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Showing 1 - 200 of 3177 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 382, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 242, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 374, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 348, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 441, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)

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Journal Cover Acta Tropica
  [SJR: 1.059]   [H-I: 77]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-706X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Molecular diagnosis of protozoan parasites by Recombinase Polymerase
    • Authors: A. Castellanos-Gonzalez; A.C. White; P. Melby; B. Travi
      Pages: 4 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): A. Castellanos-Gonzalez, A.C. White, P. Melby, B. Travi
      Infections caused by protozoan parasites affect millions of people around the world. Traditionally, diagnosis was made by microscopy, which is insensitive and in some cases not specific. Molecular methods are highly sensitive and specific, but equipment costs and personnel training limit its availability only to specialized centers, usually far from populations with the highest risk of infection. Inexpensive methods that can be applied at the point of care (POC), especially in places with limited health infrastructure, would be a major advantage. Isothermal amplification of nucleic acids does not require thermocyclers and is relatively inexpensive and easy to implement. Among isothermal methods, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is sensitive and potentially applicable at POC. We and others have developed RPA diagnostic tests to detect protozoan parasites of medical importance. Overall, our results have shown high specificity with limits of detection similar to PCR. Currently, the optimization of RPA for use at the POC is under development, and in the near future the tests should become available to detect protozoan infections in the field. In this review we discuss the current status, challenges, and future of RPA in the field of molecular diagnosis of protozoan parasites.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:34:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Leptospira seroprevalence in animals in the Caribbean region: A systematic
    • Authors: Nicola Pratt; Sreekumari Rajeev
      Pages: 34 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Nicola Pratt, Sreekumari Rajeev
      This systematic review summarises the data published on the Leptospira seroprevalence, serovar diversity and distribution among animal species in the Caribbean region. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, and checklist, relevant articles were identified and data were extracted and recorded. The review provided Leptospira seroprevalence data from 16 Caribbean islands (Barbados, Trinidad, Grenada, Puerto Rico, Saint Croix, St. Kitts and Nevis, Jamaica, Antigua, Carriacou, Dominica, Guadalupe, Martinique, Monserrat, St. Lucia, St. Maarten, and St. Vincent) in a variety of animal species. Reviewing the literature highlighted the limited amount of data available from limited number of islands. Many of the studies conducted have recorded seroprevalences based on variable and small samples sizes. Besides, serovar panels used for MAT were not consistent between studies. The review indicates that the Leptospira exposure in a given geographic location may change with time and climatic and environmental conditions, and highlights the need to conduct continual surveillance in tropical countries where the climate supports the survival of Leptospira in the environment. Specific attention must be given to standardization of MAT panels and protocols and providing training across laboratories involved in testing. Further, animal and environment testing to isolate and identify circulating Leptospira spp. in a geographic region must actively be pursued. This knowledge is important to implement geographically specific control programs, as risk factors of Leptospira transmission is favoured by various factors such as change in climatic conditions, urbanization, encroachment of wildlife inhabitation, import/export of animals, increase in adventure travel, and water related recreational activities.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:34:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Using adult Aedes aegypti females to predict areas at risk for dengue
           transmission: A spatial case-control study
    • Authors: Maisa Carla Pereira Parra; Eliane Aparecida Fávaro; Margareth Regina Dibo; Adriano Mondini; Álvaro Eduardo Eiras; Erna Geessien Kroon; Mauro Martins Teixeira; Mauricio Lacerda Nogueira; Francisco Chiaravalloti-Neto
      Pages: 43 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Maisa Carla Pereira Parra, Eliane Aparecida Fávaro, Margareth Regina Dibo, Adriano Mondini, Álvaro Eduardo Eiras, Erna Geessien Kroon, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Mauricio Lacerda Nogueira, Francisco Chiaravalloti-Neto
      Introduction Traditional indices for measuring dengue fever risk in a given area are based on the immature forms of the vector (larvae and pupae surveys). However, this is inefficient because only adult female mosquitoes actually transmit the virus. Based on these assumptions, our objective was to evaluate the association between an entomological index obtained from adult mosquito traps and the occurrence of dengue in a hyperendemic area. Additionally, we compared its cost to that of the Breteau Index (BI). Material and methods We performed this study in São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil, between the epidemiological weeks of 36/2012 and 19/2013. BG-Sentinel and BG-Mosquitito traps were installed to capture adult mosquitoes. Positive and negative cases of dengue fever were computed and geocoded. We generated biweekly thematic maps of the entomological index, generated by calculating the number of adult Aedes aegypti females (NAF) per 100 households during a week by kriging, and based on the number of mosquitoes captured. The relation between the occurrence of dengue fever and the NAF was tested using a spatial case-control design and a generalized additive model and was controlled by the coordinates of the positive and negative cases of dengue fever. Results Our analyses showed that increases in dengue fever cases occurred in parallel with increases in the number of Ae. aegypti females. The entomological index produced in our study correlates positively with the incidence of dengue, particularly during intervals when vector control measures were applied less intensively. The operational costs of our index were lower than those of the BI: NAF used 71.5% less human resources necessary to measure the BI. Conclusions Spatial analysis techniques and the number of adult Ae. aegypti females were used to produce an indicator of dengue risk. The index can be applied at various levels of spatial aggregation for an entire study area, as well as for sub-areas, such as city blocks. Even though the index is adequate to predict dengue risk, it should be tested and validated in various scenarios before routine use.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T14:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Ground ultra low volume (ULV) space spray applications for the control of
           wild sand fly populations (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in Europe
    • Authors: Alexandra Chaskopoulou; Michael Miaoulis; Javid Kashefi
      Pages: 54 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Alexandra Chaskopoulou, Michael Miaoulis, Javid Kashefi
      The Phlebotomus sand flies are considered an important vector of both canine and human leishmaniasis. Current measures for sand fly control include mostly indoor interventions, such as residual spraying of dwellings (IRS) to target endophilic sand fly species with very limited number of vector control tools for outdoor interventions against exophilic sand flies. In this study we investigated the efficacy of ground ultra low volume (ULV) space spray applications of a deltamethrin based product against field populations of P. perfiliewi, a major nuisance and pathogen-transmitting sand fly species of the Mediterranean Basin. Sand fly flight activity patterns and flight height preference within candidate treatment sites (kennels) were determined prior to treatments in order to optimize the timing and application parameters of the spray applications. On average there was a distinct activity peak between 20.00–22.00 h for both male and female P. perfiliewi with more than 45% and 30% of the population sampled occurring between 20.00–21.00 h and 21.00–22.00 h, respectively. No significant difference was observed in sand fly numbers from sticky traps placed at 0.5 up to 1.5 m height. However, there was a significant decrease in sand fly numbers at 2 m indicating a preference of sand flies to fly below 2 m. The low and high application rate of deltamethrin resulted in mean sand fly population decrease of 18 and 66%, respectively between pre-and post-treatment trap nights. The percent mean population change in the untreated control area was a positive number (30%) indicating that there was an increase in numbers of sand flies trapped between pre- and post-treatment nights. The results of this study provide strong evidence that ground ULV space spray applications when applied properly can result in significant sand fly control levels, even in a heavily infested sand fly environment such as the kennel sites used in this study.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:34:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Detection of West Nile Virus – Lineage 2 in Culex pipiens mosquitoes,
           associated with disease outbreak in Greece, 2017
    • Authors: Konstantinos Mavridis; Emmanouil A. Fotakis; Ilias Kioulos; Spiridoula Mpellou; Spiros Konstantas; Evangelia Varela; Sandra Gewehr; Vasilis Diamantopoulos; John Vontas
      Pages: 64 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Konstantinos Mavridis, Emmanouil A. Fotakis, Ilias Kioulos, Spiridoula Mpellou, Spiros Konstantas, Evangelia Varela, Sandra Gewehr, Vasilis Diamantopoulos, John Vontas
      During July-October 2017 a WNV outbreak took place in the Peloponnese, Southern Greece with five confirmed deaths. During routine monitoring survey in the Peloponnese, supported by the local Prefecture, we have confirmed the presence of all three Culex pipiens biotypes in the region, with a high percentage of Culex pipiens/molestus hybrids (37.0%) which are considered a highly competent vector of WNV. Kdr mutations related to pyrethroid resistance were found at relatively low levels (14.3% homozygosity) while no mosquitoes harboring the recently identified chitin synthase diflubenzuron-resistance mutations were detected in the region. As an immediate action, following the disease outbreak (within days), we collected a large number of mosquitoes using CO2 CDC traps from the villages in the Argolis area of the Peloponnese, where high incidence of WNV human infections were reported. WNV lineage 2 was detected in 3 out of 47 Cx. pipiens mosquito pools (detection rate = 6.38%). The virus was not detected in any other mosquito species, such as Aedes albopictus, sampled from the region at the time of the disease outbreak. Our results show that detection of WNV lineage 2 in Cx. pipiens pools is spatially and chronologically associated with human clinical cases, thus implicating Cx. pipiens mosquitoes as the most likely WNV vector. The absence of diflubenzuron resistance mutations and the low frequency of pyrethroid (kdr) resistance mutations indicates the suitability of these insecticides for Cx. pipiens control, in the format of larvicides and/or residual spraying applications respectively, which was indeed the main (evidence based) response, following the disease outbreak.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:34:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.024
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Identification and characterization of Taenia solium enolase as a
           plasminogen-binding protein
    • Authors: Dolores A. Ayón-Núñez; Gladis Fragoso; Clara Espitia; Martín García-Varela; Xavier Soberón; Gabriela Rosas; Juan P. Laclette; Raúl J. Bobes
      Pages: 69 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Dolores A. Ayón-Núñez, Gladis Fragoso, Clara Espitia, Martín García-Varela, Xavier Soberón, Gabriela Rosas, Juan P. Laclette, Raúl J. Bobes
