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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3162 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3162 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 95, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 411, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 395, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 340, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 448, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 192, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Acta Psychologica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.331
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 27  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0001-6918
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Differential inter-trial effects in the visual search of children,
           adolescents, and young adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 191Author(s): Jun An, Wen Wen, Zhen Wu, Xiaoang Wan We examined the age-related variation in one type of inter-trial effect of visual search, the distractor previewing effect (DPE), in affectively neutral and affectively charged contexts. In Experiment 1, children, adolescents, and young adults were faster to identify the shape of a color target when the color of the current distractors had already been previewed than when the target had been previewed in the preceding target-absent trial, indicative of a color-based DPE. The results revealed a greater DPE in children than in adolescents and young adults, but it can be attributed to children's slower RTs than the other two groups. In Experiment 2, children, adolescents, and young adults were instructed to respond to a schematic face that was different from the other two faces. Young adults were faster in searching for a threatening face among friendly ones when they had previewed a target-absent display consisting of friendly faces than that of threatening faces, indicating an emotional DPE. By contrast, children showed a reversed DPE under the same condition, whereas adolescents showed no DPE. Taken together, these results suggested that the three age groups were all able to create an inhibitory attentional bias on the basis of trial history in affectively neutral context, whereas children and adolescents were not able to create such an inhibitory attentional bias in affectively charged contexts in the same way as adults did. These findings implied that the development of attentional inhibition abilities in affectively charged contexts might be delayed compared to those in affectively neutral contexts.
       
  • Magnitude processing of written number words is influenced by task, rather
           than notation
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 191Author(s): Becky Wong, Rebecca Bull, Daniel Ansari The extent to which task and notation influence the processing of numerical magnitude is under theoretical and empirical debate. To date, behavioural studies have yielded a mixed body of evidence. Using the case of written number words in English and Chinese, we re-examined this issue. Thirty-nine bilingual participants who showed a balanced profile of language dominance in English and Chinese completed three tasks of numerical processing (Magnitude Comparison, Numerical Matching, and Language Matching) with pure English, pure Chinese, and mixed notation number words. We conducted frequentist and Bayesian statistics on the data. Magnitude processing, as indexed by the numerical distance effect (NDE), was found to be dependent on task. Specifically, the NDE occurred in all notation conditions in the Magnitude Comparison Task and mixed notation trials in the Numerical Matching Task only. However, the data indicated that magnitude processing was independent of notation. Task and notation had an interactive influence on overall speed of processing, where participants responded to Chinese number words significantly faster than other notations for the Magnitude Comparison and Numerical Matching Tasks only. Finally, Bayesian analyses indicated that task and notation do not interact to affect magnitude processing. Specifically, the Bayes Factor and posterior model probabilities of the Bayesian ANOVA yielded strongest support for the model with three main effects (Task, Notation, Numerical Distance) and two two-way interactions (Task × Numerical Distance, Task × Notation). These findings highlight the critical role of task in numerical magnitude processing, provide support for a notation-independent account of magnitude processing, and suggest that linguistic/orthographic factors, combined with task, may interact to affect overall speed of processing.
       
  • Foreign language reduces the longevity of the repetition-based truth
           effect
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 191Author(s): Lena Nadarevic, Sarah Plier, Isabel Thielmann, Stefánia Darancó Recent evidence suggests that judgment biases may diminish when a problem is presented in a foreign language. This foreign-language effect has primarily been examined with emotional materials such as risky-choice problems and moral dilemmas. In two experiments, we investigated the effect of foreign-language processing on an emotionally neutral judgment bias: the repetition-based truth effect, the phenomenon that statement repetition enhances the perceived truth of statements. In Experiment 1, we found no evidence for the truth effect to be moderated by the language in which the statements were processed (native language: Hungarian; foreign language: English). In Experiment 2, in turn, we not only manipulated language (native language: German; foreign language: English), but also the retention interval between statement repetitions. Replicating the findings of Experiment 1, language did not moderate the truth effect for statements that were repeated within the same experimental session. However, after a two-week interval, the truth effect was significantly smaller in the foreign-language condition than in the native-language condition. Overall, our findings suggest a faster decay of semantic memory for foreign-language as compared to native-language statements.
       
  • Dual-tasking with simple linguistic tasks: Evidence for serial processing
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 191Author(s): Amie Fairs, Sara Bögels, Antje S. Meyer In contrast to the large amount of dual-task research investigating the coordination of a linguistic and a non-linguistic task, little research has investigated how two linguistic tasks are coordinated. However, such research would greatly contribute to our understanding of how interlocutors combine speech planning and listening in conversation. In three dual-task experiments we studied how participants coordinated the processing of an auditory stimulus (S1), which was either a syllable or a tone, with selecting a name for a picture (S2). Two SOAs, of 0 ms and 1000 ms, were used. To vary the time required for lexical selection and to determine when lexical selection took place, the pictures were presented with categorically related or unrelated distractor words. In Experiment 1 participants responded overtly to both stimuli. In Experiments 2 and 3, S1 was not responded to overtly, but determined how to respond to S2, by naming the picture or reading the distractor aloud. Experiment 1 yielded additive effects of SOA and distractor type on the picture naming latencies. The presence of semantic interference at both SOAs indicated that lexical selection occurred after response selection for S1. With respect to the coordination of S1 and S2 processing, Experiments 2 and 3 yielded inconclusive results. In all experiments, syllables interfered more with picture naming than tones. This is likely because the syllables activated phonological representations also implicated in picture naming. The theoretical and methodological implications of the findings are discussed.
       
  • Disentangling cognitive from motor control: Influence of response modality
           on updating, inhibiting, and shifting
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 191Author(s): Marpessa Rietbergen, Ardi Roelofs, Hanneke den Ouden, Roshan Cools It is unclear whether cognitive and motor control are parallel and interactive or serial and independent processes. According to one view, cognitive control refers to a set of modality-nonspecific processes that act on supramodal representations and precede response modality-specific motor processes. An alternative view is that cognitive control represents a set of modality-specific operations that act directly on motor-related representations, implying dependence of cognitive control on motor control. Here, we examined the influence of response modality (vocal vs. manual) on three well-established subcomponent processes of cognitive control: shifting, inhibiting, and updating. We observed effects of all subcomponent processes in reaction times. The magnitude of these effects did not differ between response modalities for shifting and inhibiting, in line with a serial, supramodal view. However, the magnitude of the updating effect differed between modalities, in line with an interactive, modality-specific view. These results suggest that updating represents a modality-specific operation that depends on motor control, whereas shifting and inhibiting represent supramodal operations that act independently of motor control.
       
