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Showing 1 - 200 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 348, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
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Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 353, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Acta Psychologica
  [SJR: 1.365]   [H-I: 73]   [23 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-6918
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Multisensory integration and ADHD-like traits: Evidence for an abnormal
           temporal integration window in ADHD
    • Authors: Maria Panagiotidi; Paul G. Overton; Tom Stafford
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Maria Panagiotidi, Paul G. Overton, Tom Stafford
      Abnormalities in multimodal processing have been found in many developmental disorders such as autism and dyslexia. However, surprisingly little empirical work has been conducted to test the integrity of multisensory integration in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The main aim of the present study was to examine links between symptoms of ADHD (as measured using a self-report scale in a healthy adult population) and the temporal aspects of multisensory processing. More specifically, a Simultaneity Judgement (SJ) and a Temporal Order Judgement (TOJ) task were used in participants with low and high levels of ADHD-like traits to measure the temporal integration window and Just-Noticeable Difference (JND) (respectively) between the timing of an auditory beep and a visual pattern presented over a broad range of stimulus onset asynchronies. The Point of Subjective Similarity (PSS) was also measured in both cases. In the SJ task, participants with high levels of ADHD-like traits considered significantly fewer stimuli to be simultaneous than participants with high levels of ADHD-like traits, and the former were found to have significantly smaller temporal windows of integration (although no difference was found in the PSS in the SJ or TOJ tasks, or the JND in the latter). This is the first study to identify an abnormal temporal integration window in individuals with ADHD-like traits. Perceived temporal misalignment of two or more modalities can lead to distractibility (e.g., when the stimulus components from different modalities occur separated by too large of a temporal gap). Hence, an abnormality in the perception of simultaneity could lead to the increased distractibility seen in ADHD.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:07:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • Absence of distracting information explains the redundant signals effect
           for a centrally presented categorization task
    • Authors: Ada D. Mishler; Mark B. Neider
      Pages: 18 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Ada D. Mishler, Mark B. Neider
      The redundant signals effect, a speed-up in response times with multiple targets compared to a single target in one display, is well-documented, with some evidence suggesting that it can occur even in conceptual processing when targets are presented bilaterally. The current study was designed to determine whether or not category-based redundant signals can speed up processing even without bilateral presentation. Toward that end, participants performed a go/no-go visual task in which they responded only to members of the target category (i.e., they responded only to numbers and did not respond to letters). Numbers and letters were presented along an imaginary vertical line in the center of the visual field. When the single signal trials contained a nontarget letter (Experiment 1), there was a significant redundant signals effect. The effect was not significant when the single-signal trials did not contain a nontarget letter (Experiments 2 and 3). The results indicate that, when targets are defined categorically and not presented bilaterally, the redundant signals effect may be an effect of reducing the presence of information that draws attention away from the target. This suggests that redundant signals may not speed up conceptual processing when interhemispheric presentation is not available.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:07:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • Exploring the determinants of confidence in the bat-and-ball problem
    • Authors: Aba Szollosi; Bence Bago; Barnabas Szaszi; Balazs Aczel
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Aba Szollosi, Bence Bago, Barnabas Szaszi, Balazs Aczel
      People often fail to solve deceptively simple mathematical problems, a tendency popularly demonstrated by the bat-and-ball problem. The most prominent explanation of this finding is that, to spare cognitive effort, people substitute the difficult task with an easier one, without being aware of the substitution. Despite this latter assumption, recent studies have found decreased levels of post-decision confidence ratings when people gave the answer of an easier calculation, suggesting that people are sensitive to their errors. In the current study, we investigated a mechanism that might be responsible for such a decrease in people's confidence ratings when they make errors: their attempts to make certain that their answer is correct (verification) and the perceived level of task difficulty (verifiability). We found that these two factors predicted people's confidence, suggesting that people's self-assessment of the perceived task difficulty and of their attempt to verify their response might determine their confidence. Implication for current models of post-decision confidence on reasoning problems is discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T14:16:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Allocentric and contra-aligned spatial representations of a town
           environment in blind people
    • Authors: Silvia Chiesa; Susanna Schmidt; Carla Tinti; Cesare Cornoldi
      Pages: 8 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Silvia Chiesa, Susanna Schmidt, Carla Tinti, Cesare Cornoldi
      Evidence concerning the representation of space by blind individuals is still unclear, as sometimes blind people behave like sighted people do, while other times they present difficulties. A better understanding of blind people's difficulties, especially with reference to the strategies used to form the representation of the environment, may help to enhance knowledge of the consequences of the absence of vision. The present study examined the representation of the locations of landmarks of a real town by using pointing tasks that entailed either allocentric points of reference with mental rotations of different degrees, or contra-aligned representations. Results showed that, in general, people met difficulties when they had to point from a different perspective to aligned landmarks or from the original perspective to contra-aligned landmarks, but this difficulty was particularly evident for the blind. The examination of the strategies adopted to perform the tasks showed that only a small group of blind participants used a survey strategy and that this group had a better performance with respect to people who adopted route or verbal strategies. Implications for the comprehension of the consequences on spatial cognition of the absence of visual experience are discussed, focusing in particular on conceivable interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T14:16:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Walking during the encoding of described environments enhances a
           heading-independent spatial representation
    • Authors: Ilaria Santoro; Mauro Murgia; Fabrizio Sors; Valter Prpic; Tiziano Agostini
      Pages: 16 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Ilaria Santoro, Mauro Murgia, Fabrizio Sors, Valter Prpic, Tiziano Agostini
      Previous studies demonstrated that physical movement enhanced spatial updating in described environments. However, those movements were executed only after the encoding of the environment, minimally affecting the development of the spatial representation. Thus, we investigated whether and how participants could benefit from the execution of physical movement during the encoding of described environments, in terms of enhanced spatial updating. Using the judgement of relative directions task, we compared the effects of walking both during and after the description of the environment, and walking only after the description on spatial updating. Spatial updating was evaluated in terms of accuracy and response times in different headings. We found that the distribution of response times across Headings seemed not to be related to the physical movement executed, whereas the distribution of accuracy scores seemed to significantly change with the action executed. Indeed, when no movement occurred during the encoding of the environment, a preference for the learning heading was found, which did not emerge when walking during encoding occurred. Therefore, the results seem to suggest that physical movement during encoding supports the development of a heading-independent representation of described environments, reducing the anchoring for a preferred heading in favor of a global representation.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T14:16:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Dynamic lexical decisions in French: Evidence for a feedback inconsistency
    • Authors: Laura Barca; Giovanni Pezzulo; Marc Ouellet; Ludovic Ferrand
      Pages: 23 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Laura Barca, Giovanni Pezzulo, Marc Ouellet, Ludovic Ferrand

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T14:16:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Resisting distraction and response inhibition trigger similar enhancements
           of future performance
    • Authors: Patrick G. Bissett; Lauren D. Grant; Daniel H. Weissman
      Pages: 40 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Patrick G. Bissett, Lauren D. Grant, Daniel H. Weissman
