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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3184 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3184 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 100, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 434, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 420, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 381, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 473, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 217, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Acta Psychologica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.331
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 25  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0001-6918
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3184 journals]
  • The link between working memory and fluid intelligence is dependent on
           flexible bindings, not systematic access or passive retention
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): Joel E. Bateman, Damian P. Birney Rather than working memory capacity acting as a distinct subordinate function of fluid intelligence, there is an emerging consensus that their relationship can be understood as an outcome of common functions dictated by the strength and flexibility of bindings which integrate representations relationally. The current study considers the Arithmetic Chain Task (Oberauer, Demmrich, Mayr, & Kliegl, 2001) which contrasts access (integrating previously stored information for use in the arithmetic processing) against mere retention (holding previously stored information for recall after the arithmetic processing). Participants (n = 122) completed the Arithmetic Chain Task (ACT) with a novel manipulation that split the access condition into fixed-order vs. random-order access. Both forms of access require integration of previously stored information into the arithmetic, but random-order access restricts systematic chunking, necessitating multiple flexible bindings that can be updated in light of new information. Participants also completed a measure of working memory and a measure of fluid intelligence. Results replicated Oberauer et al.'s findings on a demarcation between retention and access, though the current data indicate that random-order presentation is necessary to distinguish access from retention. Crucially, this random-order access is also required to link the ACT to a factor representing the commonality in WM and Gf. These results suggest that what is common to WM and Gf is the capacity to maintain multiple durable and flexible bindings.
  • Dyslexia-related impairments in sequence learning predict linguistic
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): Brianna Wenande, Emily Een, Jessica R. Petok Dyslexia is often characterized by disordered word recognition and spelling, though dysfunction on various non-linguistic tasks suggests a more pervasive deficit may underlie reading and spelling abilities. The serial-order learning impairment in dyslexia (SOLID) hypothesis proposes that sequence learning impairments fundamentally disrupt cognitive abilities, including linguistic processes, among individuals with dyslexia; yet only some studies report sequence learning deficits in people with dyslexia relative to controls. Evidence may be mixed because traditional sequence learning tasks often require strong motor demands, working memory processes and/or executive functions, wherein people with dyslexia can show impairments. Thus, observed sequence learning deficits in dyslexia may only appear to the extent that comorbid motor-based processes, memory capacity, or executive processes are involved. The present study measured sequence learning in college-aged students with and without dyslexia using a single task that evaluates sequencing and non-sequencing components but without strong motor, executive, or memory demands. During sequencing, each additional link in a sequence of stimuli leading to a reward is trained step-by-step, until a complete sequence is acquired. People with dyslexia made significantly more sequencing errors than controls, despite equivalent performance on non-sequencing components. Mediation analyses further revealed that sequence learning accounted for a large portion of the variance between dyslexia status and linguistic abilities, particularly pseudo-word reading. These findings extend the SOLID hypothesis by showing difficulties in the ability to acquire sequences that may play an underlying role in literacy acquisition.
  • Lexical and syntactic target language interactions in translation
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): Jason Omar Ruíz, Pedro Macizo The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible interaction between syntactic and lexical properties of the target language (TL) in consecutive translation. To this end, participants read sentences in the source language (SL) to translate them into the TL (reading for translation) or to repeat them in the same language (reading for repetition). The cognate status of words at the beginning and at the end of sentences and the congruency in the syntactic structure of sentences in the SL and TL were manipulated. The results showed coactivation of the syntactic and lexical properties of the TL in the middle and final regions of the sentence. In addition, in the reading for translation, an interaction was observed between the cognate status and the syntactic congruency at the end of the sentence. The pattern of results suggests that the time course of syntactic and lexical activation in translation is interactive.
  • The role of forgetting cues in directed forgetting: Ceasing maintenance
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): Jingyan Jing, Mingming Qi, Heming Gao, Qi Zhang The effect of forgetting cues on maintenance rehearsal in item-method directed forgetting (DF) paradigm was explored from behavioral and electrophysiological evidence. In Experiment 1, maintenance rehearsal was induced by a maintenance cue. Specifically, after the studied word, a maintenance (M) cue was presented before the presentation of a remembering/forgetting cue. When an M cue appeared, participants were required to wait for the following remembering (M-R) or forgetting (M-F) cue to determine whether the word needs to be remembered or not, and words were kept in short-term memory with maintenance rehearsal until the presentation of M-R/M-F cues. Four conditions were utilized: maintain-remembering (M-R), maintain-forgetting (M-F), maintenance (M), and forgetting (F). The results showed that, 1) superior recognition was found for the M-R relative to the M-F words, revealing a typical DF effect; 2) No recognition difference was found between M and M-F words, indicating that M-F cues showed little effect in promoting forgetting; 3) Inferior recognition was found for F than M words, indicating that the maintenance rehearsal might cease or be reduced by the presentation of F cues. In Experiment 2, event related potentials time-locked to cue (M-R, M-F, M, and F cues) onset during study phase. An enhanced fronto-central P3a component was evoked for F relative to M cues, indicating a more intensive attention orienting or attentional inhibition process triggered by F cues. These results demonstrated that forgetting cues might trigger an inhibition process to terminate the maintenance rehearsal process.
  • The effect of symbolic meaning of speed on time to contact
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): Luca Battaglini, Giovanna Mioni The effects of moving task-irrelevant objects on time-to-contact (TTC) judgments are examined in six experiments. In particular, we investigated the effects of the symbolic meaning of speed on TTC by presenting images of objects recalling the symbolic meaning of high speed (motorbike, rocket, formula one, rabbit, cheetah and flying Superman) and low speed (bicycle, hot-air balloon, tank, turtle, elephant and static Superman). In all experiments, participants judged the TTC of these moving objects with a black line, indicating the end of the occlusion. Experiment 7 was conducted to disambiguate whether the effects on TTC, found in the previous experiments, were either a by-product of a speed illusion or they were rather elicited by the implicit timing task. In a two-interval forced choice task, participants were instructed to judge if “high-speed objects” moved actually faster than “slow-speed objects”. The results revealed no consistent speed illusion.Taken together the results showed shorter TTC estimated with stimuli recalling the meaning of high compared to low speed, but only with the long occlusion duration (3.14 s). At shorter occlusion durations, the pattern was reversed (participant tend to have shorter TTC with stimuli recalling the meaning of low speed). We suggest that the symbolic meaning of speed works mainly at low speed and long TTC, because the semantic elaboration of the stimulus needs a deeper cognitive elaboration. On the other hand, at higher speeds, a small erroneous perceptual judgment affects the TTC, perhaps due to a speed expectancy violation of the expected “slow object”.
  • Smaller visual angles show greater benefit of letter boldness than larger
           visual angles
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): Sofie Beier, Chiron A.T. Oderkerk Research has shown that fonts viewed at a smaller visual angle benefit from greater letter boldness. Since small and large visual angles operate on different spatial frequencies, we examined whether the effect was dependent on font size. By applying a paradigm of single-letter exposure across two experiments, we showed that fonts of thinner letter strokes and of extreme boldness decreased recognition for all tested font sizes, and that there was a positive effect of boldness at small visual angles which did not occur at large visual angles. The paper provides evidence that bolder fonts are less effective at improving recognition at larger visual angles, and that over a scale of font weights there is a drop-off at the lightest and the heaviest extremes at all tested font sizes.
