Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3206 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3206 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 106, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 449, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 334, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Clinical Radiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Cosmetic Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Family Practice Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Ophthalmology and Optometry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 434, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 396, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 485, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 274, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 220, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Accident Analysis & Prevention
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.462
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 106  
 
  Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
ISSN (Print) 0001-4575 - ISSN (Online) 0001-4575
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3206 journals]
  • Optimal design alternatives of advance guide signs of closely spaced exit
           ramps on urban expressways
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 138Author(s): Lihua Huang, Xiaohua Zhao, Yang Li, Jianming Ma, Liping Yang, Jian Rong, Yu WangAbstractAdvance guide signs for exit ramps along urban expressways are increasingly critical, enhancing safety and mobility by improving the flow of vehicles exiting urban expressways. However, research has devoted scant attention to advance guide signs for exit ramps. This study aimed to identify and propose optimal design alternatives for exit ramp advance guide signs for different types of exit spacing. This study conducted a driving simulation experiment consisting of five design alternatives of advance guide signs and two exit ramp spacing variation. Eight indicators were measured. The repeated-measure analysis of variances (ANOVA) and the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) were performed for the influence analysis and efficiency evaluation of different schemes. Influence analysis results showed better design alternatives in five schemes of advance guide signs, enabling drivers to more easily locate destination exits and change lanes fewer times, in addition to reducing drivers’ need to decelerate, and improving traffic flow in the key influence range of destination exit ramps. The percentage of drivers successfully locating the destination exits also increased with optimal design alternatives of advance guide signs. When the exit ramp spacing tightened, on the other hand, drivers had to make more lane changes and accelerate and decelerate more frequently in the key influence range. As a result, a lower percentage of drivers successfully located destination exits. Efficiency evaluation results were also obtained. In tight spacing, three advance guide signs are recommended to be placed at 1 km, 0.5 km and 0 km prior to the beginning of the tapered deceleration lane. If conditions are limited, at least two advance guide signs should be used. With greater spacing, four advance guide signs are recommended, located at 2 km, 1 km, 0.5 km, and 0 km prior to the beginning of the tapered deceleration lane. If road conditions are limited, three advance guide signs should be used.
       
  • Ready to bully automated vehicles on public roads'
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Peng Liu, Yong Du, Lin Wang, Ju Da YoungAbstractAutomated vehicles (AVs), the wide adoption of which is expected to improve traffic safety significantly, are penetrating our roads. The AVs that are testing on public roads have been bullied by human road users. We are not sure whether the bullying incidents are isolated or will be common in the future. In a cross-national survey (N = 998 drivers in China and South Korea), we developed an eleven-item bullying intention questionnaire. We assumed and confirmed that, overall, participants had a greater intention to bully machine drivers than to bully other human drivers. Compared to the Korean participants, the Chinese participants reported a greater intention to drive aggressively. The correlations of their intention to bully AVs with their attitude toward AVs and with risk-benefit perception of AVs were weak. Male participants (vs. female participants) and younger participants (vs. older participants) reported a greater intention to drive aggressively. Drivers' aggressive behaviors toward AVs might be common in the future, which might increase traffic risk and hinder the implementation of this technology.
       
  • Road crossing decisions in real and virtual environments: A comparative
           study on simulator validity
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Ilja T. Feldstein, Georg N. DyszakAbstractVirtual reality (VR) is a valuable tool for the assessment of human perception and behavior in a risk-free environment. Investigators should, however, ensure that the used virtual environment is validated in accordance with the experiment’s intended research question since behavior in virtual environments has been shown to differ to behavior in real environments.This article presents the street crossing decisions of 30 participants who were facing an approaching vehicle and had to decide at what moment it was no longer safe to cross, applying the step-back method. The participants executed the task in a real environment and also within a highly immersive VR setup involving a head-mounted display (HMD). The results indicate significant differences between the two settings regarding the participants’ behaviors. The time-to-contact of approaching vehicles was significantly lower for crossing decisions in the virtual environment than for crossing decisions in the real one. Additionally, it was demonstrated that participants based their crossing decisions in the real environment on the temporal distance of the approaching vehicle (i.e., time-to-contact), whereas the crossing decisions in the virtual environment seemed to depend on the vehicle’s spatial distance, neglecting the vehicle’s velocity. Furthermore, a deeper analysis suggests that crossing decisions were not affected by factors such as the participant’s gender or the order in which they faced the real and the virtual environment.
       
