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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3159 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3159 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 408, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 396, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 336, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 445, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 202, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Acta Psychologica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.331
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 28  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0001-6918
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3159 journals]
  • Functional fixedness and body-part-as-object production in pantomime
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Megan England, Elena Nicoladis In pantomiming the use of tools, it is possible to use a body part as the object (BPO) or imagine the object (IO). The present four studies test how conceptualizing the functions of objects may underlie BPO production in a non-clinical adult population. We showed that familiar vs. unfamiliar tools (Study 1) and visual experience only vs. visual + motor experience with novel tools (Study 2) made no difference in BPO production. In Study 3, participants showed a trend for higher BPO production for tools presented in two-dimensional pictures rather than in reality. In Study 4, participants' functional fixedness was experimentally manipulated: participants were told unfamiliar tools had either five functions or only one function. Participants produced significantly more BPOs in the one-function condition. These results suggest that conceptualizing objects as having a fixed function is a predictor of BPO production.
       
  • Visual letter similarity effects during sentence reading: Evidence from
           the boundary technique
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Ana Marcet, Manuel Perea The study of how the cognitive system encodes letter identities from the visual input has received much attention in models of visual word recognition but it has typically been overlooked in models of eye movement control in reading. Here we examined how visual letter similarity affects early word processing during reading using Rayner's (1975) boundary change technique in which the parafoveal preview of the target word was either identical (e.g., frito-frito [fried]) or a one-letter-different nonword (e.g., frjto-frito vs. frgto-frito). Critically, the substituted letter in the nonword was visually similar (based on letter confusability norms) or visually dissimilar. Results showed shorter viewing times on the target word when the parafoveal preview was visually similar than when it was visually dissimilar. Thus, visual letter similarity modulates the integration of parafoveal and foveal information during sentence reading. Future implementations of models of eye movement control in reading should incorporate a more developed orthographic-lexical module to capture these effects.
       
  • The perceptual enhancement by spatial attention is impaired during the
           attentional blink
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Eunhee Bae, Shinyoung Jung, Suk Won Han A salient, but task-irrelevant stimulus has long been known to capture attention in an automatic, involuntary manner. However, the automaticity of involuntary attention has recently been challenged. While some studies showed that the effect of involuntary attention depended on top-down attentional resources, other studies did not. To reconcile this conflict, we suggest to consider that attentional effect is not homogenous. Specifically, we hypothesized that the dependence of involuntary attention on top-down attention interacts with the presence/absence of the target location uncertainty and distractor interference. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that when the attentional resources were depleted, the involuntary attention did not affect the perception of a single target stimulus (Experiment 1). However, when the target was accompanied by multiple distractors, evoking uncertainty regarding the target location, the involuntary attentional effect was observed, regardless of the availability of attentional resource (Experiment 2). This was so, even when the target location was always marked by a response cue, minimizing the target location uncertainty (Experiment 3). These findings provide a reconciliation for the theoretical debate regarding the dependence of involuntary attention on top-down attention and clarifies how perception is modulated by involuntary attention.
       
  • Robust intentional binding for causally-linked sequences of naturalistic
           events but not for abstract event sequences
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Vassilis Thanopoulos, Eleni Psarou, Argiro Vatakis Past studies have shown that when a voluntary action produces a sensory effect, the action and the effect will be perceived as being closer in time. This subjective temporal ‘attraction’ is known as intentional binding (IB). Induction of IB is dependent on the intentionality of one's actions, the predictability of the effect, and the causality between the action and the effect. Previous investigations of IB have utilized abstract stimuli (e.g., flashes and beeps) with adaptation so as to associate the abstract action-effect link. Yet, events from our everyday experiences already have an inherent action-effect link. We, thus, investigated, for the first time, IB under naturalistic, multisensory stimulation by manipulating the intentionality, predictability, and causal event link. A total of five experiments without adaptation were conducted examining IB with: abstract stimuli (Experiment 1), naturalistic effects (Exp. 2), naturalistic action cue and effect matching (Exp. 3), naturalistic action cue and effect mismatching (Exp. 4), and naturalistic action cue and effect matching but mismatched response mapping (Exp. 5). Analyses of the data showed the absence of IB for abstract stimuli without action-effect adaptation (Exp. 1) and for effects that were not inherently causal or predictable of one's action (Exp. 2, 4, and 5). IB, however, was induced when the naturalistic sequence of action cue-effect was casually linked and predictable in terms of timing (Exp. 3). Overall, our results showed that induction of IB is dependent on the inherent causal and predictable association of an event from the cue to act to the consequence of that action, an association that is already present in everyday multisensory events.
       
  • Effects of age and individual experiences on tactile perception over the
           life span in women
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Ben Godde, Patrick Bruns, Volker Wendel, Mireille Trautmann Tactile perception results from the interplay of peripheral and central mechanisms for detection and sensation of objects and the discrimination and evaluation of their size, shapes, and surface characteristics. For different tasks, we investigated this interaction between more bottom-up stimulus-driven and rather top-down attention-related and cognitive processes in tactile perception. Moreover, we were interested in effects of age and tactile experiences on this interaction.299 right-handed women participated in our study and were divided into five age groups: 18–25 years (N = 77), 30–45 years (N = 76), 50–65 years (N = 62), 66–75 years (N = 63) and older than 75 years (N = 21). They filled a questionnaire on tactile experiences and rated their skin as either very dry, dry, normal, or oily. Further they performed three tactile tests with the left and right index fingers. Sensitivity for touch stimuli was assessed with von Frey filaments. A sand paper test was used to examine texture discrimination performance. Spatial discrimination was investigated with a tactile Landolt ring test.Multivariate ANOVA confirmed a linear decline in tactile perceptual skills with age (F(3, 279) = 76.740; p 
       
