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Showing 1 - 200 of 3030 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 79, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 304, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 390, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Accident Analysis & Prevention
  [SJR: 1.109]   [H-I: 94]   [79 followers]  Follow
   Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
   ISSN (Print) 0001-4575
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3030 journals]
  • Age, gender and deterrability: Are younger male drivers more likely to
           discount the future?
    • Authors: James Freeman; Sherrie-Anne Kaye; Verity Truelove; Jeremy Davey
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 104
      Author(s): James Freeman, Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Verity Truelove, Jeremy Davey
      Utilizing the Classical Deterrence theory and Stafford and Warr’s (1993) reconceptualized model of deterrence, the current study examined whether age, gender, and discounting the future tendencies influence perceptions of being apprehended for speeding offences. Licensed motorists (N =700; 57% female) in Queensland (Australia) were recruited to complete a self-report questionnaire that measured perceptual deterrence, speeding related behaviors and discounting the future tendencies. Data were analyzed utilizing descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regressions. Significant (albeit weak) positive correlations were found between age and perceptions of apprehension certainty. Males were significantly more likely to report higher incidences of speeding (including while avoiding detection) compared to females. In contrast, females were more likely to perceive high levels of apprehension certainty and consider impending penalties to be more severe. At a multivariate level, discounting the future tendencies (in addition to being male, reporting lower levels of perceptual severity and swiftness, and more instances of punishment avoidance) were predictive of lower perceptual certainty levels. This study is one of the first to reveal that being male and having a tendency to discount the consequences of the future may directly influence drivers’ perceptual deterrence levels.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T11:59:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.022
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
  • Are older drivers’ on-road driving error rates related to functional
           performance and/or self-reported driving experiences?
    • Authors: S. Koppel; J.L. Charlton; N. Richter; M. Di Stefano; W. Macdonald; P. Darzins; S.V. Newstead; A. D’Elia; B. Mazer; I. Gelinas; B. Vrkljan; K. Eliasz; A. Myers; S. Marshall
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 103
      Author(s): S. Koppel, J.L. Charlton, N. Richter, M. Di Stefano, W. Macdonald, P. Darzins, S.V. Newstead, A. D’Elia, B. Mazer, I. Gelinas, B. Vrkljan, K. Eliasz, A. Myers, S. Marshall

      PubDate: 2017-04-03T09:55:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
  • Performance of basic kinematic thresholds in the identification of crash
           and near-crash events within naturalistic driving data
    • Authors: Miguel A. Perez; Jeremy D. Sudweeks; Edie Sears; Jonathan Antin; Suzanne Lee; Jonathan M. Hankey; Thomas A. Dingus
      Pages: 10 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 103
      Author(s): Miguel A. Perez, Jeremy D. Sudweeks, Edie Sears, Jonathan Antin, Suzanne Lee, Jonathan M. Hankey, Thomas A. Dingus
      Understanding causal factors for traffic safety-critical events (e.g., crashes and near-crashes) is an important step in reducing their frequency and severity. Naturalistic driving data offers unparalleled insight into these factors, but requires identification of situations where crashes are present within large volumes of data. Sensitivity and specificity of these identification approaches are key to minimizing the resources required to validate candidate crash events. This investigation used data from the Second Strategic Highway Research Program Naturalistic Driving Study (SHRP 2 NDS) and the Canada Naturalistic Driving Study (CNDS) to develop and validate different kinematic thresholds that can be used to detect crash events. Results indicate that the sensitivity of many of these approaches can be quite low, but can be improved by selecting particular threshold levels based on detection performance. Additional improvements in these approaches are possible, and may involve leveraging combinations of different detection approaches, including advanced statistical techniques and artificial intelligence approaches, additional parameter modifications, and automation of validation processes.

      PubDate: 2017-04-03T09:55:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
  • Changes in speed distribution: Applying aggregated safety effect models to
           individual vehicle speeds
    • Authors: Anna Vadeby; Åsa Forsman
      Pages: 20 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 103
      Author(s): Anna Vadeby, Åsa Forsman
      This study investigated the effect of applying two aggregated models (the Power model and the Exponential model) to individual vehicle speeds instead of mean speeds. This is of particular interest when the measure introduced affects different parts of the speed distribution differently. The aim was to examine how the estimated overall risk was affected when assuming the models are valid on an individual vehicle level. Speed data from two applications of speed measurements were used in the study: an evaluation of movable speed cameras and a national evaluation of new speed limits in Sweden. The results showed that when applied on individual vehicle speed level compared with aggregated level, there was essentially no difference between these for the Power model in the case of injury accidents. However, for fatalities the difference was greater, especially for roads with new cameras where those driving fastest reduced their speed the most. For the case with new speed limits, the individual approach estimated a somewhat smaller effect, reflecting that changes in the 15th percentile (P15) were somewhat larger than changes in P85 in this case. For the Exponential model there was also a clear, although small, difference between applying the model to mean speed changes and individual vehicle speed changes when speed cameras were used. This applied both for injury accidents and fatalities. There were also larger effects for the Exponential model than for the Power model, especially for injury accidents. In conclusion, applying the Power or Exponential model to individual vehicle speeds is an alternative that provides reasonable results in relation to the original Power and Exponential models, but more research is needed to clarify the shape of the individual risk curve. It is not surprising that the impact on severe traffic crashes was larger in situations where those driving fastest reduced their speed the most. Further investigations on use of the Power and/or the Exponential model at individual vehicle level would require more data on the individual level from a range of international studies.

      PubDate: 2017-04-03T09:55:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
  • Effect of personality traits, age and sex on aggressive driving:
           Psychometric adaptation of the Driver Aggression Indicators Scale in China
    • Authors: Huihui Zhang; Weina Qu; Yan Ge; Xianghong Sun; Kan Zhang
      Pages: 29 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 103
      Author(s): Huihui Zhang, Weina Qu, Yan Ge, Xianghong Sun, Kan Zhang
      This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Driver Aggression Indicators Scale (DAIS), which measures aggressive driving behaviors. Besides, demographic variables (sex and age) and the big five personality traits were examined as potential impact factors of aggressive driving. A total of 422 participants completed the DAIS, Big Five Personality Inventory (BFPI), and the socio-demographic scale. First, psychometric results confirmed that the DAIS had a stable two-factor structure and acceptable internal consistency. Then, agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively correlated with hostile aggression and revenge committed by the drivers themselves, while neuroticism was positively correlated with aggressive driving committed by the drivers themselves. Meanwhile, more agreeable drivers may perceive less hostile aggression and revenge. More neurotic drivers may perceive more aggressive warning. Finally, the effects of age and sex on aggressive driving were not same as most studies. We found that older age group perceived and committed more hostile acts of aggression and revenge than younger age groups. Female drivers of 49–60 years perceived more aggressive warnings committed by other drivers.

      PubDate: 2017-04-03T09:55:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.016
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
  • An examination of the relationship between measures of impulsivity and
           risky simulated driving amongst young drivers
    • Authors: Julie Hatfield; Ann Williamson; E. James Kehoe; Prasannah Prabhakharan
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 103
      Author(s): Julie Hatfield, Ann Williamson, E. James Kehoe, Prasannah Prabhakharan
      The risky driving of young drivers may owe in part to youthful motivations (such as experience-seeking, authority rebellion, desire for peer approval) combined with incompletely developed impulse control. Although self-reported impulsiveness has been positively associated with self-reports of risky driving, results based on objective measures of response inhibition (e.g., Go/No-go tasks) have been inconclusive. The present study examined interrelationships between measures of response inhibition, self-report impulsiveness scales, and responses to events during a simulated drive that were designed to detect impulsive, unsafe behaviours (e.g., turning across on-coming traffic). Participants were 72 first-year Psychology students. More speeding and “Unsafe” responding to critical events during simulated driving were associated with poorer impulse control as assessed by commission errors during a Go/No-Go task. These results consolidate evidence for a relationship between impulse control and risky driving amongst young drivers.

      PubDate: 2017-04-03T09:55:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.019
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
  • The Safety Culture Enactment Questionnaire (SCEQ): Theoretical model and
           empirical validation
    • Authors: Borja López de Castro; Francisco J. Gracia; Inés Tomás; José M. Peiró
      Pages: 44 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 103
      Author(s): Borja López de Castro, Francisco J. Gracia, Inés Tomás, José M. Peiró
      This paper presents the Safety Culture Enactment Questionnaire (SCEQ), designed to assess the degree to which safety is an enacted value in the day-to-day running of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The SCEQ is based on a theoretical safety culture model that is manifested in three fundamental components of the functioning and operation of any organization: strategic decisions, human resources practices, and daily activities and behaviors. The extent to which the importance of safety is enacted in each of these three components provides information about the pervasiveness of the safety culture in the NPP. To validate the SCEQ and the model on which it is based, two separate studies were carried out with data collection in 2008 and 2014, respectively. In Study 1, the SCEQ was administered to the employees of two Spanish NPPs (N=533) belonging to the same company. Participants in Study 2 included 598 employees from the same NPPs, who completed the SCEQ and other questionnaires measuring different safety outcomes (safety climate, safety satisfaction, job satisfaction and risky behaviors). Study 1 comprised item formulation and examination of the factorial structure and reliability of the SCEQ. Study 2 tested internal consistency and provided evidence of factorial validity, validity based on relationships with other variables, and discriminant validity between the SCEQ and safety climate. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) carried out in Study 1 revealed a three-factor solution corresponding to the three components of the theoretical model. Reliability analyses showed strong internal consistency for the three scales of the SCEQ, and each of the 21 items on the questionnaire contributed to the homogeneity of its theoretically developed scale. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) carried out in Study 2 supported the internal structure of the SCEQ; internal consistency of the scales was also supported. Furthermore, the three scales of the SCEQ showed the expected correlation patterns with the measured safety outcomes. Finally, results provided evidence of discriminant validity between the SCEQ and safety climate. We conclude that the SCEQ is a valid, reliable instrument supported by a theoretical framework, and it is useful to measure the enactment of safety culture in NPPs.

