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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3181 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3181 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 105, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 443, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 319, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 423, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 383, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 482, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 267, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 226, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Accident Analysis & Prevention
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.462
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 105  
 
  Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
ISSN (Print) 0001-4575
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3181 journals]
  • Exploring the modeling and site-ranking performance of Bayesian
           spatiotemporal crash frequency models with mixture components
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 135Author(s): Wen Cheng, Gurdiljot Singh Gill, Yongping Zhang, Tom Vo, Frank Wen, Yihua Li The current study introduces the flexible approach of mixture components to model the spatiotemporal interaction for ranking of hazardous sites and compares the model performance with the conventional methods. In case of predictive accuracy based on in-sample errors (posterior deviance), the Mixture-5 demonstrated superior performance in majority of the cases, indicating the advantage of mixture approach to accurately predict crash counts. LPML (log pseudo marginal likelihood) was also calculated as a cross-validation measure based on out-of-sample errors and this criterion also established the dominance of Mixture-5, further reinforcing the superiority of the mixture approach from different perspectives.The site ranking evaluation results demonstrated the advantages of adopting the mixture approach. In terms of total rank difference (TRD) results, there were several discrepancies between the two approaches, suggesting that two approaches designate unsafe sites differently. Another site ranking criterion, site consistency test (SCT), was employed to explore the difference in identification of unsafe sites based on two datasets: estimated crash count (traditional) and the spatial variability across time. The advantage of mixture models to act as a complimentary approach for site ranking was revealed by the spatial variability SCT results. The method consistency test (MCT) results also indicate the advantages of mixture models over the Base one. These findings suggested that mixture approach may prove helpful in the network screening step of safety management process to identify sites which may turn unsafe in the future and escape the detection from traditional methods.
       
  • Pedestrians distracted by their smartphone: Are in-ground flashing lights
           catching their attention' A laboratory study
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): Grégoire S. Larue, Christopher N. Watling, Alexander A. Black, Joanne M. Wood, Mahrokh Khakzar Pedestrian distraction is a growing road safety concern worldwide. While there are currently no studies linking distraction and pedestrian crash risk, distraction has been shown to increase risky behaviours in pedestrians, for example, through reducing visual scanning before traversing an intersection. Illuminated in-ground Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) embedded into pathways are an emerging solution to address the growing distraction problem associated with mobile use while walking. The current study sought to determine if such an intervention was effective in attracting the attention of distracted pedestrians. We conducted a controlled laboratory study (N = 24) to evaluate whether pedestrians detected the activation of flashing LEDs when distracted by a smartphone more accurately and efficiently when the lights were located on the floor compared to a control position on the wall. Eye gaze movements via an eye tracker and behavioural responses via response times assessed the detection of these flashing LEDs. Distracted participants were able to detect the activation of the floor and wall-mounted LEDs with accuracies above 90%. The visual and auditory distraction tasks increased reaction times by 143 and 124 ms, respectively. Even when distracted, performance improved with floor LEDs close to participants, with reaction time improvements by 43 and 159 ms for the LEDs 2 and 1 ms away from the participant respectively. The addition of floor LED lights resulted in a performance similar to the one observed for wall-mounted LEDs in the non-distracted condition. Moreover, participants did not necessarily need to fixate on the LEDs to detect their activation, thus were likely to have detected them using their peripheral vision. The findings suggest that LEDs embedded in pathways are likely to be effective at attracting the attention of distracted pedestrians. Further research needs to be conducted in the field to confirm these findings, and to evaluate the actual effects on behaviour under real-world conditions.
       
