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Showing 1 - 200 of 3049 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 364, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
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Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
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Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
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Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
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Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 360, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
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Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
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Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 333, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 416, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)

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Journal Cover Acta Psychologica
  [SJR: 1.365]   [H-I: 73]   [24 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-6918
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3049 journals]
  • The influence of eye-movements on the development of a movement sequence
           representation during observational and physical practice
    • Authors: Matthias Massing; Yannick Blandin; Stefan Panzer
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Matthias Massing, Yannick Blandin, Stefan Panzer
      An experiment was conducted to examine the development of a movement sequence representation and the role of eye-movements during observational and physical practice. The task was to reproduce a 1300ms spatial-temporal pattern of a sequence of elbow flexions and extensions. An inter-manual transfer design with a retention and two effector transfer tests (contralateral limb) was used. The mirror transfer test required the same pattern of homologous muscle activation and a sequence of joint angles as experienced during the acquisition phase, and the non-mirror transfer test required the same visual-spatial pattern as performed or observed during acquisition. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups differing in eye-movements (free to use their eyes vs. instruction to fixate) and the practice type (observational practice vs. physical practice). The results indicated that permitting to use eye-movements facilitates sequence learning. This advantage was found on both practice types. The results of the transfer tests indicated that participants of the physical practice group who were permitted to use their eyes demonstrated superior transfer performance in the mirror transfer test, while participants in the observational practice group demonstrated better performance on the non-mirror transfer test. These findings indicated that eye-movements enhanced the development of a visual-spatial representation during observational practice as well as a motor representation during physical practice.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T09:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Search strategies in practice: Influence of information and task
    • Authors: Matheus M. Pacheco; Karl M. Newell
      Pages: 9 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Matheus M. Pacheco, Karl M. Newell
      The practice of a motor task has been conceptualized as a process of search through a perceptual-motor workspace. The present study investigated the influence of information and task constraints on the search strategy as reflected in the sequential relations of the outcome in a discrete movement virtual projectile task. The results showed that the relation between the changes of trial-to-trial movement outcome to performance level was dependent on the landscape of the task dynamics and the influence of inherent variability. Furthermore, the search was in a constrained parameter region of the perceptual-motor workspace that depended on the task constraints. These findings show that there is not a single function of trial-to-trial change over practice but rather that local search strategies (proportional, discontinuous, constant) adapt to the level of performance and the confluence of constraints to action.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:00:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Working memory capacity and intra-individual variability of proactive
    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Wiemers; Thomas S. Redick
      Pages: 21 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Elizabeth A. Wiemers, Thomas S. Redick
      Two datasets of 110 young adults were examined to investigate the relationship between individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) and dynamic cognitive control. The results delve into the specific differences between high- and low-WMC individuals' ability to enact and maintain cognitive control using the AX version of the continuous performance test (AX-CPT). Compared to high-WMC individuals, low-WMC individuals: (a) made more errors, specifically to AX targets; (b) exhibited a partial shift to proactive control with more time-on-task; (c) had more exaggerated slower AX target responses in the tail of the response time distribution; and (d) were equally likely to adjust control after conflict. These results fit with the dual mechanisms of cognitive control theory and goal-maintenance account, and further clarify how individual differences in WMC manifests as intra-individual variability in cognitive control.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:00:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Inducing circular vection with tactile stimulation encircling the waist
    • Authors: Angelica M. Tinga; Chris Jansen; Maarten J. van der Smagt; Tanja C.W. Nijboer; Jan B.F. van Erp
      Pages: 32 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Angelica M. Tinga, Chris Jansen, Maarten J. van der Smagt, Tanja C.W. Nijboer, Jan B.F. van Erp
      In general, moving sensory stimuli (visual and auditory) can induce illusory sensations of self-motion (i.e. vection) in the direction opposite of the sensory stimulation. The aim of the current study was to examine whether tactile stimulation encircling the waist could induce circular vection (around the body's yaw axis) and to examine whether this type of stimulation would influence participants' walking trajectory and balance. We assessed the strength and direction of perceived self-motion while vision was blocked and while either receiving tactile stimulation encircling the waist clockwise or counterclockwise or no tactile stimulation. Additionally, we assessed participants' walking trajectory and balance while receiving these different stimulations. Tactile stimulation encircling the waist was found to lead to self-reported circular vection in a subset of participants. In this subset of participants, circular vection was on average experienced in the same direction as the tactile stimulation. Additionally, perceived rotatory self-motion in participants that reported circular vection correlated with balance (i.e., sway velocity and the standard error of the mean in the medio-lateral dimension). The fact that, in this subset of participants, subjective reports of vection correlated with objective outcome measures indicates that tactile stimulation encircling the waist might indeed be able to induced circular vection.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:00:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Limited generalization with varied, as compared to specific, practice in
           short-term motor learning
    • Authors: Chéla R. Willey; Zili Liu
      Pages: 39 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Chéla R. Willey, Zili Liu
      The schema theory of learning predicts that varied training in motor learning should give rise to better transfer than specific training. For example, throwing beanbags during practice to targets 5 and 9ft away should better generalize to targets 7 and 11ft away, as compared to only throwing to a target 7ft away. In this study, we tested this prediction in a throwing task, when the pretest, practice, and posttest were all completed within an hour. Participants in the varied group practiced throwing at 5 and 9ft targets, while participants in the specific group practiced throwing at 7ft only. All participants reliably reduced errors from pretest to posttest. The varied group never outperformed the specific group at the 7ft target (the trained target for the specific group). They did not reliably outperform the specific group at 11ft, either. The numerically better performance at 11ft by the varied group was due, as it turned out in a subsequent experiment, to the fact that 11ft was closer to 9ft (one of the two training targets for the varied group) than to 7ft (the training target for the specific group). We conclude that varied training played a very limited role in short-term motor learning.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • The order of information processing alters economic gain-loss framing
    • Authors: Youngbin Kwak; Scott Huettel
      Pages: 46 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Youngbin Kwak, Scott Huettel
      Adaptive decision making requires analysis of available information during the process of choice. In many decisions that information is presented visually – which means that variations in visual properties (e.g., salience, complexity) can potentially influence the process of choice. In the current study, we demonstrate that variation in the left-right positioning of risky and safe decision options can influence the canonical gain-loss framing effect. Two experiments were conducted using an economic framing task in which participants chose between gambles and certain outcomes. The first experiment demonstrated that the magnitude of the gain-loss framing effect was greater when the certain option signaling the current frame was presented on the left side of the visual display. Eye-tracking data during task performance showed a left-gaze bias for initial fixations, suggesting that the option presented on the left side was processed first. Combination of eye-tracking and choice data revealed that there was a significant effect of direction of first gaze (i.e. left vs. right) as well as an interaction between gaze direction and identity of the first fixated information (i.e. certain vs. gamble) regardless of frame. A second experiment presented the gamble and certain options in a random order, with a temporal delay between their presentations. We found that the magnitude of gain-loss framing was larger when the certain option was presented first, regardless of left and right positioning, only in individuals with lower risk-taking tendencies. The effect of presentation order on framing was not present in high risk-takers. These results suggest that the sequence of visual information processing as well as their left-right positioning can bias choices by changing the impact of the presented information during risky decision making.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.013