  • Shielding and relaxation in multitasking: Prospect of reward counteracts
           relaxation of task shielding in multitasking
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 191Author(s): Rico Fischer, Kerstin Fröber, Gesine Dreisbach Performing two similar tasks at the same time requires the shielding of the prioritized Task 1 from interference of additional Task 2 processing (between-task interference). In the present study we tested how motivational factors such as prospect of reward might drive shifts between increased proactive control, enabling task shielding, and reduced proactive control resulting in relaxed task shielding. In Experiment 1 an instruction-induced prioritization of Task 1 over Task 2 resulted in initially reduced between-task interference. With increasing time on task, however, between-task interference continuously increased, presumably because participants engaged less in proactive control resulting in reduced task shielding. In Experiment 2 the prospect of reward activated proactive control as indicated by reduced between-task interference in the Reward than in the No reward condition. In Experiment 3, we directly compared the performance of a Reward and a No reward group in a between-subject design. Whereas between-task interference again continuously increased over time in the No reward group, indicating a relaxed mode of task shielding, the Reward group displayed constant small between-task interference over time, suggesting maintained high levels of task shielding. Together these findings speak in favor of an impressive flexibility in regulating cognitive control engagement in multitasking situations. This not only shows the capacity for optimization of multitasking performance by motivational incentives but also further supports assumptions of the strategic nature of assumed processing limitations (bottlenecks) in dual-task performance.
       
  • Practice makes perfect: High performance gains in older adults engaged in
           selective attention within and across sensory modalities
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 191Author(s): Franziska Rienäcker, Heidi I.L. Jacobs, Caroline M. Van Heugten, Pascal W.M. Van Gerven Selective attention has been found to decline with aging, possibly depending on the sensory modality through which targets and distractors are presented. We investigated the capacity of older adults to improve performance on visual and auditory selective attention tasks. 31 younger (mean age = 22.8 years, SD = 2.1) and 29 older participants (mean age = 69.5 years, SD = 5.8) performed visual and auditory tasks with and without unimodal and cross-modal distraction across five practice sessions. Reaction time decreased with practice in both age groups. Strikingly, this performance improvement was similar across the age groups. Moreover, distractor modality did not affect performance gains in either age group. Older adults were disproportionally affected by cross-modal visual distraction, however, corroborating previous studies. This age-related effect was mitigated during the practice sessions. Finally, there was no transfer of practice to neuropsychological test performance. These results suggest a high capacity of older individuals to improve selective attention functions within and across sensory modalities.
       
  • States of focused attention and sequential action: A comparison of single
           session meditation and computerised attention task influences on top-down
           control during sequence learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 191Author(s): Russell W. Chan, Kurt Lushington, Maarten A. Immink Motor sequence learning is considered the result of the outflow of information following cognitive control processes that are shared by other goal-directed behaviours. Emerging evidence suggests that focused-attention meditation (FAM) establishes states of enhanced cognitive control, that then exert top-down control biases in subsequent unrelated tasks. With respect to sequence learning, a single-session of FAM has been shown to entrain stimulus-dependent forms of sequential behaviour in meditation naïve individuals. In the present experiment, we compared single-session effects of FAM and a computerised attention task (CAT) to test if FAM-induced enhanced top-down control is generally comparable to cognitive tasks that require focused attention. We also investigated if effort, arousal or pleasure associated with FAM, or CAT explained the influence of these tasks on sequence learning. Relative to a rest-only control condition, both FAM and CAT resulted in shorter reaction time (RT) in a serial reaction time task (SRTT), and this enhanced RT performance was associated with higher reliance on stimulus-based planning as opposed to sequence representation formation. However, following FAM, a greater rate of improvement in RT performance was observed in comparison to both CAT and control conditions. Neither effort, arousal nor pleasure associated with FAM or CAT explained SRTT performance. These findings were interpreted to suggest that the effect of FAM states on increased top-down control during sequence learning is based on the focused attention control feature of this meditation. FAM states might be associated with enhanced cognitive control to promote the development of more efficient stimulus-response processing in comparison to states induced by other attentional tasks.
       
  • Differential effects of cue-based and sequence knowledge-based
           predictability on multitasking performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 191Author(s): Robert Gaschler, Maike Kemper, Fang Zhao, Ina Pumpe, Charlotte-Barbara Ruderisch, Eva Röttger, Hilde Haider Everyday multitasking often is characterized by predictable sequences. While such sequential regularities are present in setups using the Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT), many laboratory studies on dual-tasking performance use random sequences of stimuli in either of the two tasks. In the current study, following single-task training on the SRTT, participants completed trials where they were confronted with an additional visual-manual task with either a random (Experiment 1) or a partially predictable (Experiment 2) stimulus sequence. In the SRTT, we cued participants with respect to which of the four stimulus options were yet to occur (before a new round with all four options would start). We randomly mixed a sequence to be practiced with random sequences of the same length and with the same constraint. Thus, we were able to vary predictability of upcoming stimuli (from chance to 100%) as well as sequence knowledge (practiced vs. random sequence) in order to assess how cueing and sequence knowledge, as two potential bases of prediction, would affect performance in single- and dual-tasking. Results suggest that both cueing and sequence knowledge-based prediction can lead to shorter RTs in dual-tasking. In previous studies, the disruption of sequence learning by adding a task with a random stimulus sequence has been linked to the effects of automatic prediction between events in the two tasks. In line with these studies, dual-task performance did not impede usage of sequence knowledge when a task with a predictable (rather than random) sequence of stimuli was added to the SRTT.
       
