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Showing 1 - 200 of 3042 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 81, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 325, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 123, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 338, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 422, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Acta Tropica
  [SJR: 1.059]   [H-I: 77]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-706X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Associations of tumor necrosis factor-α-308 polymorphism with dengue
           infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Noel Pabalan; Suwit Chaisri; Sompong Tabunhan; Mayuri Tarasuk; Hamdi Jarjanazi; Theodore Steiner
      Pages: 17 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Noel Pabalan, Suwit Chaisri, Sompong Tabunhan, Mayuri Tarasuk, Hamdi Jarjanazi, Theodore Steiner
      Inconsistency of reported associations between the tumor necrosis factor-alpha-308 (TNFα-308) polymorphism (rs1800629) and dengue virus infection prompted a meta-analysis, to obtain more precise estimates. A literature search yielded 14 case-control studies. We calculated pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals in three groups according to severity, dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue (DEN) using standard genetic models. Pooled ORs were subjected to modifier treatment where re-analysis was confined to Hardy-Weinberg compliant (HWC) studies. Heterogeneity of outcomes warranted examining their sources with outlier treatment. In subgroup analysis, we compared Asian and South/Central American (SCA)/Brazilian effects. Overall pooled outcomes yielded no significant effects (OR 0.66-1.44, P =0.08–0.96). In the dominant-codominant model, pooled effects were heterogeneous (I2 =47%–71%) which was lost/reduced (I2 =0%–43%) when outlier treatment was applied. This also yielded significant associations (OR 0.68-0.77, P =0.02–0.05). Our results are best seen in the Asian subgroup, which in itself already yielded significant effects in DEN (OR 0.62–0.67, P =0.01–0.02). These reduced risk findings were significant from the tests of interaction (P =0.001–0.02) which highlights the protective effects of TNFα-308 among Asians. TNFα-308 effects on dengue are based on significance and non-heterogeneity of the post-outlier outcomes in the dominant and codominant models. Here, pooled effects may also be ethnic specific, where Asians are protected but not SCA. Both modified and Asian effects are up to 38% protective.

      PubDate: 2017-05-30T13:12:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
  • Molluscicidal potential of Heterorhabditis baujardi (Rhabditida:
           Heterorhabditidae), strain LPP7, on Lymnaea columella (Gastropoda:
           Pulmonata): An alternative for biological control of fasciolosis
    • Authors: Victor Menezes Tunholi; P.O. Lorenzoni; Ygor Henrique da Silva; Vinícius Menezes Tunholi-Alves; Jankerle Neves Boeloni; Maria Aparecida da Silva; Caio Oliveira Monteiro; M.C.A. Prata; J. Pinheiro; Isabella Vilhena Freire Martins
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Victor Menezes Tunholi, P.O. Lorenzoni, Ygor Henrique da Silva, Vinícius Menezes Tunholi-Alves, Jankerle Neves Boeloni, Maria Aparecida da Silva, Caio Oliveira Monteiro, M.C.A. Prata, J. Pinheiro, Isabella Vilhena Freire Martins
      This study elucidated for the first time, under laboratory conditions, the susceptibility of Lymnaea columella to infective juveniles of Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7. Exposure to the nematodes induced an average mortality rate of 66.66% in the population of L. columella, with the highest values attained from the second week after exposure onward. In addition, all the reproductive parameters analyzed (total number of eggs, number of egg masses, number of eggs laid/snail, embryo hatching rate and content of galactogen stored in the albumen gland) changed as a result of the infection. The results indicate the occurrence of the phenomenon of parasitic castration in L. columella infected by H. baujardi LPP7, probably through depletion of energy reserves such as galactogen, necessary to meet the intense metabolic demands of the nematode’s larval stages. Finally, histopathological analysis demonstrated an intense process of cell disorganization, characterized by the occurrence of granulomatous inflammatory reactions in tissues of exposed snails, induced by the spoliative action of the bacteria/nematode. The results suggest the use of H. baujardi LPP7 as an alternative for biological control of the population of this intermediate host, and thus of the diseases in whose epidemiological chain it participates, especially fasciolosis, in line with the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO).

      PubDate: 2017-05-30T13:12:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.024
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
  • Morphological identification and DNA barcoding of a new species of
           Parabrachiella (Siphonostomatoida: Lernaeopodidae) with aspects of their
           intraspecific variation
    • Authors: M.M. Montes; R. Castro-Romero; S.R. Martorelli
      Pages: 34 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): M.M. Montes, R. Castro-Romero, S.R. Martorelli
      We present a detailed morphological description and a DNA barcoding of Parabrachiella platensis n. sp. collected from Mugil liza Valenciennes in Samborombon Bay (Buenos Aires, Argentina). This new species was compared with two Parabrachiella species parasitic on mugilids: Parabrachiella exilis (Shiino, 1956) and Parabrachiella mugilis (Kabata, Raibaut et Ben Hassine, 1971). Parabrachiella platensis n. sp. differs from those species in the shape of posterior processes, the anal slit with two pairs of bipartite papillae, the size of cephalothorax, the trunk, the maxilla, the microhabitat on the host, and the lack of caudal rami. On the host, the new species was in the nostrils (a new site for a species of the genus Parabrachiella) and in the fins base. Some minor morphological differences were observed in relation to the locations on the host. The molecular analysis conducted based on mtDNA-COI between specimens of the new species on the fins and nostrils showed a genetic similarity of 99.8%. This percentage supports that the specimens found in nostrils and fins base could represent a single species. New studies on P. platensis n. sp., including infection of the same fish with the two forms, could bring some new information. Anyway according to the genetic information provided and the minimal morphological differences spotted we conclude that the two forms are a single specie. The differences observed are possibly influenced by the place of the host where the two forms of copepods were found, nostrils and fins. The new species was also molecularly compared to other five species of Parabrachiella including P. exilis (parasitizing mugilid from Chile), Parabrachiella anisotremis, Parabrachiella auriculata, Parabrachiella merluccii, and P. hugu (the last two sequences were taken from the GenBank). The genetic distance of 9% among P. platensis n. sp. and P. exilis, which is the close morphological related species, allow to states that these two copepods on mugilids belong to different species and then validating the morphological differences found between them.

