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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3175 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3175 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 376, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 374, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 333, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 429, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Acta Psychologica
  [SJR: 1.365]   [H-I: 73]   [25 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-6918
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Exploring the representational basis of response-effect compatibility:
           Evidence from bilingual verbal response-effect mappings
    • Authors: Noémi Földes; Andrea M. Philipp; Arnaud Badets; Iring Koch
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 186
      Author(s): Noémi Földes, Andrea M. Philipp, Arnaud Badets, Iring Koch
      The ideomotor principle states that actions are represented by their anticipated sensory effects. This notion is often tested using the response-effect compatibility (REC) paradigm, where participants' responses are followed either by a compatible or incompatible response effect (e.g., an effect on the right side after a right-hand response is considered R-E compatible due to the spatial overlap, whereas an effect on the left side after the right-hand response is considered incompatible). Shorter reaction times are typically observed in the compatible condition compared to the incompatible condition (i.e., REC effect), suggesting that effect anticipation plays a role in action control. Previous evidence from verbal REC suggested that effect anticipation can be due to conceptual R-E overlap, but there was also phonological overlap (i.e., anticipated reading of a word preceded by the vocal response of saying that very word). To examine the representational basis of REC, in three experiments, we introduced a bilingual R-E mapping to exclude phonological R-E overlap (i.e., in the R-E compatible condition, the translation equivalent of the response word is presented as an effect word in a different language). Our findings show that the REC effect is obtained when presenting the effect word in the same language as the response (i.e., monolingual condition), but the compatibility effect was not found when the semantically same word is presented in a different language, suggesting no conceptually generalized REC in a bilingual setting. (232 words).

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 186 (2018)
       
  • Response time distribution parameters show posterror behavioral adjustment
           in mental arithmetic
    • Authors: Dmitri Lavro; Danny Levin; Christoph Klein; Andrea Berger
      Pages: 8 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 186
      Author(s): Dmitri Lavro, Danny Levin, Christoph Klein, Andrea Berger
      After making an error, we usually slow down before our next response. This phenomenon is known as the posterror slowing (PES) effect. It has been interpreted to be an indicator of posterror behavioral adjustments and, therefore, has been linked to cognitive control. However, contradictory findings regarding PES and posterror accuracy cast doubt on such a relation. To determine whether behavior is adjusted after making an error, we investigated other features of behavior, such as the distribution of response times (RT) in a mental arithmetic task. Participants performed an arithmetic task with (Experiments 1 and 2) and without (Experiment 1) an accuracy-tracking procedure. On both tasks, participants responded more slowly and less accurately after errors. However, the RT distribution was more symmetrical on posterror trials compared to postcorrect trials, suggesting that a change in processing mode occurred after making an error, thus linking cognitive control to error monitoring, even in cases when accuracy decreased after errors. These findings expand our understanding on how posterror behavior is adjusted in mental arithmetic, and we propose that the measures of the RT distribution can be further used in other domains of error-monitoring research.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 186 (2018)
       