  • Auditory (dis-)fluency triggers sequential processing adjustments
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 191Author(s): Thomas Dolk, Claudia Freigang, Johanna Bogon, Gesine Dreisbach An increasing amount of studies indicates that experiencing increased task demands, triggered for example by conflicting stimulus features or low perceptual fluency, lead to processing adjustments. While these demand-triggered processing adjustments have been shown for different paradigms (e.g., response conflict tasks, perceptual disfluency, task switching, dual tasking), most of them are restricted to the visual modality. The present study investigated as to whether the challenge to understand speech signals in normal-hearing subjects would also lead to sequential processing adjustments if the processing fluency of the respective auditory signals changes from trial to trial. To that end, we used spoken number words (one to nine) that were either presented with high (clean speech) or low perceptual fluency (i.e., vocoded speech as used in cochlear implants—Experiment 1; speech embedded in multi-speaker babble noise as typically found in bars—Experiment 2). Participants had to judge the spoken number words as smaller or larger than five. Results show that the fluency effect (performance difference between high and low perceptual fluency) in both experiments was smaller following disfluent words. Thus, if it's hard to understand, you try harder.
       
  • My true face: Unmasking one's own face representation
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 191Author(s): Laura Mora, Dorothy Cowie, Michael J. Banissy, Gianna Cocchini Face recognition has been the focus of multiple studies, but little is still known on how we represent the structure of one's own face. Most of the studies have focused on the topic of visual and haptic face recognition, but the metric representation of different features of one's own face is relatively unknown. We investigated the metric representation of the face in young adults by developing a proprioceptive pointing task to locate face landmarks in the first-person perspective. Our data revealed a large overestimation of width for all face features which resembles, in part, the size in somatosensory cortical representation. In contrast, face length was compartmentalised in two different regions: upper (underestimated) and bottom (overestimated); indicating size differences possibly due to functionality. We also identified shifts of the location judgments, with all face areas perceived closer to the body than they really were, due to a potential influence of the self-frame of reference. More importantly, the representation of the face appeared asymmetrical, with an overrepresentation of right side of the face, due to the influence of lateralization biases for strong right-handers. We suggest that these effects may be due to functionality influences and experience that affect the construction of face structural representation, going beyond the parallel of the somatosensory homunculus.
       
  • Evidence for distinct steps in response preparation from a delayed
           response paradigm
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 191Author(s): Yun Kyoung Shin, Robert W. Proctor Task parameters still affect reaction times even when all necessary information for executing an action is presented prior to a Go signal to execute the action. Hypotheses in terms of short-term memory capacity, residual activation, and a separate motor-programming stage have been suggested to explain what can and cannot be prepared prior to a delayed Go signal. To test these hypotheses, we used a delayed response task, in which participants were to initiate a movement at onset of an imperative Go signal following the target stimulus. Across Experiments 1–3 we varied task properties including stimulus type, information uncertainty and response complexity, respectively, while controlling other factors. We also varied the time available to process the response by randomly varying the interval between onset of the target and the Go signal (i.e., the stimulus onset asynchrony, or SOA). If the preparation process is completed before initiation, the examined factor should display a strong interaction with SOA, with its effect disappearing at long SOAs. Our results showed strong, weaker, and no interaction patterns for the three factors, respectively, favoring the separate stage hypothesis, according to which response preparation is separated into steps to arrange kinematic specifications into muscle-controllable terms.
       
  • Can categorical knowledge be used in visual search'
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 191Author(s): Sébastien Hélie, Benjamin O. Turner, Denis Cousineau Smith, Redford, Gent, and Washburn (2005) have proposed a new categorization paradigm called the visual-search categorization task to study how display size affects categorization performance. Their results show that, in a wide range of conditions, category knowledge collapses as soon as multiple stimuli are simultaneously displayed in a scene. This result is surprising and important considering that humans parse and categorize objects from complex scenes on a daily basis. However, Smith et al. only studied one kind of category structure. This article presents the results of three experiments exploring the effect of display size on perceptual categorization as a function of category structure. We show that rule-based and information-integration categories are differently affected by display size in the visual search categorization task. For rule-based structures, target-present and target-absent trials are not much affected by display size. However, the effect of display size is bigger for information-integration category structures, and much more pronounced for target-absent trials than for target-present trials. A follow-up experiment shows that target redundancy (i.e., having more than one target in the display) does not improve performance with information-integration category structures. These results suggest that categories may be learned differently depending on their underlying structure, and that the resulting category representation may influence performance in the visual search categorization task.
       
  • The development of holistic face processing: An evaluation with the
           complete design of the composite task
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 191Author(s): Paulo Ventura, Isabel Leite, Tânia Fernandes The composite paradigm is widely used to quantify holistic processing (HP) of faces: participants perform a sequential same-different task on one half (e.g., top) of a test-face relative to the corresponding half of a study-face. There is, however, debate regarding the appropriate design in this task. In the partial design, the irrelevant halves (e.g., bottom) of test- and study-faces are always different; an alignment effect indexes HP. In the complete design, besides alignment, congruency between the irrelevant and critical halves of the test-face is manipulated regarding the same/different response status of the study-face. The HP indexed in the complete design does not confound congruency and alignment and has good construct and convergent validities. De Heering, Houthuys, & Rossion (2007) argued that HP is mature as early as 4-year-olds but employed the partial design. Here we revisit this claim, testing four groups of 4- to 9/10 year-old children and two groups of adults. We found evidence of HP only from 6-year-olds on when considering the complete design, whereas significant alignment effects were found in the index adopted in the partial design already in 4-year-olds but which we demonstrate that reflects other factors besides HP, including response bias associated with congruency.
       
  • Inversion produces opposite size illusions for faces and bodies
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 191Author(s): Eamonn Walsh, Alexandra Vormberg, Josie Hannaford, Matthew R. Longo Faces are complex, multidimensional, and meaningful visual stimuli. Recently, Araragi, Aotani, & Kitaoka (2012) demonstrated an intriguing face size illusion whereby an inverted face is perceived as larger than a physically identical upright face. Like the face, the human body is a highly familiar and important stimulus in our lives. Here, we investigated the specificity of the size underestimation of upright faces illusion, testing whether similar effects also hold for bodies, hands, and everyday objects. Experiments 1a and 1b replicated the face-size illusion. No size illusion was observed for hands or objects. Unexpectedly, a reverse size illusion was observed for bodies, so that upright bodies were perceived as larger than their inverted counterparts. Experiment 2 showed that the face illusion was maintained even when the photographic contrast polarity of the stimuli was reversed, indicating that the visual system driving the illusion relies on geometric featural information rather than image contrast. In Experiment 2, the reverse size illusion for bodies failed to reach significance. Our findings show that size illusions caused by inversion show a high level of category specificity, with opposite illusions for faces and bodies.
       