      PubDate: 2017-05-30T13:12:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.025
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
  • Naturally acquired immune responses to thrombospondin-related adhesion
           protein (TRAP) of Plasmodium vivax in patients from areas of unstable
           malaria transmission
    • Authors: Saeed Nazeri; Sedigheh Zakeri; Akram Abouie Mehrizi; Navid Dinparast Djadid
      Pages: 45 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Saeed Nazeri, Sedigheh Zakeri, Akram Abouie Mehrizi, Navid Dinparast Djadid
      A key tool for the control, elimination, and eradication of Plasmodium vivax is the development of an effective vaccine. The thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (TRAP) is one of the major sporozoite antigens that plays an important role in the invasion of mosquito salivary glands and hepatocytes by sporozoites. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the naturally acquired antibodies to the P. vivax TRAP (PvTRAP) in patients from malaria-endemic areas of Iran (n=116), Afghanistan (n=50), and Pakistan (n=50). The PvTRAP gene was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3)-pET23a and used as antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The profile of immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotype and the avidity of IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 to PvTRAP, as well as the association between anti-PvTRAP isotype responses and host age were evaluated. Only 42.24% of Iranian, 38% of Afghani, and 44% of Pakistani patients infected with P. vivax had positive anti-PvTRAP IgG, and the prevalence of responders in the three countries did not differ significantly (P> 0.05). Moreover, the prevalence of IgG1 and IgG3 antibody responses to PvTRAP showed no significant correlation with age (P> 0.05). Individuals exposed to vivax malaria in the unstable malaria transmission areas are able to produce antibodies to the TRAP antigen at all ages in response to P. vivax infections. Finally, the presence of mature IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies with high to intermediate avidity against PvTRAP antigen (>60%) provide more information to understand the interactions between the host and P. vivax parasite. In summary, the present study provides data that support the rational development of an effective pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine based on PvTRAP antigen.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T13:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.026
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
  • Experimental Theileria lestoquardi infection in sheep: Biochemical and
           hematological changes
    • Authors: Saeed Yaghfoori; Mehrdad Mohri; Gholamreza Razmi
      Pages: 55 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Saeed Yaghfoori, Mehrdad Mohri, Gholamreza Razmi
      Malignant theileriosis (Theileria lestoquardi infection) is a hemoparasitic tick-borne disease that affects both wild and domestic small ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical and hematological characteristics of sheep after being experimentally infected by T. lestoquardi. T. lestoquardi infection was induced in seven Baluchi sheep of six-to-eight months old via experimentally-infected Hyalomma anatolicum adult ticks. Biochemical and hematological parameters were measured twice a week during the three weeks’ post infection. Twenty-three biochemical analytes and seven hematological ones were measured. After three to four days infection, body temperature rose above 40 °C. Maximum and minimum parasitaemia were 3.3% and 0.28%, respectively. Piroplasms and schizont were seen on average from days 7.2 and 4 post infection, respectively. The concentrations and activities of Alb, HDL, ALT, T3, T4, Ca, Fe, Mg, iP, WBC, RBC, PCV, Hb, Plt, neutrophil and lymphocytes significantly decreased (P ≤0.05) during experimental infection. However, concentrations and activities of BT, GGT, Glu, BUN, Crea, FIB and Cu significantly increased (P ≤0.05). There was no significant change in the serum amounts of Chol, LDL, TG, VLDL and Zn. The observed hypoalbuminemia and increase of FIB concentrations referred to pro-inflammatory cytokines production. Moreover, the raising of GGT activity indicates liver damage, cholestatic disorders or schizont infiltration. The disease stress and corticosteroids are suspected to cause the Glu concentration increase. The present study is aimed at improving the knowledge of malignant theileriosis.
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      PubDate: 2017-06-05T13:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.029
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
  • Insecticidal activity of Stemona collinsiae root extract against
           Parasarcophaga ruficornis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)
    • Authors: Aurapa Sakulpanich; Siriluck Attrapadung; Wandee Gritsanapan
      Pages: 62 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Aurapa Sakulpanich, Siriluck Attrapadung, Wandee Gritsanapan
      In Thai indigenous knowledge, Stemona plant has traditionally been used as insecticide on plantations. Recently, S. collinsiae extract was showed to be an anti-feedant and growth inhibitor and to exert strong insecticidal activity. Here, the insecticidal activity of S. collinsiae root extract against Parasarcophaga ruficornis is studied. The larvicidal and pupicidal activities of the ethanolic root extract of S. collinsiae were tested using contact toxicity tests, and adulticidal activity was tested using the topical contact toxicity and sugar bait methods The ethanolic extract at concentration ranging of 0.3–320mg/larva for the direct contact toxicity test and from 0.3 to 3.2mg/cm2/larva for the secondary contact toxicity test showed 3.0–51.0 and 1.0–94.0% corrected mortality, respectively. Against third-instar larvae, the LD50 concentrations of the ethanolic extract were 31.7±0.0mg/larva and 1.4±0.0mg/cm2/larva for direct and secondary contact toxicity tests, respectively. Pupae were not eliminated at all concentrations of the ethanolic extract. Against adult flies, which were killed via oral administration, the LD50 concentration of the ethanolic extract was 0.145±0.070g extract/g glucose. Thus, the ethanolic extract of S. collinsiae was capable of eliminating P. ruficornis in larval and adult stages via topical and ingestion administration, respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T13:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.027
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
  • Transcriptomic analysis of porcine PBMCs in response to FMDV infection
    • Authors: Fu-Rong Zhao; Yin-Li Xie; Ze-Zhong Liu; Jun-Jun Shao; Shi-Fang Li; Yong-Guang Zhang; Hui-Yun Chang
      Pages: 69 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Fu-Rong Zhao, Yin-Li Xie, Ze-Zhong Liu, Jun-Jun Shao, Shi-Fang Li, Yong-Guang Zhang, Hui-Yun Chang
      Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a significant zoonotic infectious disease. It has an important economic impact throughout the world. As well, it is a considerable threat to food security. At present, the molecular mechanism of FMDV infection is not clear to a large extent. Innate immune response is the first line of defense against infectious diseases. The systematic analysis of the host immune response to infection has an important role in understanding the pathogenesis of infection. However, there are few reports about effect of immune regulation on virus replication in the interaction of virus and host cellular. High-throughput RNA-seq technology as a powerful and efficient means for transcript analysis provides a new insight into FMDV study. In this study, RNA extracted from pig PBMCs infected with O subtype FMDV at 4 dpi. A total of 29942658 and 31452917 Illumina read pairs were obtained from the non-infected (NI) group and infected (I) group, respectively. The clean bases for all samples are 3.61G (NI group) and 3.79G (I group), respectively. The clean reads of the NI and I group that mapped to pig genome data were 47195073 (81.82%) and 46556714 (76.85%), respectively. Most of the clean reads were distributed in the exon region, followed by intron region and intergenic region. Differently expressed (DE) genes were analyzed using edgeR software. 451 genes were differentially expressed between the infected and the non-infected groups. According to the comparison analysis, more genes were down-regulated in the non-infected samples than in those infected with FMDV.66 out of 451 genes were down-regulated, 385 out of 451 genes were up-regulated following FMDV infection. For function classification and pathway analysis, among 17741 assembled unigenes, there are 349 genes which are different genes of GO notes. Moreover, 49 genes were down-regulated, 300 genes were up-regulated associate with GO term. 1621 were successfully annotated by GO assignments, belonging to one or more of the three categories: biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. According to KEGG analysis,the main pathway was represented including protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, phagosome, cell cycle and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. Some key DE genes related to immune process and signaling pathways were analyzed and quantified by RT-PCR. This is the first systematical transcriptome analysis of pig PBMCs infected by FMDV. These findings will help us better understand the host Cell-FMDV interaction and its relationship to pathogenesis, as well as contribute to the prevention and control of FMDV.
