peroxidase (e.g. heme binding site, calcium binding site and homodimer interface). Instead, it has two integrin binding motifs- LDV (Leu–Asp–Val) and RGD (Arg–Gly–Asp). The second peroxidase domain, however, has all the features of a complete heme peroxidase along with an integrin binding motif LDI (Leu-Asp-Ile). Thus, AsDBLOX gene is a unique type of peroxinectin as these groups of proteins are characterized by integrin binding motifs along with a heme peroxidase domain. We also observed that the AsDBLOX gene is expressed in all the life cycle stages of mosquito and is highly induced in the pupal stage of development which indicates its possible role in development.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this articleThe AsDBLOX gene is a Anopheles stephensi double heme peroxidase that is induced in pupal stage of mosquito development.
       
  • Effect of Plasmodium falciparum infection on blood parameters and their
           association with clinical severity in adults of Odisha, India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Gunanidhi Dhangadamajhi, Subhendu Panigrahi, Shaktirekha Roy, Sagnika Tripathy The extent of abnormalities in blood indices and their subsequent effects on clinical severity in malaria differ among populations of different endemicity. However, these alterations have not been well investigated in Odisha, India and their prognostic implications in the context of multi-organ dysfunction (MODS) in severe malaria (SM) are not identified so far. The present study was carried out in 200 adult patients each from uncomplicated malaria and severe malaria groups to examine whether host haematological and biochemical parameters in Plasmodium falciparum infection can act as diagnostic marker for SM in adults patients of Odisha. The results showed thrombocytopenia as a potential risk factor for SM irrespective of disease features with least median platelet counts observed in patients with MODS (Platelet count: 144.5, P = < 0.0001) compared to mild malaria. Logistic regression analysis identified anemia (
       
  • Vector bionomics and malaria transmission in an area of sympatry of An.
           arabiensis, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): El Hadji Amadou Niang, Lassana Konaté, Ousmane Faye, Mawlouth Diallo, Ibrahima Dia Despite extensive genetic studies on their variability and differentiation, few is known about the specific and relative role of An. coluzzii, An. gambiae and An. arabiensis in areas of sympatry. Indeed, their behavioral dissimilarities and divergent population dynamics can impact on malaria transmission level and intensity. This study was undertaken in four sympatric sites belonging to two different ecosystems with differential insecticide pressure to study the bionomics of these species and their relative role in malaria transmission.Mosquitoes were collected monthly from July to December 2011 when landing on human volunteers and by pyrethrum spray catches. Specimens belonging to the An. gambiae complex were further identified using molecular tools. Plasmodium falciparum infection and blood-feeding preferences were studied using the ELISA techniques.Overall, the three species were in sympatry in each of the four sites with the predominance of An. gambiae. Mosquito populations’ dynamics varied temporally depending on the rainy season for each zone. The anthropophilic rates varied between 45.7 and 78.1% for An. arabiensis, 81.8 and 100% for An. coluzzii and 80 and 96.7% for An. gambiae. Plasmodium infection rates were higher in An. gambiae (range : 2.17% - 6.54%) while for An. arabiensis and An. coluzzii it varied respectively between 0-1.24% and 0-3.66%. Malaria transmission occured in each of the four sites both indoors and outdoors and was due mainly to An. gambiae. An. arabiensis and An. coluzzii played a limited role due both to a low anthropophilic rate and a lower biting rate for An. coluzzii in comparison with An. gambiae. This study showed that, while present in sympatric areas, species from the An. gambiae complex could exhibit differential involvement in malaria transmission. Even less involved in malaria transmission, the occurrence of ecological and environmental changes tending to a good adaptation of An. coluzzii could lead to a great risk for malaria transmission in time and space in human populations.
       
  • Evolutionary and ecological insights into the emergence of arthropod-borne
           viruses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Marco Marklewitz, Sandra Junglen The emergence of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) is of global concern as they can rapidly spread across countries and to new continents as the recent examples of chikungunya virus and Zika virus have demonstrated. Whereas the global movement patterns of emerging arboviruses are comparatively well studied, there is little knowledge on initial emergence processes that enable sylvatic (enzootic) viruses to leave their natural amplification cycle and infect humans or livestock, often also involving infection of anthropophilic vector species. Emerging arboviruses almost exclusively originate in highly biodiverse ecosystems of tropical countries. Changes in host population diversity and density can affect pathogen transmission patterns and are likely to influence arbovirus emergence processes. This review focuses on concepts from disease ecology, explaining the interplay between biodiversity and pathogen emergence.
       