  • Effects of non-symbolic arithmetic training on symbolic arithmetic and the
           approximate number system
    • Authors: Jacky Au; Susanne M. Jaeggi; Martin Buschkuehl
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Jacky Au, Susanne M. Jaeggi, Martin Buschkuehl
      The approximate number system (ANS) is an innate cognitive template that allows for the mental representation of approximate magnitude, and has been controversially linked to symbolic number knowledge and math ability. A series of recent studies found that an approximate arithmetic training (AAT) task that draws upon the ANS can improve math skills, which not only supports the existence of this link, but suggests it may be causal. However, no direct transfer effects to any measure of the ANS have yet been reported, calling into question the mechanisms by which math improvements may emerge. The present study investigated the effects of a 7-day AAT and successfully replicated previously reported transfer effects to math. Furthermore, our exploratory analyses provide preliminary evidence that certain ANS-related skills may also be susceptible to training. We conclude that AAT has reproducible effects on math performance, and provide avenues for future studies to further explore underlying mechanisms - specifically, the link between improvements in math and improvements in ANS skills.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Cross-race correlations in the abilities to match unfamiliar faces
    • Authors: Eesha Kokje; Markus Bindemann; Ahmed M. Megreya
      Pages: 13 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Eesha Kokje, Markus Bindemann, Ahmed M. Megreya
      The other-race effect in face identification has been documented widely in memory tasks, but it persists also in identity-matching tasks, in which memory contributions are minimized. Whereas this points to a perceptual locus for this effect, it remains unresolved whether matching performance with same- and other-race faces is driven by shared cognitive mechanisms. To examine this question, this study compared Arab and Caucasian observers' ability to match faces of their own race with their ability to match faces of another race using one-to-one (Experiment 1) and one-to-many (Experiment 2) identification tasks. Across both experiments, Arab and Caucasian observers demonstrated reliable other-race effects at a group level. At an individual level, substantial variation in accuracy was found, but performance with same-race and other-race faces correlated consistently and strongly. This indicates that the abilities to match same- and other-race faces share a common cognitive mechanism.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • The influence of vision, touch, and proprioception on body representation
           of the lower limbs
    • Authors: Kayla D. Stone; Anouk Keizer; H. Chris Dijkerman
      Pages: 22 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Kayla D. Stone, Anouk Keizer, H. Chris Dijkerman
      Numerous studies have shown that the representation of the hand is distorted. When participants are asked to localize unseen points on the hand (e.g. the knuckle), it is perceived to be wider and shorter than its physical dimensions. Similar distortions occur when people are asked to judge the distance between two tactile points on the hand; estimates made in the longitudinal direction are perceived as significantly shorter than those made in the transverse direction. Yet, when asked to visually compare the shape and size of one's own hand to a template hand, individuals are accurate at estimating the size of their own hands. Thus, it seems that body representations are, at least in part, a function of the most prominent underlying sensory modality used to perceive the body part. Yet, it remains unknown if the representations of other body parts are similarly distorted. The lower limbs, for example, are structurally and functionally very different from the hands, yet their representation(s) are seldom studied. What does the body representation for the leg look like' And is leg representation dependent on which sense is probed when making judgments about its shape and size' In the current study, we investigated what the representation of the leg looks like in visually-, tactually-, and proprioceptively-guided tasks. Results revealed that the leg, like the hand, is distorted in a highly systematic manner. Distortions seem to rely, at least partly, on sensory input. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to systematically investigate leg representation in healthy individuals.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Examining the effect of state anxiety on compensatory and strategic
           adjustments in the planning of goal-directed aiming
    • Authors: James W. Roberts; Mark R. Wilson; Jessica K. Skultety; James L. Lyons
      Pages: 33 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): James W. Roberts, Mark R. Wilson, Jessica K. Skultety, James L. Lyons
      The anxiety-perceptual-motor performance relationship may be enriched by investigations involving discrete manual responses due to the definitive demarcation of planning and control processes, which comprise the early and late portions of movement, respectively. To further examine the explanatory power of self-focus and distraction theories, we explored the potential of anxiety causing changes to movement planning that accommodate for anticipated negative effects in online control. As a result, we posed two hypotheses where anxiety causes performers to initially undershoot the target and enable more time to use visual feedback (“play-it-safe”), or fire a ballistic reach to cover a greater distance without later undertaking online control (“go-for-it”). Participants were tasked with an upper-limb movement to a single target under counter-balanced instructions to execute fast and accurate responses (low/normal anxiety) with non-contingent negative performance feedback (high anxiety). The results indicated that the previously identified negative impact of anxiety in online control was replicated. While anxiety caused a longer displacement to reach peak velocity and greater tendency to overshoot the target, there appeared to be no shift in the attempts to utilise online visual feedback. Thus, the tendency to initially overshoot may manifest from an inefficient auxiliary procedure that manages to uphold overall movement time and response accuracy.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Who is more flexible'—Awareness of changing context but not working
           memory capacity modulates inhibitory control
    • Authors: Shan-Chuan Teng; Hsuan-Fu Chao; Yunn-Wen Lien
      Pages: 41 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Shan-Chuan Teng, Hsuan-Fu Chao, Yunn-Wen Lien
      The present study examines how a person's working memory capacity (WMC) and awareness of change in context influences modulating inhibitory control. Context was manipulated by changing the predictive validity of a prime to a following target (i.e., the proportion of prime repetition) across three phases in a single-prime negative priming task. The prime was a distractor for the following target when the proportion was 25% (in the first and third phases) and a useful cue when the proportion rose to 75% (in the second phase). Participants' WMCs were measured and whether they were aware of the change of the prime-repetition proportion was determined in interviews at the end of the experiment. We found that when the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) was short (Experiment 1), participants aware of the change of prime-repetition proportion showed a null negative priming effect when the contingency increased from 25% to 75%, and then rebooted the effect when it decreased back to 25%, thus indicating an ability to modulate inhibitory control as context varied. In contrast, the unaware participants kept inhibiting primes all the time. When SOA was long (Experiment 2), participants with awareness even showed a positive priming effect when the prime-repetition proportion increased. Surprisingly, participants' WMCs did not matter except for the conscious strategy used in the long-SOA condition. This is the first study simultaneously investigating how WMC and awareness can affect people's ability to modulate inhibitory control and reveals that awareness plays a more direct role in such modulation than does WMC.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Working memory cannot regulate overt emotional capture
    • Authors: Kimberly M. Wingert; Chris Blais; B. Hunter Ball; Gene A. Brewer
      Pages: 52 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Kimberly M. Wingert, Chris Blais, B. Hunter Ball, Gene A. Brewer
      Individual differences in working memory capacity partly arise from variability in attention control, a process influenced by negative emotional content. Thus, individual differences in working memory capacity should predict differences in the ability to regulate attention in emotional contexts. To address this hypothesis, a complex-span working memory task was modified so that negative arousing images or neutral images subtended the background during the encoding phase. Across three experiments, negative arousing images impaired working memory encoding relative to neutral images, resulting in impoverished symmetry span scores. Contrary to the primary hypothesis, individual differences in working memory capacity derived from three complex span tasks failed to moderate the effect of negative arousing images on working memory encoding across two large scale studies. Additionally, in Experiment 3, both negative and arousing images captured attention and were processed despite their incongruence with task goals which led to increased memory for the images in a subsequent recognition task. Implications for theories of working memory and attention control in emotional contexts will be discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Using more different and more familiar targets improves the detection of
           concealed information
    • Authors: Kristina Suchotzki; Jan De Houwer; Bennett Kleinberg; Bruno Verschuere
      Pages: 65 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Kristina Suchotzki, Jan De Houwer, Bennett Kleinberg, Bruno Verschuere
      When embedded among a number of plausible irrelevant options, the presentation of critical (e.g., crime-related or autobiographical) information is associated with a marked increase in response time (RT). This RT effect crucially depends on the inclusion of a target/non-target discrimination task with targets being a dedicated set of items that require a unique response (press YES; for all other items press NO). Targets may be essential because they share a feature - familiarity - with the critical items. Whereas irrelevant items have not been encountered before, critical items are known from the event or the facts of the investigation. Target items are usually learned before the test, and thereby made familiar to the participants. Hence, familiarity-based responding needs to be inhibited on the critical items and may therefore explain the RT increase on the critical items. This leads to the hypothesis that the more participants rely on familiarity, the more pronounced the RT increase on critical items may be. We explored two ways to increase familiarity-based responding: (1) Increasing the number of different target items, and (2) using familiar targets. In two web-based studies (n = 357 and n = 499), both the number of different targets and the use of familiar targets facilitated concealed information detection. The effect of the number of different targets was small yet consistent across both studies, the effect of target familiarity was large in both studies. Our results support the role of familiarity-based responding in the Concealed Information Test and point to ways on how to improve validity of the Concealed Information Test.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Effects of modality and repetition in a continuous recognition memory
           task: Repetition has no effect on auditory recognition memory
    • Authors: Azlina Amir Kassim; Rehan Rehman; Jessica M. Price
      Pages: 72 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Azlina Amir Kassim, Rehan Rehman, Jessica M. Price
      Previous research has shown that auditory recognition memory is poorer compared to visual and cross-modal (visual and auditory) recognition memory. The effect of repetition on memory has been robust in showing improved performance. It is not clear, however, how auditory recognition memory compares to visual and cross-modal recognition memory following repetition. Participants performed a recognition memory task, making old/new discriminations to new stimuli, stimuli repeated for the first time after 4–7 intervening items (R1), or repeated for the second time after 36–39 intervening items (R2). Depending on the condition, participants were either exposed to visual stimuli (2D line drawings), auditory stimuli (spoken words), or cross-modal stimuli (pairs of images and associated spoken words). Results showed that unlike participants in the visual and cross-modal conditions, participants in the auditory recognition did not show improvements in performance on R2 trials compared to R1 trials. These findings have implications for pedagogical techniques in education, as well as for interventions and exercises aimed at boosting memory performance.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Time flies faster under time pressure
    • Authors: Anne-Claire Rattat; Pauline Matha; Julien Cegarra
      Pages: 81 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Anne-Claire Rattat, Pauline Matha, Julien Cegarra
      We examined the effects of time pressure on duration estimation in a verbal estimation task and a production task. In both temporal tasks, participants had to solve mazes in two conditions of time pressure (with or without), and with three different target durations (30 s, 60 s, and 90 s). In each trial of the verbal estimation task, participants had to estimate in conventional time units (minutes and seconds) the amount of time that had elapsed since they started to solve the maze. In the production task, they had to press a key while solving the maze when they thought that the trial's duration had reached a target value. Results showed that in both tasks, durations were judged longer with time pressure than without it. However, this temporal overestimation under time pressure did not increase with the length of the target duration. These results are discussed within the framework of scalar expectancy theory.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Short-term effects on temporal judgement: Sequential drivers of interval
           bisection and reproduction
    • Authors: Jordan J. Wehrman; John H. Wearden; Paul Sowman
      Pages: 87 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Jordan J. Wehrman, John H. Wearden, Paul Sowman
      Our prior experiences provide the background with which we judge subsequent events. In the time perception literature one common finding is that providing participants with a higher percentage of a particular interval can skew judgment; intervals will appear longer if the distribution of intervals contains more short experiences. However, changing the distribution of intervals that participants witness also changes the short-term, interval-to-interval, sequence that participants experience. In the experiment presented here, we kept the overall distribution of intervals constant while manipulating the immediately-prior experience of participants. In temporal bisection, this created a noted assimilation effect; participants judged intervals as shorter given an immediately preceding short interval. In interval reproduction, there was no effect of the immediately prior interval length unless the prior interval had a linked motor command. We thus proposed that the immediately prior interval provided a context by which a subsequent interval is judged. However, in the case of reproduction, where a subsequent interval is reproduced, rather than seen, the effects of contextualization are attenuated.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Assessing the influence of sound parameters on crossmodal cuing in
           different regions of space
    • Authors: Jae Lee; Charles Spence
      Pages: 96 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Jae Lee, Charles Spence
      To date, crossmodal spatial cuing research has primarily investigated spatial attention modulated by the positioning of auditory cues, without addressing the question of the role played by sound parameters such as intensity change, waveform structure, or duration. Therefore in the present study, we investigated exogenous spatial cuing following the presentation of auditory cues having different intensity profiles (looming or receding), waveforms (triangular structured waveform or white noise), and durations (250 ms or 500 ms). Auditory cues were presented from one of four locations (front-left, front-right, rear-left, or rear-right). The participants had to make speeded elevation discrimination responses to visual targets presented from the front (on the left or right). The magnitude of the cuing effect was larger following the presentation of a structured looming auditory cue than a structured receding cue. On the other hand, there was no statistical difference between the magnitude of the cuing effect in the looming and in the receding intensity profiles when white noise cues were used. Such findings are consistent with previous reports. Furthermore, the magnitude of the cuing effect was larger when the cues were presented from the front than from the rear. On the contrary, other recent findings showed that the presentation of a 100 ms constant-intensity auditory cue exogenously oriented visual attention to the cued hemifield, regardless of whether the cues were presented from the front or rear. Therefore, the findings reported here demonstrated that sound parameters can modulate the exogenous orienting of crossmodal spatial attention.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Off the top of my head: Malleability and stability in natural categories
    • Authors: Tomás A. Palma; Ana Sofia Santos; Leonel Garcia-Marques
      Pages: 104 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Tomás A. Palma, Ana Sofia Santos, Leonel Garcia-Marques
      Previous research has found that category representations are highly malleable knowledge structures, varying widely across different contexts and individuals. However, it has also been found that such malleability does not apply equally to all types of category information. The present research further investigates the representational malleability versus stability of natural taxonomic categories. Using perceptual fluency as means to induce malleability, we explored whether malleability is moderated by the degree of typicality of category information. In the first experiment, we found that fluency-based malleability only occurs for non-typical category information. In follow-up experiments, we investigated the boundary conditions under which such fluency-based malleability occurs. Namely, in Experiment 2, we showed that the effect of fluency on non-typical features disappeared when there is a sensory modality mismatch between study and test phases. Finally, in Experiment 3, we demonstrated that this effect reappears in the modality mismatch condition when participants are given a response deadline. The implications of these findings to current theories of category representation and the perceptual fluency literature are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Illuminating ATOM: Taking time across the colour category border
    • Authors: Steven Samuel; Emanuel Bylund; Rachel Cooper; Panos Athanasopoulos
      Pages: 116 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Steven Samuel, Emanuel Bylund, Rachel Cooper, Panos Athanasopoulos
      Walsh's A Theory Of Magnitude (ATOM) contends that we represent magnitudes such as number, space, time and luminance on a shared metric, such that “more” of one leads to the perception of “more” of the other (e.g. Walsh, 2003). In support of ATOM, participants have been shown to judge intervals between stimuli that are more discrepant in luminance as having a longer duration than intervals between stimuli whose luminance differs by a smaller degree (Xuan, Zhang, He, & Chen, 2007). We tested the potential limits to the ability of luminance to influence duration perception by investigating the possibility that the luminance-duration relationship might be interrupted by a concurrent change in the colour of that luminance. We showed native Greek and native English speakers sequences of stimuli that could be either light or dark versions of green or blue. Whereas for both groups a shift in green luminance does not comprise a categorical shift in colour, for Greek speakers shifts between light and dark blue cross a colour category boundary (ghalazio and ble respectively). We found that duration judgements were neither interrupted nor inflated by a shift in colour category. These results represent the first evidence that the influence of luminance change on duration perception is resistant to interference from discrete changes within the same perceptual input.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Perceptual load is not always a crucial determinant of early versus late
           selection
    • Authors: Daniel H. Weissman; Brittany Drake; Katharine Colella; Daphne Samuel
      Pages: 125 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Daniel H. Weissman, Brittany Drake, Katharine Colella, Daphne Samuel
      The perceptual load hypothesis posits that early and late selection occurs under conditions of high and low perceptual load, respectively. Recent work, however, suggests that the absence of a congruency effect in high-load trials – the behavioral signature of early selection in studies of perceptual load – may not provide an exhaustive index of failing to identify task-irrelevant distractors. Prior research also suggests that the congruency sequence effect (CSE) – a modulation of the congruency effect after incongruent relative to congruent trials – provides complementary information about whether participants identify distractors. We therefore conducted a novel test of the perceptual load hypothesis that employed both the congruency effect and the CSE as measures of distractor identification. Experiment 1 revealed that distractors were identified not only in low-load trials but also in high-load trials wherein there was no overall congruency effect. Experiment 2 further revealed which task parameters allowed us to observe such “hidden" distractor identification. These findings suggest that perceptual load is not always a crucial determinant of early versus late selection.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • The effect of mood on integration of information in a multi-attribute
           decision task
    • Authors: Yury Shevchenko; Arndt Bröder
      Pages: 136 - 145
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Yury Shevchenko, Arndt Bröder
      The exact effect of different moods on choosing strategies in multi-attribute decision tasks is yet unknown since previous work has found apparently contradicting results. Furthermore, different theoretical accounts lead to opposite expectations. While the “mood-as-information” theory states that a positive mood leads to heuristic processing of information and application of non-compensatory strategies, the “broaden-and-build” theory expects more non-compensatory decision-making in a negative mood. To test the predictions of those two theories, we conducted two experimental studies, in which both the mood and the type of information search were manipulated. The results rather support “mood-as-information” theory, so participants in the positive mood made non-compensatory choices more often than participants in the negative mood. The effect was only present in the open information board, where the information was presented simultaneously, but not in the closed Mouselab, where the information had to be searched in a sequential manner.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Asymmetrical time-to-contact error with two moving objects persists across
           different vertical separations
    • Authors: Simon J. Bennett; Makoto Uji; Robin Baurès
      Pages: 146 - 154
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Simon J. Bennett, Makoto Uji, Robin Baurès
      When human observers estimate the time-to-contact (TTC) of more than one object there is an asymmetric pattern of error consistent with prioritizing the lead object at the expense of the trail object. Here, we examined TTC estimation in a prediction motion task where two objects moved along horizontal trajectories (5 or 7.5 °/s) that had different vertical separation, and thus placed specific demands on visuospatial attention. Results showed that participants were able to accurately judge arrival order, irrespective of vertical separation, in all but two conditions where the object trajectories crossed close to the arrival location. Constant error was significantly higher for the object that trailed, as opposed to led, by 250 or 500 ms. Asymmetry in constant error between the lead and trail object was not influenced by vertical separation, and was also evident across a range of arrival times. However, while the lag between the two consecutive TTC estimations was scaled to the actual difference in object arrival times, lag did increase with vertical separation. Taken together, our results confirm that TTC estimation of two moving objects in the prediction motion task suffers from an asymmetrical interference, which is likely related to factors that influence attentional allocation.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Positive, negative, or all relative' Evaluative conditioning of
           ambivalence
    • Authors: Tina Glaser; Marcella L. Woud; Michael Labib Iskander; Vera Schmalenstroth; Thuy My Vo
      Pages: 155 - 165
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Tina Glaser, Marcella L. Woud, Michael Labib Iskander, Vera Schmalenstroth, Thuy My Vo
      In evaluative conditioning (EC), the pairing of a positively or negatively valenced stimulus (US) with a neutral stimulus (CS) leads to a corresponding change in liking of the CS. EC research so far has concentrated on using unambiguously positive or negative USs. However, attitude objects are often ambivalent, i.e., can simultaneously possess positive and negative features. The present research investigated whether ambivalence can be evaluatively conditioned and whether contingency awareness moderates this effect. In two studies, positive, negative, neutral, and ambivalent USs were paired with affectively neutral CSs. Results showed standard EC effects that were moderated by contingency awareness. Most interestingly, EC effects were also obtained for the ambivalent USs, indicating that ambivalence can indeed be conditioned. However, contingency awareness seemed to play a lesser role in ambivalence conditioning. Ambivalence EC effects were obtained on subjective and objective direct measures of ambivalence as well as on a more indirect measure.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Investigating evolutionary constraints on the detection of threatening
           stimuli in preschool children
    • Authors: Andras N. Zsido; Anita Deak; Adrienn Losonci; Diana Stecina; Akos Arato; Laszlo Bernath
      Pages: 166 - 171
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Andras N. Zsido, Anita Deak, Adrienn Losonci, Diana Stecina, Akos Arato, Laszlo Bernath
      Numerous objects and animals could be threatening, and thus, children learn to avoid them early. Spiders and syringes are among the most common targets of fears and phobias of the modern word. However, they are of different origins: while the former is evolutionary relevant, the latter is not. We sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms that make the quick detection of such stimuli possible and enable the impulse to avoid them in the future. The respective categories of threatening and non-threatening targets were similar in shape, while low-level visual features were controlled. Our results showed that children found threatening cues faster, irrespective of the evolutionary age of the cues. However, they detected non-threatening evolutionary targets faster than non-evolutionary ones. We suggest that the underlying mechanism may be different: general feature detection can account for finding evolutionary threatening cues quickly, while specific features detection is more appropriate for modern threatening stimuli.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • In the eye of the beholder: Evaluative context modulates mind-wandering
    • Authors: Noah D. Forrin; Evan F. Risko; Daniel Smilek
      Pages: 172 - 179
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Noah D. Forrin, Evan F. Risko, Daniel Smilek
      We present novel evidence that mind-wandering rates during a reading task are influenced by experimental context. In Experiment 1, participants read a series of passages and we measured their frequency of mind-wandering and their subjective evaluations of passage difficulty/interest. Section length was manipulated, such that some passages were presented in short sections and others were presented in long sections. Importantly, participants were randomly assigned to complete either a within-subject version of the experiment (in which they read some short-section passages and some long-section passages) or a between-subjects design (in which they only read either short-section or long-section passages). We found that the within-subject design yielded significant effects of section length on mind-wandering and on subjective passage evaluations, whereas the between-subjects design yielded null effects. This pattern of results was replicated in Experiment 2. These results provide compelling evidence that mind-wandering rates can be influenced by the experimental design. We conclude that mind-wandering is not only driven by the objective demands of the task, but also by subjective evaluations of those task properties, which are influenced by the context in which the task is evaluated (i.e., the “evaluative context”).