  • Differential impact of disfiguring facial features on overt and covert
           attention
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Luc Boutsen, Nathan A. Pearson, Martin Jüttner Observers can form negative impressions about faces that contain disfiguring features (e.g., scars). Previous research suggests that this might be due to the ability of disfiguring features to capture attention — as evidenced by contrasting observers' responses to faces with or without disfiguring features. This, however, confounds the effects of salience and perceptual interpretation, i.e. whether the feature is seen as integral to the face, or separate from it. Furthermore, it remains unclear to what extent disfiguring features influence covert as well as overt attention. We addressed these issues by studying attentional effects by photographs of unfamiliar faces containing a unilateral disfigurement (a skin discoloration) or a visually similar control feature that was partly occluding the face. Disfiguring and occluding features were first matched for salience (Experiment 1). Experiments 2 and 3 assessed the effect of these features on covert attention in two cueing tasks involving discrimination of a (validly or invalidly cued) target in the presence of, respectively, a peripheral or central distractor face. In both conditions, disfigured and occluded faces did not differ significantly in their impact on response-time costs following invalid cues. In Experiment 4 we compared overt attention to these faces by analysing patterns of eye fixations during an attractiveness rating task. Critically, faces with disfiguring features attracted more fixations on the eyes and incurred a higher number of recurrent fixations compared to faces with salience-matched occluding features. Together, these results suggest a differential impact of disfiguring facial features on overt and covert attention, which is mediated both by the visual salience of such features and by their perceptual interpretation.
       
  • Arithmetic word problems describing discrete quantities: E.E.G evidence
           for the construction of a situation model
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Jeanne Bagnoud, Nicolas Burra, Caroline Castel, Jane Oakhill, Catherine Thevenot In this research, university students were asked to solve arithmetic word problems constructed either with discrete quantities, such as apples or marbles, or continuous quantities such as meters of rope or grams of sand. An analysis of their brain activity showed different alpha levels between the two types of problems with, in particular, a lower alpha power in the parieto-occipital area for problems describing discrete quantities. This suggests that processing discrete quantities during problem solving prompts more mental imagery than processing continuous quantities. These results are difficult to reconcile with the schema theory, according to which arithmetic problem solving depends on the activation of ready-made mental frames stored in long-term memory and triggered by the mathematical expression used in the texts. Within the schema framework, the nature of the objects described in the text should be quickly abstracted during problem solving because it cannot impact the semantic structure of the problem. On the contrary, our results support the situation model theory, which places greater emphasis on the problem context in order to account for individuals' behaviour. On a more methodological point of view, this study constitutes the first attempt to infer the characteristics of individual's mental representations of arithmetic text problems from EEG recordings. This opens the door for the application of brain activity measures in the field of arithmetic word problem.
       
  • Spatial remapping in visual search: Remapping cues are provided at
           attended and ignored locations
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Leandra Bucher, Peter Bublak, Georg Kerkhoff, Thomas Geyer, Hermann Müller, Kathrin Finke We experience the world as stable and continuous, despite the fact that visual input is overwritten on the retina with each new ocular fixation. Spatial remapping is the process that integrates selected visual information into successive (continuous) representations of our spatial environment, thereby allowing us to keep track of objects, and experience the world as stable, despite frequent eye (re-)fixations. The present paper investigates spatial remapping in the context of visual pop-out search. Within standard instances of the pop-out paradigm, reactions to stimuli at previously attended locations are facilitated (faster and more accurate), and reactions to stimuli at previously ignored locations are inhibited (slower and less accurate). The mechanisms that support facilitation at previously attended locations, and inhibition at previously ignored locations, serve to enhance the efficiency of visual search. It is thus natural to expect that information about which locations were previously attended to or ignored is stored and remapped as a concomitant to successive representations of the spatial environment. Using variants of the pop-out paradigm, we corroborate this expectation, and show that information concerning the prior status of locations, as attended to or ignored, is remapped following attention shifts, with some degradation of information concerning ignored locations.
       
  • Is a fact retrieval deficit the main characteristic of children with
           mathematical learning disabilities'
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Anne-Françoise de Chambrier, Pascal Zesiger Although a fact retrieval deficit is widely considered to be the hallmark of children with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD), recent studies suggest that even adults use procedural strategies to solve small additions, except for ties that are unanimously considered to be solved by retrieval. Our study, based on how MLD children process ties and non-ties compared to typically developing (TD) children, sheds new light on their retrieval and procedural difficulties. Our results show that, by the end of the second grade, MLD children do not differ in their ability to solve the tie problems that are certainly solved by retrieval, but they do struggle with both small and large non-ties. These findings emphasize the extend of the difficulties that MLD children exhibit in procedural strategies relatively to retrieval ones.
       
  • Negative cues lead to more inefficient search than positive cues even at
           later stages of visual search
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Tomoya Kawashima, Eriko Matsumoto Observers can focus their attention on task-relevant items in visual search when they have prior knowledge about the target's properties (i.e., positive cues). However, little is known about how negative cues, which specify the features of task-irrelevant items, can be used to guide attention away from distractors and how their effects differ from those of positive cues. It has been proposed that when a distractor color is cued, people would first select the to-be-ignored items early in search and then inhibit them later. The present study investigated how the effects of positive and negative cues differ throughout the visual search process. The results showed that positive cues sped up the early stage of visual search and that negative cues led to initial selection for inhibition. We further found that visual search with negative cues was more inefficient than that with positive cues even at later stages, suggesting that sustained inhibition is needed throughout the visual search process. Taken together, the results indicate that positive and negative cues have different functions: prior knowledge about target features can weight task-relevant information at early stages of visual search, and negative cues are used more inefficiently even at later stages of visual search.
       