  • Evaluation of a short term effect of praziquantel treatment in
           opisthorchiasis-induced hepatobiliary inflammation by urinary 8-oxodG
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Chompunoot Wangboon, Chanika Worasith, Raynoo Thanan, Chatanun Eamudomkarn, Anchalee Techasen, Jiraporn Sithithaworn, Watcharin Loilome, Nittaya Chamadol, Somchai Pinlaor, Amonrat Jumnainsong, Puangrat Yongvanit, Narong Khuntikeo, Jeffrey M. Bethony, Paiboon Sithithaworn Inflammation of the hepatobiliary system in chronic opisthorchiasis is associated with an elevated level of urinary 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2’deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) during active as well as past exposure to Opisthorchis viverrini infection. In this study, we evaluated the short-term effect of praziquantel treatment on hepatobiliary disease (HBD) using urinary 8-oxodG as an inflammatory marker in a cohort of residents in endemic areas of opisthorchiasis in Khon Kaen, Thailand. The HBD status in terms of periductal fibrosis (PDF) was determined by abdominal ultrasonography and O. viverrini infection was monitored at baseline and 2–4 weeks after curative treatment by praziquantel. Analysis of O. viverrini-infected participants who were PDF-ve revealed that there was a significant reduction of urinary 8-oxodG after treatment compared with the baseline levels (p 
       
  • In silico modeling of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance
           transporter protein and biochemical studies suggest its key contribution
           to chloroquine resistance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Hiasindh Ashmi Antony, Nishith Saurav Topno, Sathyanarayana N. Gummadi, Devanarayanan Siva Sankar, Ramadas Krishna, Subhash Chandra Parija Chloroquine (CQ) has been used for decades as the primary chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of malaria. The emergence of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has been considered to be because of the excessive use of antimalarial drugs worldwide. Moreover, the intense distribution and prevalence of chloroquine-resistant strains in endemic regions has aided the incidence of more complications to malaria treatment and control. Due to the lack of literature that portrays evident molecular mechanisms of drug resistance, it has been difficult to understand the drug resistance conferred by Plasmodium species. Intensive research on CQ drug resistance has identified the association of P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter protein (PfCRT), which belongs to the drug/metabolite transporter and EamA-like superfamily. Additionally, it has shown that K76 T mutation in PfCRT protein has mainly attributed to CQ resistance than other mutations. This study deals with the development of an in silico model of the PfCRT protein and its interaction with the CQ ligand molecule as well as the biochemical and biophysical characterization of the transmembrane domain 1 (TMD 1) peptide of the PfCRT protein. The physiochemical analysis of the PfCRT protein identified basic differences between the wild and mutant forms of the protein, as well as identifying the high hydrophobic nature of the mutant-type protein. The tertiary structure of the PfCRT protein was predicted and interaction with CQ revealed different active pocket binding regions in both the wild and mutant form of PfCRT proteins. The CQ2+ molecule interacts with TMD 10 of the wild-type PfCRT protein, whereas it interacts with TMD 1 of the mutant-type protein. Studies on the TMD 1 peptide revealed the insertion of the peptide in the micelles adopting stable alpha-helical structure. Binding studies with the CQ molecule detected high binding affinity toward the mutant-type TMD 1 peptide rather than the wild-type, thus confirming that the TMD 1 peptide is involved in substrate selectivity. Our findings help to characterize the structure of the PfCRT protein and the role played by the TMD 1 region in CQ resistance using in silico and biochemical approaches. Molecular docking and ligand binding studies confirm that TMD 1 is involved in substrate selectivity and aids in CQ efflux, thereby contributing to the parasite's CQ drug resistance mechanism.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Brucellosis seroprevalence in dairy cattle in China during 2008-2018: a
           systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Xuhua Ran, Jiajia Cheng, Miaomiao Wang, Xiaohong Chen, Haoxian Wang, Yu Ge, Hongbo Ni, Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Xiaobo Wen Brucellosis remains one of the most common zoonotic diseases globally with more than a half million human cases reported annually. The Brucella reservoir associated with livestock brucellosis poses a significant threat to public health, and awareness of the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of livestock brucellosis is valuable for the prevention and control of diseases caused by Brucella, especially human brucellosis. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle in China. We retrieved 88 studies related to the seroprevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle in China in which samples were harvested between 2008 and 2018. The results of our systematic review and meta-analysis reveal that the overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle herds in China was 1.9% during the selected period, rising from 1.6% in 2008–2012 to 2.6% in 2013–2018. In Northern China, where the traditional agropastoral areas with more developed animal breeding industry are located, the brucellosis seroprevalence was>10%. In contrast, the seroprevalence of brucellosis in Southern China reached only 5.5%. At the provincial level, the highest brucellosis seroprevalence in dairy cattle was estimated at>30% in Jilin province, followed by Shanxi, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, and Guizhou, each with a prevalence of 10–20%. Additionally, the seroprevalence of brucellosis in some local areas was>30% or even>50%, indicating that Brucella infection was highly endemic in dairy herds in China. Our data may facilitate the prevention and control of brucellosis in domestic animals in China. Further epidemiological surveillance and the administration of a comprehensive monitoring program to determine the risk factors associated with brucellosis incidence in humans and domestic animals are recommended to refine brucellosis control strategies.
       
