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Showing 1 - 200 of 3042 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 82, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 327, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 127, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 339, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 308, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 402, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Accident Analysis & Prevention
  [SJR: 1.109]   [H-I: 94]   [82 followers]  Follow
   Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
   ISSN (Print) 0001-4575
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Comparing recall vs. recognition measures of accident under-reporting: A
           two-country examination
    • Authors: Tahira M. Probst; Laura Petitta; Claudio Barbaranelli
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Tahira M. Probst, Laura Petitta, Claudio Barbaranelli
      A growing body of research suggests that national injury surveillance data significantly underestimate the true number of non-fatal occupational injuries due to employee under-reporting of workplace accidents. Given the importance of accurately measuring such under-reporting, the purpose of the current research was to examine the psychometric properties of two different techniques used to operationalize accident under-reporting, one using a free recall methodology and the other a recognition-based approach. Moreover, in order to assess the cross-cultural generalizability of these under-reporting measures, we replicated our psychometric analyses in the United States (N=440) and Italy (N=592). Across both countries, the results suggest that both measures exhibited similar patterns of relationships with known antecedents, including job insecurity, production pressure, safety compliance, and safety reporting attitudes. However, the recall measures had more severe violations of normality and were less correlated with self-report workplace injuries. Considerations, implications, and recommendations for using these different types of accident measures are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T06:22:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Mobile phone conversations, listening to music and quiet (electric) cars:
           Are traffic sounds important for safe cycling?
    • Authors: A. Stelling-Konczak; G.P. van Wee; J.J.F. Commandeur; M. Hagenzieker
      Pages: 10 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): A. Stelling-Konczak, G.P. van Wee, J.J.F. Commandeur, M. Hagenzieker
      Listening to music or talking on the phone while cycling as well as the growing number of quiet (electric) cars on the road can make the use of auditory cues challenging for cyclists. The present study examined to what extent and in which traffic situations traffic sounds are important for safe cycling. Furthermore, the study investigated the potential safety implications of limited auditory information caused by quiet (electric) cars and by cyclists listening to music or talking on the phone. An Internet survey among 2249 cyclists in three age groups (16–18, 30–40 and 65–70year old) was carried out to collect information on the following aspects: 1) the auditory perception of traffic sounds, including the sounds of quiet (electric) cars; 2) the possible compensatory behaviours of cyclists who listen to music or talk on their mobile phones; 3) the possible contribution of listening to music and talking on the phone to cycling crashes and incidents. Age differences with respect to those three aspects were analysed. Results show that listening to music and talking on the phone negatively affects perception of sounds crucial for safe cycling. However, taking into account the influence of confounding variables, no relationship was found between the frequency of listening to music or talking on the phone and the frequency of incidents among teenage cyclists. This may be due to cyclists’ compensating for the use of portable devices. Listening to music or talking on the phone whilst cycling may still pose a risk in the absence of compensatory behaviour or in a traffic environment with less extensive and less safe cycling infrastructure than the Dutch setting. With the increasing number of quiet (electric) cars on the road, cyclists in the future may also need to compensate for the limited auditory input of these cars.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T06:22:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.014
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Gender roles, sex and the expression of driving anger
    • Authors: M.J.M. Sullman; J. Paxion; A.N. Stephens
      Pages: 23 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): M.J.M. Sullman, J. Paxion, A.N. Stephens
      The present study investigated the validity of the 25-item Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) as well as the role of sex and gender-roles in relation to the expression of driving anger in a sample of 378 French drivers (males=38%, M =32.9years old). Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported the four-factor structure of the 25-item DAX (Adaptive/Constructive Expression; Use of the Vehicle to Express Anger; Verbal Aggressive Expression and Personal Physical Aggressive Expression) and two of the three aggressive factors were found to have significant positive relationships with driving anger, while adaptive/constructive expression was negatively related to driving anger. Use of the vehicle to express anger was not significantly related to crash involvement, but was significantly related to all other crash-related conditions (traffic tickets, loss of concentration, loss of control of the vehicle, near crash). The presence of feminine traits, but not sex, was predictive of adaptive/constructive behaviours, while masculine traits predicted more frequent verbal aggressive expression, use of the vehicle to express anger, personal physical aggressive expression and total aggressive expression. This finding may account for the inconsistent relationship found between driving anger and sex in previous research. This research also found that the 25-item DAX is a valid tool to measure the expression of driving anger and that the endorsement of masculine traits are related to more aggressive forms of driving anger expression.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T06:22:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.016
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • A meta-analysis of in-vehicle and nomadic voice-recognition system
           interaction and driving performance
    • Authors: Sarah M. Simmons; Jeff K. Caird; Piers Steel
      Pages: 31 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Sarah M. Simmons, Jeff K. Caird, Piers Steel
      Driver distraction is a growing and pervasive issue that requires multiple solutions. Voice-recognition (V-R) systems may decrease the visual-manual (V-M) demands of a wide range of in-vehicle system and smartphone interactions. However, the degree that V-R systems integrated into vehicles or available in mobile phone applications affect driver distraction is incompletely understood. A comprehensive meta-analysis of experimental studies was conducted to address this knowledge gap. To meet study inclusion criteria, drivers had to interact with a V-R system while driving and doing everyday V-R tasks such as dialing, initiating a call, texting, emailing, destination entry or music selection. Coded dependent variables included detection, reaction time, lateral position, speed and headway. Comparisons of V-R systems with baseline driving and/or a V-M condition were also coded. Of 817 identified citations, 43 studies involving 2000 drivers and 183 effect sizes (r) were analyzed in the meta-analysis. Compared to baseline, driving while interacting with a V-R system is associated with increases in reaction time and lane positioning, and decreases in detection. When V-M systems were compared to V-R systems, drivers had slightly better performance with the latter system on reaction time, lane positioning and headway. Although V-R systems have some driving performance advantages over V-M systems, they have a distraction cost relative to driving without any system at all. The pattern of results indicates that V-R systems impose moderate distraction costs on driving. In addition, drivers minimally engage in compensatory performance adjustments such as reducing speed and increasing headway while using V-R systems. Implications of the results for theory, design guidelines and future research are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T14:23:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.013
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Driving under the influence of drugs: Perceptions and attitudes of New
           Zealand drivers
    • Authors: Neha Malhotra; Nicola J. Starkey; Samuel G. Charlton
      Pages: 44 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Neha Malhotra, Nicola J. Starkey, Samuel G. Charlton
      This study explored the patterns of drug driving in New Zealand by investigating 1) drivers’ perceptions about impairment caused by legal and illegal drugs 2) countermeasures employed by drivers when under the influence of drugs (e.g., decisions not to drive) 3) drivers’ attitudes about police enforcement of drug driving and 4) the factors that predict the likelihood of engaging in drug driving. Participants (n =434) were licensed drivers who completed an online questionnaire. Results of the questionnaire indicated that drivers rated hallucinogens and opiates as being the illegal drugs producing the highest level of driving impairment and cannabis the lowest. For legal drugs, sedatives were rated as having the highest driving impairment and anti-nausea and anti-depressants the lowest. Respondents’ drug use history had an effect on their ratings of impairment for anti-anxiety drugs, anti-depressants, kava, sedatives, cannabis and hallucinogens such that drug users reported higher impairment ratings than Non-user. Making a decision not to drive after taking drugs was reported by users of alcohol (73.6%), cannabis (57.0%), strong painkillers (42.5%), and anti-depressants (10.0%). Respondents who reported drink driving were 3.26 times more likely to report drug driving than those reporting no drink driving. Respondents also showed greater acceptance towards driving under the influence of legal drugs (43.5%) compared to illegal drugs (10.3%). Those who did not have favourable attitudes about drug driving were less likely to report having driven under the influence of drugs. Drivers in this sample were less aware of the potential negative effects of legal drugs on driving compared to illegal drugs. More than half the respondents from this study acknowledged drug driving as a road safety issue which needs more resources dedicated to it.