      PubDate: 2017-04-10T02:28:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
  • Self-reported speed compliance and attitudes towards speeding in a
           representative sample of drivers in Australia
    • Authors: A.N. Stephens; M. Nieuwesteeg; J. Page-Smith; M. Fitzharris
      Pages: 56 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 103
      Author(s): A.N. Stephens, M. Nieuwesteeg, J. Page-Smith, M. Fitzharris
      Background Vehicle speed is a major contributor to road trauma, both in terms of increased crash risk and injury severity. In Australia, approximately one third of fatal crashes occur in speed zones of 100km/h. This proportion has remained the same, despite the reduction in the number of road fatalities over the past decade. To drive further reductions in speed-related crashes, an improved understanding of the underlying determinants of speed choice is required. Method A community attitude survey designed to understand speed behaviour and attitudes towards speeding was distributed to a large (N=5179) representative sample of drivers in Australia. Participants provided information regarding their normal speed choices across four different speed zones (40, 50, 60 and 100km/h), beliefs about the risks and enforcement of speeding behaviour as well as technology to reduce speeding. Results Almost half of the sample (47%) reported exceeding the speed limit in 100km/h zones, although only a small number of these drivers (<0.5%) did so by 11km/h or more. Age and sex were related to speed limit non-compliance. Males were more likely to be classified as mid-level speeders, defined as being up to 10km/h over the limit, and excessive speeders (11+km/h over the limit). Younger drivers were also more likely to be non-compliant. When compared to compliant drivers, non-compliers perceived less risk of a serious crash, reported greater likelihood of exceeding the speed limit when they believed they would not be detected, and reported a higher level of social acceptability of speeding. Only one-third of the sample reported prior knowledge of intelligent speed assist (ISA) technology, however, once explained, the majority agreed it would be personally useful (64%). Speed non-compliers were somewhat less likely to support the usefulness of ISA than speed limit compliant drivers. Conclusion These findings can be used to target appropriate interventions and road safety messages, aimed at reducing speeding behaviour. Measures designed to address perceived social acceptability of speed behaviour, the increased crash risk associated with speeding, and the threat of detection are recommended.

      PubDate: 2017-04-10T02:28:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.020
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
  • Multiuse trail intersection safety analysis: A crowdsourced data
    • Authors: Ben Jestico; Trisalyn A. Nelson; Jason Potter; Meghan Winters
      Pages: 65 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 103
      Author(s): Ben Jestico, Trisalyn A. Nelson, Jason Potter, Meghan Winters
      Real and perceived concerns about cycling safety are a barrier to increased ridership in many cities. Many people prefer to bike on facilities separated from motor vehicles, such as multiuse trails. However, due to underreporting, cities lack data on bike collisions, especially along greenways and multiuse paths. We used a crowdsourced cycling incident dataset (2005–2016) from for the Capital Regional District (CRD), BC, Canada. Our goal was to identify design characteristics associated with unsafe intersections between multiuse trails and roads. 92.8% of mapped incidents occurred between 2014 and 2016. We extracted both collision and near miss incidents at intersections from We conducted site observations at 32 intersections where a major multiuse trail intersected with roads. We compared attributes of reported incidents at multiuse trail-road intersections to those at road-road intersections. We then used negative binomial regression to model the relationship between the number of incidents and the infrastructure characteristics at multiuse trail-road intersections. We found a higher proportion of collisions (38%, or 17/45 total reports) at multiuse trail-road intersections compared to road-road intersections (23%, or 62/268 total reports). A higher proportion of incidents resulted in an injury at multiuse trail-road intersections compared to road-road intersections (33% versus 15%). Cycling volumes, vehicle volumes, and trail sight distance were all associated with incident frequency at multiuse trail–road intersections. Supplementing traditional crash records with crowdsourced cycling incident data provides valuable evidence on cycling safety at intersections between multiuse trails and roads, and more generally, when conflicts occur between diverse transportation modes.

      PubDate: 2017-04-10T02:28:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.024
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
  • Context-aware system for pre-triggering irreversible vehicle safety
    • Authors: Dennis Böhmländer; Tobias Dirndorfer; Ali H. Al-Bayatti; Thomas Brandmeier
      Pages: 72 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 103
      Author(s): Dennis Böhmländer, Tobias Dirndorfer, Ali H. Al-Bayatti, Thomas Brandmeier
      New vehicle safety systems have led to a steady improvement of road safety and a reduction in the risk of suffering a major injury in vehicle accidents. A huge leap forward in the development of new vehicle safety systems are actuators that have to be activated irreversibly shortly before a collision in order to mitigate accident consequences. The triggering decision has to be based on measurements of exteroceptive sensors currently used in driver assistance systems. This paper focuses on developing a novel context-aware system designed to detect potential collisions and to trigger safety actuators even before an accident occurs. In this context, the analysis examines the information that can be collected from exteroceptive sensors (pre-crash data) to predict a certain collision and its severity to decide whether a triggering is entitled or not. A five-layer context-aware architecture is presented, that is able to collect contextual information about the vehicle environment and the actual driving state using different sensors, to perform reasoning about potential collisions, and to trigger safety functions upon that information. Accident analysis is used in a data model to represent uncertain knowledge and to perform reasoning. A simulation concept based on real accident data is introduced to evaluate the presented system concept.

      PubDate: 2017-04-10T02:28:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.02.015
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
  • Street racing among the Ontario adult population: Prevalence and
           association with collision risk
    • Authors: Christine M. Wickens; Reginald G. Smart; Evelyn Vingilis; Anca R. Ialomiteanu; Gina Stoduto; Robert E. Mann
      Pages: 85 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 103
      Author(s): Christine M. Wickens, Reginald G. Smart, Evelyn Vingilis, Anca R. Ialomiteanu, Gina Stoduto, Robert E. Mann
      Background Street racing has been identified as a significant public health concern, yet, little is known about the prevalence of this behaviour and its impact on collision risk. The current study was designed to address this dearth of knowledge by estimating the prevalence of street racing among the Ontario, Canada adult population, and examining its association to collision risk, controlling for demographics and other risk factors. Methods Data were based on telephone interviews with 11,263 respondents derived from the 2009–2014 cycles of the CAMH Monitor, an ongoing cross-sectional survey of adults aged 18+ years. A hierarchical-entry binary logistic regression analysis of collision involvement in the previous 12 months was conducted and included measures of street racing, demographic characteristics (sex, age, marital status, education, income, region), driving exposure, and driving after use of alcohol and use of cannabis. Results The prevalence of street racing was 0.9%. Based on univariate analyses, street racing was more prevalent among males (1.30%; p< .01) and those aged 18–25 years (2.61%; p< .001). Controlling for demographic characteristics, driving exposure, and driving after use of alcohol and use of cannabis, self-reported street racing significantly increased the odds of a crash (OR =5.23, p <.001). Discussion A small but significant percentage of adult drivers in Ontario reported engaging in street racing. Even after adjusting for demographics, driving exposure, and driving after use of alcohol and use of cannabis, street racers faced more than a five-fold increase in the odds of a crash. Program and policy options must be considered to target this contingent.

      PubDate: 2017-04-10T02:28:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.021
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
  • Survival pattern of first accident among commercial drivers in the Greater
           Accra Region of Ghana
    • Authors: Salifu Nanga; Nii Afotey Odai; Anani Lotsi
      Pages: 92 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 103
      Author(s): Salifu Nanga, Nii Afotey Odai, Anani Lotsi
      In this study, the average accident risk of commercial drivers in the Greater Accra region of Ghana and its associated risks were examined based on a survey data collected using paper-based questionnaires from 204 commercial drivers from the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. The Cox Proportional Hazards Model was used for multivariate analysis while the Kaplan-Meier (KM) Model was used to study the survival patterns of the commercial drivers. The study revealed that the median survival time for an accident to happen is 2.50 years. Good roads provided a better chance of survival than bad roads and experienced drivers have a better chance of survival than the inexperienced drivers. Age of driver, alcohol usage of driver, marital status, condition of road and duration of driver’s license were found to be related to the risk of accident.

      PubDate: 2017-04-10T02:28:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
  • An item-response theory approach to safety climate measurement: The
           Liberty Mutual Safety Climate Short Scales
    • Authors: Yueng-hsiang Huang; Jin Lee; Zhuo Chen; MacKenna Perry; Janelle H. Cheung; Mo Wang
      Pages: 96 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 103
      Author(s): Yueng-hsiang Huang, Jin Lee, Zhuo Chen, MacKenna Perry, Janelle H. Cheung, Mo Wang
      Zohar and Luria’s (2005) safety climate (SC) scale, measuring organization- and group- level SC each with 16 items, is widely used in research and practice. To improve the utility of the SC scale, we shortened the original full-length SC scales. Item response theory (IRT) analysis was conducted using a sample of 29,179 frontline workers from various industries. Based on graded response models, we shortened the original scales in two ways: (1) selecting items with above-average discriminating ability (i.e. offering more than 6.25% of the original total scale information), resulting in 8-item organization-level and 11-item group-level SC scales; and (2) selecting the most informative items that together retain at least 30% of original scale information, resulting in 4-item organization-level and 4-item group-level SC scales. All four shortened scales had acceptable reliability (≥0.89) and high correlations (≥0.95) with the original scale scores. The shortened scales will be valuable for academic research and practical survey implementation in improving occupational safety.