  • Brief aerobic exercise immediately enhances visual attentional control and
           perceptual speed. Testing the mediating role of feelings of energy
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 191Author(s): Fabien D. Legrand, Cedric Albinet, Anne Canivet, Fabien Gierski, Isabella Morrone, Chrystel Besche-Richard While the effects of acute exercise on mood and cognitive functions have been separately documented over the last decade, recent findings have pointed to a possible connection between affective responses to exercise and cognitive performance. The main objective of this study was to test whether the effects of acute exercise on cognition were mediated by changes in feelings of energy. One-hundred-and-one undergraduate students were randomized into one of two experimental conditions: 15 min of jogging at “moderate” intensity, or 15 min of relaxation/concentration (control condition). Perceptual speed, visual attentional control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility were assessed pre- and post-intervention in both groups via the Trail Making Test. Self-rated feelings of energy were also recorded pre- and post-intervention. Only completion time for the TMT-A significantly improved from pre- to post-intervention in participants who exercised compared with participants who practiced relaxation/concentration. No Group × Time interaction was found with regard to the other TMT variables. Finally, changes in feelings of energy were found to fully mediate the relationship between exercise and perceptual speed/visual attentional control. Taken together, our data suggest that a brief bout of moderate intensity exercise can improve the efficiency of certain cognitive processes through increases in feelings of energy, but further research is required to evaluate the duration of benefits and to determine whether these apply to other populations.
       
  • Syntactic chameleons: Are there individual differences in syntactic
           mimicry and its possible prosocial effects'
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 191Author(s): Loes Abrahams, Filip De Fruyt, Robert J. Hartsuiker This study investigated whether syntactic mimicry leads to prosocial effects and whether any such effects are modulated by personality traits. Participants and a confederate of the experimenters took turns describing simple scenes. Target scenes could be described using either a prepositional object or a double object dative structure and we tested whether the participants mimicked the structure used by the confederate (Experiments 1A and 2A), whether mimicry of the participant's sentence structure (Experiments 1B and 2B) made the participant act in a more prosocial manner, and whether any such effects vary with Big Five traits. Participants displayed significant syntactic mimicry, which was additionally negatively related to levels of Extraversion. Syntactic mimicry did not lead to more prosocial behavior, as gauged by the time spent on an extra task (Experiment 1B). This conclusion was confirmed in Experiment 2B, which used a slight adaptation of the task that prevented a ceiling effect. However, a positive relation between prosocial behavior and levels of Conscientiousness was observed in the mimicry condition, which appeared to invert in the non-mimicry condition. We discuss several potential reasons for the absence of prosocial effects of syntactic mimicry and provide suggestions for future research.
       
  • Determining the scope of control underlying the congruency sequence
           effect: roles of stimulus-response mapping and response mode
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Chae Eun Lim, Yang Seok Cho Sequential modulation between two task congruencies has been examined to investigate the nature of the cognitive control mechanism underlying the congruency sequence effect (CSE). Previous results regarding what consecutive tasks must have in common to engender the cross-task CSE are inconsistent. The present study examined the roles of stimulus-response (S-R) mappings and response mode as critical factors in determining the scope of control. Two flanker-compatibility tasks having different stimulus and response sets alternated in turn, and the arbitrariness of S-R mappings alone (Experiment 1) or the arbitrariness of stimulus set and the distinctiveness of response modes (Experiment 2) were manipulated. Experiment 1 showed that non-arbitrary S-R mappings engendered a cross-task CSE even when the response modes were different. However, when S-R mappings were arbitrary in Experiment 2, sequential modulation was evident across two tasks only when their response modes were same, irrespective of the arbitrariness of the stimulus set. These results suggest that the arbitrariness of S-R mappings and response mode are salient task features that reconfigure task representation and consequently determine the scope of the control underlying the CSE.
       
  • Self-reference in action: Arm-movement responses are enhanced in
           perceptual matching
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Clea Desebrock, Jie Sui, Charles Spence Considerable evidence now shows that making a reference to the self in a task modulates attention, perception, memory, and decision-making. Furthermore, the self-reference effect (SRE) cannot be reduced to domain-general factors (e.g., reward value) and is supported by distinct neural circuitry. However, it remains unknown whether self-associations modulate response execution as well. This was tested in the present study. Participants carried out a perceptual-matching task, and movement time (MT) was measured separately from reaction-time (RT; drawing on methodology from the literature on intelligence). A response box recorded ‘home’-button-releases (measuring RT from stimulus onset); and a target-key positioned 14 cm from the response box recorded MT (from ‘home’-button-release to target-key depression). MTs of responses to self- as compared with other-person-associated stimuli were faster (with a higher proportion correct for self-related responses). We present a novel demonstration that the SRE can modulate the execution of rapid-aiming arm-movement responses. Implications of the findings are discussed, along with suggestions to guide and inspire future work in investigating how the SRE influences action.
       
  • Saliency modulates behavioral strategies in response to social comparison
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Cuizhen Liu, Rongjun Yu Social comparison has been found to affect humans in many aspects including outcome evaluation, emotional reaction, and decision-making. Here, two experiments were conducted using a gambling task involving monetary gains and losses (absolute outcome: win/loss), whereby participants' outcome was either better or worse than the outcome of a paired player (relative outcome: better/worse). The results of experiment 1 showed that participants switched more frequently after absolute losses compared with absolute gains, consistent with previous studies showing a win-stay lose-shift heuristic in repeated decision-making. Participants also adopted a better-stay worse-switch strategy where they switched more often after worse outcomes than better outcomes when compared with others, demonstrating that the win-stay lose-shift rule is extended to social comparison situations. In Experiment 2, through manipulating visual saliency, we replicated these findings and further demonstrated that decision making is influenced by emphasizing either the absolute (gain/loss) or relative (better/worse) aspect of the outcomes. Our research indicates that attentional modulation of information orchestrates social comparison, possibly by changing how each aspect of the information is weighted. These findings reinforce the idea that attention influences higher-level decision making by changing the weighting of each decisional dimension.
       