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Improving novel motor learning through prior high contextual interference
    • Authors: T. Kim; J. Chen; W.B. Verwey; D.L. Wright
      Pages: 55 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): T. Kim, J. Chen, W.B. Verwey, D.L. Wright
      The primary objective of the present experiment was to examine the influence of recent practice in a random and blocked format for future motor learning. First, individuals practiced three unique discrete sequence production tasks in either a blocked or random schedule. One day later, all individuals practiced a new motor sequence not previously practiced. On day three, mean total time for the test performance of the original three motor sequences was lower for individuals that practiced in a random format. This emerged as a significant reduction in mean total time from the completion of practice and the test trials implicating offline consolidation as a key contributor to the random practice performance advantage. A novel finding from the present work was that the acquisition of the novel discrete sequence production task practiced on Day 2 was better for individuals that had prior random rather than blocked practice experience. This benefit was robust appearing early during acquisition as significantly lower mean total time. This benefit from random practice experience remained during the delayed test trials administered on Day 3 for the novel motor sequence.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Effects of grasp compatibility on long-term memory for objects
    • Authors: Ivonne Canits; Diane Pecher; René Zeelenberg
      Pages: 65 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Ivonne Canits, Diane Pecher, René Zeelenberg
      Previous studies have shown action potentiation during conceptual processing of manipulable objects. In four experiments, we investigated whether these motor actions also play a role in long-term memory. Participants categorized objects that afforded either a power grasp or a precision grasp as natural or artifact by grasping cylinders with either a power grasp or a precision grasp. In all experiments, responses were faster when the affordance of the object was compatible with the type of grasp response. However, subsequent free recall and recognition memory tasks revealed no better memory for object pictures and object names for which the grasp affordance was compatible with the grasp response. The present results therefore do not support the hypothesis that motor actions play a role in long-term memory.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • The influence of intention and outcome on evaluations of social
    • Authors: Xiaoying Wu; Rui Hua; Zhangxiang Yang; Jun Yin
      Pages: 75 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Xiaoying Wu, Rui Hua, Zhangxiang Yang, Jun Yin
      Reading and making sense of social interactions between individuals is an important part of our daily social lives. Given that actions tend to be interpreted in terms of intent within the observed outcome, we investigated how intent and outcome interactively influence evaluations of social interactions. Through visual animations, intent was operationalized as an agent's (i.e., actor's) act intentionally or unintentionally having an influence on another agent (i.e., affectee). In Experiment 1, the act was helpful and the consequences brought small or great benefits to the affectee. In Experiment 2, the act was harmful and brought small or great losses to the affectee. We found that for both helpful and harmful contexts, social interaction evaluations were influenced by an interaction between the intent and outcome of the act. Specifically, great help/harm (i.e., the great-benefits or great-losses condition) was rated as a stronger social interaction than small help/harm, and the difference was larger in the intentional condition than in the unintentional condition. Furthermore, regardless of the interaction valence, the effect of the intent was larger than the effect of the outcome when evaluating social interaction. This result suggests that observers consider the intent and outcome jointly when evaluating a given social interaction, and the intent has a privileged role in this process. These findings are consistent with the idea that the intent is often deemed to be the cause driving the effect of outcome, and they help us to understand how social interactions are constructed within the action understanding system.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Acute stress affects prospective memory functions via associative memory
    • Authors: Ágnes Szőllősi; Péter Pajkossy; Gyula Demeter; Szabolcs Kéri; Mihály Racsmány
      Pages: 82 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Ágnes Szőllősi, Péter Pajkossy, Gyula Demeter, Szabolcs Kéri, Mihály Racsmány
      Recent findings suggest that acute stress can improve the execution of delayed intentions (prospective memory, PM). However, it is unclear whether this improvement can be explained by altered executive control processes or by altered associative memory functioning. To investigate this issue, we used physical-psychosocial stressors to induce acute stress in laboratory settings. Then participants completed event- and time-based PM tasks requiring the different contribution of control processes and a control task (letter fluency) frequently used to measure executive functions. According to our results, acute stress had no impact on ongoing task performance, time-based PM, and verbal fluency, whereas it enhanced event-based PM as measured by response speed for the prospective cues. Our findings indicate that, here, acute stress did not affect executive control processes. We suggest that stress affected event-based PM via associative memory processes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Mapping language to visual referents: Does the degree of image realism
    • Authors: Raheleh Saryazdi; Craig G. Chambers
      Pages: 91 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Raheleh Saryazdi, Craig G. Chambers
      Studies of real-time spoken language comprehension have shown that listeners rapidly map unfolding speech to available referents in the immediate visual environment. This has been explored using various kinds of 2-dimensional (2D) stimuli, with convenience or availability typically motivating the choice of a particular image type. However, work in other areas has suggested that certain cognitive processes are sensitive to the level of realism in 2D representations. The present study examined the process of mapping language to depictions of objects that are more or less realistic, namely photographs versus clipart images. A custom stimulus set was first created by generating clipart images directly from photographs of real objects. Two visual world experiments were then conducted, varying whether referent identification was driven by noun or verb information. A modest benefit for clipart stimuli was observed during real-time processing, but only for noun-driving mappings. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for studies of visually situated language processing.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Action strategies for walking through multiple, misaligned apertures
    • Authors: Amy L. Hackney; Michael E. Cinelli; James S. Frank
      Pages: 100 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Amy L. Hackney, Michael E. Cinelli, James S. Frank
      When avoiding obstacles, path selection is thought to be determined by the attraction of the end-goal. However for aperture crossing, it is unclear whether the attraction point originates in the center of the aperture or at the end-goal, as previous experiments align the aperture with the end-goal. The purpose of the current study was to decipher the possible location of the attraction point, by evaluating crossing behaviour for multiple, misaligned apertures. Participants were instructed to walk through three separate apertures while en route to an end-goal. The first and last apertures were fixed such that they were both either 0.9× or 1.7× shoulder width (SW) while the second aperture was either 0.9, 1.3 or 1.7× SW and shifted 25, 50 or 75cm off the midline. Findings revealed that the attraction of the end-goal, and not the middle of the aperture, guided crossing behaviour. The spatial margin decreased as the size of the shift increased. Furthermore, the frequency of rotation increased as the aperture was shifted away from midline, regardless of the aperture size. Since rotations would not normally occur for all of these aperture sizes when aligned with the end-goal, these results suggest that rotations were produced in an attempt to keep one's trajectory as close to the midline as possible. Therefore, not only does the attraction of the goal guide path trajectory, but individuals will choose to reduce the spatial margin and rotate the shoulders when walking through misaligned apertures, likely in attempt to maintain the straightest possible path.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Involuntary autobiographical memories are relatively more often reported
           during high cognitive load tasks
    • Authors: Krystian Barzykowski; Agnieszka Niedźwieńska
      Pages: 119 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Krystian Barzykowski, Agnieszka Niedźwieńska