      Resisting distraction and response inhibition are crucial aspects of cognitive control. Interestingly, each of these abilities transiently improves just after it is utilized. Competing views differ, however, as to whether utilizing either of these abilities (e.g., resisting distraction) enhances future performance involving the other ability (e.g., response inhibition). To distinguish between these views, we combined a Stroop-like task that requires resisting distraction with a restraint variant of the stop-signal task that requires response inhibition. We observed similar sequential-trial effects (i.e., performance enhancements) following trials in which participants (a) resisted distraction (i.e., incongruent go trials) and (b) inhibited a response (i.e., congruent stop trials). First, the congruency effect in go trials, which indexes overall distractibility, was smaller after both incongruent go trials and congruent stop trials than it was after congruent go trials. Second, stop failures were less frequent after both incongruent go trials and congruent stop trials than after congruent go trials. A control experiment ruled out the possibility that perceptual conflict or surprise engendered by occasional stop signals triggers sequential-trial effects independent of stopping. Thus, our findings support a novel, integrated view in which resisting distraction and response inhibition trigger similar sequential enhancements of future performance.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T14:16:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • The cognate facilitation effect in bilingual lexical decision is
           influenced by stimulus list composition
    • Authors: Eva D. Poort; Jennifer M. Rodd
      Pages: 52 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Eva D. Poort, Jennifer M. Rodd
      Cognates share their form and meaning across languages: “winter” in English means the same as “winter” in Dutch. Research has shown that bilinguals process cognates more quickly than words that exist in one language only (e.g. “ant” in English). This finding is taken as strong evidence for the claim that bilinguals have one integrated lexicon and that lexical access is language non-selective. Two English lexical decision experiments with Dutch–English bilinguals investigated whether the cognate facilitation effect is influenced by stimulus list composition. In Experiment 1, the ‘standard’ version, which included only cognates, English control words and regular non-words, showed significant cognate facilitation (31ms). In contrast, the ‘mixed’ version, which also included interlingual homographs, pseudohomophones (instead of regular non-words) and Dutch-only words, showed a significantly different profile: a non-significant disadvantage for the cognates (8ms). Experiment 2 examined the specific impact of these three additional stimuli types and found that only the inclusion of Dutch words significantly reduced the cognate facilitation effect. Additional exploratory analyses revealed that, when the preceding trial was a Dutch word, cognates were recognised up to 50ms more slowly than English controls. We suggest that when participants must respond ‘no’ to non-target language words, competition arises between the ‘yes’- and ‘no’-responses associated with the two interpretations of a cognate, which (partially) cancels out the facilitation that is a result of the cognate's shared form and meaning. We conclude that the cognate facilitation effect is a real effect that originates in the lexicon, but that cognates can be subject to competition effects outside the lexicon.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T14:47:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.008
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • On the relationship between executive functions of working memory and
           components derived from fluid intelligence measures
    • Authors: Xuezhu Ren; Karl Schweizer; Tengfei Wang; Pei Chu; Qin Gong
      Pages: 79 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Xuezhu Ren, Karl Schweizer, Tengfei Wang, Pei Chu, Qin Gong
      The aim of the current study is to provide new insights into the relationship between executive functions and intelligence measures in considering the item-position effect observed in intelligence items. Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) and Horn's LPS reasoning test were used to assess fluid intelligence which served as criterion in investigating the relationship between intelligence and executive functions. A battery of six experimental tasks measured the updating, shifting, and inhibition processes of executive functions. Data were collected from 205 university students. Fluid intelligence showed substantial correlations with the updating and inhibition processes and no correlation with the shifting process without considering the item-position effect. Next, the fixed-link model was applied to APM and LPS data separately to decompose them into an ability component and an item-position component. The results of relating the components to executive functions showed that the updating and shifting processes mainly contributed to the item-position component whereas the inhibition process was mainly associated with the ability component of each fluid intelligence test. These findings suggest that improvements in the efficiency of updating and shifting processes are likely to occur during the course of completing intelligence measures and inhibition is important for intelligence in general.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T13:40:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Motor skill experience modulates executive control for task switching
    • Authors: Qiuhua Yu; Chetwyn C.H. Chan; Bolton Chau; Amy S.N. Fu
      Pages: 88 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Qiuhua Yu, Chetwyn C.H. Chan, Bolton Chau, Amy S.N. Fu
      This study aimed to investigate the effect of types of motor skills, including open and closed skills on enhancing proactive and reactive controls for task switching. Thirty-six athletes in open (n=18) or closed (n=18) sports and a control group (n=18) completed the task-switching paradigm and the simple reaction task. The task-switching paradigm drew on the proactive and reactive control of executive functions, whereas the simple reaction task assessed the processing speed. Significant Validity×Group effect revealed that the participants with open skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the other two groups when the task cue was 100% valid; whereas the participants regardless of motor skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the control group when the task cue was 50% valid. Hierarchical stepwise regression analysis further confirmed these findings. For the simple reaction task, there were no differences found among the three groups. These findings suggest that experience in open skills has benefits of promoting both proactive and reactive controls for task switching, which corresponds to the activity context exposed by the participants. In contrast, experience in closed skills appears to only benefit development of reactive control for task switching. The neural mechanisms for the proactive and reactive controls of executive functions between experts with open and closed skills call for future study.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T13:40:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.013
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • “Like the palm of my hands”: Motor imagery enhances implicit and
           explicit visual recognition of one's own hands
    • Authors: Massimiliano Conson; Francesco Volpicella; Francesco De Bellis; Agnese Orefice; Luigi Trojano
      Pages: 98 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Massimiliano Conson, Francesco Volpicella, Francesco De Bellis, Agnese Orefice, Luigi Trojano
      A key point in motor imagery literature is that judging hands in palm view recruits sensory-motor information to a higher extent than judging hands in back view, due to the greater biomechanical complexity implied in rotating hands depicted from palm than from back. We took advantage from this solid evidence to test the nature of a phenomenon known as self-advantage, i.e. the advantage in implicitly recognizing self vs. others' hand images. The self-advantage has been actually found when implicitly but not explicitly judging self-hands, likely due to dissociation between implicit and explicit body representations. However, such a finding might be related to the extent to which motor imagery is recruited during implicit and explicit processing of hand images. We tested this hypothesis in two behavioural experiments. In Experiment 1, right-handed participants judged laterality of either self or others' hands, whereas in Experiment 2, an explicit recognition of one's own hands was required. Crucially, in both experiments participants were randomly presented with hand images viewed from back or from palm. The main result of both experiments was the self-advantage when participants judged hands from palm view. This novel finding demonstrate that increasing the “motor imagery load” during processing of self vs. others' hands can elicit a self-advantage in explicit recognition tasks as well. Future studies testing the possible dissociation between implicit and explicit visual body representations should take into account the modulatory effect of motor imagery load on self-hand processing.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T13:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Age-related differences in strategic monitoring during arithmetic problem
    • Authors: Marie Geurten; Patrick Lemaire
      Pages: 105 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Marie Geurten, Patrick Lemaire