  • Do drivers self-regulate their engagement in secondary tasks at
           intersections' An examination based on naturalistic driving data
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Rashed Ismaeel, Daryl Hibberd, Oliver Carsten, Samantha JamsonAbstractUsing naturalistic driving data, this study explored the prevalence of engagement in secondary tasks whilst driving through intersections, and investigated whether drivers manage and self-regulate such behaviour in response to variations in roadway and environmental conditions. Video recordings of in-vehicle and external scenes were coded for precisely defined categories of secondary tasks and related contextual variables. The findings indicated that nearly one-quarter of the total driving time at intersections was spent on secondary activities and that lower engagement occurred within intersections compared to phases immediately upstream or downstream. Drivers were less likely to occupy themselves with secondary tasks when their vehicles were moving than when they were stationary. Elderly drivers showed less inclination to perform secondary tasks than did younger drivers. Lastly, drivers tended to perform secondary tasks less frequently at intersections managed by traffic signs than those controlled by traffic lights, when they did not have priority compared to when they had priority, and in adverse weather conditions compared to fine weather conditions. In conclusion, drivers appeared to self-regulate secondary task engagement in response to roadway and environmental conditions. Specifically, they exercised self-regulation by reducing their secondary task engagement when the driving task was more challenging. The findings from this study provide preliminary evidence for targeting the education and training of drivers and media campaigns related to safe driving strategies and managing distractions.
       
  • Application of the Poisson-Tweedie distribution in analyzing crash
           frequency data
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Dibakar Saha, Priyanka Alluri, Eric Dumbaugh, Albert GanAbstractThis paper describes a study that applies the Poisson-Tweedie distribution in developing crash frequency models. The Poisson-Tweedie distribution offers a unified framework to model overdispersed, underdispersed, zero-inflated, spatial, and longitudinal count data, as well as multiple response variables of similar or mixed types. The form of its variance function is simple, and can be specified as the mean added to the product of dispersion and mean raised to the power P. The flexibility of the Poisson-Tweedie distribution lies in the domain of P, which includes positive real number values. Special cases of the Poisson-Tweedie distribution models include the linear form of the negative binomial (NB1) model with P equal to 1.0, the geometric Poisson (GeoP) model with P equal to 1.5, the quadratic form of the negative binomial (NB2) model with P equal to 2.0, and the Poisson Inverse Gaussian (PIG) model with P equal to 3.0. A series of models were developed in this study using the Poisson-Tweedie distribution without any restrictions on the value of the power parameter as well as with specific values of the power parameter representing NB1, GeoP, NB2, and PIG models. The effects of fixed and varying dispersion parameters (i.e., dispersion as a function of covariates) on the variance and expected crash frequency estimates were also examined. Three years (2012–2014) of crash data from urban three-leg stop-controlled intersections and urban four-leg signalized intersections in the state of Florida were used to develop the models. The Poisson-Tweedie models or the GeoP models were found to perform better when the dispersion parameter was constant or fixed. With the varying dispersion parameter, the NB2 and PIG models were found to perform better, with both performing equally well. Also, the fixed dispersion parameter values were found to be smaller in the models with a higher value of the power parameter. The variation across the models in their estimates of weight factor, expected crash frequency, and potential for safety improvement of hazardous sites based on the empirical Bayes method was also discussed.
       