      Recent studies on involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) in daily life have shown that they are most frequently reported during daily routines (e.g. while ironing). Such studies have suggested that reporting IAMs may be influenced by the level of the ongoing task demands and availability of cognitive resources. In two studies, we investigated the effects of cognitive load on reporting IAMs. To examine the presumed cognitive load dependency of IAMs, we utilised an often-employed experimental paradigm (Schlagman & Kvavilashvili, 2008) to elicit IAMs under conditions that differed in cognitive load. When performing a vigilance task, participants had to interrupt the task each time they experienced any spontaneous mental contents and write them down. We manipulated the level of cognitive load by either instructing (cognitive load group) or not instructing (control group) participants to perform an additional demanding task. We compared the groups on the number of IAMs and other mental contents (non-IAM contents) recorded, as well as on the frequency of IAMs that was calculated as a proportion of IAMs in all mental contents reported by the participant. We expected that if reporting IAMs depends on the level of cognitive demands, then we should observe lower frequency of IAMs in the cognitive load group compared to the control group. Consistently across studies, we observed a lower number of IAMs and non-IAM contents in the cognitive load group. However, IAMs unexpectedly constituted a higher percentage of all mental contents when participants were cognitively loaded. Further implications of the cognitive load effects for IAMs research and experimental methodology are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.014
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Analytic processing of distance
    • Authors: Stephen Dopkins; Darin Galyer
      Pages: 129 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Stephen Dopkins, Darin Galyer
      How does a human observer extract from the distance between two frontal points the component corresponding to an axis of a rectangular reference frame' To find out we had participants classify pairs of small circles, varying on the horizontal and vertical axes of a computer screen, in terms of the horizontal distance between them. A response signal controlled response time. The error rate depended on the irrelevant vertical as well as the relevant horizontal distance between the test circles with the relevant distance effect being larger than the irrelevant distance effect. The results implied that the horizontal distance between the test circles was imperfectly extracted from the overall distance between them. The results supported an account, derived from the Exemplar Based Random Walk model (Nosofsky & Palmieri, 1997), under which distance classification is based on the overall distance between the test circles, with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that the relevant and irrelevant axes are differentially weighted so as to reduce the contribution of irrelevant distance to overall distance. The results did not support an account, derived from the General Recognition Theory (Ashby & Maddox, 1994), under which distance classification is based on the relevant distance between the test circles, with the irrelevant distance effect arising because a test circle's perceived location on the relevant axis depends on its location on the irrelevant axis, and with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that this dependency is absent.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Multisensory integration and ADHD-like traits: Evidence for an abnormal
           temporal integration window in ADHD
    • Authors: Maria Panagiotidi; Paul G. Overton; Tom Stafford
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Maria Panagiotidi, Paul G. Overton, Tom Stafford
      Abnormalities in multimodal processing have been found in many developmental disorders such as autism and dyslexia. However, surprisingly little empirical work has been conducted to test the integrity of multisensory integration in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The main aim of the present study was to examine links between symptoms of ADHD (as measured using a self-report scale in a healthy adult population) and the temporal aspects of multisensory processing. More specifically, a Simultaneity Judgement (SJ) and a Temporal Order Judgement (TOJ) task were used in participants with low and high levels of ADHD-like traits to measure the temporal integration window and Just-Noticeable Difference (JND) (respectively) between the timing of an auditory beep and a visual pattern presented over a broad range of stimulus onset asynchronies. The Point of Subjective Similarity (PSS) was also measured in both cases. In the SJ task, participants with high levels of ADHD-like traits considered significantly fewer stimuli to be simultaneous than participants with high levels of ADHD-like traits, and the former were found to have significantly smaller temporal windows of integration (although no difference was found in the PSS in the SJ or TOJ tasks, or the JND in the latter). This is the first study to identify an abnormal temporal integration window in individuals with ADHD-like traits. Perceived temporal misalignment of two or more modalities can lead to distractibility (e.g., when the stimulus components from different modalities occur separated by too large of a temporal gap). Hence, an abnormality in the perception of simultaneity could lead to the increased distractibility seen in ADHD.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:07:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • Absence of distracting information explains the redundant signals effect
           for a centrally presented categorization task
    • Authors: Ada D. Mishler; Mark B. Neider
      Pages: 18 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Ada D. Mishler, Mark B. Neider
      The redundant signals effect, a speed-up in response times with multiple targets compared to a single target in one display, is well-documented, with some evidence suggesting that it can occur even in conceptual processing when targets are presented bilaterally. The current study was designed to determine whether or not category-based redundant signals can speed up processing even without bilateral presentation. Toward that end, participants performed a go/no-go visual task in which they responded only to members of the target category (i.e., they responded only to numbers and did not respond to letters). Numbers and letters were presented along an imaginary vertical line in the center of the visual field. When the single signal trials contained a nontarget letter (Experiment 1), there was a significant redundant signals effect. The effect was not significant when the single-signal trials did not contain a nontarget letter (Experiments 2 and 3). The results indicate that, when targets are defined categorically and not presented bilaterally, the redundant signals effect may be an effect of reducing the presence of information that draws attention away from the target. This suggests that redundant signals may not speed up conceptual processing when interhemispheric presentation is not available.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:07:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • Calibration to tool use during visually-guided reaching
    • Authors: Brian Day; Elham Ebrahimi; Leah S. Hartman; Christopher C. Pagano; Sabarish V. Babu
      Pages: 27 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Brian Day, Elham Ebrahimi, Leah S. Hartman, Christopher C. Pagano, Sabarish V. Babu
      In studying human perception and performance researchers must understand how the body schema is modified to accurately represent one's capabilities when tools are used, as humans use tools that alter their capabilities frequently. The present work tested the idea that calibration is responsible for modifying an embodied action schema during tool use. We investigated calibration in the context of manual activity in near space through a behavioral measure. Participants made blind reaches to various visual distances in pre- and post-test phases using a short tool that did not extend their reach. During an intervening calibration phase they received visual feedback about the accuracy of their reaches, with half of the participants reaching with a tool that extended their reach by 30cm. Results indicated both groups showed calibration appropriate to the type of tool that they used during the calibration phase, and this calibration carried over to reaches made in the post-test. These results inform discussions on the proposed embodied action schema and have applications to virtual reality, specifically the development of self-avatars.

      PubDate: 2017-10-21T20:52:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • To plan or not to plan: Does planning for production remove facilitation
           from associative priming'
    • Authors: Suzanne R. Jongman; Antje S. Meyer
      Pages: 40 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Suzanne R. Jongman, Antje S. Meyer
      Theories of conversation propose that in order to have smooth transitions from one turn to the next, speakers already plan their response while listening to their interlocutor. Moreover, it has been argued that speakers align their linguistic representations (i.e. prime each other), thereby reducing the processing costs associated with concurrent listening and speaking. In two experiments, we assessed how identity and associative priming from spoken words onto picture naming were affected by a concurrent speech planning task. In a baseline (no name) condition, participants heard prime words that were identical, associatively related, or unrelated to target pictures presented two seconds after prime onset. Each prime was accompanied by a non-target picture and followed by its recorded name. The participant did not name the non-target picture. In the plan condition, the participants first named the non-target picture, instead of listening to the recording, and then the target. In Experiment 1, where the plan- and no-plan conditions were tested between participants, priming effects of equal strength were found in the plan and no-plan condition. In Experiment 2, where the two conditions were tested within participants, the identity priming effect was maintained, but the associative priming effect was only seen in the no-plan but not in the plan condition. In this experiment, participant had to decide at the onset of each trial whether or not to name the non-target picture, rendering the task more complex than in Experiment 1. These decision processes may have interfered with the processing of the primes. Thus, associative priming can take place during speech planning, but only if the cognitive load is not too high.