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T14:23:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.011
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Impact of in-vehicle navigation information on lane-change behavior in
           urban expressway diverge segments
    • Authors: Meiping Yun; Jing Zhao; Jianzhen Zhao; Xuyan Weng; Xiaoguang Yang
      Pages: 53 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Meiping Yun, Jing Zhao, Jianzhen Zhao, Xuyan Weng, Xiaoguang Yang
      Lane-changing behaviors frequently occur at upstream of the urban expressway off-ramp, which possibly cause bottleneck or accident. This paper studies how in-vehicle navigation information impacts lane-changing behavior at this urban expressway diverge segments with comparison to the traditional road signs by conducting a series of driving simulator experiments, in consideration of variation of the first provision time point and traffic flow density. Firstly, the driving simulator is validated by comparing data of lane-changing position and merging gap from both field survey and simulator. Then comparison study was performed for twelve scenarios which comprise four information provision design schemes under three different traffic flow density status. Lane-changing characteristics are analyzed by selecting six indicators, which are lane-changing merging gap, lane-changing position, lane change delay, lane-changing steering angle, lane-changing deceleration, and the safe distance of lane-changing. The results show that the impact of in-vehicle navigation information on lane-changing behavior varies with traffic flow density and the time point of the first navigation information provided. The in-vehicle navigation information had significant positive impact on lane-changing safety under medium to high density condition. However, the effect is not significant under light density condition. Moreover, more improvement in operational safety and smooth could be gained when the in-vehicle navigation information is provided earlier within range of 2km upstream of the exit gore.

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T14:23:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.025
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Work zone sign design for increased driver compliance and worker safety
    • Authors: Md Mahmudur Rahman; Lesley Strawderman; Teena Garrison; Deborah Eakin; Carrick C. Williams
      Pages: 67 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Md Mahmudur Rahman, Lesley Strawderman, Teena Garrison, Deborah Eakin, Carrick C. Williams
      Many studies have investigated the effect of dynamic message signs (DMS) on drivers’ speed reduction and compliance in work zones, yet only a few studies have examined the design of sign content of DMS. The purpose of this study was to develop design standards for DMS to improve driver compliance and worker safety. This study investigated the impact of sign content, frame refresh rate, and sign placement on driver speed reduction, compliance, and eye movements. A total of 44 participants were recruited for this study. Each participant completed 12 simulated driving tasks in a high-fidelity driving simulator. A small-scale field study was also conducted to test the effect of DMS on vehicle speed in a highway work zone. Results showed sign content and placement had no impact on speed reduction and compliance. However, sign frame refresh rate was found to have a significant effect on drivers’ initial speed and speed reduction. Participants had longer fixation duration on DMS when worker presence was mentioned in the sign content. Results of the field study suggested that the DMS is most effective at night.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T06:04:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.023
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Self-monitoring of driving speed
    • Authors: Shelly Etzioni; Ido Erev; Robert Ishaq; Wafa Elias; Yoram Shiftan
      Pages: 76 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Shelly Etzioni, Ido Erev, Robert Ishaq, Wafa Elias, Yoram Shiftan
      In-vehicle data recorders (IVDR) have been found to facilitate safe driving and are highly valuable in accident analysis. Nevertheless, it is not easy to convince drivers to use them. Part of the difficulty is related to the “Big Brother” concern: installing IVDR impairs the drivers' privacy. The “Big Brother” concern can be mitigated by adding a turn-off switch to the IVDR. However, this addition comes at the expense of increasing speed variability between drivers, which is known to impair safety. The current experimental study examines the significance of this negative effect of a turn-off switch under two experimental settings representing different incentive structures: small and large fines for speeding. 199 students were asked to participate in a computerized speeding dilemma task, where they could control the speed of their “car” using “brake” and “speed” buttons, corresponding to automatic car foot pedals. The participants in two experimental conditions had IVDR installed in their “cars”, and were told that they could turn it off at any time. Driving with active IVDR implied some probability of “fines” for speeding, and the two experimental groups differed with respect to the fine’s magnitude, small or large. The results indicate that the option to use IVDR reduced speeding and speed variance. In addition, the results indicate that the reduction of speed variability was maximal in the small fine group. These results suggest that using IVDR with gentle fines and with a turn-off option maintains the positive effect of IVDR, addresses the “Big Brother” concern, and does not increase speed variance.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.024
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Comparison of US metropolitan region pedestrian and bicyclist fatality
    • Authors: J. Schneider; Jason Vargo; Aida Sanatizadeh
      Pages: 82 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): J. Schneider, Jason Vargo, Aida Sanatizadeh
      Annual US pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities involving motor vehicles have each increased by 30% in just six years, reaching their highest levels in two decades. To provide information to reverse this trend, we quantified pedestrian and bicyclist fatality rates in 46 of the largest US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) during two five-year time periods: 1999–2003 and 2007–2011. We divided the annual average number of pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities during 1999–2003 from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System by the annual estimates of pedestrian and bicycle trips, kilometers traveled, and minutes traveled from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and the annual average number of fatalities from 2007 to 2011 by similar estimates from the 2009 NHTS. The five most dangerous regions for walking during 2007–2011 averaged 262 pedestrian fatalities per billion trips while the five safest averaged 49 pedestrian fatalities per billion trips. The five most dangerous regions for bicycling averaged 458 bicyclist fatalities per billion trips while the five safest averaged 75 bicyclist fatalities per billion trips. Random-effects meta-analysis identified eight metropolitan regions as outliers with low pedestrian fatality rates, six with high pedestrian fatality rates, one with a low bicyclist fatality rate, and five with high bicyclist fatality rates. MSAs with low pedestrian and bicycle fatality rates tended to have central cities recognized as Walk Friendly Communities and Bicycle Friendly Communities for investing in pedestrian and bicycle projects and programs. Random-effects meta-regression showed that certain socioeconomic characteristics and high pedestrian and bicyclist mode shares were associated with lower MSA fatality rates. Results suggest that pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure and safety programs should be complemented with strategies to increase walking and bicycling. In particular, safety initiatives should be honed to reduce pedestrian and bicyclist fatality risk in immigrant communities and to make pedestrian travel safer for the growing senior-age population.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.04.018
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Angry thoughts in Spanish drivers and their relationship with
           crash-related events. The mediation effect of aggressive and risky driving
    • Authors: David Herrero-Fernández; Sara Fonseca-Baeza
      Pages: 99 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): David Herrero-Fernández, Sara Fonseca-Baeza
      Several studies have related aggressive and risky driving behaviours to accidents. However, the cognitive processes associated with driving aggression have received very little attention in the scientific literature. With the aim of shedding light on this topic, the present research was carried out on a sample of 414 participants in order to validate the Driver’s Angry Thoughts Questionnaire (DATQ) with a sample of Spanish drivers and to test the hypothesis of the mediation effect of aggressive and risky driving on the relationship between drivers’ angry thoughts and crash-related events. The results showed a good fit with the five-factor model of the questionnaire (Judgmental and Disbelieving Thinking, Pejorative Labelling and Verbally Aggressive Thinking, Revenge and Retaliatory Thinking, Physically Aggressive Thinking, and Coping Self-Instruction). Moreover, slight gender differences were observed in drivers’ angry thoughts, with women scoring higher than men (η2 =0.03). However, younger drivers had higher scores than older drivers in general (η2 =0.06). Finally, several mediation effects of aggressive driving and risky driving on the relationship between aggressive thinking and the crash-related events were found. Implications of the results for research in traffic psychology and clinical assessment of aggressive drivers as well as limitations of the study are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.015
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Does gender moderate the association between intellectual ability and
           accidental injuries? Evidence from the 1953 Stockholm Birth Cohort study
    • Authors: Carl Bonander; Carolina Jernbro
      Pages: 109 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Carl Bonander, Carolina Jernbro
      In this paper, we test for gender differences in the effects of intellectual ability on accidental injury risks using longitudinal data from the 1953 Stockholm Birth Cohort study (n=14,294). Intellectual ability was measured using IQ tests issued during a school survey at age ∼13, and outcome and covariate data was collected via record linkage to population and health registers, following the cohort from childhood to 55 years of age. We used ICD codes to identify accidental injuries resulting in hospital admissions and deaths, and shared frailty models to quantify the effects of IQ, while allowing for within-individual dependencies and recurrent events. The models included tests for the moderating effects of gender, as well as childhood family variables (parental socioeconomic status), and cohort member mediators (highest achieved education, socioeconomic status and income at the time of the event). The results indicate an inverse association between childhood IQ and subsequent accidental injury events, where 1 SD decrease in IQ implies a 17.8% increase in injury risk. We also found evidence that gender moderates this relationship, where the effect size was twice as large for men than for women (21.8% vs 9.3% per 1 SD decrease). Adult socioeconomic status can explain roughly half of the observed association. Potential explanations for these results are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Road traffic crash risk associated with prescription of hydroxyzine and