      PubDate: 2017-04-10T02:28:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
  • Distraction or cognitive overload? Using modulations of the autonomic
           nervous system to discriminate the possible negative effects of advanced
           assistance system
    • Authors: D. Ruscio; A.J. Bos; M.R. Ciceri
      Pages: 105 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 103
      Author(s): D. Ruscio, A.J. Bos, M.R. Ciceri
      The interaction with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems has several positive implications for road safety, but also some potential downsides such as mental workload and automation complacency. Malleable attentional resources allocation theory describes two possible processes that can generate workload in interaction with advanced assisting devices. The purpose of the present study is to determine if specific analysis of the different modalities of autonomic control of nervous system can be used to discriminate different potential workload processes generated during assisted-driving tasks and automation complacency situations. Thirty-five drivers were tested in a virtual scenario while using head-up advanced warning assistance system. Repeated MANOVA were used to examine changes in autonomic activity across a combination of different user interactions generated by the advanced assistance system: (1) expected take-over request without anticipatory warning; (2) expected take-over request with two-second anticipatory warning; (3) unexpected take-over request with misleading warning; (4) unexpected take-over request without warning. Results shows that analysis of autonomic modulations can discriminate two different resources allocation processes, related to different behavioral performances. The user's interaction that required divided attention under expected situations produced performance enhancement and reciprocally-coupled parasympathetic inhibition with sympathetic activity. At the same time, supervising interactions that generated automation complacency were described specifically by uncoupled sympathetic activation. Safety implications for automated assistance systems developments are considered.

      PubDate: 2017-04-10T02:28:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.023
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
  • Analysis of factors affecting the severity of crashes in urban road
    • Authors: L. Mussone; M. Bassani; P. Masci
      Pages: 112 - 122
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 103
      Author(s): L. Mussone, M. Bassani, P. Masci
      Road crashes are events which depend on a variety of factors and which exhibit different magnitudes of outputs when evaluated with respect to the effects on road users. Despite a lot of research into the evaluation of crash likelihood and frequency, only a few works have focused exclusively on crash severity with these limited to sections of freeways and multilane highways. Hence, at present there is a large gap in knowledge on factors affecting the severity of crashes for other road categories, facilities, and scenarios. The paper deals with the identification of factors affecting crash severity level at urban road intersections. Two official crash records together with a weather database, a traffic data source with data aggregated into 5min intervals, and further information characterising the investigated urban intersections were used. Analyses were performed by using a back propagation neural network model and a generalized linear mixed model that enable the impact assessment of flow and other variables. Both methods demonstrate that flows play a role in the prediction of severity levels