      The larval stage of Taenia solium (cysticerci) is the causal agent of human and swine cysticercosis. When ingested by the host, T. solium eggs are activated and hatch in the intestine, releasing oncospheres that migrate to various tissues and evolve into cysticerci. Plasminogen (Plg) receptor proteins have been reported to play a role in migration processes for several pathogens. This work is aimed to identify Plg-binding proteins in T. solium cysticerci and determine whether T. solium recombinant enolase (rTsEnoA) is capable of specifically binding and activating human Plg. To identify Plg-binding proteins, a 2D-SDS-PAGE ligand blotting was performed, and recognized spots were identified by MS/MS. Seven proteins from T. solium cysticerci were found capable of binding Plg: fascicilin-1, fasciclin-2, enolase, MAPK, annexin, actin, and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. To determine whether rTsEnoA binds human Plg, a ligand blotting was performed and the results were confirmed by ELISA both in the presence and absence of εACA, a competitive Plg inhibitor. Finally, rTsEnoA-bound Plg was activated to plasmin in the presence of tPA. To better understand the evolution of enolase isoforms in T. solium, a phylogenetic inference analysis including 75 enolase amino acid sequences was conducted. The origin of flatworm enolase isoforms, except for Eno4, is independent of their vertebrate counterparts. Therefore, herein we propose to designate tapeworm protein isoforms as A, B, C, and 4. In conclusion, recombinant enolase showed a strong plasminogen binding and activating activity in vitro. T. solium enolase could play a role in parasite invasion along with other plasminogen-binding proteins.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:34:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.020
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Management of arthropod vector data – Social and ecological dynamics
           facing the One Health perspective
    • Authors: Giovanni Benelli; Mary Frances Duggan
      Pages: 80 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Giovanni Benelli, Mary Frances Duggan
      Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are spread by direct and/or indirect contacts between a pathogen or parasite and their hosts. Arthropod vectors have evolved as excellent bloodsuckers, providing an elegant transportation mode for a wide number of infectious agents. The nature of pathogen and parasite transfer and the models used to predict how a disease might spread are magnified in complexity when an arthropod vector is part of the disease cycle. One Health is a worldwide strategy for expanding interdisciplinary collaborations and communications in all aspects of health care for humans, animals and the environment. It would benefit from a structured analysis to address vectoring of arthropod-borne diseases as a dynamic transactional process. This review focused on how arthropod vector data can be used to better model and predict zoonotic disease outbreaks. With enhanced knowledge to describe arthropod vector disease transfer, researchers will have a better understanding about how to model disease outbreaks. As public health research evolves to include more social-ecological systems, the roles of society, ecology, epidemiology, pathogen/parasite evolution and animal behavior can be better captured in the research design. Overall, because of more collaborative data collection processes on arthropod vectors, disease modeling can better predict conditions where EIDs will occur.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:34:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.015
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Comparative genomic analysis of Rickettsia rickettsii for identification
           of drug and vaccine targets: tolC as a proposed candidate for case study
    • Authors: Pramod Kumar Maurya; Swati Singh; Ashutosh Mani
      Pages: 100 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Pramod Kumar Maurya, Swati Singh, Ashutosh Mani
      Background Antibiotic resistance is increasing rapidly in pathogenic organisms, creating more complications for treatment of diseases. Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a neglected tropical disease in humans caused by Rickettsia rickettsii for which no effective therapeutic is available. Subtractive genomics methods facilitate the characterization of non-homologous essential proteins that could be targeted for the discovery of potential therapeutic compounds against R. rickettsii to combat RMSF. Present study followed an in-silico based methodology, involving scanning and filtering the complete proteome of Rickettsia rickettsii by using several prioritization parameters in the search of potential candidates for drug development. Further the putative targets were subjected to series of molecular dockings with ligands obtained from PDB ligand database to identify suitable potential inhibitors. The comparative genomic analysis revealed 606 non-homologous proteins and 233 essential non-homologous proteins of R. rickettsii. The metabolic pathway analysis predicted 120 proteins as putative drug targets, out of which 56 proteins were found to be associated with metabolic pathways unique to the bacteria and further subcellular localization analysis revealed that 9 proteins as potential drug targets which are secretion proteins, involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis, folate biosynthesis and bacterial secretion system. As secretion proteins are more feasible as vaccine candidates, we have selected a most potential target i.e. tolC, an outer membrane efflux protein that belongs to type I secretion system and has major role in pathogen survival as well as MDR persistence. So for case study, we have modelled the three dimensional structure of tolC (tunnel protein). The model was further subjected to virtual screening and in-silico docking. The study identified three potential inhibitors having PDB Id 19V, 6Q8 and 39H. Further we have suggested that the above study would be most important while considering the selection of candidate targets and drug or vaccine designing against R. rickettsii.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T14:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.021
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli
           (DEC), in diarrheic yaks of Tibetan Plateau, China
    • Authors: Li lei; Mujeeb Ur Rehman; Shucheng Huang; Lihong Zhang; Lei Wang; Khalid Mehmood; Hui Zhang; Xiaole Tong; Meng Wang; Jiakui Li
      Pages: 111 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Li lei, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Shucheng Huang, Lihong Zhang, Lei Wang, Khalid Mehmood, Hui Zhang, Xiaole Tong, Meng Wang, Jiakui Li
      This study was conducted to test the distribution of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) associated genes in fecal isolates from diarrheic yaks of a high remote region of China. Briefly, we obtained 203 fecal samples from diarrheic adult yaks and E. coli strains were isolated and identified via standard methods The antibiotic sensitivity of isolates was determined via disk diffusion method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the DEC virulence associated genes. Results of the current study showed a high rate of resistance to tetracycline (93.6%) and low rate of resistance to ofloxacin (16.7%) antibiotics. Meanwhile, five different diarrheagenic associated virulence traits were detected including; EAEC (11.80%), EHEC (25.62%), EIEC (17.18%), EPEC (36.92%) and ETEC (11.36%). Moreover, E. coli isolates were positive for all tested DEC associated virulence genes ranging from 1.48% to 33%. Additionally, four isolates were positive for more than one virulence genes. In conclusion, our investigation showed a relatively low number of E. coli virulence genes isolated from diarrheic Tibetan yaks, which could be attributed to the high altitude induced harsh environmental conditions that may not help in the growth and survival of pathogenic organisms. In addition, this study highlights the high level of antibiotic resistance in yaks, therefore; preventive measures should be taken to monitor the antibiotic usage in Tibet region of China.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T14:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.022
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Antibody responses to P. falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen 1(AMA-1) in
           relation to haemoglobin S (HbS), HbC, G6PD and ABO blood groups among
           Fulani and Masaleit living in Western Sudan
    • Authors: Amre Nasr; Ayman M. Saleh; Muna Eltoum; Amir Abushouk; Anhar Hamza; Ahmad Aljada; Mohamed E. El-Toum; Yousif A. Abu-Zeid; Gamal Allam; Gehad ElGhazali
      Pages: 115 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Amre Nasr, Ayman M. Saleh, Muna Eltoum, Amir Abushouk, Anhar Hamza, Ahmad Aljada, Mohamed E. El-Toum, Yousif A. Abu-Zeid, Gamal Allam, Gehad ElGhazali
      Fulani and Masaleit are two sympatric ethnic groups in western Sudan who are characterised by marked differences in susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. It has been demonstrated that Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and Sickle cell trait HbAS carriers are protected from the most severe forms of malaria. This study aimed to investigate a set of specific IgG subclasses against P. falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA-1 3D7), haemoglobin variants and (G6PD) in association with malaria susceptibility among Fulani ethnic group compared to sympatric ethnic group living in Western Sudan. A total of 124 children aged 5–9 years from each tribe living in an area of hyper-endemic P. falciparum unstable malaria transmission were recruited and genotyped for the haemoglobin (Hb) genes, (G6PD) and (ABO) blood groups. Furthermore, the level of plasma IgG antibody subclasses against P. falciparum antigen (AMA-1) were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Higher levels of anti-malarial IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 but not IgG4 antibody were found in Fulani when compared to Masaleit. Individuals carrying the HbCC phenotype were significantly associated with higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2. Furthermore, individuals having the HbAS phenotype were associated with higher levels of specific IgG2 and IgG4 antibodies. In addition, patients with G6PD A/A genotype were associated with higher levels of specific IgG2 antibody compared with those carrying the A/G and G/G genotypes. The results indicate that the Fulani ethnic group show lower frequency of HbAS, HbSS and HbAC compared to the Masaleit ethnic group. The inter-ethnic analysis shows no statistically significant difference in G6PD genotypes (P value = 0.791). However, the intra-ethnic analysis indicates that both ethnic groups have less A/A genotypes and (A) allele frequency of G6PD compared to G/G genotypes, while the HbSA genotype was associated with higher levels of IgG2 (AMA-1) and IgG4 antibodies. In addition, patients carrying the G6PD A/A genotype were associated with higher levels of specific IgG2 antibody compared with those carrying the A/G and G/G genotypes. The present results revealed that the Fulani ethnic group has statistically significantly lower frequency of abnormal haemoglobin resistant to malaria infection compared to the Masaleit ethnic group.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T14:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.030
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Soil-transmitted helminth infections and intestinal and systemic
           inflammation in schoolchildren
    • Authors: Brechje de Gier; Gisela M. Pita-Rodríguez; Maiza Campos-Ponce; Margot van de Bor; Chhoun Chamnan; Raquel Junco-Díaz; Colleen M. Doak; Marion Fiorentino; Khov Kuong; Fidel Angel-Núñez; Megan E. Parker; Marlene Perignon; Lázara Rojas-Rivero; Jacques Berger; Katja Polman; Frank T. Wieringa
      Pages: 124 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Brechje de Gier, Gisela M. Pita-Rodríguez, Maiza Campos-Ponce, Margot van de Bor, Chhoun Chamnan, Raquel Junco-Díaz, Colleen M. Doak, Marion Fiorentino, Khov Kuong, Fidel Angel-Núñez, Megan E. Parker, Marlene Perignon, Lázara Rojas-Rivero, Jacques Berger, Katja Polman, Frank T. Wieringa
      • The objective of this study was to assess whether soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are associated with systemic and local intestinal inflammation in school-age children. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba (N = 1389) and in Cambodia (N = 2471), STH infections and calprotectin concentrations were measured in stool samples and acute phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) were measured in blood. Associations between STH infections and elevated concentrations of CRP, AGP and calprotectin were estimated using multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of elevated CRP concentration (≥5 mg/L) was 5.4% in both populations. Elevated AGP (≥1 g/L) was found in 39.5% of the Cambodian children and 11.3% of the Cuban children. Fecal calprotectin was elevated (≥50 mg/kg) in 9.4% of the Cambodian children and 3.7% of the Cuban children. STH infections in Cuba were mainly due to Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, with prevalences of 5.2% and 3.2%, respectively. In Cambodia, hookworm was the most prevalent species (16.3%). We found no significant associations between elevated concentrations of either acute phase proteins or fecal calprotectin and STH infections. We observed a trend towards an inverse association between elevated CRP and STH infections in both studies. STH infections are not associated with either local intestinal or systemic inflammation. The trend towards less elevated CRP concentration in STH infections may indicate a reduced risk of metabolic inflammatory diseases, which merits further investigation.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T14:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.028
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Ultrasonographic investigation of cholangiocarcinoma in Lao PDR
