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Showing 1 - 200 of 3048 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 359, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 226, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 363, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 412, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)

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Journal Cover Accident Analysis & Prevention
  [SJR: 1.109]   [H-I: 94]   [86 followers]  Follow
   Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
   ISSN (Print) 0001-4575
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3051 journals]
  • Development of a lane change risk index using vehicle trajectory data
    • Authors: Hyunjin Park; Cheol Oh; Jaepil Moon; Seongho Kim
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Hyunjin Park, Cheol Oh, Jaepil Moon, Seongho Kim
      Surrogate safety measures (SSMs) have been widely used to evaluate crash potential, which is fundamental for the development of effective safety countermeasures. Unlike existing SSMs, which are mainly focused on the evaluation of longitudinal vehicle maneuvering leading to rear-end crashes, this study proposes a new method for estimating crash risk while a subject vehicle changes lanes, referred to as the lane change risk index (LCRI). A novel feature of the proposed methodology is its incorporation of the amount of exposure time to potential crash and the expected crash severity level by applying a fault tree analysis (FTA) to the evaluation framework. Vehicle interactions between a subject vehicle and adjacent vehicles in the starting lane and the target lane are evaluated in terms of crash potential during lane change. Vehicle trajectory data obtained from a traffic stream, photographed using a drone flown over a freeway segment, is used to investigate the applicability of the proposed methodology. This study compares the characteristics of compulsory and discretionary lane changes observed in a work zone section and a general section of a freeway using the LCRI. It is expected that the outcome of this study will be valuable in evaluating the effectiveness of various traffic operations and control strategies in terms of lane change safety.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.015
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Young drivers and their cars: Safe and sound or the perfect storm'
    • Authors: Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios; Bridie Scott-Parker
      Pages: 18 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Bridie Scott-Parker
      Consistent with the experiences in high-income countries, young drivers remain overrepresented in road trauma statistics in low- and middle-income countries. This article pursues the emerging interest of approaching the young driver problem from a systems thinking perspective in order to design and deliver robust countermeasures. Specifically, the focus of this paper is the cars driven by young drivers. The study of vehicles’ characteristics and their interaction with driving behaviour is, more often than not, considered a minor concern when developing countermeasures in young drivers’ safety not only in developed nations, but especially in developing nations. Participants completed an online survey containing the 44-item Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale Spanish version (BYNDS-Sp), in addition to providing information regarding their vehicle, any crash involvement, and driving offences. Based on the vehicle model information, the assessment of vehicle safety was conducted for three safety programs (ANCAP, Latin NCAP, U.S. NCAP). Young drivers in Colombia reported a breadth of risky driving behaviours worth targeting in broader interventions. For example, interventions can target speeding, particularly as three quarters of the participants drove small-medium cars associated with poorer road safety outcomes. Moreover, risky driving exposure was highly prevalent amongst the young driver participants, demonstrating the need for them to be driving the safest vehicles possible. It is noteworthy that few cars were able to be assessed by the Latin NCAP (with half of the cars rated having only 0–2 star ratings), and that there was considerable discrepancy between ANCAP, U.S. NCAP, and Latin NCAP ratings. The need for system-wide strategies to increase young driver road safety—such as improved vehicle safety—is vital to improve road safety outcomes in jurisdictions such as Colombia. Such improvements may also require systemic changes such as enhanced vehicle safety rating scales and investigation of the nature of vehicles sold in developing nations, particularly as these vehicles typically contain fewer safety features than their counterparts sold in developed nations.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • How safe is tuning a radio': using the radio tuning task as a
           benchmark for distracted driving
    • Authors: Ja Young Lee; John D. Lee; Jonas Bärgman; Joonbum Lee; Bryan Reimer
      Pages: 29 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Ja Young Lee, John D. Lee, Jonas Bärgman, Joonbum Lee, Bryan Reimer
      Drivers engage in non-driving tasks while driving, such as interactions entertainment systems. Studies have identified glance patterns related to such interactions, and manual radio tuning has been used as a reference task to set an upper bound on the acceptable demand of interactions. Consequently, some view the risk associated with radio tuning as defining the upper limit of glance measures associated with visual-manual in-vehicle activities. However, we have little knowledge about the actual degree of crash risk that radio tuning poses and, by extension, the risk of tasks that have similar glance patterns as the radio tuning task. In the current study, we use counterfactual simulation to take the glance patterns for manual radio tuning tasks from an on-road experiment and apply these patterns to lead-vehicle events observed in naturalistic driving studies. We then quantify how often the glance patterns from radio tuning are associated with rear-end crashes, compared to driving only situations. We used the pre-crash kinematics from 34 crash events from the SHRP2 naturalistic driving study to investigate the effect of radio tuning in crash-imminent situations, and we also investigated the effect of radio tuning on 2,475 routine braking events from the Safety Pilot project. The counterfactual simulation showed that off-road glances transform some near-crashes that could have been avoided into crashes, and glance patterns observed in on-road radio tuning experiment produced 2.85–5.00 times more crashes than baseline driving.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Virtual testing of speed reduction schemes on urban collector roads
    • Authors: Lorenzo Domenichini; Valentina Branzi; Monica Meocci
      Pages: 38 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Lorenzo Domenichini, Valentina Branzi, Monica Meocci
      Urban collector roads are complex driving environments often encompassing both the mobility and the access road functions. In these conditions motorized traffic and vulnerable road users compete continually. Speed reduction measures may play a relevant role in these contexts, provided that such measures are also designed in compliance with the driver’s capabilities and expectations. The paper describes a test procedure using driving simulation experiments, designed to evaluate the reconfiguration project of Via Pistoiese, an urban road collector located in Florence (Italy). The road improvement design consisted of several engineering treatments aimed to reduce and homogenize the driving speed, as well as to manage the co-existence of the different road users and mainly to protect pedestrians. The main focus of the research was to understand if the drivers’ behaviour was according to the design hypothesis before the safety treatments are implemented in the real world. Due to the multiple engineering treatments included in the reconfiguration project, the evaluation of the overall safety effectiveness of the project rather than the single treatment safety impact was the main concern of the research study. In addition, the study aimed to assess the usefulness of the considered testing method to understand how to integrate road design with drivers' performances, especially in heterogeneous traffic environments where drivers’ behaviour plays a decisive role in the success of the proposed design solutions. Fifty-eight participants drove through two immersive virtual environments, reproducing the existing configuration and the project reconfiguration, while data relating to different driving aspects were collected. Two analyses were performed. The first was focused on the analysis of the mean speed profiles and revealed that the considered engineering treatments are able to control the speeding behaviour without providing a too high discomfort to the drivers. The second analysis was finalized to evaluate the driver's behaviour approaching zebra crossing, evaluating the impact of countermeasures allowing the drivers to perceive in advance a critical situation (a pedestrian that suddenly crossed the street) and consequently to perform a smoother and safer manoeuvre. The experiments confirmed the validity of the considered engineering treatments, allowing expecting the improvement of the traffic safety in via Pistoiese, and support the usefulness of virtual reality experimentations to predict of the safety effectiveness of design solutions, taking into account the drivers’ behaviour.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.09.020
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Exploring road design factors influencing tram road safety – Melbourne
           tram driver focus groups
    • Authors: Farhana Naznin; Graham Currie; David Logan
      Pages: 52 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Farhana Naznin, Graham Currie, David Logan
      Melbourne, Australia has the largest tram/streetcar network in the world including the largest mixed traffic tram operating environment. Therefore, Melbourne tram drivers are responsible for controlling one of the heaviest vehicles on road ranging from shared tram lanes to exclusive tram lanes. In addition to different tram lane configurations, tram drivers need to follow different traffic signal phases at intersections including tram priority signals as well as need to serve passengers at various types of closely spaced tram stops. Despite all these challenges, no research has explored tram driver perceptions of the risk factors on different tram route road design configurations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate how tram drivers’ safety perceptions alter along various tram route sections, signal settings and stop configurations. A tram driver focus group approach was adopted for this research involving thirty tram drivers (4 female and 26 male drivers). The tram drivers’ age ranged from 29 to 63 years, with an average age of 47.6 years (standard deviation of 10.1 years), and their experience of tram driving ranged from 1.17 to 31 years, with an average experience of 12.5 years (standard deviation of 10.2 years). The participating tram drivers perceived that the raised tram tracks and tramways with raised yellow curbing beside tracks are safer lane priority features on the Melbourne tram network compared to full-time, part-time and mixed traffic tram lanes. They regarded ‘hook turns’ as a safe form of tram signal priority treatment at intersections and platform tram stops as the safest tram stop design for all passengers among all other tram stop designs in Melbourne. Findings of this research could enhance the understanding of crash risk factors for different tram route features and thus can offer effective planning strategies for transit agencies to improve tram road safety.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.017
