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Showing 1 - 200 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 83, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 331, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
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Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
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Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
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Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
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Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
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Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
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Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
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Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 343, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
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Journal Cover Acta Psychologica
  [SJR: 1.365]   [H-I: 73]   [23 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-6918
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Distributed practice can boost evaluative conditioning by increasing
           memory for the stimulus pairs
    • Authors: Jasmin Richter; Anne Gast
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Jasmin Richter, Anne Gast
      When presenting a neutral stimulus (CS) in close temporal and spatial proximity to a positive or negative stimulus (US) the former is often observed to adopt the valence of the latter, a phenomenon named evaluative conditioning (EC). It is already well established that under most conditions, contingency awareness is important for an EC effect to occur. In addition to that, some findings suggest that awareness of the stimulus pairs is not only relevant during the learning phase, but that it is also relevant whether memory for the pairings is still available during the measurement phase. As previous research has shown that memory is better after temporally distributed than after contiguous (massed) repetitions, it seems plausible that also EC effects are moderated by distributed practice manipulations. This was tested in the current studies. In two experiments with successful distributed practice manipulations on memory, we show that also the magnitude of the EC effect was larger for pairs learned under spaced compared to massed conditions. Both effects, on memory and on EC, are found after a within-participant and after a between-participant manipulation. However, we did not find significant differences in the EC effect for different conditions of spaced practice. These findings are in line with the assumption that EC is based on similar processes as memory for the pairings.

      PubDate: 2017-07-08T07:17:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.06.007
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • False memories, but not false beliefs, affect implicit attitudes for food
    • Authors: David Howe; Rachel J. Anderson; Stephen A. Dewhurst
      Pages: 14 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): David Howe, Rachel J. Anderson, Stephen A. Dewhurst
      Previous studies have found that false memories and false beliefs of childhood experiences can have attitudinal consequences. Previous studies have, however, focused exclusively on explicit attitude measures without exploring whether implicit attitudes are similarly affected. Using a false feedback/imagination inflation paradigm, false memories and beliefs of enjoying a certain food as a child were elicited in participants, and their effects were assessed using both explicit attitude measures (self-report questionnaires) and implicit measures (a Single-Target Implicit Association Test). Positive changes in explicit attitudes were observed both in participants with false memories and participants with false beliefs. In contrast, only participants with false memories exhibited more positive implicit attitudes. The findings are discussed in terms of theories of explicit and implicit attitudes.

      PubDate: 2017-07-08T07:17:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • Social perception and aging: The relationship between aging and the
           perception of subtle changes in facial happiness and identity
    • Authors: Tao Yang; Tegan Penton; Şerife Leman Köybaşı; Michael J. Banissy
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Tao Yang, Tegan Penton, Şerife Leman Köybaşı, Michael J. Banissy
      Previous findings suggest that older adults show impairments in the social perception of faces, including the perception of emotion and facial identity. The majority of this work has tended to examine performance on tasks involving young adult faces and prototypical emotions. While useful, this can influence performance differences between groups due to perceptual biases and limitations on task performance. Here we sought to examine how typical aging is associated with the perception of subtle changes in facial happiness and facial identity in older adult faces. We developed novel tasks that permitted the ability to assess facial happiness, facial identity, and non-social perception (object perception) across similar task parameters. We observe that aging is linked with declines in the ability to make fine-grained judgements in the perception of facial happiness and facial identity (from older adult faces), but not for non-social (object) perception. This pattern of results is discussed in relation to mechanisms that may contribute to declines in facial perceptual processing in older adulthood.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • Embedded interruptions and task complexity influence schema-related
           cognitive load progression in an abstract learning task
    • Authors: Maria Wirzberger; Shirin Esmaeili Bijarsari; Günter Daniel Rey
      Pages: 30 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Maria Wirzberger, Shirin Esmaeili Bijarsari, Günter Daniel Rey
      Cognitive processes related to schema acquisition comprise an essential source of demands in learning situations. Since the related amount of cognitive load is supposed to change over time, plausible temporal models of load progression based on different theoretical backgrounds are inspected in this study. A total of 116 student participants completed a basal symbol sequence learning task, which provided insights into underlying cognitive dynamics. Two levels of task complexity were determined by the amount of elements within the symbol sequence. In addition, interruptions due to an embedded secondary task occurred at five predefined stages over the task. Within the resulting 2x5-factorial mixed between-within design, the continuous monitoring of efficiency in learning performance enabled assumptions on relevant resource investment. From the obtained results, a nonlinear change of learning efficiency over time seems most plausible in terms of cognitive load progression. Moreover, different effects of the induced interruptions show up in conditions of task complexity, which indicate the activation of distinct cognitive mechanisms related to structural aspects of the task. Findings are discussed in the light of evidence from research on memory and information processing.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • Associative cueing of attention through implicit feature-location binding
    • Authors: Giovanna Girardi; Daniele Nico
      Pages: 54 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Giovanna Girardi, Daniele Nico
      In order to assess associative learning between two task-irrelevant features in cueing spatial attention, we devised a task in which participants have to make an identity comparison between two sequential visual stimuli. Unbeknownst to them, location of the second stimulus could be predicted by the colour of the first or a concurrent sound. Albeit unnecessary to perform the identity-matching judgment the predictive features thus provided an arbitrary association favouring the spatial anticipation of the second stimulus. A significant advantage was found with faster responses at predicted compared to non-predicted locations. Results clearly demonstrated an associative cueing of attention via a second-order arbitrary feature/location association but with a substantial discrepancy depending on the sensory modality of the predictive feature. With colour as predictive feature, significant advantages emerged only after the completion of three blocks of trials. On the contrary, sound affected responses from the first block of trials and significant advantages were manifest from the beginning of the second. The possible mechanisms underlying the associative cueing of attention in both conditions are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • Proficient use of low spatial frequencies facilitates face memory but
           shows protracted maturation throughout adolescence
    • Authors: Judith C. Peters; Chantal Kemner
      Pages: 61 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Judith C. Peters, Chantal Kemner
      Face perception is characterized by configural processing, which depends on visual information in the low spatial frequency (LSF) ranges. However, it is unclear whether LSF content is equally important for face memory. The present study investigated how face information in the low and high SF range plays a role in the configural encoding of faces for short-term and long-term recall. Moreover, we examined how SF-dependent face memorization develops in female adolescence, by comparing children (9–10-year-olds), adolescents (12–13-year-olds and 15–16-year-olds), and young adults (21–32-year-olds). Results show that similar to face perception, delayed face recognition was consistently facilitated by LSF content. However, only adults were able to adequately employ configural LSF cues for short-term recall, analogous to the slow maturation of LSF-driven configural face perception reported by previous studies. Moreover, the insensitivity to face inversion of early adolescents revealed their inadequate use of configural face cues regardless of SF availability, corroborating previous reports on an adolescent “dip” in face recognition. Like face perception, face recognition has a protracted maturational course. In (female) adolescence, sensitivity to configural LSF cues is developed, which aids not only configural face perception but also face memorization.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • No consistent cooling of the real hand in the rubber hand illusion
    • Authors: Alyanne M. de Haan; Haike E. Van Stralen; Miranda Smit; Anouk Keizer; Stefan Van der Stigchel; H. Chris Dijkerman
      Pages: 68 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Alyanne M. de Haan, Haike E. Van Stralen, Miranda Smit, Anouk Keizer, Stefan Van der Stigchel, H. Chris Dijkerman
      In the rubber hand illusion (RHI), participants view a rubber hand that is stroked synchronously with their real, hidden hand. This procedure results in experiencing an increased sense of ownership over the rubber hand and demonstrates how multisensory information (vision, touch) can influence the sense of body ownership. However, it has also been suggested that a (lack of) sense of ownership over an own body part may in turn influence bodily processes. This suggestion has previously been supported by the observation that a decrease in skin temperature in the real hand correlated with ownership over the rubber hand. However, this finding has not been consistently replicated. Our lab has conducted several studies in which we recorded temperature of the hands during the RHI using various measures and in different circumstances, including continuous temperature measurements in a temperature-controlled room. An overall analysis of our results, covering five attempts to replicate the traditional RHI experiment and totalling 167 participants, does not show a reliable cooling of the real hand during the RHI. We discuss this failure to replicate and consider several possible explanations for inconsistencies between reports of hand temperature during the RHI.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T07:39:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • Both facilitatory and inhibitory impairments underlie age-related
           differences of proactive cognitive control across the adult lifespan
    • Authors: Pascal W.M. Van Gerven; Petra P.M. Hurks; Jos J. Adam
      Pages: 78 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Pascal W.M. Van Gerven, Petra P.M. Hurks, Jos J. Adam
      We investigated two components of proactive cognitive control, response facilitation and response inhibition, in an adult lifespan sample (N =544, age range=18–91years) by administering two response-preparation tasks: a procue task, primarily involving facilitation, and an anticue task, involving both facilitation and inhibition. Cues in both tasks corresponded with the index and middle fingers of either the left or right hand. After a random preparation interval (PI) of 100–850ms following the onset of the cue signal, a single-target stimulus indicated the required response. Where procues were spatially aligned with the two fingers of the responding hand, anticues consistently indicated the two fingers of the opposite hand, requiring a remapping of cue location and response hand. This remapping requires inhibition to suppress the automatic activation of the ipsilateral responses. Previous research revealed typical reaction time (RT) profiles for procues and anticues as a function of PI. Whereas procues generate RT benefits (relative to a neutral-cue condition) already at short PIs, which increase with longer PIs, anticues generate RT costs at short PIs and RT benefits at longer PIs. Our results showed that, in the anticue task, older participants needed more preparation time to turn RT costs into RT benefits than younger participants, revealing an age-related deficit of response inhibition. Moreover, in both tasks, older participants were less able to increase RT benefits with longer PIs, revealing a deficit of response facilitation. We conclude that both facilitatory and inhibitory impairments contribute to age-related deficiencies in proactive cognitive control.