    • Authors: Ju Yeong Kim; Tai-Soon Yong; Han-Jong Rim; Jong-Yil Chai; Duk-Young Min; Keeseon S. Eom; Woon-Mok Sohn; Jae Hoon Lim; Dongil Choi; Sithat Insisiengmay; Bounlay Phommasack; Bounnaloth Insisiengmay
      Pages: 128 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Ju Yeong Kim, Tai-Soon Yong, Han-Jong Rim, Jong-Yil Chai, Duk-Young Min, Keeseon S. Eom, Woon-Mok Sohn, Jae Hoon Lim, Dongil Choi, Sithat Insisiengmay, Bounlay Phommasack, Bounnaloth Insisiengmay
      Opisthorchis viverrini is a group 1 carcinogen that causes cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Although opisthorchiasis is known to be severely endemic to several areas along the Mekong River in Lao PDR, the CCA status of residents of this region is still under investigation. In this study, we analyzed the results of abdominal ultrasonography (US) performed on 6113 residents in 9 provinces (Vientiane Municipality, Savannakhet, Phongsaly, Khammouane, Saravane, Champasak, Vientiane, Xieng Khuouang, and Luang Prabang provinces) of Lao PDR from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 51 cases (0.83%) were detected with suspected CCA. The CCA rates in Vientiane Municipality and in Savannakhet and Khammouane provinces were 1.45%, 1.58%, and 1.09%, respectively. However, in the other 6 provinces, the rate of CCA averaged only 0.26%. In the 3 provinces with higher rates of CCA, bile duct dilatation (grade ≥ 2) was also significantly more prevalent (P < 0.0001). These results are concordant with previous reports showing a higher endemicity of opisthorchiasis in Vientiane Municipality and in Savannakhet and Khammouane provinces.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T14:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.031
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Degree of calcification and cyst activity in hepatic cystic echinococcosis
           in humans
    • Authors: Margherita Conchedda; Aldo Caddori; Alessia Caredda; Salvatore Capra; Gianfranco Bortoletti
      Pages: 135 - 143
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Margherita Conchedda, Aldo Caddori, Alessia Caredda, Salvatore Capra, Gianfranco Bortoletti
      To evaluate the relationship between cyst activity and calcification degree in cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans, 99 hepatic cysts at successive stages of involution, surgically excised from 72 Sardinian patients, have been analyzed. Cysts were classified into 4 groups according to calcification extent: CALC 0 (no calcification); CALC 1 (scattered punctate calcifications); CALC 2 (large coarse segmental/partial calcifications); CALC 3 (complete or nearly complete circumferential ring of calcification up to thick wall of osseous consistency/calcified content of cyst). In addition the possible correlation with antibody response has been explored analyzing IgG1, IgG4 and IgE produced against somatic PSCAg. Results showed that calcification is not restricted to the inactive WHO cyst types CE4 and CE5, but occurs to a varying extent in all morphotypes of metacestode, from active classic unilocular or multivesicular cysts to the more complicated and highly degenerate stages, where cyst wall appears massively calcified. Prevalence of calcification increases with progression of cyst degenerative process, but is not synonymous with parasite inactivity and can be misleading as signs of calcification may coexist with still metabolically active cysts. On the contrary, detection of entirely firmly solidified content seems a reliable indication of cyst inactivity. IgG4 is the dominant isotype associated particularly with the evolutive phase. Positive rates and OD levels, higher in active vs inactive stages, are stable or increase slightly in weakly and moderately calcified cysts (CALC 1/CALC 2), compared to non-calcified ones (CALC 0), strongly decreasing in highly calcified forms (CALC 3). In conclusion, evaluation of calcification extent may be pertinent for staging CE, and immunological tests, particularly for IgG4, and IgE may help to better define cyst activity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T14:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.027
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • High innate attractiveness to black targets in the blue blowfly,
           Calliphora vomitoria (L.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)
    • Authors: Giovanni Benelli; Domenico Otranto; Alice Caselli; Donato Romano; Damiano Remorini; Graziano Di Giuseppe; Cesare Stefanini; Marcello Mele; Angelo Canale
      Pages: 144 - 148
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Giovanni Benelli, Domenico Otranto, Alice Caselli, Donato Romano, Damiano Remorini, Graziano Di Giuseppe, Cesare Stefanini, Marcello Mele, Angelo Canale
      Calliphora vomitoria is a myiasis-causing fly in many animal species including humans. The control of blowflies is still anchored on the use of chemicals. However, mass trapping and lure-and-kill techniques represent a promising alternative to pesticides. Visual and olfactory cues are the main stimuli routing the fly’s landing behavior. Notably, color attractiveness has been barely explored in flies of medical and veterinary importance, with special reference to blowflies. In this study, we investigated the innate color preferences in C. vomitoria adults, testing binary combinations of painted targets under laboratory conditions. The identity of tested species C. vomitoria was confirmed by DNA sequencing (18S and cox1 genes). C. vomitoria flies showed a significant preference for black colored targets in all tested binary color combinations, after 5, 15, 30 and 60 min of exposure. Black targets were significantly preferred over blue, red, yellow and white ones. Spectral characteristics of all tested color combinations were quantified and the innate attraction of blowflies towards black targets was discussed in relation to their behavioral ecology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on innate color preferences in the Calliphora genus. Our findings can be useful to develop new, cheap and reliable monitoring traps as well as “lure and kill” tools to control blowfly pests.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T14:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.023
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Spatio-temporal distribution of mosquitoes and risk of malaria infection
           in Rwanda
    • Authors: Emmanuel Hakizimana; Corine Karema; Dunia Munyakanage; John Githure; Jean Baptiste Mazarati; Jon Eric Tongren; Willem Takken; Agnes Binagwaho; Constantianus J.M. Koenraadt
      Pages: 149 - 157
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Emmanuel Hakizimana, Corine Karema, Dunia Munyakanage, John Githure, Jean Baptiste Mazarati, Jon Eric Tongren, Willem Takken, Agnes Binagwaho, Constantianus J.M. Koenraadt
      To date, the Republic of Rwanda has not systematically reported on distribution, diversity and malaria infectivity rate of mosquito species throughout the country. Therefore, we assessed the spatial and temporal variation of mosquitoes in the domestic environment, as well as the nocturnal biting behavior and infection patterns of the main malaria vectors in Rwanda. For this purpose, mosquitoes were collected monthly from 2010 to 2013 by human landing catches (HLC) and pyrethrum spray collections (PSC) in seven sentinel sites. Mosquitoes were identified using morphological characteristics and PCR. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite infection rates were determined using ELISA. A total of 340,684 mosquitoes was collected by HLC and 73.8% were morphologically identified as culicines and 26.2% as anophelines. Of the latter, 94.3% were Anopheles gambiae s.l., 0.4% Anopheles funestus and 5.3% other Anopheles species. Of An. gambiae s.l., An. arabiensis and An. gambiae s.s. represented 84.4% and 15.6%, respectively. Of all An. gambiae s.l. collected indoor and outdoor, the proportion collected indoors was 51.3% in 2010 and 44.9% in 2013. A total of 17,022 mosquitoes was collected by PSC of which 20.5% were An. gambiae s.l. and 79.5% were culicines. For the seven sentinel sites, the mean indoor density for An. gambiae s.l. varied from 0.0 to 1.0 mosquitoes/house/night. P. falciparum infection rates in mosquitoes varied from 0.87 to 4.06%. The entomological inoculation rate (EIR) ranged from 1.0 to 329.8 with an annual average of 99.5 infective bites/person/year. This longitudinal study shows, for the first time, the abundance, species composition, and entomological inoculation rate of malaria mosquitoes collected throughout Rwanda.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T14:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • First report of Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae,
           Triatominae) in the State of Acre and Rondônia, Amazon, Brazil
    • Authors: Mariane Albuquerque Lima Ribeiro Castro; Gabriela Vieira de Souza Castro; Janis Lunier de Souza; Cláudio Rodrigues de Souza; Leandro José Ramos; Jader de Oliveira; João Aristeu da Rosa; Luis Marcelo Aranha Camargo; Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti
      Pages: 158 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Mariane Albuquerque Lima Ribeiro Castro, Gabriela Vieira de Souza Castro, Janis Lunier de Souza, Cláudio Rodrigues de Souza, Leandro José Ramos, Jader de Oliveira, João Aristeu da Rosa, Luis Marcelo Aranha Camargo, Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti
      Introduction This article reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Panstrongylus megistus in the Brazilian Western Amazon. Methods Specimens of P. megistus were collected in the cities of Rio Branco, Acre and Extrema, Rondônia. Results The number of triatomine species in the State of Acre increased from eight to nine and in Rondônia from seven to eight. This was also the first report of P. megistus in the Brazilian Western Amazon. Conclusion The occurrence of P. megistus in the Western Amazon evidences an epidemiological alert, since it is an important vector of T. cruzi.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T14:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.032
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Validation of a urine circulating cathodic antigen cassette test for
           detection of Schistosoma haematobiumin uMkhanyakude district of South
    • Authors: O. Rubaba; M.J. Chimbari; W. Soko; T. Manyangadze; S. Mukaratirwa
      Pages: 161 - 165
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 182
      Author(s): O. Rubaba, M.J. Chimbari, W. Soko, T. Manyangadze, S. Mukaratirwa
      Circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) tests for schistosomiasis are fast and less complicated allowing making them good candidates for routine qualitative screening for schistosomiasis at point of care. The urine-CCA has been evaluated for detection of S. mansoni with promising results. Its specificity and consistency in detecting S. haematobium infection in different endemic regions has been variable. This study validated a rapid urine-CCA cassette test for qualitative detection of S. haematobium infection in an S. haematobium endemic area with low S. mansoni prevalence. Microscopic examination for the standard urine filtration technique was used to validate the commercially available urine-CCA cassette test (rapid medical diagnostics ®). The validation was done in a sample of primary school pupils (n = 420) aged 10–15 years in schools in the Jozini Municipality, KZN. There was a relationship between infection intensity and a positive urine-CCA test. Using the urine filtration method as the gold standard, the prevalence for S. haematobium was 40%, the accuracy of the CCA kit was 54.8%, sensitivity was 68.1% while the specificity was 45.8%. The positive predictive value was 45.82% while the negative predictive value was 68.05%. Both the urine filtration and the urine-CCA methods detected heavy (≥50 eggs/10 mL urine) and light infections at statistically significant levels. The overall accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the urine-CCA cassette test were low. The urine-CCA cassette test performed much better for heavy infections than low infections (p < 0.05) implying that the kit may not be suitable for low endemic areas.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T14:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.029
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Molecular detection of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in phlebotomine
           sandflies from a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in northwestern of
           São Paulo State, Brazil
    • Authors: Kate Bastos dos Santos Brighente; Andre Antonio Cutolo; Gabriela Motoie; Cristina da Silva Meira-Strejevitch; Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Kate Bastos dos Santos Brighente, Andre Antonio Cutolo, Gabriela Motoie, Cristina da Silva Meira-Strejevitch, Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola
      This study identified the natural infection rate of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in Lutzomyia longipalpis sandflies collected in a neighborhood around a kennel, in Dracena, northwestern of São Paulo state. This region is highly endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Insects were captured during 2–3 nights monthly for 11 months (January–November 2012) using 10 automatic light traps around a kennel in a transition between periurban and urban neighborhood. Capture aimed the determination of the minimal infection rate (MIR) on the area. A total of 1690 Lu. longipalpis were captured during the studied period. Out of them, 292 (17.25%) were females and were grouped in 165 pools containing 1 to five insects for DNA extraction and PCR analysis. Positive results for L. (L) infantum in conventional PCR and real time PCR were shown in 7.28% (12/165) and 4.85% (8/165) of the analysis respectively. These data confirm that Lu. longipalpis captured in the study area were infected by L. (L.) infantum. The MIR of sandflies during the 11 months of captures was 4.10% for female the total of 292 female sandflies collected. A high DNA concentration of L. (L.) infantum was detected on sandflies especially in kennel, chicken coop and neighboring houses, where higher abundance of hosts for blood source were present.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • In vivo treatment with IL-17A attenuates hydatid cyst growth and liver
           fibrogenesis in an experimental model of echinococcosis
    • Authors: Moussa Labsi; Imene Soufli; Lila Khelifi; Zine-Charaf Amir; Chafia Touil-Boukoffa
      Pages: 6 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Moussa Labsi, Imene Soufli, Lila Khelifi, Zine-Charaf Amir, Chafia Touil-Boukoffa
      We aimed to assess the effect of exogenous Interleukin (IL)-17A in experimental model of echinococcosis. Swiss mice were inoculated intra-peritoneally with viable protoscoleces (PSCs). Then, IL-17A was administered at 100, 125 or 150 pg/mL two weeks after cystic echinococcosis (CE) induction. Cyst development and hepatic damage were macroscopically and histologically analyzed. We observed that in vivo IL-17A treatment at 100, 125, and 150 pg/mL, reduced metacestode growth by 72.3%, 93.8%, and 96.9%, respectively. Interestingly an amelioration of liver architecture was noted at 125 pg/mL without toxic effect. In this context, we showed less fibrosis reaction and reduced expression of iNOS, TNF-α, NF-κb and CD68 in hepatic parenchyma of treated mice by 125 pg/mL of IL-17A. Collectively, our results indicate an antihydatic effect and immunoprotective properties of IL-17A and suggest its potential therapeutic value against Echinococcus granulosus infection.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Leptospirosis in Caspian Sea littoral, Gilan Province, Iran
    • Authors: Vahid Garshasbi; Saied Reza Naddaf; Zohreh Aghighi; Nayerreh Hassan; Mohammad Pooya; Ehsan Mostafavi
      Pages: 11 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Vahid Garshasbi, Saied Reza Naddaf, Zohreh Aghighi, Nayerreh Hassan, Mohammad Pooya, Ehsan Mostafavi
      In Iran, leptospirosis is endemic to Caspian Sea littoral. The disease appears as a seasonal infection mostly affecting people in rural areas involved in farming. We investigated the prevalence of this infection among suspected patients in Gilan Province by an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), and two PCR protocols, a nested-PCR and a real-time PCR (qPCR), targeting rrs and lipL32 genes, respectively. We also identified the common Leptospira species by sequencing a partial sequence of rrs gene. Out of the 128 sera examined by IFA, 25.78% were positive with the antibody titers ≥1/80. The antibody titer in 39.06% of sera ranged from 1/10 to 1/140, and 35. 16% showed no antibodies, all considered negative. Nested PCR and qPCR detected Leptospira DNA in 20.31% and 18.75% of the sera, respectively. The two PCR assays had 98.43% agreement (K = 0.93) and showed an inverse correlation with the IFA titers. Also, three pathogenic Leptospira species, L. kirschneri (n = 10), L. introgans (n = 8), and L. borgpetersenii (n = 2) were identified from the clinical specimens in the study area. In our hands both PCR assays proved very efficient for early diagnosis of illness and could be used in combination with IFA for both diagnosis and epidemiological studies, but nested PCR was cheaper and appeared more appropriate for our laboratories in rural settings.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding malaria in people living with
           HIV in rural and urban Ghana
    • Authors: Ewurama D.A. Owusu; Anne Lia Cremers; Charles A. Brown; Petra F. Mens; Martin P. Grobusch
      Pages: 16 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Ewurama D.A. Owusu, Anne Lia Cremers, Charles A. Brown, Petra F. Mens, Martin P. Grobusch
      Background One of the malaria vulnerable groups is people living with HIV. This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards malaria in people living with HIV attending anti-retroviral therapy (ART) clinics in rural and urban Ghana. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study patients attending the ART clinics in Atibie (rural area) and Accra (urban area) were interviewed on their knowledge, attitude and practices regarding malaria. Finger-prick capillary blood was tested for Plasmodium spp. with rapid diagnostic tests. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the influence of KAP on malaria prevalence. Results Parasitemia was generally more frequent among HIV positive individuals in the rural area (29/116; 25%) in the rural area than in the urban area (35/350; 10%). Inaccurate knowledge of cause of malaria and prevention methods were associated with increased odds of malaria parasitemia; [OR = 1.51 (CI: 1.29–5.12); p < .05] and [OR = 2.59 (CI: 2.53–4.75); p < .05], respectively. There were disparities in socio-economic factors. For instance, low level of education was higher in the rural area (45/116; 38.8%) compared to the urban area (121/350; 34.6%). Conclusions Malaria control efforts may yield further results when the knowledge and socio-economic gap between rural and urban areas is closed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Microparticles as prognostic biomarkers in dengue virus infection
    • Authors: Rucha Patil; Smrati Bajpai; Kanjaksha Ghosh; Shrimati Shetty
      Pages: 21 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Rucha Patil, Smrati Bajpai, Kanjaksha Ghosh, Shrimati Shetty
      Promising biomarkers which may help predict the risk of developing severe dengue virus infection (DVI) are lacking and will be helpful. Thus the main aim of this study was to analyze the role of cell-derived microparticles (MP) in DVI. Sixty patients with DVI i.e. 18: dengue with warning signs (DWS); 1: DSS and 41: dengue without warning signs (DWOS); along with 15 controls (other febrile illness) were included in the study. The following MPs were assessed: annexinV, platelet (CD41a), red blood cell (RBC) (CD235a) and activated endothelial (CD62e) MPs. Patients with profound thrombocytopenia without bleeding had statistically elevated platelet MP (PMP) levels when compared to patients with profound thrombocytopenia with bleeding (p < .001). RBC MPs were found to be significantly elevated in the 2nd phase in patient with DWS which was seen earliest on day 4 of infection with a cut off of  ≥2200 MPs/μl when compared to patients with DWOS (p < .0001). PMPs may prove to be a promising novel biomarker which helps discriminate patients in need of prophylactic platelet transfusion from those who do not. RBC MPs, on the other hand could be potential biomarkers capable of identifying potentially severe patients who require immediate care. Thus, MPs seem to be a promising important biomarker in many aspects of DVI.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Morphological and ssrDNA sequence based molecular characterization of a
           novel Thelohanellus species (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) infecting the fins
           of Goldfish, Carassius auratus L. with special reference to its
           histopathological alteration
    • Authors: Mandira Saha; P.K. Bandyopadhyay
      Pages: 25 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Mandira Saha, P.K. Bandyopadhyay
      A new species of myxozoan, Thelohanellus goldi n. sp. is described using morphological and molecular data, parasitizing the fin filaments from 18 of 25 host specimens (72.5%) of Carassius auratus collected from different ornamental fish farms of India. Mature spore of the new species were oval to spherical in frontal view having rounded posterior ends and tapering anterior end measures 8.7–10.26 (9.50) × 4.10–7.89 (5.84) μm. The single large polar capsule, round to oval in shape but slightly pointed at the anterior end measuring 4.91–7.63 (5.60) × 2.3–3.1 (2.96) μm and located just below the anterior end of the spore. Polar filament only at distal end with 5–6 loose coils. The most differentiating feature from closely related species was carried out by morpho-taxonomic affinities with previously described species which are tremendously supported by molecular taxonomy by partial sequencing of the 18S rDNA gene resulted in a total of 2124 bp fragment of newly obtained small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence of the new species which Exhibit 93–95% homogeneity with other closely related species available in GenBank. The BLAST search and high genetic diversity of distance matrix of Myxobolus sp. did not properly match with any available sequences in GenBank and make sister clade with Thelohanellus caudatus and Thelohanellus habibpuri in the Thelohanellus clade including most of Thelohanellus spp. The study of evolutionary history enables us to understand the evolution of modern species and supports some uncertain topologies which are being presented regarding the morphometric analysis. The severity of myxozoan infection has been assessed in this article by observing the histopathological changes of fins of the C. auratus along with the diversity, distribution and taxonomic description of the new Thelohanellus species with their new host and locality records.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.019
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Genetic and haplotype analyses targeting cytochrome b gene of Plasmodium
           knowlesi isolates of Malaysian Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia
    • Authors: Eric Tzyy Jiann Chong; Joveen Wan Fen Neoh; Tiek Ying Lau; Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim; Kek Heng Chua; Ping-Chin Lee
      Pages: 35 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Eric Tzyy Jiann Chong, Joveen Wan Fen Neoh, Tiek Ying Lau, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim, Kek Heng Chua, Ping-Chin Lee
      Malaria is a notorious disease which causes major global morbidity and mortality. This study aims to investigate the genetic and haplotype differences of Plasmodium knowlesi (P. knowlesi) isolates in Malaysian Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia based on the molecular analysis of the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene. The cyt b gene of 49 P. knowlesi isolates collected from Sabah, Malaysian Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia was amplified using PCR, cloned into a commercialized vector and sequenced. In addition, 45 cyt b sequences were retrieved from humans and macaques bringing to a total of 94 cyt b gene nucleotide sequences for phylogenetic analysis. Genetic and haplotype analyses of the cyt b were analyzed using MEGA6 and DnaSP ver. 5.10.01. The haplotype genealogical linkage of cyt b was generated using NETWORK ver. Our phylogenetic tree revealed the conservation of the cyt b coding sequences with no distinct cluster across different geographic regions. Nucleotide analysis of cyt b showed that the P. knowlesi isolates underwent purifying selection with population expansion, which was further supported by extensive haplotype sharing between the macaques and humans from Malaysian Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia in the median-joining network analysis. This study expands knowledge on conservation of the zoonotic P. knowlesi cyt b gene between Malaysian Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.018
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Rift Valley Fever in Egypt and other African countries: Historical review,
           recent outbreaks and possibility of disease occurrence in Egypt
    • Authors: Mohamed A. Kenawy; Yousrya M. Abdel-Hamid; John C. Beier
      Pages: 40 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Mohamed A. Kenawy, Yousrya M. Abdel-Hamid, John C. Beier
      This article reviews and discusses the historical and recent status of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) in Egypt and the other African countries based on the available and scattered reports. The recent outbreaks in African countries were reviewed and mapped out. Four major epidemics have been recorded in Egypt (1977, 1978, 1993 and 2003). The outbreak resulted in unpredicted human disease with severe clinical manifestations and heavy mortality as well as many abortions and deaths in sheep, goats, cattle, water buffalo and camels. Of the 18 culicine mosquito species that occur in Egypt, Culex pipiens and Cx. antennatus were implicated as vectors of RVF in Egypt based on their natural infection with RVF virus. Aedes caspius was also suspected of disseminating the virus among livestock based on host feeding and vector competence studies. The epidemiological factors related to the introduction and spread of RVF in Egypt are discussed. The study concluded that due to the availability and abundance of the potential vectors, suitability of environmental conditions, continuous importation of livestock’s from Sudan, and the close association of susceptible domestic animals with humans, the RVF virus could possibly occur and circulate in Egypt.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:34:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.015