      We examined the role of metacognitive monitoring in strategic behavior during arithmetic problem solving, a process that is expected to shed light on age-related differences in strategy selection. Young and older adults accomplished better strategy-judgment, better strategy-selection, and strategy-execution tasks. Data showed that participants made better strategy judgments when problems were problems with homogeneous unit digits (i.e., problems with both unit digits smaller or larger than 5; 31×62) relative to problems with heterogeneous unit digits (i.e., problems with one unit digit smaller or larger than 5; 31×67) and when the better strategy was cued on rounding-up problems (e.g., 68×23) compared to rounding-down problems (e.g., 36×53). Results also indicated higher rates of better strategy judgment in young than in older adults. These aging effects differed across problem types. Older adults made more accurate judgments on rounding-up problems than on rounding-down problems when the cued strategy was rounding-up, while young adults did not show such problem-related differences. Moreover, strategy selection correlated with strategy judgment, and even more so in older adults than in young adults. To discuss the implications of these findings, we propose a theoretical framework of how strategy judgments occur in young and older adults and discuss how this framework enables to understand relationships between metacognitive monitoring and strategic behaviors when participants solve arithmetic problems.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T13:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • A method for measuring manual position control
    • Authors: Cory Adam Potts; Alexander A. Brown; Stanislaw Solnik; David A. Rosenbaum
      Pages: 117 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Cory Adam Potts, Alexander A. Brown, Stanislaw Solnik, David A. Rosenbaum
      There is no generally accepted method for measuring manual position control. We developed a method for doing so. We asked university students to hold a handle that had one rotational degree of freedom. The angular position of the handle depended on the degree of pronation-supination of the forearm. The subjects' task was to hold the handle as steadily as possible to keep a needle positioned in a pie-shaped target zone on a computer screen. If the needle remained in the zone for 0.5s, the gain of the feedback loop increased; otherwise the gain decreased or remained at the starting value of 1. Through this adaptive procedure, we estimated the maximum gain that could be achieved at each of the four pronation-supination angles we tested (thumb up, thumb down, thumb in, and thumb out) for each hand. Consistent with previous research on manual control, and so validating our measure, we found that our participants, all of whom were right-handed, were better able to maintain the needle in the target zone when they used the right hand than when they used the left hand and when they used midrange wrist postures (thumb up or in) rather than extreme wrist postures (thumb down or out). The method provides a valid test of manual position control and holds promise for addressing basic-research and practical questions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T13:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • The effects of freedom of choice in action selection on perceived mental
           effort and the sense of agency
    • Authors: Zeynep Barlas; William E. Hockley; Sukhvinder S. Obhi
      Pages: 122 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Zeynep Barlas, William E. Hockley, Sukhvinder S. Obhi
      Previous research showed that increasing the number of action alternatives enhances the sense of agency (SoA). Here, we investigated whether choice space could affect subjective judgments of mental effort experienced during action selection and examined the link between subjective effort and the SoA. Participants performed freely selected (among two, three, or four options) and instructed actions that produced pleasant or unpleasant tones. We obtained action-effect interval estimates to quantify intentional binding – the perceived interval compression between actions and outcomes and feeling of control (FoC) ratings. Additionally, participants reported the degree of mental effort they experienced during action selection. We found that both binding and FoC were systematically enhanced with increasing choice-level. Outcome valence did not influence binding, while FoC was stronger for pleasant than unpleasant outcomes. Finally, freely chosen actions were associated with low subjective effort and slow responses (i.e., higher reaction times), and instructed actions were associated with high effort and fast responses. Although the conditions that yielded the greatest and least subjective effort also yielded the greatest and least binding and FoC, there was no significant correlation between subjective effort and SoA measures. Overall, our results raise interesting questions about how agency may be influenced by response selection demands (i.e., indexed by speed of responding) and subjective mental effort. Our work also highlights the importance of understanding how subjective mental effort and response speed are related to popular notions of fluency in response selection.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T13:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Spatio-temporal dynamics of action-effect associations in oculomotor
    • Authors: Eva Riechelmann; Aleksandra Pieczykolan; Gernot Horstmann; Arvid Herwig; Lynn Huestegge
      Pages: 130 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Eva Riechelmann, Aleksandra Pieczykolan, Gernot Horstmann, Arvid Herwig, Lynn Huestegge
      While there is ample evidence that actions are guided by anticipating their effects (ideomotor control) in the manual domain, much less is known about the underlying characteristics and dynamics of effect-based oculomotor control. Here, we address three open issues. 1) Is action-effect anticipation in oculomotor control reflected in corresponding spatial saccade characteristics in inanimate environments' 2) Does the previously reported dependency of action latency on the temporal effect delay (action-effect interval) also occur in the oculomotor domain' 3) Which temporal effect delay is optimally suited to develop strong action-effect associations over time in the oculomotor domain' Participants executed left or right free-choice saccades to peripheral traffic lights, causing an (immediate or delayed) action-contingent light switch in the upper vs. lower part of the traffic light. Results indicated that saccades were spatially shifted toward the location of the upcoming change, indicating anticipation of the effect (location). Saccade latency was affected by effect delay, suggesting that corresponding time information is integrated into event representations. Finally, delayed (vs. immediate) effects were more effective in strengthening action-effect associations over the course of the experiment, likely due to greater saliency of perceptual changes occurring during target fixation as opposed to changes during saccades (saccadic suppression). Overall, basic principles underlying ideomotor control appear to generalize to the oculomotor domain.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T13:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Non-action effect binding: A critical re-assessment
    • Authors: Lisa Weller; Wilfried Kunde; Roland Pfister
      Pages: 137 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Lisa Weller, Wilfried Kunde, Roland Pfister
      Humans typically act to cause effects in their environment, but at times they also voluntarily omit an action to cause a predictable effect. These effects may become bound to the causing non-actions, just as actions and their effects can become associated. In three experiments, we provide a critical re-assessment of previous reports of non-action effect binding. Following this work, participants completed an acquisition phase to associate actions and non-actions with particular effects. In a subsequent test phase, the former effects were presented as stimuli and participants were allowed to choose an action or non-action freely as a response. Binding should lead to more effect-consistent choices than predicted by chance. Previous studies, however, did not control for deliberate strategies of participants that might inflate the consistency bias and, also, did not address overall preferences for either acting or non-acting, which might introduce additional artifacts. We show that these confounds have a strong impact in common experimental designs and introduce ways to mitigate these effects. This improved assessment still corroborated evidence of binding between non-actions and their effects.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T13:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Evidence for aversive withdrawal response to own errors
    • Authors: Eldad Yitzhak Hochman; Valery Milman; Liron Tal
      Pages: 147 - 154
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Eldad Yitzhak Hochman, Valery Milman, Liron Tal
      Recent model suggests that error detection gives rise to defensive motivation prompting protective behavior. Models of active avoidance behavior predict it should grow larger with threat imminence and avoidance. We hypothesized that in a task requiring left or right key strikes, error detection would drive an avoidance reflex manifested by rapid withdrawal of an erring finger growing larger with threat imminence and avoidance. In experiment 1, three groups differing by error-related threat imminence and avoidance performed a flanker task requiring left or right force sensitive-key strikes. As predicted, errors were followed by rapid force release growing faster with threat imminence and opportunity to evade threat. In experiment 2, we established a link between error key release time (KRT) and the subjective sense of inner-threat. In a simultaneous, multiple regression analysis of three error-related compensatory mechanisms (error KRT, flanker effect, error correction RT), only error KRT was significantly associated with increased compulsive checking tendencies. We propose that error response withdrawal reflects an error-withdrawal reflex.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T13:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Blame everyone: Error-related devaluation in Eriksen flanker task