  • Spanish validation of the mindful organizing scale: A questionnaire for
           the assessment of collective mindfulness
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): Michelle Renecle, Inés Tomás, Francisco J. Gracia, José M. Peiró IntroductionMindful organizing (also known as collective mindfulness) is a team level construct that is said to underpin the principles of high-reliability organizations (HROs), as it has shown to lead to almost error-free performance. While mindful organizing research has proliferated in recent years, studies on how to measure mindful organizing are scarce. Vogus and Sutcliffe (2007) originally validated a nine-item “Mindful Organizing Scale” but few subsequent validation studies of this scale exist. The present study aimed to validate a Spanish version of the Mindful Organizing Scale.MethodThe sample included 47 teams (comprising of a total of 573 workers with an average team size of 12.19) from a Spanish nuclear power plant. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), reliability analysis, and an analysis of aggregation indices were carried out. A correlation analysis and CFA were used to further validate the scale in terms of its distinctiveness from, and relationship with, other team-related variables such as safety culture, team safety climate, and team learning. Finally, evidence of criterion-related validity was collected by testing the incremental validity of the mindful organizing scale in the association with various workplace safety outcomes (safety compliance and safety participation).ResultsThe results confirmed a unidimensional structure of the scale and indicated satisfactory internal consistency. Aggregation of the scores to the team level was justified while significant positive correlations between mindful organizing and other team-related variables (safety culture, team safety climate, team learning) were found. Moreover, mindful organizing showed distinctiveness from safety culture, team safety climate and team learning. Finally, incremental validity of the scale was supported, as it shows to be associated with safety compliance and safety participation above and beyond other related constructs.ConclusionsThe Spanish version of the Mindful Organizing Scale has shown to be a valid and reliable scale that can be used to measure mindful organizing.ContributionsThe validation of the unidimensional Spanish version of Vogus and Sutcliffe’s (2007) Mindful Organizing Scale provides researchers and practitioners with a reliable and valid tool to use in Spanish speaking organizations to measure mindful organizing, which has been shown to result in more reliable performance. Theoretically, this study offers four contributions. Firstly, it validates a scale that operationalizes the ‘mindful organizing’ construct in a traditional high-reliability organization (nuclear power plant) which has never been done before. Secondly, it offers evidence that a mindful organizing scale can be validated in a new cultural context and language (Spanish) to any of the previous studies done before it. Thirdly, it adds to our understanding of mindful organizing’s nomological network by distinguishing it from other team and safety-related variables. Lastly, it builds on current research showing sound psychometric properties of a one-dimensional, quantitative measure of mindful organizing.
       
  • A dual perspective on risk perception and its effect on safety behavior: A
           moderated mediation model of safety motivation, and supervisor’s and
           coworkers’ safety climate
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): Nini Xia, Qiuhao Xie, Xiaowen Hu, Xueqing Wang, Hao Meng Previous studies have acknowledged the impact of risk perception on safety behavior, but were largely controversial. This study aims to clarify this conflict and the mechanism through which risk perception can have an impact on safety behavior. From the perspective of the dual attribute of the job demand concept in job demands–resources theory, we posit that risk perception can be considered as a job hindrance or a job challenge depending on the context, thereby resulting in a negative or positive impact on safety behavior, respectively. The current research context is the construction industry and the hypotheses were tested using hierarchically nested data collected from 311 workers in 35 workgroups. Risk perception was demonstrated to be a job hindrance exerting a negative impact on safety behavior and safety motivation mediated this effect. In addition, two dimensions of group-level safety climate––supervisor’s and coworkers’––were expected to alleviate or even reverse the detrimental effects of hindrance risk perception on safety motivation and on safety behavior via motivation. A moderation model and a first-stage moderated mediation model were established, respectively, for testing the moderating roles of safety climate in the relationship between risk perception and safety motivation, and in the indirect relationship of risk perception with safety behavior via motivation. Surprisingly, contrary to the hypotheses, when supervisor’s safety climate changed from a low level to a high level, the impact of risk perception on safety motivation changed from positive to negative, and the negative effect of risk perception on safety behavior via safety motivation was not alleviated but worsened. As expected, for workers in a positive coworkers’ safety climate, the negative effect of risk perception on motivation and the indirect negative effect of risk perception on behavior were both reversed to the positive. This indicates that coworkers’ safety climate helped to change perceived risk from a job hindrance to a challenge. This research contributes to workplace risk perception and safety behavior research by theoretically viewing risk perception as a dual job hindrance–challenge concept and proposing two competing hypotheses concerning the impact of risk perception on safety behavior. The empirical investigation confirmed the hindrance attribute of risk perception in the construction context. It provides a theoretical framework and empirical evidence for future research to synthesize the conflict risk perception–safety behavior relationship. We also contribute to the literature by pointing out the potential negative role of certain supervisor safety activities such as paternalistic leadership in influencing employee safety.
       