  • Understanding the discretionary lane-changing behaviour in the connected
           environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Yasir Ali, Zuduo Zheng, Md. Mazharul Haque, Mehmet Yildirimoglu, Simon WashingtonAbstractDiscretionary lane-changing (DLC) is one of the complex driving manoeuvres that requires surrounding traffic information for efficient and safe manoeuvring. The connected environment not only provides such information but also increases situational awareness, which is useful for DLC decision-making. However, the literature is devoid of any concrete evidence of such impact of the connected environment on DLC decision-making. As such, this paper analyses the effects of the connected environment on DLC behaviour. Seventy-eight participants from a diverse background performed DLCs in randomised driving conditions using the CARRS-Q advanced driving simulator. These driving conditions are: baseline (without driving messages), connected environment with perfect communication (fully functioning and uninterrupted supply of driving messages), and connected environment with communication delay (impaired communication). Various key driving behaviour indicators are analysed and compared using a linear mixed model. To analyse the effects of the connected environment on DLC decision-making, two Generalised Estimation Equation (GEE) models are developed for gap acceptance and DLC duration. In addition, a Weibull accelerated failure time hazard-based duration model is developed to investigate the impact of the connected environment on safety associated with DLC manoeuvres. We find that drivers in the connected environment have a larger spacing, larger lead and lag gaps, a longer DLC duration, and a lower acceleration noise compared to the baseline condition. The GEE model on gap acceptance reveals that drivers tend to select relatively bigger gap sizes when the connected environment offers them the subsequent gap information. Similarly, the GEE model for DLC duration suggests that the connected environment increases DLC durations by 2.22 s and 2.11 s in perfect communication and communication delay driving conditions, respectively. Finally, the hazard-based duration model provides insights into the probability of avoiding a lane-changing collision, and indicates that the probability of a lane-changing collision is less in the connected environment driving conditions than in the baseline scenario. Overall, the connected environment improves the DLC driving behaviour and enhances traffic safety.
       
  • Multitasking additional-to-driving: Prevalence, structure, and associated
           risk in SHRP2 naturalistic driving data
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): András Bálint, Carol A.C. Flannagan, Andrew Leslie, Sheila Klauer, Feng Guo, Marco DozzaAbstractObjectiveThis paper 1) analyzes the extent to which drivers engage in multitasking additional-to-driving (MAD) under various conditions, 2) specifies odds ratios (ORs) of crashing associated with MAD, and 3) explores the structure of MAD.MethodsData from the Second Strategic Highway Research Program Naturalistic Driving Study (SHRP2 NDS) was analyzed to quantify the prevalence of MAD in normal driving as well as in safety-critical events of various severity level and compute point estimates and confidence intervals for the corresponding odds ratios estimating the risk associated with MAD compared to no task engagement. Sensitivity analysis in which secondary tasks were re-defined by grouping similar tasks was performed to investigate the extent to which ORs are affected by the specific task definitions in SHRP2. A novel visual representation of multitasking was developed to show which secondary tasks co-occur frequently and which ones do not.ResultsMAD occurs in 11 % of control driving segments, 22 % of crashes and near-crashes (CNC), 26 % of Level 1–3 crashes and 39 % of rear-end striking crashes, and 9 %, 16 %, 17 % and 28 % respectively for the same event types if MAD is defined in terms of general task groups. The most common co-occurrences of secondary tasks vary substantially among event types; for example, “Passenger in adjacent seat – interaction” and “Other non-specific internal eye glance” tend to co-occur in CNC but tend not to co-occur in control driving segments. The odds ratios of MAD using SHRP2 task definitions compared to driving without any secondary task and the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals are 2.38 (2.17–2.61) for CNC, 3.72 (3.11–4.45) for Level 1–3 crashes and 8.48 (5.11–14.07) for rear-end striking crashes. The corresponding ORs using general task groups to define MAD are slightly lower at 2.00 (1.80–2.21) for CNC, 3.03 (2.48–3.69) for Level 1–3 crashes and 6.94 (4.04–11.94) for rear-end striking crashes.ConclusionsThe number of secondary tasks that the drivers were engaged in differs substantially for different event types. A graphical representation was presented that allows mapping task prevalence and co-occurrence within an event type as well as a comparison between different event types. The ORs of MAD indicate an elevated risk for all safety-critical events, with the greatest increase in the risk of rear-end striking crashes. The results are similar independently of whether secondary tasks are defined according to SHRP2 or general task groups. The results confirm that the reduction of driving performance from MAD observed in simulator studies is manifested in real-world crashes as well.
       