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      PubDate: 2017-06-05T13:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.009
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
  • Resveratrol relieves Angiostrongylus cantonensis – Induced
           meningoencephalitis by activating sirtuin-1
    • Authors: An-Chih Chen; Ling-Yuh Shyu; Yue-Loong Hsin; Ke-Min Chen; Shih-Chan Lai
      Pages: 76 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): An-Chih Chen, Ling-Yuh Shyu, Yue-Loong Hsin, Ke-Min Chen, Shih-Chan Lai
      Resveratrol, a natural herbal compound found in high levels in grapes and red wine, is frequently used as activator of sirtuin-1. This study investigated the potential function of sirtuin-1 in regulating angiostrongyliasis meningoencephalitis in resveratrol-treated mice. Mice were subjected to meningoencephalitis to study the protective effect of resveratrol against meningoencephalitis and investigate the effects of sirtuin-1 activation on brain. Results demonstrated that sirtuin-1 level decreased in mice with meningoencephalitis and significantly increased in resveratrol-treated mice. Moreover, resveratrol treatment significantly reduced eosinophil counts, p65, Interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-33, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels, matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity, claudin-5 degradation, and blood–brain barrier permeability. By contrast, the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 was significantly increased in resveratrol-treated mice. Resveratrol treatment was partially beneficial in controlling the pathological processes of angiostrongyliasis meningoencephalitis. The results demonstrate the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol against Angiostrongylus cantonensis-induced eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in mice. Treatment with sirtuin-1 agonist was given within a therapeutic window after A. cantonensis infection.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T13:33:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.023
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
  • Leishmaniasis in Turkey: Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by
           Leishmania donovani in Turkey
    • Authors: Ahmet Özbilgin; Mehmet Harman; Mehmet Karakuş; Aldert Bart; Seray Töz; Özgür Kurt; İbrahim Çavuş; Erdal Polat; Cumhur Gündüz; Tom Van Gool; Yusuf Özbel
      Pages: 90 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Ahmet Özbilgin, Mehmet Harman, Mehmet Karakuş, Aldert Bart, Seray Töz, Özgür Kurt, İbrahim Çavuş, Erdal Polat, Cumhur Gündüz, Tom Van Gool, Yusuf Özbel
      In Turkey, the main causative agents are Leishmania tropica (L. tropica) and Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and L. infantum for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we investigated leishmaniasis cases caused by L. donovani and established animal models for understanding its tropism in in vivo conditions. Clinical samples (lesion aspirations and bone marrow) obtained from CL/VL patients were investigated using parasitological (smear/NNN) and DNA-based techniques. For species identification, a real time ITS1-PCR was performed using isolates and results were confirmed by hsp70 PCR-N/sequencing and cpb gene PCR/sequencing in order to reveal Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum discrimination. Clinical materials from CL and VL patients were also inoculated into two experimental groups (Group CL and Group VL) of Balb/C mice intraperitoneally for creating clinical picture of Turkish L. donovani strains. After 45days, the samples from visible sores of the skin were taken, and spleens and livers were removed. Measurements of the internal organs were done and touch preparations were prepared for checking the presence of amastigotes. The strains were isolated from all patients and amastigotes were seen in all smears of the patients, and then isolates were immediately stored in liquid nitrogen. In real time ITS1-PCR, the melting temperatures of all samples were out of range of L. infantum, L. tropica and L. major. Sequencing of hsp70 PCR-N showed that all isolates highly identical to previously submitted L. donovani sequences in GenBank, and cpb gene sequencing showed five isolates had longer cpbF allele, whereas one isolate contained a mixed sequence of both cpbF and cpbE. All mice in both experimental groups became infected. Compared to controls, the length and width of both liver and spleen were significantly elevated (p<0.001) in both groups of mice. However, the weight of the liver increased significantly in all mice whereas the weight of spleen increased only in VL group. Amastigotes were also seen in all touch preparations prepared from skin sores, spleen and liver. L. donovani strain was isolated from autocutaneous a VL patient first time in Turkey. Animal models using clinical samples were successfully established and important clinical differences of the isolated strains were observed.
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      PubDate: 2017-06-14T12:17:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.032
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
  • Parkinson’s disease and Toxoplasma gondii infection: Sero-molecular
           assess the possible link among patients
    • Authors: Shirzad Fallahi; Ali Rostami; Mehdi Birjandi; Nozhat Zebardast; Farnaz Kheirandish; Adel Spotin
      Pages: 97 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Shirzad Fallahi, Ali Rostami, Mehdi Birjandi, Nozhat Zebardast, Farnaz Kheirandish, Adel Spotin
      We investigated the possible association between Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and Toxoplasma gondii infection, the most common neurotropic protozoan parasitic infection, using serological and molecular techniques. One hundred and fifteen patients with confirmed PD and 115 healthy subjects in the same age and sex distribution were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were taken from each participant and the sera was screened for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies (IgG and IgM). PCR assay was performed in duplicate using the primer pair targeting the B1 gene of Toxoplasma. Amplicons were directly sequenced to conduct the phylogenetic analysis. The prevalence of Toxoplasma infection based on IgG titer was 53% in case and 55.6% in the control groups, revealing no statistically significant association between Toxoplasma seropositivity and PD (OR=0.90; 95% CI=0.54–1.51; P =0.691). According to PCR assay, the prevalence of Toxoplasma infections was 19.3% in the case and 10.4% in control groups which the difference was statistically significant (OR=3.02; 95% CI=1.46–6.27; P =0.002). Multiple sequence alignment of Toxoplasma gondii isolates manifested a common haplotype by the identity: 93.6–100% and divergence: 0–6.7%. We concluded that T. gondii infection not only could not be a risk factor to PD, but even it could be concluded that patients with PD are in more risk to acquisition of infection. These results provide fresh insights into the ambiguous association between T. gondii infection and PD.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T12:17:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
  • Topical treatment with nanoliposomal Amphotericin B reduces early lesion
           growth but fails to induce cure in an experimental model of cutaneous
           leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania mexicana
    • Authors: Sanjay Varikuti; Steve Oghumu; Noushin Saljoughian; Marissa S. Pioso; Bren E Sedmak; Ali Khamesipour; Abhay R. Satoskar
      Pages: 102 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Sanjay Varikuti, Steve Oghumu, Noushin Saljoughian, Marissa S. Pioso, Bren E Sedmak, Ali Khamesipour, Abhay R. Satoskar
      Leishmania mexicana infection causes localized skin lesions that can lead to tissue damage and permanent disfigurement if not resolved. Currently, recommended treatments include intravenous administration of Amphotericin B, which is undesirable due to the associated cost and patient burden related to receiving regular injections. In this study, we evaluated the effect of topical treatment with a nanoliposomal formulation of Amphotericin B that is penetrable to the skin (SinaAmphoLeish 0.4%) in mice infected with L. mexicana by using ulcerated (BALB/c) and non-ulcerated (129SVE) models. BALB/c mice received a 4 week treatment following ulcerated lesion development, while 129SVE mice received a 10 week treatment beginning at week 5 post-infection. Although mice from both models showed comparable susceptibility to L. mexicana infection after topical treatment with SinaAmphoLeish relative to controls, 129SVE mice displayed a transient decrease in lesion sizes which eventually became similar to control mice. On other hand this treatment resulted in no reduction in the lesion sizes in BALB/c mice. 129SVE treated mice exhibited greater IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 cytokine levels and higher T-cell proliferation in re-stimulated draining lymph node cells. BALB/c mice showed no differences in cytokine responses between treated and control mice. These findings indicate that topical SinaAmphoLeish treatment is not likely to be effective in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. mexicana.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T12:17:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
  • Cytotoxicity of Cerastes cerastes snake venom: Involvement of imbalanced
           redox status
    • Authors: Hayet Kebir-Chelghoum; Fatima Laraba-Djebari
      Pages: 116 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Hayet Kebir-Chelghoum, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
      Envenomation caused by Cerastes cerastes snake venom is characterized by a local and a systemic tissue damage due to myonecrosis, hemorrhage, edema and acute muscle damage. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the pro/anti-oxidants status and the cytotoxicity of C. cerastes snake venom. The in vivo cytotoxicity analysis was undertaken by the injection of C. cerastes venom (48μg/20g body weight) by i.p. route, mice were then sacrificed at 3, 24 and 48h post injection, organs were collected for further analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis was investigated on cultured PBMC, hepatocytes and isolated liver. The obtained results showed a significant cell infiltration characterized by a significant increase of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinoperoxidase (EPO) activities. These results showed also a potent oxidative activity of C. cerastes venom characterized by increased levels of residual nitrites and lipid peroxidation associated with a significant decrease of glutathione and catalase activity in sera and tissues (heart, lungs, liver and kidneys). The in vitro cytotoxicity of C. cerastes venom on PBMC seems to be dose-dependent (IC50 of 21μg/ml/106 cells) and correlated with an imbalanced redox status at high doses of venom. However, in the case of cultured hepatocytes, the LDH release and oxidative stress were observed only at high doses of the venom. The obtained results of in vivo study were confirmed by the culture of isolated liver. Therefore, these results suggest that the venom induces a direct cytotoxic effect which alters the membrane integrity causing a leakage of the cellular contents. This cytotoxic effect can lead indirectly to inflammatory response and oxidative stress. These data suggest that an early anti-inflammatory and antioxidant treatment could be useful in the management of envenomed victims.