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Is the Ebbinghaus illusion a size contrast illusion'
    • Authors: Dejan Todorović; Ljubica Jovanović
      Pages: 180 - 187
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Dejan Todorović, Ljubica Jovanović
      The Ebbinghaus illusion, in which a central target surrounded by larger context figures looks smaller than when surrounded by smaller context figures, is usually classified as a size contrast illusion. Thus “size contrast” is the dominant account of this effect. However, according to an alternative “contour interaction” account this phenomenon has little to do with size contrast but is rather caused by distance-dependent attractive and repulsive interactions between neural representation of contours. Here evidence is presented against the size contrast account and consistent with the contour interaction account. Experiment 1 was a control study confirming that the illusion can be obtained using displays consisting only of squares, which are more convenient to manipulate than the standardly used circles. In Experiment 2, the standard configuration involving small context figures surrounding the target was compared to a novel configuration, which involved many “spread” small context figures. The illusory effect of the standard context was stronger than the illusory effect of the spread context, in accord with the prediction of the contour interaction account, and contrary to the prediction of the size contrast account. In Experiment 3 two novel configurations were used, based on standard and spread contexts. The results were in accord with the prediction of the contour interaction account, whereas the size contrast account had no prediction because the stimuli did not involve conventional size contrast. Additional aspects of the stimuli and an account of the illusion based on a perspective interpretation are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Partner reactions and task set selection: Compatibility is more beneficial
           in the stronger task
    • Authors: Romy Müller; Maarten Lars Jung
      Pages: 188 - 202
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Romy Müller, Maarten Lars Jung