      PubDate: 2017-07-27T23:24:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • The listener automatically uses spatial story representations from the
           speaker's cohesive gestures when processing subsequent sentences without
    • Authors: Kazuki Sekine; Sotaro Kita
      Pages: 89 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Kazuki Sekine, Sotaro Kita
      This study examined spatial story representations created by speaker's cohesive gestures. Participants were presented with three-sentence discourse with two protagonists. In the first and second sentences, gestures consistently located the two protagonists in the gesture space: one to the right and the other to the left. The third sentence (without gestures) referred to one of the protagonists, and the participants responded with one of the two keys to indicate the relevant protagonist. The response keys were either spatially congruent or incongruent with the gesturally established locations for the two participants. Though the cohesive gestures did not provide any clue for the correct response, they influenced performance: the reaction time in the congruent condition was faster than that in the incongruent condition. Thus, cohesive gestures automatically establish spatial story representations and the spatial story representations remain activated in a subsequent sentence without any gesture.

      PubDate: 2017-07-27T23:24:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.07.009
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • Directional effect in double conditionals with a construction task: The
           semantic hypothesis
    • Authors: Orlando Espino; Tarek Morales; Alicia Bolaños-Medina
      Pages: 96 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 179
      Author(s): Orlando Espino, Tarek Morales, Alicia Bolaños-Medina
      The goal of this paper is to test the main predictions of the semantic hypothesis about the directional effect in double conditionals (such as, ‘A only if B/only if C, B’) with a construction task. The semantic hypothesis claims that directional effect can be explained by the inherent directionality of the relation between the relatum and the target object of the premises. According to this hypothesis, a directional effect should occur if only one of the end-terms of the premises takes the role of relatum: a) if the end-term that plays the role of relatum is in the first premise, a forward directional effect is predicted (from A to C); and b) if the end-term that plays the role of relatum is in the second premise, a backward directional effect is predicted (from C to A). On the other hand, it claims that there should be no directional effect when both end-terms take the role of relatum or when neither of the end-terms plays the role of relatum. Three experiments confirmed the main predictions of the semantic hypothesis in a construction task.

      PubDate: 2017-07-27T23:24:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 179 (2017)
  • To neglect or integrate contingency information from outside the task
           frame, that is the question! Effects of depressed mood
    • Authors: R.M. Msetfi; N. Byrom; R.A. Murphy
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): R.M. Msetfi, N. Byrom, R.A. Murphy
      Evidence shows that there are individual differences in the extent to which people attend to and integrate information into their decisions about the predictive contingencies between events and outcomes. In particular, information about the absence of events or outcomes, presented outside the current task frame, is often neglected. This trend is particularly evident in depression, as well as other psychopathologies, though reasons for information neglect remain unclear. We investigated this phenomenon across two experiments (Experiment 1: N =157; Experiment 2: N =150) in which participants, scoring low and high in the Beck Depression Inventory, were asked to learn a simple predictive relationship between a visual cue and an auditory outcome. We manipulated whether or not participants had prior experience of the visual cue outside of the task frame, whether such experience took place in the same or different context to the learning task, and the nature of the action required to signal occurrence of the auditory outcome. We found that all participants were capable of including extra-task experience into their assessment of the predictive cue-outcome relationship in whatever context it occurred. However, for mildly depressed participants, adjacent behaviours and similarity between the extra-task experience and the main task, influenced information integration, with patterns of ‘over-integration’ evident, rather than neglect as we had expected. Findings are suggestive of over-generalised experience on the part of mildly depressed participants.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T14:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • On national flags and language tags: Effects of flag-language congruency
           in bilingual word recognition
    • Authors: Jonathan Grainger; Mathieu Declerck; Yousri Marzouki
      Pages: 12 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Jonathan Grainger, Mathieu Declerck, Yousri Marzouki
      French-English bilinguals performed a generalized lexical decision experiment with mixed lists of French and English words and pseudo-words. In Experiment 1, each word/pseudo-word was superimposed on the picture of the French or UK flag, and flag-word congruency was manipulated. The flag was not informative with respect to either the lexical decision response or the language of the word. Nevertheless, lexical decisions to word stimuli were faster following the congruent flag compared with the incongruent flag, but only for French (L1) words. Experiment 2 replicated this flag-language congruency effect in a priming paradigm, where the word and pseudo-word targets followed the brief presentation of the flag prime, and this time effects were seen in both languages. We take these findings as evidence for a mechanism that automatically processes linguistic and non-linguistic information concerning the presence or not of a given language. Language membership information can then modulate lexical processing, in line with the architecture of the BIA model, but not the BIA+ model.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T14:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Salivary secretion and disgust: A pilot study
    • Authors: Carmelo M. Vicario; Werner Sommer; Karolina A. Kuran; Robert D. Rafal
      Pages: 18 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Carmelo M. Vicario, Werner Sommer, Karolina A. Kuran, Robert D. Rafal
      Although a direct link has been established between self-experienced disgust and salivary secretion, it is unclear whether this physiological index is modulated by the social experience of disgust (i.e., exposure to the facial expression of disgust). We tested this issue in a pilot study by collecting salivary samples in a group of 20 healthy humans watching pictures of faces expressing disgust. Moreover, we tried to replicate previous evidence by testing saliva secretion in response to pictures of unpalatable (i.e., rotten) food and non-gustatory disgusting stimuli (i.e., disgusting insects). Overall, our analysis shows a general reduction of saliva secretion in response to disgust stimuli, compared to their positive counterparts, although further analyses for specific stimulus categories indicated that this difference was statistically significant only for food pictures. The non-significance of the face and insect categories might be due to insufficient power of our small sample. Overall, a general reduction of saliva secretion for different disgust-related stimuli suggests a shared mechanism of encoding, in line with theories of neural reuse.