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Malaria control in a tribal area of central India using existing tools
    • Authors: Neeru Singh; Ashok K. Mishra; Kalyan B. Saha; Praveen K. Bharti; Dinesh S. Sisodia; Gagan S. Sonal; Akshay C. Dhariwal; Ravendra K. Sharma
      Pages: 60 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Neeru Singh, Ashok K. Mishra, Kalyan B. Saha, Praveen K. Bharti, Dinesh S. Sisodia, Gagan S. Sonal, Akshay C. Dhariwal, Ravendra K. Sharma
      Malaria is difficult to control in central India because of geographical terrain, efficient vectors, and perennial transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and socio-cultural practices of ethnic tribes. The objective was to develop a model to prevent and control malaria in hard to reach areas using existing tools. Baigachak (Tribe population 31,900) situated in Dindori district was undertaken for this study. Intervention measures used are indoor residual spray (IRS), long lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs), prompt diagnosis and treatment along with intensive Information, Education and Communication (IEC) involving school children as agent of change. Door to door rapid fever surveys were carried out in the study area from 2009 to 14 and finger prick blood smears were made from all fever cases and examined under microscope. Mosquitoes were assayed for the presence of sporozoites by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique and sibling species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There are two highly efficient vectors i.e. Anopheles culicifacies and An. fluviatilis. In monsoon season of 2009, the man hour density for An. culicifacies was 36.2 which declined to 10.9 during monsoon season of 2010-14 (t = 6.52; p < 0.0001). Epidemiological results revealed that malaria positivity was declined from 27% in 2009–3% in 2014 (Trend chi2 = 57.21; p < 0.0001) and P. falciparum declined from 23.6 to 2.4% (Trend chi2 = 48.33; p < 0.0001). Spleen rate was declined from 47% in 2009–5% in 2014 (χ2 for trend = 6.1; p = 0.0135). Baigachak has achieved a remarkable 89% reduction in malaria. This study confirms that the control strategies undertaken in this study are useful and should be extended at multiple sites for further validation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T14:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.018
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Identification of Toll-like receptor family members in Oncomelania
           hupensis and their role in defense against Schistosoma japonicum
    • Authors: Qin Ping Zhao; Qian Gao; Yan Zhang; Yan Wei Li; Wen Ling Huang; Chun-lian Tang; Hui Fen Dong
      Pages: 69 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Qin Ping Zhao, Qian Gao, Yan Zhang, Yan Wei Li, Wen Ling Huang, Chun-lian Tang, Hui Fen Dong
      The amphibious snail, Oncomelania hupensis, primarily distributed in the Far East, is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, which causes the most virulent form of schistosomiasis. Obligatory parasitism of snails is the main vehicle for human and livestock infection and depends primarily on parasite infectivity, snail defense capacity and specificity, and parasite-snail compatibility. Therefore, the schistosome-snail interaction is biomedically significant, particularly the molecular mechanisms involved in the innate immune response against S. japonicum. Several immune effectors and signaling pathways have been successfully identified in mollusks, especially in Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate snail host of S. mansoni; however, limited information is available for O. hupensis. Here, we identified 16 Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in O. hupensis. These O. hupensis TLRs (OhTLRs) are highly expressed in haemocytes, the primary immune cell of mollusks. Most of the OhTLRs were more highly expressed in female gonads than in other tissues, which may suggest maternal immune transfer in O. hupensis. After S. japonicum challenge, the expression levels of all of the OhTLRs were significantly up-regulated at 6 h post-challenge; many of the OhTLR expression levels were inhibited at later time points in haemocytes, while they were inhibited and fluctuated to varying degrees in other tissues. Additionally, we further determined the tissue-specific expression and dynamic response against S. japonicum of one of the TLR signaling adaptors, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), from O. hupensis. Three OhMyD88 genes were highly expressed in haemocytes, and were up-regulated in haemocytes and inhibited in the head-foot muscle at the early time-point after S. japonicum challenge; however, these had slower changes and longer durations compared to OhTLRs. These results provide evidence suggesting that immune effectors are involved in innate immune responses of O. hupensis against S. japonicum and may play a role in the activation of different haemocytes, and not limited for the early response to S. japonicum invasion. Further investigation into the varied expression of OhTLRs in other tissues after S. japonicum challenge will improve our understanding of TLR function in innate immunity of O. hupensis.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Seroprevalence and risk factor analysis of human leptospirosis in distinct
           climatic regions of Pakistan
    • Authors: Muhammad Luqman Sohail; Muhammad Sarwar Khan; Muhammad Ijaz; Omer Naseer; Zahida Fatima; Abdullah Saghir Ahmad; Waqas Ahmad
      Pages: 79 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Muhammad Luqman Sohail, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Muhammad Ijaz, Omer Naseer, Zahida Fatima, Abdullah Saghir Ahmad, Waqas Ahmad
      Leptospirosis is a worldwide emerging infectious disease of zoonotic importance and large epidemics and epizootics have been reported all over the globe. A cross survey study was conducted to estimate seroprevalence of human leptospirosis in climatically distinct regions of Pakistan and to identify the risk factors associated with the disease. Blood samples from 360 humans were collected through convenient sampling, 120 from each of three study areas. Serological testing was performed using ELISA kit as per manufacturer’s recommendations. The results showed an overall prevalence of 40.83% (95% CI; 35.71–46.11). Statistical analysis showed significant (P < .05) differences in leptospiral seroprevalence in three different geographic locations, with highest in humid sub-tropical climatic region (50.83%; 95% CI; 41.55–60.07), followed by semi-arid region (44.16%; 95% CI; 35.11–53.52) and lowest in hot and dry region (27.50%; 95% CI; 19.75–36.40). After multivariate analysis age, gender, exposure to flooding water, source of water usage, disinfection schedule of surroundings and history of cut and wound were found significantly associated with the seropositivity of Leptospira. The present study, first to uncover seroprevalence of human Leptospira in different climatic regions of Pakistan, alarms about effect of climate on prevalence of Leptospira in the region.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.021
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Recent progress in drug targets and inhibitors towards combating
    • Authors: Saravanan Vijayakumar; Pradeep Das
      Pages: 95 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Saravanan Vijayakumar, Pradeep Das
      Lesihmaniasis is one of the major neglected tropical disease caused by the parasite of the genus Leishmania. The disease has more than one clinical forms and the visceral form is considered fatal. With the lack of potential vaccine, chemotherapy is the major treatment source considered for the control of the disease in the infected people. Drugs including amphotericin B and miltefosine are widely used for the treatment, however, development of resistance by the parasite towards the administered drug and high-toxicity of the drug are of major concern. Hence, more attention has been shown on identifying new targets, effective inhibitors, and better drug delivery system against the disease. This review deals with recent studies on drug targets and exploring their essentiality for the survival of Leishmania. Further, new inhibitors for those targets, novel anti-leishmanial peptides and vaccines against leishmaniasis were discussed. We believe that this pool of information will ease the researchers to gain knowledge and help in choosing right targets and design of new inhibitors against Leishmaniasis.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:34:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Dengue infection in patients with febrile illness and its relationship to
           climate factors: A case study in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, for the
           period 2010–2014
    • Authors: Anwar M. Hashem; Turki Abujamel; Rowa Alhabbab; Mansour Almazroui; Esam I. Azhar
      Pages: 105 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Anwar M. Hashem, Turki Abujamel, Rowa Alhabbab, Mansour Almazroui, Esam I. Azhar
      Dengue is an important global arboviral disease with expanding geographical range. It is a major public health concern in Western Saudi Arabia since its first detection in the city of Jeddah in 1994. In this retrospective study, we examined dengue incidence among febrile patients suspected for acute dengue infection at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah from 2010 to 2014 and we tried to determine the effect of climate factors on dengue incidence in the city. Acute dengue incidence rates among clinically suspected patients showed annual variation with a range from 29.3% to 57%. Male gender and 11–30 years age range were found to be risk factors for dengue infection in Jeddah. While dengue infections can be detected throughout the year, most cases occurred between March and July with peaks in May and June. Seasonality of dengue was found to be significantly associated with the decrease in relative humidity and increase in temperature within the range of ∼25 °C to ∼33 °C but not extremely hot temperatures. Moreover, we found that rainfall during winter (November to February) has a significant lag effect on dengue infection among febrile patients in the city. Jeddah is the second largest city in Saudi Arabia and a major hub for pilgrims because of its close proximity to the holy sites in the Kingdom. The observed high rates of acute dengue infections clearly show the endemicity of dengue in Jeddah. The observed higher incidence rates at young age are expected to cause an increase in severe dengue cases in the future especially that multiple dengue serotypes are co-circulating in the city. Furthermore, the significant association between the different climate factors and dengue and their impact on the disease seasonality should help in the effort to implement effective control and management measures to reduce dengue burden in the Kingdom.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T14:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.014
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Clinical and immunological profiles of anaemia in children and adolescents
           with Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Pará state, Brazilian Amazon
    • Authors: Ana Maria Revoredo da Silva Ventura; Andrea Aparecida Moraes Fernandes; Graziela Maria Zanini; Lilian Rose Pratt-Riccio; Carina Guilhon Sequeira; Carlos Rodrigo Souza do Monte; Arnaldo Jorge Martins-Filho; Ricardo Luiz Dantas Machado; Rosana Maria Feio Libonati; José Maria de Souza; Cláudio Tadeu Daniel-Ribeiro
      Pages: 122 - 131
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Ana Maria Revoredo da Silva Ventura, Andrea Aparecida Moraes Fernandes, Graziela Maria Zanini, Lilian Rose Pratt-Riccio, Carina Guilhon Sequeira, Carlos Rodrigo Souza do Monte, Arnaldo Jorge Martins-Filho, Ricardo Luiz Dantas Machado, Rosana Maria Feio Libonati, José Maria de Souza, Cláudio Tadeu Daniel-Ribeiro