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      PubDate: 2017-06-19T12:34:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.010
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
  • Molecular characterization of Blastocystis from pigs in Shaanxi province
           of China
    • Authors: Jun-Ke Song; Rui-Si Hu; Xian-Cheng Fan; Sha-Sha Wang; Hui-Jun Zhang; Guang-Hui Zhao
      Pages: 130 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Jun-Ke Song, Rui-Si Hu, Xian-Cheng Fan, Sha-Sha Wang, Hui-Jun Zhang, Guang-Hui Zhao
      Blastocystis is an enteric eukaryote of mystery for its ubiquitous presence in animals and humans worldwide and a broad diversity genetically. The animals have been suggested to be an important reservoir to transmit Blastocystis to humans because of high colonization frequency and the presence of zoonotic subtypes. In the present study, the prevalence and subtypes of Blastocystis in pigs in Shaanxi province of China were determined using the molecular technique based on the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene fragment. Of 560 pig faecal samples collected from different geographical origins, 419 (74.8%) were positive for Blastocystis colonization. The prevalence was significant affected by the age and the geographical origin. Four subtypes, including three zoonotic (ST1, ST3 and ST5) and one animal specific (ST10) subtypes, were identified. To our knowledge, this study provides the first run-through information for colonization of Blastocystis in pigs in China.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-19T12:34:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.06.014
      Issue No: Vol. 173 (2017)
  • T1/ST2 deficient mice display protection against Leishmania infantum
           experimental infection
    • Authors: Khalid Eltahir Khalid; Manuela Sales Lima Nascimento; Laís Amorim Sacramento; Diego Luís Costa; Djalma Souza Lima-Júnior; Vanessa Carregaro; João Santana da Silva
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 172
      Author(s): Khalid Eltahir Khalid, Manuela Sales Lima Nascimento, Laís Amorim Sacramento, Diego Luís Costa, Djalma Souza Lima-Júnior, Vanessa Carregaro, João Santana da Silva
      T1/ST2 is a surface marker selectively expressed on type 2 helper (TH2) effector cells. As Leishmania infection in susceptible BALB/c mice have ascribed to a polarized TH2 response, this study aim to investigate the T1/ST2 (the receptor for IL-33), as a typical TH2 marker in the postulation that a shift towards a beneficial TH1 response would occur in the absence of ST2. For this, ST2 knockout (ST2−/−) and WT BALB/c mice were experimentally infected in the retro-orbital sinus with L. infantum. We showed that ST2−/− animals displayed better control of parasite burden in both spleen and liver tissues at different time points of chronic phases, and reduced spleenomegaly and hepatomegaly compared with the wild-type (WT) mice. This was associated with increased in the IFN-γ levels and expression by CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. The inflammatory response encompasses transaminases (AST and ALT) releases and NO productions were remarkably lower in ST2−/− mice compared with WT. These data suggest that, ST2−/−) exert protection against L. infantum infection and probably shift the immune response toward TH1 induction.

      PubDate: 2017-04-29T11:15:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 172 (2017)
  • Descriptions of the female and larva of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) udomi
           (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thailand, and its transfer to the Simulium
           asakoae species-group
    • Authors: Atiporn Saeung; Wichai Srisuka; Van Lun Low; Wanchai Maleewong; Hiroyuki Takaoka
      Pages: 14 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 172
      Author(s): Atiporn Saeung, Wichai Srisuka, Van Lun Low, Wanchai Maleewong, Hiroyuki Takaoka
      The female and larva of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) udomi Takaoka & Choochote from Thailand are described for the first time. The female of this species is similar to those of S. (G.) asakoae Takaoka & Davies from Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Hong Kong and Vietnam, and S. (G.) chiangdaoense Takaoka & Srisuka from Thailand. The larva of this species is similar to S. (G.) curtatum Jitklang et al. and S. (G.) nr. asakoae 2 from Thailand in having a medium-long postgenal cleft. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this species from these related species. The COI gene sequence of S. (G.) udomi is compared with those of eight species of the S. asakoae species-group and three species of the S. ceylonicum species-group. This species is transferred from the S. ceylonicum species-group to the S. asakoae species-group based on the adult female and male morphological characters, comparisons of the genetic distances and phylogenetic relationships inferred from the COI gene sequences.

      PubDate: 2017-04-29T11:15:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 172 (2017)
  • Scanning electron microscopic studies on antenna of Hemipyrellia
           ligurriens (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)—A blow fly species
           of forensic importance
    • Authors: Garima Hore; Aniruddha Maity; Atanu Naskar; Waliza Ansar; Shyamasree Ghosh; Goutam Kumar Saha; Dhriti Banerjee
      Pages: 20 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 172
      Author(s): Garima Hore, Aniruddha Maity, Atanu Naskar, Waliza Ansar, Shyamasree Ghosh, Goutam Kumar Saha, Dhriti Banerjee
      Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are one of the foremost organisms amongst forensic insects to colonize corpses shortly after death, thus are of immense importance in the domain of forensic entomology. The blow fly Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is considered as a forensically important fly species globally and is also known for its medical and veterinary importance. In the present study, we report for the first time scanning electron microscopic studies on the morphology of sensilla of antenna of adult male and female of H. ligurriens is with profound importance in better understanding of the insect morphology from forensic entomological perspective, and also could aid in proper identification of the species from other calliphorid flies. The structural peculiarities observed in the (i) antenna of H. ligurriens with three segments- scape, pedicel and flagellum with dorso-laterally placed arista (ii) densely covered microtrichia and most abundant trichoid sensilla identified on the antenna (iii) observation of only one type of sensilla, chaetic sensilla (ChI) on the scape (iv) two types of chaetic sensilla (ChI and ChII) and styloconic sensilla on the pedicel (v) the flagellum with three types of sensilla- trichoid, basiconic and coeloconic sensilla (vi) Basiconic sensilla with multiporous surfaces with characteristic olfactory function. Moderate sexual dimorphism in the width of the flagellum, the females with wider flagella than the males, bear significance to the fact that they bear more multi-porous sensilla than the males, thus suffice their need to detect oviposition sites. Significant difference was observed in the length and width of coeloconic sensilla between the two sexes, the females showed bigger coeloconic sensilla, suggesting their function in oviposition site detection and successful colonization in corpses.