           other sedating H1-antihistamines: A responsibility and case-crossover
    • Authors: Ludivine Orriols; Audrey Luxcey; Benjamin Contrand; Anne Bénard-Laribière; Antoine Pariente; Blandine Gadegbeku; Emmanuel Lagarde
      Pages: 115 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Ludivine Orriols, Audrey Luxcey, Benjamin Contrand, Anne Bénard-Laribière, Antoine Pariente, Blandine Gadegbeku, Emmanuel Lagarde
      Background H1 antihistamines differ from each other by their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. The resulting sedating effect can be sought in therapy but may be a driving hazard. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of sedating H1-antihistamines on the risk of road traffic crash, with a particular focus on hydroxyzine which is also indicated as an anxiolytic in France. Methods The study consisted in extracting and matching data from three French nationwide databases: the national healthcare insurance database, police reports and the police national database of injurious crashes. All sedating H1-antihistamines, including hydroxyzine, were considered in the study. A case-control analysis, in which responsible drivers were cases and non-responsible were controls was performed. A case-crossover analysis, comparing for the same subject exposure during a period immediately before the crash with exposure during an earlier period, was also conducted. Results The extraction and matching procedures over the July 2005-December 2011 period led to the inclusion of 142,771 drivers involved in an injurious road traffic crash. The responsibility study found an increased risk of being responsible for an injurious road traffic crash in hydroxyzine users who were registered with a long-term chronic disease (mostly psychiatric disorders) on the day of the crash (OR=1.67 [1.22–2.30]). Among them, the risk was even higher in drivers with highest exposure levels (OR=2.60 [1.23–5.50]). There was no impact of sedating H1 antihistamine treatment initiation on the risk of crash. Conclusion Even if it is difficult to disentangle the part of the increased risk that would be causally related to hydroxyzine and the part related to behaviours of patients with a heavy psychiatric disorder, our study raises the alarm on the crash risk linked to hydroxyzine utilization in countries in which the anxiolytic indication is widespread.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.030
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Development of thoracic injury risk functions for the THOR ATD
    • Authors: Gerald S. Poplin; Timothy L. McMurry; Jason L. Forman; Joseph Ash; Daniel P. Parent; Matthew J. Craig; Eric Song; Richard Kent; Greg Shaw; Jeff Crandall
      Pages: 122 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Gerald S. Poplin, Timothy L. McMurry, Jason L. Forman, Joseph Ash, Daniel P. Parent, Matthew J. Craig, Eric Song, Richard Kent, Greg Shaw, Jeff Crandall
      The Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) aims to improve the ability to predict the risk of chest injury to restrained automobile occupants by measuring dynamic chest deflection at multiple locations. This research aimed to describe the methods for developing a thoracic injury risk function (IRF) using the multi-point chest deflection metrics from the 50th percentile male THOR Metric ATD with the SD-3 shoulder and associating to post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) outcomes that were matched on identical frontal and frontal-oblique impact sled testing conditions. Several deflection metrics were assessed as potential predictor variables for AIS 3+ injury risk, including a combined metric, called PC Score, which was generated from a principal component analysis. A parametric survival analysis (specifically, accelerated failure time (AFT) with Weibull distribution) was assessed in the development of the IRF. Model fit was assessed using various modeling diagnostics, including the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Models based on resultant deflection consistently exhibited improved fit compared to models based on x-axis deflection or chord deflection. Risk functions for the THOR PC Score and Cmax (maximum resultant deflection) were qualitatively equivalent, producing AUCs of 0.857 and 0.861, respectively. Adjusting for the potential confounding effects of age, AFT survival models with Cmax or PC Score as the primary deflection metric resulted in the THOR injury risk models with the best combination of biomechanical appropriateness, potential utility and model fit, and may be recommended as injury predictors.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Predictors of driving outcomes including both crash involvement and
           driving cessation in a prospective study of Japanese older drivers
    • Authors: Ritsu Kosuge; Kazuko Okamura; Makoto Kihira; Yukako Nakano; Goro Fujita
      Pages: 131 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Ritsu Kosuge, Kazuko Okamura, Makoto Kihira, Yukako Nakano, Goro Fujita
      The first aim of this study was to investigate predictors of future traffic crash involvement, taking into account bias in the handling of data for former drivers. The second aim was to compare characteristics of former drivers and crash-involved drivers in order to gain an understanding of appropriate driving cessation among older drivers. In all, 154 drivers aged 70 years or older participated in the baseline interview and the follow-up survey conducted two years later. In the baseline interview, participants were asked to respond to a questionnaire, take the Useful Field of View test® (UFOV), and complete the Mini-Mental State Examination. In the follow-up survey, participants were asked by mail or telephone whether they had stopped driving. Participants reporting that they still drove were invited to participate in a subsequent interview. Based on the information obtained in the follow-up survey, participants were classified as follows: driving cessation group (n =26); crash-involved group (n =18); and crash-free group (n =110). A multinomial logistic regression was then used to analyse the data. Contrary to the results of previous studies, we found older age to be associated with crash involvement but not with driving cessation. The cessation group had more decreased cognitive processing speed than the crash-involved and crash-free groups. Crash history was also predictive of crash involvement. Participants who were subject to license renewal between baseline and follow-up had a greater tendency to continue driving. Results suggested that age and crash history could potentially identify high-risk older drivers. The predictive power of cognitive processing speed is reduced under certain conditions. License-renewal procedures may induce Japanese older adults to continue driving. Future studies should use a large national sample to confirm the results of the present study.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.019
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Bicycle-vehicle interactions at mid-sections of mixed traffic streets:
           Examining passing distance and bicycle comfort perception
    • Authors: Peter Apasnore; Karim Ismail; Ali Kassim
      Pages: 141 - 148
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Peter Apasnore, Karim Ismail, Ali Kassim
      This paper studies the relevant factors in mixed urban traffic that may impact the lateral spacing between bicycles and vehicles (passing distance, PD), and their resulting effect on a bicyclists’ comfort based on a study of six sites in Ottawa, Canada. The observations are: [i] the average position of bicycles from the curb is 0.57m, and lesser (i.e. 0.35m) in the presence of parking; [ii] 90% of passes exceed 1.23m; [iii] PD is positively correlated with motor vehicle speed, lane width, and bicycle position from adjacent curb edge line, whiles inversely correlated to ambient traffic density and bicycle speed; [iv] motor vehicle speed has the highest prediction of PD variability; [v] PD and ambient traffic density (ATD) are found to be the most important factors to a bicyclists’ comfort perception (BCP). Two linear regression models for PD and BCP were developed and significant variables are identified as: motor vehicle speed, bicycle speed, ATD, number of lanes, and lane width. The presence or absence of a grade slope is found to be significant to the PD model and not to BCP. The models both exhibit limited predictive ability, however residual plots and significance of included variables are indicative of correct assumptions for the models. It is recommended that speed calming, sharrows, road signs instructing road sharing, and educating road users against “dooring” crashes be considered in improving road sharing, especially for narrow lanes (i.e. less than 3.6m) and lanes wider than 4.5m. It is also prudent for designers to avoid installing parking zones on narrow shared roads.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Another look at the safety effects of horizontal curvature on rural
           two-lane highways
    • Authors: Taha Saleem; Bhagwant Persaud
      Pages: 149 - 159
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Taha Saleem, Bhagwant Persaud
      Crash Modification Factors (CMFs) are used to represent the effects on crashes of changes to highway design elements and are usually obtained from observational studies based on reported crashes. The design element of interest for this paper is horizontal curvature on rural 2-lane highways. The data for this study came from the Washington State database in the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS). Crash prediction models are developed for curve sections on rural 2-lane highway and the tangent sections up- and down-stream of the curve sections. Different negative binomial models were developed for segments on level grades (<3%), moderate grades (3–6%), and steep grades (>6%) to account for the confounding effects of gradient. The relationships between crashes at different traffic volumes and deflection angles are explored to illustrate how to get estimates of CMFs for increases in the minimum radius, considering the effect of increased tangent length for sharper curves, an effect that is overlooked in the Highway Safety Manual CMF, in addition to the effect of gradient. The results of that exploration indicated that even at different design speeds and deflection angles, the CMF estimates for incremental increases in radius lie within the same range, and that the crash reduction rate (CRR) is higher at segments on higher grades compared to the ones on lower grades.