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T11:59:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
  • Novelty helmet use and motorcycle rider fatality
    • Authors: Thomas M. Rice; Lara Troszak; Taryn Erhardt; Roger B. Trent; Motao Zhu
      Pages: 123 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 103
      Author(s): Thomas M. Rice, Lara Troszak, Taryn Erhardt, Roger B. Trent, Motao Zhu
      Objectives To compare the risk of fatal injury across helmet types among collision-involved motorcyclists. Methods We used data from a cohort of motorcyclists involved in police-reported traffic collisions. Eighty-four law enforcement agencies in California collected detailed information on helmet and rider characteristics during collision investigations in June 2012 through July 2013. Multiply-adjusted risk ratios were estimated with log-binomial regression. Results The adjusted fatal injury risk ratio for novelty helmets was 1.95 (95% CI 1.11–3.40, p 0.019), comparing novelty helmets with full-face helmets. The risk ratios for modular, open-face, and half-helmets, compared with full-face helmets, were not significant. Conclusions A more complete understanding of the inadequacy of novelty helmets can be used in educational and law enforcement countermeasures to improve helmet use among motorcycling populations in California and other US states. Law enforcement approaches to mitigating novelty helmet use would seem attractive given that novelty helmets can be visually identified by law enforcement officers with sufficient training.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T11:59:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
  • Insights into targeting young male drivers with anti-speeding advertising:
           An application of the Step approach to Message Design and Testing (SatMDT)
    • Authors: I. Lewis; K.M. White; B. Ho; B. Elliott; B. Watson
      Pages: 129 - 142
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 103
      Author(s): I. Lewis, K.M. White, B. Ho, B. Elliott, B. Watson
      In Australia, young drivers aged 17–25 years comprise 13% of the population yet account for 22% of all road deaths with young males over-represented in such trauma. Speeding represents a major contributing factor and advertising campaigns have long focused on promoting anti-speeding messages in the effort to reduce drivers’ speeds. Positioned within a larger program of research aimed at developing, piloting, and evaluating a range of theoretically-informed anti-speeding messages, the current study reports results relating to the final phase of the research, the evaluation. Six messages were devised in accordance with the guiding framework, the Step approach to Message Design and Testing ([SatMDT]; Lewis et al., 2016) and based on the findings emerging from earlier qualitative and quantitative studies within the program of research. N=938 licensed drivers (n=455 males, 48%) aged 17–62 years completed an online survey. To ensure a controlled test of the persuasiveness of the message content, the messages were presented in an audio-based format and thus were devoid of potential confounds, such as images. The messages sought to address a particular belief (i.e., behavioural, normative, control) and to focus either on emphasising the positive aspects which make speeding less likely or challenging the negative aspects which make speeding more likely. Thus, key to this evaluation was to test the persuasiveness of the message content in terms of the particular belief and focus it was addressing. Participants were randomly assigned to either the Control condition (i.e., no exposure to a message) or the Intervention condition (i.e., exposed to one of the six messages presented as an audio-recorded message within the survey). Persuasiveness was assessed via a range of outcome measures including both direct (i.e., third-person perceptions, message rejection) as well as indirect measures (i.e., intentions, willingness to speed). Age, gender, and message type were independent variables (IVs), together with issue involvement as a covariate (or IV) in the study’s analyses. Overall, positive persuasive effects, and a relative absence of any negative, dissuasive effects, were found for two messages, Glass Cars and The Lift. These messages addressed the same salient belief, control beliefs, with the former emphasising the factors which discourage speeding and the latter message challenging those factors which encourage speeding. The implications of the findings are discussed in terms of the insights they offer for the key content of future anti-speeding messages.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T11:59:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
  • Who’s calling? Social networks and mobile phone use among
    • Authors: Chris De Gruyter; Long T. Truong; Hang T.T. Nguyen
      Pages: 143 - 147
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 103
      Author(s): Chris De Gruyter, Long T. Truong, Hang T.T. Nguyen
      Mobile phone use while riding a motorcycle poses a key safety risk, particularly among younger people who have been found to be more susceptible to distracted driving. While previous research has examined the influence of social networks on mobile phone use while driving a car, no research has explored this association in the context of motorcycle use. Using a survey of university students in Vietnam, this research explores the association between social networks and mobile phone use among motorcyclists and the links this has to reported crashes/falls. Results show that the majority of students are most likely to use a mobile phone to communicate with a friend while riding, either through talking (56.5%) or text messaging (62.0%). However, respondents who frequently talk to a girlfriend/boyfriend or spouse while riding were more likely to experience a crash/fall than those who frequently talk with others while riding (e.g. parent, brother/sister). In addition, those who frequently text message a friend while riding were more likely to experience a crash/fall than those who frequently text message others while riding. The results highlight a clear association between social networks and mobile phone use while riding a motorcycle. Developing a culture of societal norms, where mobile phone use while riding a motorcycle is considered socially unacceptable, will help to reduce the prevalence and ultimate crash risk associated with mobile phone use while riding.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T11:59:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
  • Mild Cognitive Impairment and driving: Does in-vehicle distraction affect
           driving performance?
    • Authors: Ion N. Beratis; Dimosthenis Pavlou; Eleonora Papadimitriou; Nikolaos Andronas; Dionysia Kontaxopoulou; Stella Fragkiadaki; George Yannis; Sokratis G. Papageorgiou
      Pages: 148 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 103
      Author(s): Ion N. Beratis, Dimosthenis Pavlou, Eleonora Papadimitriou, Nikolaos Andronas, Dionysia Kontaxopoulou, Stella Fragkiadaki, George Yannis, Sokratis G. Papageorgiou
      Objectives In-vehicle distraction is considered to be an important cause of road accidents. Drivers with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), because of their attenuated cognitive resources, may be vulnerable to the effects of distraction; however, previous relevant research is lacking. The main objective of the current study was to explore the effect of in-vehicle distraction on the driving performance of MCI patients, by assessing their reaction time at unexpected incidents and accident probability. Methods Thirteen patients with MCI (age: 64.5±7.2) and 12 cognitively intact individuals (age: 60.0±7.7), all active drivers were introduced in the study. The driving simulator experiment included three distraction conditions: (a) undistracted driving, (b) conversing with passenger and (c) conversing through a hand-held mobile phone. Results The mixed ANOVA models revealed a greater effect of distraction on MCI patients. Specifically, the use of mobile phone induced a more pronounced impact on reaction time and accident probability in the group of patients, as compared to healthy controls. On the other hand, in the driving condition “conversing with passenger” the interaction effects regarding reaction time and accident probability were not significant. Notably, the aforementioned findings concerning the MCI patients in the case of the mobile phone were observed despite the effort of the drivers to apply a compensatory strategy by reducing significantly their speed in this driving condition. Conclusion Overall, the current findings indicate, for the first time, that a common driving practice, such as the use of mobile phone, may have a detrimental impact on the driving performance of individuals with MCI.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T11:59:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
  • Examination of adult and child bicyclist safety-relevant events using
           naturalistic bicycling methodology
    • Authors: Cara J. Hamann; Corinne Peek-Asa
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Cara J. Hamann, Corinne Peek-Asa
      Among roadway users, bicyclists are considered vulnerable due to their high risk for injury when involved in a crash. Little is known about the circumstances leading to near crashes, crashes, and related injuries or how these vary by age and gender. The purpose of this study was to examine the rates and characteristics of safety-relevant events (crashes, near crashes, errors, and traffic violations) among adult and child bicyclists. Bicyclist trips were captured using Pedal Portal, a data acquisition and coding system which includes a GPS-enabled video camera and graphical user interface. A total of 179 safety-relevant events were manually coded from trip videos. Overall, child errors and traffic violations occurred at a rate of 1.9 per 100min of riding, compared to 6.3 for adults. However, children rode on the sidewalk 56.4% of the time, compared with 12.7% for adults. For both adults and children, the highest safety-relevant event rates occurred on paved roadways with no bicycle facilities present (Adults=8.6 and Children=7.2, per 100min of riding). Our study, the first naturalistic study to compare safety-relevant events among adults and children, indicates large variation in riding behavior and exposure between child and adult bicyclists. The majority of identified events were traffic violations and we were not able to code all risk-relevant data (e.g., subtle avoidance behaviors, failure to check for traffic, probability of collision). Future naturalistic cycling studies would benefit from enhanced instrumentation (e.g., additional camera views) and coding protocols able to fill these gaps.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T08:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.02.017
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • The influence of age-related health difficulties and attitudes toward
           driving on driving self-regulation in the baby boomer and older adult
    • Authors: Elizabeth G. Conlon; Nicole Rahaley; Jessica Davis
      Pages: 12 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Elizabeth G. Conlon, Nicole Rahaley, Jessica Davis
      Our study aimed to determine how age- and disease-related difficulties were associated with attitudes and beliefs about driving self-regulation in men and women in the baby boomer and older generations. Three hundred and ninety-nine men (n =204) and women (n =195) aged between 48 and 91 years participated in a cross-sectional study of Australian drivers. Demographic characteristics and measures of driving confidence, driving difficulty and driving self-regulation; perceptions of visual, physical and cognitive capacity; and attitudes and beliefs about driving were obtained. Driving self-regulation in men and women was explained by different mechanisms. For men, self-report of visual and cognitive difficulties and poor driving confidence predicted driving self-regulation. For women, negative attitudes toward driving mediated the associations found between health-related difficulties and driving self-regulation. Barriers to driving self-regulation were not associated with the driving self-regulatory practices of men or women. Regardless of generation, women reported poorer driving confidence, greater driving difficulty and more driving self-regulation than men. We concluded that age- and disease-related difficulties are related to increasing driving self-regulation in mature men and women. These results indicate that different pathways are needed in models of driving self-regulation for men and women regardless of generational cohort.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T08:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • A generalized exponential link function to map a conflict indicator into
           severity index within safety continuum framework
    • Authors: Lai Zheng; Karim Ismail
      Pages: 23 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Lai Zheng, Karim Ismail
      Traffic conflict indicators measure the temporal and spatial proximity of conflict-involved road users. These indicators can reflect the severity of traffic conflicts to a reliable extent. Instead of using the indicator value directly as a severity index, many link functions have been developed to map the conflict indicator to a severity index. However, little information is available about the choice of a particular link function. To guard against link misspecification or subjectivity, a generalized exponential link function was developed. The severity index generated by this link was introduced to a parametric safety continuum model which objectively models the centre and tail regions. An empirical method, together with full Bayesian estimation method was adopted to estimate model parameters. The safety implication of return level was calculated based on the model parameters. The proposed approach was applied to the conflict and crash data collected from 21 segments from three freeways located in Guangdong province, China. The Pearson’s correlation test between return levels and observed crashes showed that a θ value of 1.2 was the best choice of the generalized parameter for current data set. This provides statistical support for using the generalized exponential link function. With the determined generalized exponential link function, the visualization of parametric safety continuum was found to be a gyroscope-shaped hierarchy.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T08:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • Safety evaluation of intersections with dynamic use of exit-lanes for
           left-turn using field data
    • Authors: Jing Zhao; Yue Liu
      Pages: 31 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Jing Zhao, Yue Liu
      As a newly proposed unconventional intersection design, the exit-lanes for left-turn (EFL) intersection is found to be effective in increasing the intersection capacity with high level of application flexibility, especially under heavy left-turn traffic conditions. However, the operational safety of EFL is of most concern to the authority prior to its implementation. This paper evaluates the safety of the EFL intersections by studying the behavior of left-turn maneuvers using field data collected at 7 locations in China. A total of 22830 left-turn vehicles were captured, in which 9793 vehicles turned left using the mixed-usage area. Four potential safety problems, including the red-light violations, head-on collision risks, trapped vehicles, and rear-end crash risks, were discussed. Statistical analyses were carried out to compare the safety risk between the EFL intersection and the conventional one. Results indicate that the safety problems of EFL intersections mainly lie in higher percentages in red-light violations at the pre-signal (1.83% higher), wrong-way violation problems during the peak hours (the violation rate reaches up to 11.07%), and the lower travel speeds in the mixed-usage area (18.75% lower). Such risks can be counteracted, however, by providing more guiding information, installing cameras to investigate and punish violation maneuvers, and adjusting design parameter values for layout design and signal timing, respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T08:45:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.02.023
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • Pedestrian-driver communication and decision strategies at marked
    • Authors: Matus Sucha; Daniel Dostal; Ralf Risser
      Pages: 41 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Matus Sucha, Daniel Dostal, Ralf Risser
      The aim of this work is to describe pedestrian-driver encounters, communication, and decision strategies at marked but unsignalised crossings in urban areas in the Czech Republic and the ways in which the parties involved experience and handle these encounters. A mixed-methods design was used, consisting of focus groups with pedestrians and drivers regarding their subjective views of the situations, on-site observations, camera recordings, speed measurements, the measurement of car and pedestrian densities, and brief on-site interviews with pedestrians. In close correspondence with the literature, our study revealed that the most relevant predictors of pedestrians’ and drivers’ behaviour at crossings were the densities of car traffic and pedestrian flows and car speed. The factors which influenced pedestrians’ wait/go behaviour were: car speed, the distance of the car from the crossing, traffic density, whether there were cars approaching from both directions, various signs given by the driver (eye contact, waving a hand, flashing their lights), and the presence of other pedestrians. The factors influencing drivers’ yield/go behaviour were: speed, traffic density, the number of pedestrians waiting to cross, and pedestrians being distracted. A great proportion of drivers (36%) failed to yield to pedestrians at marked crossings. The probability of conflict situations increased with cars travelling at a higher speed, higher traffic density, and pedestrians being distracted by a different activity while crossing. The findings of this study can add to the existing literature by helping to provide an understanding of the perception of encounter situations by the parties involved and the motives lying behind certain aspects of behaviour associated with these encounters. This seems necessary in order to develop suggestions for improvements. For instance, the infrastructure near pedestrian crossings should be designed in such a way as to take proper account of pedestrians’ needs to feel safe and comfortable, as well as ensuring their objective safety. Thus, improvements should include measures aimed at reducing the speed of approaching vehicles (e.g. humps, speed cushions, elevated crossings, early yield bars, and narrow lanes), as this would enhance yielding by motor vehicles. Other measures that specifically rely on the subjective perception of different situations by the parties involved include the education and training of drivers, the aim of which is to promote their understanding and appreciation of pedestrians’ needs and motives.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T18:01:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.02.018
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • How did the economic recession (2008–2010) influence traffic
           fatalities in OECD-countries?
    • Authors: Fred Wegman; Richard Allsop; Constantinos Antoniou; Ruth Bergel-Hayat; Rune Elvik; Sylvain Lassarre; Daryl Lloyd; Wim Wijnen
      Pages: 51 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Fred Wegman, Richard Allsop, Constantinos Antoniou, Ruth Bergel-Hayat, Rune Elvik, Sylvain Lassarre, Daryl Lloyd, Wim Wijnen
      This paper presents analyses of how the economic recession that started in 2008 has influenced the number of traffic fatalities in OECD countries. Previous studies of the relationship between economic recessions and changes in the number of traffic fatalities are reviewed. Based on these studies, a causal diagram of the relationship between changes of the business cycle and changes in the number of traffic fatalities is proposed. This causal model is tested empirically by means of multivariate analyses and analyses of accident statistics for Great Britain and Sweden. Economic recession, as indicated both by slower growth of, or decline of gross national product, and by increased unemployment is associated with an accelerated decline in the number of traffic fatalities, i.e. a larger decline than the long-term trend that is normal in OECD countries. The principal mechanisms bringing this about are a disproportionate reduction of driving among high-risk drivers, in particular young drivers and a reduction of fatality rate per kilometre of travel, probably attributable to changes in road user behaviour that are only partly observable. The total number of vehicle kilometres of travel did not change very much as a result of the recession. The paper is based on an ITF-report that presents the analyses in greater detail.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T18:01:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.01.022
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • The role of parental risk judgements, transport safety attitudes,
           transport priorities and accident experiences on pupils’ walking to
    • Authors: Milad Mehdizadeh; Trond Nordfjaern; Amir Reza Mamdoohi; Afshin Shariat Mohaymany
      Pages: 60 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Milad Mehdizadeh, Trond Nordfjaern, Amir Reza Mamdoohi, Afshin Shariat Mohaymany
      Walking to school could improve pupils’ health condition and might also reduce the use of motorized transport modes, which leads to both traffic congestion and air pollution. The current study aims to examine the role of parental risk judgements (i.e. risk perception and worry), transport safety attitudes, transport priorities and accident experiences on pupils’ walking and mode choices on school trips in Iran, a country with poor road safety records. A total of 1078 questionnaires were randomly distributed among pupils at nine public and private schools in January 2014 in Rasht, Iran. Results from valid observations (n=711) showed that parents with high probability assessments of accidents and strong worry regarding pupils’ accident risk while walking were less likely to let their children walk to school. Parents with high safety knowledge were also more likely to allow their pupils to walk to school. Parents who prioritized convenience and accessibility in transport had a stronger tendency to choose motorized modes over walking modes. Also, parents who prioritized safety and security in transport were less likely to allow pupils to walk to school. Elasticities results showed that a one percent increase in priorities of convenience and accessibility, priorities of safety and security, car ownership and walking time from home to school reduced walking among pupils by a probability of 0.62, 0.20, 0.86 and 0.57%, respectively. A one percent increase in parental safety knowledge increased the walking probability by around 0.25%. A 1 unit increase in parental probability assessment and worry towards pupils’ walking, decreased the probability of choosing walking mode by 0.11 and 0.05, respectively. Policy-makers who aim to promote walking to schools should improve safety and security of the walking facilities and increase parental safety knowledge.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T18:01:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.02.020
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • Texting while driving, executive function, and impulsivity in college
    • Authors: Yusuke Hayashi; Esteban A. Rivera; James G. Modico; Anne M. Foreman; Oliver Wirth
      Pages: 72 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Yusuke Hayashi, Esteban A. Rivera, James G. Modico, Anne M. Foreman, Oliver Wirth
      The purpose of the present study was to investigate the cognitive processes underlying texting while driving. A sample of 120 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read a text message while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 20 students who frequently text while driving and 20 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they differed in self-reported measures of executive function and impulsivity. The groups were also compared on a behavioral measure of impulsivity: the extent to which they discounted hypothetical monetary rewards as a function of the delay. For this measure, the students made repeated choices between smaller monetary rewards available immediately and larger rewards available after delays ranging from 1 week to 6 months. The results show that the group of students who frequently text while driving showed (a) significantly lower levels of executive function and (b) higher levels of self-reported impulsivity, although the groups did not differ significantly on the behavioral measure of impulsivity. These results support a general conclusion that drivers with lower levels of executive function and higher levels of impulsivity are more likely to text while driving.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T22:09:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.02.016
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • The importance of spatial orientation and knowledge of traffic signs for
           children's traffic safety
    • Authors: Aleksandar Trifunović; Dalibor Pešić; Svetlana Čičević; Boris Antić
      Pages: 81 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Aleksandar Trifunović, Dalibor Pešić, Svetlana Čičević, Boris Antić
      Pre-school children, as well as children from lower grades in primary school, who although rarely, completely independently participate in traffic, represent a vulnerable population from the standpoint of traffic safety. The greatest number of children were injured or killed in road traffic crashes on their way from home to kindergarten or school. Mostly due to lack of experience, children's behavior is confusing and often reckless and hasty. Safe behavior in the traffic environment demands certain cognitive skills. Unlike adults, children have less than fully developed peripheral vision. Also, changes occur in color perception, i.e. discrimination. All this leads to the conclusion that the stage of physical and mental development of the child is very important for safe participation in traffic. So, to estimate if they are sufficiently equipped to participate safely in traffic, a sensitive test for young children that may be suitable for their level of cognitive development is required. Accordingly, road safety education should be arranged in such a way that considers the child's level of development, as has been shown to be more effective when started at younger ages. Play is the most natural and easiest way of learning because it is the lens through which children experience their world, and the world of others. Having this in mind, if we want to measure the abilities of a child, and their preparedness for safety participation in traffic, unavoidable is to use non-verbal tests. The purpose of this study is to explore primary schooler's spatial, and abilities of color perception and memorization, as well as their performances in interpreting the meaning of traffic signs. In addition, neighborhood environmental correlates (rural–urban) and possible individual differences influences on the relationship among these abilities was examined. Knowledge about these factors affecting children's safety can be applied to improve relevant intervention measures for promoting safe participation of young children in traffic. It may constitute the basis for effective classroom work which implies the creation of individualized educational plans and programs, through which road safety skills could be acquired and adopted through play.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T22:09:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.02.019
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • An empirical analysis of run-off-road injury severity crashes involving
           large trucks
    • Authors: Nabeel Saleem Saad Al-Bdairi; Salvador Hernandez
      Pages: 93 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Nabeel Saleem Saad Al-Bdairi, Salvador Hernandez
      In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in understanding the contributory factors to run-off-road (ROR) crashes in the US, especially those where large trucks are involved. Although there have been several efforts to understand large-truck crashes, the relationship between crash factors, crash severity, and ROR crashes is not clearly understood. The intent of this research is to develop statistical models that provide additional insight into the effects that various contributory factors related to the person (driver), vehicle, crash, roadway, and environment have on ROR injury severity. An ordered random parameter probit was estimated to predict the likelihood of three injury severity categories using Oregon crash data: severe, minor, and no injury. The modeling approach accounts for unobserved heterogeneity (i.e., unobserved factors). The results showed that five parameter estimates were found to be random and normally distributed, and varied across ROR crash observations. These were factors related to crashes that occurred between January and April, raised median type, loss of control of a vehicle, the indicator variable of speed not involved, and the indicator variable of two vehicles or more involved in the crashes. In contrast, eight variables were found to be fixed across ROR observations. Looking more closely at the fixed parameter results, large-truck drivers who are not licensed in Oregon have a higher probability of experiencing no injury ROR crash outcomes, and human related factor, fatigue, increases the probability of minor injury. The modeling framework presented in this work offers a flexible methodology to analyze ROR crashes involving large trucks while accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. This information can aid safety planners and the trucking industry in identifying appropriate countermeasures to help mitigate the number and severity of large-truck ROR crashes.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T22:09:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.02.024
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • Do management practices support or constrain safe driving behaviour? A
           multi-level investigation in a sample of occupational drivers
    • Authors: Sharon Newnam; Amanda Warmerdam; Dianne Sheppard; Mark Griffin; Mark Stevenson
      Pages: 101 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Sharon Newnam, Amanda Warmerdam, Dianne Sheppard, Mark Griffin, Mark Stevenson
      It has been estimated that one-third of all work-related deaths occur while driving for work-related purposes. Despite this, many organisations are unaware of the practices, beyond those that identify and control the impact of unforeseen events (i.e., risk management), that predispose drivers to risk. This study addresses the issue by identifying the management practices operationalised as, High Performance Workplace Systems (HPWS) that influence safe driver behaviour. The study also explores the value given to safety by senior level management as a moderator of the relationship between HPWS practices and driver behaviour. Each factor was tested within a two level hierarchical model consisting of 911 drivers, nested within 161 supervisors and 83 organisations. The findings highight that under conditions of high investment in job and work design, communication and selection practices, drivers reported poorer driving behaviour. An interaction effect also demonstrated that under conditions of high investment in remuneration, drivers reported safer behaviour, but only when they perceived that managers valued and prioritised safety. The findings challenge current thinking in the management of workplace road safety.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T22:09:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • Effects of altruism and burnout on driving behavior of bus drivers
    • Authors: Xia Shi; Liang Zhang
      Pages: 110 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Xia Shi, Liang Zhang
      Personality traits predict driving behaviors. However, the mechanism underlying this relationship has not been adequately investigated in professional drivers. The current study investigated the relationship between altruistic personality and aberrant driving behaviors, and the potential role of burnout. A total of 194 bus drivers completed questionnaires including measures of altruism, burnout and aberrant driving behaviors (aggressive violations, ordinary violations, errors, and lapses). The results showed that altruism was negatively correlated with burnout, and with all the four subcategories of aberrant driving behavior. Burnout fully mediated the relationship between altruism and aggressive violations, and partially mediated the relationship between altruism and lapses. These findings can be applied in the bus drivers’ selection and interventions for burnout in order to improve the safety of public transport.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T22:09:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.02.025
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • Experiential exposure to texting and walking in virtual reality: A
           randomized trial to reduce distracted pedestrian behavior
    • Authors: David C. Schwebel; Leslie A. McClure; Bryan E. Porter
      Pages: 116 - 122
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): David C. Schwebel, Leslie A. McClure, Bryan E. Porter
      Background Distracted pedestrian behavior is a significant public health concern, as research suggests distracted pedestrians have significantly higher risk of injury compared to fully attentive pedestrians. Despite this, efforts to reduce distracted pedestrian behavior are scant. Objective Using a repeated measures experimental research design, we implemented a behavioral intervention to reduce distracted pedestrian behavior in the high-risk environment of an urban college campus and simultaneously monitored behavior on a control urban college campus not exposed to the intervention. We had two primary aims: reduce perceived vulnerability to injury among individual pedestrians and reduce distracted pedestrian behavior in the environment through a change in community-based norms. Methods The hallmark of the behavioral intervention was a week-long opportunity for community members to experience personally the risks of distracted pedestrian behavior by attempting to cross a virtual pedestrian environment street while text-messaging. This was supplemented by traditional and social marketing and publicity through various campus partners. A sample of 219 individuals completed self-report surveys about perceived vulnerability to distracted pedestrian injury before experiencing the distracted virtual street-crossing and again after 2 weeks and 5 months. Observational assessment of distracted pedestrian behavior was conducted at a busy intersection on the campus as well as at a control campus not exposed to the intervention at baseline, post-intervention, 10 weeks, and 6 months. Results The intervention achieved mixed results. Individuals exposed to texting within a simulated pedestrian environment reported changes in their intentions to cross streets while distracted and in perceived vulnerability to risk while crossing streets, but we did not witness evidence of changed community norms based on observed rates of distracted pedestrian behavior before and after the intervention compared to a control campus not exposed to the intervention. Discussion The intervention created some change in self-reported intentions and thoughts but did not create significant behavior change on the campus exposed to it. Further efforts to develop interventions that will yield a reduction in distracted pedestrian behavior are needed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T22:09:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.02.026
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • Examining the influence of link function misspecification in conventional
           regression models for developing crash modification factors
    • Authors: Lingtao Wu; Dominique Lord
      Pages: 123 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Lingtao Wu, Dominique Lord
      This study further examined the use of regression models for developing crash modification factors (CMFs), specifically focusing on the misspecification in the link function. The primary objectives were to validate the accuracy of CMFs derived from the commonly used regression models (i.e., generalized linear models or GLMs with additive linear link functions) when some of the variables have nonlinear relationships and quantify the amount of bias as a function of the nonlinearity. Using the concept of artificial realistic data, various linear and nonlinear crash modification functions (CM‐Functions) were assumed for three variables. Crash counts were randomly generated based on these CM-Functions. CMFs were then derived from regression models for three different scenarios. The results were compared with the assumed true values. The main findings are summarized as follows: (1) when some variables have nonlinear relationships with crash risk, the CMFs for these variables derived from the commonly used GLMs are all biased, especially around areas away from the baseline conditions (e.g., boundary areas); (2) with the increase in nonlinearity (i.e., nonlinear relationship becomes stronger), the bias becomes more significant; (3) the quality of CMFs for other variables having linear relationships can be influenced when mixed with those having nonlinear relationships, but the accuracy may still be acceptable; and (4) the misuse of the link function for one or more variables can also lead to biased estimates for other parameters. This study raised the importance of the link function when using regression models for developing CMFs.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T22:09:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • Fatal falls and PFAS use in the construction industry: Findings from the
           NIOSH FACE reports
    • Authors: Xiuwen Sue Dong; Julie A. Largay; Sang D. Choi; Xuanwen Wang; Chris Trahan Cain; Nancy Romano
      Pages: 136 - 143
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Xiuwen Sue Dong, Julie A. Largay, Sang D. Choi, Xuanwen Wang, Chris Trahan Cain, Nancy Romano
      This study analyzed the Construction FACE Database (CFD), a quantitative database developed from reports of the Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) program conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The CFD contains detailed data on 768 fatalities in the construction industry reported by NIOSH and individual states from 1982 through June 30, 2015. The results show that falls accounted for 42% (325) of the 768 fatalities included in the CFD. Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS) were not available to more than half of the fall decedents (54%); nearly one in four fall decedents (23%) had access to PFAS, but were not using it at the time of the fall. Lack of access to PFAS was particularly high among residential building contractors as well as roofing, siding, and sheet metal industry sectors (∼70%). Although the findings may not represent the entire construction industry today, they do provide strong evidence in favor of fall protection requirements by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). In addition to stronger enforcement, educating employers and workers about the importance and effectiveness of fall protection is crucial for compliance and fall prevention.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-15T08:06:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.02.028
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • Severe soft tissue injuries of the upper extremity in motor vehicle
           crashes involving partial ejection: the protective role of side curtain
    • Authors: Robert Kaufman; Laura Fraade-Blanar; Angelo Lipira; Jeffrey Friedrich; Eileen Bulger
      Pages: 144 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Robert Kaufman, Laura Fraade-Blanar, Angelo Lipira, Jeffrey Friedrich, Eileen Bulger
      Introduction Partial ejection (PE) of the upper extremity (UE) can occur in a motor vehicle crash (MVC) resulting in complex and severe soft tissue injuries (SSTI). This study evaluated the relationship between partial ejection and UE injuries, notably SSTIs, in MVCs focusing on crash types and characteristics, and further examined the role of side curtain airbags (SCABs) in the prevention of partial ejection and reducing SSTI of the UE. Methods Weighted data was analyzed from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) from 1993 to 2012. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship of PE with SSTI of the UE and the effect of SCABs in both nearside impacts and rollover collisions. Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) case studies illustrated PE involving SSTI of the UE, and long term treatment. Results Rollover and nearside impact collisions had the highest percentages of partial ejection, with over half occurring in rollover collisions. Annually over 800 SSTIs of the UE occurred in all MVCs. For nearside lateral force impacts, a multivariable analysis adjusting for belt use and delta V showed a 15 times (OR 15.35, 95% CI 4.30, 54.79) greater odds of PE for occupants without SCABs compared to those with a SCAB deployment. No occupants (0 of 51,000) sustained a SSTI of the UE when a SCAB deployed in nearside impacts, compared to 0.01% (114 of 430,000) when SCABs were unavailable or did not deploy. In rollover collisions, a multivariable analysis adjusted for number of quarter turns and belt use showed 3 times the odds (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.22, 7.47) of PE for occupants without SCABs compared to those with a SCAB deployment. Just 0.17% (32 of 19,000) of the occupants sustained a SSTI of the UE in rollovers with a SCAB deployment, compared to 0.53% (2294 of 431,000) of the occupants when SCABs were unavailable or did not deploy. CIREN case studies illustrated the injury causation of SSTI of the UE due to partial ejection, and the long term treatment and medical costs associated with a SSTI to the UE. Conclusions The majority of severe soft tissue injuries (SSTI) of the upper extremity (UE) involved partial ejection out the nearside window of outboard seated occupants in nearside impacts and rollover collisions. Real world case studies showed that SSTIs of the upper extremity require extensive treatment, extended hospitalization and are costly. Occupants without a side curtain airbag (SCAB) deployment had an increase in the odds of partial ejection. SCAB deployments provided protection against partial ejection and prevented SSTIs of the UE, with none occurring in nearside impacts, and a small percentage and reduction occurring in rollover collisions compared to those where SCABs were unavailable or did not deploy.