      PubDate: 2017-05-31T10:30:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Face inversion increases attractiveness
    • Authors: Helmut Leder; Juergen Goller; Michael Forster; Lena Schlageter; Matthew A. Paul
      Pages: 25 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Helmut Leder, Juergen Goller, Michael Forster, Lena Schlageter, Matthew A. Paul
      Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces. Importantly, these effects were more pronounced for faces rated low in upright orientation, and smaller for highly attractive faces. In other words, the less attractive a face was, the more it gained in attractiveness by inversion or rotation. Based on these findings, we argue that facial attractiveness assessments might not rely on the presence of attractive facial characteristics, but on the absence of distinctive, unattractive characteristics. These unattractive characteristics are potentially weighed against an individual, attractive prototype in assessing facial attractiveness.

      PubDate: 2017-05-31T10:30:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • The contribution of task-choice response selection to the switch cost in
           voluntary task switching
    • Authors: Baptist Liefooghe
      Pages: 32 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Baptist Liefooghe
      Mental flexibility not only enables us to switch between tasks but also to select the tasks we want to perform. The latter scenario is central to voluntary task switching, in which participants are free to select on each trial which task to perform. The present study argues that voluntary task switching also includes and additional component, namely task-choice response selection. Task-choice response selection refers to the whole chain of processes involved in the overt report or indication of the task that was selected by emitting an arbitrary response. Task-choice response selection is not required to voluntarily switch between tasks, but serves the measurement of participants' covert task selection. The results of two experiments indicate that the contribution of task-choice response selection to switch performance in voluntary task switching is substantial. It is proposed that task-choice response selection delays the top-down retrieval of task rules in voluntary task switching.

      PubDate: 2017-05-31T10:30:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Crossmodal attentional control sets between vision and audition
    • Authors: Frank Mast; Christian Frings; Charles Spence
      Pages: 41 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Frank Mast, Christian Frings, Charles Spence
      The interplay between top-down and bottom-up factors in attentional selection has been a topic of extensive research and controversy amongst scientists over the past two decades. According to the influential contingent capture hypothesis, a visual stimulus needs to match the feature(s) implemented into the current attentional control sets in order to be automatically selected. Recently, however, evidence has been presented that attentional control sets affect not only visual but also crossmodal selection. The aim of the present study was therefore to establish contingent capture as a general principle of multisensory selection. A non-spatial interference task with bimodal (visual and auditory) distractors and bimodal targets was used. The target and the distractors were presented in close temporal succession. In order to perform the task correctly, the participants only had to process a predefined target feature in either of the two modalities (e.g., colour when vision was the primary modality). Note that the additional crossmodal stimulation (e.g., a specific sound when hearing was the secondary modality) was not relevant for the selection of the correct response. Nevertheless, larger interference effects were observed when the distractor matched both the stimulus of the primary as well as the secondary modality and this pattern was even stronger if vision was the primary modality than if audition was the primary modality. These results are therefore in line with the crossmodal contingent capture hypothesis. Both visual and auditory early processing seem to be affected by top-down control sets even beyond the spatial dimension.

      PubDate: 2017-05-31T10:30:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.011
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Motor imagery-based implicit sequence learning depends on the formation of
           stimulus-response associations
    • Authors: Sarah N. Kraeutner; Theresa C. Gaughan; Sarah N. Eppler; Shaun G. Boe
      Pages: 48 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Sarah N. Kraeutner, Theresa C. Gaughan, Sarah N. Eppler, Shaun G. Boe
      Implicit sequence learning (ISL) occurs without conscious awareness and is critical for skill acquisition. The extent to which ISL occurs is a function of exposure (i.e., total training time and/or sequence to noise ratio) to a repeated sequence, and thus the cognitive mechanism underlying ISL is the formation of stimulus-response associations. As the majority of ISL studies employ paradigms whereby individuals unknowingly physically practice a repeated sequence, the cognitive mechanism underlying ISL through motor imagery (MI), the mental rehearsal of movement, remains unknown. This study examined the cognitive mechanisms of MI-based ISL by probing the link between exposure and the resultant ISL. Seventy-two participants underwent MI-based practice of an ISL task following randomization to one of four conditions: 4 training blocks with a high (4-High) or low (4-Low) sequence to noise ratio, or 2 training blocks with a high (2-High) or low (2-Low) sequence to noise ratio. Reaction time differences (dRT) and effect sizes between repeated and random sequences assessed the extent of learning. All groups showed a degree of ISL, yet effect sizes indicated a greater degree of learning in groups with higher exposure (4-Low and 4-High). Findings indicate that the extent to which ISL occurs through MI is impacted by manipulations to total training time and the sequence to noise ratio. Overall, we show that the extent of ISL occurring through MI is a function of exposure, indicating that like physical practice, the cognitive mechanisms of MI-based ISL rely on the formation of stimulus response associations.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T10:32:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.009
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Attentional interference is modulated by salience not sentience
    • Authors: Christopher J. Wilson; Alessandro Soranzo; Marco Bertamini
      Pages: 56 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Christopher J. Wilson, Alessandro Soranzo, Marco Bertamini
      Spatial cueing of attention occurs when attention is oriented by the onset of a stimulus or by other information that creates a bias towards a particular location. The presence of a cue that orients attention can also interfere with participants' reporting of what they see. It has been suggested that this type of interference is stronger in the presence of socially-relevant cues, such as human faces or avatars, and is therefore indicative of a specialised role for perspective calculation within the social domain. However, there is also evidence that the effect is a domain-general form of processing that is elicited equally with non-social directional cues. The current paper comprises four experiments that systematically manipulated the social factors believed necessary to elicit the effect. The results show that interference persists when all social components are removed, and that visual processes are sufficient to explain this type of interference, thus supporting a domain-general perceptual interpretation of interference.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T10:32:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Neural mechanisms underlying sound-induced visual motion perception: An
           fMRI study
    • Authors: Souta Hidaka; Satomi Higuchi; Wataru Teramoto; Yoichi Sugita
      Pages: 66 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Souta Hidaka, Satomi Higuchi, Wataru Teramoto, Yoichi Sugita
      Studies of crossmodal interactions in motion perception have reported activation in several brain areas, including those related to motion processing and/or sensory association, in response to multimodal (e.g., visual and auditory) stimuli that were both in motion. Recent studies have demonstrated that sounds can trigger illusory visual apparent motion to static visual stimuli (sound-induced visual motion: SIVM): A visual stimulus blinking at a fixed location is perceived to be moving laterally when an alternating left-right sound is also present. Here, we investigated brain activity related to the perception of SIVM using a 7T functional magnetic resonance imaging technique. Specifically, we focused on the patterns of neural activities in SIVM and visually induced visual apparent motion (VIVM). We observed shared activations in the middle occipital area (V5/hMT), which is thought to be involved in visual motion processing, for SIVM and VIVM. Moreover, as compared to VIVM, SIVM resulted in greater activation in the superior temporal area and dominant functional connectivity between the V5/hMT area and the areas related to auditory and crossmodal motion processing. These findings indicate that similar but partially different neural mechanisms could be involved in auditory-induced and visually-induced motion perception, and neural signals in auditory, visual, and, crossmodal motion processing areas closely and directly interact in the perception of SIVM.