  • Is experience in multi-genre video game playing accompanied by
           impulsivity'
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Elham Azizi, Matthew J. Stainer, Larry A. Abel Developing impulsivity has been one of the main concerns thought to arise from the increasing popularity of video gaming. Most of the relevant literature has treated gamers as pure-genre players (i.e. those who play only a specific genre of game). However, it is not clear how impulsivity is associated with different genres of games in multi-genre gamers, given that there is increasing diversity in the games played by individuals. In this study, we compared 33 gamers to 23 non-gamers in a go/no-go task: the Continuous Performance Test (CPT). To evaluate whether or not impulsivity occurs as a trade-off between speed and accuracy, we emphasised fast performance to all participants. Then, to examine the ability to predict impulsivity from game genre-hours, we fitted separate multiple regression models to several dependent variables. As an additional measure, we also compared groups in an antisaccade task. In the CPT, gamers showed a trend towards significantly faster reaction time (RT), accompanied by higher false alarm rate (FAR) and more risk-taking response bias (β), suggesting impulsive responses. Interestingly, there was a significant negative correlation between RT and FAR across all participants, suggesting an overall speed-accuracy trade-off strategy, perhaps driven by the emphasis on speed during task instruction. Moreover, time spent on role playing games (RPG) and real-time strategy (RTS) games better predicted FAR and β than did time spent on action and puzzle games. In the antisaccade task; however, gamers showed a shorter antisaccade latency but a comparable error rate in comparison with non-gamers. There was no specific game genre which could predict performance in the antisaccade task. Altogether, there was no evidence of oculomotor impulsivity in gamers; however, the CPT results suggested the presence of impulsive responses in gamers, which might be the result of a speed-accuracy trade-off. Furthermore, there was a difference in game genres, with time spent on RPG and RTS games being accompanied by greater probability of impulsive responses. Training studies are required to investigate the causality of different video game genres on the development of impulsivity.
       
  • Dissociating decision strategies in free-choice tasks – A mouse
           tracking analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Diana Vogel, Stefan Scherbaum, Markus Janczyk Everyday life offers a variety of possible actions, from which we choose one that corresponds to our intended goals. How do these goals and actions interact within the mind' One way to investigate this question is free-choice tasks, where participants freely choose the action they want to perform on any given trial. Such tasks are used in research on voluntary actions and goal-driven behavior, such as ideomotor theory. However, these tasks leave participants with a substantial amount of freedom and allow for different response strategies. Such strategies can, though being hidden in the final data, influence the results, for example by hiding the effects of manipulations of interest. To better understand participants' behavior in free-choice tasks, we used mouse tracking in an ideomotor free-choice experiment, where participants learn the connection between an action and an effect. Subsequently, they have to freely choose between actions, while the former effect is presented as a stimulus. We identified two distinct groups that applied different decision strategies. The first group made the decision at the beginning of or before the trial, irrespective of the yet to be presented effect stimulus. The second group decided within the trial and was affected by the stimulus more often. This suggests that people handle free-choice tasks differently which is expressed in heterogeneous choice patterns and response times and an underestimation of the examined effects. These differences potentially limit the reliability of inferences from free-choice experiments and should be considered in the interpretation of their results.
       
  • Effects of rule uncertainty on cognitive flexibility in a card-sorting
           paradigm
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Florian Lange, Ahlke Kip, Tabea Klein, Dorothea Müller, Caroline Seer, Bruno Kopp Cognitive flexibility has been studied in two separate research traditions. Neuropsychologists typically rely on rather complex assessment tools such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). In contrast, task-switching paradigms are used in experimental psychology to obtain more specific measures of cognitive flexibility. We aim to contribute to the integration of these research traditions by examining the role of the key factor that differs between the WCST and experimental task-switching paradigms: rule uncertainty. In two experimental studies, we manipulated the degree of rule uncertainty after rule switches in a computerized version of the WCST. Across a variety of task parameters, reducing rule uncertainty consistently impaired the speed and accuracy of responses when the rule designated to be more likely turned out to be incorrect. Other performance measures such as the number of perseverative errors were not significantly affected by rule uncertainty. We conclude that a fine-grained analysis of WCST performance can dissociate behavioural indicators that are affected vs. unaffected by rule uncertainty. By this means, it is possible to integrate WCST results and findings obtained from task-switching paradigms that do not involve rule uncertainty.
       
  • Enhancement of letter identification by concurrent auditory stimuli of
           varying duration
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Maria D. de la Rosa, Karin M. Bausenhart Previously it has been shown that the concurrent presentation of a sound can improve processing of visual information at higher perceptual levels, for example, in letter identification tasks. Moreover, increasing the duration of the concurrent sounds can enhance performance in low-level tasks as contrast detection, which has been attributed to a sustained visual activation corresponding to the duration of the sound. Yet, the role of sound duration has so far not been investigated in higher-level visual processing. In a series of five Experiments, we again demonstrated that the mere presence of a concurrent sound can enhance the identification of a masked, centrally presented letter compared to unimodal presentation, even though this benefit was absent in one experiment for high-contrast letters yielding an especially high level of task-performance. In general, however, the sound-induced benefit was not modulated by a variation of target contrast or by the duration of the target-to-mask interstimulus interval. Taking individual performance differences into account, a further analysis suggested that the sound-induced facilitation effect may nevertheless be most pronounced at specific performance levels. Beyond this general sound-induced facilitation, letter identification performance was not further affected by the duration of the concurrent sounds, even though in a control experiment it could be established that letter identification performance improved with increasing letter duration, and perceived letter duration was prolonged with increasing auditory duration. The results and their interpretation with respect to the large observed interindividual performance differences are discussed in terms of potential underlying mechanisms of multisensory facilitation, as preparedness enhancement, signal enhancement, and object enhancement.
       