  • Sequence in a sequence: Learning of auditory but not visual patterns
           within a multimodal sequence
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): Ferenc Kemény, Ágnes Lukács The current study investigates whether a unimodal visual and a unimodal auditory sequence is learned separately in a multimodal learning situation. In two experiments participants faced a modified version of the Serial Reaction-Time task, in which auditory and visual elements followed each other, forming a multimodal sequence as well as two unimodal sequences. Learning of both the multimodal and the unimodal sequences were tested. Results showed evidence of multimodal sequence learning. The unimodal sequence formed by the auditory stimuli was also learned, while participants did not acquire the concurrent visual sequence. The experiments argue for a domain- and modality-general sequence learning mechanism that is more sensitive to auditory and response-based information than to visual information.
  • Motor planning with and without motor imagery in children with
           Developmental Coordination Disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): Ranila Bhoyroo, Beth Hands, Kate Wilmut, Christian Hyde, Adam Wigley Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) demonstrate inefficient motor planning ability with a tendency to opt for non-optimal planning strategies. Motor imagery can provide an insight to this planning inefficiency, as it may be a strategy for improving motor planning and thereby motor performance for those with DCD. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of end-state-comfort (ESC) and the minimal rotation strategy using a grip selection task in children with DCD with and without motor imagery instructions. Boys with (n = 14) and without DCD (n = 18) aged 7–12 years completed one, two and three colour sequences of a grip selection (octagon) task. Two conditions were examined; a Motor Planning (MP) condition requiring only the performance of the task and a Motor Imagery and Planning (MIP) condition, which included an instruction to imagine performing the movement before execution. For the MP condition, children with DCD ended fewer trials in ESC for the one (p = 0.001) and two colour (p = 0.002) sequences and used a minimal rotation strategy more often than those without DCD. For the MIP condition, the DCD group significantly increased their use of the ESC strategy for the one colour sequences (p = 0.014) while those without DCD improved for the two colour (p = 0.008) sequences. ESC level of the DCD group on the MIP condition was similar to those without DCD at baseline for all colour sequences. Motor imagery shows potential as a strategy for improving motor planning in children with DCD. Implications and limitations are discussed.
  • Structural alignment and its prosocial effects in first and second
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): Loes Abrahams, Robert J. Hartsuiker, Filip De Fruyt, M. Teresa Bajo The present study examined structural alignment (prepositional object dative and double object dative) and its prosocial effects in Spanish-English bilinguals (English L2) and native English speakers (English L1). A scripted picture description paradigm in which a confederate and participant alternately described pictures was used. L1 and L2 speakers of English displayed comparable levels of structural alignment. In a second phase of the experiment we show that after being exposed to structural alignment by the confederate, L1 but not L2 participants displayed an increase in prosocial behavior as reflected by the time they were willing to help with an extra task. Possible explanations and implications are then discussed.
  • A common representation of fingers and toes
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): Kelda Manser-Smith, Luigi Tamè, Matthew R. Longo There are many similarities and differences between the human hands and feet. On a psychological level, there is some evidence from clinical disorders and studies of tactile localisation in healthy adults for deep functional connections between the hands and feet. One form these connections may take is in common high-level mental representations of the hands and feet. Previous studies have shown that there are systematic, but distinct patterns of confusion found between both the fingers and toes. Further, there are clear individual differences between people in the exact patterns of mislocalisations. Here, we investigated whether these idiosyncratic differences in tactile localisation are shared between the fingers and toes, which may indicate a shared high-level representation. We obtained confusion matrices showing the pattern of mislocalisation on the hairy skin surfaces of both the fingers and toes. Using a decoding approach, we show that idiosyncratic differences in individuals' pattern of confusions are shared across the fingers and toes, despite different overall patterns of confusions. These results suggest that there is a common representation of the fingers and toes.
  • Publisher's Note
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s):
  • Retraction notice to “Auditory (dis-)fluency triggers sequential
           processing adjustments” [ACTPSY 191 (2018) 69–75]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2019Source: Acta PsychologicaAuthor(s): Thomas Dolk, Claudia Freigang, Johanna Bogon, Gesine Dreisbach
  • Proactive and reactive modes of cognitive control can operate
           independently and simultaneously
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): V. Mäki-Marttunen, T. Hagen, T. Espeseth Cognitive control enables optimal biasing of attention, perception, and actions in the service of mental or behavioral goals. To understand the variability of applied cognitive control, we need to unravel the relation between two underlying mechanisms: proactive and reactive modes. During proactive cognitive control, goal-relevant information is selected before the occurrence of a cognitively demanding event, and is actively maintained for as long as required by the task. During reactive mode, cognitive control is transiently activated only after the cognitively demanding event has occurred. Mechanistically, proactive and reactive control modes may be at least semi-independent and engaged simultaneously, but this has so far not been demonstrated empirically. Situational demands and an individual's cognitive capacity and motivation may bias behavior towards one or the other mode. Reward induces more proactive processing in the AX-CPT task, whereas context load induces reactive processing. We combined these manipulations to investigate the extent to which proactive and reactive control modes can operate independently and simultaneously. The results replicated already published effects of reward incentives and context load. Most importantly, these effects were essentially independent of each other, suggesting that proactive and reactive cognitive control modes depend on separate information-processing and neural mechanisms. The results also show that while proactive processing is influenced by reward, reactive processing seems independent of such factor. These findings have implications for our understanding of the structure of cognitive control and cognitive motivation, and are relevant for the design of interventions to improve cognitive control in various developmental and neuropsychiatric groups.
  • Out of the dark, into the light: The impact of social exclusion on
           judgments of darkness and brightness
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): Michaela Pfundmair, Sarah K. Danböck, Maria Agthe Based on theories of grounded cognition, we assumed that the experience of social exclusion is grounded in a concept of darkness. Specifically, we hypothesized that social exclusion causes perceptual judgments of darkness and a preference for brightness as a compensatory response. To investigate these hypotheses, we conducted four studies using different manipulations and measurements. In Studies 1a and 1b, excluded participants judged a picturized room as darker and drew more attention to its brightest part than included participants. In Study 2, excluded participants judged a surface as darker and decided for brighter clothing than included participants. In Study 3, excluded participants judged their lab room as darker and expressed a higher preference for brightness than included participants. Providing consistent support for our hypotheses, these findings confirm the idea that the experience of social exclusion is grounded in multiple ways that share a common representational system.