      PubDate: 2017-04-03T09:55:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.02.027
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • Single-vehicle crashes along rural mountainous highways in Malaysia: An
           application of random parameters negative binomial model
    • Authors: Rusdi Rusli; Md. Mazharul Haque; Mark King; Wong Shaw Voon
      Pages: 153 - 164
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Rusdi Rusli, Md. Mazharul Haque, Mark King, Wong Shaw Voon
      Mountainous highways generally associate with complex driving environment because of constrained road geometries, limited cross-section elements, inappropriate roadside features, and adverse weather conditions. As a result, single-vehicle (SV) crashes are overrepresented along mountainous roads, particularly in developing countries, but little attention is known about the roadway geometric, traffic and weather factors contributing to these SV crashes. As such, the main objective of the present study is to investigate SV crashes using detailed data obtained from a rigorous site survey and existing databases. The final dataset included a total of 56 variables representing road geometries including horizontal and vertical alignment, traffic characteristics, real-time weather condition, cross-sectional elements, roadside features, and spatial characteristics. To account for structured heterogeneities resulting from multiple observations within a site and other unobserved heterogeneities, the study applied a random parameters negative binomial model. Results suggest that rainfall during the crash is positively associated with SV crashes, but real-time visibility is negatively associated. The presence of a road shoulder, particularly a bitumen shoulder or wider shoulders, along mountainous highways is associated with less SV crashes. While speeding along downgrade slopes increases the likelihood of SV crashes, proper delineation decreases the likelihood. Findings of this study have significant implications for designing safer highways in mountainous areas, particularly in the context of a developing country.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T01:20:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • Counterfactual simulations applied to SHRP2 crashes: The effect of driver
           behavior models on safety benefit estimations of intelligent safety
    • Authors: Jonas Bärgman; Christian-Nils Boda; Marco Dozza
      Pages: 165 - 180
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Jonas Bärgman, Christian-Nils Boda, Marco Dozza
      As the development and deployment of in-vehicle intelligent safety systems (ISS) for crash avoidance and mitigation have rapidly increased in the last decades, the need to evaluate their prospective safety benefits before introduction has never been higher. Counterfactual simulations using relevant mathematical models (for vehicle dynamics, sensors, the environment, ISS algorithms, and models of driver behavior) have been identified as having high potential. However, although most of these models are relatively mature, models of driver behavior in the critical seconds before a crash are still relatively immature. There are also large conceptual differences between different driver models. The objective of this paper is, firstly, to demonstrate the importance of the choice of driver model when counterfactual simulations are used to evaluate two ISS: Forward collision warning (FCW), and autonomous emergency braking (AEB). Secondly, the paper demonstrates how counterfactual simulations can be used to perform sensitivity analyses on parameter settings, both for driver behavior and ISS algorithms. Finally, the paper evaluates the effect of the choice of glance distribution in the driver behavior model on the safety benefit estimation. The paper uses pre-crash kinematics and driver behavior from 34 rear-end crashes from the SHRP2 naturalistic driving study for the demonstrations. The results for FCW show a large difference in the percent of avoided crashes between conceptually different models of driver behavior, while differences were small for conceptually similar models. As expected, the choice of model of driver behavior did not affect AEB benefit much. Based on our results, researchers and others who aim to evaluate ISS with the driver in the loop through counterfactual simulations should be sure to make deliberate and well-grounded choices of driver models: the choice of model matters.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T01:20:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • Interaction driver–bicyclist on rural roads: Effects of cross-sections
           and road geometric elements
    • Authors: Francesco Bella; Manuel Silvestri
      Pages: 191 - 201
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Francesco Bella, Manuel Silvestri
      The interaction of motorists and bicyclists, particularly during passing maneuvers, is cited as one of the primary causes of bicyclist fatalities. This paper reports the results of a driving simulator study, which sought to analyze the effects that three cross-section configurations of a two-lane rural road and four geometric elements of the road have on driver behavior, during the interaction with a cyclist. A two-lane rural road, about 11km long, was designed and implemented in an advanced-interactive driving simulator. Three different cross-sections (all with same width, but with and without a bicycle lane and for different widths of bicycle lane) were tested. Forty participants carried out three driving sessions (one for each road alignment with different cross-section) and were exposed to the condition of bicycle traffic along four geometric elements of the alignment (2 tangents with different lengths, right curve and left curve). The driving simulator experiments were designed in such a way that, along the sections where the driver–cyclist interactions occurred, the oncoming traffic was absent. Overall, 468 speed profiles and 468 lateral position profiles were plotted to obtain the descriptive variables of the driver behavior during the interaction with the cyclist. The influences of cross-sections, geometric elements and bicycle traffic conditions on driver behavior were evaluated by a multivariate variance analysis. The presence of the cyclist determined different levels of influence on driver’s trajectory for the three cross-sections. A wider bicycle lane ensured a higher later clearance distance between driver and cyclist, allowing safer overtaking maneuver. The interferences of the cyclist on driver’s behavior depended on the geometric elements. On tangents, the lowest lateral clearances were recorded and no speed reduction was observed, compared to the cyclist absence condition. On the left curve, the higher lateral clearance was recorded, due to the concordant tendencies of the driver to move away from the cyclist and to cut the curve. This determined an excessive and risky displacement of the vehicle to the opposing lane, whose criticality was also emphasized by the high speed adopted by the driver. On the right curve, the lateral clearance was higher than that recorded on the tangents, probably due to the necessity of the driver to perform the demanding maneuver of entering in the right curve, which also determined a speed reduction compared to the cyclist absence condition. The obtained results provide suggestions for the most efficient cross-section reorganization of existing two-lane rural roads in order to improve the road safety.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T01:20:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • The relationship between Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire scores
           and crashes for riders in Australia
    • Authors: A.N. Stephens; J. Brown; L. de Rome; M.R.J. Baldock; R. Fernandes; M. Fitzharris
      Pages: 202 - 212
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): A.N. Stephens, J. Brown, L. de Rome, M.R.J. Baldock, R. Fernandes, M. Fitzharris
      Motorcycle riders are over-represented in road fatalities in Australia. While riders represent 18% of the road users killed each year, motorcycle registrations constitute only 4.5% of the registered vehicle fleet. The Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire (MRBQ) was developed with a view toward understanding behaviours likely to be associated with crash risk. These include behaviours that are either intentional (such as violations of road and speed regulations and stunts) or unintentional (such as errors relating to traffic or control of the motorcycle), as well as protective behaviours related to use of safety equipment. The dual aims of the current study were, first, to determine the appropriate structure of a modified version of the MRBQ for use in a representative sample of riders in Australia and, second, to understand which MRBQ factors are associated with crash involvement. A stratified sampling procedure was undertaken to ensure the socio-economic status of local government area, age and gender of the sample was representative of the broader population of riders in New South Wales, Australia. The sample consisted of 470 riders (males=89%). Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 29-item, five factor structure was suitable on the Australian data encompassing traffic errors, speed violations, protective gear, control errors and stunts. Overall, riders reported relatively safe behaviours, with frequent use of protective gear and infrequent aberrant behaviours. However, even though infrequent, violations of speed and errors related to control of the motorcycle increased the odds of near-crash involvement, whilst stunt behaviours were associated with increased odds of crash involvement. Interventions and countermeasures need to target these specific behaviours.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T01:20:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • Intersection crash prediction modeling with macro-level data from various
           geographic units
    • Authors: Jaeyoung Lee; Mohamed Abdel-Aty; Qing Cai
      Pages: 213 - 226
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Jaeyoung Lee, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Qing Cai
      There have been great efforts to develop traffic crash prediction models for various types of facilities. The crash models have played a key role to identify crash hotspots and evaluate safety countermeasures. In recent, many macro-level crash prediction models have been developed to incorporate highway safety considerations in the long-term transportation planning process. Although the numerous macro-level studies have found that a variety of demographic and socioeconomic zonal characteristics have substantial effects on traffic safety, few studies have attempted to coalesce micro-level with macro-level data from existing geographic units for estimating crash models. In this study, the authors have developed a series of intersection crash models for total, severe, pedestrian, and bicycle crashes with macro-level data for seven spatial units. The study revealed that the total, severe, and bicycle crash models with ZIP-code tabulation area data performs the best, and the pedestrian crash models with census tract-based data outperforms the competing models. Furthermore, it was uncovered that intersection crash models can be drastically improved by only including random-effects for macro-level entities. Besides, the intersection crash models are even further enhanced by including other macro-level variables. Lastly, the pedestrian and bicycle crash modeling results imply that several macro-level variables (e.g., population density, proportions of specific age group, commuters who walk, or commuters using bicycle, etc.) can be a good surrogate exposure for those crashes.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T09:47:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • Transition to manual: Comparing simulator with on-road control transitions
    • Authors: A. Eriksson; V.A. Banks; N.A. Stanton
      Pages: 227 - 234
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): A. Eriksson, V.A. Banks, N.A. Stanton
      Background Whilst previous research has explored how driver behaviour in simulators may transfer to the open road, there has been relatively little research showing the same transfer within the field of driving automation. As a consequence, most research into human-automation interaction has primarily been carried out in a research laboratory or on closed-circuit test tracks. Objective The aim of this study was to assess whether research into non-critical control transactions in highly automated vehicles performed in driving simulators correlate with road driving conditions. Method Twenty six drivers drove a highway scenario using an automated driving mode in the simulator and twelve drivers drove on a public motorway in a Tesla Model S with the Autopilot activated. Drivers were asked to relinquish, or resume control from the automation when prompted by the vehicle interface in both the simulator and on road condition. Results Drivers were generally faster to resume control in the on-road driving condition. However, strong positive correlations were found between the simulator and on road driving conditions for drivers transferring control to and from automation. No significant differences were found with regard to workload, perceived usefulness and satisfaction between the simulator and on-road drives. Conclusion The results indicate high levels of relative validity of driving simulators as a research tool for automated driving research.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T09:47:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • Estimation of red-light running frequency using high-resolution traffic
           and signal data
    • Authors: Peng Chen; Guizhen Yu; Xinkai Wu; Yilong Ren; Yueguang Li
      Pages: 235 - 247
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Peng Chen, Guizhen Yu, Xinkai Wu, Yilong Ren, Yueguang Li
      Red-light-running (RLR) emerges as a major cause that may lead to intersection-related crashes and endanger intersection safety. To reduce RLR violations, it’s critical to identify the influential factors associated with RLR and estimate RLR frequency. Without resorting to video camera recordings, this study investigates this important issue by utilizing high-resolution traffic and signal event data collected from loop detectors at five intersections on Trunk Highway 55, Minneapolis, MN. First, a simple method is proposed to identify RLR by fully utilizing the information obtained from stop bar detectors, downstream entrance detectors and advance detectors. Using 12 months of event data, a total of 6550 RLR cases were identified. According to a definition of RLR frequency as the conditional probability of RLR on a certain traffic or signal condition (veh/1000veh), the relationships between RLR frequency and some influential factors including arriving time at advance detector, approaching speed, headway, gap to the preceding vehicle on adjacent lane, cycle length, geometric characteristics and even snowing weather were empirically investigated. Statistical analysis shows good agreement with the traffic engineering practice, e.g., RLR is most likely to occur on weekdays during peak periods under large traffic demands and longer signal cycles, and a total of 95.24% RLR events occurred within the first 1.5s after the onset of red phase. The findings confirmed that vehicles tend to run the red light when they are close to intersection during phase transition, and the vehicles following the leading vehicle with short headways also likely run the red light. Last, a simplified nonlinear regression model is proposed to estimate RLR frequency based on the data from advance detector. The study is expected to helpbetter understand RLR occurrence and further contribute to the future improvement of intersection safety.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T09:47:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • Effects of acute alcohol consumption on measures of simulated driving: A
           systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Christopher Irwin; Elizaveta Iudakhina; Ben Desbrow; Danielle McCartney
      Pages: 248 - 266
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): Christopher Irwin, Elizaveta Iudakhina, Ben Desbrow, Danielle McCartney
      Driving simulators are used in a wide range of research settings to help develop an understanding of driver behavior in complex environments. Acute alcohol impairment is an important research topic for traffic safety and a large number of studies have indicated levels of simulated driving impairment imposed by alcohol across a range of performance outcome variables. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of acute alcohol consumption on simulated driving performance by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence. The online databases PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science (via Thomas Reuters) and Scopus were searched to identify studies that measured simulated car driving performance under control ('no alcohol' or ‘placebo alcohol’ ingestion) and intervention (acute alcohol ingestion) conditions, using repeated-measures experimental designs. Primary research outcomes were standard deviation of lane position (SDLP) and standard deviation of speed (SDSP); (total number of lane crossings (LC) and average speed (Speed) were secondary research outcomes). Meta-analytic procedures were used to quantify the effect of acute alcohol consumption on vehicle control, and to determine the influence of methodological variables (i.e. the duration of the simulated driving task, the limb of the BAC curve (ascending vs. descending) and the type of driving simulator employed (i.e. car vs. PC-based)) on the magnitude of the performance change due to alcohol consumption. 423 records were screened, and 50 repeated-measures trials (n =962 participants, 62% male) derived from 17 original publications were reviewed. 37 trials (n =721 participants) used a ‘placebo alcohol’ comparator to determine the effect of alcohol consumption on SDLP (32/37) and SDSP (22/37). Alcohol consumption significantly increased SDLP by 4.0±0.5cm (95% CI: 3.0, 5.1) and SDSP by 0.38±0.10km⋅h−1 (95% CI: 0.19, 0.57). Regression analyses indicate BAC (p =0.004) and driving simulator platform (p< 0.001) influence the magnitude of the SDLP change, such that higher BAC levels and the use of PC-based driving simulators were associated with larger performance decrements (R2 =0.80). The limb of the BAC curve and the duration of the driving task did not significantly alter the magnitude of the performance change. Eleven trials (n =205 participants) used a ‘no alcohol’ comparator to measure the effect of alcohol consumption on SDLP (10/11); few trials assessed SDSP (3/11). Alcohol consumption resulted in a small significant increase in SDLP under these conditions (standardized difference in means=0.23, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.39). These results demonstrate that lateral (SDLP and LC) and longitudinal (SDSP) vehicle control measures in a driving simulator are impaired with acute alcohol consumption. However, SDLP appears to be a more sensitive indicator of driving impairment than other driving performance variables and the results of the present study support its use as a performance outcome when examining alcohol-induced simulated driving impairment.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T09:47:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
  • Commentary driver training: Effects of commentary exposure, practice and
           production on hazard perception and eye movements
    • Authors: Angela H. Young; David Crundall; Peter Chapman
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 101
      Author(s): Angela H. Young, David Crundall, Peter Chapman
      Commentary driving typically involves being trained in how to produce a verbal running commentary about what you can see, what you are doing, what might happen and what action you will take to avoid potential hazards, while driving. Although video-based commentary training has been associated with subsequent hazard perception improvements, it can have a negative impact on hazard perception when a live commentary is produced at test (Young, Chapman, & Crundall, 2014). In the current study we use balanced training and testing blocks to isolate the effects of commentary exposure, production of a commentary with and without practice, and learning from earlier self-generation of commentary on behavioural and eye movement measures. Importantly, both commentary exposed and unexposed groups gave hazard perception responses during the commentary video, ensuring that the unexposed control group remained engaged in the procedure throughout. Results show that producing a live commentary is detrimental to concurrent hazard perception, even after practice, and does not enhance any later effect of commentary exposure. Although commentary exposure led to an initial increase in the accuracy of hazard perception responses, this effect was limited to the first occasion of testing, and showed no later benefits relative to engaged hazard exposure.