  • Innovative countermeasures for red light running prevention at signalized
           intersections: A driving simulator study
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): Qinaat Hussain, Wael K.M. Alhajyaseen, Kris Brijs, Ali Pirdavani, Tom Brijs The change interval, which includes the yellow and all-red times, plays a crucial role in the safety and operation of signalized intersections. During this interval, drivers not only need to decide to stop or go but also have to interact with drivers both in front and behind, trying to avoid conflicting decisions. Red light running and inconsistent stopping behavior may increase the risk for angular and rear-end crashes. This study aims to investigate the effect of different innovative countermeasures on red light running prevention and safe stopping behavior at signalized intersections. Five different conditions were tested inviting sixty-seven volunteers with a valid driving license. The conditions include a default traffic signal setting (control condition), flashing green signal setting (F-green), red LED ground lights integrated with a traffic signal (R-LED), yellow interval countdown variable message sign (C-VMS), and red light running detection camera warning gantry (RW-gantry). Drivers in each condition were exposed to two different situations based on the distance from the stop line. In the first situation, drivers were located in the indecision zone while in the second situation they were located in the likely stopping zone. A series of logistic regression analyses and linear mixed models were conducted to investigate the overall safety effects of the different countermeasures. The probability of red light running (RLR) was significantly reduced for R-LED in both analyses (i.e. in the total sample, and in the sample of crossed vehicles). Moreover, a clearly inconsistent stopping behavior was observed for the flashing green condition. Furthermore, a unit increase in speed (kph) at the onset of yellow interval significantly increases the probability of RLR by 5.3 %.The study showed that R-LED was the most effective solution for improving red light running prevention and encouraging a consistent stopping behavior at the intersection. In conclusion, the R-LED and the RW-gantry treatments are recommended as effective tools to improve safety at signalized intersections.
       
  • Detecting motorcycle helmet use with deep learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): Felix Wilhelm Siebert, Hanhe Lin The continuous motorization of traffic has led to a sustained increase in the global number of road related fatalities and injuries. To counter this, governments are focusing on enforcing safe and law-abiding behavior in traffic. However, especially in developing countries where the motorcycle is the main form of transportation, there is a lack of comprehensive data on the safety-critical behavioral metric of motorcycle helmet use. This lack of data prohibits targeted enforcement and education campaigns which are crucial for injury prevention. Hence, we have developed an algorithm for the automated registration of motorcycle helmet usage from video data, using a deep learning approach. Based on 91,000 annotated frames of video data, collected at multiple observation sites in 7 cities across the country of Myanmar, we trained our algorithm to detect active motorcycles, the number and position of riders on the motorcycle, as well as their helmet use. An analysis of the algorithm's accuracy on an annotated test data set, and a comparison to available human-registered helmet use data reveals a high accuracy of our approach. Our algorithm registers motorcycle helmet use rates with an accuracy of −4.4% and +2.1% in comparison to a human observer, with minimal training for individual observation sites. Without observation site specific training, the accuracy of helmet use detection decreases slightly, depending on a number of factors. Our approach can be implemented in existing roadside traffic surveillance infrastructure and can facilitate targeted data-driven injury prevention campaigns with real-time speed. Implications of the proposed method, as well as measures that can further improve detection accuracy are discussed.
       