    • Authors: Andrey Chetverikov; Polina Iamschinina; Alena Begler; Ivan Ivanchei; Margarita Filippova; Maria Kuvaldina
      Pages: 155 - 159
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Andrey Chetverikov, Polina Iamschinina, Alena Begler, Ivan Ivanchei, Margarita Filippova, Maria Kuvaldina
      Preferences are determined not only by stimuli themselves but also by the way they are processed in the brain. The efficacy of cognitive processing during previous interactions with stimuli is particularly important. When observers make errors in simple tasks such as visual search, recognition, or categorization, they later dislike the stimuli associated with errors. Here we test whether this error-related devaluation exists in Erisken flanker task and whether it depends on the distribution of attention. We found that both attended stimuli (targets) and ignored ones (distractors) are devaluated after errors on compatible trials but not incompatible ones. The extent of devaluation is similar for targets and distractors, indicating that distribution of attention does not significantly influence the attribution of error-related negative affect. We discuss this finding in light of the possible mechanisms of error-related devaluation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T13:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • When perception trips action! The increase in the perceived size of both
           hand and target matters in reaching and grasping movements
    • Authors: Elisabetta Ambron; Luis F. Schettino; Marlee Coyle; Steven Jax; H. Branch Coslett
      Pages: 160 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Elisabetta Ambron, Luis F. Schettino, Marlee Coyle, Steven Jax, H. Branch Coslett
      Reaching and grasping movements rely on visual information regarding the target characteristics (e.g. size) and the hand position during the action execution. Changes in the visual representation of the body (e.g. increase in the perceived size of the hand) can modify action performance, but it is still unclear how these modifications interact with changes in the external environment. We investigated this topic by manipulating the perceived size of both hand and target objects and the degree of visual feedback available during the movement execution. Ten young adults were asked to reach and grasp geometrical objects in four different conditions: (i) with normal vision with the light on, (ii) with normal vision in the dark, (iii) using magnifying lenses in the light and (iv) using magnifying lenses in the dark. In contrast with previous works, our results show that movement execution is longer in magnified vision compared to normal when the action is executed in the light, but the grasping component was not affected by changes in size in this condition. On the contrary, when the visual feedback of the hand was removed and participants performed the action in the dark, movements were faster and the distances across fingers larger in the magnified than normal vision. This pattern of data suggests that grasping movements adapt rapidly and compensate for changes in vision when this process depends on the degree of visual feedback and/or environmental cues available. In the debate regarding the dissociation between action and perception, our data suggest that action may overcome changes in perception when visual feedback is available, but perception may trick action in situations of reduced visual information.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T10:42:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • More than a memory: Confirmatory visual search is not caused by
           remembering a visual feature
    • Authors: Jason Rajsic; Jay Pratt
      Pages: 169 - 174
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Jason Rajsic, Jay Pratt
      Previous research has demonstrated a preference for positive over negative information in visual search; asking whether a target object is green biases search towards green objects, even when this entails more perceptual processing than searching non-green objects. The present study investigated whether this confirmatory search bias is due to the presence of one particular (e.g., green) color in memory during search. Across two experiments, we show that this is not the critical factor in generating a confirmation bias in search. Search slowed proportionally to the number of stimuli whose color matched the color held in memory only when the color was remembered as part of the search instructions. These results suggest that biased search for information is due to a particular attentional selection strategy, and not to memory-driven attentional biases.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T10:42:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Identification of opposites and intermediates by eye and by hand
    • Authors: Ivana Bianchi; Carita Paradis; Roberto Burro; Joost van de Weijer; Marcus Nyström; Ugo Savardi
      Pages: 175 - 189
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Ivana Bianchi, Carita Paradis, Roberto Burro, Joost van de Weijer, Marcus Nyström, Ugo Savardi
      In this eye-tracking and drawing study, we investigate the perceptual grounding of different types of spatial dimensions such as dense–sparse and top–bottom, focusing both on the participants' experiences of the opposite regions, e.g., O1: dense; O2: sparse, and the region that is experienced as intermediate, e.g., INT: neither dense nor sparse. Six spatial dimensions expected to have three different perceptual structures in terms of the point and range nature of O1, INT and O2 were analysed. Presented with images, the participants were instructed to identify each region (O1, INT, O2), first by looking at the region, and then circumscribing it using the computer mouse. We measured the eye movements, identification times and various characteristics of the drawings such as the relative size of the three regions, overlaps and gaps. Three main results emerged. Firstly, generally speaking, intermediate regions were not different from the poles on any of the indicators: overall identification times, number of fixations, and locations. Some differences emerged with regard to the duration of fixations for point INTs and the number of fixations for range INTs between two range poles (O1, O2). Secondly, the analyses of the fixation locations showed that the poles support the identification of the intermediate region as much as the intermediate region supports the identification of the poles. Finally, the relative size of the three areas selected in the drawing task were consistent with the classification of the regions as points or ranges. The analyses of the gaps and the overlaps between the three areas showed that the intermediate is neither O1 nor O2, but an entity in its own right.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T10:42:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • The effect of beam slope on the perception of melodic contour
    • Authors: Warren Brodsky; Yoav Kessler
      Pages: 190 - 199
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Warren Brodsky, Yoav Kessler
      Musical score reading is a complex task, which involves attending and interpreting multiple visual constituents that are graphically congested. The present investigation examined the ‘beam’, which although consistently found in music notation, is typically considered as providing no more information than marking metric boundaries (i.e., chunking). However, we provide evidence here that beams enhance visual perception of contour. In Study 1, a Stroop-like paradigm was used in which participants were required to judge the direction of notes or the beam in a compound figure; the two dimensions were either congruent or incongruent. A congruency effect was observed in both tasks, confirming that both notes and beam are processed automatically during score reading. In Study 2, an additional auditory stimulus was presented. The results not only replicated the findings of Study 1, but showed that beams affect both visual and auditory perception. Finally, group differences surfaced: musicians were more affected by the direction of notes than non-musicians when attending to beams, but the effect of beams on judging note direction was comparable in both groups. The implications for understanding musical score reading – specifically issues related to melodic contour – are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T10:52:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.013
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Distributed practice can boost evaluative conditioning by increasing
           memory for the stimulus pairs
    • Authors: Jasmin Richter; Anne Gast
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Jasmin Richter, Anne Gast
      When presenting a neutral stimulus (CS) in close temporal and spatial proximity to a positive or negative stimulus (US) the former is often observed to adopt the valence of the latter, a phenomenon named evaluative conditioning (EC). It is already well established that under most conditions, contingency awareness is important for an EC effect to occur. In addition to that, some findings suggest that awareness of the stimulus pairs is not only relevant during the learning phase, but that it is also relevant whether memory for the pairings is still available during the measurement phase. As previous research has shown that memory is better after temporally distributed than after contiguous (massed) repetitions, it seems plausible that also EC effects are moderated by distributed practice manipulations. This was tested in the current studies. In two experiments with successful distributed practice manipulations on memory, we show that also the magnitude of the EC effect was larger for pairs learned under spaced compared to massed conditions. Both effects, on memory and on EC, are found after a within-participant and after a between-participant manipulation. However, we did not find significant differences in the EC effect for different conditions of spaced practice. These findings are in line with the assumption that EC is based on similar processes as memory for the pairings.