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      PubDate: 2017-04-29T11:15:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 172 (2017)
  • Rodents as a reservoir of infection caused by multiple zoonotic
           species/genotypes of C. parvum, C. hominis, C. suis, C. scrofarum, and the
           first evidence of C. muskrat genotypes I and II of rodents in Europe
    • Authors: Oľga Danišová; Alexandra Valenčáková; Michal Stanko; Lenka Luptáková; Elena Hatalová; Alexander Čanády
      Pages: 29 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 172
      Author(s): Oľga Danišová, Alexandra Valenčáková, Michal Stanko, Lenka Luptáková, Elena Hatalová, Alexander Čanády
      Cryptosporidium spp. is an important causative agent of intestinal parasitoses-induced diarrhoea in humans and animals worldwide. Rodents (small mammals), the main reservoir of infections, are globally expanded and overpopulated, which increases the risk of transfer of human and zoonotic pathogens from the genus Cryptosporidium. In this study, Cryptosporidium was detected in wild immunocompetent asymptomatic small mammals. Altogether 262 fecal samples were collected from five areas in Eastern Slovakia from four different rodent species (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus flavicollis, Rattus norvegicus), eight samples originated from two insectivore species (Sorex araneus, Crocidura suaveolens), and two sample from a carnivore Mustela nivalis. The samples were examined using a method modified in our laboratory, based on the use of specific primers on a small subunit rRNA (18S rRNA) gene for species identification, and amplification of GP60 gene coding 60-kDa glycoprotein for genotype determination. The following species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum (n=15), genotypes IIaA18G3R1 (n =11; KU311673), IIaA10G1R1 (n =1; KU311670), IIcA5G3a (n =1; KU311669), IIiA10 (n =2; KU311672); Cryptosporidium suis (n =4; KU311671); Cryptosporidium scrofarum (n =28); Cryptosporidium environment sp. (n =12; KU311677); Cryptosporidium muskrat genotype I (n =3; KU311675); Cryptosporidium muskrat genotype II (n =3; KU311676). From one of the rodent, the species Cryptosporidium hominis genotype IbA10G2 (KU311668) was identified for the first time. The results of this study indicate low host specificity of the detected Cryptosporidium species and imply the importance of free-living small mammals in urban and suburban habitats as a potential source of human cryptosporidiosis.

      PubDate: 2017-04-29T11:15:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.013
      Issue No: Vol. 172 (2017)
  • Population genetics of the Schistosoma snail host Bulinus truncatus in
    • Authors: Rima Zein-Eddine; Félicité F. Djuikwo-Teukeng; Yasser Dar; Gilles Dreyfuss; Frederik Van den Broeck
      Pages: 36 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 172
      Author(s): Rima Zein-Eddine, Félicité F. Djuikwo-Teukeng, Yasser Dar, Gilles Dreyfuss, Frederik Van den Broeck
      The tropical freshwater snail Bulinus truncatus serves as an important intermediate host of several human and cattle Schistosoma species in many African regions. Despite some ecological and malacological studies, there is no information on the genetic diversity of B. truncatus in Egypt. Here, we sampled 70–100 snails in ten localities in Upper Egypt and the Nile Delta. Per locality, we sequenced 10 snails at a partial fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) and we genotyped 25–30 snails at six microsatellite markers. A total of nine mitochondrial haplotypes were detected, of which five were unique to the Nile Delta and three were unique to Upper Egypt, indicating that snail populations may have evolved independently in both regions. Bayesian clustering and hierarchical F-statistics using microsatellite markers further revealed strong population genetic structure at the level of locality. Observed heterozygosity was much lower compared to what is expected under random mating, which could be explained by high selfing rates, population size reductions and to a lesser extent by the Wahlund effect. Despite these observations, we found signatures of gene flow and cross-fertilization, even between snails from the Nile Delta and Upper Egypt, indicating that B. truncatus can travel across large distances in Egypt. These observations could have serious consequences for disease epidemiology, as it means that infected snails from one region could rapidly and unexpectedly spark a new epidemic in another distant region. This could be one of the factors explaining the rebound of human Schistosoma infections in the Nile Delta, despite decades of sustained schistosomiasis control.

      PubDate: 2017-05-16T12:11:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 172 (2017)
  • First report of a Rickettsia asembonensis related infecting fleas in
    • Authors: Arannadia Barbosa Silva; Vinicius Figueiredo Vizzoni; Andréa Pereira Costa; Francisco Borges Costa; Jonas Moraes-Filho; Marcelo Bahia Labruna; Gilberto Salles Gazêta; Rita de Maria Seabra Nogueira
      Pages: 44 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 172
      Author(s): Arannadia Barbosa Silva, Vinicius Figueiredo Vizzoni, Andréa Pereira Costa, Francisco Borges Costa, Jonas Moraes-Filho, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Gilberto Salles Gazêta, Rita de Maria Seabra Nogueira
      The present study was performed in a non-endemic area for spotted fever (SF) in Imperatriz microregion, state of Maranhão, Brazil. Blood samples and ectoparasites were collected from 300 dogs of the Imperatriz microregion. Canine serum samples were tested individually by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), using five Rickettsia isolates from Brazil. Antibodies reactive to at least one of the five species of Rickettsia were detected in 1.6% of the dogs (5/300). These sera were considered reactive to Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia amblyommatis or very closely related species. The ticks (Acari: Ixodidae), identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille), and the fleas, identified as Ctenocephalides felis, were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of rickettsial DNA. More than 78% (83/106) of the C. felis fleas were found to be infected with Rickettsia species using gltA as rickettsial PCR targets, whereas no evidence of Rickettsia spp. was found in R. sanguineus s. l. Genetic analysis based on genes gltA, htrA and ompB showed that the detected strain, is most closely related to Rickettsia asembonensis (formerly Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis). The present study is the first report of a R. asembonensis related infecting C. felis fleas in Brazil.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T11:44:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 172 (2017)
  • Isolation, characterization, virulence and immunogenicity testing of field
           isolates of Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, and
           Streptococcus agalactiae in laboratory settings
    • Authors: Qudratullah; G. Muhammad; M. Saqib; M. Qamar Bilal
      Pages: 70 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 172
      Author(s): Qudratullah, G. Muhammad, M. Saqib, M. Qamar Bilal
      The present study was designed to investigate isolation, characterization, virulence and immunogenicity testing of field isolates of Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in rabbits and mice. Isolates of P. multocida, S. aureus and Str. agalactiae recovered from field cases of Hemorragic septicemia and mastitis were scrutinized for virulence/pathogenicity and immunogenicity. Mouse LD50 of P. multocida showed that P. multocida isolate No.1 was more virulent than isolates No. 2 and 3. Virulence of isolate No.1 S. aureus and Str. agalactiae revealed that 100, 80% rabbits died within 18h of inoculation. Seven-digit numerical profiles of these 4 isolates with API® Staph test strips isolates, No.1 (6736153) showed good identification (S. aureus id=90.3%). Indirect ELISA-based serum antibody titers to P. multocida isolate No.1, S. aureus No.1, Str. agalactiae, isolate No.1 elicited high antibody titers 1.9, 1.23, 1.12 respectively. Conclusion All the pathogens of Isolate No. 1 (P. multocida, S. aureus Str. agalactiae), were high antibody than others isolates.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T11:44:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.020
      Issue No: Vol. 172 (2017)
  • A new Myxidium species (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infecting the gallbladder of
           the turtle Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines: Podocnemididae) from Peruvian
    • Authors: Luis L. Espinoza; Omar Mertins; Gabriella S. Gama; Ana C.M. Fernandes Patta; Patrick D. Mathews
      Pages: 75 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 172
      Author(s): Luis L. Espinoza, Omar Mertins, Gabriella S. Gama, Ana C.M. Fernandes Patta, Patrick D. Mathews