  • Parasitaemia and parasitic load are limited targets of the aetiological
           treatment to control the progression of cardiac fibrosis and chronic
           cardiomyopathy in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Acta Tropica, Volume 189Author(s): Ivo Santana Caldas, Ana Paula de Jesus Menezes, Lívia de Figueiredo Diniz, Álvaro Fernando da Silva do Nascimento, Rômulo Dias Novaes, Sérgio Caldas, Maria Terezinha Bahia It is still unclear whether the progression of acute to chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy is predominantly associated with the limited efficacy of aetiological chemotherapy, or with the pharmacological resistance profiles and pathogenicity of specific Trypanosoma cruzi strains. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that parasitic load could be a limited target of aetiological chemotherapy to prevent chronic cardiomyopathy in dogs infected by different T. cruzi strains. Animals were infected with benznidazole-susceptible (Berenice-78) and -resistant (VL-10 and AAS) strains of T. cruzi. A quantitative real-time PCR strategy was developed to comparatively quantify the parasite load of the three different strains using a single standard curve. For dogs infected with the VL-10 strain, benznidazole treatment reduced cardiac parasitism during the acute phase of infection. However, similar parasite load and collagen deposition were detected in the myocardium of treated and untreated animals in the chronic phase of the infection. In animals infected with the AAS strain, benznidazole reduced parasite load, myocarditis and type III collagen deposition in the acute phase. However, increased type III collagen deposition was verified in the chronic phase. Dogs infected with the Berenice-78 strain showed a parasitological cure and no evidence of myocardial fibrosis. Parasitic load and cardiac fibrosis presented no correlation in acute or chronic phases of T. cruzi infection. Our findings in a canine model of Chagas disease suggest that parasite burden is a limited predictor for disease progression after treatment and show that benznidazole, although not inducing parasitological cure, is able to prevent total fibrosis in the early stages of infection, as well as complete prevention of cardiac damage when it eliminates parasites at the onset of infection.
       