  • Assessing pedestrian safety across modalities via a simulated vehicle
           time-to-arrival task
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): Brian J. Pugliese, Benjamin K. Barton, Shane J. Davis, Gerardo Lopez Pedestrians must use a variety of visual and auditory cues when determining safe crossing opportunities. Although vision has received a bulk of the attention in research on pedestrian safety, the examination of both vision and audition are important to consider. Environmental, intrapersonal, and cognitive qualities of a pedestrian context may limit the use of one or both perceptual modalities. Across two experiments, we examined the impact of perceptual constraints on pedestrian safety by measuring the accuracy of vehicle time-to-arrival estimates in a virtual environment when vehicles were only visible, only audible, or both visible and audible. In both experiments, participants estimated the time-to-arrival of vehicles moving at one of two speeds (8-kph, 40-kph). In the second experiment, we introduced ambient traffic noises to examine the impact of environmentally relevant traffic noises on pedestrian perception. Results suggest seeing a vehicle is more advantageous than hearing a vehicle when interacting with traffic, especially in the presence of ambient sound. Both experiments resulted in more accurate time-to-arrival estimates in the visual and mixed conditions than in the auditory-only condition. Implications for pedestrian safety and future research are discussed.
       
  • Pedestrian safety at signalized intersections: Modelling spatial effects
           of exposure, geometry and signalization on a large urban network
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): Joshua Stipancic, Luis Miranda-Moreno, Jillian Strauss, Aurélie Labbe Intersections represent the most dangerous sites in the road network for pedestrians: not only is modal separation often impossible, but elements of geometry, traffic control, and built environment further exacerbate crash risk. Evaluating the safety impact of intersection features requires methods to quantify relationships between different factors and pedestrian injuries. The purpose of this paper is to model the effects of exposure, geometry, and signalization on pedestrian injuries at urban signalized intersections using a Full Bayes spatial Poisson Log-Normal model that accounts for unobserved heterogeneity and spatial correlation. Using the Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) technique, this work leverages a rich database of geometric and signalization variables for 1864 intersections in Montreal, Quebec. To collect exposure data, short-term pedestrian and vehicle counts were extrapolated to AADT using developed expansion factors. Results of the model confirmed the positive relationship between pedestrian and vehicle volumes and pedestrian injuries. Curb extensions, raised medians, and exclusive left turn lanes were all found to reduce pedestrian injuries, while the total number of lanes and the number of commercial entrances were found to increase them. Pedestrian priority phases reduced injuries while the green straight arrow increased injuries. Lastly, the posterior expected number of crashes was used to identify hotspots. The proposed ranking criteria identified many intersections close to the city centre where the expected number of crashes is highest and intersections along arterials with lower pedestrian volumes where individual pedestrian risk is elevated. Understanding the effects of intersection geometry and pedestrian signalization will aid in ensuring the safety of pedestrians at signalized intersections.
       
  • Are riders of electric two-wheelers safer than bicyclists in collisions
           with motor vehicles'
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): Yuan Huang, Qing Zhou, Caroline Koelper, Quan Li, Bingbing Nie Electric two-wheelers (E2Ws) have become newly popular transportation tools with the associated growing traffic safety concerns. E2W riders and bicyclists behave similarly as vulnerable road users (VRUs), while exhibited dissimilarities in riding postures and interactions with the two-wheelers. Existing epidemiology reveals prominent differences in injury risks between E2W riders and other vulnerable road users in collisions with motor vehicles. The objective of this study is to investigate the factors influencing kinematics and head injury risks of two-wheeler rides in two-wheeler-vehicle collisions and compare between E2W-vehicle and bicycle-vehicle collisions. Via multi-body modeling of two two-wheeler types, two vehicle types, and three rider statures in MADYMO, twelve collision scenarios were developed. A simulation matrix considering a range of impact velocities and relative positions was performed for each scenario. A subsequent parametric analysis was conducted with focus on the kinematics and head injury risks of two-wheeler riders. Results show that the head injury risk increased with vehicle moving velocity, while the two-wheeler velocity and relative location between rider and vehicle prior to the collision exhibited highly non-linear influence on the kinematical response. The rider with larger stature had higher possibilities to miss head impact on the vehicle. In collisions with the sedan, E2W riders would sustain lower head injury risks with lower contacting velocity on the windshield than bicyclists. While in collisions with the SUV, E2W riders would sustain increasing head injury risks due to the higher structural stiffness at contact, and the risk level was about the same as bicyclists. The findings revealed the loading mechanisms behind the different head injury risks between E2W riders and bicyclists.
       