      PubDate: 2017-07-08T07:17:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.06.007
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • False memories, but not false beliefs, affect implicit attitudes for food
    • Authors: David Howe; Rachel J. Anderson; Stephen A. Dewhurst
      Pages: 14 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): David Howe, Rachel J. Anderson, Stephen A. Dewhurst
      Previous studies have found that false memories and false beliefs of childhood experiences can have attitudinal consequences. Previous studies have, however, focused exclusively on explicit attitude measures without exploring whether implicit attitudes are similarly affected. Using a false feedback/imagination inflation paradigm, false memories and beliefs of enjoying a certain food as a child were elicited in participants, and their effects were assessed using both explicit attitude measures (self-report questionnaires) and implicit measures (a Single-Target Implicit Association Test). Positive changes in explicit attitudes were observed both in participants with false memories and participants with false beliefs. In contrast, only participants with false memories exhibited more positive implicit attitudes. The findings are discussed in terms of theories of explicit and implicit attitudes.

      PubDate: 2017-07-08T07:17:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • Social perception and aging: The relationship between aging and the
           perception of subtle changes in facial happiness and identity
    • Authors: Tao Yang; Tegan Penton; Şerife Leman Köybaşı; Michael J. Banissy
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Tao Yang, Tegan Penton, Şerife Leman Köybaşı, Michael J. Banissy
      Previous findings suggest that older adults show impairments in the social perception of faces, including the perception of emotion and facial identity. The majority of this work has tended to examine performance on tasks involving young adult faces and prototypical emotions. While useful, this can influence performance differences between groups due to perceptual biases and limitations on task performance. Here we sought to examine how typical aging is associated with the perception of subtle changes in facial happiness and facial identity in older adult faces. We developed novel tasks that permitted the ability to assess facial happiness, facial identity, and non-social perception (object perception) across similar task parameters. We observe that aging is linked with declines in the ability to make fine-grained judgements in the perception of facial happiness and facial identity (from older adult faces), but not for non-social (object) perception. This pattern of results is discussed in relation to mechanisms that may contribute to declines in facial perceptual processing in older adulthood.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • Embedded interruptions and task complexity influence schema-related
           cognitive load progression in an abstract learning task
    • Authors: Maria Wirzberger; Shirin Esmaeili Bijarsari; Günter Daniel Rey
      Pages: 30 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Maria Wirzberger, Shirin Esmaeili Bijarsari, Günter Daniel Rey
      Cognitive processes related to schema acquisition comprise an essential source of demands in learning situations. Since the related amount of cognitive load is supposed to change over time, plausible temporal models of load progression based on different theoretical backgrounds are inspected in this study. A total of 116 student participants completed a basal symbol sequence learning task, which provided insights into underlying cognitive dynamics. Two levels of task complexity were determined by the amount of elements within the symbol sequence. In addition, interruptions due to an embedded secondary task occurred at five predefined stages over the task. Within the resulting 2x5-factorial mixed between-within design, the continuous monitoring of efficiency in learning performance enabled assumptions on relevant resource investment. From the obtained results, a nonlinear change of learning efficiency over time seems most plausible in terms of cognitive load progression. Moreover, different effects of the induced interruptions show up in conditions of task complexity, which indicate the activation of distinct cognitive mechanisms related to structural aspects of the task. Findings are discussed in the light of evidence from research on memory and information processing.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • Associative cueing of attention through implicit feature-location binding
    • Authors: Giovanna Girardi; Daniele Nico
      Pages: 54 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Giovanna Girardi, Daniele Nico
      In order to assess associative learning between two task-irrelevant features in cueing spatial attention, we devised a task in which participants have to make an identity comparison between two sequential visual stimuli. Unbeknownst to them, location of the second stimulus could be predicted by the colour of the first or a concurrent sound. Albeit unnecessary to perform the identity-matching judgment the predictive features thus provided an arbitrary association favouring the spatial anticipation of the second stimulus. A significant advantage was found with faster responses at predicted compared to non-predicted locations. Results clearly demonstrated an associative cueing of attention via a second-order arbitrary feature/location association but with a substantial discrepancy depending on the sensory modality of the predictive feature. With colour as predictive feature, significant advantages emerged only after the completion of three blocks of trials. On the contrary, sound affected responses from the first block of trials and significant advantages were manifest from the beginning of the second. The possible mechanisms underlying the associative cueing of attention in both conditions are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • Proficient use of low spatial frequencies facilitates face memory but
           shows protracted maturation throughout adolescence
    • Authors: Judith C. Peters; Chantal Kemner
      Pages: 61 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Judith C. Peters, Chantal Kemner
      Face perception is characterized by configural processing, which depends on visual information in the low spatial frequency (LSF) ranges. However, it is unclear whether LSF content is equally important for face memory. The present study investigated how face information in the low and high SF range plays a role in the configural encoding of faces for short-term and long-term recall. Moreover, we examined how SF-dependent face memorization develops in female adolescence, by comparing children (9–10-year-olds), adolescents (12–13-year-olds and 15–16-year-olds), and young adults (21–32-year-olds). Results show that similar to face perception, delayed face recognition was consistently facilitated by LSF content. However, only adults were able to adequately employ configural LSF cues for short-term recall, analogous to the slow maturation of LSF-driven configural face perception reported by previous studies. Moreover, the insensitivity to face inversion of early adolescents revealed their inadequate use of configural face cues regardless of SF availability, corroborating previous reports on an adolescent “dip” in face recognition. Like face perception, face recognition has a protracted maturational course. In (female) adolescence, sensitivity to configural LSF cues is developed, which aids not only configural face perception but also face memorization.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • No consistent cooling of the real hand in the rubber hand illusion