  • Guided by gaze: Prioritization strategy when navigating through a virtual
           crowd can be assessed through gaze activity
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): L.A. Meerhoff, J. Bruneau, A. Vu, A.-H. Olivier, J. Pettré Modelling crowd behavior is essential for the management of mass events and pedestrian traffic. Current microscopic approaches consider the individual's behavior to predict the effect of individual actions in local interactions on the collective scale of the crowd motion. Recent developments in the use of virtual reality as an experimental tool have offered an opportunity to extend the understanding of these interactions in controlled and repeatable settings. Nevertheless, based on kinematics alone, it remains difficult to tease out how these interactions unfold. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that gaze activity provides additional information about pedestrian interactions. Using an eye tracker, we recorded the participant's gaze behavior whilst navigating through a virtual crowd. Results revealed that gaze was consistently attracted to virtual walkers with the smallest values of distance at closest approach (DCA) and time to closest approach (TtCA), indicating a higher risk of collision. Moreover, virtual walkers gazed upon before an avoidance maneuver was initiated had a high risk of collision and were typically avoided in the subsequent avoidance maneuver. We argue that humans navigate through crowds by selecting only few interactions and that gaze reveals how a walker prioritizes these interactions. Moreover, we pose that combining kinematic and gaze data provides new opportunities for studying how interactions are selected by pedestrians walking through crowded dynamic environments.
       
  • Task-unrelated thought depends on the phonological short-term memory
           system more than the visual short-term memory system
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Takahiro Sekiguchi This study examined which type of short-term memory (STM), phonological or visual, is involved in and more important for representing contents of task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs). Three experiments consistently showed that TUTs were less likely to be reported during phonological STM tasks than either visual STM or control tasks. In contrast, the number of TUT responses did not considerably differ between visual STM tasks and control tasks even for TUTs with many visual images. This difference cannot be explained by the differential involvement of executive control processes because task difficulty was controlled for in the multi-level logistic regression analysis. These results, together with the finding that most TUT responses contained verbal images, suggest that phonological STM plays an important role in representing verbal images in TUTs, while visual STM is less or not involved in representing TUTs, even for those with many visual images.
       
  • The relationship between anomalistic belief and biases of evidence
           integration and jumping to conclusions
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Toby Prike, Michelle M. Arnold, Paul Williamson Biases in the assessment and integration of evidence are likely contributors to anomalistic (e.g., paranormal, extra-terrestrial) beliefs because of the non-evidence based nature of these beliefs. However, little research has examined the relationship between anomalistic beliefs and evidence integration biases. The current study addressed this gap by examining the relationship between anomalistic belief and four such biases; bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE), bias against confirmatory evidence (BACE), liberal acceptance bias, and the jumping to conclusions bias (JTC). Standard BADE scenarios were used to measure BADE, BACE, and the liberal acceptance bias: Participants were given three pieces of evidence, one at a time, and required to rate several alternative explanations. The JTC was measured using two draws-to-decisions tasks (beads and emotionally salient), and participants also completed measures of anomalistic belief and delusion-proneness. Results showed that liberal acceptance was the only evidence integration bias that significantly predicted greater overall anomalistic belief. However, this relationship was no longer significant once delusion proneness was controlled for. Additionally, BADE significantly predicted experiential (but not other types of) anomalistic beliefs even after controlling for delusion proneness. We propose that liberal acceptance may lead people to form anomalistic beliefs on the basis of little evidence, and that stronger BADE may make these beliefs highly resistant to change.
       
  • Functional fixedness and body-part-as-object production in pantomime
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Megan England, Elena Nicoladis In pantomiming the use of tools, it is possible to use a body part as the object (BPO) or imagine the object (IO). The present four studies test how conceptualizing the functions of objects may underlie BPO production in a non-clinical adult population. We showed that familiar vs. unfamiliar tools (Study 1) and visual experience only vs. visual + motor experience with novel tools (Study 2) made no difference in BPO production. In Study 3, participants showed a trend for higher BPO production for tools presented in two-dimensional pictures rather than in reality. In Study 4, participants' functional fixedness was experimentally manipulated: participants were told unfamiliar tools had either five functions or only one function. Participants produced significantly more BPOs in the one-function condition. These results suggest that conceptualizing objects as having a fixed function is a predictor of BPO production.
       
  • Visual letter similarity effects during sentence reading: Evidence from
           the boundary technique
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Ana Marcet, Manuel Perea The study of how the cognitive system encodes letter identities from the visual input has received much attention in models of visual word recognition but it has typically been overlooked in models of eye movement control in reading. Here we examined how visual letter similarity affects early word processing during reading using Rayner's (1975) boundary change technique in which the parafoveal preview of the target word was either identical (e.g., frito-frito [fried]) or a one-letter-different nonword (e.g., frjto-frito vs. frgto-frito). Critically, the substituted letter in the nonword was visually similar (based on letter confusability norms) or visually dissimilar. Results showed shorter viewing times on the target word when the parafoveal preview was visually similar than when it was visually dissimilar. Thus, visual letter similarity modulates the integration of parafoveal and foveal information during sentence reading. Future implementations of models of eye movement control in reading should incorporate a more developed orthographic-lexical module to capture these effects.
       