  • The influence of power posing on cardiac vagal activity
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): Sylvain Laborde, Nils Strack, Emma Mosley The effects of power posing on hormonal reactions such as testosterone and cortisol have been widely investigated, however, its effects on the autonomic nervous system are rather unknown. Consequently, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of power posing on cardiac vagal activity (CVA), as indexed by heart rate variability. It was hypothesized that high power poses (HPP) would increase CVA, whereas low power poses (LPP) would decrease CVA, given power posing is expected to decrease stress. Participants (N = 56) performed a total of four power poses, a combination of two power conditions (high vs. low) and two body positions (sitting vs. standing) for 1 min each, in a randomized order. In addition, for each power pose participants were given a role description. Contrary to our hypothesis, CVA decreased significantly during HPP in comparison to the resting measures before and after HPP, and CVA did not change during LPP. Moreover, while holding the power pose, CVA was higher in the LPP than in the HPP condition. Regarding subjective measures our hypotheses were confirmed, felt power was significantly higher after HPP than after LPP. Additionally, perceived stress was higher after LPP than after HPP. Taken together, these results suggest that the immediate impact of PP on the autonomic nervous system is more likely to influence a higher state of activation within the body instead of increasing resources to cope with stress as indexed by CVA, which may be seen only on a more long-term basis.
  • Gender, videogames and navigation in virtual space
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): Suzanne de Castell, Hector Larios, Jennifer Jenson Spatial abilities associated with success in educational and occupational fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) have been repeatedly shown to be gendered, with males demonstrating measurably better spatial abilities than females. Less is known about why this is, or about how experience with spatial systems (videogames, for example) affects these abilities. We conducted two experiments with 82 participants with varying degrees of videogame experience on measures of mental rotation, spatial learning, and spatial memory. Spatial learning and memory were tested in a Virtual Morris Water Maze. In the first experiment, the maze lacked proximal landmarks. Males proved faster and more accurate than females in learning the location of the hidden platform. As predicted males also outperformed females in mental rotation abilities. Mental rotation correlated with performance in the virtual maze, indicating that in the absence of proximal landmarks, participants relied on strategies requiring mental rotation. Experienced 3D videogame players did not demonstrate superior spatial learning and memory, but performed better than novices in mental rotation. In the second experiment, the maze had proximal cues, in the form of landmarks on the circumference of the virtual pool, and gender-based differences in navigational performance significantly diminished. Under these changed environmental conditions, mental rotation ability did not correlate with performance in the VMWM, suggesting that given proximal cues, the need for mental rotation diminishes. Differences between videogame novices and experts also decreased when proximal cues were provided. Females in particular obtained more discernible benefits from videogame experience. Together, these experiments reveal how the spatial abilities and strategies used to solve the Morris maze task vary with environmental design. Given the structural similarities between the virtual maze and videogame environments, these results offer insight into how spatial experience gained through videogame playing can affect aspects of spatial cognition, and can help identify design elements that contribute to their improvement.
  • Somatic perception of floor inclination
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): Atsuki Higashiyama, Tadashi Yamazaki We investigated somatically perceived inclination of a floor on which an observer was. In the first three experiments, using blindfolded observers, we determined the point of subjective equality (PSE) and the difference limen (DL) for horizontal floor. Orientation of the lying body relative to the axis around which the floor was rotated, distance of the lying body from the rotation axis, posture (standing, sitting, and lying), and age were varied. In the fourth experiment, effects of seeing the floor were examined. The mean PSEs were accurate within ±0.25° in all experiments. The mean DLs varied with condition: 1) The largest DLs were obtained for the blindfolded observers lying orthogonally or obliquely to the rotation axis, 2) the second largest DLs for the blindfolded observers lying parallel to the rotation axis, 3) medium DLs for the blindfolded observers sitting or standing, and 4) the smallest DLs for the standing observers with visual exposure to surroundings. In the last experiment, we determined a scale for inclination from verbally estimating apparent inclination with or without a blindfold. We concluded that the ratio of shear force to normal force was used for estimation of inclination. We discussed synergy of somatic inputs and visual inputs.
  • Eliciting contextual temporal calibration: The effect of bottom-up and
           top-down information in reproduction tasks
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): Sarah C. Maaß, Nadine Schlichting, Hedderik van Rijn Bayesian integration assumes that a current observation is integrated with previous observations. An example in the temporal domain is the central tendency effect: when a range of durations is presented, a regression towards the mean is observed. Furthermore, a context effect emerges if a partially overlapping lower and a higher range of durations is presented in a blocked design, with the overlapping durations pulled towards the mean duration of the block. We determine under which conditions this context effect is observed, and whether explicit cues strengthen the effect. Each block contained either two or three durations, with one duration present in both blocks. We provided either no information at the start of each block about the nature of that block, provided written (“short” / “long” or “A” / “B”) categorizations, or operationalized pitch (low vs high) to reflect the temporal context. We demonstrate that (1) the context effect emerges as long as sufficiently distinct durations are presented; (2) the effect is not modulated by explicit instructions or other cues; (3) just a single additional duration is sufficient to produce a context effect. Taken together, these results provide information on the most efficient operationalization to evoke the context effect, allowing for highly economical experimental designs, and highlights the automaticity by which priors are constructed.
  • Sense of agency in continuous action is influenced by outcome feedback in
           one-back trials
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): Hiroyuki Oishi, Kanji Tanaka, Katsumi Watanabe Sense of agency (SoA) is a subjective feeling that a person controls his/her own actions and causes changes in the external world. In continuous action such as controlling a dot by keypresses, SoA is influenced by actual actions during the task. Additionally, it is known that even though the actual actions were almost identical, outcome feedback (e.g., success or fail) could modulate SoA, indicating a retrospective modulation of SoA. However, it was unclear whether the SoA modulated by outcome feedback would influence SoA for an up-coming action. Here, we investigated the effects of outcome feedback in one-back trial on SoA in the present trial (i.e., prospective modulation). We conducted three experiments where participants controlled a dot to a target whose color changed unpredictably between white and blue. If the dot reached the target when the color was white (blue), participants received a text feedback of “Success” (“Fail”). However, in fact, we predetermined the outcome feedback to remove the effects of the actual performance of participants on SoA. The results showed that if the outcome feedback of the one-back trial was successful, SoA of the present trial became higher (i.e., prospective modulation) until they received the outcome feedback. Moreover, the prospectively modulated SoA was retrospectively overwritten by the outcome feedback of the present trial and likely converged to a constant level. These findings indicated that SoA was not produced by a mere sum of the prospective and retrospective factors, but rather that these factors independently influenced SoA with differential time courses.
  • Response repetitions in auditory task switching: The influence of spatial
           response distance and of the response-stimulus interval
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): Julia C. Seibold, Iring Koch, Sophie Nolden, Robert W. Proctor, Kim-Phuong L. Vu, Stefanie Schuch In task switching studies, response repetition effects are typically obtained: When the task repeats, response repetitions are faster than response switches (response repetition benefit), but when the task switches, the opposite is found (response repetition cost). Previously, it was found that spatial response distance [RD] affected the response repetitions: separated response keys led to longer reaction times [RT] for response repetitions (in both task repetitions and task switches) than adjacent response keys. The goal of the present study was to replicate this RD effect in a modified setup with auditory stimuli (in Experiments 1 and 2). As we were interested in the temporal dynamics of the RD effect, we also introduced a block-wise manipulation of response-stimulus interval (RSI) in Experiment 2. RD modulated responding, replicating the results of a prior study that used visual stimuli, but only when the RSI was long. With short RSI, the RD effect was not obtained. At the same time, a long RSI led to more pronounced response repetition effects in the error rates. These results imply that response inhibition from the previous trial, which is assumed to contribute to the response repetition effect and to the modulation of responding by response distance, builds up over time.