      A new myxosporean species, Myxidium peruviensis n. sp., is described parasitizing the gall bladder of the yellow-spotted river turtle Podocnemis unifilis kept in captivity in an Amazonian Peruvian turtle rescue unit in the city of Iquitos, State of Loreto, Peru. The parasite was found in four of ten (40%) P. unifilis examined. The new species was characterized based on morphological and molecular phylogeny analyses. SSU rDNA sequence of the spores of M. unifilis n. sp. resulted in 1876 nucleotides and this sequence did no match any of the Myxozoa available in the GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis identified the new species as a sister species of Myxidium turturibus, the unique Myxidium species described in a Neotropical turtle. Nevertheless, the SSU rDNA sequences of the new species and M. turturibus have only a 91.5% similarity. This is the first description and molecular study of a Myxozoa in a reptile from Peru. Considering the status of P. unifilis as vulnerable species, the infection by Myxidium parasites is emphasized as possible disease impeller, representing menace to the turtle conservation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T11:44:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.021
      Issue No: Vol. 172 (2017)
  • Application of nanotechnology in treatment of leishmaniasis: A Review
    • Authors: Maryam Akbari; Ahmad Oryan; Gholamreza Hatam
      Pages: 86 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 172
      Author(s): Maryam Akbari, Ahmad Oryan, Gholamreza Hatam
      Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by a protozoan species of the genus Leishmania affecting mostly the developing countries. The disease with current mortality rate of 50,000 deaths per year threatens approximately 350 million people in more than 90 countries all over the world. Cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis are the most frequent forms of the disease. Chemotherapy still relies on the use of pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B and miltefosin. Treatment of leishmaniasis has remained insufficient since the current antileishmanial agents have several limitations including low efficacy, toxicity, adverse side effects, drug-resistance, length of treatment and cost lines. Consequently, there is an immediate requirement to search for new antileishmanial compounds. New drug delivery devices transport antileishmanial drug to the target cell specifically with minimizing the toxic effects to normal cells. This study attempts to present a comprehensive overview of different approaches of nanotechnology in treatment of leishmaniasis.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T11:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.029
      Issue No: Vol. 172 (2017)
  • Sero-prevalence of Taenia spp. infections in cattle and pigs in rural
           farming communities in Free State and Gauteng provinces, South Africa
    • Authors: A.M. Tsotetsi-Khambule; S. Njiro; T.C. Katsande; O.M.M Thekisoe; L.J.S Harrison
      Pages: 91 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 172
      Author(s): A.M. Tsotetsi-Khambule, S. Njiro, T.C. Katsande, O.M.M Thekisoe, L.J.S Harrison
      The aim of this study was to determine sero-prevalence of bovine and porcine cysticercosis in cattle and pigs in rural farming communities in Free State and Gauteng Provinces, Republic of South Africa. Blood samples were collected for a period of twelve months from live cattle (n=1315; 1159) and pigs (n=436; 240) and the serum extracted and stored before analysis by a monoclonal antibody based (HP10) antigen detection ELISA. Results revealed a generally high sero-prevalence and wide distribution throughout the two provinces with Free State having a higher sero-prevalence in both cattle and pigs (23% and 34%) than Gauteng province (15% and 14%). Consumption of infected meat that is either not inspected/missed at meat inspection; poor livestock management practices and limited sanitation in rural communities might have contributed to the occurrence of Taenia spp. infections in the two provinces. It is therefore, recommended that cysticercosis status of animals be established before slaughter. This would assist in ensuring that infected animals are not slaughtered for human consumption or zoonosis preventive measures are taken. Furthermore, public awareness programs on life cycles of T. saginata, T. solium and T. hydatigena and the use of more sensitive diagnostic tools are recommended as part of effective control strategies against taeniid infections.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T11:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.019
      Issue No: Vol. 172 (2017)
  • Asymptomatic plasmodial infection in Colombian pregnant women
    • Authors: Jaime Carmona-Fonseca; Olga M. Agudelo; Eliana M. Arango
      Pages: 97 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 172
      Author(s): Jaime Carmona-Fonseca, Olga M. Agudelo, Eliana M. Arango
      Information about asymptomatic plasmodial infection is scarce in the world, and the current antimalarial program goals (control, elimination, and eradication) demand this evidence to be well documented in different populations and malaria transmission settings. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of API in Colombian pregnant women at delivery. A retrospective prevalence survey was used. Women were recruited at hospital obstetric facility in each of the municipalities of Turbo, Necoclí in Antioquia department, and Puerto Libertador in Córdoba department. Malaria infection was tested by thick blood smear (TBS) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Ninety-six pregnant women at delivery were studied: 95% were asymptomatic (91/96), 45% had asymptomatic plasmodial infection (API) by qPCR (41/91), and only 8% (7/91) had API by microscopy. The prevalence of submicroscopic infections (TBS negative and qPCR positive) was very high, 37% (34/91) in asymptomatic women and 41% (39/96) in total women studied (91 asymptomatic and 5 symptomatic). The prevalence of API in Colombian pregnant women is much higher than which is expected for a country that does not have the level of malaria transmission as Sub-Saharan African countries.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T11:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.030
      Issue No: Vol. 172 (2017)
  • Molecular identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon
           spp. in immunodeficient patients in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran
    • Authors: Mehdi Tavalla; Masoumeh Mardani-Kateki; Rahman Abdizadeh; Roohangiz Nashibi; Abdollah Rafie; Shahram Khademvatan
      Pages: 107 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 172
      Author(s): Mehdi Tavalla, Masoumeh Mardani-Kateki, Rahman Abdizadeh, Roohangiz Nashibi, Abdollah Rafie, Shahram Khademvatan
      Microsporidia are often considered as an opportunistic infection in patients with impaired immune systems such as transplant recipients and patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Due to the increasing prevalence of parasitic infections and immunodeficiency diseases; the aim of the study is to evaluate molecular identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. in immunodeficient patients in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. At first, 310 stool samples were collected from patients with immunodeficiency. The specimens were stained by modified trichrome (weber) and were examined microscopically. The extracted DNA samples were evaluated by multiplex/nested PCR method. The products of multiplex/nested PCR were explored by RFLP method using the restriction enzyme of Mnl1. Of 310, 93 samples were suspected positive for microsporidia by the staining. Also, of 310, 88 samples were positive by the multiplex/nested-PCR test that 62 samples were positive for E. bieneusi as well as 26 were detected as Encephalitozoon species that including 3 E. cuniculi, 19 E. intestinalis and 4 E. hellem. Of 62 E. bieneusi, 45, 16 and 1 were detected as genotype D, M and WL11, respectively. Also, Of 3 E. cuniculi, 1 and 2 cases were identified as genotype I and II, respectively. All E. hellem samples were included genotype 1A. Our findings revealed a relatively high prevalence of microsporidia species in immunodeficient patients. The highest risk of this infection is at individuals with impaired immune systems that it can be life-threatening in people with immune system dysfunction. It is essential that the high-risk people should be receiving the information about the risk of direct contact with infected individuals and animals.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T11:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.015
      Issue No: Vol. 172 (2017)
  • Curcumin alters the cytoskeleton and microtubule organization on
           trophozoites of Giardia lamblia
    • Authors: Filiberto Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez; Lissethe Palomo-Ligas; José Manuel Hernández-Hernández; Armando Pérez-Rangel; Rodrigo Aguayo-Ortiz; Alicia Hernández-Campos; Rafael Castillo; Sirenia González-Pozos; Rafael Cortés-Zárate; Mario Alberto Ramírez-Herrera; María Luisa Mendoza-Magaña; Araceli Castillo-Romero
      Pages: 113 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 172
      Author(s): Filiberto Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Lissethe Palomo-Ligas, José Manuel Hernández-Hernández, Armando Pérez-Rangel, Rodrigo Aguayo-Ortiz, Alicia Hernández-Campos, Rafael Castillo, Sirenia González-Pozos, Rafael Cortés-Zárate, Mario Alberto Ramírez-Herrera, María Luisa Mendoza-Magaña, Araceli Castillo-Romero