      PubDate: 2017-02-04T17:11:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
  • The influence of passenger car front shape on pedestrian injury risk
           observed from German in-depth accident data
    • Authors: Guibing Li; Mathew Lyons; Bingyu Wang; Jikuang Yang; Dietmar Otte; Ciaran Simms
      Pages: 11 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 101
      Author(s): Guibing Li, Mathew Lyons, Bingyu Wang, Jikuang Yang, Dietmar Otte, Ciaran Simms
      Quantified relationships between passenger car front shape and pedestrian injury risk derived from accident data are sparse, especially considering the significant recent changes in car front design. The purpose of this paper is therefore to investigate the detailed effects of passenger car front shape on injury risk to a pedestrian’s head, thorax, pelvis and leg in the event of a vehicle pedestrian impact. Firstly, an accident sample of 594 pedestrian cases captured during 2000–2015 from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) database was employed. Multicollinearity diagnostic statistics were then used to detect multicollinearity between the predictors. Following this, logistic regression was applied to quantify the effects of passenger car front shape on injury risks while controlling for impact speed and pedestrian age. Results indicate that the bumper lower depth (BLD), bumper lower height (BLH), bumper upper height (BUH) and normalised bumper lower/upper height (NBLH/NBUH) are statistically significant for AIS2+ leg injury risk. The normalised bonnet leading edge height (NBLEH) has a statistically significant influence on AIS2+ femur/pelvis injury occurrence. The passenger car front shape did not show statistical significance for AIS3+ thorax and head injuries. The impact speed and pedestrian age are generally significant factors influencing AIS2+ leg and pelvis injuries, and AIS3+ thorax and head injuries. However, when head impacts are fixed on the central windscreen region both pedestrian age and impact speed are not statistically significant for AIS3+ head injury. For quantified effects, when controlling for speed, age and BUH, an average 7% and 6% increase in AIS2+ leg injury odds was observed for every 1cm increase in BLD and BLH respectively; 1cm increase in BUH results in a 7% decrease in AIS2+ leg injury odds when the BLD or BLH are fixed respectively (again controlling for impact speed and pedestrian age); the average AIS2+ femur/pelvis injury odds increase by 74% for a 10% increase in NBLEH. These findings suggest that passenger car bumpers should support the lower leg with a low and flat lower bumper and even contact up to the femur area with a high upper bumper which extends above the knee to protect the pedestrian’s leg. A low passenger car bonnet leading edge helps to reduce femur/pelvis injury risk. The passenger car front shape parameters are less influential than impact speed and pedestrian age for pedestrian injury risk.