  • Category-based generalization of placebo and nocebo effects
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): Cuizhen Liu, Linqiu Chen, Rongjun Yu Human beings possess the adaptive ability to apply experiential knowledge to new situations. Although this generalization capability has been demonstrated in fear and reward learning, it remains unclear whether it extends to analgesic and hyperalgesic pain responses. Here, we conducted two experiments (total n = 104) to test the generalization effects of placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia. The first experiment, using a category-based conditioning paradigm in which two categories of images were used as acquisition stimuli, assessed whether pain perception can be generalized to never-seen pictures of the same category in the generalization phase. The second experiment adopted a single stimulus for each category as CS to further examine the generalization effects after learning a single exemplar. Pain ratings showed that participants reported higher pain or lower pain when the pain was preceded by novel stimuli that were conceptually similar to the previously conditioned stimuli, suggesting a generalization of analgesic and hyperalgesic pain modulation effects. These results provide novel evidence that analgesic and hyperalgesic effects on pain perception can be generalized to conceptually similar new items.
  • Contextual and social variables modulate aesthetic appreciation of bodily
           and abstract art stimuli
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): Vanessa Era, Matteo Candidi, Salvatore Maria Aglioti Despite the increasing interest in the plasticity of aesthetic appreciation, we know comparatively little about the role of individuals' cultural (e.g. the appreciators' expertise) and of social emotional-cognitive (e.g. the social influence of people perceived as warm or competent) variables in modulating the appreciation process. In two experiments we investigated 1) whether people with different art-expertise are influenced differently by contextual (i.e. stimuli primed as art) and social (i.e. stimuli rated as beautiful by art-critics) information and 2) whether acknowledging the judgment of a person perceived as warm or as competent has a different influence on individuals' aesthetic appreciation of art works. Warmth and competence are two social dimensions of fundamental importance for categorizing others as in-group or out-group (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002). We found that insinuating that the observed works were pieces of art, highly appreciated by art critics, lead expert participants to judge the stimuli as more beautiful in comparison to when the very same stimuli were not preceded by any manipulation. Moreover, we found that both art-experts and non-experts rated the stimuli as more beautiful when they believed it to be highly appreciated by people perceived as warm vs people perceived as competent. These results provide novel information on the plasticity of aesthetics and pave the way to understanding how tastes and preferences in the domain of aesthetics can be influenced.
  • Contrasting left/right codes for response selection must not be
           necessarily associated with contrasting numerical features to get the
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Mario Pinto, Michele Pellegrino, Stefano Lasaponara, Vincenzo Cestari, Fabrizio Doricchi The SNARC effect consists of faster reaction times to small numerical magnitudes when manual responses are delivered in the left-side of space and to large magnitudes when responses are delivered in the right-side. This spatial compatibility effect points at the interaction between the representations of space and that of numbers. Several studies have highlighted that an important determinant for the production of the SNARC is the use of contrasting left/right spatial codes in the selection of motor responses. In these studies, one spatial code for response selection, e.g. “left”, is usually associated with one number feature, e.g. “lower than 5”, while the contrasting spatial code, e.g. “right”, is associated with the contrasting number feature, e.g. “higher than 5”. Using a task with intermixed number and letter targets, here we show that significant and reliable SNARC effects are also produced when: a) one spatial response is associated with the intra-categorical discrimination of a number feature (i.e. magnitude or parity) and the contrasting response with the simple detection of letter targets; b) or when one spatial response is associated with the intra-categorical discrimination of the position of a letter in the alphabet (i.e. before or after “m”) and the contrasting spatial response with the simple detection of numerical targets (Experiments 1 and 2). In contrast, no reliable SNARC is found when no intra-categorical number or letter discrimination is required and contrasting left/right spatial response codes are simply associated with the discrimination between numbers and letters, e.g. “push left if the target is a number/push right if it is a letter” (Experiment 3). In a final control test (Experiment 4), we found no SNARC when the magnitude or parity classification of Arabic digits presented at central fixation was made unimanually with a left side or a right side-key and no left/right contrast was present in response selection. These results show that the use of contrasting left/right spatial response codes elicits reliable SNARC effects independently of their assignment to contrasting number features and confirm the important role played by the use of spatial codes in the genesis of the number-space interaction.
  • The role of personality traits and need for cognition in active
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 199Author(s): Mingming Zhou Recent research has differentiated between active and passive procrastination, with the former considered to be beneficial for learning and the latter considered to be harmful. Studies have shown that both personality and cognitive factors are important in students' active procrastination. This study examines how interactions between the Big Five personality traits and the need for cognition affect students' active procrastination. The hypotheses were tested empirically using cross-sectional data collected from 307 university students in China. After controlling for age, a hierarchical regression analysis revealed that extraversion was a positive predictor of active procrastination, and that agreeableness and emotional instability were negative predictors of active procrastination. No significant interaction effects were found between personality traits and need for cognition. The implications of the findings are discussed.
  • Individual differences in lexical learning across two language modalities:
           Sign learning, word learning, and their relationship in hearing
           non-signing adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): David Martinez, Jenny L. Singleton A considerable amount of research has been devoted to understanding individual differences in lexical learning, however, the majority of this research has been conducted with spoken languages rather than signed languages and thus we know very little about the cognitive processes involved in sign learning or the extent to which lexical learning processes are specific to word learning. The present study was conducted to address this gap.Two-hundred thirty-six non-signing adults completed 25 tasks assessing word learning and sign learning (via associative learning paradigms) as well as modality-specific phonological short-term memory, working memory capacity, crystallized intelligence, and fluid intelligence.Latent variable analyses indicated that, when other variables were held constant, fluid intelligence was predictive of both word and sign learning, however, modality-specific phonological short-term memory factors were only predictive of lexical learning within modality—none of the other variables made significant independent contributions. It was further observed that sign and word learning were strongly correlated. Exploratory analyses revealed that all lexical learning tasks loaded onto a general factor, however, sign learning tasks loaded onto an additional specific factor. As such, this study provides insight into the cognitive components that are common to associative L2 lexical learning regardless of language modality and those that are unique to either signed or spoken languages. Results are further discussed in light of established and more recent theories of intelligence, short-term memory, and working memory.