    • Authors: Alyanne M. de Haan; Haike E. Van Stralen; Miranda Smit; Anouk Keizer; Stefan Van der Stigchel; H. Chris Dijkerman
      Pages: 68 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Alyanne M. de Haan, Haike E. Van Stralen, Miranda Smit, Anouk Keizer, Stefan Van der Stigchel, H. Chris Dijkerman
      In the rubber hand illusion (RHI), participants view a rubber hand that is stroked synchronously with their real, hidden hand. This procedure results in experiencing an increased sense of ownership over the rubber hand and demonstrates how multisensory information (vision, touch) can influence the sense of body ownership. However, it has also been suggested that a (lack of) sense of ownership over an own body part may in turn influence bodily processes. This suggestion has previously been supported by the observation that a decrease in skin temperature in the real hand correlated with ownership over the rubber hand. However, this finding has not been consistently replicated. Our lab has conducted several studies in which we recorded temperature of the hands during the RHI using various measures and in different circumstances, including continuous temperature measurements in a temperature-controlled room. An overall analysis of our results, covering five attempts to replicate the traditional RHI experiment and totalling 167 participants, does not show a reliable cooling of the real hand during the RHI. We discuss this failure to replicate and consider several possible explanations for inconsistencies between reports of hand temperature during the RHI.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • Both facilitatory and inhibitory impairments underlie age-related
           differences of proactive cognitive control across the adult lifespan
    • Authors: Pascal W.M. Van Gerven; Petra P.M. Hurks; Jos J. Adam
      Pages: 78 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Pascal W.M. Van Gerven, Petra P.M. Hurks, Jos J. Adam
      We investigated two components of proactive cognitive control, response facilitation and response inhibition, in an adult lifespan sample (N =544, age range=18–91years) by administering two response-preparation tasks: a procue task, primarily involving facilitation, and an anticue task, involving both facilitation and inhibition. Cues in both tasks corresponded with the index and middle fingers of either the left or right hand. After a random preparation interval (PI) of 100–850ms following the onset of the cue signal, a single-target stimulus indicated the required response. Where procues were spatially aligned with the two fingers of the responding hand, anticues consistently indicated the two fingers of the opposite hand, requiring a remapping of cue location and response hand. This remapping requires inhibition to suppress the automatic activation of the ipsilateral responses. Previous research revealed typical reaction time (RT) profiles for procues and anticues as a function of PI. Whereas procues generate RT benefits (relative to a neutral-cue condition) already at short PIs, which increase with longer PIs, anticues generate RT costs at short PIs and RT benefits at longer PIs. Our results showed that, in the anticue task, older participants needed more preparation time to turn RT costs into RT benefits than younger participants, revealing an age-related deficit of response inhibition. Moreover, in both tasks, older participants were less able to increase RT benefits with longer PIs, revealing a deficit of response facilitation. We conclude that both facilitatory and inhibitory impairments contribute to age-related deficiencies in proactive cognitive control.

      PubDate: 2017-07-27T23:24:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • The listener automatically uses spatial story representations from the
           speaker's cohesive gestures when processing subsequent sentences without
    • Authors: Kazuki Sekine; Sotaro Kita
      Pages: 89 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Kazuki Sekine, Sotaro Kita
      This study examined spatial story representations created by speaker's cohesive gestures. Participants were presented with three-sentence discourse with two protagonists. In the first and second sentences, gestures consistently located the two protagonists in the gesture space: one to the right and the other to the left. The third sentence (without gestures) referred to one of the protagonists, and the participants responded with one of the two keys to indicate the relevant protagonist. The response keys were either spatially congruent or incongruent with the gesturally established locations for the two participants. Though the cohesive gestures did not provide any clue for the correct response, they influenced performance: the reaction time in the congruent condition was faster than that in the incongruent condition. Thus, cohesive gestures automatically establish spatial story representations and the spatial story representations remain activated in a subsequent sentence without any gesture.

      PubDate: 2017-07-27T23:24:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.07.009
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • Directional effect in double conditionals with a construction task: The
           semantic hypothesis
    • Authors: Orlando Espino; Tarek Morales; Alicia Bolaños-Medina
      Pages: 96 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Orlando Espino, Tarek Morales, Alicia Bolaños-Medina
      The goal of this paper is to test the main predictions of the semantic hypothesis about the directional effect in double conditionals (such as, ‘A only if B/only if C, B’) with a construction task. The semantic hypothesis claims that directional effect can be explained by the inherent directionality of the relation between the relatum and the target object of the premises. According to this hypothesis, a directional effect should occur if only one of the end-terms of the premises takes the role of relatum: a) if the end-term that plays the role of relatum is in the first premise, a forward directional effect is predicted (from A to C); and b) if the end-term that plays the role of relatum is in the second premise, a backward directional effect is predicted (from C to A). On the other hand, it claims that there should be no directional effect when both end-terms take the role of relatum or when neither of the end-terms plays the role of relatum. Three experiments confirmed the main predictions of the semantic hypothesis in a construction task.