      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Truth is in the head. A nod and shake compatibility effect
    • Authors: Stefania Moretti; Alberto Greco
      Pages: 203 - 218
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Stefania Moretti, Alberto Greco
      Studies from the embodiment perspective on language processing have shown facilitation or interference effects depending on the compatibility between verbal contents, concrete or abstract, and the motion of various parts of the body. The aim of the present study was to test whether such compatibility effects can be found when a higher cognitive process like truth evaluation is accomplished with head movements. Since nodding is a vertical head gesture typically performed with positive and affirmative responses, and shaking is a horizontal head gesture associated with negative and dissenting contents, faster response times can be expected when true information is evaluated by making a vertical head movement and false information by making a horizontal head movement. Three experiments were designed in order to test this motor compatibility effect. In the first experiment a series of very simple sentences were asked to be evaluated as true or false by dragging them vertically and horizontally with the head. It resulted that truth-value was assessed faster when it was compatible with the direction of the head movement, compared to when it was incompatible. In the second experiment participants were asked to evaluate the same sentences as the first experiment but by moving them with the mouse. In the third experiment, a non-evaluative classification task was given, where sentences concerning animals or objects were to be dragged by vertical and horizontal head movements. In the second and third experiment no compatibility effect was observed. Overall results support the hypothesis of an embodiment effect between the abstract processing of truth evaluation and the direction of the two head movements of nodding and shaking. Cultural aspects, cognitive implications, and the limits of these findings are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • On the relation between body ownership and sense of agency: A link at the
           level of sensory-related signals
    • Authors: Maria Pyasik; Dalila Burin; Lorenzo Pia
      Pages: 219 - 228
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Maria Pyasik, Dalila Burin, Lorenzo Pia
      The relation between sense of body ownership and sense of agency is still highly debated. Here we investigated in a large sample of healthy participants the associations between several implicit and explicit indexes of the two senses. Specifically, we examined the correlations between proprioceptive shift (implicit measure) and questionnaire on the subjective experience of ownership (explicit measure) within the rubber hand illusion paradigm (body ownership), and intentional binding (implicit measure), attenuation of the intensity of auditory outcomes of actions (implicit measure) and questionnaire on the subjective experience of authorship (explicit measure) within the Libet's clock paradigm (sense of agency). Our results showed that proprioceptive shift was positively correlated with the attenuation of auditory outcomes. No significant correlations were found between the explicit measures of the two senses. We argue that the individual spatiotemporal constraints subserving the integration of sensory-related signals (implicit signature) would be common to both senses, whereas their subjective experience (explicit signature) would rely on additional processes specific for any given sense.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Automatic and controlled attentional orienting in the elderly: A
           dual-process view of the positivity effect
    • Authors: G. Gronchi; S. Righi; L. Pierguidi; F. Giovannelli; I. Murasecco; M.P. Viggiano
      Pages: 229 - 234
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): G. Gronchi, S. Righi, L. Pierguidi, F. Giovannelli, I. Murasecco, M.P. Viggiano
      The positivity effect in the elderly consists of an attentional preference for positive information as well as avoidance of negative information. Extant theories predict either that the positivity effect depends on controlled attentional processes (socio-emotional selectivity theory), or on an automatic gating selection mechanism (dynamic integration theory). This study examined the role of automatic and controlled attention in the positivity effect. Two dot-probe tasks (with the duration of the stimuli lasting 100 ms and 500 ms, respectively) were employed to compare the attentional bias of 35 elderly people to that of 35 young adults. The stimuli used were expressive faces displaying neutral, disgusted, fearful, and happy expressions. In comparison to young people, the elderly allocated more attention to happy faces at 100 ms and they tended to avoid fearful faces at 500 ms. The findings are not predicted by either theory taken alone, but support the hypothesis that the positivity effect in the elderly is driven by two different processes: an automatic attention bias toward positive stimuli, and a controlled mechanism that diverts attention away from negative stimuli.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • The impact of different background noises on the Production Effect
    • Authors: Yaniv Mama; Leah Fostick; Michal Icht
      Pages: 235 - 242
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Yaniv Mama, Leah Fostick, Michal Icht
      The presence of background noise has been previously shown to disrupt cognitive performance, especially memory. The amount of interference is derived from the acoustic characteristics of the noise; energetic vs. informational, steady-state vs. fluctuating. However, the literature is inconsistent concerning the effects of different types of noise on long-term memory free recall. In the present study, we tested the impact of different noises on recall of items that were learned under two conditions – silent or aloud reading, a Production Effect (PE) paradigm. As the PE represents enhanced memory for words read aloud relative to words read silently during study, we focused on the effect of noise on this robust memory phenomenon. The results showed that (a) steady-state energetic noise did not affect memory, with a recall advantage for aloud words (PE), comparable to a no-noise condition, (b) fluctuating-energetic noise and fluctuating-informational (eight-talkers babble) noise eliminated the PE, with similar recall for aloud and silent items. These results are discussed in light of their theoretical implications, stressing the role of attention in the PE. Ecological implications regarding studying in noisy environments are suggested.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • The implications and applications of learning via instructions
    • Authors: Baptist Liefooghe; Senne Braem; Nachshon Meiran
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 184
      Author(s): Baptist Liefooghe, Senne Braem, Nachshon Meiran
      Whereas psychology knows a long tradition of studies that focused on the role of practice and training in acquiring new skills or knowledge, systematic studies into learning via instructions remain relatively scarce. This is surprising given the tremendous influence instructions have on human behavior and cognition. In recent years, however, a (re)new(ed) interest into learning via instructions resulted in new paradigms and findings that can inspire future research in this understudied domain. We offer a brief overview of the articles in this special issue, which present some of the latest empirical developments dedicated to unraveling the implications and applications of learning via instructions. The special issue offers insights into the dynamics underlying the assimilation of new instructions and highlights the strengths and limitations of what can be achieved on the basis of instructions. Furthermore, the different studies showcase various examples of recent methodological advances in testing the effects of instructions. Finally, this special issue shows how different fields in psychology share similar questions on the role of instructions in human behavior, suggesting that this topic should no longer be considered as a subsidiary of these different fields, but as a research field on its own.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.015
      Issue No: Vol. 184 (2018)
       