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Graduated driver licensing and differential deterrence: The effect of
           license type on intentions to violate road rules
    • Authors: Brigitte Poirier; Etienne Blais; Camille Faubert
      Pages: 62 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Brigitte Poirier, Etienne Blais, Camille Faubert
      In keeping with the differential deterrence theory, this article assesses the moderating effect of license type on the relationship between social control and intention to violate road rules. More precisely, the article has two objectives: (1) to assess the effect of license type on intentions to infringe road rules; and (2) to pinpoint mechanisms of social control affecting intentions to violate road rules based on one’s type of driver license (a restricted license or a full license). This effect is examined among a sample of 392 young drivers in the province of Quebec, Canada. Drivers taking part in the Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) program have limited demerit points and there is zero tolerance for drinking-and-driving. Propensity score matching techniques were used to assess the effect of the license type on intentions to violate road rules and on various mechanisms of social control. Regression analyses were then conducted to estimate the moderating effect of license type. Average treatment effects from propensity score matching analyses indicate that respondents with a restricted license have lower levels of intention to infringe road rules. While moral commitment and, to a lesser extent, the perceived risk of arrest are both negatively associated with intentions to violate road rules, the license type moderates the relationship between delinquent peers and intentions to violate road rules. The effect of delinquent peers is reduced among respondents with a restricted driver license. Finally, a diminished capability to resist peer pressure could explain the increased crash risk in months following full licensing.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Effects of a penalty point system on traffic violations
    • Authors: Fridulv Sagberg; Rikke Ingebrigtsen
      Pages: 71 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Fridulv Sagberg, Rikke Ingebrigtsen
      We analysed data from the Norwegian driver’s licence penalty point register over a three-year period, in order to investigate whether the number of incurred penalty points in a given time period can predict the probability of incurring additional points in the subsequent period. Data for all category B drivers without penalty points at the start of the study period were included in the analyses. Norway’s penalty point system implies that speeding and various other traffic violations result in two or three penalty points for full-license drivers and four or six points for probationary-license drivers. Eight points within a three-year period results in a six-month disqualification. Two hypotheses were formulated: 1) A “driving style effect” implying that drivers with previous penalty points have a higher probability of incurring new points than drivers without previous points; and 2) a “deterrence effect” implying that drivers with more than four points have a reduced probability of incurring new points, due to impending risk of license revocation. Results showed an inverted U-shaped relationship between number of penalty points incurred during a one-year period and the number of additional penalty points incurred in the subsequent year, with the highest number for drivers with four previous points. Thus, both hypotheses were clearly supported, and it is concluded that the penalty point system has a significant deterring effect for drivers who are at high risk of losing their license at the next infraction.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Safe Driving Climate among Friends (SDCaF): A new scale
    • Authors: Noga Guggenheim; Orit Taubman – Ben-Ari
      Pages: 78 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Noga Guggenheim, Orit Taubman – Ben-Ari
      Reckless driving among young people, especially young men, is a major cause of injury and fatalities the world over. Like other aspects of this age group, young drivers’ driving behaviors and norms are influenced by the accepted social discourse of their peers. Yet despite extensive existing knowledge on young drivers, very few studies have dealt specifically with their characteristic friendship relations. This lacuna in the literature may reflect the absence of specific research tools for examining driving with friends. To fill this gap, we conducted a series of studies with 706 young drivers (aged 17–24) of both sexes aimed at developing and validating a multidimensional scale designed to examine the effect of the social relations of adolescents and young adults on their driving. Entitled Safe Driving Climate among Friends (SDCaF), the final scale consists of 19 items, which tap four dimensions of driving with friends: friends' pressure; social costs of driving with friends; communication with friends about driving; and shared commitment to safe driving. The validity of the scale was established by examining associations between its four dimensions and various variables of personality, friendship, and driving. The findings indicate good reliability and validity, with the three variables of resistance to peer influence, self-disclosure, and personal responsibility for safe driving yielding positive associations with the SDCaF dimensions communication and shared commitment to safe driving, and negative associations with the dimensions friends' pressure and social costs. General tendency to respond to social pressure was positively associated with the dimensions of friends' pressure and social costs, and negatively associated with shared commitment to safe driving. Gender differences were also found, with men scoring higher than women on friends’ pressure, and lower than women on shared commitment to safe driving. The SDCaF can serve as a research tool, as well as a diagnostic instrument for detecting susceptibility to reckless driving among young drivers, thereby aiding in the design of targeted educational and intervention programs.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.021
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • The impact of police presence on angry and aggressive driving
    • Authors: Predrag Stanojević; Mark J.M. Sullman; Dragan Jovanović; Dragana Stanojević
      Pages: 93 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Predrag Stanojević, Mark J.M. Sullman, Dragan Jovanović, Dragana Stanojević
      An extensive body of research has found that angry and aggressive driving are both significantly related to crash involvement. There has also been a large body of research investigating the situational factors related to angry and aggressive driving, but one interesting question that has not yet been answered is whether the enforcement of traffic laws causes or reduces angry and aggressive driving. The independent region of Northern Kosovo represents a unique opportunity to investigate the impact of a lack of traffic enforcement on driving behaviour. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate whether the presence of traffic enforcement has a significant impact on the level of driver anger and aggressive driving. Registered owners of motor vehicles in Northern Kosovo and Serbia were both sent a questionnaire which contained the 28-item Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) and the 21-item UK Driving Anger Scale (UKDAS). This found that anger was higher in two of the four driving anger factors (direct hostility and progress impeded) and two of the three DDDI factors (risky driving & aggressive driving). Furthermore, the present study found that the lack of police enforcement was a significant predictor of both aggressive and risky driving, even after the driving anger and demographic variables had been partialled out. Therefore, it appears that introducing or increasing traffic enforcement may be one method of reducing aggressive and risky driving behaviour.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Improving autocoding performance of rare categories in injury
           classification: Is more training data or filtering the solution'
    • Authors: Gaurav Nanda; Kirsten Vallmuur; Mark Lehto
      Pages: 115 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Gaurav Nanda, Kirsten Vallmuur, Mark Lehto
      Introduction: Classical Machine Learning (ML) models have been found to assign the external-cause-of-injury codes (E-codes) based on injury narratives with good overall accuracy but often struggle with rare categories, primarily due to lack of enough training cases and heavily skewed nature of injurdata. In this paper, we have: a) studied the effect of increasing the size of training data on the prediction performance of three classical ML models: Multinomial Naïve Bayes (MNB), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Logistic Regression (LR), and b) studied the effect of filtering based on prediction strength of LR model when the model is trained on very-small (10,000 cases) and very-large (450,000 cases) training sets. Method Data from Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit from years 2002–2012, which was categorized into 20 broad E-codes was used for this study. Eleven randomly chosen training sets of size ranging from 10,000 to 450,000 cases were used to train the ML models, and the prediction performance was analyzed on a prediction set of 50,150 cases. Filtering approach was tested on LR models trained on smallest and largest training datasets. Sensitivity was used as the performance measure for individual categories. Weighted average sensitivity (WAvg) and Unweighted average sensitivity (UAvg) were used as the measures of overall performance. Filtering approach was also tested for estimating category counts and was compared with approaches of summing prediction probabilities and counting direct predictions by ML model. Results The overall performance of all three ML models improved with increase in the size of training data. The overall sensitivities with maximum training size for LR and SVM models were similar (∼82%), and higher than MNB (76%). For all the ML models, the sensitivities of rare categories improved with increasing training data but they were considerably less than sensitivities of larger categories. With increasing training data size, LR and SVM exhibited diminishing improvement in UAvg whereas the improvement was relatively steady in case of MNB. Filtering based on prediction strength of LR model (and manual review of filtered cases) helped in improving the sensitivities of rare categories. A sizeable portion of cases still needed to be filtered even when the LR model was trained on very large training set. For estimating category counts, filtering approach provided best estimates for most E-codes and summing prediction probabilities approach provided better estimates for rare categories. Conclusions Increasing the size of training data alone cannot solve the problem of poor classification performance on rare categories by ML models. Filtering could be an effective strategy to improve classification performance of rare categories when large training data is not available.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.020