  • Type 2 diabetes can undermine driving performance of middle-aged male
           drivers through its deterioration of perceptual and cognitive functions
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): Shu Ma, Jingyu Zhang, Xianzhong Zeng, Changxu Wu, Guozhen Zhao, Chunhui Lv, Xianghong Sun It has been widely agreed that it is risky for patients with diabetes to drive during hypoglycemia. However, driving during non-hypoglycemia may also bring certain safety hazards for some patients with diabetes. Based on previous studies on diabetes-related to early aging effect, as well as gender differences in health belief and driving behavior, we have hypothesized that middle-aged male drivers with type 2 diabetes, compared with the control healthy ones, may experience a decline in driving performance without awareness. And the decline is caused by impaired perceptual and cognitive driving-related functions. To verify these hypotheses, we recruited 56 non-professional male drivers aged between 40 and 60 (27 patients with type 2 diabetes and 29 healthy controls) to perform a simulated car-following task and finish behavioral tests of proprioception, visual search, and working memory abilities during non-hypoglycemia. They also reported their hypoglycemia experience and perceived driving skills. We found that the patients had equal confidence in their driving skills but worse driving performance as shown in larger centerline deviation (t = 2.83, p = .006), longer brake reaction time (t = 3.77, p = .001) and shorter minimum time-to-collision (t = -3.27, p = .002). Such between-group differences in driving performance could be fully mediated by proprioception, visual search ability, and working memory capacity but not by hypoglycemia experience. Regarding the effect sizes of the mediation, the visual search ability played the most important role, and then followed the working memory and the proprioception.This initial study provides original and first-hand evidence demonstrating that the middle-aged male drivers with type 2 diabetes have deteriorated driving performance, but they are unaware of it. We will also discuss the possible measures to identify people of the highest risk and improve their safety awareness by using the findings of the current study.
       
  • Different demographic and drinking profiles of motorcyclists and car
           drivers with the first-time offense of driving/riding under the influence
           of alcohol
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): Yen-Chun Kuo, Lian-Yu Chen, Hu-Ming Chang, Tien-Wei Yang, Ming-Chyi Huang, Wan-Ju Cheng BackgroundDriving/riding under the influence (DUI) of alcohol is a major public concern worldwide. Only a few studies have distinguished DUI-related variables between motorcyclists and car drivers. This study examined the differences in demographic characteristics and drinking behaviors among first-time DUI offenders operating different transportation vehicles, and risk factors for frequent DUI (fDUI) among them.MethodsWe conducted an anonymous survey for 561 first-time DUI offenders who attended a mandatory educational program. Participants self-administered questionnaires concerning alcohol drinking behaviors and DUI. We defined fDUI as at least two DUI behaviors per month based on self-reported information. Demographic and drinking characteristics were compared between DUI offenders, car drivers and motorcyclists. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine risk factors for fDUI.ResultsTwo-thirds of first-time DUI offenders were motorcyclists. Compared with car drivers, motorcyclists were younger and less educated, with a higher percentage of them being women and unmarried. Car drivers reported a higher rate of fDUI than motorcyclists (16.5% vs. 9.7%). Regression analysis revealed that binge drinkers had a higher fDUI risk in both groups. Regarding the drinking place prior to DUI behavior, workplace was significantly associated with fDUI in car drivers.ConclusionsDistinct strategies may be required for motorcyclists and car drivers for DUI recidivism prevention, and drinking place interventions should also be considered.
       