      PubDate: 2017-10-21T20:52:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • Memorable objects are more susceptible to forgetting: Evidence for the
           inhibitory account of retrieval-induced forgetting
    • Authors: I. Reppa; K.E. Williams; E.R. Worth; W.J. Greville; J. Saunders
      Pages: 51 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 181
      Author(s): I. Reppa, K.E. Williams, E.R. Worth, W.J. Greville, J. Saunders
      Retrieval of target information can cause forgetting for related, but non-retrieved, information – retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). The aim of the current studies was to examine a key prediction of the inhibitory account of RIF – interference dependence – whereby ‘strong’ non-retrieved items are more likely to interfere during retrieval and therefore, are more susceptible to RIF. Using visual objects allowed us to examine and contrast one index of item strength –object typicality, that is, how typical of its category an object is. Experiment 1 provided proof of concept for our variant of the recognition practice paradigm. Experiment 2 tested the prediction of the inhibitory account that the magnitude of RIF for natural visual objects would be dependent on item strength. Non-typical objects were more memorable overall than typical objects. We found that object memorability (as determined by typicality) influenced RIF with significant forgetting occurring for the memorable (non-typical), but not non-memorable (typical), objects. The current findings strongly support an inhibitory account of retrieval-induced forgetting.

      PubDate: 2017-10-21T20:52:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.012
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • Metacognitive deficits in categorization tasks in a population with
           impaired inner speech
    • Authors: Peter Langland-Hassan; Christopher Gauker; Michael J. Richardson; Aimee Dietz; Frank R. Faries
      Pages: 62 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Peter Langland-Hassan, Christopher Gauker, Michael J. Richardson, Aimee Dietz, Frank R. Faries
      This study examines the relation of language use to a person's ability to perform categorization tasks and to assess their own abilities in those categorization tasks. A silent rhyming task was used to confirm that a group of people with post-stroke aphasia (PWA) had corresponding covert language production (or “inner speech”) impairments. The performance of the PWA was then compared to that of age- and education-matched healthy controls on three kinds of categorization tasks and on metacognitive self-assessments of their performance on those tasks. The PWA showed no deficits in their ability to categorize objects for any of the three trial types (visual, thematic, and categorial). However, on the categorial trials, their metacognitive assessments of whether they had categorized correctly were less reliable than those of the control group. The categorial trials were distinguished from the others by the fact that the categorization could not be based on some immediately perceptible feature or on the objects' being found together in a type of scenario or setting. This result offers preliminary evidence for a link between covert language use and a specific form of metacognition.

      PubDate: 2017-10-28T21:12:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • Does delayed corrective feedback enhance acquisition of correct
    • Authors: Nobuyoshi Iwaki; Tomomi Nara; Saeko Tanaka
      Pages: 75 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Nobuyoshi Iwaki, Tomomi Nara, Saeko Tanaka
      Many studies concerned with misinformation correction during learning report that delayed corrective feedback is superior to immediate feedback. However, the mechanism for this effect has not been confirmed. The interference-perseveration theory predicts that immediate feedback following participants' wrong responses elicits proactive interference that deteriorates acquisition of feedback information. In contrast, delayed feedback following errors leads to participants' forgetting these errors during the delay period; consequently, in the latter, interference should decline leading to superior acquisition of corrective information. However, results of these studies have been inconsistent. The present study manipulated whether initial errors were visually cued before feedback (no error-cueing, error-cueing) along with the timing of the feedback (immediate, delayed). The interference-perseveration theory predicts that when errors are not cued, delayed feedback should result in superior acquisition of correct information compared to immediate feedback. When errors are cued, proactive interference should effect a deterioration in acquisition of corrective feedback. Results confirmed neither of these predictions, thus challenging the interference-perseveration hypothesis. Moreover, additional analysis suggested that memory for errors has the ability to enhance the retention of correct answers and it does not hinder recall.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T09:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 181 (2017)
  • Exploring the determinants of confidence in the bat-and-ball problem
    • Authors: Aba Szollosi; Bence Bago; Barnabas Szaszi; Balazs Aczel
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Aba Szollosi, Bence Bago, Barnabas Szaszi, Balazs Aczel
      People often fail to solve deceptively simple mathematical problems, a tendency popularly demonstrated by the bat-and-ball problem. The most prominent explanation of this finding is that, to spare cognitive effort, people substitute the difficult task with an easier one, without being aware of the substitution. Despite this latter assumption, recent studies have found decreased levels of post-decision confidence ratings when people gave the answer of an easier calculation, suggesting that people are sensitive to their errors. In the current study, we investigated a mechanism that might be responsible for such a decrease in people's confidence ratings when they make errors: their attempts to make certain that their answer is correct (verification) and the perceived level of task difficulty (verifiability). We found that these two factors predicted people's confidence, suggesting that people's self-assessment of the perceived task difficulty and of their attempt to verify their response might determine their confidence. Implication for current models of post-decision confidence on reasoning problems is discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T14:16:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Allocentric and contra-aligned spatial representations of a town
           environment in blind people
    • Authors: Silvia Chiesa; Susanna Schmidt; Carla Tinti; Cesare Cornoldi
      Pages: 8 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Silvia Chiesa, Susanna Schmidt, Carla Tinti, Cesare Cornoldi
      Evidence concerning the representation of space by blind individuals is still unclear, as sometimes blind people behave like sighted people do, while other times they present difficulties. A better understanding of blind people's difficulties, especially with reference to the strategies used to form the representation of the environment, may help to enhance knowledge of the consequences of the absence of vision. The present study examined the representation of the locations of landmarks of a real town by using pointing tasks that entailed either allocentric points of reference with mental rotations of different degrees, or contra-aligned representations. Results showed that, in general, people met difficulties when they had to point from a different perspective to aligned landmarks or from the original perspective to contra-aligned landmarks, but this difficulty was particularly evident for the blind. The examination of the strategies adopted to perform the tasks showed that only a small group of blind participants used a survey strategy and that this group had a better performance with respect to people who adopted route or verbal strategies. Implications for the comprehension of the consequences on spatial cognition of the absence of visual experience are discussed, focusing in particular on conceivable interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T14:16:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Walking during the encoding of described environments enhances a
           heading-independent spatial representation
    • Authors: Ilaria Santoro; Mauro Murgia; Fabrizio Sors; Valter Prpic; Tiziano Agostini
      Pages: 16 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Ilaria Santoro, Mauro Murgia, Fabrizio Sors, Valter Prpic, Tiziano Agostini