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Pedestrians’ perception and response towards vehicles during
           road-crossing at nighttime
    • Authors: Venkatesh Balasubramanian; Rahul Bhardwaj
      Pages: 128 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Rahul Bhardwaj
      Pedestrian being involved in road traffic accidents (RTA) is about 22% of all road traffic related deaths. In this study, we have estimated the pedestrian’s response towards an approaching vehicle and the time taken to correctly recognize it while they crossed the road in dim-light nighttime conditions. This is also extendable to cycles and other low powered vehicles. Thirty volunteers participated in this study. A collection of six videos, which comprised of different vehicle scenarios were shown to each of the participants. It was observed that correct identification and time to recognize the vehicle was fastest when light emitting diode (LED) strip was fixed between headlights of a four–wheeler. Average time to recognize a low beam car and a high beam car with an LED strip was 7.62±2.39s and 11.23±2.94s respectively, whereas correct identification rates of the said low beam and high beam cars with LED strips were 93.33% and 86.67% respectively. Earlier when no LED was used, time to recognize low beam car and high beam car without LED strip were 20.55±3.50s and 25.57±4.14s respectively whereas correct identification of low beam car without LED strip and high beam car without LED strip were 90.00% and 56.67% respectively. Pedestrians are therefore less confused and can take right decision while crossing the road – particularly in a poor lighting environment – when there is a demarcating illumination between headlights of vehicle.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.025
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • A vibrotactile wristband to help older pedestrians make safer
           street-crossing decisions
    • Authors: Stéphanie Cœugnet; Aurélie Dommes; Sabrina Panëels; Aline Chevalier; Fabrice Vienne; Nguyen-Thong Dang; Margarita Anastassova
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 109
      Author(s): Stéphanie Cœugnet, Aurélie Dommes, Sabrina Panëels, Aline Chevalier, Fabrice Vienne, Nguyen-Thong Dang, Margarita Anastassova
      Introduction Older pedestrians are overrepresented in fatal accidents. Studies consistently show gap-acceptance difficulties, especially in complex traffic situations such as two-way streets and when vehicles approached rapidly. In this context, the present research was aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a vibrotactile device and study older pedestrian’s behavior when wearing the wristband designed to help them make safer street-crossing decisions. Method Twenty younger-old participants (age 60–69), 20 older-old participants (age 70–80) and 17 younger adults (age 20–45) carried out a street-crossing task in a simulated two-way traffic environment with and without a vibrotactile wristband delivering warning messages. Results The percentage of decisions that led to collisions with approaching cars decreased significantly when participants wore the wristband. Benefits tended to be greater particularly among very old women, with fewer collisions in the far lane and when vehicles approached rapidly when they wore the wristband. But collisions did not fall to zero, and responses that were in accordance with the wristband advice went up to only 51.6% on average, for all participants. The wristband was nevertheless considered useful and easy to use by all participants. Moreover, behavioral intentions to buy and use such a device in the future were greater in both groups of older participants, but not among the younger adults. Practical applications This haptic device was able to partly compensate for some age-related gap-acceptance difficulties and reduce street-crossing risks for all users. These findings could be fruitfully applied to the design of devices allowing communication between vehicles, infrastructures, and pedestrians.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T15:54:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.09.024
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2017)
  • Exploring the safety in numbers effect for vulnerable road users on a
           macroscopic scale
    • Authors: Ivana Tasic; Rune Elvik; Simon Brewer
      Pages: 36 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 109
      Author(s): Ivana Tasic, Rune Elvik, Simon Brewer
      A “Safety in Numbers” effect for a certain group of road users is present if the number of crashes increases at a lower rate than the number of road users. The existence of this effect has been invoked to justify investments in multimodal transportation improvements in order to create more sustainable urban transportation systems by encouraging walking, biking, and transit ridership. The goal of this paper is to explore safety in numbers effect for cyclists and pedestrians in areas with different levels of access to multimodal infrastructure. Data from Chicago served to estimate the expected number of crashes on the census tract level by applying Generalized Additive Models (GAM) to capture spatial dependence in crash data. Measures of trip generation, multimodal infrastructure, network connectivity and completeness, and accessibility were used to model travel exposure in terms of activity, number of trips, trip length, travel opportunities, and conflicts. The results show that a safety in numbers effect exists on a macroscopic level for motor vehicles, pedestrians, and bicyclists.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T01:08:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.07.029
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2017)
  • Contributors to young drivers’ driving styles – A comparison between
           Israel and Queensland
    • Authors: Vera Skvirsky; Orit Taubman Ben-Ari; Timothy J. Greenbury; Carlo G. Prato
      Pages: 47 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 109
      Author(s): Vera Skvirsky, Orit Taubman Ben-Ari, Timothy J. Greenbury, Carlo G. Prato
      Among the numerous factors that contribute to young novice drivers’ driving styles, personality characteristics, sociodemographic variables, family atmosphere, and friends’ norms are known to have an important impact. However, cross-cultural comparisons are relatively rare in the safety literature concerning young drivers. This study aimed at comparing young drivers from Israel and Queensland (Australia) and examining the contribution of personality, sociodemographic, family and friends’ aspects to their driving styles (reckless and careless; hostile and angry; anxious; patient and careful). More specifically, this study examined the associations between young drivers’ driving style and their perceptions of separation-individuation, the family climate for road safety, and the safe driving climate among friends. We also examined sociodemographic and driving history variables such as gender, the marital status of parents, and personal exposure to traffic crashes. The study consisted of two samples of male and female young drivers (age 17–22) from Israel (n=160) and Queensland (n=160), who completed a set of valid and reliable self-report questionnaires. Findings indicate that in general, maladaptive driving styles are associated with lower family tendency to engage in promoting road safety, higher pressure and costs of driving with peers, and unhealthier separation-individuation aspects. The opposite is observed for the patient and careful driving style that relates to higher engagement of the family in road safety, lower pressure from friends, and healthier separation-individuation. Some differences were found regarding specific styles between the two samples. In addition, women scored lower than men in the reckless and careless style, and higher (in the Israeli sample) in the anxious as well as the patient and careful styles. Overall, similarities in the associations between the study variables in the samples exceed the differences, and the importance of examining variables on multi-levels when referring to young drivers’ driving styles, is confirmed. The findings attest to the universal utility of the MDSI, together with the understanding that only a wider examination of personal and environmental contributors enables true insights into the complex behavior of driving among young drivers.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T01:08:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.031
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2017)
  • Reducing the threat of wildlife-vehicle collisions during peak tourism
           periods using a Roadside Animal Detection System
    • Authors: Molly K. Grace; Daniel J. Smith; Reed F. Noss
      Pages: 55 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 109
      Author(s): Molly K. Grace, Daniel J. Smith, Reed F. Noss
      Roadside Animal Detection Systems (RADS) aim to reduce the frequency of wildlife-vehicle collisions. Unlike fencing and wildlife passages, RADS do not attempt to keep animals off the road; rather, they attempt to modify driver behavior by detecting animals near the road and warning drivers with flashing signs. A RADS was installed in Big Cypress National Park (Florida, USA) in 2012 in response to an increased number of Florida panther mortalities. To assess driver response, we measured the speed of individual cars on the road when the RADS was active (flashing) and inactive (not flashing) during the tourist season (November–March) and the off-season (April–October), which vary dramatically in traffic volume. We also used track beds and camera traps to assess whether roadside activity of large mammal species varied between seasons. In the tourist season, the activation of the RADS caused a significant reduction in vehicle speed. However, this effect was not observed in the off-season. Track and camera data showed that the tourist season coincided with peak periods of activity for several large mammals of conservation interest. Drivers in the tourist season generally drove faster than those in the off-season, so a reduction in speed in response to the RADS is more beneficial in the tourist season. Because traffic volume and roadside activity of several species of conservation interest both peak during the tourist season, our study indicates that the RADS has the potential to reduce the number of accidents during this period of heightened risk.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T01:08:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2017)