      Giardia lamblia is a worldwide protozoan responsible for a significant number of intestinal infections. There are several drugs for the treatment of giardiasis, but they often cause side effects. Curcumin, a component of turmeric, has antigiardial activity; however, the molecular target and mechanism of antiproliferative activity are not clear. The effects of curcumin on cellular microtubules have been widely investigated. Since tubulin is the most abundant protein in the cytoskeleton of Giardia, to elucidate whether curcumin has activity against the microtubules of this parasite, we treated trophozoites with curcumin and the cells were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Curcumin inhibited Giardia proliferation and adhesion in a time-concentration-dependent mode. The higher inhibitory concentrations of curcumin (3 and 15μM) disrupted the cytoskeletal structures of trophozoites; the damage was evident on the ventral disk, flagella and in the caudal region, also the membrane was affected. The immunofluorescence images showed altered distribution of tubulin staining on ventral disk and flagella. Additionally, we found that curcumin caused a clear reduction of tubulin expression. By docking analysis and molecular dynamics we showed that curcumin has a high probability to bind at the interface of the tubulin dimer close to the vinblastine binding site. All the data presented indicate that curcumin may inhibit Giardia proliferation by perturbing microtubules.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T11:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.027
      Issue No: Vol. 172 (2017)
  • Malaria pigment stimulates chemokine production by human microvascular
    • Authors: Nicoletta Basilico; Yolanda Corbett; Sarah D’ Alessandro; Silvia Parapini; Mauro Prato; Daniela Girelli; Paola Misiano; Piero Olliaro; Donatella Taramelli
      Pages: 125 - 131
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 172
      Author(s): Nicoletta Basilico, Yolanda Corbett, Sarah D’ Alessandro, Silvia Parapini, Mauro Prato, Daniela Girelli, Paola Misiano, Piero Olliaro, Donatella Taramelli
      Severe falciparum malaria is characterized by the sequestration of infected erythrocytes and leukocyte recruitment in the microvasculature, resulting in impaired blood flow and metabolic disturbances. Which parasite products cause chemokine production, thus contributing to the strong host inflammatory response and cellular recruitment are not well characterized. Here, we studied haemozoin (Hz), the end-product of haem, a ferriprotoporphyrin-IX crystal bound to host and parasite lipids, DNA, and proteins. We found that natural Hz isolated from Plasmodium falciparum cultures induces CXCL8 and CCL5 production in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) in a time-dependent manner. This up-regulation is not caused by haem but rather by Hz-generated lipoperoxidation products (15-HETE) and fibrinogen associated to Hz, and is, at least in part, triggered by the activation of NF-κB, as it was significantly inhibited by artemisinin and other NF-κB pathway inhibitors.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T11:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 172 (2017)
  • Establishment of first engineering specifications for environmental
           modification to eliminate schistosomiasis epidemic foci in urban areas
    • Authors: Shibo Kong; Xiaodong Tan; Zhiqing Deng; Yaofei Xie; Fen Yang; Zengwang Zheng
      Pages: 132 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 172
      Author(s): Shibo Kong, Xiaodong Tan, Zhiqing Deng, Yaofei Xie, Fen Yang, Zengwang Zheng
      Snail control is a key link in schistosomiasis control, but no unified methods for eliminating snails have been produced to date. This study was conducted to explore an engineering method for eliminating Oncomelania hupensis applicable to urban areas. The engineering specifications were established using the Delphi method. An engineering project based on these specifications was conducted in Hankou marshland to eliminate snails, including the transformation of the beach surface and ditches. Molluscicide was used as a supplement. The snail control effect was evaluated by field investigation. The engineering results fulfilled the requirements of the design. The snail density decreased to 0/0.11m2, and the snail area dropped to 0m2 after the project. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of frames with snails before and after the project (P<0.05). Snails were completely eliminated through one year of continuous monitoring, and no new snails were found after a flood disaster. This study demonstrates that engineering specifications for environmental modification were successfully established. Environmental modification, mainly through beach and ditch remediation, can completely change the environment of Oncomelania breeding. This method of environmental modification combined with mollusciciding was highly effective at eliminating snails.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T11:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.031
      Issue No: Vol. 172 (2017)
  • Plurality of Leptospira strains on slaughtered animals suggest a broader
           concept of adaptability of leptospires to cattle
    • Authors: Priscila S. Pinto; Cristiane Pestana; Marco A. Medeiros; Walter Lilenbaum
      Pages: 156 - 159
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 172
      Author(s): Priscila S. Pinto, Cristiane Pestana, Marco A. Medeiros, Walter Lilenbaum
      Leptospirosis in bovines is in majority determined by the host-adapted serovars, mainly Hardjo (types Hardjoprajitno and Hardjobovis), that belong to the serogroup Sejroe. Members of other serogroups as Pomona and Tarassovi have been eventually reported, mainly when outbreaks occurs. Nevertheless, the real role of other strains (non-Hardjo) on determining disease or being transmitted by cattle free of apparent clinical signs of acute infection remains to be elucidated. In that context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that strains of serovars/serogroups other than Hardjo may also be maintained and shed by cattle free of clinical signs. Samples of urine and/or vaginal fluid were collected from 697 bovines from a slaughterhouse located close to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Culturing yielded 19 isolates what represents the largest number ever obtained in Brazil on similar studies. These strains were serogrouped and genetically characterized. Fifteen of those were described in other papers and four are first described on the present study. Isolates belong to three different species (Leptospira santarosai, L. alstonii and L. interrogans) and five serogroups (Sarmin, Tarassovi, Shermani, Grippotyphosa and Sejroe). The majority (84.2%) of the isolates belongs to the species L. santarosai, the most prevalent species on cattle in the studied region. Non-Hardjo (non-Sejroe) strains represent 57.9% of the isolates, what indicates an unexpected high diversity of serogroups obtained from these cattle. This suggest that non-Hardjo (non-Sejroe) strains may also be maintained and shed by cattle and that finding must be considered in the epidemiology and control of the disease.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T11:56:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.032
      Issue No: Vol. 172 (2017)
  • Development of a multiplex PCR assay for the detection and differentiation
           of Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia
           thailandensis, and Burkholderia cepacia complex
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Irina Zakharova, Natalya Teteryatnikova, Andrey Toporkov, Dmitry Viktorov
      Two species of Burkholderia pseudomallei complex (Bpc), B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, can cause severe life-threatening infections. Rapidly discerning individual species within the group and separating them from other opportunistic pathogens of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is essential to establish a correct diagnosis and for epidemiological surveillance. In this study, a multiplex PCR assay based on the detection of an individual set of chromosomal beta-lactamase genes for single-step identification and differentiation of B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, B. thailandensis, and Bcc was developed. Two pairs of primers specific to a distinct class of B metallo-beta-lactamase genes and a pair of primers specific to the oxacillin-hydrolyzing class D beta-lactamase gene were demonstrated to successfully discriminate species within Bpc and from Bcc. The assay sensitivity was 9561 genomic equivalents (GE) for B. pseudomallei, 7827 GE for B. mallei, 8749 GE for B. thailandensis and 6023 GE for B. cepacia.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T13:00:46Z
  • Investigating unlicensed retail drug vendors’ preparedness and knowledge
           about malaria: An exploratory study in rural Uganda
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 174
      Author(s): Eric Liow, Rosemin Kassam, Richard Sekiwunga