      Previous studies demonstrated that physical movement enhanced spatial updating in described environments. However, those movements were executed only after the encoding of the environment, minimally affecting the development of the spatial representation. Thus, we investigated whether and how participants could benefit from the execution of physical movement during the encoding of described environments, in terms of enhanced spatial updating. Using the judgement of relative directions task, we compared the effects of walking both during and after the description of the environment, and walking only after the description on spatial updating. Spatial updating was evaluated in terms of accuracy and response times in different headings. We found that the distribution of response times across Headings seemed not to be related to the physical movement executed, whereas the distribution of accuracy scores seemed to significantly change with the action executed. Indeed, when no movement occurred during the encoding of the environment, a preference for the learning heading was found, which did not emerge when walking during encoding occurred. Therefore, the results seem to suggest that physical movement during encoding supports the development of a heading-independent representation of described environments, reducing the anchoring for a preferred heading in favor of a global representation.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T14:16:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Dynamic lexical decisions in French: Evidence for a feedback inconsistency
    • Authors: Laura Barca; Giovanni Pezzulo; Marc Ouellet; Ludovic Ferrand
      Pages: 23 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Laura Barca, Giovanni Pezzulo, Marc Ouellet, Ludovic Ferrand

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T14:16:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Resisting distraction and response inhibition trigger similar enhancements
           of future performance
    • Authors: Patrick G. Bissett; Lauren D. Grant; Daniel H. Weissman
      Pages: 40 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Patrick G. Bissett, Lauren D. Grant, Daniel H. Weissman
      Resisting distraction and response inhibition are crucial aspects of cognitive control. Interestingly, each of these abilities transiently improves just after it is utilized. Competing views differ, however, as to whether utilizing either of these abilities (e.g., resisting distraction) enhances future performance involving the other ability (e.g., response inhibition). To distinguish between these views, we combined a Stroop-like task that requires resisting distraction with a restraint variant of the stop-signal task that requires response inhibition. We observed similar sequential-trial effects (i.e., performance enhancements) following trials in which participants (a) resisted distraction (i.e., incongruent go trials) and (b) inhibited a response (i.e., congruent stop trials). First, the congruency effect in go trials, which indexes overall distractibility, was smaller after both incongruent go trials and congruent stop trials than it was after congruent go trials. Second, stop failures were less frequent after both incongruent go trials and congruent stop trials than after congruent go trials. A control experiment ruled out the possibility that perceptual conflict or surprise engendered by occasional stop signals triggers sequential-trial effects independent of stopping. Thus, our findings support a novel, integrated view in which resisting distraction and response inhibition trigger similar sequential enhancements of future performance.

      PubDate: 2017-08-27T14:16:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • The cognate facilitation effect in bilingual lexical decision is
           influenced by stimulus list composition
    • Authors: Eva D. Poort; Jennifer M. Rodd
      Pages: 52 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Eva D. Poort, Jennifer M. Rodd
      Cognates share their form and meaning across languages: “winter” in English means the same as “winter” in Dutch. Research has shown that bilinguals process cognates more quickly than words that exist in one language only (e.g. “ant” in English). This finding is taken as strong evidence for the claim that bilinguals have one integrated lexicon and that lexical access is language non-selective. Two English lexical decision experiments with Dutch–English bilinguals investigated whether the cognate facilitation effect is influenced by stimulus list composition. In Experiment 1, the ‘standard’ version, which included only cognates, English control words and regular non-words, showed significant cognate facilitation (31ms). In contrast, the ‘mixed’ version, which also included interlingual homographs, pseudohomophones (instead of regular non-words) and Dutch-only words, showed a significantly different profile: a non-significant disadvantage for the cognates (8ms). Experiment 2 examined the specific impact of these three additional stimuli types and found that only the inclusion of Dutch words significantly reduced the cognate facilitation effect. Additional exploratory analyses revealed that, when the preceding trial was a Dutch word, cognates were recognised up to 50ms more slowly than English controls. We suggest that when participants must respond ‘no’ to non-target language words, competition arises between the ‘yes’- and ‘no’-responses associated with the two interpretations of a cognate, which (partially) cancels out the facilitation that is a result of the cognate's shared form and meaning. We conclude that the cognate facilitation effect is a real effect that originates in the lexicon, but that cognates can be subject to competition effects outside the lexicon.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T14:47:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.008
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • On the relationship between executive functions of working memory and
           components derived from fluid intelligence measures
    • Authors: Xuezhu Ren; Karl Schweizer; Tengfei Wang; Pei Chu; Qin Gong
      Pages: 79 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Xuezhu Ren, Karl Schweizer, Tengfei Wang, Pei Chu, Qin Gong
      The aim of the current study is to provide new insights into the relationship between executive functions and intelligence measures in considering the item-position effect observed in intelligence items. Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) and Horn's LPS reasoning test were used to assess fluid intelligence which served as criterion in investigating the relationship between intelligence and executive functions. A battery of six experimental tasks measured the updating, shifting, and inhibition processes of executive functions. Data were collected from 205 university students. Fluid intelligence showed substantial correlations with the updating and inhibition processes and no correlation with the shifting process without considering the item-position effect. Next, the fixed-link model was applied to APM and LPS data separately to decompose them into an ability component and an item-position component. The results of relating the components to executive functions showed that the updating and shifting processes mainly contributed to the item-position component whereas the inhibition process was mainly associated with the ability component of each fluid intelligence test. These findings suggest that improvements in the efficiency of updating and shifting processes are likely to occur during the course of completing intelligence measures and inhibition is important for intelligence in general.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T13:40:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Motor skill experience modulates executive control for task switching
    • Authors: Qiuhua Yu; Chetwyn C.H. Chan; Bolton Chau; Amy S.N. Fu
      Pages: 88 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Qiuhua Yu, Chetwyn C.H. Chan, Bolton Chau, Amy S.N. Fu
      This study aimed to investigate the effect of types of motor skills, including open and closed skills on enhancing proactive and reactive controls for task switching. Thirty-six athletes in open (n=18) or closed (n=18) sports and a control group (n=18) completed the task-switching paradigm and the simple reaction task. The task-switching paradigm drew on the proactive and reactive control of executive functions, whereas the simple reaction task assessed the processing speed. Significant Validity×Group effect revealed that the participants with open skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the other two groups when the task cue was 100% valid; whereas the participants regardless of motor skills had a lower switch cost of response time compared to the control group when the task cue was 50% valid. Hierarchical stepwise regression analysis further confirmed these findings. For the simple reaction task, there were no differences found among the three groups. These findings suggest that experience in open skills has benefits of promoting both proactive and reactive controls for task switching, which corresponds to the activity context exposed by the participants. In contrast, experience in closed skills appears to only benefit development of reactive control for task switching. The neural mechanisms for the proactive and reactive controls of executive functions between experts with open and closed skills call for future study.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T13:40:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.013
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • “Like the palm of my hands”: Motor imagery enhances implicit and
           explicit visual recognition of one's own hands
    • Authors: Massimiliano Conson; Francesco Volpicella; Francesco De Bellis; Agnese Orefice; Luigi Trojano
      Pages: 98 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Massimiliano Conson, Francesco Volpicella, Francesco De Bellis, Agnese Orefice, Luigi Trojano