  • Monitoring driver fatigue using a single-channel electroencephalographic
           device: A validation study by gaze-based, driving performance, and
           subjective data
    • Authors: José M. Morales; Carolina Díaz-Piedra; Héctor Rieiro; Joaquín Roca-González; Samuel Romero; Andrés Catena; Luis J. Fuentes; Leandro L. Di Stasi
      Pages: 62 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 109
      Author(s): José M. Morales, Carolina Díaz-Piedra, Héctor Rieiro, Joaquín Roca-González, Samuel Romero, Andrés Catena, Luis J. Fuentes, Leandro L. Di Stasi
      Driver fatigue can impair performance as much as alcohol does. It is the most important road safety concern, causing thousands of accidents and fatalities every year. Thanks to technological developments, wearable, single-channel EEG devices are now getting considerable attention as fatigue monitors, as they could help drivers to assess their own levels of fatigue and, therefore, prevent the deterioration of performance. However, the few studies that have used single-channel EEG devices to investigate the physiological effects of driver fatigue have had inconsistent results, and the question of whether we can monitor driver fatigue reliably with these EEG devices remains open. Here, we assessed the validity of a single-channel EEG device (TGAM-based chip) to monitor changes in mental state (from alertness to fatigue). Fifteen drivers performed a 2-h simulated driving task while we recorded, simultaneously, their prefrontal brain activity and saccadic velocity. We used saccadic velocity as the reference index of fatigue. We also collected subjective ratings of alertness and fatigue, as well as driving performance. We found that the power spectra of the delta EEG band showed an inverted U-shaped quadratic trend (EEG power spectra increased for the first hour and half, and decreased during the last thirty minutes), while the power spectra of the beta band linearly increased as the driving session progressed. Coherently, saccadic velocity linearly decreased and speeding time increased, suggesting a clear effect of fatigue. Subjective data corroborated these conclusions. Overall, our results suggest that the TGAM-based chip EEG device is able to detect changes in mental state while performing a complex and dynamic everyday task as driving.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-21T22:01:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.09.025
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2017)
  • Hazard perception skills of young drivers with Attention Deficit
           Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be improved with computer based driver
           training: An exploratory randomised controlled trial
    • Authors: C.R. Bruce; C.A. Unsworth; M.P. Dillon; R. Tay; T. Falkmer; P. Bird; L.M. Carey
      Pages: 70 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 109
      Author(s): C.R. Bruce, C.A. Unsworth, M.P. Dillon, R. Tay, T. Falkmer, P. Bird, L.M. Carey
      Background Young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of road traffic injuries than their peers. Increased risk correlates with poor hazard perception skill. Few studies have investigated hazard perception training using computer technology with this group of drivers. Objectives *Determine the presence and magnitude of the between-group and within- subject change in hazard perception skills in young drivers with ADHD who receive Drive Smart training. *Determine whether training-facilitated change in hazard perception is maintained over time. Methods This was a feasibility study, randomised control trial conducted in Australia. The design included a delayed treatment for the control group. Twenty-five drivers with a diagnosis of ADHD were randomised to the Immediate Intervention or Delayed Intervention group.The Immediate Intervention group received a training session using a computer application entitled Drive Smart. The Delayed Intervention group watched a documentary video initially (control condition), followed by the Drive Smart computer training session. The participant’s hazard perception skill was measured using the Hazard Perception Test (HPT). Findings After adjusting for baseline scores, there was a significant betweengroup difference in post-intervention HPT change scores in favour of the Immediate Intervention group. The magnitude of the effect was large. There was no significant within-group delayed intervention effect. A significant maintenance effect was found at 6-week follow-up for the Immediate Intervention group. Conclusions The hazard perception skills of participants improved following training with large effect size and some maintenance of gain. A multimodal approach to training is indicated to facilitate maintenance. A full-scale trial is feasible.

      PubDate: 2017-10-21T22:01:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2017)
  • Aggression, emotional self-regulation, attentional bias, and cognitive
           inhibition predict risky driving behavior
    • Authors: Susan Raouf Hadadi Sani; Zahra Tabibi; Javad Salehi Fadardi; Despina Stavrinos
      Pages: 78 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 109
      Author(s): Susan Raouf Hadadi Sani, Zahra Tabibi, Javad Salehi Fadardi, Despina Stavrinos
      The present study explored whether aggression, emotional regulation, cognitive inhibition, and attentional bias towards emotional stimuli were related to risky driving behavior (driving errors, and driving violations). A total of 117 applicants for taxi driver positions (89% male, M age=36.59years, SD =9.39, age range 24–62years) participated in the study. Measures included the Ahwaz Aggression Inventory, the Difficulties in emotion regulation Questionnaire, the emotional Stroop task, the Go/No-go task, and the Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses showed that aggression and emotional regulation predicted risky driving behavior. Difficulties in emotion regulation, the obstinacy and revengeful component of aggression, attentional bias toward emotional stimuli, and cognitive inhibition predicted driving errors. Aggression was the only significant predictive factor for driving violations. In conclusion, aggression and difficulties in regulating emotions may exacerbate risky driving behaviors. Deficits in cognitive inhibition and attentional bias toward negative emotional stimuli can increase driving errors. Predisposition to aggression has strong effect on making one vulnerable to violation of traffic rules and crashes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-21T22:01:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.006
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2017)
  • When does alcohol hurt' A driving simulator study
    • Authors: Mark Vollrath; Josefine Fischer
      Pages: 89 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 109
      Author(s): Mark Vollrath, Josefine Fischer
      World-wide, alcohol is still a major cause of traffic accidents. The dose-related accident risk function has been found in a large number of risk studies. A plethora of laboratory studies has examined the effect of alcohol with regard to different information processing capabilities of drivers. Summarizing the results, alcohol effects occur at lower blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) the more complex the tasks get. However, in contrast, typical alcohol-related crashes are frequently single vehicle crashes but not so often crashes in complex situations like at intersections. It may be that the subjective assessment of the traffic situation and the adaptation of behavior under the influence of alcohol plays a major role in accident causation. In order to examine this hypothesis, two driving simulator studies were conducted at a target BAC of 0.5g/l comparing two (alcohol vs. placebo; n=48, Experiment 1) and three (sober, placebo and alcohol; n=63, Experiment 2) groups of subjects in two critical scenarios. The first scenario was a seemingly easy traffic situation and was supposed to lead to a relaxed driving behavior under alcohol. The second scenario involved a complex intersection situation where especially drivers under the influence of alcohol should try to concentrate and compensate their experienced alcohol effects. In all scenarios, a critical object appeared suddenly and the driver had to react fast in order to prevent a (simulated) accident. Overall, the results support the hypothesis. Accidents were more frequent for alcohol drivers as compared to placebo/sober drivers in the easy scenario, but not the complex one. The initial speed of the driver when entering the scenario seems to play a major role in the accident causation. Drivers under the influence of alcohol seem to lower their speed in complex scenarios, possibly to thus counteract alcohol effects. In seemingly easy scenarios this does not seem necessary for them and the arousing effect of alcohol may contribute to driving faster. The results are summarized in a model of alcohol-related crashes. Further in-depth analyses of real crashes would be an interesting next step to further corroborate this model.

      PubDate: 2017-10-21T22:01:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.09.021
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2017)
  • Gate-violation behavior at highway-rail grade crossings and the
           consequences: Using geo-Spatial modeling integrated with path analysis
    • Authors: Jun Liu; Asad J. Khattak
      Pages: 99 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 109
      Author(s): Jun Liu, Asad J. Khattak
      Drivers undertaking risky behaviors at highway-rail grade crossings are often severely injured in collisions with trains. Among these behaviors, gate-violation (referring to driving around or through the gates that were activated and lowered by an approaching train) seems to be one of the most dangerous actions a driver might take at a gated crossing; it may compromise the intended safety improvement made by adding gates at crossings. This study develops a nuanced conceptual framework that uses path analysis to explore the contributing factors to gate-violation behaviors and the correlation between gate-violation behaviors and the crash consequence − the driver injury severity. Further, using geo-spatial modeling techniques, this study explores whether the correlates of gate-violation behaviors and their associations with injury severity are stationary across diverse geographic contexts of the United States. Geo-spatial modeling shows that the correlates of gate-violation and its associations with injury severity vary substantially across the United States. Spatial variations in correlates of gate-violation and injury severity are mapped by estimating geographically weighted regressions; the maps can serve as an instrument for screening safety improvements and help identify regions that need safety improvements. For example, the results show that two-quadrant gates are more likely to have gate-violation crashes than four-quadrant gates in Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota. These states may need to receive more attentions on the enforcement of inhibiting gate-violation at crossings with two-quadrant gates or have the priority over other states to upgrade these crossings to four-quadrant gates if financially feasible.