  • Malleability of mappings between Arabic numerals and approximate
           quantities: Factors underlying individual differences and the relation to
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Darren J. Yeo, Eric D. Wilkey, Gavin R. Price Humans tend to be inaccurate and inconsistent when estimating a large number of objects. Furthermore, we modify our estimates when feedback or a reference array is provided, indicating that the mappings between perceived numerosity and their corresponding numerals are largely malleable in response to calibration. However, there is great variability in response to calibration across individuals. Using uncalibrated and calibrated numerosity estimation conditions, the current study explored the factors underlying individual differences in the extent and nature of the malleability of numerosity estimation performance as a result of calibration in a sample of 71 undergraduate students. We found that individual differences in performance were reliable across conditions, and participants' responses to calibration varied greatly. Participants who were less consistent or had more proportionally spaced (i.e., linear) estimates before calibration tended to shift the distributions of their estimates to a greater extent. Higher calculation competence also predicted an increase in how linear participants' estimates were after calibration. Moreover, the effect of calibration was not continuous across numerosities within participants. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying numeral-numerosity mappings may be less systematic than previously thought and likely depend on cognitive mechanisms beyond representation of numerosities. Taken together, the mappings between numerosities and numerical symbols may not be stable and direct, but transient and mediated by task-related (e.g., strategic) mechanisms. Rather than estimation skills being foundational for math competence, math competence may also influence estimation skills. Therefore, numerosity estimation tasks are not a pure measure of number representations.
  • The role of meaning in attentional guidance during free viewing of
           real-world scenes
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Candace E. Peacock, Taylor R. Hayes, John M. Henderson In real-world vision, humans prioritize the most relevant visual information at the expense of other information via attentional selection. The current study sought to understand the role of semantic features and image features on attentional selection during free viewing of real-world scenes. We compared the ability of meaning maps generated from ratings of isolated, context-free image patches and saliency maps generated from the Graph-Based Visual Saliency model to predict the spatial distribution of attention in scenes as measured by eye movements. Additionally, we introduce new contextualized meaning maps in which scene patches were rated based upon how informative or recognizable they were in the context of the scene from which they derived. We found that both context-free and contextualized meaning explained significantly more of the overall variance in the spatial distribution of attention than image salience. Furthermore, meaning explained early attention to a significantly greater extent than image salience, contrary to predictions of the ‘saliency first’ hypothesis. Finally, both context-free and contextualized meaning predicted attention equivalently. These results support theories in which meaning plays a dominant role in attentional guidance during free viewing of real-world scenes.
  • A different perspective on domain-general language control using the
           flanker task
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Mathieu Declerck, Charlotte Eben, Jonathan Grainger Bilingual models diverge in whether they assume that language control is domain general. Most studies that investigated this claim focused on bilingual language production and relied on the comparison between language switching and task switching. In the current study, we set out to investigate whether language control is domain general in a different context (i.e., bilingual language comprehension) and with a different paradigm (i.e., the flanker task). To this end, we let French-English bilinguals perform a bilingual (flankers are words from the same or different language as the target word) and a non-linguistic (numerical magnitude with digits) flanker task. The results showed that there was no difference in the language congruency effect between participants with a high and low non-linguistic congruency effect. These results indicate that there is no substantial overlap in the mechanisms involved in comprehension-based language control and executive control.
  • Emotions and beliefs about morality can change one another
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Monica Bucciarelli, P.N. Johnson-Laird A dual-process theory postulates that belief and emotions about moral assertions can affect one another. The present study corroborated this prediction. Experiments 1, 2 and 3 showed that the pleasantness of a moral assertion – from loathing it to loving it – correlated with how strongly individuals believed it, i.e., its subjective probability. But, despite repeated testing, this relation did not occur for factual assertions. To create the correlation, it sufficed to change factual assertions, such as, “Advanced countries are democracies,” into moral assertions, “Advanced countries should be democracies”. Two further experiments corroborated the two-way causal relations for moral assertions. Experiment 4 showed that recall of pleasant memories about moral assertions increased their believability, and that the recall of unpleasant memories had the opposite effect. Experiment 5 showed that the creation of reasons to believe moral assertions increased the pleasantness of the emotions they evoked, and that the creation of reasons to disbelieve moral assertions had the opposite effect. Hence, emotions can change beliefs about moral assertions; and reasons can change emotions about moral assertions. We discuss the implications of these results for alternative theories of morality.
  • Visual search does not always predict performance in tasks that require
           finding targets among distractors: The case of line-ending illusory
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Natasha L.A. Hardy, Mallory Terry, Lana M. Trick The standard visual search task is integral to the study of selective attention and in search tasks target present slopes are the primary index of attentional demand. However, there are times when similarities in slopes may obscure important differences between conditions. To demonstrate this point, we used the case of line-ending illusory contours, building on a study by Li, Cave, and Wolfe (2008) where orientation-based search for figures defined by line-ending illusory contours was compared to that for the corresponding real-contour controls. Consistent with Li et al. (2008), we found search to be efficient for both illusory contour figures and the corresponding real-contour controls, with no significant differences between them. However, major differences between illusory contours and the real-contour controls emerged in selective enumeration, a task where participants enumerated targets in a display of distractors, with the number of targets and distractors manipulated. When looking at the distractor slopes, the increase in RT to enumerate a single target as a function of the number of distractors (a direct analogue to target present trials, with identical displays), we found distractor costs for illusory contour figures to be over 100 ms/distractor higher than for the corresponding real-contour controls. Furthermore, the discrepancies in RT slope between 1–3 and 6–8 targets associated with subitizing were only seen in the real-contour controls. These results show that similarities in RT slopes in search may mask important differences between conditions that emerge in other tasks.
  • External coding and salience in the tactile Simon effect
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Jared Medina, Nikolaos Theodoropoulos, Yuqi Liu, Patrick G. Reyes, Elena Gherri Previous studies have demonstrated a tactile Simon effect in which stimulus codes are generated based on the stimulated hand, not on limb position in external space (the somatotopic Simon effect). However, given evidence from visual Simon effect studies demonstrating that multiple stimulus codes can be generated for a single stimulus, we examined whether multiple stimulus codes can be generated for tactile stimuli as well. In our first experiment using four stimulators (two on each side of the hand), we found novel evidence for a hand-centered Simon effect, along with the typical somatotopic Simon effect. Next, we examined whether the potential salience of these somatotopic codes could be reduced, by testing only one hand with two stimulators attached. In Experiments 2–4, we found a strong hand-centered Simon effect with a diminished somatotopic Simon effect, providing evidence that stimulus salience can change the weighting of somatosensory stimulus coding. Finally, we also found novel evidence that the hand-centered Simon effect is coded in external, not somatotopic, coordinates. Furthermore, the diminished somatotopic Simon effect when testing on one hand only provides evidence that salience is an important factor in modulating the tactile Simon effect.
  • Independent control processes' Evidence for concurrent distractor
           inhibition and attentional usage of distractor information
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Imke M. Gillich, Thomas Jacobsen, Miriam Tomat, Mike Wendt Interference evoked by a distractor presented prior to a target stimulus is reduced when the distractor-target SOA is increased, suggesting inhibition of distractor-related activation. Distractor processing is also assumed to be (strategically) adjusted to the proportions of congruent and incongruent target-distractor combinations, yielding a larger distractor interference effect when the proportion of congruent trials is higher (i.e., Proportion Congruent Effect, PCE). To explore the interplay of proportion congruent-based processing adjustment and the time course of distractor-related activation we varied the proportions of congruent and incongruent trials as well as the distractor-target SOA. To control for item-specific priming we kept distractor-related contingencies (i.e., frequency of individual distractor-target conjunctions) constant for a subset of the stimuli (and used a different subset to manipulate the proportions of congruent and incongruent trials). A PCE occurred, even for the subset of stimuli associated with constant distractor-related contingencies, thus ruling out item-specific contingency learning. Distractor interference was reduced when the SOA was increased, but this reduction did not differ between the proportion congruent conditions, as confirmed by a Bayesian analysis. Our results are consistent with independent processes pertaining to usage of distractor information for biasing response selection and distractor inhibition during the SOA. Alternative interpretations of the independent effects of the PC manipulation and the distractor-target SOA are discussed.