      A key point in motor imagery literature is that judging hands in palm view recruits sensory-motor information to a higher extent than judging hands in back view, due to the greater biomechanical complexity implied in rotating hands depicted from palm than from back. We took advantage from this solid evidence to test the nature of a phenomenon known as self-advantage, i.e. the advantage in implicitly recognizing self vs. others' hand images. The self-advantage has been actually found when implicitly but not explicitly judging self-hands, likely due to dissociation between implicit and explicit body representations. However, such a finding might be related to the extent to which motor imagery is recruited during implicit and explicit processing of hand images. We tested this hypothesis in two behavioural experiments. In Experiment 1, right-handed participants judged laterality of either self or others' hands, whereas in Experiment 2, an explicit recognition of one's own hands was required. Crucially, in both experiments participants were randomly presented with hand images viewed from back or from palm. The main result of both experiments was the self-advantage when participants judged hands from palm view. This novel finding demonstrate that increasing the “motor imagery load” during processing of self vs. others' hands can elicit a self-advantage in explicit recognition tasks as well. Future studies testing the possible dissociation between implicit and explicit visual body representations should take into account the modulatory effect of motor imagery load on self-hand processing.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T13:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Age-related differences in strategic monitoring during arithmetic problem
    • Authors: Marie Geurten; Patrick Lemaire
      Pages: 105 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Marie Geurten, Patrick Lemaire
      We examined the role of metacognitive monitoring in strategic behavior during arithmetic problem solving, a process that is expected to shed light on age-related differences in strategy selection. Young and older adults accomplished better strategy-judgment, better strategy-selection, and strategy-execution tasks. Data showed that participants made better strategy judgments when problems were problems with homogeneous unit digits (i.e., problems with both unit digits smaller or larger than 5; 31×62) relative to problems with heterogeneous unit digits (i.e., problems with one unit digit smaller or larger than 5; 31×67) and when the better strategy was cued on rounding-up problems (e.g., 68×23) compared to rounding-down problems (e.g., 36×53). Results also indicated higher rates of better strategy judgment in young than in older adults. These aging effects differed across problem types. Older adults made more accurate judgments on rounding-up problems than on rounding-down problems when the cued strategy was rounding-up, while young adults did not show such problem-related differences. Moreover, strategy selection correlated with strategy judgment, and even more so in older adults than in young adults. To discuss the implications of these findings, we propose a theoretical framework of how strategy judgments occur in young and older adults and discuss how this framework enables to understand relationships between metacognitive monitoring and strategic behaviors when participants solve arithmetic problems.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T13:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • A method for measuring manual position control
    • Authors: Cory Adam Potts; Alexander A. Brown; Stanislaw Solnik; David A. Rosenbaum
      Pages: 117 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Cory Adam Potts, Alexander A. Brown, Stanislaw Solnik, David A. Rosenbaum
      There is no generally accepted method for measuring manual position control. We developed a method for doing so. We asked university students to hold a handle that had one rotational degree of freedom. The angular position of the handle depended on the degree of pronation-supination of the forearm. The subjects' task was to hold the handle as steadily as possible to keep a needle positioned in a pie-shaped target zone on a computer screen. If the needle remained in the zone for 0.5s, the gain of the feedback loop increased; otherwise the gain decreased or remained at the starting value of 1. Through this adaptive procedure, we estimated the maximum gain that could be achieved at each of the four pronation-supination angles we tested (thumb up, thumb down, thumb in, and thumb out) for each hand. Consistent with previous research on manual control, and so validating our measure, we found that our participants, all of whom were right-handed, were better able to maintain the needle in the target zone when they used the right hand than when they used the left hand and when they used midrange wrist postures (thumb up or in) rather than extreme wrist postures (thumb down or out). The method provides a valid test of manual position control and holds promise for addressing basic-research and practical questions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T13:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • The effects of freedom of choice in action selection on perceived mental
           effort and the sense of agency
    • Authors: Zeynep Barlas; William E. Hockley; Sukhvinder S. Obhi
      Pages: 122 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Zeynep Barlas, William E. Hockley, Sukhvinder S. Obhi
      Previous research showed that increasing the number of action alternatives enhances the sense of agency (SoA). Here, we investigated whether choice space could affect subjective judgments of mental effort experienced during action selection and examined the link between subjective effort and the SoA. Participants performed freely selected (among two, three, or four options) and instructed actions that produced pleasant or unpleasant tones. We obtained action-effect interval estimates to quantify intentional binding – the perceived interval compression between actions and outcomes and feeling of control (FoC) ratings. Additionally, participants reported the degree of mental effort they experienced during action selection. We found that both binding and FoC were systematically enhanced with increasing choice-level. Outcome valence did not influence binding, while FoC was stronger for pleasant than unpleasant outcomes. Finally, freely chosen actions were associated with low subjective effort and slow responses (i.e., higher reaction times), and instructed actions were associated with high effort and fast responses. Although the conditions that yielded the greatest and least subjective effort also yielded the greatest and least binding and FoC, there was no significant correlation between subjective effort and SoA measures. Overall, our results raise interesting questions about how agency may be influenced by response selection demands (i.e., indexed by speed of responding) and subjective mental effort. Our work also highlights the importance of understanding how subjective mental effort and response speed are related to popular notions of fluency in response selection.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T13:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Spatio-temporal dynamics of action-effect associations in oculomotor
    • Authors: Eva Riechelmann; Aleksandra Pieczykolan; Gernot Horstmann; Arvid Herwig; Lynn Huestegge
      Pages: 130 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Eva Riechelmann, Aleksandra Pieczykolan, Gernot Horstmann, Arvid Herwig, Lynn Huestegge
      While there is ample evidence that actions are guided by anticipating their effects (ideomotor control) in the manual domain, much less is known about the underlying characteristics and dynamics of effect-based oculomotor control. Here, we address three open issues. 1) Is action-effect anticipation in oculomotor control reflected in corresponding spatial saccade characteristics in inanimate environments' 2) Does the previously reported dependency of action latency on the temporal effect delay (action-effect interval) also occur in the oculomotor domain' 3) Which temporal effect delay is optimally suited to develop strong action-effect associations over time in the oculomotor domain' Participants executed left or right free-choice saccades to peripheral traffic lights, causing an (immediate or delayed) action-contingent light switch in the upper vs. lower part of the traffic light. Results indicated that saccades were spatially shifted toward the location of the upcoming change, indicating anticipation of the effect (location). Saccade latency was affected by effect delay, suggesting that corresponding time information is integrated into event representations. Finally, delayed (vs. immediate) effects were more effective in strengthening action-effect associations over the course of the experiment, likely due to greater saliency of perceptual changes occurring during target fixation as opposed to changes during saccades (saccadic suppression). Overall, basic principles underlying ideomotor control appear to generalize to the oculomotor domain.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T13:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Non-action effect binding: A critical re-assessment
    • Authors: Lisa Weller; Wilfried Kunde; Roland Pfister
      Pages: 137 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Lisa Weller, Wilfried Kunde, Roland Pfister