      PubDate: 2017-10-21T22:01:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 109 (2017)
  • Meta-analysis of the effect of road work zones on crash occurrence
    • Authors: Athanasios Theofilatos; Apostolos Ziakopoulos; Eleonora Papadimitriou; George Yannis; Konstantinos Diamandouros
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Athanasios Theofilatos, Apostolos Ziakopoulos, Eleonora Papadimitriou, George Yannis, Konstantinos Diamandouros
      There is strong evidence that work zones pose increased risk of crashes and injuries. The two most common risk factors associated with increased crash frequencies are work zone duration and length. However, relevant research on the topic is relatively limited. For that reason, this paper presents formal meta-analyses of studies that have estimated the relationship between the number of crashes and work zone duration and length, in order to provide overall estimates of those effects on crash frequencies. All studies presented in this paper are crash prediction models with similar specifications. According to the meta-analyses and after correcting for publication bias when it was considered appropriate, the summary estimates of regression coefficients were found to be 0.1703 for duration and 0.862 for length. These effects were significant for length but not for duration. However, the overall estimate of duration was significant before correcting for publication bias. Separate meta-analyses on the studies examining both duration and length was also carried out in order to have rough estimates of the combined effects. The estimate of duration was found to be 0.953, while for length was 0.847. Similar to previous meta-analyses the effect of duration after correcting for publication bias is not significant, while the effect of length was significant at a 95% level. Meta-regression findings indicate that the main factors influencing the overall estimates of the beta coefficients are study year and region for duration and study year and model specification for length.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.07.024
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Coming back into the loop: Drivers’ perceptual-motor performance in
           critical events after automated driving
    • Authors: Tyron Louw; Gustav Markkula; Erwin Boer; Ruth Madigan; Oliver Carsten; Natasha Merat
      Pages: 9 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Tyron Louw, Gustav Markkula, Erwin Boer, Ruth Madigan, Oliver Carsten, Natasha Merat
      This driving simulator study, conducted as part of the EU AdaptIVe project, investigated drivers’ performance in critical traffic events, during the resumption of control from an automated driving system. Prior to the critical events, using a between-participant design, 75 drivers were exposed to various screen manipulations that varied the amount of available visual information from the road environment and automation state, which aimed to take them progressively further ‘out-of-the-loop’ (OoTL). The current paper presents an analysis of the timing, type, and rate of drivers’ collision avoidance response, also investigating how these were influenced by the criticality of the unfolding situation. Results showed that the amount of visual information available to drivers during automation impacted on how quickly they resumed manual control, with less information associated with slower take-over times, however, this did not influence the timing of when drivers began a collision avoidance manoeuvre. Instead, the observed behaviour is in line with recent accounts emphasising the role of scenario kinematics in the timing of driver avoidance response. When considering collision incidents in particular, avoidance manoeuvres were initiated when the situation criticality exceeded an Inverse Time To Collision value of ≈0.3s−1. Our results suggest that take-over time and timing and quality of avoidance response appear to be largely independent, and while long take-over time did not predict collision outcome, kinematically late initiation of avoidance did. Hence, system design should focus on achieving kinematically early avoidance initiation, rather than short take-over times.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Quantitative analysis of pedestrian safety at uncontrolled multi-lane
           mid-block crosswalks in China
    • Authors: Cunbao Zhang; Bin Zhou; Guojun Chen; Feng Chen
      Pages: 19 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Cunbao Zhang, Bin Zhou, Guojun Chen, Feng Chen
      A lot of pedestrian-vehicle crashes at mid-block crosswalks severely threaten pedestrian’s safety around the world. The situations are even worse in China due to low yielding rate of vehicles at crosswalks. In order to quantitatively analyze pedestrian’s safety at multi-lane mid-block crosswalks, the number of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts was utilized to evaluate pedestrian’s accident risk. Five mid-block crosswalks (Wuhan, China) were videoed to collect data of traffic situation and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts, and the quantity and spatial distribution of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts at multi-lane mid-block crosswalk were analyzed according to lane-based post-encroachment time(LPET). Statistical results indicate that conflicts are mainly concentrated in lane3 and lane6. Percentage of conflict of each lane numbered from 1 to 6 respectively are 4.1%, 13.1%, 19.8%, 8.4%, 19.0%, 28.1%. Conflict rate under different crossing strategies are also counted. Moreover, an order probit (OP) model of pedestrian-vehicle conflict analysis (PVCA) was built to find out the contributions corresponding to those factors (such as traffic volume, vehicle speed, pedestrian crossing behavior, pedestrian refuge, etc.) to pedestrian-vehicle conflicts. The results show that: pedestrian refuge have positive effects on pedestrian safety; on the other hand, high vehicle speed, high traffic volume, rolling gap crossing pattern, and larger pedestrian platoon have negative effects on pedestrian safety. Based on our field observation and PVCA model, the number of conflicts will rise by 2% while the traffic volume increases 200 pcu/h; similarly, if the vehicle speed increases 5km/h, the number of conflicts will rise by 12% accordingly. The research results could be used to evaluate pedestrian safety at multi-lane mid-block crosswalks, and useful to improve pedestrian safety by means of pedestrian safety education, pedestrian refuge setting, vehicle speed limiting, and so on.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.018
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Cannabis and crash responsibility while driving below the alcohol per se
           legal limit
    • Authors: Eduardo Romano; Robert B. Voas; Bayliss Camp
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Eduardo Romano, Robert B. Voas, Bayliss Camp
      There is a growing interest in how extensively the use of marijuana by drivers relates to crash involvement. While cognitive, lab-based studies are consistent in showing that the use of cannabis impairs driving tasks, epidemiological, field-based studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents. There is ample evidence that the presence of cannabis among drivers with a BAC≥0.08g/dL highly increases the likelihood of a motor vehicle crash. Less clear, however, is the contribution of cannabis to crash risk when drivers have consumed very little or no alcohol. This effort addresses this gap in knowledge. We took advantage of a unique database that merged fatal crashes in the California Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System (SWITRS) and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), which allows for a precise identification of crash responsibility. To account for recent increase in lab testing, we restricted our sample to cover only the years 1993–2009. A total of 4294 drivers were included in the analyses. Descriptive analyses and logistic regressions were run to model the contribution of alcohol and drugs to the likelihood of being responsible in a fatal crash. We found evidence that compared with drivers negative for alcohol and cannabis, the presence of cannabis elevates crash responsibility in fatal crashes among drivers at zero BACs (OR=1.89) and with 0<BAC<0.05g/dL (OR=3.42), suggesting that emphasis on curbing impaired driving should not be solely focused on heavy-drinking drivers. Data limitations however caution about the generalizability of study findings. Special efforts to understand the effect of cannabis on fatal crashes, in particular in the absence of alcohol, are needed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Analyzing driver-pedestrian interaction in a mixed-street environment
           using a driving simulator
    • Authors: Hassan Obeid; Hoseb Abkarian; Maya Abou-Zeid; Isam Kaysi
      Pages: 56 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Hassan Obeid, Hoseb Abkarian, Maya Abou-Zeid, Isam Kaysi
      This paper presents the design, analysis and results of a driving simulator experiment conducted to study the interaction between drivers and pedestrians in a mixed-street environment. Ninety-six students of the American University of Beirut (AUB) participated in the experiment that took place in the Transportation and Infrastructure Laboratory of AUB. The study looked at the driver-pedestrian interaction from the driver's perspective, by quantifying the effects of different scenario variables on the driving behavior of the participants. Kruskall-Wallis test shows that drivers’ behavior in proximity of pedestrians tends to be statistically significantly less aggressive when their approach velocity is lower, curb-side parking is not allowed, a crosswalk exists, and the number of pedestrians crossing the street is higher. A discrete choice model for the yielding behavior of the drivers was also developed as a function of different predictor variables. Five out of the six predictors considered (except for gender) had a statistically significant effect on the yielding behavior, particularly the effects of curb-side parking, number of pedestrians crossing, and approach velocity. The model was then used to evaluate the effect of policy variables on the yielding probabilities of the drivers. The results of this study enrich current knowledge and understanding of drivers’ behavior and their interaction with pedestrians, especially with studying the effects of scenario variables that were not addressed before; this would help planners propose and evaluate safety measures and traffic calming techniques to reduce the risks on pedestrians. The study also confirms the effectiveness of driving simulators in studying driver-pedestrian interactions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Driver braking behavior analysis to improve autonomous emergency braking
           systems in typical Chinese vehicle-bicycle conflicts
    • Authors: Jingliang Duan; Renjie Li; Lian Hou; Wenjun Wang; Guofa Li; Shengbo Eben Li; Bo Cheng; Hongbo Gao
      Pages: 74 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Jingliang Duan, Renjie Li, Lian Hou, Wenjun Wang, Guofa Li, Shengbo Eben Li, Bo Cheng, Hongbo Gao