  • Corrigendum to “Configural face perception in childhood and adolescence:
           An individual differences approach” [Acta Psychologica 188 (2018)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2019Source: Acta PsychologicaAuthor(s): Anastasia Petrakova, Werner Sommer, Martin Junge, Andrea Hildebrandt
  • Colorful glares: Effects of colors on brightness illusions measured with
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Yuta Suzuki, Tetsuto Minami, Bruno Laeng, Shigeki Nakauchi We hypothesized that pupil constrictions to the glare illusion, where converging luminance gradients subjectively enhance the perception of brightness, would be stronger for ‘blue’ than for other colors. Such an expectation was based on reflections about the ecology of vision, where the experience of dazzling light is common when one happens to look directly at sunlight through some occluders. Thus, we hypothesized that pupil constrictions to ‘blue’ reflect an ecologically-based expectation of the visual system from the experience of sky's light and color, which also leads to interpret the blue gradients of illusory glare to act as effective cues to impending probable intense light. We therefore manipulated the gradients color of glare illusions and measured changes in subjective brightness of identical shape stimuli. We confirmed that the blue resulted in what was subjectively evaluated as the brightest condition, despite all colored stimuli were equiluminant. This enhanced brightness effect was observed both in a psychophysical adjustment task and in changes in pupil size, where the maximum pupil constriction peak was observed with the ‘blue’ converging gradients over and above to the pupil response to blue in other conditions (i.e., diverging gradients and homogeneous patches). Moreover, glare-related pupil constrictions for each participant were correlated to each individual's subjective brightness adjustments. Homogenous blue hues also constricted the pupil more than other hues, which represents a pupillometric analog of the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch effect on brightness perception. Together, these findings show that pupillometry constitutes an easy tool to assess individual differences in color brightness perception.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Choice perseveration in value-based decision making: The impact of
           inter-trial interval and mood
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Ulrike Senftleben, Martin Schoemann, Diana Schwenke, Sarah Richter, Maja Dshemuchadse, Stefan Scherbaum In a series of decisions, people tend to show choice perseveration, that is, they repeat their choices. This choice perseveration is assumed to emerge due to residual activity from the previous decision. Here, we use a computational model with attractor dynamics to describe this process and to predict how choice perseveration can be modulated. We derive two qualitative predictions: Choice perseveration should decrease under longer (vs. shorter) inter-trial intervals and positive (vs. negative) mood. We test these predictions in a dynamic decision task where we modulate decisions across trials via sequentially manipulated reward options. Our findings replicate our previous study in showing choice perseveration in value-based decision making. Furthermore, choice perseveration decreased with increasing inter-trial interval as predicted by the model. However, we did not find clear evidence supporting mood effects on choice perseveration. We discuss how integrating decision process dynamics by the means of applying the neural attractor model can increase our understanding of the evolution of decision outcomes and therefore complement the psychophysical perspective on decision making.
  • A meta-analysis of flow effects and the perception of time
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): P.A. Hancock, A.D. Kaplan, J.K. Cruit, G.M. Hancock, K.R. MacArthur, J.L. Szalma An altered sense of the experience of time represents one of the nine dimensions that is conceived as characterizing a state of flow. While a number of other factors necessarily contribute to this overall experience of flow, subjective time perception is of particular quantitative interest and thus serves as the focus of the present meta-analysis. The extant body of relevant quantitative research was evaluated to identify data relating to both flow and change in the sense of time. Sixty-three (n = 63) articles were determined to qualify under the current specified inclusion criteria. These sixty-three studies yielded one thousand and ninety-four (n = 1094) effect sizes. All studies included in the meta-analysis were also coded for relevant moderator variables. Results indicated moderately positive correlations between affective, consciousness, and performance based aspects of flow (r = 0.4, 0.21, 0.17 respectively), thus reinforcing the original conceptualization of their relationship for the generation and maintenance of the flow state. Additionally, variations in environmental conditions (both physical and social) were found to have differential effects on the overall level of experienced flow. The results of this meta-analysis also serve to inform the process of further model development that can more accurately quantify and predict temporal perception as one metric of flow.
  • Same same but different' Modeling N-1 switch cost and N-2 repetition
           cost with the diffusion model and the linear ballistic accumulator model
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Eva-Maria Hartmann, Alodie Rey-Mermet, Miriam Gade In three task-switching experiments, we investigated the relationship of n-1 switch cost and n-2 repetition cost. N-1 switch cost is observed when participants are asked to switch from one classification task to another, e.g., from judging a digit as odd or even to judging a digit as smaller or larger than five. N-2 repetition cost is observed when participants are asked to switch among three tasks (thereafter called A, B, and C). This cost is observed when the task on trial n-2 is repeated in trial n (i.e., in task sequences like ABA) compared to when it is switched (i.e., in task sequences like CBA). So far, the n-1 switch cost is assumed to be caused either by reconfiguration processes or by episodic-memory inertia from the previously activated task-set. N-2 repetition cost is thought to reflect lingering inhibitory processes for resolving conflict among tasks. Whereas both views are integrated in some models, it is up to date unclear whether n-2 repetition cost is related to n-1 switch cost. To examine this relationship, we decomposed the processes underlying n-1 switch cost and n-2 repetition cost using a diffusion model analysis as well as a linear ballistic accumulator model. The results showed that n-1 switch cost reflects interference caused by the residual activation of the previous task set as indicated by slower evidence accumulation processes. In contrast, there were no consistent parameter modulations underlying n-2 repetition cost. These findings emphasize that different cognitive processes are involved in n-1 switch cost and n-2 repetition cost.
  • On the ball: Short-term consequences of movement fakes
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Wilfried Kunde, Anna Foerster, Matthias Weigelt, David Dignath In competitive situations, humans sometimes use fake actions. Fake actions are carried out to pretend a certain action goal, which however is not actually pursued, such as pump fakes in basketball, or drop shots in tennis. Here, we studied the short-term consequences of producing or observing fakes on the planning and detection of subsequent fake actions. Two players participated in a game, an attacker and a defender. Attackers had to either throw a ball into a target basket of the defender, or to mimic such a throw without actually throwing. Defenders had to discriminate between real throws and faked throws. Participants changed the roles of attacker and defender, and switched between real and faked throws randomly, on a trial-by-trial basis. We found that the (self-)observation of a fake action facilitated the detection of subsequent fake actions of opponents, but did not facilitate the subsequent planning of own fake actions. We conjecture that previous encounters of fake actions help to focus on the movement aspects that are most diagnostic for such fake actions. As a potential practical consequence, we recommend to not generate multiple fake actions in sports within a short time, to prevent potential short-term perceptual adaptation effects of defenders.