      PubDate: 2017-06-15T09:48:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Canadian drivers’ attitudes regarding preventative responses to driving
           while impaired by alcohol
    • Authors: Ward Vanlaar; Louise Nadeau; Anna McKiernan; Marisela M. Hing; Marie Claude Ouimet; Thomas G. Brown
      Pages: 160 - 165
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Ward Vanlaar, Louise Nadeau, Anna McKiernan, Marisela M. Hing, Marie Claude Ouimet, Thomas G. Brown
      Background In many jurisdictions, a risk assessment following a first driving while impaired (DWI) offence is used to guide administrative decision making regarding driver relicensing. Decision error in this process has important consequences for public security on one hand, and the social and economic well being of drivers on the other. Decision theory posits that consideration of the costs and benefits of decision error is needed, and in the public health context, this should include community attitudes. The objective of the present study was to clarify whether Canadians prefer decision error that: i) better protects the public (i.e., false positives); or ii) better protects the offender (i.e., false negatives). Methods A random sample of male and female adult drivers (N=1213) from the five most populated regions of Canada was surveyed on drivers’ preference for a protection of the public approach versus a protection of DWI drivers approach in resolving assessment decision error, and the relative value (i.e., value ratio) they imparted to both approaches. The role of region, sex and age on drivers’ value ratio were also appraised. Results Seventy percent of Canadian drivers preferred a protection of the public from DWI approach, with the overall relative ratio given to this preference, compared to the alternative protection of the driver approach, being 3:1. Females expressed a significantly higher value ratio (M=3.4, SD=3.5) than males (M=3.0, SD=3.4), p<0.05. Regression analysis showed that both days of alcohol use in the past 30days (CI for B: −0.07, −0.02) and frequency of driving over legal BAC limits in the past year (CI for B=−0.19, −0.01) were significantly but modestly related to lower value ratios, R2(adj.)=0.014, p<0.001. Regional differences were also detected. Conclusions Canadian drivers strongly favour a protection of the public approach to dealing with uncertainty in assessment, even at the risk of false positives. Accounting for community attitudes concerning DWI prevention and the individual differences that influence them could contribute to more informed, coherent and effective regional policies and prevention program development.

      PubDate: 2017-06-15T09:48:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.012
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Occupant thorax response variations due to arm position and restraint
           systems in side impact crash scenarios
    • Authors: Donata Gierczycka; Duane S. Cronin
      Pages: 173 - 180
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Donata Gierczycka, Duane S. Cronin
      Recent epidemiological studies have identified that thoracic side airbags may vary in efficacy to reduce injury severity in side impact crash scenarios, while previous experimental and epidemiological studies have presented contrasting results. This study aimed to quantify the variations in occupant response in side impact conditions using a human body computational model integrated with a full vehicle model. The model was analyzed for a Moving Deformable Barrier side impact at 61km/h to assess two pre-crash arm positions, the incorporation of a seatbelt, and a thorax air bag on thorax response. The occupant response was evaluated using chest compression, the viscous criterion and thoracic spinal curvature. The arm position accounted for largest changes in the thorax response (106%) compared to the presence of the airbag and seatbelt systems (75%). It was also noted that the results were dependant on the method and location of thorax response measurement and this should be investigated further. Assessment using lateral displacement of the thoracic spine correlated positively with chest compression and Viscous Criterion, with the benefit of evaluating whole thorax response and provides a useful metric to compare occupant response for different side impact safety systems. The thoracic side airbag was found to increase the chest compression for the driving arm position (+70%), and reduced the injury metrics for the vertical arm position (−17%). This study demonstrated the importance of occupant arm position on variability in thoracic response, and provides insight for future design and optimization of side impact safety systems.

      PubDate: 2017-06-15T09:48:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.017
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Evaluating the Safety In Numbers effect for pedestrians at urban
    • Authors: Brendan Murphy; David M. Levinson; Andrew Owen
      Pages: 181 - 190
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Brendan Murphy, David M. Levinson, Andrew Owen
      Assessment of collision risk between pedestrians and automobiles offers a powerful and informative tool in urban planning applications, and can be leveraged to inform proper placement of improvements and treatment projects to improve pedestrian safety. Such assessment can be performed using existing datasets of crashes, pedestrian counts, and automobile traffic flows to identify intersections or corridors characterized by elevated collision risks to pedestrians. The Safety In Numbers phenomenon, which refers to the observable effect that pedestrian safety is positively correlated with increased pedestrian traffic in a given area (i.e. that the individual per-pedestrian risk of a collision decreases with additional pedestrians), is a readily observed phenomenon that has been studied previously, though its directional causality is not yet known. A sample of 488 intersections in Minneapolis were analyzed, and statistically-significant log-linear relationships between pedestrian traffic flows and the per-pedestrian crash risk were found, indicating the Safety In Numbers effect. Potential planning applications of this analysis framework towards improving pedestrian safety in urban environments are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T09:59:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Evaluating pedestrian behavior at crosswalks: Validation of a pedestrian
           behavior questionnaire for the U.S. population
    • Authors: Shuchisnigdha Deb; Lesley Strawderman; Janice DuBien; Brian Smith; Daniel W. Carruth; Teena M. Garrison
      Pages: 191 - 201
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Shuchisnigdha Deb, Lesley Strawderman, Janice DuBien, Brian Smith, Daniel W. Carruth, Teena M. Garrison
      The aim of this study was to develop and validate a self-reporting Pedestrian Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ) for the U.S. population to measure frequency of risky behaviors among pedestrians. The PBQ includes 50 survey items that allow respondents to rate the frequency with which they engage in different types of road-using behaviors as pedestrians. The validation study was conducted on 425 participants (228 males and 197 females) between the ages of 18 and 71. Confirmatory factor analysis differentiated pedestrian behaviors into five factor categories: violations, errors, lapses, aggressive behaviors, and positive behaviors. A short version of the PBQ with 20 items was also created by selecting four items with high factor loadings from each of the five factor categories. Regression analyses investigated associations with scenario-based survey behavioral responses to validate the five-factor PBQ subscale scores and composite score. For both long and short versions, each of these five individual factor scales were found to be reliable (0.7<Cronbach’s alpha (α)<0.9) and valid (significant association with p< 0.0001), except in the case of positive behaviors (α<0.6) which requires further expansion. The effects of gender and age on the PBQ scores were investigated and found to be consistent with previous research. This PBQ can serve as an instrument of pedestrian self-assessment in educational and training contexts as well as can be useful to all researchers investigating pedestrian safety for all age groups.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T09:59:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.020
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Injunctive safety norms, young worker risk-taking behaviors, and workplace
    • Authors: Simon Pek; Nick Turner; Sean Tucker; E. Kevin Kelloway; Jayne Morrish
      Pages: 202 - 210
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Simon Pek, Nick Turner, Sean Tucker, E. Kevin Kelloway, Jayne Morrish
      Injunctive safety norms (ISNs) refer to perceptions of others’ expectations of one’s safety-related conduct. Drawing on a sample of Canadian young workers (n =11,986; M age=17.90years; 55% males), we study the relationships among four sources of non-work-related (i.e., parents, siblings, friends, teachers), two sources of work-related (i.e., supervisors, co-workers) ISNs, young workers’ self-reported work-related risk-taking behaviors, and workplace injuries. Structural equation modeling suggests that ISNs from parents, supervisors, and co-workers were related to less frequent work-related risk-taking behaviors, and with fewer workplace injuries via less frequent work-related risk-taking behaviors. In addition, ISNs from supervisors were directly associated with fewer workplace injuries. In contrast, ISNs from teachers and siblings were not associated with work-related risk-taking behaviors, but ISNs from siblings were associated with fewer work injuries. Finally, ISNs from friends were associated with more frequent work-related risk-taking and more frequent work injuries via more frequent work-related risk-taking. This study draws attention to the relative roles of non-work sources of social influence and provides some evidence of how ISNs might be related to young workers’ work-related risk-taking behaviors and their workplace injuries. It also contributes to practice by suggesting specific interventions that parents, supervisors, and co-workers could undertake to reduce young workers’ work-related risk-taking and workplace injuries, namely encouraging youth to be safe at work.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T09:59:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.06.007
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Take-over performance in evasive manoeuvres
    • Authors: Riender Happee; Christian Gold; Jonas Radlmayr; Sebastian Hergeth; Klaus Bengler
      Pages: 211 - 222
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Riender Happee, Christian Gold, Jonas Radlmayr, Sebastian Hergeth, Klaus Bengler