      PubDate: 2017-02-04T17:11:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
  • Self-reported vs state-recorded motor vehicle collisions among older
           community dwelling individuals
    • Authors: B.A. Singletary; A.N. Do; J.P. Donnelly; C. Huisingh; M.T. Mefford; R. Modi; F.L. Mondesir; Y. Ye; C. Owsley; G. McGwin
      Pages: 22 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 101
      Author(s): B.A. Singletary, A.N. Do, J.P. Donnelly, C. Huisingh, M.T. Mefford, R. Modi, F.L. Mondesir, Y. Ye, C. Owsley, G. McGwin
      Introduction Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) continue to place an increased burden on both individuals and health care systems. Self-reported and state-recorded police reports are the most common methods for MVC evaluation in epidemiologic studies, with varying degrees of agreement of information when compared in previous studies. The objective of the current study is to address the differences in MVC reporting and provide a more robust measure of the agreement between self-reported and state-recorded MVCs in a community dwelling population of older adults. Methods A three-year prospective study was conducted in a population-based sample of 2000 licensed drivers aged 70 and older. At annual visits, participants were asked to self-report information on any MVC that occurred over the prior year where police were called to the scene. Information on police-reported MVCs was also ascertained from Alabama official state-recorded databases. The kappa coefficient was calculated to determine overall agreement between any self-reported and state-recorded crashes, as well as the raw number of crashes reported. In addition, agreement was stratified by demographics, health status, medication use, functional status (i.e. vision, cognition), and driving habits. Results 1747 participants who completed three years of follow up were involved in 225 state-recorded MVCs and 208 self-reported MVCs yielding overall substantial agreement between any self-report and state-recorded MVC (kappa=0.64). Cumulative number of self-reported and state-recorded MVCs was also compared, with agreement slightly reduced (kappa=0.55). The clinical characteristic resulting in the greatest variation in agreement with drivers was impaired contrast sensitivity showing better agreement between self-reported and state-recorded MVCs (kappa=0.9) than those with non-impaired contrast sensitivity (kappa=0.6). Conclusion Study results showed substantial agreement between self-reported and state-recorded MVCs for any MVC involvement among the study population. When examining the reporting of the total number of MVCs over the three year period, agreement was reduced to a moderate level. There was consistency in agreement across MVC risk factors except among individuals with contrast sensitivity. These findings have implications for the design and analytic planning of epidemiologic and clinical research focused on MVCs.