      PubDate: 2017-07-27T23:24:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • Learning terms and definitions: Drawing and the role of elaborative
    • Authors: Jeffrey D. Wammes; Melissa E. Meade; Myra A. Fernandes
      Pages: 104 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Jeffrey D. Wammes, Melissa E. Meade, Myra A. Fernandes
      Traditionally, students adopt the strategy of taking written notes when attending a class or learning from a textbook in educational settings. Informed by previous work showing that learning by doing improves memory performance, we examined whether drawing to-be-remembered definitions from university textbooks would improve later memory, relative to a more typical strategy of rote transcription. Participants were asked to either write out the definition, or to draw a picture representative of the definition. Results indicated that drawing, relative to verbatim writing, conferred a reliable memorial benefit that was robust, even when participants' preexisting familiarity with the terms was included as a covariate (in Experiment 1) or when the to-be-remembered terms and definitions were fictitious, thus removing the influence of familiarity (in Experiment 2). We reasoned that drawing likely facilitates retention at least in part because at encoding, participants must retain and elaborate upon information regarding the meaning of the definition, to translate it into a new form (a picture). This is not the case when participants write out the definitions verbatim. In Experiment 3 we showed that paraphrasing during encoding, which, like drawing and in contrast with verbatim writing, requires self-generated elaboration, led to memory performance that was comparable to drawing. Taken together, results suggest that drawing is a powerful tool which improves memory, and that drawing produces a similar level of retention as does paraphrasing. This suggests that elaborative encoding plays a critical role in the memorial benefit that drawing confers to memory for definitions of academic terms.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T14:16:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.07.008
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • The citation effect: In-text citations moderately increase belief in
           trivia claims
    • Authors: Adam L. Putnam; Riley J. Phelps
      Pages: 114 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Adam L. Putnam, Riley J. Phelps

      Authors use in-text citations to provide support for their claims and to acknowledge work done by others. How much do such citations increase the believability of an author's claims' It is possible that readers (especially novices) might ignore citations as they read. Alternatively, citations ostensibly serve as evidence for a claim, which justifies using them as a basis for a judgment of truth. In six experiments, subjects saw true and false trivia claims of varying difficulty presented with and without in-text citations (e.g., The cat is the only pet not mentioned in the bible) and rated the likelihood that each statement was true. A mini meta-analysis summarizing the results of all six experiments indicated that citations had a small but reliable effect on judgments of truth (d =0.13, 95% CI [0.06, 0.20]) suggesting that subjects were more likely to believe claims that were presented with citations than without. We discuss this citation effect and how it is similar and different to related research suggesting that nonprobative photos can increase judgments of truth.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T14:16:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.07.010
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • To neglect or integrate contingency information from outside the task
           frame, that is the question! Effects of depressed mood
    • Authors: R.M. Msetfi; N. Byrom; R.A. Murphy
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): R.M. Msetfi, N. Byrom, R.A. Murphy
      Evidence shows that there are individual differences in the extent to which people attend to and integrate information into their decisions about the predictive contingencies between events and outcomes. In particular, information about the absence of events or outcomes, presented outside the current task frame, is often neglected. This trend is particularly evident in depression, as well as other psychopathologies, though reasons for information neglect remain unclear. We investigated this phenomenon across two experiments (Experiment 1: N =157; Experiment 2: N =150) in which participants, scoring low and high in the Beck Depression Inventory, were asked to learn a simple predictive relationship between a visual cue and an auditory outcome. We manipulated whether or not participants had prior experience of the visual cue outside of the task frame, whether such experience took place in the same or different context to the learning task, and the nature of the action required to signal occurrence of the auditory outcome. We found that all participants were capable of including extra-task experience into their assessment of the predictive cue-outcome relationship in whatever context it occurred. However, for mildly depressed participants, adjacent behaviours and similarity between the extra-task experience and the main task, influenced information integration, with patterns of ‘over-integration’ evident, rather than neglect as we had expected. Findings are suggestive of over-generalised experience on the part of mildly depressed participants.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T14:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • On national flags and language tags: Effects of flag-language congruency
           in bilingual word recognition
    • Authors: Jonathan Grainger; Mathieu Declerck; Yousri Marzouki
      Pages: 12 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Jonathan Grainger, Mathieu Declerck, Yousri Marzouki
      French-English bilinguals performed a generalized lexical decision experiment with mixed lists of French and English words and pseudo-words. In Experiment 1, each word/pseudo-word was superimposed on the picture of the French or UK flag, and flag-word congruency was manipulated. The flag was not informative with respect to either the lexical decision response or the language of the word. Nevertheless, lexical decisions to word stimuli were faster following the congruent flag compared with the incongruent flag, but only for French (L1) words. Experiment 2 replicated this flag-language congruency effect in a priming paradigm, where the word and pseudo-word targets followed the brief presentation of the flag prime, and this time effects were seen in both languages. We take these findings as evidence for a mechanism that automatically processes linguistic and non-linguistic information concerning the presence or not of a given language. Language membership information can then modulate lexical processing, in line with the architecture of the BIA model, but not the BIA+ model.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T14:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Salivary secretion and disgust: A pilot study
    • Authors: Carmelo M. Vicario; Werner Sommer; Karolina A. Kuran; Robert D. Rafal
      Pages: 18 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Carmelo M. Vicario, Werner Sommer, Karolina A. Kuran, Robert D. Rafal
      Although a direct link has been established between self-experienced disgust and salivary secretion, it is unclear whether this physiological index is modulated by the social experience of disgust (i.e., exposure to the facial expression of disgust). We tested this issue in a pilot study by collecting salivary samples in a group of 20 healthy humans watching pictures of faces expressing disgust. Moreover, we tried to replicate previous evidence by testing saliva secretion in response to pictures of unpalatable (i.e., rotten) food and non-gustatory disgusting stimuli (i.e., disgusting insects). Overall, our analysis shows a general reduction of saliva secretion in response to disgust stimuli, compared to their positive counterparts, although further analyses for specific stimulus categories indicated that this difference was statistically significant only for food pictures. The non-significance of the face and insect categories might be due to insufficient power of our small sample. Overall, a general reduction of saliva secretion for different disgust-related stimuli suggests a shared mechanism of encoding, in line with theories of neural reuse.

      PubDate: 2017-05-31T10:30:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Face inversion increases attractiveness
    • Authors: Helmut Leder; Juergen Goller; Michael Forster; Lena Schlageter; Matthew A. Paul
      Pages: 25 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Helmut Leder, Juergen Goller, Michael Forster, Lena Schlageter, Matthew A. Paul
      Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces. Importantly, these effects were more pronounced for faces rated low in upright orientation, and smaller for highly attractive faces. In other words, the less attractive a face was, the more it gained in attractiveness by inversion or rotation. Based on these findings, we argue that facial attractiveness assessments might not rely on the presence of attractive facial characteristics, but on the absence of distinctive, unattractive characteristics. These unattractive characteristics are potentially weighed against an individual, attractive prototype in assessing facial attractiveness.

      PubDate: 2017-05-31T10:30:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • The contribution of task-choice response selection to the switch cost in
           voluntary task switching
    • Authors: Baptist Liefooghe
      Pages: 32 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Baptist Liefooghe
      Mental flexibility not only enables us to switch between tasks but also to select the tasks we want to perform. The latter scenario is central to voluntary task switching, in which participants are free to select on each trial which task to perform. The present study argues that voluntary task switching also includes and additional component, namely task-choice response selection. Task-choice response selection refers to the whole chain of processes involved in the overt report or indication of the task that was selected by emitting an arbitrary response. Task-choice response selection is not required to voluntarily switch between tasks, but serves the measurement of participants' covert task selection. The results of two experiments indicate that the contribution of task-choice response selection to switch performance in voluntary task switching is substantial. It is proposed that task-choice response selection delays the top-down retrieval of task rules in voluntary task switching.