      We investigated after effects of automation in take-over scenarios in a high-end moving-base driving simulator. Drivers performed evasive manoeuvres encountering a blocked lane in highway driving. We compared the performance of drivers 1) during manual driving, 2) after automated driving with eyes on the road while performing the cognitively demanding n-back task, and 3) after automated driving with eyes off the road performing the visually demanding SuRT task. Both minimum time to collision (TTC) and minimum clearance towards the obstacle disclosed a substantial number of near miss events and are regarded as valuable surrogate safety metrics in evasive manoeuvres. TTC proved highly sensitive to the applied definition of colliding paths, and we prefer robust solutions using lane position while disregarding heading. The extended time to collision (ETTC) which takes into account acceleration was close to the more robust conventional TTC. In line with other publications, the initial steering or braking intervention was delayed after using automation compared to manual driving. This resulted in lower TTC values and stronger steering and braking actions. Using automation, effects of cognitive distraction were similar to visual distraction for the intervention time with effects on the surrogate safety metric TTC being larger with visual distraction. However the precision of the evasive manoeuvres was hardly affected with a similar clearance towards the obstacle, similar overshoots and similar excursions to the hard shoulder. Further research is needed to validate and complement the current simulator based results with human behaviour in real world driving conditions. Experiments with real vehicles can disclose possible systematic differences in behaviour, and naturalistic data can serve to validate surrogate safety measures like TTC and obstacle clearance in evasive manoeuvres.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T09:59:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.04.017
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Geographically weighted negative binomial regression applied to zonal
           level safety performance models
    • Authors: Marcos José Timbó Lima Gomes; Flávio Cunto; Alan Ricardo da Silva
      Pages: 254 - 261
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Marcos José Timbó Lima Gomes, Flávio Cunto, Alan Ricardo Silva
      Generalized Linear Models (GLM) with negative binomial distribution for errors, have been widely used to estimate safety at the level of transportation planning. The limited ability of this technique to take spatial effects into account can be overcome through the use of local models from spatial regression techniques, such as Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR). Although GWPR is a system that deals with spatial dependency and heterogeneity and has already been used in some road safety studies at the planning level, it fails to account for the possible overdispersion that can be found in the observations on road-traffic crashes. Two approaches were adopted for the Geographically Weighted Negative Binomial Regression (GWNBR) model to allow discrete data to be modeled in a non-stationary form and to take note of the overdispersion of the data: the first examines the constant overdispersion for all the traffic zones and the second includes the variable for each spatial unit. This research conducts a comparative analysis between non-spatial global crash prediction models and spatial local GWPR and GWNBR at the level of traffic zones in Fortaleza/Brazil. A geographic database of 126 traffic zones was compiled from the available data on exposure, network characteristics, socioeconomic factors and land use. The models were calibrated by using the frequency of injury crashes as a dependent variable and the results showed that GWPR and GWNBR achieved a better performance than GLM for the average residuals and likelihood as well as reducing the spatial autocorrelation of the residuals, and the GWNBR model was more able to capture the spatial heterogeneity of the crash frequency.

      PubDate: 2017-06-28T10:06:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.06.011
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • The effects of drinking and driving laws on car crashes, injuries, and
           deaths: Evidence from Chile
    • Authors: Sebastián Otero; Tomás Rau
      Pages: 262 - 274
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Sebastián Otero, Tomás Rau
      This paper analyzes the effects of lowering the legal blood alcohol content limit for drivers from 0.05 to 0.03 grams of alcohol per deciliter of blood (g/dL) and increasing license suspension periods for offenders. We take advantage of a rich data set of administrative records that allow us to identify direct measures of accidents involving alcohol including fatalities and injuries. Results show a significant decrease of 32% in alcohol-related car accidents right after the law was approved but the effects moderate over time (15% after three years). There is also a significant reduction in injuries (31% right after the approval and 11% after three years) but no statistically significant effects on deaths. Complementary analysis of blood samples shows that the law had an effect on blood alcohol content (BAC) of male drivers up to the 90th percentile of the BAC distribution.

      PubDate: 2017-06-28T10:06:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.031
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Naturalistic assessment of the learner license period
    • Authors: J.P. Ehsani; S.G. Klauer; C. Zhu; P. Gershon; T.A. Dingus; B.G. Simons-Morton
      Pages: 275 - 284
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): J.P. Ehsani, S.G. Klauer, C. Zhu, P. Gershon, T.A. Dingus, B.G. Simons-Morton
      The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics and progression of practice driving during the learner license period in a sample of teenagers. During the first and last 10h of practice driving, we examined (1) the amount, variety and complexity of conditions of practice; (2) the nature of parental instruction; and (3) errors that teens made while driving. Data were collected from 90 teens and 131 parents living in Virginia, USA, using in-vehicle cameras, audio recorders, GPS and trip recorders. Based on data collected from the instrumented vehicles, teens practiced for 46.6h on average, slightly higher than the GDL requirement for their jurisdiction, though half did not complete the required 45h of practice and only 17% completed the required 15h of night time driving. Exposure to diverse roadways increased over the practice driving period, which averaged 10.6 months. Most driving instruction occurred in reaction to specific driving situations, such as navigating and identifying hazards, and could be characterized as co-driving. Higher order instruction, which relates to the tactics or strategies for safe driving, was less frequent, but remained stable through the practice driving period. Instruction of all forms was more likely following an elevated gravitational force (g-force) event. Errors decreased over time, suggesting improvements in manual and judgment skills, but engagement in potentially distracting secondary tasks increased (when an adult was in the vehicle). A small percentage of trips occurred with no passenger in the front seat, and the g-force rate during these trips was almost 5 times higher than trips with an adult front-seat passenger. Taken collectively, these findings indicate (1) most teens got at least the required amount of supervised practice, but some did not; (2) instruction was mainly reactive and included some higher order instruction; (3) teens driving skills improved despite increased exposure to complex driving conditions, but secondary tasks also increased. Opportunities remained for improving the quality and variability in supervision and enhancing the development of skills during the lengthy period of practice.

      PubDate: 2017-06-28T10:06:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.06.014
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Exploring the mechanisms of vehicle front-end shape on pedestrian head
           injuries caused by ground impact
    • Authors: Sha Yin; Jiani Li; Jun Xu
      Pages: 285 - 296
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Sha Yin, Jiani Li, Jun Xu
      In pedestrian–vehicle accidents, pedestrians typically suffer from secondary impact with the ground after the primary contact with vehicles. However, information about the fundamental mechanism of pedestrian head injury from ground impact remains minimal, thereby hindering further improvement in pedestrian safety. This study addresses this issue by using multi-body modeling and computation to investigate the influence of vehicle front-end shape on pedestrian safety. Accordingly, a simulation matrix is constructed to vary bonnet leading-edge height, bonnet length, bonnet angle, and windshield angle. Subsequently, a set of 315 pedestrian–vehicle crash simulations are conducted using the multi-body simulation software MADYMO. Three vehicle velocities, i.e., 20, 30, and 40km/h, are set as the scenarios. Results show that the top governing factor is bonnet leading-edge height. The posture and head injury at the instant of head ground impact vary dramatically with increasing height because of the significant rise of the body bending point and the movement of the collision point. The bonnet angle is the second dominant factor that affects head–ground injury, followed by bonnet length and windshield angle. The results may elucidate one of the critical barriers to understanding head injury caused by ground impact and provide a solid theoretical guideline for considering pedestrian safety in vehicle design.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-28T10:06:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Examining how different measurement approaches impact safety outcomes in
           child pedestrian research: Implications for research and prevention
    • Authors: Michael R. Corbett; Barbara A. Morrongiello
      Pages: 297 - 304
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Michael R. Corbett, Barbara A. Morrongiello
      There has been a great deal of research aimed at understanding the causes of child pedestrian injury. Many different methods have been employed with the goal of designing simulations that produce rigorous assessment of children’s behaviors without putting children at risk of actual pedestrian injury. Most research has assessed children’s pre-crossing decision making and extrapolated crossing outcome measures from estimates of mean walking speed. This study explores the nature and extent of measurement bias that is introduced when average walking speed is used to produce estimates of outcomes versus measuring actual in-road behavior directly. Using a within-subjects design and a fully immersive virtual reality pedestrian simulator, both measures were taken. Comparisons based on regression models revealed the extent of differences in results produced by measurement bias. Results indicated that measurement bias is produced when average walking speed is used such that hits and high risk crossings are overestimated and missed opportunities are underestimated, resulting in an overall overestimate of children’s risk for pedestrian injury. The discussion highlights how these two measurement approaches emphasize different underlying processes as determinants of child pedestrian injury risk.