      Children and adolescents are at great risk for developing iron deficiency anaemia worldwide. In the tropical areas, malaria and intestinal parasites may also play an important role in anaemia pathogenesis. This study aimed at evaluating clinical and immunological aspects of anaemia in children and adolescents with Plasmodium vivax malaria, in the Pará State, Brazil. A longitudinal study was performed in two Reference Centers for malaria diagnosis in the Brazilian Amazon in children and adolescents with malaria (n = 81), as compared to a control group (n = 40). Patients had blood drawn three times [before treatment (D0), after treatment (D7) and at the first cure control (D30)] and hemogram, autoantibody analysis (anticardiolipin, antibodies against normal RBC membrane components) and cytokine studies (TNF and IL-10) were performed. Stool samples were collected for a parasitological examination. Malaria patients had a 2.7-fold greater chance of anaemia than the control group. At D0, 66.1% of the patients had mild anaemia, 30.5% had moderate and 3.5% had severe anaemia. Positivity to intestinal helminths and/or protozoa at stool examinations had no influence on anaemia. Patients had significantly lower levels of plasmatic TNF than control individuals at D0. Low TNF levels were more prevalent among patients with moderate/severe anaemia than in those with mild anaemia and among anaemic patients than in anaemic controls. TNF levels were positively correlated with the haemoglobin rates and negatively correlated with the interval time elapsed between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis. Both plasma TNF levels and haemoglobin rates increased during the follow-up period. The IL-10 levels were lower in patients than in the controls at day 0 and decreased thereafter up to the end of treatment. Only the anti-anticardiolipin autoantibodies were associated with moderate/severe anaemia and, possibly by reacting with the parasite glycosylphosphatidylinositol (a powerful stimulator of TNF production), may have indirectly contributed to decrease the TNF levels, which could be involved in the malarial vivax anaemia of these children and adolescents. More studies addressing this issue are necessary to confirm these findings and to add more information on the multifactorial pathogenesis of the malarial anaemia.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T13:34:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.022
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2018)
  • Current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and their impact on
           hematological and nutritional status among Karen hill tribe children in
           Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand
    • Authors: Jintana Yanola; Woottichai Nachaiwieng; Suwit Duangmano; Mujalin Prasannarong; Pradya Somboon; Sakorn Pornprasert
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Jintana Yanola, Woottichai Nachaiwieng, Suwit Duangmano, Mujalin Prasannarong, Pradya Somboon, Sakorn Pornprasert
      Intestinal parasitic infection represents a substantial problem for children living in rural or limited resources areas and significantly relates to anemia and nutritional status. This study aimed to determine the current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand and assess the impact of intestinal parasitic infection on hematological and nutritional status in those children. A total of 375 Karen hill tribe children, 6–14 years of age, in Omkoi District were randomly selected to participate in this study. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasitic infection through formalin-ether concentration method. Blood samples were collected for hematological and iron analysis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 47.7% (179/375), with single infections (29.3%) and polyparatism (18.4%). The most common pathogenic parasite was Trichuris trichiura (16.0%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (13%) and Giardia lamblia (3.5%). In addition, non-pathogenic amoeba, Entamoeba coli was observed with a high prevalence rate (31.2%). Anemia and eosinophilia prevalence were 6.40% (24/375) and 74.7% (280/375), respectively. Eosinophilia was significantly more prevalent in children with intestinal parasitic infection compared to uninfected children. Among 249 children, 13.7% were iron deficiency, 9.6% were thalassemia and hemoglobinophathy and 8% were G-6-PD deficiency. A high prevalence infection rate was significantly associated with eosinophilia, but independently related to anemia and iron deficiency. Intestinal parasitic infections are endemic in school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District. These data highlight the need for an integrated approach to control transmission of intestinal parasites and improve the health and sanitation status of Karen hill tribe children in Thailand.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T14:18:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • Antimonial susceptibility and in vivo behaviour of Leishmania major
           isolates collected in Algeria before and after treatment
    • Authors: Eddaikra Naouel; Kherachi Djenad Ihcene; Bensegheir Sofiane; Ait Oudhia Khatima; Benikhlef Razika; Oury Bruno; Harrat Zoubir; Sereno Denis
      Pages: 7 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Eddaikra Naouel, Kherachi Djenad Ihcene, Bensegheir Sofiane, Ait Oudhia Khatima, Benikhlef Razika, Oury Bruno, Harrat Zoubir, Sereno Denis
      The repercussions of cutaneous leishmaniasis therapy on the behaviour and drug susceptibility of Leishmania major parasites is poorly documented. This study explored the link between antimonial susceptibility and in vivo behaviour in Leishmania major isolates collected before and after treatment in Algeria. This study was performed on 3 isolates collected from patients prior to treatment and paired with 3 isolates collected from the same patient after treatment failure. Their in vitro susceptibility towards trivalent (SbIII) and pentavalent (SbV) antimony were ascertained, and their in vivo behaviour was evaluated by determining their capacity to disseminate, proliferate and induce lesions in mice. No relationship was observed between in vitro antimony resistance and parasite fitness in the murine model.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T14:18:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.020
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • Geographical distribution and species identification of human filariasis
           and onchocerciasis in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea
    • Authors: Thuy-Huong Ta; Laura Moya; Justino Nguema; Pilar Aparicio; María Miguel-Oteo; Gema Cenzual; Isabel Canorea; Marta Lanza; Agustín Benito; James Lee Crainey; José Miguel Rubio
      Pages: 12 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Thuy-Huong Ta, Laura Moya, Justino Nguema, Pilar Aparicio, María Miguel-Oteo, Gema Cenzual, Isabel Canorea, Marta Lanza, Agustín Benito, James Lee Crainey, José Miguel Rubio
      Human filariae are vector-borne parasites and the causative agents of various diseases, including human onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Onchocerciasis causes a spectrum of cutaneous and ophthalmologic manifestations (including blindness) and has long been a major public health problem in Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea). Bioko Island has been included in the WHO's Onchocerciasis Control Program since 1987. In Bioko Island, the specificity and sensitivity of clinical Onchocerca volvulus diagnosis is key. The objective of this work was to update onchocerciasis elimination progress in Bioko Island, after 18 years of mass ivermectin intervention, and the general filariasis situation through a rapid and accurate molecular method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bioko Island from mid-January to mid-February 2014. A total of 543 subjects were included in the study. Whole blood and one skin snip (from lumbar regions) were analysed with a real time PCR assay. Two other skin biopsies were analysed by an expert microscopist. All positive samples were confirmed by sequencing. Traditional microscopic examination of the skin biopsies failed to detect any microfilariae. However, 11 (2.03%) infections were detected using PCR assay, including one O. volvulus, two Mansonella streptocerca, seven Mansonella perstans and one Loa loa infections. PCR assays in blood detected 52 filariae-positive individuals (9.6%) which harboured M. perstans or L. loa. The low prevalence of O. volvulus confirms the success of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme and suggests that Mass Drug Administration in Bioko Island can be interrupted in the near future. The very high prevalence of M. perstans found in skin snips assays raises doubts about the reliability of microscope-based diagnosis of O. volvulus infections.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T14:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.030
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • First molecular evidence of equine granulocytic anaplasmosis in Pakistan
    • Authors: Sehrish Saleem; Muhammad Ijaz; Shahid Hussain Farooqi; Muhammad Imran Rashid; Amjad Khan; Awais Masud; Amjad Islam Aqib; Kashif Hussain; Khalid Mehmood; Hui Zhang
      Pages: 18 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Sehrish Saleem, Muhammad Ijaz, Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Muhammad Imran Rashid, Amjad Khan, Awais Masud, Amjad Islam Aqib, Kashif Hussain, Khalid Mehmood, Hui Zhang
      Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum) is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes equine granulocytic anaplasmosis (EGA) disease in equines. This pathogen has zoonotic potential, which makes it very important to be detected and controlled as early as possible. This study was aimed to assess the molecular prevalence, associated risk factors of EGA along with its effects on various hematological parameters. This study revealed an overall 10.67% prevalence in equine. Horses showed highest prevalence followed by mules and donkeys presenting 11.86, 10.53 and 9.43% prevalence, respectively. The samples were confirmed for anaplasmosis through sequencing. The BLAST queries confirmed very high homology of our isolates with Chinese and Japanese isolates of A. phagocytophilum (Accession no’s; KX505303, KY242456 and LC002836). The phylogenetic analysis found the study isolates clustered with each other and this cluster closely resembled Chinese isolate of A. bovis (FJ169957), A. phagocytophilum (HQ872464) and A. phagocytophilum (NR_044762) human isolate from northern Minnesota and Wisconsin. The key risk factors identified for occurrence of EGA in equine species on the basis of univariable analysis were sex of animal, housing type, tick infestation, previous tick history and tick control status, type of acaricides used, rearing system and farm hygiene, respectively. The hematological parameters like Hemoglobin (Hb), Total Leukocyte Count (TLC), Total Erythrocytes Count (TEC), and granulocytes were decreased in diseased animals. The mules showed no typical hematological variations which make sense for its nature as carrier of infection to the susceptible species. This is the first molecular evidence of EGA in Pakistan. The disease needs to be handled seriously as it has zoonotic potential. The animals should be properly attended in disease conditions as leukopenia, neutropenia and lymphopenia can aggravate the condition by making the animal prone to secondary infections.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T14:18:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.032
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • Retrospective active case finding in Cambodia: An innovative approach to
           leprosy control in a low-endemic country
    • Authors: Thomas Fürst; Arielle Cavaliero; Sambath Lay; Chrystel Dayer; Saren Chan; Ajda Smrekar; Visal So; Tanja Barth-Jaeggi; Peter Steinmann
      Pages: 26 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Thomas Fürst, Arielle Cavaliero, Sambath Lay, Chrystel Dayer, Saren Chan, Ajda Smrekar, Visal So, Tanja Barth-Jaeggi, Peter Steinmann
      Currently, leprosy control relies on the clinical diagnosis of leprosy and the subsequent administration of multidrug therapy (MDT). However, many health workers are not familiar with the cardinal signs of leprosy, particularly in low-endemic settings including Cambodia. In response, a new approach to early diagnosis was developed in the country, namely retrospective active case finding (RACF) through small mobile teams. In the frame of RACF, previously diagnosed leprosy patients are traced and their contacts screened through “drives”. According to the available records, 984 of the 1,463 (67.3%) index patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2010 and registered in the national leprosy database were successfully traced in the period 2012–2015. Migration (8.4%), death (6.7%), operational issues (1.6%) and unidentified other issues (16.0%) were the main reasons for non-traceability. A total of 17,134 contacts of traced index patients (average: 2.2 household members and 15.2 neighbors) and another 7,469 contacts of the untraced index patients could be screened. Among them, 264 new leprosy patients were diagnosed. In the same period, 1,097 patients were diagnosed through the routine passive case detection system. No change was observed in the relation between the rate at which new patients were identified and the number of years since the diagnosis of the index patient. Similar to leprosy patients diagnosed through passive case detection, the leprosy patients detected through RACF were predominantly adult males. However, the fraction of PB leprosy patients was higher among the patients diagnosed through RACF, suggesting relatively earlier diagnosis. It appears that RACF is a feasible option and effective in detecting new leprosy patients among contacts of previously registered patients. However, a well-maintained national leprosy database is essential for successful contact tracing. Hence, passive case detection in the frame of routine leprosy surveillance is a precondition for efficient RACF as the two systems are mutually enhancing. Together, the two approaches may offer an interesting option for countries with low numbers of leprosy patients but evidence of ongoing transmission. The impact on leprosy transmission could be further increased by the administration of single dose rifampicin as post-exposure prophylaxis to eligible contacts.