  • On the efficiency of instruction-based rule encoding
    • Authors: Hannes Ruge; Tatjana Karcz; Tony Mark; Victoria Martin; Katharina Zwosta; Uta Wolfensteller
      Pages: 4 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 184
      Author(s): Hannes Ruge, Tatjana Karcz, Tony Mark, Victoria Martin, Katharina Zwosta, Uta Wolfensteller
      Instructions have long been considered a highly efficient route to knowledge acquisition especially compared to trial-and-error learning. We aimed at substantiating this claim by identifying boundary conditions for such an efficiency gain, including the influence of active learning intention, repeated instructions, and working memory load and span. Our experimental design allowed us to not only assess how well the instructed stimulus-response (S-R) rules were implemented later on, but also to directly measure prior instruction encoding processes. This revealed that instruction encoding was boosted by an active learning intention which in turn entailed better subsequent rule implementation. As should be expected, instruction-based learning took fewer trials than trial-and-error learning to reach a similar performance level. But more importantly, even when performance was measured relative to the identical number of preceding correct implementation trials, this efficiency gain persisted both in accuracy and in speed. This suggests that the naturally greater number of failed attempts in the initial phase of trial-and-error learning also negatively impacted learning in subsequent trials due to the persistence of erroneous memory traces established beforehand. A single instruction trial was sufficient to establish the advantage over trial-and-error learning but repeated instructions were better. Strategic factors and inter-individual differences in WM span – the latter exclusively affecting trial-and-error learning presumably due to the considerably more demanding working memory operations – could reduce or even abolish this advantage, but only in error rates. The same was not true for response time gains suggesting generally more efficient task automatization in instruction-based learning.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 184 (2018)
       
  • A role for proactive control in rapid instructed task learning
    • Authors: Michael W. Cole; Lauren M. Patrick; Nachshon Meiran; Todd S. Braver
      Pages: 20 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 184
      Author(s): Michael W. Cole, Lauren M. Patrick, Nachshon Meiran, Todd S. Braver
      Humans are often remarkably fast at learning novel tasks from instructions. Such rapid instructed task learning (RITL) likely depends upon the formation of new associations between long-term memory representations, which must then be actively maintained to enable successful task implementation. Consequently, we hypothesized that RITL relies more heavily on a proactive mode of cognitive control, in which goal-relevant information is actively maintained in preparation for anticipated high control demands. We tested this hypothesis using a recently developed cognitive paradigm consisting of 60 novel tasks involving RITL and 4 practiced tasks, with identical task rules and stimuli used across both task types. A robust behavioral cost was found in novel relative to practiced task performance, which was present even when the two were randomly inter-mixed, such that task-switching effects were equated. Novelty costs were most prominent under time-limited preparation conditions. In self-paced conditions, increased preparation time was found for novel trials, and was selectively associated with enhanced performance, suggesting greater proactive control for novel tasks. These results suggest a key role for proactive cognitive control in the ability to rapidly learn novel tasks from instructions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 184 (2018)
       