      PubDate: 2017-07-09T06:27:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • The effect of motorcycle helmet fit on estimating head impact kinematics
           from residual liner crush
    • Authors: Stephanie J. Bonin; John C. Gardiner; Arzu Onar-Thomas; Shihab S. Asfour; Gunter P. Siegmund
      Pages: 315 - 326
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Stephanie J. Bonin, John C. Gardiner, Arzu Onar-Thomas, Shihab S. Asfour, Gunter P. Siegmund
      Proper helmet fit is important for optimizing head protection during an impact, yet many motorcyclists wear helmets that do not properly fit their heads. The goals of this study are i) to quantify how a mismatch in headform size and motorcycle helmet size affects headform peak acceleration and head injury criteria (HIC), and ii) to determine if peak acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from the foam liner’s maximum residual crush depth or residual crush volume. Shorty-style helmets (4 sizes of a single model) were tested on instrumented headforms (4 sizes) during linear impacts between 2.0 and 10.5m/s to the forehead region. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify residual crush depth and volume. Separate linear regression models were used to quantify how the response variables (peak acceleration (g), HIC, and impact speed (m/s)) were related to the predictor variables (maximum crush depth (mm), crush volume (cm3), and the difference in circumference between the helmet and headform (cm)). Overall, we found that increasingly oversized helmets reduced peak headform acceleration and HIC for a given impact speed for maximum residual crush depths less than 7.9mm and residual crush volume less than 40cm3. Below these levels of residual crush, we found that peak headform acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from a helmet’s residual crush. Above these crush thresholds, large variations in headform kinematics are present, possibly related to densification of the foam liner during the impact.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T09:16:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.06.015
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • A full Bayesian approach to appraise the safety effects of pedestrian
           countdown signals to drivers
    • Authors: Angela E. Kitali; P.E. Thobias Sando
      Pages: 327 - 335
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Angela E. Kitali, P.E. Thobias Sando
      Although they are meant for pedestrians, pedestrian countdown signals (PCSs) give cues to drivers about the length of the remaining green phase, hence affecting drivers’ behavior at intersections. This study focuses on the evaluation of the safety effectiveness of PCSs to drivers, in the cities of Jacksonville and Gainesville, Florida, using crash modification factors (CMFs) and crash modification functions (CMFunctions). A full Bayes (FB) before-and-after with comparison group method was used to quantify the safety impacts of PCSs to drivers. The CMFs were established for distinctive categories of crashes based on crash type (rear-end and angle collisions) and severity level (total, fatal and injury (FI), and property damage only (PDO) collisions). The CMFs findings indicated that installing PCSs result in a significant improvement of drivers’ safety, at a 95% Bayesian credible interval (BCI), for total, PDO, and rear-end collisions. The results of FI and angle crashes were not significant. The CMFunctions indicate that the treatment effectiveness varies considerably with post-treatment time and traffic volume. Nevertheless, the CMFs on rear-end crashes are observed to decline with post-treatment time. In summary, the results suggest the usefulness of PCSs for drivers. The findings of this study may prompt a need for a broader research to investigate the need to design PCSs that will serve the purpose not only of pedestrians, but drivers as well.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T09:16:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Drivers’ social-work relationships as antecedents of unsafe driving: A
           social network perspective
    • Authors: Renana Arizon Peretz; Gil Luria
      Pages: 348 - 357
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Renana Arizon Peretz, Gil Luria
      In order to reduce road accidents rates, studies around the globe have attempted to shed light on the antecedents for unsafe road behaviors. The aim of the current research is to contribute to this literature by offering a new organizational antecedent of driver's unsafe behavior: The driver's relationships with his or her peers, as reflected in three types of social networks: negative relationships network, friendship networks and advice networks (safety consulting). We hypothesized that a driver's position in negative relationship networks, friendship networks, and advice networks will predict unsafe driving. Additionally, we hypothesized the existence of mutual influences among the driver’s positions in these various networks, and suggested that the driver's positions interact to predict unsafe driving behaviors. The research included 83 professional drivers from four different organizations. Driving behavior data were gathered via the IVDR (In-Vehicle Data Recorder) system, installed in every truck to measure and record the driver's behavior. The findings indicated that the drivers' position in the team networks predicts safe driving behavior: Centrality in negative relationship networks is positively related to unsafe driving, and centrality in friendship networks is negatively related to unsafe driving, while centrality in advice networks is not related to unsafe driving. Furthermore, we found an interaction effect between negative network centrality and centrality in friendship networks. The relation between negative networks and unsafe behavior is weaker when high levels of friendship network centrality exist. The implications will be presented in the Discussion section.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T09:16:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Mobile phone use during driving: Effects on speed and effectiveness of
           driver compensatory behaviour
    • Authors: Pushpa Choudhary; Nagendra R Velaga
      Pages: 370 - 378
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Pushpa Choudhary, Nagendra R Velaga
      This study analysed and modelled the effects of conversation and texting (each with two difficulty levels) on driving performance of Indian drivers in terms of their mean speed and accident avoiding abilities; and further explored the relationship between speed reduction strategy of the drivers and their corresponding accident frequency. 100 drivers of three different age groups (young, mid-age and old-age) participated in the simulator study. Two sudden events of Indian context: unexpected crossing of pedestrians and joining of parked vehicles from road side, were simulated for estimating the accident probabilities. Generalized linear mixed models approach was used for developing linear regression models for mean speed and binary logistic regression models for accident probability. The results of the models showed that the drivers significantly compensated the increased workload by reducing their mean speed by 2.62m/s and 5.29m/s in the presence of conversation and texting tasks respectively. The logistic models for accident probabilities showed that the accident probabilities increased by 3 and 4 times respectively when the drivers were conversing or texting on a phone during driving. Further, the relationship between the speed reduction patterns and their corresponding accident frequencies showed that all the drivers compensated differently; but, among all the drivers, only few drivers, who compensated by reducing the speed by 30% or more, were able to fully offset the increased accident risk associated with the phone use.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T09:16:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.06.021
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Consistent association between hypnotics/sedatives and non-traffic
           injuries. Results from a national household survey
    • Authors: María del Mar Martín-Rodríguez; José Pulido; Eladio Jiménez-Mejías; Juan Hoyos; Pablo Lardelli-Claret; Gregorio Barrio
      Pages: 379 - 384
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): María del Mar Martín-Rodríguez, José Pulido, Eladio Jiménez-Mejías, Juan Hoyos, Pablo Lardelli-Claret, Gregorio Barrio
      Aim To quantify the relationship between patterns of psychostimulants, hypnotics/sedatives and alcohol consumption and the frequency of unintentional non-traffic injuries (UNTIs) requiring medical assistant in Spain. Methods We carried out a cross sectional study using a randomized pooled sample from two household surveys on psychoactive drugs use (n=51,649 subjects aged 15–64 years). We estimated the magnitude of the association between the use of psychostimulants and hypnotics/sedatives in the last 12 months as well as alcohol consumption in the last 30days with the occurrence of UNTIs in the last 12 months (falls, knocks/bumps and cuts) by building several logistic regression models, which took into account the effect of sociodemographic characteristics and the use of other psychoactive drugs (including cannabis). The presence of interactions between age or gender with drug use was also assessed. Results Psychostimulants use was associated with a higher frequency of UNTIs (aOR=1.24; 95%CI:1.03–1.49). The strongest association was found with cuts (aOR=1.64; 95%CI:1.10–2.43). An association between hypnotics/sedatives and UNTIs was also found in each type of injury and was higher with regular use (>=30days) than with non-regular use (<30days). The age modified the association between hypnotic/sedatives and knocks/bumps, being higher in the 35–64 years group (aOR=2.34; 95%CI:1.78–3.06) than in the 15–34 years group (aOR=1.59; 95%CI:1.14–2.21). Regarding alcohol, an increased risk of UNTIs was also observed in all types of UNTIs, even with moderate use, being the association higher for cuts in heavy drinkers (aOR=2.41; 95%CI:1.63–3.57). Conclusions Our results reveal a consistent relationship between hypnotics/sedatives and UNTIs, especially in regular users. Additional research should apply longitudinal designs to establish causal relationships and to gain an in-depth knowledge in this area in order to specific public health interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T09:16:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.06.016
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Detection of driver engagement in secondary tasks from observed
           naturalistic driving behavior
    • Authors: Mengqiu Ye; Osama A. Osman; Sherif Ishak; Bita Hashemi
      Pages: 385 - 391
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Mengqiu Ye, Osama A. Osman, Sherif Ishak, Bita Hashemi