  • The power of red: The influence of colour on evaluation and failure
           – A replication
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Jana Fikrlova, Lenka Cechova, Tereza Lebedova, Patrik Pycha, Alena Sesulkova, Jakub Prochazka, Martin Vaculik This replication of a study by>Rutchick, Slepian, and Ferris (2010) examines the influence of the colour of a pen on the activation of associations with failure and the focus on errors. We assigned two tasks to 198 students who completed them using either a red or a blue pen. The students were instructed to complete several word stems in the first task. In the second, we asked them to mark mistakes in a text. The participants using red pens completed significantly more word stems with words associated with failure than those using blue pens. The participants using red pens also marked significantly more mistakes in a text than those using blue pens. Our results support the findings of the original study and the hypothesized influence of the colour red in inducing a higher activation of associations with failure and a heightened focus on mistakes. Our study further contributes to research in this area in that it takes into account the participants' field of study and creates an explicit achievement context in which the observed phenomenon is most prevalent.
  • Understanding the cognitive miser: Cue-utilization in effort-based
           decision making
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Timothy L. Dunn, Evan F. Risko The notion that individuals adapt their behaviors in ways that are sensitive to the effortfulness of cognitive processing is pervasive in psychology. In the current set of experiments, we provide a test of a cue-utilization account of how individuals decide which course of action is more or less effortful. In particular, we contrast the influences of time costs and demands on executive control with the influence of an available effort cue. Using a variant of the demand selection task (DST) that specifically focused on making effort-based decisions, we provide evidence that effort-based decisions can be dissociated from both time costs and demands on executive control in a manner predicted by a cue-utilization account.
  • Social (not fiscal) conservatism predicts deontological ethics
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Eugene Y. Chan Prior research has reported that political conservatives rely on a deontological approach to resolving moral dilemmas by favoring moral rules and moral edicts rather than expressing a willingness to sacrifice one life in order to save multiple others. In the current research, we sought to firstly demonstrate the underlying process and secondly to clarify the exact nature of the link between political ideology and deontological ethics. In Study 1, political conservatism predicted deontological judgments because of greater intuition. That is, conservatives think rather intuitively, and intuitive thinking is one antecedent to deontological judgments when resolving moral dilemmas. Following, in Study 2, we demonstrate that only social—not fiscal—conservatism predicts intuition and thus deontological ethics. Accordingly, we tease apart the typical left-right measure of political ideology into its two key aspects and argue that only the social but not fiscal dimensions predicts intuition and deontological ethics. We are not the first authors to suggest the existence of a link between political conservatism and moral processing, but we are the first to suggest an explanation and the first to clarify which aspect of conservatism is associated with deontological ethics.
  • Causal connectives as indicators of source information: Evidence from the
           visual world paradigm
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Yipu Wei, Willem M. Mak, Jacqueline Evers-Vermeul, Ted J.M. Sanders Causal relations can be presented as subjective, involving someone's reasoning, or objective, depicting a real-world cause-consequence relation. Subjective relations require longer processing times than objective relations. We hypothesize that the extra time is due to the involvement of a Subject of Consciousness (SoC) in the mental representation of subjective information. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a Visual World Paradigm eye-tracking experiment on Dutch and Chinese connectives that differ in the degree of subjectivity they encode. In both languages, subjective connectives triggered an immediate increased attention to the SoC, compared to objective connectives. Only when the subjectivity information was not expressed by the connective, modal verbs presented later in the sentence induced an increase in looks at the SoC. This focus on the SoC due to the linguistic cues can be explained as the tracking of the information source in the situation models, which continues throughout the sentence.
  • Action consequences affect the space-time congruency effect on reaction
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Markus Janczyk, Rolf Ulrich According to the metaphoric mapping hypothesis, people code time in terms of space. Consistent with this hypothesis, several reaction time studies have demonstrated that participants respond faster with a left (right) response to stimuli that convey temporal information about the past (future) than when this stimulus-response mapping is reversed (past → right, future → left). The present experiment examines whether the side of the response key or of the (visual) action effect elicited by the response is the crucial factor of this space-time congruency effect. In a response-effect (R-E) compatible group, a response to a temporal stimulus produced a visual action effect on the same side as the response location (left response → left action effect, right response → right action effect). In an R-E incompatible group, however, response and action effect occurred on opposite sides (left response → right action effect, right response → left action effect). A typical space-time congruency effect was obtained in the R-E compatible group, but the congruency effect interacted with group and was descriptively reversed in the R-E incompatible group. This result pattern suggests that the typical congruency effect is determined by the location of the action consequences rather than the location of the response key. Based on this result, we suggest that the space-time congruency effect is based on an abstract spatial mental representation that embraces action events in the external space.
  • Age-related differences in the ability to decode intentions from
           non-literal language
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Christina Pomareda, Auste Simkute, Louise H. Phillips Older adults sometimes experience difficulty in decoding non-literal language, such as sarcastic statements where the underlying meaning differs from the literal words used. Given that sarcasm usually communicates a negative message this age effect might be explained by a positivity bias in old age. Here we test this for the first time by looking at age differences in interpreting non-literal compliments made with positive intention. However, another possibility is that older adults may fail to interpret such remarks correctly because these non-literal compliments are rarely encountered in everyday interactions. The aim of this study was therefore to compare younger and older adults' comprehension of positively and negatively valenced non-literal language. Forty younger and thirty-eight older adults read short story scenarios ending with a positive or negative, literal or non-literal evaluative appraisal of an event. Older adults were less likely than young to detect negatively valenced non-literal criticism and there were even more pronounced age-related differences in comprehending positive non-literal compliments. This indicates that age differences in understanding non-literal language are not driven by positivity biases. The relative rarity of non-literal compliments may have made these particularly difficult to interpret for both younger and older adults. Younger adults' performance indicated that non-literal language mutes perceived levels of critique and praise, while older adults' tendency to misinterpret non-literal language means that they may not benefit from this muting function. Potential implications for social interactions in older adulthood are discussed.
  • Multiple expectancies underlie the congruency sequence effect in
           confound-minimized tasks
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Christopher D. Erb, Andrew J. Aschenbrenner The congruency sequence effect (CSE) occurs when the congruency effect observed in tasks such as the Eriksen flanker task is smaller on trials preceded by an incongruent trial relative to trials preceded by a congruent trial. The CSE has been attributed to a range of factors including repetition expectancy, conflict monitoring, feature integration, and contingency learning. To clarify the debate surrounding the CSE and the mechanisms underlying its occurrence, researchers have developed confound-minimized congruency tasks designed to control for feature-integration and contingency-learning effects. A CSE is often observed in confound-minimized tasks, indicating that the effect is driven by repetition expectancy, conflict monitoring, or a combination of the two. Here, we propose and test a variant of the repetition expectancy account that emphasizes how multiple expectations can be formed simultaneously based upon the congruency type (congruent vs. incongruent) and the congruency repetition type (congruency repetition vs. congruency alternation) of the most recent trial. Data from confound-minimized versions of the prime-probe task were found to support this novel account. Data from confound-minimized versions of the Eriksen flanker, Simon, and Stroop tasks indicate that feature-integration confounds often remain in these tasks, potentially undermining the conclusions of previous work. We discuss the implications of these findings for ongoing theoretical debates surrounding the CSE.