  • Functional fixedness in tool use: Learning modality, limitations and
           individual differences
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Felipe Munoz-Rubke, Devon Olson, Russell Will, Karin H. James Functional fixedness is a cognitive bias that describes how previous knowledge of a tool's function can negatively impact the use of this tool in novel contexts. As such, functional fixedness disturbs the use of tools during mechanical problem solving. Little is known about whether this bias emerges from different experiences with tools, whether it occurs regardless of problem difficulty, or whether there are protective factors against it. To resolve the first issue, we created five experimental groups: Reading (R), Video (V), Manual (M), No Functional Fixedness (NFF), and No Training (NT). The R group learned to use tools by reading a description of their use, the V group by watching an instructional video, and the M group through direct instruction and active manipulation of the tools. To resolve the remaining two issues, we created mechanical puzzles of distinct difficulty and used tests of intuitive physics, fine motor skills, and creativity.Results showed that misleading functional knowledge is at the core of functional fixedness, and that this bias generates cognitive impasses in simple puzzles, but it does not play a role in higher difficulty problems. Additionally, intuitive physics and motor skills were protective factors against its emergence, but creativity did not influence it. Although functional fixedness leads to inaccurate problem solving, our results suggest that its effects are more limited than previously assumed.
       
  • Auditory temporal processing, reading, and phonological awareness among
           aging adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Michal Ronen, Adi Lifshitz-Ben-Basat, Riki Taitelbaum-Swead, Leah Fostick Auditory temporal processing (ATP) has been related in the literature to both speech perception as well as reading and phonological awareness. In aging adults, it is known to be related to difficulties in speech perception. In the present study, we aimed to test whether an age-related deficit in ATP would also be accompanied by poor reading and phonological awareness. Thirty-eight aging adults were compared to 55 readers with dyslexia and 42 young normal readers on temporal order judgment (TOJ), speech perception, reading, and phonological awareness tests. Aging adults had longer TOJ thresholds than young normal readers, but shorter than readers with dyslexia; however, they had lower speech perception accuracy than both groups. Phonological awareness of the aging adults was better than readers with dyslexia, but poorer than young normal readers, although their reading accuracy was similar to that of the young controls. This is the first report on poor phonological awareness among aging adults. Suprisingly, it was not accompanied by difficulties in reading ability, and might instead be related to aging adults' difficulties in speech perception. This newly discovered relationship between ATP and phonological awareness among aging adults appears to extend the existing understanding of this relationship, and suggests it should be explored in other groups with ATP deficits.
       
  • Attentional competition across saccadic eye movements
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 190Author(s): Christian H. Poth, Werner X. Schneider Human behavior is guided by visual object recognition. For being recognized, objects compete for limited attentional processing resources. The more objects compete, the lower is performance in recognizing each individual object. Here, we ask whether this competition is confined to eye fixations, periods of relatively stable gaze, or whether it extends from one fixation to the next, across saccadic eye movements. Participants made saccades to a peripheral saccade target. After the saccade, a letter was briefly presented within the saccade target and terminated by a mask. Object recognition of the letter was assessed as participants' report. Critically, either no, two, or four additional non-target objects appeared before the saccade. In Experiment 1, presaccadic non-targets were task-irrelevant and had no effects on postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 2, presaccadic non-targets were task-relevant and, here, postsaccadic object recognition deteriorated with increasing number of presaccadic non-targets. As suggested by Experiment 3 and a mathematical model, this effect was due to a slowing down but also a delayed start of visual processing after the saccade. Together, our findings show that objects compete for recognition across saccades, but only if they are task-relevant. This reveals an attentional mechanism of task-driven object recognition that is interlaced with active saccade-mediated vision.
       
  • Distinct effects of different visual cues on sentence comprehension and
           later recall: The case of speaker gaze versus depicted actions
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 188Author(s): Helene Kreysa, Eva M. Nunnemann, Pia Knoeferle Language-processing accounts are beginning to accommodate different visual context effects, but they remain underspecified regarding differences between cues, both during sentence comprehension and subsequent recall. We monitored participants' eye movements to mentioned characters while they listened to transitive sentences. We varied whether speaker gaze, a depicted action, neither, or both of these visual cues were available, as well as whether both cues were deictic (Experiment 1) or only speaker gaze (Experiment 2). Speaker gaze affected eye movements during comprehension similarly early to a single deictic action depiction, but significantly earlier than non-deictic action depictions; conversely, depicted actions but not speaker gaze positively affected later recall of sentence content. Thus, cue type and cue-language relations must be accommodated in characterising real-time situated language comprehension and subsequent recall of sentence content.
       
  • Continuous aesthetic judgment of image sequences
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 188Author(s): Mel W. Khaw, David Freedberg Perceptual judgments are said to be reference-dependent as they change on the basis of recent experiences. Here we quantify sequence effects within two types of aesthetic judgments: (i) individual ratings of single images (during self-paced trials) and (ii) continuous ratings of image sequences. As in the case of known contrast effects, trial-by-trial aesthetic responses are negatively correlated with judgments made toward the preceding image. During continuous judgment, a different type of bias is observed. The onset of change within a sequence introduces a persistent increase in ratings (relative to when the same images are judged in isolation). Furthermore, subjects indicate adjustment patterns and choices that selectively favor sequences that are rich in change. Sequence effects in aesthetic judgments thus differ greatly depending on the continuity and arrangement of presented stimuli. The effects highlighted here are important in understanding sustained aesthetic responses over time, such as those elicited during choreographic and musical arrangements. In contrast, standard measurements of aesthetic responses (over trials) may represent a series of distinct aesthetic experiences (e.g., viewing artworks in a museum).
       