      PubDate: 2017-02-04T17:11:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.01.021
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
  • Development of a continuous motorcycle protection barrier system using
           computer simulation and full-scale crash testing
    • Authors: Ali O. Atahan; J. Marten Hiekmann; Jeffrey Himpe; Joseph Marra
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention
      Author(s): Ali O. Atahan, J. Marten Hiekmann, Jeffrey Himpe, Joseph Marra
      Road restraint systems are designed to minimize the undesirable effects of roadside accidents and improve safety of road users. These systems are utilized at either side or median section of roads to contain and redirect errant vehicles. Although restraint systems are mainly designed against car, truck and bus impacts there is an increasing pressure by the motorcycle industry to incorporate motorcycle protection systems into these systems. In this paper development details of a new and versatile motorcycle barrier, CMPS, coupled with an existing vehicle barrier is presented. CMPS is intended to safely contain and redirect motorcyclists during a collision event. First, crash performance of CMPS design is evaluated by means of a three dimensional computer simulation program LS-DYNA. Then full-scale crash tests are used to verify the acceptability of CMPS design. Crash tests were performed at CSI proving ground facility using a motorcycle dummy in accordance with prEN 1317-8 specification. Full-scale crash test results show that CMPS is able to successfully contain and redirect dummy with minimal injury risk on the dummy. Damage on the barrier is also minimal proving the robustness of the CMPS design. Based on the test findings and further review by the authorities the implementation of CMPS was recommended at highway system.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T18:01:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.04.005
  • On the effect of networks of cycle-tracks on the risk of cycling. The case
           of Seville
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 102
      Author(s): R. Marqués, V. Hernández-Herrador
      We analyze the evolution of the risk of cycling in Seville before and after the implementation of a network of segregated cycle tracks in the city. Specifically, we study the evolution of the risk for cyclists of being involved in a collision with a motor vehicle, using data reported by the traffic police along the period 2000–2013, i.e. seven years before and after the network was built. A sudden drop of such risk was observed after the implementation of the network of bikeways. We study, through a multilinear regression analysis, the evolution of the risk by means of explanatory variables representing changes in the built environment, specifically the length of the bikeways and a stepwise jump variable taking the values 0/1 before/after the network was implemented. We found that this last variable has a high value as explanatory variable, even higher than the length of the network, thus suggesting that networking the bikeways has a substantial effect on cycling safety by itself and beyond the mere increase in the length of the bikeways. We also analyze safety in numbers through a non-linear regression analysis. Our results fully agree qualitatively and quantitatively with the results previously reported by Jacobsen (2003), thus providing an independent confirmation of Jacobsen's results. Finally, the mutual causal relationships between the increase in safety, the increase in the number of cyclists and the presence of the network of bikeways are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-20T01:20:28Z
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