      Background Despite major efforts to increase the uptake of preventive measures and timely use of the first line antimalarial treatment artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT), Uganda continues to fall short of meeting its national malaria control targets. One of the challenges has been scaling up effective measures in rural and remote areas where the unlicensed private retail sector remains the first point of contact and a common source of treatment. The current paper discusses unlicensed vendors’ (1) training related to malaria case management for children aged five and under, and (2) knowledge related to the cause of malaria, preventive measures, common signs, and symptoms, diagnostic procedures, and best treatment options. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted in the rural district of Butaleja, Uganda in 2011. All 88 unlicensed drug outlets enumerated in the study area were visited by six locally recruited research assistants, with one vendor from each outlet invited to participate. The transcripts were analyzed using acceptable qualitative research protocols. Results About half of the 75 vendors interviewed had received some sort of formal training on malaria at a post-secondary institution, although only 6.7% had qualifications which met licensure requirements. The study found widespread misconceptions relating to the cause, as well as prevention and treatment of malaria. A large majority of the vendors relied primarily on non-specific symptoms and limited physical exams for diagnoses, with less than one-tenth of the vendors recognizing that rapid or microscopic blood testing was necessary to confirm a clinical diagnosis of malaria. While most recognized mosquitoes as the primary vector for malaria, over two-fifths of the vendors held misconceptions about the factors that could increase the risk of malaria, and nearly a third believed that malaria could not be prevented. With respect to acute case management, three-quarters viewed as the best option a medicine other than the government’s first-line antimalarial, artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT). Almost three-fifths specified quinine as their preferred option, with about one-fifth recommending quinine injection. Conclusion Findings from this study confirm significant gaps in unlicensed vendors’ knowledge related to malaria. With increased utilization of unlicensed drug outlets in rural and remote settings such as Butaleja, findings from this study strongly supports the need to implement strategies to improve the quality of care delivered at these outlet.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T13:00:46Z
  • Phylogenetic analysis of G1P[8] and G12P[8] rotavirus A samples obtained
           in the pre- and post-vaccine periods, and molecular modeling of VP4 and
           VP7 proteins
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Tâmera Nunes Vieira Almeida, Teresinha Teixeira de Sousa, Roosevelt Alves da Silva, Fabíola Souza Fiaccadori, Menira Souza, Kareem Rady Badr, Divina das Dôres de Paula Cardoso
      Reduction in morbimortality rates for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) by Rotavirus A (RVA) has been observed after the introduction of vaccines, however the agent continues to circulate. The present study described the genomic characterization of the 11 dsRNA segments of two RVA samples G1P[8] obtained in the pre- and post-vaccination periods and one of G12P[8] sample (post-vaccine), compared to Rotarix™ vaccine. Analysis by molecular sequencing of the samples showed that the three samples belonged to genogroup I. In addition, the analysis of VP7 gene revealed that the samples G1 (pre-vaccine), G1 (post-vaccine) and G12 were characterized as lineages II, I and III, respectively. Regarding to VP4 and NSP4 gene it was observed that all samples belonged to lineage III, whereas for VP6 gene, the sample of the pre- and post-vaccine belonged to the lineage IV and I, respectively. Considering the VP7 gene, it was observed high nucleotide and amino acid identity for the two G1 samples when compared to Rotarix™ vaccine and lesser identity for the G12 sample. In relation to antigenic epitope of VP7 greater modifications were observed for the G12 sample in the 7-2 epitope that was confirmed by molecular modeling. On the other hand, for VP4, some changes in the 8-1 and 8-3 antigenic epitopes was observed for the three samples. This data could be interpreted as a low selective pressure exerted by vaccination in relation to G1P[8] samples and lesser protection in relation to G12P[8]. Thus, the continuous monitoring of RVA circulating samples remains important.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T13:00:46Z
  • Biodiversity of Simulium metallicum sensu lato (Diptera: Simuliidae), a
           complex of Neotropical vectors associated with human onchocerciasis
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Peter H. Adler, Art Borkent, Neusa Hamada, John W. McCreadie
      The polytene chromosomes of 130 larvae of the Neotropical Simulium metallicum complex from Brazil, Costa Rica, and Ecuador revealed five cytoforms, including three (‘M’, ‘N’, and ‘O’) that are new and two (‘B’ and ‘J’) that represent range extensions of up to 850km. The discovery of three new cytoforms brings the total number in the complex to 17. Cytoforms ‘B’, ‘J’, and ‘N’ are reproductively isolated from one another, and their species status is corroborated by morphological evidence. None of the three new cytoforms is known from current or historical onchocerciasis foci, although ‘M’ inhabits the periphery of the former Ecuadorian Santiago onchocerciasis focus a mere 30km to the west. The number of fixed chromosomal differences, as many as 24, separating some members of the S. metallicum complex far exceeds that known between members of any other simuliid species complex. Two distinct groupings can be diagnosed within the S. metallicum complex, based on at least eight fixed chromosomal rearrangements and structural characters in the larval stage. Consequently, a recommendation is made to recognize the S. horacioi complex and the S. metallicum complex sensu stricto. Recognition of two separate complexes provides potential phylogenetic content with predictive power for understanding biological phenomena such as vector potential.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T13:00:46Z
  • A multiplex restriction enzyme-PCR for unequivocal identification and
           differentiation of Trichostrongylus species in human samples
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Azadeh Mizani, Pooria Gill, Ahmad Daryani, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Afsaneh Amouei, Ali Bakooie Katrimi, Eissa Soleymani, Siavash Mirshafiee, Sara Gholami, Seyed Abdollah Hosseini, Shirzad Gholami, Mohammad-Taghi Rahimi, Mohammad Bagher Hashemi-Soteh, Mehdi Sharif
      Trichostrongylus species remain one of the major health challenges in the tropical and summer rainfall regions worldwide. Identification of strongylid species diagnostic methods is vital for obtaining a deep understanding of the epidemiology, population biology, anthelmintic treatment efficacy, and drug resistance in order to design effective parasite control strategies. We evaluated a multiplex RE-PCR for the diagnosis of key Trichostrongylus spp. Genomic DNA amplification of Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus axei and Trichostrongylus vitrinus was achieved as standard sample using specific primers located in the second internal transcribed spacer (ITSII) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The mentioned method was based on isolation of Trichostrongylus ova from human fecal samples using Willis method, the extraction of ova genomic DNA samples, followed by rDNA ITSII PCR and one-step multiplex RE-PCR using three restriction enzymes of HinfI, DraI, and MseI. The multiplex RE-PCR technique provides a useful tool for discriminating all Trichostrongylus spp., being useful for diagnostic, epidemiological, ecological studies, and control programs. This method is rapid, especially when numerous restriction enzymes are required for species differentiation or identification.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T13:00:46Z
  • Combination of five diagnostic tests to estimate the prevalence of
           hookworm infection among school-aged children from a rural area of
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 173
      Author(s): Rafael E. Barreto, Javier Narváez, Natalia A. Sepúlveda, Fabián C. Velásquez, Sandra C. Díaz, Myriam Consuelo López, Patricia Reyes, Ligia I. Moncada
      Background Public health programs for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiases require valid diagnostic tests for surveillance and parasitic control evaluation. However, there is currently no agreement about what test should be used as a gold standard for the diagnosis of hookworm infection. Still, in presence of concurrent data for multiple tests it is possible to use statistical models to estimate measures of test performance and prevalence. The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of five parallel tests (direct microscopic examination, Kato-Katz, Harada-Mori, modified Ritchie-Frick, and culture in agar plate) to detect hookworm infections in a sample of school-aged children from a rural area in Colombia. Methods and results We used both, a frequentist approach, and Bayesian latent class models to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of five tests for hookworm detection, and to estimate the prevalence of hookworm infection in absence of a Gold Standard. The Kato-Katz and agar plate methods had an overall agreement of 95% and kappa coefficient of 0.76. Different models estimated a sensitivity between 76% and 92% for the agar plate technique, and 52% to 87% for the Kato-Katz technique. The other tests had lower sensitivity. All tests had specificity between 95% and 98%. The prevalence estimated by the Kato-Katz and Agar plate methods for different subpopulations varied between 10% and 14%, and was consistent with the prevalence estimated from the combination of all tests. The Harada-Mori, Ritchie-Frick and direct examination techniques resulted in lower and disparate prevalence estimates. Bayesian approaches assuming imperfect specificity resulted in lower prevalence estimates than the frequentist approach.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T13:00:46Z
  • Editor/Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Acta Tropica, Volume 172

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T13:33:33Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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