  • Accounting for drivers’ bicycling frequency and familiarity with bicycle
           infrastructure treatments when evaluating safety
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Nicholas Fournier, Sarah Bakhtiari, Krishna Deep Valluru, Nicholas Campbell, Eleni Christofa, Shannon Roberts, Michael KnodlerAbstractMunicipalities in the United States often encourage bicycling for the health, economic, and environmental benefits by implementing new and innovative bicycle infrastructure treatments. Unfortunately, many treatments are unfamiliar to or misunderstood by drivers, especially when lacking explicit rules (e.g., shared lanes). To date, research has largely investigated bicycle infrastructure from a bicyclist's perspective, but with little research from the driver's perspective. The objective of this research is to utilize a driving simulator to investigate driver behavior towards different bicycle infrastructure treatments when driver behavior is not provoked by an interaction with bicyclists. More specifically, this research intends to investigate the impact of bicycling frequency and treatment familiarity, as well as the combined effect of the two, on driver behavior at each treatment type. The treatments investigated are shared lane markings called “sharrows”, standard bike lanes, bike boxes, and merge lanes. The results show that bicycling frequency significantly affects the proportion of drivers making eye glances at treatments. In addition, drivers more familiar with bike boxes stopped significantly further back from bike boxes, and drivers more familiar with merge lanes performed the merge maneuver significantly earlier. Furthermore, driver speed and lane positioning at bike lanes was significantly affected by the combination of bike lane familiarity and bicycling frequency, but not individually. This research is a first step towards understanding driver behavior and expectation of bicyclists; an essential understanding for infrastructure treatments that do not provide physical barriers between bicycles and automobiles, and instead rely on driver behavior for safety.
       
  • Investigating pedestrian waiting time at semi-controlled crossing
           locations: Application of multi-state models for recurrent events analysis
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Yunchang Zhang, Yu Qiao, Jon D. FrickerAbstract“Semi-controlled” crosswalks are unsignalized, but clearly marked with “yield to pedestrian within crosswalk” signs. Ideally, pedestrians can cross the street immediately after they arrive at the curb. However, real world observations show that pedestrians and vehicles are often involved in non-verbal “negotiations” to decide who should proceed first. This kind of “negotiation” often causes delays for both parties and may lead to unsafe situations. The study in this paper was based on video recordings of the waiting behaviors of 2059 pedestrians interacting with 1003 motorists at selected semi-controlled crosswalks. One such location experienced a conversion from one-way operation to two-way operation, which provided a rare opportunity for a before-and-after study at that location. Multi-state Markov models were introduced as a novel approach to correlate the dynamic process between recurrent events. Time-varying covariates related to pedestrian characteristics, traffic condition, and vehicle dynamics (distance and speed) turned out to be significant.The analytical method developed in this study provides a tool to dynamically model pedestrian waiting decisions with uncertainties. Model results reveal that, after the conversion from one-way to two-way operation, the probability of a pedestrian accepting a lag decreases from 69.7% to just below 60% on the same street. In addition, pedestrians are more hesitant to cross a two-way street than a one-way street. Countermeasures that increase motorist yielding rate or reduce pedestrian confusion will enhance safety such crossing locations.
       