      Distracted driving has long been acknowledged as one of the leading causes of death or injury in roadway crashes. The focus of past research has been mainly on the impact of different causes of distraction on driving behavior. However, only a few studies attempted to address how some driving behavior attributes could be linked to the cause of distraction. In essence, this study takes advantage of the rich SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) database to develop a model for detecting the likelihood of a driver’s involvement in secondary tasks from distinctive attributes of driving behavior. Five performance attributes, namely speed, longitudinal acceleration, lateral acceleration, yaw rate, and throttle position were used to describe the driving behavior. A model was developed for each of three selected secondary tasks: calling, texting, and passenger interaction. The models were developed using a supervised feed-forward Artificial Neural Network (ANN) architecture to account for the effect of inherent nonlinearity in the relationships between driving behavior and secondary tasks. The results show that the developed ANN models were able to detect the drivers’ involvement in calling, texting, and passenger interaction with an overall accuracy of 99.5%, 98.1%, and 99.8%, respectively. These results show that the selected driving performance attributes were effective in detecting the associated secondary tasks with driving behavior. The results are very promising and the developed models could potentially be applied in crash investigations to resolve legal disputes in traffic accidents.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T09:16:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.07.010
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Investigation of factors affecting the injury severity of single-vehicle
           rollover crashes: A random-effects generalized ordered probit model
    • Authors: Alireza Jafari Anarkooli; Mehdi Hosseinpour; Adele Kardar
      Pages: 399 - 410
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Alireza Jafari Anarkooli, Mehdi Hosseinpour, Adele Kardar
      Rollover crashes are responsible for a notable number of serious injuries and fatalities; hence, they are of great concern to transportation officials and safety researchers. However, only few published studies have analyzed the factors associated with severity outcomes of rollover crashes. This research has two objectives. The first objective is to investigate the effects of various factors, of which some have been rarely reported in the existing studies, on the injury severities of single-vehicle (SV) rollover crashes based on six-year crash data collected on the Malaysian federal roads. A random-effects generalized ordered probit (REGOP) model is employed in this study to analyze injury severity patterns caused by rollover crashes. The second objective is to examine the performance of the proposed approach, REGOP, for modeling rollover injury severity outcomes. To this end, a mixed logit (MXL) model is also fitted in this study because of its popularity in injury severity modeling. Regarding the effects of the explanatory variables on the injury severity of rollover crashes, the results reveal that factors including dark without supplemental lighting, rainy weather condition, light truck vehicles (e.g., sport utility vehicles, vans), heavy vehicles (e.g., bus, truck), improper overtaking, vehicle age, traffic volume and composition, number of travel lanes, speed limit, undulating terrain, presence of central median, and unsafe roadside conditions are positively associated with more severe SV rollover crashes. On the other hand, unpaved shoulder width, area type, driver occupation, and number of access points are found as the significant variables decreasing the probability of being killed or severely injured (i.e., KSI) in rollover crashes. Land use and side friction are significant and positively associated only with slight injury category. These findings provide valuable insights into the causes and factors affecting the injury severity patterns of rollover crashes, and thus can help develop effective countermeasures to reduce the severity of rollover crashes. The model comparison results show that the REGOP model is found to outperform the MXL model in terms of goodness-of-fit measures, and also is significantly superior to other extensions of ordered probit models, including generalized ordered probit and random-effects ordered probit (REOP) models. As a result, this research introduces REGOP as a promising tool for future research focusing on crash injury severity.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T09:16:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.07.008
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Factors associated with non-return to work in the severely injured victims
           3 years after a road accident: A prospective study
    • Authors: C. Pélissier; E. Fort; L. Fontana; B. Charbotel; M. Hours
      Pages: 411 - 419
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): C. Pélissier, E. Fort, L. Fontana, B. Charbotel, M. Hours
      Road accidents may impact victims' physical and/or mental health and socio-occupational life, particularly the capacity to return to work. The purpose of our study is to assess modifiable medical and socio-occupational factors of non-return to work in the severely injured 3 years after a road accident. Among1,168 road accidents casualties in the Rhône administrative Département of France followed for five years, 141 of the 222 severely injured (Maximal Abbreviated Injury Scale ≥ 3) aged more than 16 years who were in work at the time of the accident, reported whether they had returned to work in the 3 years following the accident. The subgroups of those who had (n=113) and had not returned to work (n=28) were compared for socio-occupational (gender, age, educational level, marital status, socio-occupational group) accident-related medical factors (type of road user, type of journey, responsibility in the accident, initial care) and post-accident medical factors (pain intensity, post-traumatic stress disorder, physical sequelae, quality of life) by using standardized tools. Severity of initial head, face and lower-limb injury, intense persistent pain, post-traumatic stress disorder, poor self-assessed quality of life and health status at 3 years were associated with non-return to work on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, severity of initial head and lower-limb injury, intense persistent pain at 3 years and post-traumatic stress disorder were significantly associated with non-return to work 3 years following severe road-accident injury. Post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic pain were essential modifiable medical determinants of non-return to work in the severely injured after a road accident: early adapted management could promote return to work in the severely injured. Improve early adapted treatment of pain and PTSD in the rehabilitation team should help the severely injured return to work following a road accident.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T09:16:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.06.020
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Development of a real-time prediction model of driver behavior at
           intersections using kinematic time series data
    • Authors: Yaoyuan V. Tan; Michael R. Elliott; Carol A.C. Flannagan
      Pages: 428 - 436
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Yaoyuan V. Tan, Michael R. Elliott, Carol A.C. Flannagan
      As connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs) enter the fleet, there will be a long period when these vehicles will have to interact with human drivers. One of the challenges for CAVs is that human drivers do not communicate their decisions well. Fortunately, the kinematic behavior of a human-driven vehicle may be a good predictor of driver intent within a short time frame. We analyzed the kinematic time series data (e.g., speed) for a set of drivers making left turns at intersections to predict whether the driver would stop before executing the turn. We used principal components analysis (PCA) to generate independent dimensions that explain the variation in vehicle speed before a turn. These dimensions remained relatively consistent throughout the maneuver, allowing us to compute independent scores on these dimensions for different time windows throughout the approach to the intersection. We then linked these PCA scores to whether a driver would stop before executing a left turn using the random intercept Bayesian additive regression trees. Five more road and observable vehicle characteristics were included to enhance prediction. Our model achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.84 at 94m away from the center of an intersection and steadily increased to 0.90 by 46m away from the center of an intersection.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T09:16:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Monitoring road safety development at regional level: A case study in the
           ASEAN region
    • Authors: Faan Chen; Jianjun Wang; Jiaorong Wu; Xiaohong Chen; P. Christopher Zegras
      Pages: 437 - 449
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Faan Chen, Jianjun Wang, Jiaorong Wu, Xiaohong Chen, P. Christopher Zegras
      Persistent monitoring of progress, evaluating the results of interventions and recalibrating to achieve continuous improvement over time is widely recognized as being crucial towards the successful development of road safety. In the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) region there is a lack of well-resourced teams that contain multidisciplinary safety professionals, and specialists in individual countries, who are able to carry out this work effectively. In this context, not only must the monitoring framework be effective, it must also be easy to use and adapt. This paper provides a case study that can be easily reproduced; based on an updated and refined Road Safety Development Index (RSDI), by means of the RSR (Rank-sum ratio)-based model, for monitoring/reporting road safety development at regional level. The case study was focused on the road safety achievements in eleven Southeast Asian countries; identifying the areas of poor performance, potential problems and delays. These countries are finally grouped into several classes based on an overview of their progress and achievements regarding to road safety. The results allow the policymakers to better understand their own road safety progress toward their desired impact; more importantly, these results enable necessary interventions to be made in a quick and timely manner. Keeping action plans on schedule if things are not progressing as desired. This would avoid ‘reinventing the wheel’ and trial and error approaches to road safety, making the implementation of action plans more effective.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T09:16:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.07.016