      Bicycling is one of the fundamental modes of transportation especially in developing countries. Because of the lack of effective protection for bicyclists, vehicle-bicycle (V-B) accident has become a primary contributor to traffic fatalities. Although AEB (Autonomous Emergency Braking) systems have been developed to avoid or mitigate collisions, they need to be further adapted in various conflict situations. This paper analyzes the driver’s braking behavior in typical V-B conflicts of China to improve the performance of Bicyclist-AEB systems. Naturalistic driving data were collected, from which the top three scenarios of V-B accidents in China were extracted, including SCR (a bicycle crossing the road from right while a car is driving straight), SCL (a bicycle crossing the road from left while a car is driving straight) and SSR (a bicycle swerving in front of the car from right while a car is driving straight). For safety and data reliability, a driving simulator was employed to reconstruct these three scenarios and some 25 licensed drivers were recruited for braking behavior analysis. Results revealed that driver’s braking behavior was significantly influenced by V-B conflict types. Pre-decelerating behaviors were found in SCL and SSR conflicts, whereas in SCR the subjects were less vigilant. The brake reaction time and brake severity in lateral V-B conflicts (SCR and SCL) was shorter and higher than that in longitudinal conflicts (SSR). The findings improve their applications in the Bicyclist-AEB and test protocol enactment to enhance the performance of Bicyclist-AEB systems in mixed traffic situations especially for developing countries.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.022
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Associations between alcohol consumption patterns and attitudes towards
           alcohol interlocks
    • Authors: Caitlin A. Bishop; Sara Liu; Amanda N. Stephens; Michael Fitzharris
      Pages: 83 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Caitlin A. Bishop, Sara Liu, Amanda N. Stephens, Michael Fitzharris
      Background Drink-driving and alcohol-related crashes are a significant problem globally. Alcohol interlocks are used to prevent drivers with a blood alcohol concentration above a pre-determined level from starting their vehicle, making the technology highly effective in preventing drink-drive episodes. While alcohol interlocks are commonly used in drink-drive offender groups, their broader use as a preventative road safety strategy is considered increasingly feasible. In this context it is important to understand attitudes towards the technology, and to investigate whether these attitudes vary according to alcohol consumption patterns as this influences the acceptability of a broad-based preventative alcohol interlock program. Methods A representative sample of 2994 Australian drivers participated in an online cross-sectional survey. Participants reported their alcohol consumption, drink-drive behaviour and attitudes towards the use of alcohol interlocks for personal use and for drink-drive offenders. Results Half of the sample stated that alcohol interlocks would be of use personally. Seventy-four percent of high-risk drinkers (defined by an AUDIT score ≥20) stated they would find the technology personally useful when compared to 49% of low-risk drinkers (AUDIT ≤7). Overwhelmingly, more than 80% of participants agreed with the mandatory instalment of alcohol interlocks and compulsory clinical interventions for drink-drive offenders, with more low-risk drinkers supporting this than the high-risk drinkers. Conclusions While there were mixed opinions regarding the perceived personal usefulness of alcohol interlocks, higher-risk drinkers were most likely to perceive interlocks as being of use for themselves. This high-risk group however, was less likely to provide support for clinical interventions and additional re-licensing requirements aimed at eliciting changes in drinking behaviour. These findings have important implications for drink-drive offender relicensing and the likely success of drink-driver education, and interventions aimed at curbing risky alcohol consumption.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.021
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • On the use of naturalistic methods to examine safety-relevant behaviours
           amongst children and evaluate a cycling education program
    • Authors: J. Hatfield; M. Dozza; D.A. Patton; P. Maharaj; S. Boufous; T. Eveston
      Pages: 91 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): J. Hatfield, M. Dozza, D.A. Patton, P. Maharaj, S. Boufous, T. Eveston
      School-based cycling education programs aim to improve cycling safety and participation amongst children. Available research suggests that typical programs, which focus on bicycle manoeuvring skills, have limited effects on behaviour observed on a track or planned route. The current study uses theoretically more valid, naturalistic cycling data, to evaluate Safe Cycle, a program that incorporates hazard and self-awareness training. Soon after Safe Cycle was delivered at treatment schools, research bicycles instrumented with a rearward- and a forward-facing camera were loaned to six children from treatment schools and six children from (waitlist) control schools. In each group half the children were in Year 6, and half were in Year 7/8. Each child was instructed to ride the research bicycle instead of their own bicycle for the 1–2 weeks that they had a research bicycle. Video data were reduced using a purpose-designed coding scheme that identified whether participants performed specific safety-relevant behaviours in appropriate circumstances. While the participants controlled their bicycles well, gave way appropriately to traffic at intersections, and stopped at red lights, participants frequently removed one or both hands from the handlebars, and seldom signalled turns, conducted over-shoulder-checks when changing lanes, or looked in multiple directions at intersections (except when crossing a road). While aspects of design and small sample sizes limited evaluation findings, this research demonstrated the feasibility and potential of naturalistic data to support cycling education program evaluation. Further, the study substantially extended available naturalistic study of children’s cycling behaviour to highlight behaviours which might be targeted by cycling safety initiatives.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.025
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Safety analysis of urban arterials at the meso level
    • Authors: Jia Li; Xuesong Wang
      Pages: 100 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Jia Li, Xuesong Wang
      Urban arterials form the main structure of street networks. They typically have multiple lanes, high traffic volume, and high crash frequency. Classical crash prediction models investigate the relationship between arterial characteristics and traffic safety by treating road segments and intersections as isolated units. This micro-level analysis does not work when examining urban arterial crashes because signal spacing is typically short for urban arterials, and there are interactions between intersections and road segments that classical models do not accommodate. Signal spacing also has safety effects on both intersections and road segments that classical models cannot fully account for because they allocate crashes separately to intersections and road segments. In addition, classical models do not consider the impact on arterial safety of the immediately surrounding street network pattern. This study proposes a new modeling methodology that will offer an integrated treatment of intersections and road segments by combining signalized intersections and their adjacent road segments into a single unit based on road geometric design characteristics and operational conditions. These are called meso-level units because they offer an analytical approach between micro and macro. The safety effects of signal spacing and street network pattern were estimated for this study based on 118 meso-level units obtained from 21 urban arterials in Shanghai, and were examined using CAR (conditional auto regressive) models that corrected for spatial correlation among the units within individual arterials. Results showed shorter arterial signal spacing was associated with higher total and PDO (property damage only) crashes, while arterials with a greater number of parallel roads were associated with lower total, PDO, and injury crashes. The findings from this study can be used in the traffic safety planning, design, and management of urban arterials.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.023
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Hazard perception training in young bicyclists improves early detection of
           risk: A cluster-randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Linus H.R.H. Zeuwts; Pieter Vansteenkiste; Frederik J.A. Deconinck; Greet Cardon; Matthieu Lenoir
      Pages: 112 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Linus H.R.H. Zeuwts, Pieter Vansteenkiste, Frederik J.A. Deconinck, Greet Cardon, Matthieu Lenoir
      Introduction Since child bicyclists are more likely to get involved in a traffic crash, there is a stringent need to provide child bicyclists with tailored interventions in order to enhance their capabilities to deal with the complexity of traffic situations. The current study therefore aimed to test the effectiveness of a hazard anticipation training in young bicyclists by means of eye tracking technology. Methods A cluster-randomized controlled design was used in which participating schools were randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. At first, a baseline hazard anticipation test was carried out in the intervention group (78 children; 9.56±0.38years of age) and the control group (46 children; 9.58±0.41years of age). Child bicyclists who participated in the intervention followed the training that consisted of two classroom sessions. In each session children were presented with video clips from the perspective of a bicyclist encountering various (potentially) dangerous traffic situations. Following the intervention, a post-test directly after the training and a retention test three weeks later were completed. The control group received the intervention after the retention test. Results Trained child bicyclists were found to detect more hazards and reacted quicker compared to the control group that did not receive the training. However, the training did not result in improvements in anticipatory visual search behaviour. Conclusion Trained child bicyclists seemed to have developed a better processing regarding potential dangerous situations but were not able to ‘see’ the hazard sooner. The potential of a brief hazard anticipation training is discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T10:45:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.024
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Construction accident narrative classification: An evaluation of text
           mining techniques
    • Authors: Yang Miang Goh; C.U. Ubeynarayana
      Pages: 122 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Yang Miang Goh, C.U. Ubeynarayana