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      PubDate: 2018-03-08T14:37:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.031
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • Population based and animal study on the effects of Schistosoma japonicum
           infection in the regulation of host glucose homeostasis
    • Authors: Qiong Duan; Lu Xiong; Chaonan Liao; Zhenzhen Liu; Yi Xiao; Ruixue Huang; Ting Tan; Yanhao Ouyang; Jinxing Cai; Meifang Xiao; Huilan Xu; Zihua Chen; Lizhang Chen; Tianlun Yang; He Huang
      Pages: 33 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Qiong Duan, Lu Xiong, Chaonan Liao, Zhenzhen Liu, Yi Xiao, Ruixue Huang, Ting Tan, Yanhao Ouyang, Jinxing Cai, Meifang Xiao, Huilan Xu, Zihua Chen, Lizhang Chen, Tianlun Yang, He Huang
      Although parasitic infection affects the glucose homeostasis of mice, only few studies have integrated epidemiological and animal data to determine the effect of Schistosoma japonicum infection on mice metabolism. The current study assessed the effects of S. japonicum infection on blood glucose and other metabolic parameters in both patients and animal models of chronic schistomiasis. A total of 2183 patients with chronic schistosomiasis and age- and gender-matched individuals without schistosomiasis (n = 1798) were enrolled in this study. Fasting blood glucose and other metabolic parameters, including body mass index (BMI) and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol, were compared between the two groups. Mice infected with S. japonicum were used to test the effects of the parasite on glucose tolerance. We found that chronic schistosomiasis patients had significantly lower BMI and fasting blood glucose, serum triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels than non-schistosomiasis individuals. In the animal studies, both bisexual and unisexual S. japonicum infection improved glucose tolerance in wild-type mice. Additionally, S. japonicum-infected ob/ob mice, a model that spontaneously develops obesity and diabetes, also had decreased body weight and improved glucose tolerance. We further observed that S. japonicum-infected mice had lower inflammatory gene expression in the visceral white adipose tissue than the control mice. Collectively, our results demonstrated that S. japonicum infection improved glucose tolerance and other metabolic parameters both in human and animals. Downregulated inflammatory gene expression due to S. japonicum infection might be among the mechanisms for the improved glucose tolerance.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T14:18:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • Population structure and genetic diversity of Rhipicephalus microplus in
    • Authors: Marvelous Sungirai; Samantha Baron; Nicolaas A. Van der Merwe; Doreen Zandile Moyo; Patrick De Clercq; Christine Maritz-Olivier; Maxime Madder
      Pages: 42 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Marvelous Sungirai, Samantha Baron, Nicolaas A. Van der Merwe, Doreen Zandile Moyo, Patrick De Clercq, Christine Maritz-Olivier, Maxime Madder
      Recently there was an expansion in the geographic range of Rhipicephalus microplus in Zimbabwe. In order to understand gene flow patterns and population structure in this highly invasive and adaptable cattle tick, a population genetics study was carried out. Eighty-seven R. microplus tick samples drawn from 5 distinct populations were genotyped using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity (He) was high (0.755–0.802) in all the populations, suggesting high levels of gene flow with 97% of genetic variation found within populations and 3% amongst populations. No isolation by distance was observed with low but significant genetic differentiation amongst the populations (0–0.076). Most of the sampled individuals had admixed genetic backgrounds, except for those from Matabeleland North whose genetic makeup appeared different from the rest. Rhipicephalus microplus was recently recorded in this area and the environmental conditions do not support survival of the tick there. These results confirm recent range expansion of the tick and the lowest genetic diversity recorded in the Matabeleland North population is suggestive of a founder effect, which may lead to genetic drift. Generally, the very low levels of genetic differentiation amongst the populations could be a result of the frequent movement of livestock from one area to another, which will have implications for disease control. This study offers further opportunities to study evolutionary adaptation of R. microplus in Zimbabwe and southern Africa.
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      PubDate: 2018-01-10T14:18:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • Low socioeconomic condition and the risk of dengue fever: A direct
    • Authors: Elaine Cristina Farinelli; Oswaldo Santos Baquero; Celso Stephan; Francisco Chiaravalloti-Neto
      Pages: 47 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Elaine Cristina Farinelli, Oswaldo Santos Baquero, Celso Stephan, Francisco Chiaravalloti-Neto
      This study aimed to characterize the first dengue fever epidemic in Várzea Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil, and its spatial and spatio-temporal distribution in order to assess the association of socioeconomic factors with dengue occurrence. We used autochthonous dengue cases confirmed in a 2007 epidemic, the first reported in the city, available in the Information System on Diseases of Compulsory Declaration database. These cases where geocoded by address. We identified spatial and spatio-temporal clusters of high- and low-risk dengue areas using scan statistics. To access the risk of dengue occurrence and to evaluate its relationship with socioeconomic level we used a population-based case-control design. Firstly, we fitted a generalized additive model (GAM) to dengue cases and controls without considering the non-spatial covariates to estimate the odds ratios of the occurrence of the disease. The controls were drawn considering the spatial distribution of the household of the study area and represented the source population of the dengue cases. After that, we assessed the relationship between socioeconomic variables and dengue using the GAM and obtained the effect of these covariates in the occurrence of dengue adjusted by the spatial localization of the cases and controls. Cluster analysis and GAM indicated that northeastern area of Várzea Paulista was the most affected area during the epidemic. The study showed a positive relationship between low socioeconomic condition and increased risk of dengue. We studied the first dengue epidemic in a highly susceptible population at the beginning of the outbreak and therefore it may have allowed to identify an association between low socioeconomic conditions and increased risk of dengue. These results may be useful to predict the occurrence and to identify priority areas to develop control measures for dengue, and also for Zika and Chikungunya; diseases that recently reached Latin America, especially Brazil.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • Some facts on south asian schistosomiasis and need for international
    • Authors: M.C. Agrawal; V.G. Rao
      Pages: 76 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 180
      Author(s): M.C. Agrawal, V.G. Rao
      In this review, we are discussing South Asian schistosomiasis; more specifically species which are responsible for schistosomiasis in India or South Asia –Schistosoma indicum, S. spindale, S. nasale, S. incognitum, S. gimvicum (S.haematobium), Bivitellobilharzia nairi, Orientobilharzia bomfordi, O. dattai, O. turkestanicum and O.harinasutai, their survival strategies such as mild pathology to the host, producing low egg number and utilizing fresh water snails (Indoplanorbis exustus and Lymnaea luteola) in stagnant water bodies like ponds, lakes, ditches, low laying areas, marshy lands and rice fields. Presently, correct identification of blood fluke species, their immature stages, male schistosomes and their intermediate host details like strain variations, susceptibilities, ecologies are not well studied. Species like B. nairi, O. bomfordi, O. harinasutai (Lymnaea rubiginosa intermediate host for O.harinasutai in Thailand) are also not well studied. Moreover, snail species like Oncomalania spp are not from South Asia, but species of Tricula or Neotricula are reported from this geography, which gives indications of S. mekongi like blood fluke presence in the area. Although in humans, cercarial dermatitis is rampant in rural population with occasional reporting of schistosome eggs in stools, human schistosomiasis is considered absent from this region, despite finding a foci (now dead) of urinary schistosomiasis in Gimvi village of Ratnagiri district, Maharashtra, India. There is great difficulty in diagnosing the infection in man and animals due to low egg production, hence development of a single step antigen detection test is the need of the hour. Interestingly, lethal effect of praziquantel was seen against S.haematobium and S.mansoni. However, this drug failed to cause significant reduction of S. incognitum and S. spindale experimentally suggesting some differences in the biology of two groups of the schistosomes. Triclabendazole showed adulticidal effect at a dose rate of 20 mg/kg body against female schistosome worms, but at lower dose (10 mg/kg body wt) of the drug, a dose that is used in treating bovine fascioliasis, it is providing chances of drug resistance of the persisting schistosomes against triclabendazole. Though the South Asian institutes have all the facilities to tackle issues related to existing schistosomes, it is recommended to develop an international collaboration by establishing an international centre on schistosomiasis in India.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.022
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2018)
  • Metaperiodate deglycosylation of Strongyloides venezuelensis larvae:
           immunochemical characterization and antigen production for human
           strongyloidiasis diagnosis
    • Authors: Henrique Tomaz Gonzaga; Daniela da Silva Nunes; Vanessa da Silva Ribeiro; Nágilla Daliane Feliciano; Jair Pereira da Cunha-Junior; Julia Maria Costa-Cruz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Henrique Tomaz Gonzaga, Daniela da Silva Nunes, Vanessa da Silva Ribeiro, Nágilla Daliane Feliciano, Jair Pereira da Cunha-Junior, Julia Maria Costa-Cruz
      Strongyloidiasis is an important helminthiasis affecting million people worldwide. The aim of this study was to use sodium metaperiodate (MP) treatment to immunochemically characterize Strongyloides venezuelensis filariform larvae and use MP-treated heterologous antigen to detect IgG and subclasses in serum. Samples from individuals with definitive diagnosis of strongyloidiasis (n = 50), other parasitic diseases (n = 60) and negative endemic (n = 50) were tested. TG-ROC and two-way ANOVA were applied. MP-treatment resulted on differential localization of carbohydrates at larval structure and no carbohydrate content in saline extract (SE). Electrophoretic profiles were similar before and after treatment. ELISA sensitivity and specificity were: 90%; 88.2% for SE and 92.0%; 94.6% for MP, respectively. When using MP treated antigen we observed reduction in IgG1 and IgG3 detection in strongyloidiasis group and decrease of cross reactions in control groups. Our data demonstrate the role of carbohydrate residues in cross reactions and on the recognition of anti-Strongyloides IgG and its subclasses.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.001
  • Genetic interaction and diversity of the families Libellulidae and
           Gomphidae through COI gene from China and Pakistan
    • Authors: Saif Ul Islam; Muhammad Qasim; Wenzhong Lin; Waqar Islam; Muhammad Arif; Habib Ali; Zujian Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Saif Ul Islam, Muhammad Qasim, Wenzhong Lin, Waqar Islam, Muhammad Arif, Habib Ali, Zujian Wu
      A total of 300 dragonflies (Odonata) were collected from six different localities of China and Pakistan. Sixty seven representative samples were selected to sequence their mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). An examination of the resultant sequences identified 21 different dragonfly species, belonging to 15 distinct genera, two families, Libellulidae and Gomphidae. Sequence alignment was executed using Clustal-W in BioEdit v6. The phylogenetic tree was constructed through Neighbor-joining method by using Jukes-Cantor model, and genetic divergence was calculated via Kimura 2-parameter using MEGA7, while Genetic diversity was calculated by DnaSP v5. The maximum genetic divergence was observed for Crocothemis servilia, at 20.49%, followed by Libellulidae sp. with 22.30% while minimum divergence (0.82%) was observed for Melligomphus ardens. Likewise, a significant genetic diversity was observed for all species. However, Crocothemis servilia species presented maximum value (176 mutations) followed by Libellulidae spp. (150 mutations), whereas minimum value (3 mutations) was observed by Orthetrum testaceum. Interestingly, the diversity of C. servilia, all of which are collected from a single location of China, is much higher than those from Pakistan, which were collected from 5 different places with a spatial distance exceeding 500 Kms. Our results are useful in gaining a full appreciation of the global diversity of dragonflies and the development of conservation measures of this insect.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.016
  • Characterization of Fungus Microbial Diversity in Healthy and Diarrheal
           Yaks in Gannan Region of Tibet Autonomous Prefecture
    • Authors: Kun Li; Khalid Mehmood; Hui Zhang; Xiong Jiang; Muhammad Shahzad; Xiaoqian Dong; Jiakui Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Kun Li, Khalid Mehmood, Hui Zhang, Xiong Jiang, Muhammad Shahzad, Xiaoqian Dong, Jiakui Li