  • High-speed helmeted head impacts in motorcycling: A computational study
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): Shiyang Meng, Alessandro Cernicchi, Svein Kleiven, Peter Halldin The motorcyclist is exposed to the risk of falling and impacting ground head-first at a wide range of travelling speeds – from a speed limit of less than 50 km/h on the urban road to the race circuit where speed can reach well above 200 km/h. However, motorcycle helmets today are tested at a single and much lower impact speed, i.e. 30 km/h. There is a knowledge gap in understanding the dynamics and head impact responses at high travelling speeds due to the limitation of existing laboratory rigs.This study used a finite element head model coupled with a motorcycle helmet model to simulate head-first falls at travelling speed (or tangential velocity at impact) from 0 to 216 km/h. The effect of different falling heights (1.6 m and 0.25 m) and coefficient of frictions (0.20 and 0.45) between the helmet outer shell and ground were also examined. The simulation results were analysed together with the analytical model to better comprehend rolling and/or sliding phenomena that are often observed in helmet oblique impacts.Three types of helmet-to-ground interactions are found when the helmet impacts ground from low to high tangential velocities: (1) helmet rolling without slipping; (2) a combination of sliding and rolling; and (3) continuous sliding. The tangential impulse transmitted to the head-helmet system, peak angular head kinematics and brain strain increase almost linearly with the tangential velocity when the helmet rolls but plateaus when the helmet slides. The critical tangential velocity at which the motion transit from the rolling regime to the sliding regime depends on both the falling height and friction coefficient. Typically, for a fall height of 1.63 m and a friction coefficient of 0.45, the rolling/sliding transition occurs at a tangential velocity of 10.8 m/s (38.9 km/h).Low sliding resistance in helmet design, i.e. by the means of a lower friction coefficient between the helmet outer shell and ground, has shown a higher reduction of brain tissue strain in the sliding regime than in the rolling regime. This study uncovers the underlying dynamics of rolling and sliding phenomena in high-speed oblique impacts, which largely affect head impact biomechanics. Besides, the study highlights the importance of testing helmets at speeds covering both the rolling and sliding regime since potential designs for improved head protection at high-speed impacts can be more distinguishable in the sliding regime than in the rolling regime.
       
  • Evaluating pedestrian vehicle interaction dynamics at un-signalized
           intersections: A proactive approach for safety analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): Ankit Kathuria, Perumal Vedagiri The present research demonstrates the use of advanced trajectory based data to analyze road user interactions at an un-signalized intersection under heterogeneous traffic complexities. This study demonstrates an improvement over the conventional grid-based analysis to estimate surrogate safety measures (SSM). An advanced pattern-based approach to categorize pedestrian-vehicle interactions based on the road user behavior is proposed in the study. A concept of a two-interaction pattern has been applied, which deals with the responsive and non -responsive behavior of the road users, respectively. The behavior-based patterns were categorized based on the SSM like Speed, Time to Collision, and Gap Time profiles of the pedestrian and vehicle interacting on an un-signalized intersection. On conducting a variable importance test, i.e., k-fold test, it was comprehended that, for pattern-1, Time to collision (TTC), and for pattern-2 both TTC and Post Encroachment Time (PET) were showing required importance. Further, Import Vector Machine (IVM) approach was used to classify the severity levels based on selected indicators computed from 1486 events, occurring at three Un-Signalized intersections in India. The proposed severity levels will help to test and evaluate various infrastructure and control improvements for making urban intersections safe for road users. It was observed from the severity levels of both the patterns that, events involving non-evasive behavior can also result in critical interaction. Overall, the research provides an advanced framework for evaluating and improving the safety of the uncontrolled intersections.
       
  • A correlated random parameters tobit model to analyze the safety effects
           and temporal instability of factors affecting crash rates
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): Qinzhong Hou, Xiaoyan Huo, Junqiang Leng Numerous studies have previously used a variety of count-data models to investigate factors that affect the number of crashes over a certain period of time on roadway segments. Unlike past studies which deal with crash frequency, this study views the crash rates directly as a continuous variable left-censored at zero and explores the application of an alternate approach based on tobit regression. To thoroughly investigate the factors affecting freeway crash rates and the potentially temporal instability in the effects of crash factors involving traffic volume, freeway geometries and pavement conditions, a classic uncorrelated random parameters tobit (URPT) model and a correlated random parameters tobit (CRPT) model were estimated, along with a conventional fixed parameters tobit (FPT) model. The analysis revealed a large number of safety factors, including several appealing and interesting factors rarely studied in the past, such as the safety effects of climbing lanes and distance along composite descending grade. The results also showed that the CRPT model was not only able to reflect the heterogeneous effects of various factors, but also able to estimate the underlying interactions among unobserved characteristics, and therefore provide better statistical fit and offer more insights into factors contributing to freeway crashes than its model counterparts. Additionally, the results showed significant temporal instability in CRPT models across the studied time periods indicating that crash factors (including unobserved characteristics and the underlying interactions among them) and their effects on crash rates varied over time, and more attentions should be paid when interpreting crash data-analysis findings and making safety policies.The modeling technique in this study demonstrates the potential of CRPT model as an effective approach to gain new insights into safety factors, particularly when the heterogeneous effects of factors on safety are interactive. Additionally, findings from this study are also expected to assist in developing more effective countermeasures by better understanding the safety effects of factors associated with freeway design characteristics and pavement conditions.
       