  • RISK ANALYSIS AND SEROPREVALENCE OF HEV IN PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS IN
           BRAZIL
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Luan Araújo Bezerra, Edmilson Ferreira de Oliveira-Filho, José Valter Joaquim Silva, Viviane Martha Santos Morais, Juliana Prado Gonçales, Dayvson Mauricio da Silva, Maria Rosângela Cunha Duarte Coêlho Acute Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) can lead to fulminant hepatic failure, cirrhosis and death. The prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies within this group varies according to the geographical area. However, in South America, studies concerning the detection of HEV in PLHA are rare. Here, we investigated the presence of HEV by serological and molecular detection and evaluated the risk factors associated with infection in PLHA in Pernambuco state, Brazilian Northeast. Serological and molecular detection of HEV was performed in 366 samples of PLHA by ELISA for anti-HEV IgG and RT-PCR, respectively. Anti-HEV IgG prevalence was 4.1% (15/366) and no HEV RNA was detected. Concerning the risk factors, we evaluated, in multivariable analysis, age, years of school, sexual orientation, oral-anal sex, use of injectable drugs and piped water. Among them, only piped water availability could be associated with the HEV infection in PLHA (OR: 0.08; CI 95%: 0.01 - 0.66; p = 0.0182). This study showed for the first time the association of piped water as a protection factor for HEV infection in PLHA. Finally, this is also the first report of HEV seroprevalence in PLHA in the Northeast Brazil.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Enhanced mortality in deltamethrin-resistant Aedes aegypti in Thailand
           using a piperonyl butoxide synergist
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Monthathip Kongmee, Kanutcharee Thanispong, Sunaiyana Sathantriphop, Chutipong Sukkanon, Michael J. Bangs, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue viruses in Thailand. Control of this mosquito continues to rely heavily on use of insecticides in various forms and applications. The synergistic effect of piperonyl butoxide (PBO), combined with deltamethrin against eight populations of Aedes aegypti collected from different regions in Thailand is presented. The standard WHO adult contact bioassays found all populations with low to moderate levels of resistance to deltamethrin alone (using a 0.05% discriminating concentration), with final mortalities ranging from 15.6 to 70%, while a laboratory strain was fully susceptible (100% mortality). Pre-exposure of female mosquitoes to 4% PBO for 1 h, followed immediately by exposure to deltamethrin for 1 h, significantly increased mortality in seven populations (64.8 - 98.1%) with the exception of mosquitoes derived from Lampang Province. The knockdown time (KDT) synergist ratios between deltamethrin only and PBO + deltamethrin ranged from 1.7 to 2.8 for KDT50 and 1.9 to 4.0 for KDT95. Between deltamethrin alone and mosquitoes exposed to PBO + deltamethrin, all resistant populations produced significant differences (P 
       
  • Echinostoma revolutum: Development of a High Performance DNA-Specific
           Primer to Demonstrate the Epidemiological Situations of their Intermediate
           Hosts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Sothorn Anucherngchai, Thapana Chontananarth Echinostomiasis caused by the Echinostoma group, in particular E. revolutum are a significant problem for both humans and other animals. This group has a large number of morphological similarities that are difficult and time-consuming to identify. The present study aimed to develop high-performance tools for the detection of the prevalence of E. revolutum and to reveal the prevalence of E. revolutum infections in intermediate snail hosts in Lopburi province, Thailand. The snail specimens were collected by stratified sampling method and examined to collect trematodes in the larval stage. The specific primer was manually designed and based on 18 s rDNA and verified the specificity and sensitivity for use as an identification tool to compare with classical method, constructed by epidemic mapping. The overall prevalence value of E. revolutum was found to be 16.26%. Tha Luang district had the highest prevalence (70.14%), followed by Chai Badan, Phatthana Nikhom, Tha Wung, Ban Mi, Khok Samrong, Nong Muang and Sa Bot at 42%, 25.14%, 2.52%, 1.73%, 2%, 1.33% and 0.40%, respectively. With regard to the specific primer, it can amplify both cercarial and metacercarial DNA (90 pg/µl.) and discriminated E. revolutum from its hosts, other trematodes and other echinostome larvae with no cross-reactions. Therefore, the developed specific primer can be used as a species-specific identification tool with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Consequently, this data is important for monitoring the outbreak of E. revolutum. It can be applied for initiating surveillance programs of snail-borne diseases in both medical and veterinary studies.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Gene expression profile of cytokines produced in biopsies from patients
           with American cutaneous leishmaniasis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Daise Damaris Carnietto de Hippólito, Aparecida Helena Souza Gomes, Marta Marques Maia, Cristina da Silva Meira-Strejevitch, Cristina Takami Kanamura, José Angelo Lauletta Lindoso, Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) causes a local inflammatory process, inducing expression of several cytokine genes. Particularly, IFN-γ can predict to disease susceptibility. Based in these data, this study was aimed to investigate the gene expression profile of IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-27, TNF-γ, TGF-β and IL-6 produced in biopsies from ACL patients; and whether the gene expression profile of IFN-γ could determine the disease evolution. Gene expression of 6 cytokines was investigated in 40 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) biopsies from patients with cutaneous leishmaniosis (CL); and 10 FFPE biopsies from patients with mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) (control). All 50 patients were infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Gene expression was determined by qPCR; and a normal control group was used for calculations (5 normal biopsies). Values were expressed as Relative Quantification (RQ). The 40 CL patients were classified into 2 groups. CLlowIFN-γ, 35 patients with RQ for IFN-γ below 100; and CLhighIFN-γ, 5 (12.5%) patients with RQ above 100. Significant increase of mRNA levels of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-27 was shown in CLhighIFN-γ group when compared with CLlowIFN-γ and ML groups. TNF-α levels in CLlowIFN-γ group were higher than CLhighIFN-γ and ML groups. TGF-β and IL-6 were similar in 3 groups. Comparison of cytokine expression/group showed that CLlowIFN-γ group had an equilibrium between the cytokines analyzed. In ML group, IFN-γ was over-expressed; but in CLhighIFN-γ group, besides IFN-γ, IL-27 was also over-expressed. The immune response to Leishmania induces to identification of some markers, which can be determined by analysis by gene expression of cytokines produced in biopsies.
       