  • Impact of attentional focus on motor performance within the context of
           “early” limb regulation and “late” target control
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): James W. Roberts, Gavin P. Lawrence Directing attention to the effect of one's movement (external focus) has been shown to aid performance compared to directing attention to the movement itself (internal focus). This finding has been predominantly explained by an external focus promoting action planning and automatic movement control, while an internal focus acts to constrain movement (constrained action hypothesis [CAH]). In a separate line of research, the multiple control process model states that early movement phases involve anticipated and feedforward processes, while late movement phases explicitly incorporate external afferent information. We hypothesized that enhanced planning and automatic movement control would manifest from an external/distal focus compared to internal/proximal focus. The present study had participants execute fast and accurate movements to a single target using a digitizing graphics tablet that translated movements to a screen. Participants were instructed to focus on the end target location (external-distal), movement of the cursor (external-proximal), and movement of the limb (internal-proximal). It was found that the external-distal focus generated a shorter time to initiate and execute movements (indicating enhanced movement planning) compared to the external- and internal-proximal conditions. In addition, only the external proximal focus revealed a reduction in spatial variability between peak velocity and movement end (indicating greater online control). These findings indicate that advances in action planning and online control occur when adopting an external-distal focus. However, there were some benefits to online control when adopting an external-proximal focus. We propose that an external-distal focus promotes action-effect principles, where there is a greater contribution of anticipatory feedforward processes that limit the need for late online control.
  • Over-selectivity decreases with increased training: A role for
           within-compound associations
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Phil Reed, Martyn Quigley Over-selectivity occurs when one element of a complex-stimulus controls behavior at the expense of other equally elements of that stimulus; a phenomenon common in populations subject to cognitive challenge. However, lack of theoretically-based analysis, may have hindered understanding and remediation of the practically-important over-selectivity phenomena. Current studies examined whether associative theories applied to overshadowing, a similar phenomenon in the context of conditioning experiments, could be applied to over-selectivity effects to open theoretical analysis of over-selectivity. Three experiments investigated whether length of training impacts over-selectivity in the same way as overshadowing, which has theoretical implications for understanding that latter phenomenon. All studies employed variants of a judgment procedure in which participants had to judge the relationship between a predictor and an outcome, and the predictors were presented either on their own, or in compound with another predictor. In all studies, the elemental cue (A) was rated similarly to one of the components of the compound (B), but higher than the other component (C). The difference in the extent to which the components of the compound (B and C) were judged as predictors became smaller as levels of training increased, which is an effect that is also seen in discrimination learning studies of over-selectivity. Moreover, it was apparent that as the strength of the within-compound association increased, the level of over-selectivity decreased. These results are similar to those seen for overshadowing, and are discussed with respect to the possible associative mechanisms controlling over-selectivity.
  • A replication attempt of hemispheric differences in semantic-relatedness
           judgments (Zwaan & Yaxley, 2003)
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Eduard Berndt, Carolin Dudschig, Jeff Miller, Barbara Kaup In a study by Zwaan and Yaxley (2003, Cognition, 87, B79–B86), participants judged the semantic relatedness of word pairs presented one above the other either in the left or right visual field with all related pairs requiring right-handed responses. If the vertical orientation of the word pairs matched their referents' typical vertical orientation (“roof” above “basement”) a match effect was observed, but only when the word pair was presented in the left visual field. We replicated this study with response side as an additional factor and found a main effect of match, as well as a Simon effect with faster responses when the required response matched the visual field in which the word pair was presented. We did not, however, observe an interaction between the match effect and the visual field. This challenges the assumption that coarse semantic representations, including spatial properties of objects, are mainly processed in the right hemisphere.
  • Numerical processing profiles in children with varying degrees of
           arithmetical achievement
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Nancy Estévez-Pérez, Danilka Castro-Cañizares, Eduardo Martínez-Montes, Vivian Reigosa-Crespo Recent studies show basic cognitive abilities such as the rapid and precise apprehension of small numerosities in object sets (“subitizing”), verbal counting and numerical magnitude comparison significantly influence the acquisition of arithmetic and continues to modulate more advanced stages of mathematical cognition. Additionally, children with low arithmetic achievement (LAA) and Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) exhibit significant deficits in these cognitive processes. Nevertheless, the different cognitive profiles of children with varying degrees of numerical and arithmetic processing deficits have not been sufficiently characterized, despite its potential relevance to the stimulation of numerical cognition and the design of appropriate intervention strategies. Here, the cognitive profiles of groups of typically developing children, children with low arithmetical achievement and DD, exhibiting typical and atypical subitizing ability were contrasted. The results suggest that relatively independent neurocognitive mechanisms may produce distinct profiles at the behavioral level and suggest children with low arithmetic performance exhibiting atypical subitizing abilities are not only significantly slower, but rely on compensatory mechanisms and strategies compared to typical subitizers. The role of subitizing as a correlate of arithmetic fluency is revised in the light of the present findings.
  • Gaze patterns in viewing static and dynamic body expressions
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Petra M.J. Pollux, Matthew Craddock, Kun Guo Evidence for the importance of bodily cues for emotion recognition has grown over the last two decades. Despite this growing literature, it is underspecified how observers view whole bodies for body expression recognition. Here we investigate to which extent body-viewing is face- and context-specific when participants are categorizing whole body expressions in static (Experiment 1) and dynamic displays (Experiment 2). Eye-movement recordings showed that observers viewed the face exclusively when visible in dynamic displays, whereas viewing was distributed over head, torso and arms in static displays and in dynamic displays with faces not visible. The strong face bias in dynamic face-visible expressions suggests that viewing of the body responds flexibly to the informativeness of facial cues for emotion categorisation. However, when facial expressions are static or not visible, observers adopt a viewing strategy that includes all upper body regions. This viewing strategy is further influenced by subtle viewing biases directed towards emotion-specific body postures and movements to optimise recruitment of diagnostic information for emotion categorisation.
  • Dwelling on distractors varying in target-distractor similarity
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 198Author(s): Gernot Horstmann, Daniel Ernst, Stefanie Becker Present day models of visual search focus on explaining search efficiency by visual guidance: The target guides attention to the target's position better in more efficient than in less efficient search. The time spent processing the distractor, however, is set to a constant in these models. In contrast to this assumption, recent studies found that dwelling on distractors is longer in more inefficient search. Previous experiments in support of this contention all presented the same distractors across all conditions, while varying the targets. While this procedure has its virtues, it confounds the manipulation of search efficiency with target type. Here we use the same targets over the entire experiment, while varying search efficiency by presenting different types of distractors. Eye fixation behavior was used to infer the amount of distractor dwelling, skipping, and revisiting. The results replicate previous results, with similarity affecting dwelling, and dwelling in turn affecting search performance. A regression analysis confirmed that variations in dwelling account for a large amount of variance in search speed, and that the similarity effect in dwelling accounts for the similarity effect in overall search performance.
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