  • The perceptual enhancement by spatial attention is impaired during the
           attentional blink
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Eunhee Bae, Shinyoung Jung, Suk Won Han A salient, but task-irrelevant stimulus has long been known to capture attention in an automatic, involuntary manner. However, the automaticity of involuntary attention has recently been challenged. While some studies showed that the effect of involuntary attention depended on top-down attentional resources, other studies did not. To reconcile this conflict, we suggest to consider that attentional effect is not homogenous. Specifically, we hypothesized that the dependence of involuntary attention on top-down attention interacts with the presence/absence of the target location uncertainty and distractor interference. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that when the attentional resources were depleted, the involuntary attention did not affect the perception of a single target stimulus (Experiment 1). However, when the target was accompanied by multiple distractors, evoking uncertainty regarding the target location, the involuntary attentional effect was observed, regardless of the availability of attentional resource (Experiment 2). This was so, even when the target location was always marked by a response cue, minimizing the target location uncertainty (Experiment 3). These findings provide a reconciliation for the theoretical debate regarding the dependence of involuntary attention on top-down attention and clarifies how perception is modulated by involuntary attention.
       
  • Robust intentional binding for causally-linked sequences of naturalistic
           events but not for abstract event sequences
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Vassilis Thanopoulos, Eleni Psarou, Argiro Vatakis Past studies have shown that when a voluntary action produces a sensory effect, the action and the effect will be perceived as being closer in time. This subjective temporal ‘attraction’ is known as intentional binding (IB). Induction of IB is dependent on the intentionality of one's actions, the predictability of the effect, and the causality between the action and the effect. Previous investigations of IB have utilized abstract stimuli (e.g., flashes and beeps) with adaptation so as to associate the abstract action-effect link. Yet, events from our everyday experiences already have an inherent action-effect link. We, thus, investigated, for the first time, IB under naturalistic, multisensory stimulation by manipulating the intentionality, predictability, and causal event link. A total of five experiments without adaptation were conducted examining IB with: abstract stimuli (Experiment 1), naturalistic effects (Exp. 2), naturalistic action cue and effect matching (Exp. 3), naturalistic action cue and effect mismatching (Exp. 4), and naturalistic action cue and effect matching but mismatched response mapping (Exp. 5). Analyses of the data showed the absence of IB for abstract stimuli without action-effect adaptation (Exp. 1) and for effects that were not inherently causal or predictable of one's action (Exp. 2, 4, and 5). IB, however, was induced when the naturalistic sequence of action cue-effect was casually linked and predictable in terms of timing (Exp. 3). Overall, our results showed that induction of IB is dependent on the inherent causal and predictable association of an event from the cue to act to the consequence of that action, an association that is already present in everyday multisensory events.
       
  • Effects of age and individual experiences on tactile perception over the
           life span in women
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Ben Godde, Patrick Bruns, Volker Wendel, Mireille Trautmann Tactile perception results from the interplay of peripheral and central mechanisms for detection and sensation of objects and the discrimination and evaluation of their size, shapes, and surface characteristics. For different tasks, we investigated this interaction between more bottom-up stimulus-driven and rather top-down attention-related and cognitive processes in tactile perception. Moreover, we were interested in effects of age and tactile experiences on this interaction.299 right-handed women participated in our study and were divided into five age groups: 18–25 years (N = 77), 30–45 years (N = 76), 50–65 years (N = 62), 66–75 years (N = 63) and older than 75 years (N = 21). They filled a questionnaire on tactile experiences and rated their skin as either very dry, dry, normal, or oily. Further they performed three tactile tests with the left and right index fingers. Sensitivity for touch stimuli was assessed with von Frey filaments. A sand paper test was used to examine texture discrimination performance. Spatial discrimination was investigated with a tactile Landolt ring test.Multivariate ANOVA confirmed a linear decline in tactile perceptual skills with age (F(3, 279) = 76.740; p 
       
  • Differential impact of disfiguring facial features on overt and covert
           attention
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Luc Boutsen, Nathan A. Pearson, Martin Jüttner Observers can form negative impressions about faces that contain disfiguring features (e.g., scars). Previous research suggests that this might be due to the ability of disfiguring features to capture attention — as evidenced by contrasting observers' responses to faces with or without disfiguring features. This, however, confounds the effects of salience and perceptual interpretation, i.e. whether the feature is seen as integral to the face, or separate from it. Furthermore, it remains unclear to what extent disfiguring features influence covert as well as overt attention. We addressed these issues by studying attentional effects by photographs of unfamiliar faces containing a unilateral disfigurement (a skin discoloration) or a visually similar control feature that was partly occluding the face. Disfiguring and occluding features were first matched for salience (Experiment 1). Experiments 2 and 3 assessed the effect of these features on covert attention in two cueing tasks involving discrimination of a (validly or invalidly cued) target in the presence of, respectively, a peripheral or central distractor face. In both conditions, disfigured and occluded faces did not differ significantly in their impact on response-time costs following invalid cues. In Experiment 4 we compared overt attention to these faces by analysing patterns of eye fixations during an attractiveness rating task. Critically, faces with disfiguring features attracted more fixations on the eyes and incurred a higher number of recurrent fixations compared to faces with salience-matched occluding features. Together, these results suggest a differential impact of disfiguring facial features on overt and covert attention, which is mediated both by the visual salience of such features and by their perceptual interpretation.
       
  • Arithmetic word problems describing discrete quantities: E.E.G evidence
           for the construction of a situation model
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Jeanne Bagnoud, Nicolas Burra, Caroline Castel, Jane Oakhill, Catherine Thevenot In this research, university students were asked to solve arithmetic word problems constructed either with discrete quantities, such as apples or marbles, or continuous quantities such as meters of rope or grams of sand. An analysis of their brain activity showed different alpha levels between the two types of problems with, in particular, a lower alpha power in the parieto-occipital area for problems describing discrete quantities. This suggests that processing discrete quantities during problem solving prompts more mental imagery than processing continuous quantities. These results are difficult to reconcile with the schema theory, according to which arithmetic problem solving depends on the activation of ready-made mental frames stored in long-term memory and triggered by the mathematical expression used in the texts. Within the schema framework, the nature of the objects described in the text should be quickly abstracted during problem solving because it cannot impact the semantic structure of the problem. On the contrary, our results support the situation model theory, which places greater emphasis on the problem context in order to account for individuals' behaviour. On a more methodological point of view, this study constitutes the first attempt to infer the characteristics of individual's mental representations of arithmetic text problems from EEG recordings. This opens the door for the application of brain activity measures in the field of arithmetic word problem.
       