  • Knowledge, attitude and practices relating to zoonotic diseases among
           livestock farmers in Punjab, India
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): BB Singh, R Kaur, GS Gill, JPS Gill, RK Soni, RS Aulakh Zoonotic diseases cause significant health and economic impact in developing countries such as India. Many zoonotic diseases are prevalent in the livestock and as an occupational zoonosis in the livestock farmers in India. Lack of knowledge on the disease transmission, prevention and control measures is a potential high risk for the occurrence of zoonotic diseases in the livestock and its keepers in India. We conducted this study to understand knowledge, attitude and practices of livestock farmers regarding zoonoses. Five villages from each of the 22 districts of the state were conveniently selected (n = 110). Farmers available at village community sites were enrolled in the study and requested to complete a custom designed questionnaire (n = 558). In addition, livestock farmers attending basic livestock husbandry training were also surveyed (n = 301). Data from questionnaires was used to create three index variables: (a) knowledge score; (b) attitude score and (c) practice score. Association between demographic and other explanatory variables with knowledge score was evaluated using linear regression analyses. Similarly, the association between knowledge and attitude score with practice score was evaluated. Of the 859 participants, 685 (80%) livestock farmers had heard the term ‘zoonoses’ but only 345 (40%), 264 (31%) and 214 (25%) farmers were aware of the zoonotic nature of tuberculosis, Japanese encephalitis and taeniosis, respectively. For practices, 23% farmers reported consumption of raw milk and only 10% and 8% livestock farmers ever got their animals tested for brucellosis and tuberculosis, respectively. The low level of education and being a cattle farmer were negatively associated with the farmer’s knowledge on zoonotic diseases. The attitude score was positively associated with the practice score of the participants. The results indicate need for educating the livestock farmers particularly those with a low level of education to reduce the health and economic impact of zoonotic diseases in India.
       
  • Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp. in
           equids of Western Pará, Brazil
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Thiago Rocha Moreira, Cristiane Sarturi, Felipe Nascimento Stelmachtchuk, Emelie Andersson, Emma Norlander, Francisco Leonardo Costa de Oliveira, Juliana Machado Portela, Arlei Marcili, Ulf Emanuelson, Solange Maria Gennari, Antonio Humberto Hamad Minervino The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp. in equids raised for distinct purposes in the western state of Pará, Brazil, and to identify potential risk factors associated with parasite infection. A cross-sectional study was conducted with cluster sampling in 101 farms from 18 municipalities (farm horses). In visited municipalities, samples from sport and cart horses were included. Serum was obtained for detecting antibodies against T. gondii and Neospora spp. using indirect fluorescent antibody test, with a cut-off point of 1:64 and 1:50, respectively. Association analysis, using the chi-square test, was performed to evaluate possible risk factors related to the prevalence of antibodies. A total of 1,298 equids were sampled (947 farm, 240 sport, and 111 cart horses), including 1,244 horses, 2 donkeys, and 52 mules. The number of equids sampled per property ranged from 1 to 49. Of the total examined, 134 (10.3%) had antibodies against T. gondii, and of the 18 municipalities visited, 11 (61%) had at least one positive animal. Seventy-three of the 1,298 equids (5.62%) from 44% of the municipalities tested positive for Neospora spp. The type of the animal (farm, sport, or carthorse) was not associated with the prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii; however, antibodies against Neospora spp. was more prevalent in carthorses (P = 0.001) (13.5%) than in farm (5.0%) and sport (4.6%) horses. Breed of the horse and the presence of cats were risk factors for the prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, and presence of dogs was a risk factor for the prevalence of antibodies against Neospora spp. This is the first report of seropositive equids for T. gondii and Neospora spp. in the state of Pará contributing to the knowledge on epidemiology of the two parasites.
       