  • Instructed fear stimuli bias visual attention
    • Authors: Berre Deltomme; Gaetan Mertens; Helen Tibboel; Senne Braem
      Pages: 31 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 184
      Author(s): Berre Deltomme, Gaetan Mertens, Helen Tibboel, Senne Braem
      We investigated whether stimuli merely instructed to be fear-relevant can bias visual attention, even when the fear relation was never experienced before. Participants performed a dot-probe task with pictures of naturally fear-relevant (snake or spider) or -irrelevant (bird or butterfly) stimuli. Instructions indicated that two pictures (one naturally fear-relevant and one fear-irrelevant) could be followed by an electrical stimulation (i.e., instructed fear). In reality, no stimulation was administered. During the task, two pictures were presented on each side of the screen, after which participants had to determine as fast as possible on which side a black dot appeared. After a first phase, fear was reinstated by instructing participants that the device was not connected but now was (reinstatement phase). Participants were faster when the dot appeared on a location where an instructed fear picture was presented. This effect seemed independent of whether picture content was naturally fear-relevant, but was only found in the first half of each phase, suggesting rapid extinction due to the absence of stimulation, and rapid re-evaluation after reinstatement. A second experiment similarly showed that instructed fear biases attention, even when participants were explicitly instructed that no stimulation would be given during the dot-probe task. Together, these findings demonstrate that attention can be biased towards instructed fear stimuli, even when these fear relations were never experienced. Future studies should test whether this is specific to fear, or can be observed for all instructions that change the relevance of a given stimulus.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.010
      Issue No: Vol. 184 (2018)
       
  • Different mechanisms can account for the instruction induced proportion
           congruency effect
    • Authors: Kobe Desender
      Pages: 39 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 184
      Author(s): Kobe Desender
      When performing a conflict task, performance is typically worse on trials with conflict between two responses (i.e., incongruent trials) compared to when there is no conflict (i.e., congruent trials), a finding known as the congruency effect. The congruency effect is reduced when the proportion of incongruent trials is high, relative to when most of the trials are congruent (i.e., the proportion congruency effect). In the current work, it was tested whether different kinds of instructions can be used to induce a proportion congruency effect, while holding the actual proportion of congruent trials constant. Participants were instructed to strategically use the (invalid) information that most of the trials would be congruent versus incongruent, or they were told to adopt a liberal versus a conservative response threshold. All strategies effectively altered the size of the congruency effect relative to baseline, although in terms of statistical significance the effect was mostly limited to the error rates. A diffusion-model analysis of the data was partially consistent with the hypothesis that both types of instructions induced a proportion congruency effect by means of different underlying mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 184 (2018)
       
  • Communicated beliefs about action-outcomes: The role of initial
           confirmation in the adoption and maintenance of unsupported beliefs
    • Authors: Toby D. Pilditch; Ruud Custers
      Pages: 46 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 184
      Author(s): Toby D. Pilditch, Ruud Custers
      As agents seeking to learn how to successfully navigate their environments, humans can both obtain knowledge through direct experience, and second-hand through communicated beliefs. Questions remain concerning how communicated belief (or instruction) interacts with first-hand evidence integration, and how the former can bias the latter. Previous research has revealed that people are more inclined to seek out confirming evidence when they are motivated to uphold the belief, resulting in confirmation bias. The current research explores whether merely communicated beliefs affect evidence integration over time when it is not of interest to uphold the belief, and all evidence is readily available. In a novel series of on-line experiments, participants chose on each trial which of two options to play for money, being exposed to outcomes of both. Prior to this, they were exposed to favourable communicated beliefs regarding one of two options. Beliefs were either initially supported or undermined by subsequent probabilistic evidence (probabilities reversed halfway through the task, rendering the options equally profitable overall). Results showed that while communicated beliefs predicted initial choices, they only biased subsequent choices when supported by initial evidence in the first phase of the experiment. Findings were replicated across contexts, evidence sequence lengths, and probabilistic distributions. This suggests that merely communicated beliefs can prevail even when not supported by long run evidence, and in the absence of a motivation to uphold them. The implications of the interaction between communicated beliefs and initial evidence for areas including instruction effects, impression formation, and placebo effects are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 184 (2018)
       
  • More than planned: Implementation intention effects in non-planned
           situations
    • Authors: Maik Bieleke; Eve Legrand; Astrid Mignon; Peter M. Gollwitzer
      Pages: 64 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 184
      Author(s): Maik Bieleke, Eve Legrand, Astrid Mignon, Peter M. Gollwitzer
      Forming implementation intentions (i.e., if-then planning) is a powerful self-regulation strategy that enhances goal attainment by facilitating the automatic initiation of goal-directed responses upon encountering critical situations. Yet, little is known about the consequences of forming implementation intentions for goal attainment in situations that were not specified in the if-then plan. In three experiments, we assessed goal attainment in terms of speed and accuracy in an object classification task, focusing on situations that were similar or dissimilar to critical situations and required planned or different responses. The results of Experiments 1 and 3 provide evidence for a facilitation of planned responses in critical and in sufficiently similar situations, enhancing goal attainment when the planned response was required and impairing it otherwise. In Experiment 3, additional unfavorable effects however emerged in situations that were dissimilar to the critical one but required the planned response as well. We discuss theoretical implications as well as potential benefits and pitfalls emerging from these non-planned effects of forming implementation intentions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 184 (2018)
       
  • Generalization of learned pain modulation depends on explicit learning
    • Authors: Leonie Koban; Daniel Kusko; Tor D. Wager
      Pages: 75 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 184
      Author(s): Leonie Koban, Daniel Kusko, Tor D. Wager
      The experience of pain is strongly influenced by contextual and socio-affective factors, including learning from previous experiences. Pain is typically perceived as more intense when preceded by a conditioned cue (CSHIGH) that has previously been associated with higher pain intensities, compared to cues associated with lower intensities (CSLOW). In three studies (total N=134), we tested whether this learned pain modulation generalizes to perceptually similar cues (Studies 1 and 2) and conceptually similar cues (Study 3). The results showed that participants report higher pain when heat stimulation was preceded by novel stimuli that were either perceptually (Studies 1 and 2) or conceptually (Study 3) similar to the previously conditioned CSHIGH. In all three studies, the strength of this generalization effect was strongly correlated with individual differences in explicitly learned expectations. Together, these findings suggest an important role of conscious expectations and higher-order conceptual inference during generalization of learned pain modulation. We discuss implications for the understanding of placebo and nocebo effects as well as for chronic pain and anxiety.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 184 (2018)
       