  • Spatial remapping in visual search: Remapping cues are provided at
           attended and ignored locations
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Leandra Bucher, Peter Bublak, Georg Kerkhoff, Thomas Geyer, Hermann Müller, Kathrin Finke We experience the world as stable and continuous, despite the fact that visual input is overwritten on the retina with each new ocular fixation. Spatial remapping is the process that integrates selected visual information into successive (continuous) representations of our spatial environment, thereby allowing us to keep track of objects, and experience the world as stable, despite frequent eye (re-)fixations. The present paper investigates spatial remapping in the context of visual pop-out search. Within standard instances of the pop-out paradigm, reactions to stimuli at previously attended locations are facilitated (faster and more accurate), and reactions to stimuli at previously ignored locations are inhibited (slower and less accurate). The mechanisms that support facilitation at previously attended locations, and inhibition at previously ignored locations, serve to enhance the efficiency of visual search. It is thus natural to expect that information about which locations were previously attended to or ignored is stored and remapped as a concomitant to successive representations of the spatial environment. Using variants of the pop-out paradigm, we corroborate this expectation, and show that information concerning the prior status of locations, as attended to or ignored, is remapped following attention shifts, with some degradation of information concerning ignored locations.
       
  • Is a fact retrieval deficit the main characteristic of children with
           mathematical learning disabilities'
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Anne-Françoise de Chambrier, Pascal Zesiger Although a fact retrieval deficit is widely considered to be the hallmark of children with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD), recent studies suggest that even adults use procedural strategies to solve small additions, except for ties that are unanimously considered to be solved by retrieval. Our study, based on how MLD children process ties and non-ties compared to typically developing (TD) children, sheds new light on their retrieval and procedural difficulties. Our results show that, by the end of the second grade, MLD children do not differ in their ability to solve the tie problems that are certainly solved by retrieval, but they do struggle with both small and large non-ties. These findings emphasize the extend of the difficulties that MLD children exhibit in procedural strategies relatively to retrieval ones.
       
  • Negative cues lead to more inefficient search than positive cues even at
           later stages of visual search
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Tomoya Kawashima, Eriko Matsumoto Observers can focus their attention on task-relevant items in visual search when they have prior knowledge about the target's properties (i.e., positive cues). However, little is known about how negative cues, which specify the features of task-irrelevant items, can be used to guide attention away from distractors and how their effects differ from those of positive cues. It has been proposed that when a distractor color is cued, people would first select the to-be-ignored items early in search and then inhibit them later. The present study investigated how the effects of positive and negative cues differ throughout the visual search process. The results showed that positive cues sped up the early stage of visual search and that negative cues led to initial selection for inhibition. We further found that visual search with negative cues was more inefficient than that with positive cues even at later stages, suggesting that sustained inhibition is needed throughout the visual search process. Taken together, the results indicate that positive and negative cues have different functions: prior knowledge about target features can weight task-relevant information at early stages of visual search, and negative cues are used more inefficiently even at later stages of visual search.
       
  • Is experience in multi-genre video game playing accompanied by
           impulsivity'
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Elham Azizi, Matthew J. Stainer, Larry A. Abel Developing impulsivity has been one of the main concerns thought to arise from the increasing popularity of video gaming. Most of the relevant literature has treated gamers as pure-genre players (i.e. those who play only a specific genre of game). However, it is not clear how impulsivity is associated with different genres of games in multi-genre gamers, given that there is increasing diversity in the games played by individuals. In this study, we compared 33 gamers to 23 non-gamers in a go/no-go task: the Continuous Performance Test (CPT). To evaluate whether or not impulsivity occurs as a trade-off between speed and accuracy, we emphasised fast performance to all participants. Then, to examine the ability to predict impulsivity from game genre-hours, we fitted separate multiple regression models to several dependent variables. As an additional measure, we also compared groups in an antisaccade task. In the CPT, gamers showed a trend towards significantly faster reaction time (RT), accompanied by higher false alarm rate (FAR) and more risk-taking response bias (β), suggesting impulsive responses. Interestingly, there was a significant negative correlation between RT and FAR across all participants, suggesting an overall speed-accuracy trade-off strategy, perhaps driven by the emphasis on speed during task instruction. Moreover, time spent on role playing games (RPG) and real-time strategy (RTS) games better predicted FAR and β than did time spent on action and puzzle games. In the antisaccade task; however, gamers showed a shorter antisaccade latency but a comparable error rate in comparison with non-gamers. There was no specific game genre which could predict performance in the antisaccade task. Altogether, there was no evidence of oculomotor impulsivity in gamers; however, the CPT results suggested the presence of impulsive responses in gamers, which might be the result of a speed-accuracy trade-off. Furthermore, there was a difference in game genres, with time spent on RPG and RTS games being accompanied by greater probability of impulsive responses. Training studies are required to investigate the causality of different video game genres on the development of impulsivity.
       
  • Dissociating decision strategies in free-choice tasks – A mouse
           tracking analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Diana Vogel, Stefan Scherbaum, Markus Janczyk Everyday life offers a variety of possible actions, from which we choose one that corresponds to our intended goals. How do these goals and actions interact within the mind' One way to investigate this question is free-choice tasks, where participants freely choose the action they want to perform on any given trial. Such tasks are used in research on voluntary actions and goal-driven behavior, such as ideomotor theory. However, these tasks leave participants with a substantial amount of freedom and allow for different response strategies. Such strategies can, though being hidden in the final data, influence the results, for example by hiding the effects of manipulations of interest. To better understand participants' behavior in free-choice tasks, we used mouse tracking in an ideomotor free-choice experiment, where participants learn the connection between an action and an effect. Subsequently, they have to freely choose between actions, while the former effect is presented as a stimulus. We identified two distinct groups that applied different decision strategies. The first group made the decision at the beginning of or before the trial, irrespective of the yet to be presented effect stimulus. The second group decided within the trial and was affected by the stimulus more often. This suggests that people handle free-choice tasks differently which is expressed in heterogeneous choice patterns and response times and an underestimation of the examined effects. These differences potentially limit the reliability of inferences from free-choice experiments and should be considered in the interpretation of their results.
       