      PubDate: 2017-06-10T08:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.013
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Effects of context and individual differences on the processing of taboo
    • Authors: Kiel Christianson; Peiyun Zhou; Cassie Palmer; Adina Raizen
      Pages: 73 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Kiel Christianson, Peiyun Zhou, Cassie Palmer, Adina Raizen
      Previous studies suggest that taboo words are special in regards to language processing. Findings from the studies have led to the formation of two theories, global resource theory and binding theory, of taboo word processing. The current study investigates how readers process taboo words embedded in sentences during silent reading. In two experiments, measures collected include eye movement data, accuracy and reaction time measures for recalling probe words within the sentences, and individual differences in likelihood of being offended by taboo words. Although certain aspects of the results support both theories, as the likelihood of a person being offended by a taboo word influenced some measures, neither theory sufficiently predicts or describes the effects observed. The results are interpreted as evidence that processing effects ascribed to taboo words are largely, but not completely, attributable to the context in which they are used and the individual attitudes of the people who hear/read them. The results also demonstrate the importance of investigating taboo words in naturalistic language processing paradigms. A revised theory of taboo word processing is proposed that incorporates both global resource theory and binding theory along with the sociolinguistic factors and individual differences that largely drive the effects observed here.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T09:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.012
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Looking at a contrast object before speaking boosts referential
           informativeness, but is not essential
    • Authors: Catherine Davies; Helene Kreysa
      Pages: 87 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Catherine Davies, Helene Kreysa
      Variation in referential form has traditionally been accounted for by theoretical frameworks focusing on linguistic and discourse features. Despite the explosion of interest in eye tracking methods in psycholinguistics, the role of visual scanning behaviour in informative reference production is yet to be comprehensively investigated. Here we examine the relationship between speakers' fixations to relevant referents and the form of the referring expressions they produce. Overall, speakers were fully informative across simple and (to a lesser extent) more complex displays, providing appropriately modified referring expressions to enable their addressee to locate the target object. Analysis of contrast fixations revealed that looking at a contrast object boosts but is not essential for full informativeness. Contrast fixations which take place immediately before speaking provide the greatest boost. Informative referring expressions were also associated with later speech onsets than underinformative ones. Based on the finding that fixations during speech planning facilitate but do not fully predict informative referring, direct visual scanning is ruled out as a prerequisite for informativeness. Instead, pragmatic expectations of informativeness may play a more important role. Results are consistent with a goal-based link between eye movements and language processing, here applied for the first time to production processes.

      PubDate: 2017-06-20T09:18:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Inducing asymmetrical switch costs in bilingual language comprehension by
           language practice
    • Authors: Mathieu Declerck; Jonathan Grainger
      Pages: 100 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Mathieu Declerck, Jonathan Grainger
      The most widely discussed observation in the language control literature is the larger cost found when switching into the first than the second language (i.e., asymmetrical switch costs), which has been determined as a marker of persisting, reactive inhibition. While this is a common effect in bilingual language production, it generally does not occur in bilingual language comprehension. In this bilingual language comprehension study, we manipulated the relative activation of languages by letting participants practice in pure language blocks prior to a mixed language block. While no effect was found of practicing second-language words, asymmetrical switch costs were observed when practicing the same (Experiments 1 and 2) or different first-language words (Experiment 3) as in the following mixed language block. These findings indicate that, similar to bilingual production, bilingual comprehension relies on persisting, reactive language control.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T15:47:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Properties of context-driven control revealed through the analysis of
           sequential congruency effects
    • Authors: Thomas G. Hutcheon; Daniel H. Spieler; Maayan Eldar
      Pages: 107 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Thomas G. Hutcheon, Daniel H. Spieler, Maayan Eldar
      The context specific proportion congruent (CSPC) effect refers to the reduction in the size of the congruency effect at locations with a high proportion of incongruent trials compared to locations with a high proportion of congruent trials. The CSPC effect is commonly taken as evidence for context-driven modulation of cognitive control. Current models of context-driven control suggest that variations in the efficiency of control across locations are due to variations in the occurrence of conflict across locations (context). Moreover, these models predict that control settings are updated on a trial-to-trial basis. In Experiment 1, we investigated this prediction. If variations in conflict drive variations in the efficiency of control, and these location-based control settings are updated on each trial, then the occurrence of conflict at one location should lead to more efficient processing when the location repeats, but not when the location switches. Consistent with this prediction, we observed a sequential congruency effect when the location repeats, but not when the location switches. In Experiment 2, we looked for evidence of sequential congruency effects within and between locations in a manipulation in which an equal proportion of congruent and incongruent trials appear at each location. In contrast to the results of Experiment 1, we observed sequential congruency effects both when location repeated and when location switched. Thus, location appears to be a salient dimension on which to implement control settings when it is used in conjunction with variations in the proportion of congruent and incongruent trials.