      Learning from past accidents is fundamental to accident prevention. Thus, accident and near miss reporting are encouraged by organizations and regulators. However, for organizations managing large safety databases, the time taken to accurately classify accident and near miss narratives will be very significant. This study aims to evaluate the utility of various text mining classification techniques in classifying 1000 publicly available construction accident narratives obtained from the US OSHA website. The study evaluated six machine learning algorithms, including support vector machine (SVM), linear regression (LR), random forest (RF), k-nearest neighbor (KNN), decision tree (DT) and Naive Bayes (NB), and found that SVM produced the best performance in classifying the test set of 251 cases. Further experimentation with tokenization of the processed text and non-linear SVM were also conducted. In addition, a grid search was conducted on the hyperparameters of the SVM models. It was found that the best performing classifiers were linear SVM with unigram tokenization and radial basis function (RBF) SVM with uni-gram tokenization. In view of its relative simplicity, the linear SVM is recommended. Across the 11 labels of accident causes or types, the precision of the linear SVM ranged from 0.5 to 1, recall ranged from 0.36 to 0.9 and F1 score was between 0.45 and 0.92. The reasons for misclassification were discussed and suggestions on ways to improve the performance were provided.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T10:45:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.026
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • The use of a driving simulator to determine how time pressures impact
           driver aggressiveness
    • Authors: Cole D. Fitzpatrick; Siby Samuel; Michael A. Knodler
      Pages: 131 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Cole D. Fitzpatrick, Siby Samuel, Michael A. Knodler
      Speeding greatly attributes to traffic safety with approximately a third of fatal crashes in the United States being speeding-related. Previous research has identified being late as a primary cause of speeding. In this driving simulator study, a virtual drive was constructed to evaluate how time pressures, or hurried driving, affected driver speed choice and driver behavior. In particular, acceleration profiles, gap acceptance, willingness to pass, and dilemma zone behavior were used, in addition to speed, as measures to evaluate whether being late increased risky and aggressive driving behaviors. Thirty-six drivers were recruited with an equal male/female split and a broad distribution of ages. Financial incentives and completion time goals calibrated from a control group were used to generate a Hurried and Very Hurried experimental group. As compared to the control group, Very Hurried drivers selected higher speeds, accelerated faster after red lights, accepted smaller gaps on left turns, were more likely to pass a slow vehicle, and were more likely to run a yellow light in a dilemma zone situation. These trends were statistically significant and were also evident with the Hurried group but a larger sample would be needed to show statistical significance. The findings from this study provide evidence that hurried drivers select higher speeds and exhibit riskier driving behaviors. These conclusive results have possible implications in areas such as transportation funding and commercial motor vehicle safety.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T10:45:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.017
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Evaluation of risk change-point for novice teenage drivers
    • Authors: Qing Li; Feng Guo; Sheila G. Klauer; Bruce G. Simons-Morton
      Pages: 139 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Qing Li, Feng Guo, Sheila G. Klauer, Bruce G. Simons-Morton
      The driving risk of novice teenagers is the highest during the initial period after licensure but decreases rapidly. This paper applies two recurrent-event change-point models to detect the time of change in driving risks. The models are based on a non-homogeneous Poisson process with piecewise constant intensity functions. We show that the maximum likelihood estimators of the change-points can only occur at the event times and they are consistent. A simulation study is conducted to demonstrate the model performance under different scenarios. The proposed models are applied to the Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study, which continuously recorded in situ driving behaviour of 42 novice teenage drivers for the first 18 months after licensure using sophisticated in-vehicle instrumentation. The results indicate that approximately half of the drivers have lower risk after 73.0h of independent driving after licensure while the risk for others increases. On the average the driving risk deceases after the change-point. The results provide critical information for safety education, safety countermeasure development, and Graduated Driver Licensing policy making.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T10:45:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Driving performance at lateral system limits during partially automated
    • Authors: Frederik Naujoks; Christian Purucker; Katharina Wiedemann; Alexandra Neukum; Stefan Wolter; Reid Steiger
      Pages: 147 - 162
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 108
      Author(s): Frederik Naujoks, Christian Purucker, Katharina Wiedemann, Alexandra Neukum, Stefan Wolter, Reid Steiger
      This study investigated driver performance during system limits of partially automated driving. Using a motion-based driving simulator, drivers encountered different situations in which a partially automated vehicle could no longer safely keep the lateral guidance. Drivers were distracted by a non-driving related task on a touch display or driving without an additional secondary task. While driving in partially automated mode drivers could either take their hands off the steering wheel for only a short period of time (10s, so-called ‘Hands-on’ variant) or for an extended period of time (120s, so-called ‘Hands-off’ variant). When the system limit was reached (e.g., when entering a work zone with temporary lines), the lateral vehicle control by the automation was suddenly discontinued and a take-over request was issued to the drivers. Regardless of the hands-off interval and the availability of a secondary task, all drivers managed the transition to manual driving safely. No lane exceedances were observed and the situations were rated as ‘harmless’ by the drivers. The lack of difference between the hands-off intervals can be partly attributed to the fact that most of the drivers kept contact to the steering wheel, even in the hands-off condition. Although all drivers were able to control the system limits, most of them could not explain why exactly the take-over request was issued. The average helpfulness of the take-over request was rated on an intermediate level. Consequently, providing drivers with information about the reason for a system limit can be recommended.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T10:45:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.027
      Issue No: Vol. 108 (2017)
  • Prediction of drowsiness events in night shift workers during morning
    • Authors: Yulan Liang; William J. Horrey; Mark E. Howard; Michael L. Lee; Clare Anderson; Michael S. Shreeve; Conor S. O’Brien; Charles A. Czeisler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention
      Author(s): Yulan Liang, William J. Horrey, Mark E. Howard, Michael L. Lee, Clare Anderson, Michael S. Shreeve, Conor S. O’Brien, Charles A. Czeisler
      The morning commute home is an especially vulnerable time for workers engaged in night shift work due to the heightened risk of experiencing drowsy driving. One strategy to manage this risk is to monitor the driver’s state in real time using an in vehicle monitoring system and to alert drivers when they are becoming sleepy. The primary objective of this study is to build and evaluate predictive models for drowsiness events occurring in morning drives using a variety of physiological and performance data gathered under a real driving scenario. We used data collected from 16 night shift workers who drove an instrumented vehicle for approximately two hours on a test track on two occasions: after a night shift and after a night of rest. Drowsiness was defined by two outcome events: performance degradation (Lane-Crossing models) and electroencephalogram (EEG) characterized sleep episodes (Microsleep Models). For each outcome, we assessed the accuracy of sets of predictors, including or not including a driver factor, eyelid measures, and driving performance measures. We also compared the predictions using different time intervals relative to the events (e.g., 1-min prior to the event through 10-min prior). By examining the Area Under the receiver operating characteristic Curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the predictive models, the results showed that the inclusion of an individual driver factor improved AUC and prediction accuracy for both outcomes. Eyelid measures improved the prediction for the Lane-Crossing models, but not for Microsleep models. Prediction performance was not changed by adding driving performance predictors or by increasing the time to the event for either outcome. The best models for both measures of drowsiness were those considering driver individual differences and eyelid measures, suggesting that these indicators should be strongly considered when predicting drowsiness events. The results of this paper can benefit the development of real-time drowsiness detection and help to manage drowsiness to avoid related motor-vehicle crashes and loss.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.004
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Magnus Hjälmdahl; Flavio Cunto; Maria Alice Prudêncio Jacques
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention
      Author(s): Magnus Hjälmdahl, Flavio Cunto, Maria Alice Prudêncio Jacques

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T05:43:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.024
  • Factors associated with self-reported inattentive driving at highway-rail
           grade crossings
    • Authors: Shanshan Zhao; Aemal Khattak
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 109
      Author(s): Shanshan Zhao, Aemal J. Khattak
      This research identified factors associated with inattentive driving at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings (HRGCs) by investigating drivers’ self-reported inattentive driving experiences and factors pertaining to their socioeconomic, personality, attitudinal, and other characteristics. A random selection of 2500 households in Nebraska received a survey questionnaire designed for licensed motor vehicle drivers; respondents returned 980 questionnaires. Factor analysis identified latent variables evaluating drivers’ patience and inclination to wait for trains, attitudes toward new technology, law enforcement or education regarding HRGC safety, and the propensity to commit serious traffic violations at HRGCs. The investigation utilized a structural equation model for analysis. This model indicated that drivers with a higher risk of inattentive driving at HRGCs were: female, younger in age, from households with higher incomes, with shorter tenure (in years) in their current city of residence, more frequently used HRGCs, received less information on safety at HRGCs, had less patience to wait for trains to pass and had less interest in safety improvement technology, law enforcement or safety education at HRGCs. These research findings provide useful information for future research and to policy makers for improving public safety. Additionally, the results are useful for safety educational program providers for targeted program delivery to drivers that are more vulnerable to distracted driving at HRGCs.