  • Effects of rule uncertainty on cognitive flexibility in a card-sorting
           paradigm
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Florian Lange, Ahlke Kip, Tabea Klein, Dorothea Müller, Caroline Seer, Bruno Kopp Cognitive flexibility has been studied in two separate research traditions. Neuropsychologists typically rely on rather complex assessment tools such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). In contrast, task-switching paradigms are used in experimental psychology to obtain more specific measures of cognitive flexibility. We aim to contribute to the integration of these research traditions by examining the role of the key factor that differs between the WCST and experimental task-switching paradigms: rule uncertainty. In two experimental studies, we manipulated the degree of rule uncertainty after rule switches in a computerized version of the WCST. Across a variety of task parameters, reducing rule uncertainty consistently impaired the speed and accuracy of responses when the rule designated to be more likely turned out to be incorrect. Other performance measures such as the number of perseverative errors were not significantly affected by rule uncertainty. We conclude that a fine-grained analysis of WCST performance can dissociate behavioural indicators that are affected vs. unaffected by rule uncertainty. By this means, it is possible to integrate WCST results and findings obtained from task-switching paradigms that do not involve rule uncertainty.
       
  • Enhancement of letter identification by concurrent auditory stimuli of
           varying duration
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Maria D. de la Rosa, Karin M. Bausenhart Previously it has been shown that the concurrent presentation of a sound can improve processing of visual information at higher perceptual levels, for example, in letter identification tasks. Moreover, increasing the duration of the concurrent sounds can enhance performance in low-level tasks as contrast detection, which has been attributed to a sustained visual activation corresponding to the duration of the sound. Yet, the role of sound duration has so far not been investigated in higher-level visual processing. In a series of five Experiments, we again demonstrated that the mere presence of a concurrent sound can enhance the identification of a masked, centrally presented letter compared to unimodal presentation, even though this benefit was absent in one experiment for high-contrast letters yielding an especially high level of task-performance. In general, however, the sound-induced benefit was not modulated by a variation of target contrast or by the duration of the target-to-mask interstimulus interval. Taking individual performance differences into account, a further analysis suggested that the sound-induced facilitation effect may nevertheless be most pronounced at specific performance levels. Beyond this general sound-induced facilitation, letter identification performance was not further affected by the duration of the concurrent sounds, even though in a control experiment it could be established that letter identification performance improved with increasing letter duration, and perceived letter duration was prolonged with increasing auditory duration. The results and their interpretation with respect to the large observed interindividual performance differences are discussed in terms of potential underlying mechanisms of multisensory facilitation, as preparedness enhancement, signal enhancement, and object enhancement.
       
  • Functional fixedness in tool use: Learning modality, limitations and
           individual differences
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Felipe Munoz-Rubke, Devon Olson, Russell Will, Karin H. James Functional fixedness is a cognitive bias that describes how previous knowledge of a tool's function can negatively impact the use of this tool in novel contexts. As such, functional fixedness disturbs the use of tools during mechanical problem solving. Little is known about whether this bias emerges from different experiences with tools, whether it occurs regardless of problem difficulty, or whether there are protective factors against it. To resolve the first issue, we created five experimental groups: Reading (R), Video (V), Manual (M), No Functional Fixedness (NFF), and No Training (NT). The R group learned to use tools by reading a description of their use, the V group by watching an instructional video, and the M group through direct instruction and active manipulation of the tools. To resolve the remaining two issues, we created mechanical puzzles of distinct difficulty and used tests of intuitive physics, fine motor skills, and creativity.Results showed that misleading functional knowledge is at the core of functional fixedness, and that this bias generates cognitive impasses in simple puzzles, but it does not play a role in higher difficulty problems. Additionally, intuitive physics and motor skills were protective factors against its emergence, but creativity did not influence it. Although functional fixedness leads to inaccurate problem solving, our results suggest that its effects are more limited than previously assumed.
       
  • Auditory temporal processing, reading, and phonological awareness among
           aging adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Michal Ronen, Adi Lifshitz-Ben-Basat, Riki Taitelbaum-Swead, Leah Fostick Auditory temporal processing (ATP) has been related in the literature to both speech perception as well as reading and phonological awareness. In aging adults, it is known to be related to difficulties in speech perception. In the present study, we aimed to test whether an age-related deficit in ATP would also be accompanied by poor reading and phonological awareness. Thirty-eight aging adults were compared to 55 readers with dyslexia and 42 young normal readers on temporal order judgment (TOJ), speech perception, reading, and phonological awareness tests. Aging adults had longer TOJ thresholds than young normal readers, but shorter than readers with dyslexia; however, they had lower speech perception accuracy than both groups. Phonological awareness of the aging adults was better than readers with dyslexia, but poorer than young normal readers, although their reading accuracy was similar to that of the young controls. This is the first report on poor phonological awareness among aging adults. Suprisingly, it was not accompanied by difficulties in reading ability, and might instead be related to aging adults' difficulties in speech perception. This newly discovered relationship between ATP and phonological awareness among aging adults appears to extend the existing understanding of this relationship, and suggests it should be explored in other groups with ATP deficits.
       
  • Attentional competition across saccadic eye movements
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Christian H. Poth, Werner X. Schneider Human behavior is guided by visual object recognition. For being recognized, objects compete for limited attentional processing resources. The more objects compete, the lower is performance in recognizing each individual object. Here, we ask whether this competition is confined to eye fixations, periods of relatively stable gaze, or whether it extends from one fixation to the next, across saccadic eye movements. Participants made saccades to a peripheral saccade target. After the saccade, a letter was briefly presented within the saccade target and terminated by a mask. Object recognition of the letter was assessed as participants' report. Critically, either no, two, or four additional non-target objects appeared before the saccade. In Experiment 1, presaccadic non-targets were task-irrelevant and had no effects on postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 2, presaccadic non-targets were task-relevant and, here, postsaccadic object recognition deteriorated with increasing number of presaccadic non-targets. As suggested by Experiment 3 and a mathematical model, this effect was due to a slowing down but also a delayed start of visual processing after the saccade. Together, our findings show that objects compete for recognition across saccades, but only if they are task-relevant. This reveals an attentional mechanism of task-driven object recognition that is interlaced with active saccade-mediated vision.
       
 
 
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