      Diarrhea is a serious epidemic in yaks on Qinghai Tibet plateau, but the exact pathogen is not confirmed. Diarrhea is related to the changes in diversity of intestinal flora. The current study herein is performed for high-throughput sequencing of fungus microbial diversity in healthy adult yaks, diarrheal adult yaks and diarrheal yak calves in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. A total 446726 optimized sequences were achieved. Over 250 OTUs in species level have been indentified for each sample. The Shannon and Simpson index revealed that there was no visible difference in the flora between different yak groups (p > 0.05). However, obvious difference was watched in the principal component of microbial community structure in different yak groups by PCA analysis, especially between healthy adult yak group and diarrheal adult yak groups. There were 248 fungus species shared in three groups. Interestingly, there were 97 fungus species shared in the diarrheal groups (calves and adult yaks), which were not found in the healthy yaks, while there were 212 fungus species only found in the healthy yaks. In the Phylum level, 1 phylum (Neocallimastigomycota) was discovered to have significant difference between healthy yaks and diarrheal yak calves (p < 0.05). In the genus level, 23 genus were found obvious difference between healthy adult yaks and diarrheal adults yaks (p < 0.05); 28 genus were found significant difference between healthy adult yaks and diarrheal yak calves (p < 0.05); 23 genus were found obvious difference between diarrheal adult yaks and diarrheal yak calves (p < 0.05). The present study herein first reported an insight of the change of microbial diversity of fungus in diarrhea yaks at altitude regions, which contributed towards the solid prevention of diarrhea in yaks.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.017
  • Towards elimination of schistosomiasis after 5000 years of endemicity in
    • Authors: Iman F. Abou-El-Naga
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Iman F. Abou-El-Naga
      Schistosomiasis is a snail-transmitted infectious disease caused by a long lasting infection with a blood fluke of the genus Schistosoma. S. haematobium and S. mansoni are the species endemic in Egypt. The country has been plagued and seriously suffered from schistosomiasis over the past 5000 years. Great strides had been done in controlling the disease since 1922. The history, epidemiology and the different control approaches were reviewed. Currently, Egypt is preparing towards schistosomiasis elimination by 2020. The new strategy depends on four main axes; large scale treatment in all areas of residual transmission by targeting entire populations with PZQ, intensified snail control, heath education and behavioral changes and expansion of the complementary public health interventions. While on the road towards elimination, we addressed here the important challenges, lessons and the key issues from the different control strategies to help the achievement of our goal. Notably, frangibility of the drug based control, emergence of resistance against PZQ, persistence of some hot spots areas, the need of further control efforts to the high risk individuals and community involvement in the control programs, reconsideration of diagnostic tests used in surveillance, and continous monitoring of the field to detect changes in the snail intermediate host. Importantly, the adaptation between the parasite and its intermediate snail host throughout water bodies in Egypt merits attention as Schistosoma infection can be introduced to the new reclaimed areas. This review may help supplying information for the policy makers to tailor control measures suitable to the local context that could help in the transfer from control to elimination.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.005
  • Babesia bovis in and around Jimma town, Southwestern Ethiopia
    • Authors: Bersissa Kumsa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Bersissa Kumsa

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.004
  • A new species of Simulium (Simulium) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Genting
           Highlands, Malaysia
    • Authors: Zubaidah Ya’Cob; Hiroyuki Takaoka; Van Lun Low; Mohd Sofian-Azirun
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Zubaidah Ya’Cob, Hiroyuki Takaoka, Van Lun Low, Mohd Sofian-Azirun
      Simulium (Simulium) rasuli sp. nov. is described from two females collected by a Malaise trap in Genting Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia. This new species is placed in the Simulium christophersi species-group of the subgenus Simulium. The female of this new specie is characterized by the scutum with three longitudinal vittae, dark legs, claw with a small subbasal tooth, and ovipositor valve triangular with its inner margin nearly straight. This new species is distinguished in the female from all the six named species of the species-group by the entirely brownish-black femora and tibiae.

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.007
  • Insecticidal activity, putative binding proteins and histopathological
           effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3(459) toxin on the lepidopteran pest
           Ectomyelois ceratoniae
    • Authors: Hanen Boukedi; Slim Tounsi; Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Hanen Boukedi, Slim Tounsi, Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati
      The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, is an important agricultural pest that is susceptible to the Vip3(459) protein. The insecticidal activity, evaluated against this lepidopteran pest, displayed an LC50 value of about 28 ng/cm2.The investigation of the mode of action of this B. thuringiensis protein demonstrated that the active form of this toxin bound to putative receptors in the BBMV of E. ceratoniae. Ligand blotting experiment proved that Vip3(459) specifically bound to two proteins of about 53 and 57 kDa, located on the midgut. This specific binding caused perturbations in midgut tissues. The histopathology of 20 midguts from Vip3(459)-feeding larvae showed cytoplasm vacuolization, brush border membrane destruction, vesicle formation in the apical region and cellular disintegration. These findings suggested that B. thuringiensis Vip3(459) could be a promising biocontrol agent to eradicate E. ceratoniae and to prevent emergence of resistance.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.006
  • Exploring the impact of house screening intervention on entomological
           indices and incidence of malaria in Arba Minch town, southwest Ethiopia: A
           randomized control trial
    • Authors: Solomon Kinde Getawen; Temesgen Ashine; Fekadu Massebo; Daniel Woldeyes; Bernt Lindtjørn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Solomon Kinde Getawen, Temesgen Ashine, Fekadu Massebo, Daniel Woldeyes, Bernt Lindtjørn
      House is the major site for malaria infection where most human-vector contact takes place. Hence, improving housing might reduce the risk of malaria infection by limiting house entry of vectors. This study aimed to explore the impact of screening doors and windows with wire meshes on density and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) of malaria vector, and malaria incidence, and assess the acceptability, durability, and cost of the intervention. The susceptibility status of malaria vector was also assessed. A two-arm randomized trial was done in Arba Minch Town, southwest Ethiopia. 92 houses were randomly included in the trial. The baseline entomological and malaria prevalence data were collected. The mosquito sampling was done twice per household per month by Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps for six months. The baseline prevalence of malaria was assessed by testing 396 (83% of the 447 study participants) household members in all the eligible houses. The 92 houses were then randomized into control and intervention groups using mosquito and malaria prevalence baseline data to make the two groups comparable except the intervention. Then, we put wire-mesh on doors and windows of 46 houses. Post-screening mosquito collection was done in each household twice per month for three months. Each household member was visited twice per month for six months to assess malaria episodes. The frequency of damage to different structure of screening was measured twice. In-depth interview was conducted with 24 purposely selected household heads from intervention group. Speciation of Anopheles mosquito was done by morphological key, and the circum-sporozoite proteins (CSPs) analysis was done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A generalized estimating equation with a negative binomial distribution was used to assess the impact of the intervention on the indoor density of vectors. Clinical malaria case data were analyzed using Poisson regression with generalized linear model. Screening doors and windows reduced the indoor density of An. arabiensis by 48% (mean ratio of intervention to control = 0.85/1.65; 0.52) (P = 0.001). Plasmodium falciparum CSP rate was 1.6% (3/190) in the intervention houses, while it was 2.7% (10/372) in the control houses. The protective efficacy of screening intervention from CSP positive An. arabiensis was 41% (mean ratio of intervention to control = 1.6/2.7; 0.59, but was not statistically significant (P = 0.6). The EIR of An. arabiensis was1.91 in the intervention group, whereas it was 6.45 in the control group. 477 participants were followed for clinical malaria (50.1% from intervention and 49.9% from the control group). Of 49 RDT positive cases, 45 were confirmed to be positive with microscopy. 80% (n = 36) cases were due to P. falciparum and the rest 20% (n = 9) were due to P. vivax. The incidence of P. falciparum in the intervention group was lower (IRR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.2–0.80; P = 0.01) than in the control group. Using incidence of P. falciparum infection, the protective efficacy of intervention was 61% (95% CI: 18–83; P = 0.007). 97.9% of screened windows and 63.8% of screened doors were intact after eleven months of installation. Malaria mosquito was resistance (mortality rate of 75%) to the insecticide used for bed nets treatment. Almost all participants of intervention arm were willing to continue using screened doors and windows. Screening doors and windows reduced the indoor exposure to malaria vectors. The intervention is effective, durable and well-accepted. Hence, the existing interventions can be supplemented with house screening intervention for further reduction and ultimately elimination of malaria by reducing insecticide pressure on malaria vectors. However, further research could be considered in broad setting on different housing improvement and in the way how to scale-up for wider community. Trial registration number: PACTR201612001891179 (retrospectively registered 13 December, 2016)

      PubDate: 2018-02-15T22:20:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.02.009
  • The blackfly vectors and transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in Mahenge,
           south eastern Tanzania
    • Authors: Adam Hendy; Andreas Krüger; Kenneth Pfarr; Jacobus De Witte; Addow Kibweja; Upendo Mwingira; Jean-Claude Dujardin; Rory Post; Robert Colebunders; Sarah O’Neill; Akili Kalinga
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Acta Tropica
      Author(s): Adam Hendy, Andreas Krüger, Kenneth Pfarr, Jacobus De Witte, Addow Kibweja, Upendo Mwingira, Jean-Claude Dujardin, Rory Post, Robert Colebunders, Sarah O’Neill, Akili Kalinga
      The Mahenge Mountains onchocerciasis focus in south eastern Tanzania was historically one of the most heavily infected areas in the country. The vectors of Onchocerca volvulus are mainly Simulium damnosum complex blackflies, but a species of the Simulium neavei group may also contribute to transmission in some areas. The only detailed studies of parasite transmission in Mahenge were conducted in the late 1960s. The taxonomy of the S. damnosum complex has since been revised and onchocerciasis control through annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) commenced in 1997. This study aimed to provide a cytogenetic and molecular update of the S. damnosum complex cytoforms present in Mahenge, and to evaluate the current status of O. volvulus transmission by blackflies following 19 years of annual CDTI. Rivers were surveyed to identify sites of S. damnosum s.l. breeding among the eastern slopes of the mountains, and human landing collections of adult female blackflies were made close to breeding sites. Identification of S. damnosum complex cytoforms was by cytotaxonomy of late-instar larvae and ITS1 amplicon size polymorphisms of larvae and adults. Adult blackflies were pool screened for O. volvulus infection using a triplex real-time PCR. The cytoforms ‘Nkusi’, Simulium kilibanum and ‘Turiani’ were found breeding in perennial rivers. ‘Nkusi’ and S. kilibanum were collected on human bait at 7/7 catch sites and possessed ITS1 profiles most closely resembling the molecular forms ‘Nkusi J’ and S. kilibanum ‘T’. Whereas ‘Turiani’ was present in rivers, it was not collected on human bait and appears to be zoophilic. Simulium nyasalandicum was collected in low numbers on human bait at 3/7 catch sites. In total, 12,452 S. damnosum s.l. were pool screened and O. volvulus infection was detected in 97/104 pools of bodies and 51/104 pools of heads. The estimated percentage of S. damnosum s.l. carrying infective L3 stage parasites was 0.57% (95% CI 0.43%–0.74%). Onchocerca volvulus transmission by S. damnosum s.l. is continuing in the Mahenge Mountains after 19 years of annual CDTI. Infection rates appear similar to those reported in the 1960s, but a more detailed study is required to fully understand the epidemiological significance of the ongoing transmission. These results provide further evidence that annual CDTI may be insufficient to eliminate the parasite in formerly hyperendemic foci.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.009
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