  • Snake venom proteome and immuno-profiling of the hundred-pace viper,
           Deinagkistrodon acutus, in Taiwan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Po-Chuan Chen, Ming-Nan Huang, Jia-Feng Chang, Chien-Chun Liu, Chun-Kuei Chen, Cheng-Hsien Hsieh Deinagkistrodon acutusalso known as the hundred-pace viper or Chinese moccasin, is a clinically significant venomous snake in Taiwan. To address the lack of knowledge on the venom proteome of D. acutus, the venom composition was studied by a bottom-up proteomic approach combining reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and LC-MS/MS analysis. The immunoreactivity and cross-reactivity of Taiwanese freeze-dried D. acutus antivenom (DA-AV) and hemorrhagic antivenom (FH-AV) were investigated, as well. The proteomic analysis revealed the presence of 29 distinct proteins from D. acutus venom belonging to 8 snake venom protein families. Snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP, 46.86%), C-type lectin (CLEC, 37.59%), phospholipase A2 (PLA2, 7.33%) and snake venom serine protease (SVSP, 6.62%) were the most abundant proteins. In addition to DA-AV, FH-AV also showed a profile of broad immunorecognition toward the venom of D. acutus. Remarkably, both antivenoms specifically reacted with the HPLC fractions containing SVMPs, and the titer was 5-10 times higher than fractions of other components. This information helps us to deeply understand the pathophysiology of D. acutus envenomation and guide us to development of more effective antivenom for clinical treatment.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Schistosomes, snails and climate change: Current trends and future
           expectations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Anna-Sofie Stensgaard, Penelope Vounatsou, Mita E. Sengupta, Jürg Utzinger The exact impact of climate change on schistosomiasis, a blood-fluke affecting more than 250 million people mainly in tropical and subtropical countries, is currently unknown, but likely to vary with the snail-parasite species’ specific ecologies and the spatio-temporal scale of investigation. Here, by means of a systematic review to identify studies reporting on impacts of climate change on the agents of schistosomiasis, we provide an updated synthesis of the current knowledge about the climate change-schistosomiasis relation. We found that, despite a recent increase in scientific studies that discuss the potential impact of climate change on schistosomiasis, only a handful of reports have applied modelling and predictive forecasting that provide a quantitative estimate of potential outcomes. The volume and type of evidence associated with climate change responses were found to be variable across geographical regions and snail-parasite taxonomic groups. Indeed, the strongest evidence stems from the People’s Republic of China pertaining to Schistosoma japonicum. Some evidence is also available from eastern Africa, mainly for Schistosoma mansoni. While studies focused on the northern and southern range margins for schistosomiasis indicate an increase in transmission range as the most likely outcome, there was less agreement about the direction of outcomes from the central and eastern parts of Africa. The current lack of consensus suggests that climate change is more likely to shift than to expand the geographic ranges of schistosomiasis. A comparison between the current geographical distributions and the thermo-physiological limitations of the two main African schistosome species (Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni) offered additional insights, and showed that both species already exist near their thermo-physiological niche boundaries. The African species both stand to move considerably out of their “thermal comfort zone” in a future, warmer Africa, but S. haematobium in particular is likely to experience less favourable climatic temperatures. The consequences for schistosomiasis transmission will to a large extent depend on the parasites and snails ability to adapt or move. Based on the identified geographical trends and knowledge gaps about the climate change-schistosomiasis relation, we propose to align efforts to close the current knowledge gaps and focus on areas considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Seroprevalence of Bluetongue Virus in small and large ruminants in Punjab
           province, Pakistan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Tayyebah Sohail, Tahir Yaqub, Tariq Abbas, Masood Rabbani, Jawad Nazir, Syeda Marriam Maqbool, Saima Yaqub, Momena Habib, Aziz-ul-Rahman, Nadia Mukhtar, Muhammad Shahbaz, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne disease of immense economic importance for small and large ruminants. Despite frequent disease reports from neighboring countries, a little is known about current disease status and prevalent serotypes in Pakistan. We screened a total of 1,312 healthy animals for group-specific antibodies and serotype-specific genome for BT virus through competitive ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. An overall prevalence of group-specific VP7 antibodies [28.81% (n = 378/1312, 95% CI = 26.4 – 31.4)] was observed. The prevalence was higher in goats [40.75% (n = 194/476, 95% CI = 36.4 – 45.3)] followed by buffalo [29.34% (n = 81/276, 95% CI = 24.3 – 34.9)], sheep [18.40% (n = 60/326, 95% CI = 14.5 – 22.9)] and cattle [17.94% (n = 42/234, 95% CI = 13.56 – 23.4)]. The odds of seropositivity were more in buffalo of Nili breed (OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.19-3.58) as well as those found with a presence of vector (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.16-3.59). Buffalo and cattle with history of abortion [(OR = 3.95, 95% CI = 1.33-11.69) and (OR = 5.89, 95% CI = 1.80-19.27) respectively] were much likely to be infected with the disease. Serotype 8 was detected in all animal species while, serotypes 4 and 6 were detected in sheep, 2, 6 and 11 in goat, and 2 and 16 in buffalo. The study concludes a much frequent exposure of different serotypes of Bluetongue virus (BTV) in small and large ruminants and indicates its expansion to enzootic range worldwide.
       