  • After-effects without monitoring costs: The impact of prospective memory
           instructions on task switching performance
    • Authors: Beat Meier; Alodie Rey-Mermet
      Pages: 85 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 184
      Author(s): Beat Meier, Alodie Rey-Mermet
      In a prospective memory task, verbal instructions are used to define an appropriate target event as retrieval cue. This target event is typically part of an ongoing activity and is thus bivalent as it involves features relevant for both the prospective memory task and the ongoing task. Task switching research has demonstrated that responding to bivalent stimuli is costly and can slow down even subsequent performance. Thus, responding to prospective memory targets may also result in after-effects, expressed as slowed subsequent ongoing task performance. So far, ongoing task slowing has been mainly considered as a measure of strategic monitoring for the prospective memory cues. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether after-effects of responding to prospective memory targets contribute to this slowing. In four experiments, a prospective memory task was embedded in a task-switching paradigm and we manipulated the degree of task-set overlap between the prospective memory task and the ongoing task. The results showed consistent after-effects of responding to prospective memory targets in each experiment. Increasing task-set overlap increased the amount and longevity of the after-effects. Surprisingly, prospective memory retrieval was not accompanied by strategic monitoring. Thus, this study demonstrates that ongoing task slowing can occur in the absence of monitoring costs.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 184 (2018)
       
  • Multiple priming instances increase the impact of practice-based but not
           verbal code-based stimulus-response associations
    • Authors: Christina U. Pfeuffer; Karolina Moutsopoulou; Florian Waszak; Andrea Kiesel
      Pages: 100 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 184
      Author(s): Christina U. Pfeuffer, Karolina Moutsopoulou, Florian Waszak, Andrea Kiesel
      Stimulus-response (S-R) associations, the basis of learning and behavioral automaticity, are formed by the (repeated) co-occurrence of stimuli and responses and render stimuli able to automatically trigger associated responses. The strength and behavioral impact of these S-R associations increases with the number of priming instances (i.e., practice). Here we investigated whether multiple priming instances of a special form of instruction, verbal coding, also lead to the formation of stronger S-R associations in comparison to a single instance of priming. Participants either actively classified stimuli or passively attended to verbal codes denoting responses once or four times before S-R associations were probed. We found that whereas S-R associations formed on the basis of active task execution (i.e., practice) were strengthened by multiple priming instances, S-R associations formed on the basis of verbal codes (i.e., instruction) did not benefit from additional priming instances. These findings indicate difference in the mechanisms underlying the encoding and/or retrieval of previously executed and verbally coded S-R associations.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 184 (2018)
       
  • The role of motor imagery in learning via instructions
    • Authors: Marijke Theeuwes; Baptist Liefooghe; Maarten De Schryver; Jan De Houwer
      Pages: 110 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 184
      Author(s): Marijke Theeuwes, Baptist Liefooghe, Maarten De Schryver, Jan De Houwer
      Learning via instructions and learning through physical practice are complementary pathways to obtain skilled performance. Whereas an initial task representation can be formed on the basis of instructions, physically practicing novel instructions leads to a shift in processing mode from controlled processing toward more automatic processing. This shift in processing mode is supposedly caused by the formation of a pragmatic task representation, which includes task parameters needed to attain skilled task execution. In between learning via instructions and physical practice, a third type of learning can be situated, motor imagery. Two experiments are reported that studied the extent to which motor imagery can enhance the application of novel instructions. A procedure was developed in which performance improvement after motor imagery could be measured for behavioral markers of processes underlying response selection (i.e., initiation time of a response sequence) and for behavioral markers of processes underlying movement execution (i.e., completion time of the response sequence). Our results suggest that whereas physical practice improves response selection and movement execution, motor imagery only improves response selection. We propose that motor imagery also leads to a shift in processing mode and to the formation of a pragmatic task representation, albeit a less detailed one as compared to the representation that is formed on the basis of physical practice.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 184 (2018)
       
  • An experimental investigation of breaking learnt habits with verbal
           implementation intentions
    • Authors: Aukje A.C. Verhoeven; Merel Kindt; Colene L. Zomer; Sanne de Wit
      Pages: 124 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 184
      Author(s): Aukje A.C. Verhoeven, Merel Kindt, Colene L. Zomer, Sanne de Wit
      The interplay between inflexible habits and flexible goal-directed control can be modelled in lab-settings using the slips-of-action task. In this task, participants are required to selectively respond to still-valuable outcomes while suppressing responding towards no-longer valuable outcomes, thereby overriding learned stimulus-response associations. Here we examined in the slips-of-action task whether learnt habits can be changed using a planning technique – so-called implementation intentions - whereby people instruct themselves to enact a certain behaviour (or not) in the presence of a specific critical stimulus. Such simple ‘if-then’ instructions have previously been shown to support behavioural change in real-life settings, possibly because people verbally create new stimulus-response associations. Across four experiments we manipulated the intrinsic value of the stimuli and outcomes in the slips-of-action task: abstract stimuli and outcomes (Experiment 1), snack food stimuli and outcomes (Experiment 2), or a combination of both types (Experiment 3–4). Implementation intentions improved the ability to suppress previously learnt responses towards no-longer-valuable abstract outcomes (Experiment 1 and 3). However, when snacks were used as outcomes (Experiment 2 and 4) no beneficial effect of implementation intentions versus goal intentions was observed. The slips-of-action task is thus sensitive to planning techniques under certain circumstances. Yet, the absence of effects when using snacks as outcomes implies the possible importance of its hedonic outcome value for implementation intentions' effectiveness, which warrants further investigation.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.008
      Issue No: Vol. 184 (2018)
       
  • Relational information moderates approach-avoidance instruction effects on
           implicit evaluation
    • Authors: Pieter Van Dessel; Jan De Houwer; Colin Tucker Smith
      Pages: 137 - 143
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 184
      Author(s): Pieter Van Dessel, Jan De Houwer, Colin Tucker Smith
      Previous research demonstrated that instructions to approach one stimulus and avoid another stimulus can result in a spontaneous or implicit preference for the former stimulus. In the current study, we tested whether the effect of approach-avoidance instructions on implicit evaluation depends on the relational information embedded in these instructions. Participants received instructions that they would move towards a certain non-existing word and move away from another non-existing word (self-agent instructions) or that one non-existing word would move towards them and the other non-existing word would move away from them (stimulus-agent instructions). Results showed that self-agent instructions produced stronger effects than stimulus-agent instructions on implicit evaluations of the non-existing words. These findings support the idea that propositional processes play an important role in effects of approach-avoidance instructions on implicit evaluation and in implicit evaluation in general.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 184 (2018)
       
  • Transfer of learned category-response associations is modulated by
           instruction
    • Authors: Cai S. Longman; Fraser Milton; Andy J. Wills; Frederick Verbruggen
      Pages: 144 - 167
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 184
      Author(s): Cai S. Longman, Fraser Milton, Andy J. Wills, Frederick Verbruggen
      Although instructions often emphasize categories (e.g., odd number→left hand response) rather than specific stimuli (e.g., 3→left hand response), learning is often interpreted in terms of stimulus-response (S-R) bindings or, less frequently, stimulus-classification (S-C) bindings with little attention being paid to the importance of category-response (C-R) bindings. In a training-transfer paradigm designed to investigate the early stages of category learning, participants were required to classify stimuli according to the category templates presented prior to each block (Experiments 1–4). In some transfer blocks the stimuli, categories and/or responses could be novel or repeated from the preceding training phase. Learning was assessed by comparing the transfer-training performance difference across conditions. Participants were able to rapidly transfer C-R associations to novel stimuli but evidence of S-C transfer was much weaker and S-R transfer was largely limited to conditions where the stimulus was classified under the same category. Thus, even though there was some evidence that learned S-R and S-C associations contributed to performance, learned C-R associations seemed to play a much more important role. In a final experiment (Experiment 5) the stimuli themselves were presented prior to each block, and the instructions did not mention the category structure. In this experiment, the evidence for S-R learning outweighed the evidence for C-R learning, indicating the importance of instructions in learning. The implications for these findings to the learning, cognitive control, and automaticity literatures are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 184 (2018)
       