  • Bouba or kiki with and without vision: Shape-audio regularities and mental
           images
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 188Author(s): Torø Graven, Clea Desebrock 95% of the world's population associate a rounded visual shape with the spoken word ‘bouba’, and an angular visual shape with the spoken word ‘kiki’, known as the bouba/kiki-effect. The bouba/kiki-effect occurs irrespective of familiarity with either the shape or word. This study investigated the bouba/kiki-effect when using haptic touch instead of vision, including the role of visual imagery. It also investigated whether the bouba/kiki shape-audio regularities are noticed at all, that is, whether they affect the bouba/kiki-effect itself and/or the recognition of individual bouba/kiki shapes, and finally what mental images they produce. Three experiments were conducted, with three groups of participants: blind, blindfold, and vision. In Experiment 1, the participants were asked to pick out the tactile/visual shape that they associated with the auditory bouba/kiki. Experiment 1 found that the participants who were blind did not show an instant bouba/kiki-effect (in Trial 1), whereas the blindfolded and the fully sighted did. It also found that the bouba/kiki shape-audio regularities affected the bouba/kiki-effect when using haptic touch: Those who were blind did show the bouba/kiki-effect from Trial 4, and those who were blindfolded no longer did. In Experiment 2, the participants were asked to name one tactile/visual shape and a segment of audio together as either ‘bouba’ or ‘kiki’. Experiment 2 found that corresponding shape and audio improved the accuracy of both the blindfolded and the fully sighted, but not of those who were blind – they ignored the audio. Finally, in Experiment 3, the participants were asked to draw the shape that they associated with the auditory bouba/kiki. Experiment 3 found that their mental images, as depicted in their drawings, were not affected by whether they had experienced the bouba/kiki shapes by haptic touch or by vision. Regardless of their prior shape experience, that is, tactile or visual, their mental images included the most characteristic shape feature of bouba and kiki: curve and angle, respectively, and typically not the global shape. When taken together, these experiments suggest that the sensory regularities and mental images concerning bouba and kiki do not have to be based on, or even include visual information.
       
  • Changes in the spatial spread of attention with ageing
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 188Author(s): Rebecca K. Lawrence, Mark Edwards, Stephanie C. Goodhew Spatial attention is a necessary cognitive process, allowing for the direction of limited capacity resources to varying locations in the visual field for improved visual processing. Thus, understanding how ageing influences these processes is vital. The current study explored the relationship between the spatial spread of attention and healthy ageing using an inhibition of return task to tap visual attention processing. This task allowed us to measure the spatial distribution of inhibition, and thus acted as a marker for attentional spread. Past research has indicated minimal age differences in inhibitory spread. However, these studies used placeholder stimuli, which may have restricted the range over which age differences could be reliably measured. To address this, in Experiment One, we measured the relationship between the spatial spread of inhibition and healthy ageing using a method which did not employ placeholders. In contrast to past research, an age difference in inhibitory spread was observed, where in comparison to younger adults, older adults exhibited a relatively restricted spread of attention. Experiment Two then confirmed these findings, by directly comparing inhibitory spread for placeholder present and placeholder absent conditions, across younger and older adults. Again, it was found that age differences in inhibitory spread emerged, but only in the placeholder absent condition. Possible reasons for the observed age differences in attention are discussed.
       
  • Can the post-error effect mask age-related differences in congruency
           conditions when education and overall accuracy are controlled for'
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 188Author(s): Arturo X. Pereiro, Byron F. Bustamante, María A. Cisneros, Onésimo Juncos-Rabadán ObjectiveAge-related differences in stimulus–response congruency tasks have been attributed to older adults' greater difficulties in handling the irrelevant spatial-dimensional overlap between stimulus and response. However, performance on congruency tasks may also be influenced by the previous trial accuracy (i.e. post-error effect), which may affect young and older adults differently. The main objective of this study was to analyse age-related differences in the post-error effect as a function of congruency. In addition, we examined the meditational role of the Gratton effect on the age-related differences in the post-error slowing (PES) and post-error increased accuracy (PIA) as a function of congruency.MethodThe sample comprised 165 healthy adult participants with diverse educational attainment, divided into five age groups. Participants performed a spatial stimulus–response congruency task. Age-related differences in the post-error effect were analysed for each congruency condition taking into account educational attainment and overall accuracy. Statistical procedures were used to neutralize age-related processing speed effects on the PES.ResultsPES was observed across all age groups, except the Very old group (aged 85–98 years), and it was not related to congruency condition. PIA was observed across age groups in all congruency conditions and was slightly higher in incongruent trials. Evidence of simultaneous PES and PIA was found for young participants and older participants under 85 years. The Very old group did not need to significantly slow down their responses after errors to improve accuracy. No age- related difference was found in the influence of the Gratton effect on PES or PIA as a function of congruency.ConclusionsPES and PIA were observed in young adults and older adults under 85 years old. Evidence of simultaneous PES and PIA in the young and older age group (except for the Very old) indicates that the post-error effect can be interpreted in terms of recruitment of additional resources to prevent subsequent errors. Slightly higher accuracy was observed in the incongruent condition in post-error trials relative to pre-error correct trials across age groups.
       