      PubDate: 2017-07-08T07:17:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Post-error response inhibition in high math-anxious individuals: Evidence
           from a multi-digit addition task
    • Authors: M. Isabel Núñez-Peña; Elisabet Tubau; Macarena Suárez-Pellicioni
      Pages: 17 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 177
      Author(s): M. Isabel Núñez-Peña, Elisabet Tubau, Macarena Suárez-Pellicioni
      The aim of the study was to investigate how high math-anxious (HMA) individuals react to errors in an arithmetic task. Twenty HMA and 19 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with a multi-digit addition verification task and were given response feedback. Post-error adjustment measures (response time and accuracy) were analyzed in order to study differences between groups when faced with errors in an arithmetical task. Results showed that both HMA and LMA individuals were slower to respond following an error than following a correct answer. However, post-error accuracy effects emerged only for the HMA group, showing that they were also less accurate after having committed an error than after giving the right answer. Importantly, these differences were observed only when individuals needed to repeat the same response given in the previous trial. These results suggest that, for HMA individuals, errors caused reactive inhibition of the erroneous response, facilitating performance if the next problem required the alternative response but hampering it if the response was the same. This stronger reaction to errors could be a factor contributing to the difficulties that HMA individuals experience in learning math and doing math tasks.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T14:55:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Stimulus-response links and the backward crosstalk effect — A comparison
           of forced- and free-choice tasks
    • Authors: Christoph Naefgen; André F. Caissie; Markus Janczyk
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Christoph Naefgen, André F. Caissie, Markus Janczyk
      In dual-tasks, characteristics of Task 2 responses can already affect performance in the preceding Task 1. This is called the backward crosstalk effect (BCE). To account for the BCE, it has been suggested that the appearance of the Task 2 stimulus automatically projects activation onto the corresponding response through (transient or direct) stimulus-response (S-R) links. One way to investigate this claim is to compare the size of the BCE for tasks where S-R links are differently strong. To this end, we here compared BCEs for forced- vs. free-choice tasks, with the S-R links assumed to be stronger in the former than in the latter task. In Experiments 1 and 2, Task 1 was either forced-choice or free-choice and Task 2 always forced-choice, and in Experiment 3 this order was reversed. A BCE was observed in all experiments with the forced-choice tasks, but in response times it was smaller in Experiments 1 and 2 and absent in Experiment 3 with the free-choice task. However, in free-choice Task 1 responses, a bias towards selecting the response required in Task 2 was observed. These results suggest that the strength of S-R links plays a role in determining the size of the BCE. Relations to other studies and alternative explanations are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T15:25:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Where is the locus of the lowercase advantage during sentence reading?
    • Authors: Manuel Perea; Eva Rosa; Ana Marcet
      Pages: 30 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Manuel Perea, Eva Rosa, Ana Marcet
      While most models of visual word identification and reading posit that a word's visual codes are rapidly transformed onto case-invariant representations (i.e., table and TABLE would equally activate the word unit corresponding to “table”), a number of experiments have shown a lowercase advantage in various word identification and reading tasks. In the present experiment, we examined the locus of this lowercase advantage by comparing the pattern of eye movements when reading sentences in lowercase vs. uppercase. Each sentence contained a target word that was high or low in word-frequency. Overall, results showed faster reading times for lowercase than for uppercase sentences. More important, while the word-frequency effect was sizeable in the first-fixation durations on the target word, the lowercase advantage only arose in the gaze durations (i.e., the sum of durations of first-pass fixations on the target word, including refixations). Furthermore, we found an effect of word-frequency, but not of letter case, in the first-fixation duration on target words with multiple first-pass fixations. Taken together, these findings suggest that the lowercase advantage reflects operations that do not occur in the initial contact with the lexical entries.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T15:25:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Intentional switching in auditory selective attention: Exploring
           age-related effects in a spatial setup requiring speech perception
    • Authors: Josefa Oberem; Iring Koch; Janina Fels
      Pages: 36 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Josefa Oberem, Iring Koch, Janina Fels
      Using a binaural-listening paradigm, age-related differences in the ability to intentionally switch auditory selective attention between two speakers, defined by their spatial location, were examined. Therefore 40 normal-hearing participants (20 young, Ø 24.8years; 20 older Ø 67.8years) were tested. The spatial reproduction of stimuli was provided by headphones using head-related-transfer-functions of an artificial head. Spoken number words of two speakers were presented simultaneously to participants from two out of eight locations on the horizontal plane. Guided by a visual cue indicating the spatial location of the target speaker, the participants were asked to categorize the target's number word into smaller vs. greater than five while ignoring the distractor's speech. Results showed significantly higher reaction times and error rates for older participants. The relative influence of the spatial switch of the target-speaker (switch or repetition of speaker's direction in space) was identical across age groups. Congruency effects (stimuli spoken by target and distractor may evoke the same answer or different answers) were increased for older participants and depend on the target's position. Results suggest that the ability to intentionally switch auditory attention to a new cued location was unimpaired whereas it was generally harder for older participants to suppress processing the distractor's speech.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T15:25:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.008
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Using the model statement to elicit information and cues to deceit in
           interpreter-based interviews
    • Authors: Aldert Vrij; Sharon Leal; Samantha Mann; Gary Dalton; Eunkyung Jo; Alla Shaboltas; Maria Khaleeva; Juliana Granskaya; Kate Houston
      Pages: 44 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Aldert Vrij, Sharon Leal, Samantha Mann, Gary Dalton, Eunkyung Jo, Alla Shaboltas, Maria Khaleeva, Juliana Granskaya, Kate Houston
      We examined how the presence of an interpreter during an interview affects eliciting information and cues to deceit, while using a method that encourages interviewees to provide more detail (model statement, MS). A total of 199 Hispanic, Korean and Russian participants were interviewed either in their own native language without an interpreter, or through an interpreter. Interviewees either lied or told the truth about a trip they made during the last twelve months. Half of the participants listened to a MS at the beginning of the interview. The dependent variables were ‘detail’, ‘complications’, ‘common knowledge details’, ‘self-handicapping strategies’ and ‘ratio of complications’. In the MS-absent condition, the interviews resulted in less detail when an interpreter was present than when an interpreter was absent. In the MS-present condition, the interviews resulted in a similar amount of detail in the interpreter present and absent conditions. Truthful statements included more complications and fewer common knowledge details and self-handicapping strategies than deceptive statements, and the ratio of complications was higher for truth tellers than liars. The MS strengthened these results, whereas an interpreter had no effect on these results.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T02:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Facial biases on vocal perception and memory
    • Authors: Marilyn G. Boltz
      Pages: 54 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Marilyn G. Boltz
      Does a speaker's face influence the way their voice is heard and later remembered? This question was addressed through two experiments where in each, participants listened to middle-aged voices accompanied by faces that were either age-appropriate, younger or older than the voice or, as a control, no face at all. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated each voice on various acoustical dimensions and speaker characteristics. The results showed that facial displays influenced perception such that the same voice was heard differently depending on the age of the accompanying face. Experiment 2 further revealed that facial displays led to memory distortions that were age-congruent in nature. These findings illustrate that faces can activate certain social categories and preconceived stereotypes that then influence vocal and person perception in a corresponding fashion. Processes of face/voice integration are very similar to those of music/film, indicating that the two areas can mutually inform one another and perhaps, more generally, reflect a centralized mechanism of cross-sensory integration.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T02:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.013
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • The relation between working memory and language comprehension in signers
           and speakers
    • Authors: Karen Emmorey; Marcel R. Giezen; Jennifer A.F. Petrich; Erin Spurgeon; Lucinda O'Grady Farnady
      Pages: 69 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Karen Emmorey, Marcel R. Giezen, Jennifer A.F. Petrich, Erin Spurgeon, Lucinda O'Grady Farnady