  • Tool use produces a size illusion revealing action-specific perceptual
           mechanisms
    • Authors: Jihyun Suh; Richard A. Abrams
      Pages: 10 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Jihyun Suh, Richard A. Abrams
      In four experiments, participants estimated the sizes of target objects that were either out of reach, or that could be reached by a tool (a stylus or laser pointer). Objects reachable with the aid of a tool were perceived to be smaller than identical objects without a tool. Participants' responses to questioning rule out demand characteristics as an explanation. This new size illusion may reflect a direct impact of tool use on perceived size, or it may stem from the effects of tool use on perceived distance. Both possibilities support action specific accounts of perception.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
       
  • Dyslexia as a multi-deficit disorder: Working memory and auditory temporal
           processing
    • Authors: Leah Fostick; Hadas Revah
      Pages: 19 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Leah Fostick, Hadas Revah
      Dyslexia is difficulty in acquiring reading skills despite adequate intelligence and sufficient reading opportunities. Its origin is still under debate. Studies usually focus on a singular cause for dyslexia; however, some researchers argue that dyslexia reflects multiple deficits. Two of the abilities under investigation in dyslexia are working memory (WM) and auditory temporal processing (ATP). In order to better evaluate the relative roles of WM and ATP in dyslexia, in the present study, we tested the contribution of WM and ATP to different types of reading performance and phonological awareness in dyslexia, using a multidimensional approach. Seventy-eight adults with dyslexia and 23 normal-reading adults performed WM and ATP tasks, as well as reading and phonological awareness tests. Readers with dyslexia showed poorer performance on all tests. Both WM and ATP were significant predictors of reading performance and phonological awareness among participants with dyslexia. Dividing participants with dyslexia according to their performance level on WM and ATP tasks revealed group differences in reading and phonological awareness tests. Both WM and ATP contribute to dyslexia, and varying levels of difficulties in both of these abilities are observed among this population. This is strong evidence in favor of the multi-deficit approach in dyslexia, and suggests that researchers should consider this approach in future studies of dyslexia.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
       
  • Causal evidence in risk and policy perceptions: Applying the
           covariation/mechanism framework
    • Authors: Matt Baucum; Richard John
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Matt Baucum, Richard John
      Today's information-rich society demands constant evaluation of cause-effect relationships; behaviors and attitudes ranging from medical choices to voting decisions to policy preferences typically entail some form of causal inference (“Will this policy reduce crime'”, “Will this activity improve my health'”). Cause-effect relationships such as these can be thought of as depending on two qualitatively distinct forms of evidence: covariation-based evidence (e.g., “states with this policy have fewer homicides”) or mechanism-based (e.g., “this policy will reduce crime by discouraging repeat offenses”). Some psychological work has examined how people process these two forms of causal evidence in instances of “everyday” causality (e.g., assessing why a car will not start), but it is not known how these two forms of evidence contribute to causal judgments in matters of public risk or policy. Three studies (n = 715) investigated whether judgments of risk and policy scenarios would be affected by covariation and mechanism evidence and whether the evidence types interacted with one another (as suggested by past studies). Results showed that causal judgments varied linearly with mechanism strength and logarithmically with covariation strength, and that the evidence types produced only additive effects (but no interaction). We discuss the results' implications for risk communication and policy information dissemination.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.03.003
       
  • What's your number' The effects of trial order on the one-target
           advantage
    • Authors: Stephen R. Bested; Michael A. Khan; Gavin P. Lawrence; Luc Tremblay
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Stephen R. Bested, Michael A. Khan, Gavin P. Lawrence, Luc Tremblay
      When moving our upper-limb towards a single target, movement times are typically shorter than when movement to a second target is required. This is known as the one-target advantage. Most studies that have demonstrated the one-target advantage have employed separate trial blocks for the one- and two-segment movements. To test if the presence of the one-target advantage depends on advance knowledge of the number of segments, the present study investigated whether the one-target advantage would emerge under different trial orders/sequences. One- and two-segment responses were organized in blocked (i.e., 1-1-1, 2-2-2), alternating (i.e., 1-2-1-2-1-2), and random (i.e., 1-1-2-1-2-2) trial sequences. Similar to previous studies, where only blocked schedules have typically been utilized, the one-target advantage emerged during the blocked and alternate conditions, but not in the random condition. This finding indicates that the one-target advantage is contingent on participants knowing the number of movement segments prior to stimulus onset.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.03.005
       
  • Outside influence: The sense of agency takes into account what is in our
           surroundings
    • Authors: Nicholas Hon; Yin-Yi Seow; Don Pereira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Nicholas Hon, Yin-Yi Seow, Don Pereira
      We are quite capable of distinguishing those outcomes we cause from those we do not. This ability to sense self-agency is thought to be produced by a comparison between a predictive representation of an outcome and the actual outcome that occurs. It is unclear, though, specifically what types of information can be entered into agency computations. Here, we demonstrate that information from non-target stimuli (stimuli that are not directly acted upon) incidentally present in our surroundings can influence predictions of outcomes, consequently modulating the sense of agency over clearly-defined target outcomes (those that occur to acted-upon stimuli). This provides the first evidence that our sense of agency is contextualized with respect to what is in our immediate visual environment. Furthermore, our data suggest that agency computations, instead of just a single comparison, may involve comparisons performed in stages, with different stages involving different types/classes of information. A model of such multi-stage comparisons is described.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.03.004
       
  • Further evidence for functional differences between guessing versus
           choosing an upcoming task
    • Authors: Thomas Kleinsorge; Juliane Scheil
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Thomas Kleinsorge, Juliane Scheil
      We replicated and extended previous evidence regarding functional differences between guessing versus choosing an upcoming task. Participants switched among four tasks and were asked to predict the upcoming task on each trial. These predictions were instructed to participants as either ‘guessing’ or ‘choosing’. Furthermore, we varied the proportion of trials in which the presented task conformed to participants' predictions on three levels. Whereas with choosing instructions unexpectedness affected task switches and repetitions similarly, leaving switch costs unchanged, with guessing instructions switch costs were reduced, that is, task switches were affected less than repetitions. This interaction was unaffected by the proportion of expected tasks. We propose that with choosing, the impact of a mismatch between chosen and presented tasks is reduced by explicit knowledge regarding the proportion of denied choices. With guessing, task unexpectedness mainly increases task difficulty, which is compensated by an increase of cognitive control that reduces switch costs.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2017)
       
 
 
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