  • Configural face perception in childhood and adolescence: An individual
           differences approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 188Author(s): Anastasia Petrakova, Werner Sommer, Martin Junge, Andrea Hildebrandt Cognitive experimental and neuroscientific research in adults indicates that an important property of face perception is its specificity and reliance on configural processing. In addition, individual differences in face perception between adults cannot be entirely explained through general cognitive functioning and object cognition. Although recent years have witnessed growing interest in the development of face perception through childhood and adolescence, as yet, little is known about individual differences in configural face perception in this period of life, and whether these differences are face-specific. Here, we addressed these questions in a large sample (N = 338) drawn continuously from age six to 21. We applied a face composite task and a spatial manipulation task including stimulus inversion. Immediate and delayed face memory were assessed as covariates of configural face perception. Content specificity in configural face perception was tested by analogous tasks with houses as stimuli. In addition, we measured working memory and fluid intelligence. Our results show that there are large individual differences in configural face perception across the entire age range from six to 21 years. Supporting theories of early maturation, configural face perception was almost adult-like already at age six. Individual differences in configural face perception were related with immediate and delayed face memory and fluid intelligence across the whole age range. In sum, we provide novel evidence on large individual differences in configural face and object perception already in middle childhood, complementing findings from aging studies and providing new perspectives for further research.
       
  • Backward crosstalk and the role of dimensional overlap within and between
           tasks
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 188Author(s): Lynn Huestegge, Aleks Pieczykolan, Markus Janczyk In dual-task situations, which often involve some form of sequential task processing, features of Task 2 were shown to affect Task 1 performance, a phenomenon termed “backward crosstalk effect” (BCE). Most previous reports of BCEs are based on manipulations of code compatibility between tasks, while there is no clear picture whether and how mere Task 2 response selection difficulty (in the absence of cross-task dimensional code overlap, including effector system overlap) may also affect Task 1 performance. In the present study, we systematically manipulated response-response (R1-R2) relation (compatible, incompatible, arbitrary) and the stimulus-response (S-R) relation in Task 2 (S2-R2: compatible, incompatible, arbitrary; i.e., a classic manipulation of Task 2 response selection difficulty) to study the impact of dimensional overlap and compatibility within and across tasks using an integrated stimulus for both a vocal Task 1 and a manual Task 2. Results revealed a replication of a classic (spatial) R1-R2 compatibility BCE (based on code compatibility), demonstrating that our paradigm is principally suited to capture typical BCEs. Importantly, conditions involving a removal of dimensional code overlap between tasks still yielded an effect of mere Task 2 response selection difficulty on Task 1 performance. Both types of BCEs (i.e., BCEs based on code compatibility and BCEs based on Task 2 difficulty) could be assumed to be rooted in anticipation of response selection difficulty triggered by stimuli indicating either R1-R2 or S2-R2 incompatibility. The results are in line with recent theoretical claims that anticipations of response characteristics (or effects) play an important role for BCEs in particular and for conflict resolution in action control in general.
       
  • The left hand disrupts subsequent right hand grasping when their actions
           overlap
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 188Author(s): Rixin Tang, Sixuan Ren, James T. Enns, Robert L. Whitwell Adaptive motor control is premised on the principle of movement minimization, which in turn is premised on a form of sensorimotor memory. But what is the nature of this memory and under what conditions does it operate' Here, we test the limits of sensorimotor memory in an intermanual context by testing the effect that the action performed by the left hand has on subsequent right hand grasps. Target feature-overlap predicts that sensorimotor memory is engaged when task-relevant sensory features of the target are similar across actions; partial effector-overlap predicts that sensorimotor memory is engaged when there is similarity in the task-relevant effectors used to perform an action; and the action-goal conjunction hypotheses predicts that sensorimotor memories are engaged when the action goal and the action type overlap. In three experiments, participants used their left hand to reach out and pick up an object, manually estimate its size, pinch it, look at it, or merely rest the left hand before reaching out to pick up a second object with their right hand. The in-flight anticipatory grip aperture of right-hand grasps was only influenced when it was preceded by grasps performed by the left-hand. Overlap in the sizes of the objects, partial overlap in the effectors used, and in the availability of haptic feedback bore no influence on this metric. These results support the hypothesis that intermanual transfer of sensorimotor memory on grasp execution is dependent on a conjunction of action type and goal.
       
  • Visual similarity modulates visual size contrast
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 188Author(s): N. Bruno, G. Garofalo, O. Daneyko, L. Riggio Perception is relational: object properties are perceived in comparison to the spatiotemporal context rather than absolutely. This principle predicts well known contrast effects: For instance, the same sphere will feel smaller after feeling a larger sphere and larger after feeling a smaller sphere (the Uznadze effect). In a series of experiments, we used a visual version of the Uznadze effect to test whether such contrast effects can be modulated by organizational factors, such as the similarity between the contrasting inducer stimulus and the contrasted induced stimulus. We report that this is indeed the case: size contrast is attenuated for inducer-inducing pairs having different 3D shapes, orientations, and even – surprisingly – color and lightness, in comparison to equivalent conditions where these features are the same. These findings complement related work in revealing basic mechanisms for fine-tuning local interactions in space-time in accord to the global stimulus context.
       
  • The optimal viewing position effect in printed versus cursive words:
           Evidence of a reading cost for the cursive font
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 188Author(s): Jérémy Danna, Delphine Massendari, Benjamin Furnari, Stéphanie Ducrot Two eye-movement experiments were conducted to examine the effects of font type on the recognition of words presented in central vision, using a variable-viewing-position technique. Two main questions were addressed: (1) Is the optimal viewing position (OVP) for word recognition modulated by font type' (2) Is the cursive font more appropriate than the printed font in word recognition in children who exclusively write using a cursive script' In order to disentangle the role of perceptual difficulty associated with the cursive font and the impact of writing habits, we tested French adults (Experiment 1) and second-grade French children, the latter having exclusively learned to write in cursive (Experiment 2). Results revealed that the printed font is more appropriate than the cursive for recognizing words in both adults and children: adults were slightly less accurate in cursive than in printed stimuli recognition and children were slower to identify cursive stimuli than printed stimuli. Eye-movement measures also revealed that the OVP curves were flattened in cursive font in both adults and children. We concluded that the perceptual difficulty of the cursive font degrades word recognition by impacting the OVP stability.
       