      PubDate: 2017-10-21T22:01:32Z
  • Use of prescription opioids and motor vehicle crashes: A meta analysis
    • Authors: Stanford Chihuri; Guohua
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 109
      Author(s): Stanford Chihuri, Guohua Li
      Objectives Opioid analgesics are a major driver of the ongoing opioid epidemic in the United Sates, accounting for about two thirds of drug overdose fatalities. There are conflicting reports regarding the effects of prescription opioids on driving safety. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the epidemiologic evidence for the association between use of prescription opioids and the risk of motor vehicle crashes. Methods Studies examining the association between driver prescription opioid use and motor vehicle crash involvement or crash culpability and published in English were identified through a comprehensive search of 15 bibliographic databases. Eligible articles were fully reviewed and summarized. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Overall summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated through random effects models. Results Overall, 15 studies were included in the meta-analysis; of them, 10 assessed the association of prescription opioid use with the risk of crash involvement and 5 assessed the association of prescription opioid use with the risk of crash culpability. Reported crude ORs associated with prescription opioid use ranged from 1.15 to 8.19 for the risk of crash involvement and from 0.75 to 2.78 for the risk of crash culpability. Summary ORs based on pooled data were 2.29 (95% CI: 1.51, 3.48) for crash risk and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.13) for crash culpability. Conclusions The existent epidemiologic evidence indicates that use of prescription opioids by drivers is associated with significantly increased risks of crash involvement and crash culpability. Further research is needed to understand the epidemiologic patterns of prescription opioid use in the driver population and the interaction effects between opioids and alcohol on driving safety.

      PubDate: 2017-10-21T22:01:32Z
  • Multilevel analysis of the role of human factors in regional disparities
           in crash outcomes
    • Authors: Emmanuel Kofi; Adanu Randy Smith Lars Powell Steven Jones
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 109
      Author(s): Emmanuel Kofi Adanu, Randy Smith, Lars Powell, Steven Jones
      A growing body of research has examined the disparities in road traffic safety among population groups and geographic regions. These studies reveal disparities in crash outcomes between people and regions with different socioeconomic characteristics. A critical aspect of the road traffic crash epidemic that has received limited attention is the influence of local characteristics on human elements that increase the risk of getting into a crash. This paper applies multilevel logistic regression modeling techniques to investigate the influence of driver residential factors on driver behaviors in an attempt to explain the area-based differences in the severity of road crashes across the State of Alabama. Specifically, the paper reports the effects of characteristics attributable to drivers and the geographic regions they reside on the likelihood of a crash resulting in serious injuries. Model estimation revealed that driver residence (postal code or region) accounted for about 7.3% of the variability in the probability of a driver getting into a serious injury crash, regardless of driver characteristics. The results also reveal disparities in serious injury crash rate as well as significant proportions of serious injury crashes involving no seatbelt usage, driving under influence (DUI), unemployed drivers, young drivers, distracted driving, and African American drivers among some regions. The average credit scores, average commute times, and populations of driver postal codes are shown to be significant predictors for risk of severe injury crashes. This approach to traffic crash analysis presented can serve as the foundation for evidence-based policies and also guide the implementation of targeted countermeasures.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T15:54:28Z
  • Driver compliance to take-over requests with different auditory outputs in
           conditional automation
    • Authors: Yannick Forster; Frederik Naujoks Alexandra Neukum Lynn Huestegge
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 109
      Author(s): Yannick Forster, Frederik Naujoks, Alexandra Neukum, Lynn Huestegge
      Conditionally automated driving (CAD) systems are expected to improve traffic safety. Whenever the CAD system exceeds its limit of operation, designers of the system need to ensure a safe and timely enough transition from automated to manual mode. An existing visual Human-Machine Interface (HMI) was supplemented by different auditory outputs. The present work compares the effects of different auditory outputs in form of (1) a generic warning tone and (2) additional semantic speech output on driver behavior for the announcement of an upcoming take-over request (TOR). We expect the information carried by means of speech output to lead to faster reactions and better subjective evaluations by the drivers compared to generic auditory output. To test this assumption, N=17 drivers completed two simulator drives, once with a generic warning tone (‘Generic’) and once with additional speech output (‘Speech+generic’), while they were working on a non-driving related task (NDRT; i.e., reading a magazine). Each drive incorporated one transition from automated to manual mode when yellow secondary lanes emerged. Different reaction time measures, relevant for the take-over process, were assessed. Furthermore, drivers evaluated the complete HMI regarding usefulness, ease of use and perceived visual workload just after experiencing the take-over. They gave comparative ratings on usability and acceptance at the end of the experiment. Results revealed that reaction times, reflecting information processing time (i.e., hands on the steering wheel, termination of NDRT), were shorter for ‘Speech+generic’ compared to ‘Generic’ while reaction time, reflecting allocation of attention (i.e., first glance ahead), did not show this difference. Subjective ratings were in favor of the system with additional speech output.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T15:54:28Z
  • Safety analysis of the new synchronized and milwaukee B interchanges in
           comparison to existing designs
    • Authors: Amirarsalan Mehrara; Molan Joseph Hummer
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 109
      Author(s): Amirarsalan Mehrara Molan, Joseph E. Hummer
      Interchanges have high crash rates and large impacts on traffic operations. The main objective of this research is to analyze the safety performance of two new interchanges, the synchronized interchange and the Milwaukee B interchange. The primary method of study was microscopic simulation modeling using the Surrogate Safety Assessment Model (SSAM) program to estimate the quantity and type of conflicting interactions in each interchange. A comprehensive series of simulation scenarios were considered to include different conditions of traffic volumes, traffic turning ratios, traffic distribution, and heavy vehicles percentages. Afterward, outcomes were analyzed with two-way Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs) to compare the mean values of conflicts. Based on the results, the diverging diamond interchange (DDI) and Milwaukee B were the safest designs regarding observed conflicting interactions in the simulation models; however, the DDI did not seem as reliable from the viewpoint of wrong way movements. The new synchronized interchange, the parclo B, and the Milwaukee A (an existing interchange in Milwaukee, WI) showed the same rate of conflicts. The synchronized interchange may be advantageous because it was estimated to reduce the severity of crashes due to fewer crossing conflicts, a lower speed of conflicts, and a higher time to collision. The conventional diamond was the most dangerous design based on our measures. The DDI and the synchronized interchange look like plausible substitutes for reconstructing an unsafe diamond interchange due to the similarities in their required space.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T15:54:28Z
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