      PubDate: 2017-05-31T10:30:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • The implications and applications of learning via instructions
    • Authors: Baptist Liefooghe; Senne Braem; Nachshon Meiran
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Baptist Liefooghe, Senne Braem, Nachshon Meiran
      Whereas psychology knows a long tradition of studies that focused on the role of practice and training in acquiring new skills or knowledge, systematic studies into learning via instructions remain relatively scarce. This is surprising given the tremendous influence instructions have on human behavior and cognition. In recent years, however, a (re)new(ed) interest into learning via instructions resulted in new paradigms and findings that can inspire future research in this understudied domain. We offer a brief overview of the articles in this special issue, which present some of the latest empirical developments dedicated to unraveling the implications and applications of learning via instructions. The special issue offers insights into the dynamics underlying the assimilation of new instructions and highlights the strengths and limitations of what can be achieved on the basis of instructions. Furthermore, the different studies showcase various examples of recent methodological advances in testing the effects of instructions. Finally, this special issue shows how different fields in psychology share similar questions on the role of instructions in human behavior, suggesting that this topic should no longer be considered as a subsidiary of these different fields, but as a research field on its own.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:07:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.015
  • Generalization of learned pain modulation depends on explicit learning
    • Authors: Leonie Koban; Daniel Kusko; Tor D. Wager
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Leonie Koban, Daniel Kusko, Tor D. Wager
      The experience of pain is strongly influenced by contextual and socio-affective factors, including learning from previous experiences. Pain is typically perceived as more intense when preceded by a conditioned cue (CSHIGH) that has previously been associated with higher pain intensities, compared to cues associated with lower intensities (CSLOW). In three studies (total N=134), we tested whether this learned pain modulation generalizes to perceptually similar cues (Studies 1 and 2) and conceptually similar cues (Study 3). The results showed that participants report higher pain when heat stimulation was preceded by novel stimuli that were either perceptually (Studies 1 and 2) or conceptually (Study 3) similar to the previously conditioned CSHIGH. In all three studies, the strength of this generalization effect was strongly correlated with individual differences in explicitly learned expectations. Together, these findings suggest an important role of conscious expectations and higher-order conceptual inference during generalization of learned pain modulation. We discuss implications for the understanding of placebo and nocebo effects as well as for chronic pain and anxiety.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:07:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.009
  • More than a feeling: The bidirectional convergence of semantic visual
           object and somatosensory processing
    • Authors: Chelsea Ekstrand; Josh Neudorf Eric Lorentz Layla Gould Marla Mickleborough
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Chelsea Ekstrand, Josh Neudorf, Eric Lorentz, Layla Gould, Marla Mickleborough, Ron Borowsky
      Prevalent theories of semantic processing assert that the sensorimotor system plays a functional role in the semantic processing of manipulable objects. While motor execution has been shown to impact object processing, involvement of the somatosensory system has remained relatively unexplored. Therefore, we developed two novel priming paradigms. In Experiment 1, participants received a vibratory hand prime (on half the trials) prior to viewing a picture of either an object interacted primarily with the hand (e.g., a cup) or the foot (e.g., a soccer ball) and reported how they would interact with it. In Experiment 2, the same objects became the prime and participants were required to identify whether the vibratory stimulation occurred to their hand or foot. In both experiments, somatosensory priming effects arose for the hand objects, while foot objects showed no priming benefits. These results suggest that object semantic knowledge bidirectionally converges with the somatosensory system.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T10:52:36Z
  • Instructed fear stimuli bias visual attention
    • Authors: Berre Deltomme; Gaetan Mertens; Helen Tibboel; Senne Braem
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Berre Deltomme, Gaetan Mertens, Helen Tibboel, Senne Braem
      We investigated whether stimuli merely instructed to be fear-relevant can bias visual attention, even when the fear relation was never experienced before. Participants performed a dot-probe task with pictures of naturally fear-relevant (snake or spider) or -irrelevant (bird or butterfly) stimuli. Instructions indicated that two pictures (one naturally fear-relevant and one fear-irrelevant) could be followed by an electrical stimulation (i.e., instructed fear). In reality, no stimulation was administered. During the task, two pictures were presented on each side of the screen, after which participants had to determine as fast as possible on which side a black dot appeared. After a first phase, fear was reinstated by instructing participants that the device was not connected but now was (reinstatement phase). Participants were faster when the dot appeared on a location where an instructed fear picture was presented. This effect seemed independent of whether picture content was naturally fear-relevant, but was only found in the first half of each phase, suggesting rapid extinction due to the absence of stimulation, and rapid re-evaluation after reinstatement. A second experiment similarly showed that instructed fear biases attention, even when participants were explicitly instructed that no stimulation would be given during the dot-probe task. Together, these findings demonstrate that attention can be biased towards instructed fear stimuli, even when these fear relations were never experienced. Future studies should test whether this is specific to fear, or can be observed for all instructions that change the relevance of a given stimulus.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T13:34:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.010
  • Cognitive control during a spatial Stroop task: Comparing conflict
           monitoring and prediction of response-outcome theories
    • Authors: Luís Pires; José Leitão; Chiara Guerrini; Mário R. Simões
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Luís Pires, José Leitão, Chiara Guerrini, Mário R. Simões
      Cognitive control allows information processing and behaviour to vary adaptively from moment to moment depending on current goals. Two of the most prominent theories that have been proposed to account for the processing of cognitive control are the Conflict Monitoring Theory (CMT) and the Prediction of Response-Outcome Theory (PRO). According to both theories, the implementation of cognitive control during a trial in a conflict task reflects processing events that occurred in the preceding trial. Both CMT and PRO advocate that the detection of conflict situations leads to the recruitment of cognitive control, but they differ regarding the processing underpinnings of cognitive control during conflict resolution. CMT proposes that conflict between alternative responses is resolved by enhancing the task's relevant dimension, reducing interference from the task's irrelevant dimension(s). This control setup promotes conflict adaptation in the subsequent trial. PRO proposes that conflict is resolved by means of a cost-effectiveness analysis that identifies and suppresses action plans linked to the less appropriate responses, facilitating conflict resolution in the subsequent trial. To adjudicate between these alternatives, we manipulated contingencies pertaining to two-trial sequences (n-1; n), namely, the congruency between task relevant/irrelevant dimensions in trial n-1 and response repetition in trial n. A spatial Stroop task was used, in which task-relevant and irrelevant information were integrated within the same stimulus. In this task, participants were required to attend to the direction of an arrow while ignoring its position. The arrow's direction and position could be congruent (C) or incongruent (IC). In one experiment, trials in which the participant was required to respond according to the position of a circle (PO; position only trials), occupying the sequential position n, were the focus of the analyses. Three experiments were conducted manipulating the trials' sequence structure. In Experiment 1, we studied a low control/low conflict condition (cC trials), and two high control/low conflict conditions (icC with and without response repetition). In Experiment 2, we studied two low control/no conflict conditions (cPO with and without response repetition) and two high control/no conflict conditions (icPO with and without response repetition). In Experiment 3, we studied a high control/high conflict condition (icIC) and two low control/high conflict conditions (cIC with and without response repetition). Overall, our findings are in agreement with previous studies in which both bottom-up processing, linked to response and stimulus position repetition, and top-down processing, linked to cognitive control, were shown to contribute to sequence effects in conflict tasks. Specifically, our observations mainly support PRO's account of conflict resolution, in which the intervention of top-down processing is substantially more complex than in CMT's account.

      PubDate: 2017-07-08T07:17:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.06.009
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