      This study investigated the relation between linguistic and spatial working memory (WM) resources and language comprehension for signed compared to spoken language. Sign languages are both linguistic and visual-spatial, and therefore provide a unique window on modality-specific versus modality-independent contributions of WM resources to language processing. Deaf users of American Sign Language (ASL), hearing monolingual English speakers, and hearing ASL-English bilinguals completed several spatial and linguistic serial recall tasks. Additionally, their comprehension of spatial and non-spatial information in ASL and spoken English narratives was assessed. Results from the linguistic serial recall tasks revealed that the often reported advantage for speakers on linguistic short-term memory tasks does not extend to complex WM tasks with a serial recall component. For English, linguistic WM predicted retention of non-spatial information, and both linguistic and spatial WM predicted retention of spatial information. For ASL, spatial WM predicted retention of spatial (but not non-spatial) information, and linguistic WM did not predict retention of either spatial or non-spatial information. Overall, our findings argue against strong assumptions of independent domain-specific subsystems for the storage and processing of linguistic and spatial information and furthermore suggest a less important role for serial encoding in signed than spoken language comprehension.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T02:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • On the spatial specificity of audiovisual crossmodal exogenous cuing
    • Authors: Jae Lee; Charles Spence
      Pages: 78 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Jae Lee, Charles Spence
      It is generally-accepted that the presentation of an auditory cue will direct an observer's spatial attention to the region of space from where it originates and therefore facilitate responses to visual targets presented there rather than from a different position within the cued hemifield. However, to date, there has been surprisingly limited evidence published in support of such within-hemifield crossmodal exogenous spatial cuing effects. Here, we report two experiments designed to investigate within- and between-hemifield spatial cuing effects in the case of audiovisual exogenous covert orienting. Auditory cues were presented from one of four frontal loudspeakers (two on either side of central fixation). There were eight possible visual target locations (one above and another below each of the loudspeakers). The auditory cues were evenly separated laterally by 30° in Experiment 1, and by 10° in Experiment 2. The potential cue and target locations were separated vertically by approximately 19° in Experiment 1, and by 4° in Experiment 2. On each trial, the participants made a speeded elevation (i.e., up vs. down) discrimination response to the visual target following the presentation of a spatially-nonpredictive auditory cue. Within-hemifield spatial cuing effects were observed only when the auditory cues were presented from the inner locations. Between-hemifield spatial cuing effects were observed in both experiments. Taken together, these results demonstrate that crossmodal exogenous shifts of spatial attention depend on the eccentricity of both the cue and target in a way that has not been made explicit by previous research.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T02:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.012
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Goal neglect, fluid intelligence and processing speed: Manipulating
           instruction load and inter-stimulus interval
    • Authors: Matthew H. Iveson; Sergio Della Sala; Mike Anderson; Sarah E. MacPherson
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Matthew H. Iveson, Sergio Della Sala, Mike Anderson, Sarah E. MacPherson
      Goal maintenance is the process where task rules and instructions are kept active to exert their control on behavior. When this process fails, an individual may ignore a rule while performing the task, despite being able to describe it after task completion. Previous research has suggested that the goal maintenance system is limited by the number of concurrent rules which can be maintained during a task, and that this limit is dependent on an individual's level of fluid intelligence. However, the speed at which an individual can process information may also limit their ability to use task rules when the task demands them. In the present study, four experiments manipulated the number of instructions to be maintained by younger and older adults and examined whether performance on a rapid letter-monitoring task was predicted by individual differences in fluid intelligence or processing speed. Fluid intelligence played little role in determining how frequently rules were ignored during the task, regardless of the number of rules to be maintained. In contrast, processing speed predicted the rate of goal neglect in older adults, where increasing the presentation rate of the letter-monitoring task increased goal neglect. These findings suggest that goal maintenance may be limited by the speed at which it can operate.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T11:40:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Conflict adaptation in positive and negative mood: Applying a
           success-failure manipulation
    • Authors: Stefanie Schuch; Jana Zweerings; Patricia Hirsch; Iring Koch
      Pages: 11 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Stefanie Schuch, Jana Zweerings, Patricia Hirsch, Iring Koch
      Conflict adaptation is a cognitive mechanism denoting increased cognitive control upon detection of conflict. This mechanism can be measured by the congruency sequence effect, indicating the reduction of congruency effects after incongruent trials (where response conflict occurs) relative to congruent trials (without response conflict). Several studies have reported increased conflict adaptation under negative, as compared to positive, mood. In these studies, sustained mood states were induced by film clips or music combined with imagination techniques; these kinds of mood manipulations are highly obvious, possibly distorting the actual mood states experienced by the participants. Here, we report two experiments where mood states were induced in a less obvious way, and with higher ecological validity. Participants received success or failure feedback on their performance in a bogus intelligence test, and this mood manipulation proved highly effective. We largely replicated previous findings of larger conflict adaptation under negative mood than under positive mood, both with a Flanker interference paradigm (Experiment 1) and a Stroop-like interference paradigm (Experiment 2). Results are discussed with respect to current theories on affective influences on cognitive control.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T08:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Location versus task relevance: The impact of differing internal focus of
           attention instructions on motor performance
    • Authors: Valerie Pelleck; Steven R. Passmore
      Pages: 23 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Valerie Pelleck, Steven R. Passmore
      Impaired performance while executing a motor task is attributed to a disruption of normal automatic processes when an internal focus of attention is used. What remains unclear is whether the specificity of internally focused task instructions may impact task performance. The present study assessed the implications of changing the attentional focus of novice and skilled golfers by measuring behavioural, neurophysiological and kinematic changes during a golf putting task. Over six blocks of ten putting trials each, attention was directed either externally (towards the target) or internally in one of two ways: 1) proximal (keeping the elbows extended and the hands gripping the putter); or 2) distal (keeping the weight evenly distributed between both legs) to the critical elements of the task. Results provided evidence that when novice participants use an internal focus of attention more closely associated with task performance that their: 1) execution; 2) accuracy; 3) variability of surface electromyography (sEMG) activity; and 4) kinematics of the putter movement are all adversely affected. Skilled golfers are much more resilient to changes in attentional focus, while all participants interpret a distal internal focus of attention similar to an external focus. All participants produced decreased activity in the muscle (tibialis anterior) associated with the distal (less task relevant) focus of attention even when the “internal” focus was on the lower extremity. Our results provide evidence that the skill level of the participant and the distance of the internal focus of attention from the key elements of a motor skill directly impact the execution, muscle activity, and movement kinematics associated with skilled motor task performance.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T08:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Reaching reveals that best-versus-rest processing contributes to biased
           decision making
    • Authors: Nathan J. Wispinski; Grace Truong; Todd C. Handy; Craig S. Chapman
      Pages: 32 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Nathan J. Wispinski, Grace Truong, Todd C. Handy, Craig S. Chapman
      The study of human decision making has revealed many contexts in which decisions are systematically biased. These biases are particularly evident in risky decisions, characterized by choice outcomes that are probabilistic. One recently explored bias is the extreme-outcome rule: the tendency for participants to overvalue both the best and worst outcome when they learn about choice probabilities through trial and error (aka experience). Here we aimed to test whether the extreme-outcome rule arises in part from a disproportionate subjective weight on extreme values. Participants reached to choose between two options in a riskless task where each choice option always produced the same result. In contrast to the idea that the overvaluing of extreme outcomes results from participants overestimating the underlying choice probabilities (e.g. treating a 50% “worst” outcome as though it occurred 60% of the time), we find overvaluation of extreme outcomes even when they are not probabilistic. Particularly, we find strong evidence for overvaluation of the best outcome relative to all other outcomes in how participants enact their decision (reaction times and reaching movements), but no evidence for such overvaluation in participants' choice accuracy. Compared to the extreme-outcome rule, these results are more simply characterized in a framework where the “best” option is given a boost in processing relative to the “rest” of other available options.