      Humans typically act to cause effects in their environment, but at times they also voluntarily omit an action to cause a predictable effect. These effects may become bound to the causing non-actions, just as actions and their effects can become associated. In three experiments, we provide a critical re-assessment of previous reports of non-action effect binding. Following this work, participants completed an acquisition phase to associate actions and non-actions with particular effects. In a subsequent test phase, the former effects were presented as stimuli and participants were allowed to choose an action or non-action freely as a response. Binding should lead to more effect-consistent choices than predicted by chance. Previous studies, however, did not control for deliberate strategies of participants that might inflate the consistency bias and, also, did not address overall preferences for either acting or non-acting, which might introduce additional artifacts. We show that these confounds have a strong impact in common experimental designs and introduce ways to mitigate these effects. This improved assessment still corroborated evidence of binding between non-actions and their effects.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T13:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Evidence for aversive withdrawal response to own errors
    • Authors: Eldad Yitzhak Hochman; Valery Milman; Liron Tal
      Pages: 147 - 154
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Eldad Yitzhak Hochman, Valery Milman, Liron Tal
      Recent model suggests that error detection gives rise to defensive motivation prompting protective behavior. Models of active avoidance behavior predict it should grow larger with threat imminence and avoidance. We hypothesized that in a task requiring left or right key strikes, error detection would drive an avoidance reflex manifested by rapid withdrawal of an erring finger growing larger with threat imminence and avoidance. In experiment 1, three groups differing by error-related threat imminence and avoidance performed a flanker task requiring left or right force sensitive-key strikes. As predicted, errors were followed by rapid force release growing faster with threat imminence and opportunity to evade threat. In experiment 2, we established a link between error key release time (KRT) and the subjective sense of inner-threat. In a simultaneous, multiple regression analysis of three error-related compensatory mechanisms (error KRT, flanker effect, error correction RT), only error KRT was significantly associated with increased compulsive checking tendencies. We propose that error response withdrawal reflects an error-withdrawal reflex.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T13:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Blame everyone: Error-related devaluation in Eriksen flanker task
    • Authors: Andrey Chetverikov; Polina Iamschinina; Alena Begler; Ivan Ivanchei; Margarita Filippova; Maria Kuvaldina
      Pages: 155 - 159
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Andrey Chetverikov, Polina Iamschinina, Alena Begler, Ivan Ivanchei, Margarita Filippova, Maria Kuvaldina
      Preferences are determined not only by stimuli themselves but also by the way they are processed in the brain. The efficacy of cognitive processing during previous interactions with stimuli is particularly important. When observers make errors in simple tasks such as visual search, recognition, or categorization, they later dislike the stimuli associated with errors. Here we test whether this error-related devaluation exists in Erisken flanker task and whether it depends on the distribution of attention. We found that both attended stimuli (targets) and ignored ones (distractors) are devaluated after errors on compatible trials but not incompatible ones. The extent of devaluation is similar for targets and distractors, indicating that distribution of attention does not significantly influence the attribution of error-related negative affect. We discuss this finding in light of the possible mechanisms of error-related devaluation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T13:46:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • When perception trips action! The increase in the perceived size of both
           hand and target matters in reaching and grasping movements
    • Authors: Elisabetta Ambron; Luis F. Schettino; Marlee Coyle; Steven Jax; H. Branch Coslett
      Pages: 160 - 168
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Elisabetta Ambron, Luis F. Schettino, Marlee Coyle, Steven Jax, H. Branch Coslett
      Reaching and grasping movements rely on visual information regarding the target characteristics (e.g. size) and the hand position during the action execution. Changes in the visual representation of the body (e.g. increase in the perceived size of the hand) can modify action performance, but it is still unclear how these modifications interact with changes in the external environment. We investigated this topic by manipulating the perceived size of both hand and target objects and the degree of visual feedback available during the movement execution. Ten young adults were asked to reach and grasp geometrical objects in four different conditions: (i) with normal vision with the light on, (ii) with normal vision in the dark, (iii) using magnifying lenses in the light and (iv) using magnifying lenses in the dark. In contrast with previous works, our results show that movement execution is longer in magnified vision compared to normal when the action is executed in the light, but the grasping component was not affected by changes in size in this condition. On the contrary, when the visual feedback of the hand was removed and participants performed the action in the dark, movements were faster and the distances across fingers larger in the magnified than normal vision. This pattern of data suggests that grasping movements adapt rapidly and compensate for changes in vision when this process depends on the degree of visual feedback and/or environmental cues available. In the debate regarding the dissociation between action and perception, our data suggest that action may overcome changes in perception when visual feedback is available, but perception may trick action in situations of reduced visual information.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T10:42:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • More than a memory: Confirmatory visual search is not caused by
           remembering a visual feature
    • Authors: Jason Rajsic; Jay Pratt
      Pages: 169 - 174
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Jason Rajsic, Jay Pratt
      Previous research has demonstrated a preference for positive over negative information in visual search; asking whether a target object is green biases search towards green objects, even when this entails more perceptual processing than searching non-green objects. The present study investigated whether this confirmatory search bias is due to the presence of one particular (e.g., green) color in memory during search. Across two experiments, we show that this is not the critical factor in generating a confirmation bias in search. Search slowed proportionally to the number of stimuli whose color matched the color held in memory only when the color was remembered as part of the search instructions. These results suggest that biased search for information is due to a particular attentional selection strategy, and not to memory-driven attentional biases.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T10:42:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • Identification of opposites and intermediates by eye and by hand
    • Authors: Ivana Bianchi; Carita Paradis; Roberto Burro; Joost van de Weijer; Marcus Nyström; Ugo Savardi
      Pages: 175 - 189
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 180
      Author(s): Ivana Bianchi, Carita Paradis, Roberto Burro, Joost van de Weijer, Marcus Nyström, Ugo Savardi
      In this eye-tracking and drawing study, we investigate the perceptual grounding of different types of spatial dimensions such as dense–sparse and top–bottom, focusing both on the participants' experiences of the opposite regions, e.g., O1: dense; O2: sparse, and the region that is experienced as intermediate, e.g., INT: neither dense nor sparse. Six spatial dimensions expected to have three different perceptual structures in terms of the point and range nature of O1, INT and O2 were analysed. Presented with images, the participants were instructed to identify each region (O1, INT, O2), first by looking at the region, and then circumscribing it using the computer mouse. We measured the eye movements, identification times and various characteristics of the drawings such as the relative size of the three regions, overlaps and gaps. Three main results emerged. Firstly, generally speaking, intermediate regions were not different from the poles on any of the indicators: overall identification times, number of fixations, and locations. Some differences emerged with regard to the duration of fixations for point INTs and the number of fixations for range INTs between two range poles (O1, O2). Secondly, the analyses of the fixation locations showed that the poles support the identification of the intermediate region as much as the intermediate region supports the identification of the poles. Finally, the relative size of the three areas selected in the drawing task were consistent with the classification of the regions as points or ranges. The analyses of the gaps and the overlaps between the three areas showed that the intermediate is neither O1 nor O2, but an entity in its own right.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T10:42:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 180 (2017)