  • A new species of Maritrema (Trematoda: Microphallidae) parasitizing the
           Baird’s sandpiper Calidris bairdii, and comments about diversity of
           Microphallidae in two Nearctic Shorebirds at Patagonian sites in Argentina
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Sofia Capasso, Verónica L. D’Amico, Julia I. Diaz Birds are hosts of a wide diversity of trematodes. Between them, the Microphallidae is a common family with a cosmopolitan distribution. Nevertheless, only 10 Maritrema species have been recorded previously in South America. The aim of the present paper is to describe a new species of Maritrema parasitizing the Nearctic Baird’s sandpiper, Calidris bairdii in its wintering areas in Patagonia, Argentina. We also analyze and compare the microphallid diversity in two host species. We collected 44 C. bairdii and 50 C. fuscicollis in search of helminths. Trematodes were found only in C. bairdii. A total of 694 trematodes belonging to 4 microphallid species were found parasitizing the intestine and caeca. Four microphallid species were found: Maritrema formicae, Odhneria odhneri, Levinseniella cruzi and Maritrema pichi n. sp. M. formicae showed the highest prevalence, while M. pichi n. sp. was the species with the highest mean intensity and mean abundance. The new species M. pichi n. sp. differs from congeners by the position of the ventral sucker that is included within the vitellarium ring, the ovary is anterior to the ventral sucker, and the testes are lateral to it. We discuss the parasitological results in relation with the biological and ecological characteristics of both different host species.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Mitochondrial genome of Paruterina candelabraria (Cestoda: Paruterinidae),
           with implications for the relationships between the genera Cladotaenia and
           Paruterina
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Aijiang Guo, Li Wang, Shaohua Zhang, Yadong Zheng, Boyko B. Georgiev, Xuenong Luo, Siyang Huang, Xuepeng Cai The taxonomic concept for the family Paruterinidae is controversial, especially concerning the position of the genus Cladotaenia, since the latter genus has been placed sometimes in other families, i.e. in the Taeniidae or in the distinct family Cladotaeniidae; finding a solution based on morphological data is difficult and molecular data on paruterinids and related groups are scarce. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of the type-species of the type-genus of the Paruterinidae, Paruterina candelabraria, was determined and annotated. Gene arrangements are identical with those of Cladotaenia vulturi but differing from those of species of the family Taeniidae by the order change between tRNA-SerUCN and tRNA-LeuCUN. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by Bayesian Inference (BI) analysis using the concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes. The analysis clearly shows that the Paruterinidae and Taeniidae are sister-groups, and Cladotaenia is a sister taxon of Paruterina. This supports the position of the genus Cladotaenia in the family Paruterinidae and reveals the necessity for sequencing additional taxa of the Paruterinidae for better understanding of phylogenetic relationships within the group.
       