  • Effects of planning strategies on writing dynamics and final texts
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 188Author(s): Teresa Limpo, Rui A. Alves Expert writing involves the interaction among three cognitively demanding processes: planning, translating, and revising. To manage the cognitive load brought on by these processes, writers frequently use strategies. Here, we examined the effects of planning strategies on writing dynamics and final texts. Before writing an argumentative text with the triple-task technique, 63 undergraduates were asked either to elaborate an outline with the argumentative structure embedded (structure-based planning condition), to provide a written list of ideas for the text (list-based planning condition), or to do a non-writing-related filler task (no planning condition). Planning showed no effects on the length of the pre-writing pause and cognitive effort, but influenced writing processes occurrences. Compared to participants in the no-planning condition, those in the planning conditions showed a later activation of revising. Moreover, participants in the structure-based condition were mainly focused on translating in the beginning and middle of composition, whereas their peers tended to distribute their attention among all processes. Planning ahead of writing also resulted in texts with longer words, produced at a higher rate. Only the structure-based planning strategy led to an increase in the number of argumentation elements as well as in essays' persuasiveness and overall quality. There was, however, no indication that these improvements in final texts were associated with changes in the dynamics of writing. Overall, the use of structure-based plans seems to be an effective and efficient way of improving undergraduates' argumentative writing.
       
  • Change perception and change interference within and across feature
           dimensions
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 188Author(s): Michael Pilling, Doug J.K. Barrett The ability to perceive a change in a visual object is reduced when that change is presented in competition with other changes which are task-irrelevant. We performed two experiments which investigate the basis of this change interference effect. We tested whether change interference occurs as a consequence of some form of attentional capture, or whether the interference occurs at a stage prior to attentional selection of the task-relevant change. A modified probe-detection task was used to explore this issue. Observers were required to report the presence/absence of a specified change-type (colour, shape) in the probe, in a context in which - on certain trials - irrelevant changes occur in non-probe items. There were two key variables in these experiments: the attentional state of the observer, and the dimensional congruence of changes in the probe and non-probe items. Change interference was strongest when the irrelevant changes were the same as those on the report dimension. However the interference pattern persisted even when observers did not know the report dimension at the time the changes occurred. These results seem to rule out attention as a factor. Our results fit best with an interpretation in which change interference produces feature-specific sensory noise which degrades the signal quality of the target change.
       
  • Low-level image properties in facial expressions
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 188Author(s): Claudia Menzel, Christoph Redies, Gregor U. Hayn-Leichsenring We studied low-level image properties of face photographs and analyzed whether they change with different emotional expressions displayed by an individual. Differences in image properties were measured in three databases that depicted a total of 167 individuals. Face images were used either in their original form, cut to a standard format or superimposed with a mask. Image properties analyzed were: brightness, redness, yellowness, contrast, spectral slope, overall power and relative power in low, medium and high spatial frequencies. Results showed that image properties differed significantly between expressions within each individual image set. Further, specific facial expressions corresponded to patterns of image properties that were consistent across all three databases. In order to experimentally validate our findings, we equalized the luminance histograms and spectral slopes of three images from a given individual who showed two expressions. Participants were significantly slower in matching the expression in an equalized compared to an original image triad. Thus, existing differences in these image properties (i.e., spectral slope, brightness or contrast) facilitate emotion detection in particular sets of face images.
       
  • Can gender priming eliminate the effects of stereotype threat' The
           case of simple dynamic systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 188Author(s): Vivien Lungwitz, Peter Sedlmeier, Marcus Schwarz Mathematics and mental rotation are classic fields where it has been shown that priming women with their gender identity impedes performance. Whereas past research focused mainly on stereotype threat effects in women in a narrowly defined context, this study broadened the research focus: We primed 264 women and men equally with a male, a neutral, or a female prime before they had to solve a simple dynamic system task. As expected, female-primed women subsequently performed worst of all six groups. Solution rates were almost 14% higher for the women in the male-primed condition. Men performed better than women in all three priming conditions. However, this difference was reduced in the male-primed condition as women's performance had increased as anticipated. Unexpected was a decline in the male performance in the same condition. The study showed that gender priming had a significant effect on women in tasks involving simple dynamic systems. However, mathematical knowledge and area of occupation clearly were stronger predictors for both men and women. Priming alone cannot eliminate the effects of stereotype threat.
       
  • ADHD and math - The differential effect on calculation and estimation
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 188Author(s): Dana Ganor-Stern, Ofir Steinhorn Adults with ADHD were compared to controls when solving multiplication problems exactly and when estimating the results of multidigit multiplication problems relative to reference numbers. The ADHD participants were slower than controls in the exact calculation and in the estimation tasks, but not less accurate. The ADHD participants were similar to controls in showing enhanced accuracy and speed for smaller problem sizes, for trials in which the reference numbers were smaller (vs. larger) than the exact answers and for reference numbers that were far (vs. close) from the exact answer. The two groups similarly used the approximated calculation and the sense of magnitude strategies. They differed however in strategy execution, mainly of the approximated calculation strategy, which requires working memory resources. The increase in reaction time associated with using the approximated calculation strategy was larger for the ADHD compared to the control participants. Thus, ADHD seems to selectively impair calculation processes in estimation tasks that rely on working memory, but it does not hamper estimation skills that are based on sense of magnitude. The educational implications of these findings are discussed.
       