  • The role of striking and struck vehicles in side crashes between vehicles:
           Bayesian bivariate probit analysis in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): Quan Yuan, Xuecai Xu, Mingchang Xu, Junwei Zhao, Yibing Li ObjectiveSide crashes between vehicles which usually lead to high casualties and property loss, rank first among total crashes in China. This paper aims to identify the factors associated with injury severity of side crashes at intersections and to provide suggestions for developing countermeasures to mitigate the levels of injuries.MethodIn order to investigate the role of striking and struck vehicles in side crashes simultaneously, bivariate probit model was proposed and Bayesian approach was employed to evaluate the model, compared to the corresponding univariate probit model.DataCrash data from Beijing, China for the period 2009–2012 were used to carry out the statistical analysis. Based on the investigation with vehicles and data analysis on events, 130 intersection side crash cases were selected to form a specific dataset. Then, the influence of human, vehicles, roadway and environmental variables on crash severity was examined by means of bivariate probit regression within Bayesian framework.ResultsThe effects of the factors on striking vehicle drivers and struck vehicle drivers were considered separately and simultaneously to find more targeted conclusions. The statistical analysis revealed vehicle type, lane number, no non-motorized lane and speeding have the corresponding influence on the injury severity of striking vehicles, while time of day and vehicle type of struck vehicles increased the likelihood of being injured.ConclusionsFrom the results it can be concluded that there indeed exists correlation between striking and struck vehicles in side crashes, although the correlation is not so strong. Importantly, Bayesian bivariate probit model can address the role of striking and struck vehicles in side crashes simultaneously and can accommodate the correlation clearly, which extends the range of univariate probit analysis. The general and empirical countermeasures are presented to improve the safety at intersections.
       
  • Road safety of passing maneuvers: A bivariate extreme value theory
           approach under non-stationary conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & PreventionAuthor(s): Joana Cavadas, Carlos Lima Azevedo, Haneen Farah, Ana Ferreira Observed accidents have been the main resource for road safety analysis over the past decades. Although such reliance seems quite straightforward, the rare nature of these events has made safety difficult to assess, especially for new and innovative traffic treatments. Surrogate measures of safety have allowed to step away from traditional safety performance functions and analyze safety performance without relying on accident records. In recent years, the use of extreme value theory (EV) models in combination with surrogate safety measures to estimate accident probabilities has gained popularity within the safety community.In this paper we extend existing efforts on EV for accident probability estimation for two dependent surrogate measures. Using detailed trajectory data from a driving simulator, we model the joint probability of head-on and rear-end collisions in passing maneuvers. We apply the Block Maxima method and estimate several extremal univariate and bivariate models, including the logistic copula. In our estimation we account for driver specific characteristics and road infrastructure variables. We show that accounting for these factors improve the head-on and rear-end collision probabilities estimation. This work highlights the importance of considering driver and road heterogeneity in evaluating related safety events, of relevance to interventions both for in-vehicle and infrastructure-based solutions. Such features are essential to keep up with the expectations from surrogate safety measures for the integrated analysis of accident phenomena, which show to significantly improve from the best known stationary extreme value models.
       