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of the epidemiology of bovine viral
           diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy cattle in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Xuhua Ran, Xiaohong Chen, Lili Ma, Xiaobo Wen, Junjun Zhai, Miaomiao Wang, Xiaodan Tong, Guangyu Hou, Hongbo NiABSTRACTBovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection causes significantly economic losses to cattle industry worldwide, also including China. The epidemiological prevalence of infection associated with BVDV in dairy cattle has not been systematically assessed in China. Therefore, we undertook this study to evaluate prevalent of BVDV infection. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of data from papers on the BVDV incidence and prevalence in dairy cattle in China by searching China Science and Technology Journal Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wan Fang Database and PubMed for publication from March 2003 to March 2018. The 41 studies reporting the prevalence of BVDV in cattle in China were selected upon our inclusion criterion. The pooled BVDV prevalence in dairy cattle in China was estimated to 53.0% (95% CI 40.2-65.7) based on the data obtained from the 27530 cows tested using serological or virological assay in the qualified papers published during the periods (χ² = 51861.0, I2 = 99.9%). The highest BVDV positive rate in dairy flocks reached 90.0% in Fujian province of China, followed by Shaanxi (88.9%) and Shandong (83.3%). The prevalence in the six administrative districts of China was validated to be highly variable (25.7%-72.2%) and reached 72.2% in dairy cattle flocks of Northern China. Besides, the BVDV-RNA positive rate was estimated 27.1% (95% CI 17.3-37.0) based on 6 studies, comparatively, the pooled BVDV seroprevalence based on 35 studies was about 57.0% (95% CI 44.4-69.5) in China. This systematic review and meta-analysis firstly established an estimated prevalence of BVDV in dairy herds in China, indicating that the BVDV infection is escalating, though there is a bias in the number of studies between 2003-2009 and 2010-2018 timescales. This study may help understand the status of BVDV infection in dairy herds in China. Further extensive and comprehensive investigation is recommended, and effective intervention measures for preventing and controlling BVDV spread in dairy herds should be deployed, especially herds that have been exposed to BVDV.
       
  • Looking for the right mate – What we really known on the courtship and
           mating of Lucilia sericata (Meigen)'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Giovanni Benelli, Donato Romano Lucilia sericata is well known for causing myiasis in humans, livestock, pets and wildlife. It also vectors various pathogens, including paratuberculosis agents. This species can be exploited in maggot therapy to treat necrotic wounds, particularly those infected by multidrug-resistant pathogens. Despite the high medical and veterinary importance of this species, our knowledge about its courtship and mating behavior is still limited. In this study, we quantified the courtship and mating behavior of L. sericata, shedding light on the impact of lateralization of selected behavioral traits during sexual interactions. When a male identified a female, he approached her with head pushing followed by foreleg tapping acts. Courtship lasted 7.65 ± 0.4 s. During copulation attempts, the male continued foreleg tapping acts on the female body, and tried to achieve genital contact. Copula lasted 14.88 ± 0.41 min, while male mating success was 85%. Several courtship and mating traits were found lateralized at population-level. Most of males approached the female with head pushing acts on her left side of the body. Both during courtship and copulation attempt phases, males mainly used the right foreleg to perform leg tapping acts on females. However, the impact of lateralized head pushing and foreleg tapping on the main behavioral parameters characterizing L. sericata courtship and mating was not significant, except for a higher number of foreleg tapping acts during copulation attempts displayed by right-biased males over left-biased ones. Overall, results reported here contribute to improve our basic knowledge on the reproductive behavior of L. sericata. Besides, selected behavioral parameters characterized here can be exploited as benchmarks to monitor mate quality during mass-rearing, as well as to select males with boosted mating competitiveness, helping to improve the success of SIT programs and behavior-based control tools.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Hidalgo state, Mexico
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2018Source: Acta TropicaAuthor(s): Aldo Ortega-Morales, Thomas Zavortink, Herón Huerta-Jiménez, Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal, Quetzaly Siller-Rodríguez In order to document the species richness of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and their distributions in the Mexican state of Hidalgo, collecting trips were conducted to all physiographic regions (Coastal Plain of North Gulf, Sierra Madre Oriental, and Neo-volcanic Axis) and subregions of the state. Additionally, mosquito specimens from Hidalgo deposited in the Collection of Arthropods of Medical Importance (CAIM) were reexamined. A total of 3,225 specimens were collected and studied and an additional 69 pinned mosquitoes and 15 microscope slides in CAIM were examined. The two Culicidae subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae, 8 tribes, 12 genera, 24 subgenera, and 56 species were documented. Of these, 4 tribes, 7 genera, 13 subgenera, and 26 species are new records for the mosquito fauna of Hidalgo. Nine species previously recorded were not found in the collections made during this study. Taxonomic notes, new distribution records, and comments about the medical importance of the species found are included.
       
 
 
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