  • A grand memory for forgetting: Directed forgetting across contextual
           changes
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 188Author(s): Tracy L. Taylor, Jeff P. Hamm Using an item-method directed forgetting task, we presented homographic homophonic nouns embedded in sentences. At study, each sentence was followed by an instruction to remember or forget the embedded word. On a subsequent yes-no recognition test, each word was again embedded within a sentence. In Experiments 1, 2, and 4 we varied the embedding sentence at test so that it was identical to that at study, changed but retained the meaning of the studied word, or changed to alter the meaning of the studied word. Repeated context – whether the sentence and/or the word meaning – proved to be as useful a retrieval cue for TBF items as for TBR items. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that physical repetition was insufficient to produce context effects for either TBR or TBF items. And, in Experiment 4, we determined that participants were equally accurate in reporting context repetition/change following the correct recognition of TBR and TBF items. When considered in light of the existing literature, our results suggest that when context can be dissociated from the study item, it is encoded in “one shot” and not vulnerable to subsequent efforts to limit unwanted encoding.
       
  • Tolerance to spatial-relational transformations in unfamiliar faces: A
           further challenge to a configural processing account of identity
           recognition
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 188Author(s): Martina Lorenzino, Martina Caminati, Corrado Caudek One of the most important questions in face perception research is to understand what information is extracted from a face in order to recognize its identity. Recognition of facial identity has been attributed to a special sensitivity to “configural” information. However, recent studies have challenged the configural account by showing that participants are poor in discriminating variations of metric distances among facial features, especially for familiar as opposed to unfamiliar faces, whereas a configural account predicts the opposite. We aimed to extend these previous results by examining classes of unfamiliar faces with which we have different levels of expertise. We hypothesized an inverse relation between sensitivity to configural information and expertise with a given class of faces, but only for neutral expressions. By first matching perceptual discriminability, we measured tolerance to subtle configural transformations with same-race (SR) versus other-race (OR) faces, and with upright versus upside-down faces. Consistently with our predictions, we found a lower sensitivity to at-threshold configural changes for SR compared to OR faces. We also found that, for our stimuli, the face inversion effect disappeared for neutral but not for emotional faces – a result that can also be attributed to a lower sensitivity to configural transformations for faces presented in a more familiar orientation. The present findings question a purely configural account of face processing and suggest that the role of spatial-relational information in face processing varies according to the functional demands of the task and to the characteristics of the stimuli.
       
  • Dissociating action-effect activation and effect-based response selection
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 188Author(s): Katharina A. Schwarz, Roland Pfister, Robert Wirth, Wilfried Kunde Anticipated action effects have been shown to govern action selection and initiation, as described in ideomotor theory, and they have also been demonstrated to determine crosstalk between different tasks in multitasking studies. Such effect-based crosstalk was observed not only in a forward manner (with a first task influencing performance in a following second task) but also in a backward manner (the second task influencing the preceding first task), suggesting that action effect codes can become activated prior to a capacity-limited processing stage often denoted as response selection. The process of effect-based response production, by contrast, has been proposed to be capacity-limited. These observations jointly suggest that effect code activation can occur independently of effect-based response production, though this theoretical implication has not been tested directly at present. We tested this hypothesis by employing a dual-task set-up in which we manipulated the ease of effect-based response production (via response-effect compatibility) in an experimental design that allows for observing forward and backward crosstalk. We observed robust crosstalk effects and response-effect compatibility effects alike, but no interaction between both effects. These results indicate that effect activation can occur in parallel for several tasks, independently of effect-based response production, which is confined to one task at a time.
       
  • Negative social emotions and cognition: Shame, guilt and working memory
           impairments
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 188Author(s): Cesare Cavalera, Alessandro Pepe, Valentino Zurloni, Barbara Diana, Olivia Realdon, Patrizia Todisco, Gianluca Castelnuovo, Enrico Molinari, Francesco Pagnini Negative emotions can have an impact on a variety of cognitive domains, including Working Memory (WM). The present work investigated whether shame and guilt modulate WM performance in a dual-task test both in a non-clinical and a clinical population. In Experiment 1, 76 non-clinical participants performed a dual-task before and after being randomly assigned to shame, guilt or neutral inductions elicited by the writing of autobiographical past experiences. Shame and guilt elicitations were related to impaired WM performances. In Experiment 2, 65 clinical inpatients with eating disorders were assigned to the same procedure. The negative relationship of self-conscious emotions and WM was confirmed. Taken together these results suggest that shame and guilt are related to impairments of WM in both clinical and non-clinical participants.
       
  • Emotional arousal and memory after deep encoding
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 188Author(s): Jacqueline S. Leventon, Gabriela L. Camacho, Maria D. Ramos Rojas, Angelica Ruedas Emotion often enhances long-term memory. One mechanism for this enhancement is heightened arousal during encoding. However, reducing arousal, via emotion regulation (ER) instructions, has not been associated with reduced memory. In fact, the opposite pattern has been observed: stronger memory for emotional stimuli encoded with an ER instruction to reduce arousal. This pattern may be due to deeper encoding required by ER instructions. In the current research, we examine the effects of emotional arousal and deep-encoding on memory across three studies. In Study 1, adult participants completed a writing task (deep-encoding) for encoding negative, neutral, and positive picture stimuli, whereby half the emotion stimuli had the ER instruction to reduce the emotion. Memory was strong across conditions, and no memory enhancement was observed for any condition. In Study 2, adult participants completed the same writing task as Study 1, as well as a shallow-encoding task for one-third of negative, neutral, and positive trials. Memory was strongest for deep vs. shallow encoding trials, with no effects of emotion or ER instruction. In Study 3, adult participants completed a shallow-encoding task for negative, neutral, and positive stimuli, with findings indicating enhanced memory for negative emotional stimuli. Findings suggest that deep encoding must be acknowledged as a source of memory enhancement when examining manipulations of emotion-related arousal.
       
  • Inspired by the past and looking to the future of the Stroop effect
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2018Source: Acta PsychologicaAuthor(s): Avishai Henik, Julie M. Bugg, Liat Goldfarb
       
 
 
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