  • A review of spatial approaches in road safety
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & PreventionAuthor(s): Apostolos Ziakopoulos, George Yannis Spatial analyses of crashes have been adopted in road safety for decades in order to determine how crashes are affected by neighboring locations, how the influence of parameters varies spatially and which locations warrant interventions more urgently. The aim of the present research is to critically review the existing literature on different spatial approaches through which researchers handle the dimension of space in its various aspects in their studies and analyses. Specifically, the use of different areal unit levels in spatial road safety studies is investigated, different modelling approaches are discussed, and the corresponding study design characteristics are summarized in respective tables including traffic, road environment and area parameters and spatial aggregation approaches. Developments in famous issues in spatial analysis such as the boundary problem, the modifiable areal unit problem and spatial proximity structures are also discussed. Studies focusing on spatially analyzing vulnerable road users are reviewed as well. Regarding spatial models, the application, advantages and disadvantages of various functional/econometric approaches, Bayesian models and machine learning methods are discussed. Based on the reviewed studies, present challenges and future research directions are determined.
       
  • Visual search and target detection during simulated driving in
           Parkinson’s disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 134Author(s): M. Ranchet, J.C. Morgan, A.E. Akinwuntan, H. Devos Patients with Parkinson’s Disease (PD) often exhibit difficulties with visual search that may impede their ability to recognize landmarks and cars while driving. The main objective of this study was to investigate visual search performances of both billboards and cars in patients with PD using a driving simulator. A second objective was to examine the role of cognitive functions in performing the visual search task while driving. Nineteen patients with PD (age: 68 ± 8yo, sex (Men/Women): 15/4) and 14 controls (age: 60 ± 11yo, sex: 7/7) first performed a battery of cognitive tests. They then drove in a simulator and were instructed to follow a lead vehicle while searching for billboards with the letter A (stationary target) or red cars (moving target) among other distractors. Accuracy and response times of visual search were the main outcome variables. Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) was the secondary outcome. During driving, patients were less accurate in identifying the targets, particularly for the stationary billboards located in the outer periphery. Within the group of patients, significant correlations were found between several measures of cognitive tests and simulator-based visual search accuracy. By contrast, only the score on the MOCA test correlated significantly with visual search accuracy in controls. Findings suggest that patients with PD have impaired visual search for more eccentric stationary targets while driving a simulator, which is likely due to cognitive deficits. Difficulties identifying objects in the outer periphery may have implications for driving safety. Decreased functional field of view under increased cognitive load may have attributed to the difficulties identifying these landmarks. This may impact the ability to identify, anticipate, and respond to important information (e.g., pedestrians, navigation signs, landmarks), especially in complex driving situations (e.g. urban driving or intersections).Future studies should be conducted in a larger sample size to determine whether a visual search task on a driving simulator may predict on-road driving performances.
       
  • A Horvitz-type estimation on incomplete traffic accident data analyzed via
           a zero-inflated Poisson model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2019Source: Accident Analysis & PreventionAuthor(s): Martin T. Lukusa, Frederick Kin Hing Phoa To improve the road safety, policy makers relay on data analysis to enact new traffic policies. Accordingly, statistical modeling has been linked in various studies of road crash counts with excess zeros. On top of this excess zero problem, missing data are also likely to occur in the road traffic accident data. Unless the missing data are resulted randomly, the popular naive estimation may not provide reliable results for policy making. In contrast, the implementation of the Horvitz method, which inversely weights the observed data by a weight that are obtained parametrically or nonparametrically, results in reliable estimators. We received satisfactory results on the performance of our approach handling the missing data problems in both a Monte Carlo simulation and a real traffic accident data exploration.
       
  • Crash risk, crash exposure, and the built environment: A conceptual review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2019Source: Accident Analysis & PreventionAuthor(s): Louis A. Merlin, Erick Guerra, Eric Dumbaugh sThis paper reviews the literature on the relationship between the built environment and roadway safety, with a focus on studies that analyse small geographical units, such as census tracts or travel analysis zones. We review different types of built environment measures to analyse if there are consistent relationships between such measures and crash frequency, finding that for many built environment variables there are mixed or contradictory correlations. We turn to the treatment of exposure, because built environment measures are often used, either explicitly or implicitly, as measures of exposure. We find that because exposure is often not adequately controlled for, correlations between built environment features and crash rates could be due to either higher levels of exposure or higher rates of crash risk per unit of exposure. Then, we identify various built environment variables as either more related to exposure, more related to risk, or ambiguous, and recommend further targeted research on those variables whose relationship is currently ambiguous.
       
 
 
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