  • The bidirectional congruency effect of brightness-valence metaphoric
           association in the Stroop-like and priming paradigms
    • Authors: Yanli Huang; Chi-Shing Tse; Jiushu Xie
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Yanli Huang, Chi-Shing Tse, Jiushu Xie
      The conceptual metaphor theory (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, 1999) postulates a unidirectional metaphoric association between abstract and concrete concepts: sensorimotor experience activated by concrete concepts facilitates the processing of abstract concepts, but not the other way around. However, this unidirectional view has been challenged by studies that reported a bidirectional metaphoric association. In three experiments, we tested the directionality of the brightness-valence metaphoric association, using Stroop-like paradigm, priming paradigm, and Stroop-like paradigm with a go/no-go manipulation. Both mean and vincentile analyses of reaction time data were performed. We showed that the directionality of brightness-valence metaphoric congruency effect could be modulated by the activation level of the brightness/valence information. Both brightness-to-valence and valence-to-brightness metaphoric congruency effects occurred in the priming paradigm, which could be attributed to the presentation of prime that pre-activated the brightness or valence information. However, in the Stroop-like paradigm the metaphoric congruency effect was only observed in the brightness-to-valence direction, but not in the valence-to-brightness direction. When the go/no-go manipulation was used to boost the activation of word meaning in the Stroop-like paradigm, the valence-to-brightness metaphoric congruency effect was observed. Vincentile analyses further revealed that valence-to-brightness metaphoric congruency effect approached significance in the Stroop-like paradigm when participants' reaction times were slower (at around 490ms). The implications of the current findings on the conceptual metaphor theory and embodied cognition are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T09:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.10.006
  • Modulation of conflicts in the Stroop effect
    • Authors: Ido Shichel; Joseph Tzelgov
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Ido Shichel, Joseph Tzelgov
      The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the unique contribution of task conflict, semantic conflict and response conflict to the Stroop effect and to test how these conflicts are modulated by manipulating the proportion of neutral trials, known to affect the magnitude of the Stroop effect. In the first experiment, we employed the two-to-one paradigm (De Houwer, 2003) while adding neutral illegible stimuli, and in the second experiment, we employed two colors and four word colors. In both experiments, we created four congruency conditions (neutral, congruent and two kind of incongruent conditions—those that include response conflict and those that do not), which allowed decomposing the Stroop effect into three orthogonal conflicts. In both experiments, we also manipulated the proportion of neutral trials. Task conflict was defined by the contrast between illegible neutrals and color words, semantic conflict by the contrast between congruent and incongruent stimuli, and response conflict by contrasting the two kinds of incongruent stimuli. Our results showed that all conflicts contributed to the Stroop effect. Task conflict and semantic conflict were modulated by the proportion of neutrals but response conflict was not. These findings imply that task conflict and semantic conflict are part of the control loop of the Stroop effect, as conceptualized by Botvinick et al.'s (2001) conflict monitoring model. There is no clear evidence of the response conflict being part of the loop. To complete the picture, we also analyzed the conflicts in the Stroop task using the traditional dependent contrasts approach and found the basic pattern of results was similar. Thus, the main advantage of the orthogonal comparisons approach is the possibility to estimate the unique contribution of the conflicts contributing to the Stroop effect and their modulation of the Stroop phenomenon.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T09:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.10.007
  • The implications and applications of learning via instructions
    • Authors: Baptist Liefooghe; Senne Braem; Nachshon Meiran
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Baptist Liefooghe, Senne Braem, Nachshon Meiran
      Whereas psychology knows a long tradition of studies that focused on the role of practice and training in acquiring new skills or knowledge, systematic studies into learning via instructions remain relatively scarce. This is surprising given the tremendous influence instructions have on human behavior and cognition. In recent years, however, a (re)new(ed) interest into learning via instructions resulted in new paradigms and findings that can inspire future research in this understudied domain. We offer a brief overview of the articles in this special issue, which present some of the latest empirical developments dedicated to unraveling the implications and applications of learning via instructions. The special issue offers insights into the dynamics underlying the assimilation of new instructions and highlights the strengths and limitations of what can be achieved on the basis of instructions. Furthermore, the different studies showcase various examples of recent methodological advances in testing the effects of instructions. Finally, this special issue shows how different fields in psychology share similar questions on the role of instructions in human behavior, suggesting that this topic should no longer be considered as a subsidiary of these different fields, but as a research field on its own.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:07:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.015
  • Generalization of learned pain modulation depends on explicit learning
    • Authors: Leonie Koban; Daniel Kusko; Tor D. Wager
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Leonie Koban, Daniel Kusko, Tor D. Wager
      The experience of pain is strongly influenced by contextual and socio-affective factors, including learning from previous experiences. Pain is typically perceived as more intense when preceded by a conditioned cue (CSHIGH) that has previously been associated with higher pain intensities, compared to cues associated with lower intensities (CSLOW). In three studies (total N=134), we tested whether this learned pain modulation generalizes to perceptually similar cues (Studies 1 and 2) and conceptually similar cues (Study 3). The results showed that participants report higher pain when heat stimulation was preceded by novel stimuli that were either perceptually (Studies 1 and 2) or conceptually (Study 3) similar to the previously conditioned CSHIGH. In all three studies, the strength of this generalization effect was strongly correlated with individual differences in explicitly learned expectations. Together, these findings suggest an important role of conscious expectations and higher-order conceptual inference during generalization of learned pain modulation. We discuss implications for the understanding of placebo and nocebo effects as well as for chronic pain and anxiety.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:07:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.009
  • More than a feeling: The bidirectional convergence of semantic visual
           object and somatosensory processing
    • Authors: Chelsea Ekstrand; Josh Neudorf Eric Lorentz Layla Gould Marla Mickleborough
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 181
      Author(s): Chelsea Ekstrand, Josh Neudorf, Eric Lorentz, Layla Gould, Marla Mickleborough, Ron Borowsky
      Prevalent theories of semantic processing assert that the sensorimotor system plays a functional role in the semantic processing of manipulable objects. While motor execution has been shown to impact object processing, involvement of the somatosensory system has remained relatively unexplored. Therefore, we developed two novel priming paradigms. In Experiment 1, participants received a vibratory hand prime (on half the trials) prior to viewing a picture of either an object interacted primarily with the hand (e.g., a cup) or the foot (e.g., a soccer ball) and reported how they would interact with it. In Experiment 2, the same objects became the prime and participants were required to identify whether the vibratory stimulation occurred to their hand or foot. In both experiments, somatosensory priming effects arose for the hand objects, while foot objects showed no priming benefits. These results suggest that object semantic knowledge bidirectionally converges with the somatosensory system.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T10:52:36Z
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