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T12:40:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Cognitive control during a spatial Stroop task: Comparing conflict
           monitoring and prediction of response-outcome theories
    • Authors: Luís Pires; José Leitão; Chiara Guerrini; Mário R. Simões
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Luís Pires, José Leitão, Chiara Guerrini, Mário R. Simões
      Cognitive control allows information processing and behaviour to vary adaptively from moment to moment depending on current goals. Two of the most prominent theories that have been proposed to account for the processing of cognitive control are the Conflict Monitoring Theory (CMT) and the Prediction of Response-Outcome Theory (PRO). According to both theories, the implementation of cognitive control during a trial in a conflict task reflects processing events that occurred in the preceding trial. Both CMT and PRO advocate that the detection of conflict situations leads to the recruitment of cognitive control, but they differ regarding the processing underpinnings of cognitive control during conflict resolution. CMT proposes that conflict between alternative responses is resolved by enhancing the task's relevant dimension, reducing interference from the task's irrelevant dimension(s). This control setup promotes conflict adaptation in the subsequent trial. PRO proposes that conflict is resolved by means of a cost-effectiveness analysis that identifies and suppresses action plans linked to the less appropriate responses, facilitating conflict resolution in the subsequent trial. To adjudicate between these alternatives, we manipulated contingencies pertaining to two-trial sequences (n-1; n), namely, the congruency between task relevant/irrelevant dimensions in trial n-1 and response repetition in trial n. A spatial Stroop task was used, in which task-relevant and irrelevant information were integrated within the same stimulus. In this task, participants were required to attend to the direction of an arrow while ignoring its position. The arrow's direction and position could be congruent (C) or incongruent (IC). In one experiment, trials in which the participant was required to respond according to the position of a circle (PO; position only trials), occupying the sequential position n, were the focus of the analyses. Three experiments were conducted manipulating the trials' sequence structure. In Experiment 1, we studied a low control/low conflict condition (cC trials), and two high control/low conflict conditions (icC with and without response repetition). In Experiment 2, we studied two low control/no conflict conditions (cPO with and without response repetition) and two high control/no conflict conditions (icPO with and without response repetition). In Experiment 3, we studied a high control/high conflict condition (icIC) and two low control/high conflict conditions (cIC with and without response repetition). Overall, our findings are in agreement with previous studies in which both bottom-up processing, linked to response and stimulus position repetition, and top-down processing, linked to cognitive control, were shown to contribute to sequence effects in conflict tasks. Specifically, our observations mainly support PRO's account of conflict resolution, in which the intervention of top-down processing is substantially more complex than in CMT's account.