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Cell phone use while driving: Does peer-reported use predict emerging
           adult use'
    • Authors: Neha Trivedi; Denise Haynie; Joe Bible; Danping Liu; Bruce Simons-Morton
      Pages: 450 - 455
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Neha Trivedi, Denise Haynie, Joe Bible, Danping Liu, Bruce Simons-Morton
      Secondary task engagement such as cell phone use while driving is a common behavior among adolescents and emerging adults. Texting and other distracting cell phone use in this population contributes to the high rate of fatal car crashes. Peer engagement in similar risky driving behaviors, such as texting, could socially influence driver phone use behavior. The present study investigates the prospective association between peer and emerging adult texting while driving the first year after high school. Surveys were conducted with a national sample of emerging adults and their nominated peers. Binomial logistic regression analyses, adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, parental education, and family affluence, showed that participants (n =212) with peers (n =675) who reported frequently texting while driving, were significantly more likely to text while driving the following year (odds ratio, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.19–7.59; P =0.05). The findings are consistent with the idea that peer texting behavior influences the prevalence of texting while driving among emerging adults.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T09:16:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.04.013
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Crashes involving cyclists aged 50 and over in the Netherlands: An
           in-depth study
    • Authors: M.J. Boele-Vos; K. Van Duijvenvoorde; M.J.A. Doumen; C.W.A.E. Duivenvoorden; W.J.R. Louwerse; R.J. Davidse
      Pages: 4 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 105
      Author(s): M.J. Boele-Vos, K. Van Duijvenvoorde, M.J.A. Doumen, C.W.A.E. Duivenvoorden, W.J.R. Louwerse, R.J. Davidse
      The number of seriously injured cyclists is increasing in the Netherlands. The majority of these seriously injured cyclists were involved in single-bicycle or bicycle-bicycle crashes. Little is known about the circumstances in which these crashes occur, as the police only registers 4% of these crashes. Therefore, an in-depth study was carried out to gain insight into the factors and circumstances that influence the occurrence and consequences of these crashes. The focus was on crashes involving cyclists aged 50 and over, as this group has a large share in the number of cyclist-only crashes. Detailed information on 41 single-bicycle and bicycle-bicycle crashes was collected and analysed. This resulted in a description of the course of events for every analysed crash, including a list of factors that had contributed to the occurrence of the crash and possible injuries. Subsequently, crashes with a similar course of events and a comparable combination of contributory factors were grouped into types of crashes. Results showed that cyclists aged 75 and over are more often involved in falls from a bicycle than younger cyclists. Contributory factors that played a role in a large number of crashes were behaviour of another road user, distraction and narrow cycling facilities or traffic lanes. However, which factors played a role in the occurrence of a crash depended on the type of crash. Eight types of crashes were identified. Based on the factors that played a role in the occurrence of these crashes, remedial measures can be developed to prevent similar crashes from occurring in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2016.07.016
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
  • Cross-comparison of three surrogate safety methods to diagnose cyclist
           safety problems at intersections in Norway
    • Authors: Aliaksei Laureshyn; Maartje de Goede; Nicolas Saunier; Aslak Fyhri
      Pages: 11 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 105
      Author(s): Aliaksei Laureshyn, Maartje de Goede, Nicolas Saunier, Aslak Fyhri
      Relying on accident records as the main data source for studying cyclists’ safety has many drawbacks, such as high degree of under-reporting, the lack of accident details and particularly of information about the interaction processes that led to the accident. It is also an ethical problem as one has to wait for accidents to happen in order to make a statement about cyclists’ (un-)safety. In this perspective, the use of surrogate safety measures based on actual observations in traffic is very promising. In this study we used video data from three intersections in Norway that were all independently analysed using three methods: the Swedish traffic conflict technique (Swedish TCT), the Dutch conflict technique (DOCTOR) and the probabilistic surrogate measures of safety (PSMS) technique developed in Canada. The first two methods are based on manual detection and counting of critical events in traffic (traffic conflicts), while the third considers probabilities of multiple trajectories for each interaction and delivers a density map of potential collision points per site. Due to extensive use of microscopic data, PSMS technique relies heavily on automated tracking of the road users in video. Across the three sites, the methods show similarities or are at least “compatible” with the accident records. The two conflict techniques agree quite well for the number, type and location of conflicts, but some differences with no obvious explanation are also found. PSMS reports many more safety-relevant interactions including less severe events. The location of the potential collision points is compatible with what the conflict techniques suggest, but the possibly significant share of false alarms due to inaccurate trajectories extracted from video complicates the comparison. The tested techniques still require enhancement, with respect to better adjustment to analysis of the situations involving cyclists (and vulnerable road users in general) and further validation. However, we believe this to be a future direction for the road safety analysis as the number of accidents is constantly decreasing and the quality of accident data does not seem to improve.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2016.04.035
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
  • Using network screening methods to determine locations with specific
           safety issues: A design consistency case study
    • Authors: Andrew Butsick; Jonathan Wood Paul Jovanis
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Andrew J. Butsick, Jonathan S. Wood, Paul P. Jovanis
      The Highway Safety Manual provides multiple methods that can be used to identify sites with promise (SWiPs) for safety improvement. However, most of these methods cannot be used to identify sites with specific problems. Furthermore, given that infrastructure funding is often specified for use related to specific problems/programs, a method for identifying SWiPs related to those programs would be very useful. This research establishes a method for Identifying SWiPs with specific issues. This is accomplished using two safety performance functions (SPFs). This method is applied to identifying SWiPs with geometric design consistency issues. Mixed effects negative binomial regression was used to develop two SPFs using 5 years of crash data and over 8754km of two-lane rural roadway. The first SPF contained typical roadway elements while the second contained additional geometric design consistency parameters. After empirical Bayes adjustments, sites with promise (SWiPs) were identified. The disparity between SWiPs identified by the two SPFs was evident; 40 unique sites were identified by each model out of the top 220 segments. By comparing sites across the two models, candidate road segments can be identified where a lack design consistency may be contributing to an increase in expected crashes. Practitioners can use this method to more effectively identify roadway segments suffering from reduced safety performance due to geometric design inconsistency, with detailed engineering studies of identified sites required to confirm the initial assessment.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T09:59:15Z
  • Do we see how they perceive risk' An integrated analysis of risk
           perception and its effect on workplace safety behavior
    • Authors: Nini Xia; Xueqing Wang Mark Griffin Chunlin Bingsheng Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Nini Xia, Xueqing Wang, Mark A. Griffin, Chunlin Wu, Bingsheng Liu
      While risk perception is a key factor influencing safety behavior, the academia lacks specific attention to the ways that workers perceive risk, and thus little is known about the mechanisms through which different risk perceptions influence safety behavior. Most previous research in the workplace safety domain argues that people tend to perceive risk based on rational formulations of risk criticality. However, individuals’ emotions can be also useful in understanding their perceptions. Therefore, this research employs an integrated analysis concerning the rational and emotional perspectives. Specifically, it was expected that the identified three rational ways of perceiving risk, i.e., perceived probability, severity, and negative utility, would influence the direct emotional risk perception. Furthermore, these four risk perceptions were all expected to positively but differently influence safety behavior. The hypotheses were tested using a sample of 120 construction workers. It was found that all the three rational risk perceptions significantly influenced workers’ direct perception of risk that is mainly based on emotions. Furthermore, safety behavior among workers relied mainly on emotional perception but not rational calculations of risk. This research contributes to workplace safety research by highlighting the importance of integrating the emotional assessment of risk, especially when workers’ risk perception and behavior are concerned. Suggested avenues for improving safety behavior through improvement in risk perception include being aware of the possibility of different ways of perceiving risk, promoting experience sharing and accident simulation, and uncovering risk information.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T09:59:15Z
  • Editorial for special issue – ‘Improving cyclist safety through
           scientific research’
    • Authors: Divera. A.M. Twisk; Stefanie H.H.M. de Hair– Buijssen; Dietmar Otte
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention
      Author(s): Divera. A.M. Twisk, Stefanie H.H.M. de Hair– Buijssen, Dietmar Otte

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T14:23:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.021
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