      PubDate: 2017-07-08T07:17:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.06.009
  • More than planned: Implementation intention effects in non-planned
    • Authors: Maik Bieleke; Eve Legrand; Astrid Mignon; Peter M. Gollwitzer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Maik Bieleke, Eve Legrand, Astrid Mignon, Peter M. Gollwitzer
      Forming implementation intentions (i.e., if-then planning) is a powerful self-regulation strategy that enhances goal attainment by facilitating the automatic initiation of goal-directed responses upon encountering critical situations. Yet, little is known about the consequences of forming implementation intentions for goal attainment in situations that were not specified in the if-then plan. In three experiments, we assessed goal attainment in terms of speed and accuracy in an object classification task, focusing on situations that were similar or dissimilar to critical situations and required planned or different responses. The results of Experiments 1 and 3 provide evidence for a facilitation of planned responses in critical and in sufficiently similar situations, enhancing goal attainment when the planned response was required and impairing it otherwise. In Experiment 3, additional unfavorable effects however emerged in situations that were dissimilar to the critical one but required the planned response as well. We discuss theoretical implications as well as potential benefits and pitfalls emerging from these non-planned effects of forming implementation intentions.

      PubDate: 2017-07-08T07:17:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.06.003
  • A role for proactive control in rapid instructed task learning
    • Authors: Michael W. Cole; Lauren M. Patrick; Nachshon Meiran; Todd S. Braver
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Michael W. Cole, Lauren M. Patrick, Nachshon Meiran, Todd S. Braver
      Humans are often remarkably fast at learning novel tasks from instructions. Such rapid instructed task learning (RITL) likely depends upon the formation of new associations between long-term memory representations, which must then be actively maintained to enable successful task implementation. Consequently, we hypothesized that RITL relies more heavily on a proactive mode of cognitive control, in which goal-relevant information is actively maintained in preparation for anticipated high control demands. We tested this hypothesis using a recently developed cognitive paradigm consisting of 60 novel tasks involving RITL and 4 practiced tasks, with identical task rules and stimuli used across both task types. A robust behavioral cost was found in novel relative to practiced task performance, which was present even when the two were randomly inter-mixed, such that task-switching effects were equated. Novelty costs were most prominent under time-limited preparation conditions. In self-paced conditions, increased preparation time was found for novel trials, and was selectively associated with enhanced performance, suggesting greater proactive control for novel tasks. These results suggest a key role for proactive cognitive control in the ability to rapidly learn novel tasks from instructions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T15:47:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.06.004
  • An experimental investigation of breaking learnt habits with verbal
           implementation intentions
    • Authors: Aukje A.C.; Verhoeven Merel Kindt Colene Zomer Sanne Wit
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Aukje A.C. Verhoeven, Merel Kindt, Colene L. Zomer, Sanne de Wit
      The interplay between inflexible habits and flexible goal-directed control can be modelled in lab-settings using the slips-of-action task. In this task, participants are required to selectively respond to still-valuable outcomes while suppressing responding towards no-longer valuable outcomes, thereby overriding learned stimulus-response associations. Here we examined in the slips-of-action task whether learnt habits can be changed using a planning technique – so-called implementation intentions - whereby people instruct themselves to enact a certain behaviour (or not) in the presence of a specific critical stimulus. Such simple ‘if-then’ instructions have previously been shown to support behavioural change in real-life settings, possibly because people verbally create new stimulus-response associations. Across four experiments we manipulated the intrinsic value of the stimuli and outcomes in the slips-of-action task: abstract stimuli and outcomes (Experiment 1), snack food stimuli and outcomes (Experiment 2), or a combination of both types (Experiment 3–4). Implementation intentions improved the ability to suppress previously learnt responses towards no-longer-valuable abstract outcomes (Experiment 1 and 3). However, when snacks were used as outcomes (Experiment 2 and 4) no beneficial effect of implementation intentions versus goal intentions was observed. The slips-of-action task is thus sensitive to planning techniques under certain circumstances. Yet, the absence of effects when using snacks as outcomes implies the possible importance of its hedonic outcome value for implementation intentions' effectiveness, which warrants further investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T10:21:57Z
  • Feature taxonomy: What type of features do children associate with
           categories and how do they fare in predicting category judgments?
    • Authors: Farah Mutiasari Djalal; Gert Storms; Eef Ameel; Tom Heyman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Farah Mutiasari Djalal, Gert Storms, Eef Ameel, Tom Heyman
      The present study investigates category intension in school-aged children and adults at two different levels of abstraction (i.e., superordinate and basic level) for two category types (i.e., artefacts and natural kinds). We addressed two critical questions: what kind of features do children and adults generate to define semantic categories and which features predict category membership judgment best at each abstraction level? Overall, participants generated relatively more entity features for natural kinds categories, compared to artefact categories, as well as for basic level categories, compared to superordinate categories. Furthermore, the results showed that older children and adults generated relatively more entity features than younger children. Finally, situation features play the most important role in the prediction of category judgments at both levels of abstraction. Theoretical implications and comparable results from previous studies are described in detail.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T10:21:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.009
  • The role of motor imagery in learning via instructions
    • Authors: Marijke Theeuwes; Baptist Liefooghe; Maarten De Schryver; Jan De Houwer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Marijke Theeuwes, Baptist Liefooghe, Maarten De Schryver, Jan De Houwer
      Learning via instructions and learning through physical practice are complementary pathways to obtain skilled performance. Whereas an initial task representation can be formed on the basis of instructions, physically practicing novel instructions leads to a shift in processing mode from controlled processing toward more automatic processing. This shift in processing mode is supposedly caused by the formation of a pragmatic task representation, which includes task parameters needed to attain skilled task execution. In between learning via instructions and physical practice, a third type of learning can be situated, motor imagery. Two experiments are reported that studied the extent to which motor imagery can enhance the application of novel instructions. A procedure was developed in which performance improvement after motor imagery could be measured for behavioral markers of processes underlying response selection (i.e., initiation time of a response sequence) and for behavioral markers of processes underlying movement execution (i.e., completion time of the response sequence). Our results suggest that whereas physical practice improves response selection and movement execution, motor imagery only improves response selection. We propose that motor imagery also leads to a shift in processing mode and to the formation of a pragmatic task representation, albeit a less detailed one as compared to the representation that is formed on the basis of physical practice.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T10:21:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.002
  • Multiple priming instances increase the impact of practice-based but not
           verbal code-based stimulus-response associations
    • Authors: Christina U. Pfeuffer; Karolina Moutsopoulou; Florian Waszak; Andrea Kiesel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Christina U. Pfeuffer, Karolina Moutsopoulou, Florian Waszak, Andrea Kiesel
      Stimulus-response (S-R) associations, the basis of learning and behavioral automaticity, are formed by the (repeated) co-occurrence of stimuli and responses and render stimuli able to automatically trigger associated responses. The strength and behavioral impact of these S-R associations increases with the number of priming instances (i.e., practice). Here we investigated whether multiple priming instances of a special form of instruction, verbal coding, also lead to the formation of stronger S-R associations in comparison to a single instance of priming. Participants either actively classified stimuli or passively attended to verbal codes denoting responses once or four times before S-R associations were probed. We found that whereas S-R associations formed on the basis of active task execution (i.e., practice) were strengthened by multiple priming instances, S-R associations formed on the basis of verbal codes (i.e., instruction) did not benefit from additional priming instances. These findings indicate difference in the mechanisms underlying the encoding and/or retrieval of previously executed and verbally coded S-R associations.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T14:03:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.001
  • After-effects without monitoring costs: The impact of prospective memory
           instructions on task switching performance
    • Authors: Beat Meier; Alodie Rey-Mermet
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Beat Meier, Alodie Rey-Mermet
      In a prospective memory task, verbal instructions are used to define an appropriate target event as retrieval cue. This target event is typically part of an ongoing activity and is thus bivalent as it involves features relevant for both the prospective memory task and the ongoing task. Task switching research has demonstrated that responding to bivalent stimuli is costly and can slow down even subsequent performance. Thus, responding to prospective memory targets may also result in after-effects, expressed as slowed subsequent ongoing task performance. So far, ongoing task slowing has been mainly considered as a measure of strategic monitoring for the prospective memory cues. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether after-effects of responding to prospective memory targets contribute to this slowing. In four experiments, a prospective memory task was embedded in a task-switching paradigm and we manipulated the degree of task-set overlap between the prospective memory task and the ongoing task. The results showed consistent after-effects of responding to prospective memory targets in each experiment. Increasing task-set overlap increased the amount and longevity of the after-effects. Surprisingly, prospective memory retrieval was not accompanied by strategic monitoring. Thus, this study demonstrates that ongoing task slowing can occur in the absence of monitoring costs.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T02:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.010
  • Communicated beliefs about action-outcomes: The role of initial
           confirmation in the adoption and maintenance of unsupported beliefs
    • Authors: Toby D. Pilditch; Ruud Custers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Toby D. Pilditch, Ruud Custers
      As agents seeking to learn how to successfully navigate their environments, humans can both obtain knowledge through direct experience, and second-hand through communicated beliefs. Questions remain concerning how communicated belief (or instruction) interacts with first-hand evidence integration, and how the former can bias the latter. Previous research has revealed that people are more inclined to seek out confirming evidence when they are motivated to uphold the belief, resulting in confirmation bias. The current research explores whether merely communicated beliefs affect evidence integration over time when it is not of interest to uphold the belief, and all evidence is readily available. In a novel series of on-line experiments, participants chose on each trial which of two options to play for money, being exposed to outcomes of both. Prior to this, they were exposed to favourable communicated beliefs regarding one of two options. Beliefs were either initially supported or undermined by subsequent probabilistic evidence (probabilities reversed halfway through the task, rendering the options equally profitable overall). Results showed that while communicated beliefs predicted initial choices, they only biased subsequent choices when supported by initial evidence in the first phase of the experiment. Findings were replicated across contexts, evidence sequence lengths, and probabilistic distributions. This suggests that merely communicated beliefs can prevail even when not supported by long run evidence, and in the absence of a motivation to uphold them. The implications of the interaction between communicated beliefs and initial evidence for areas including instruction effects, impression formation, and placebo effects are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T02:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.006
  • Not that neglected! Base rates influence related and unrelated judgments
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Michał Białek
      It is claimed that people are unable (or unwilling) to incorporate prior probabilities into posterior assessments, such as their estimation of the likelihood of a person with characteristics typical of an engineer actually being an engineer given that they are drawn from a sample including a very small number of engineers. This paper shows that base rates are incorporated in classifications (Experiment 1) and, moreover, that base rates also affect unrelated judgments, such as how well a provided description of a person fits a stereotypical engineer (Experiment 2). Finally, Experiment 3 shows that individuals who make both types of assessments – though using base rates to the same extent in the former judgments – are able to decrease the extent to which they incorporate base rates in the latter judgments.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T14:55:26Z
  • Quantifying a threat: Evidence of a numeric processing bias
    • Authors: Karina Hamamouche; Laura Niemi Sara Cordes
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Karina A. Hamamouche, Laura Niemi, Sara Cordes
      Humans prioritize the processing of threats over neutral stimuli; thus, not surprisingly, the presence of threats has been shown to alter performance on both perceptual and cognitive tasks. Yet whether the quantification process is disrupted in the presence of threat is unknown. In three experiments, we examined numerical estimation and discrimination abilities in adults in the context of threatening (spiders) and non-threatening (e.g., flowers) stimuli. Results of the numerical estimation task (Experiment 1) showed that participants underestimated the number of threatening relative to neutral stimuli. Additionally, numerical discrimination data reveal that participants' abilities to discriminate between the number of entities in two arrays were worsened when the arrays consisted of threatening entities versus neutral entities (Experiment 2). However, discrimination abilities were enhanced when threatening content was presented immediately before neutral dot arrays (Experiment 3). Together, these studies suggest that threats impact our processing of visual numerosity via changes in attention to numerical stimuli, and that the nature of the threat (intrinsic or extrinsic to the stimulus) is vital in determining the direction of this impact. Intrinsic threat content in stimuli impedes its own quantification; yet threat that is extrinsic to the sets to be enumerated enhances numerical processing for subsequently presented neutral stimuli.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T14:44:03Z
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