  • Risk Assessment of Commercial dangerous -goods truck drivers using
           geo-location data: A case study in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Shifeng Niu, Satish V. UkkusuriAbstractThe primary objective of this study is to understand the relationship between driving risk of commercial dangerous-goods truck (CDT) and exposure factors and find a way to evaluate the risk of specific transportation environment, such as specific transportation route. Due to increasing transportation demand and potential threat to public, commercial dangerous goods transportation (CDGT) has drawn attention from decision makers and researchers within governmental and non-governmental safety organization. However, there are few studies focusing on driving risk assessment of commercial dangerous-goods truck by environmental factors. In this paper we employ survival analysis methods to analyze the impact of risk exposure factors on non-accident mileage of commercial dangerous-good truck and assess risk level of specific driving environment. Using raw location data from six transportation companies in China, we derive a set of 17 risk exposure factors that we use for model parameters estimation. The survival model and hazard model were estimated using the Weibull distribution as the baseline distribution. The results show that four factors - weather, traffic flow, travel time and average velocity have a significant impact on the non-accident mileage of driver in this company, and the assessment results of survival function and hazard function are robust to the different levels of testing data. The employment time has some effect on the results but does not result in a significant difference in most cases, and the task stability has little impact on the results. The findings of this study should be useful for decision makers and transportation companies to better risk assessment of CDT.
       
  • A priori acceptance of highly automated cars in Australia, France, and
           Sweden: A theoretically-informed investigation guided by the TPB and UTAUT
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Ioni Lewis, Sonja Forward, Patricia DelhommeAbstractTo assess and explain finely drivers’ a priori acceptance of highly automated cars, this study used the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). Further, the current study sought to extend upon previous research to assess if intentions to use highly automated cars in the future differed according to country (i.e., Australia, France, & Sweden). These three countries were selected to enable comparisons of a priori acceptance between countries of differing levels of exposure to highly automated cars. Participants (N = 1563; 62.1 % male) were recruited in Australia (n = 558), France (n = 625), and Sweden (n = 380) to complete a 20 min online questionnaire. The findings differed according to country of residence. Individuals residing in France reported significantly greater intentions to use highly automated cars when they become publicly available compared to individuals residing in Australia and in Sweden. Of the TPB constructs entered at step 1 in the hierarchical regression, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control (capability and controllability) were significant predictors of intentions to use highly automated cars for participants residing in Australia and France. For participants residing in Sweden, only attitudes and PBC-capability were significant predictors of intentions. Of the UTAUT constructs entered at step 2, performance expectancy and effort expectancy were significant predictors of intentions for participants residing in France and only performance expectancy a significant predictor of intentions for participants residing in both Australia and Sweden. Age and gender did not add to the prediction of intentions when entered at step 3. However, pre-existing knowledge was a significant negative predictor of intentions when entered at step 3 for participants residing in Australia. Overall, the findings found some support for applying the TPB and UTAUT to assess intentions to use highly automated cars in different countries. The findings also highlight differences in a priori acceptance across countries and the factors which predict such acceptance.
       
  • The importance of flow composition in real-time crash prediction
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Franco Basso, Leonardo J. Basso, Raul PezoaAbstractPrevious real-time crash prediction models have scarcely used data disaggregated by vehicle type such as light, heavy and motorcycles. Thus, little effort has been made to quantify the impact of flow composition variables as crash precursors. We analyze the advantages of having access to this data by analyzing two scenarios, namely, with aggregated and disaggregated data. For each case, we build Logistics Regressions and Support Vector Machines models to predict accidents in a major urban expressway in Santiago, Chile. Our results show that having access to disaggregated data by vehicle type increases the prediction power up to 30 % providing, at the same time, much better intuition about the actual traffic conditions that may lead to accidents. These results may be useful when evaluating technology investments and developments in urban freeways.
       
  • Are long-haul truck drivers unusually alert' A comparison with
           long-haul airline pilots
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Mikael Sallinen, Mia Pylkkönen, Sampsa Puttonen, Maria Sihvola, Torbjörn ÅkerstedtAbstractBackgroundRecent studies suggest heavy vehicle drivers self-estimate their sleepiness unexpectedly low during night duties. The present study compared sleepiness ratings of long-haul truck drivers with those of long-haul airline pilots during night and non-night duties. In addition, the correspondence between self-rated manifest and predicted latent sleepiness was examined in the two groups.MethodsTwenty-two drivers and 33 pilots participated. Their working hours, sleep, on-duty sleepiness, and use of sleepiness countermeasures were measured in naturalistic conditions. Predictions of latent sleepiness were based on the measurements of working hours and sleep using the Sleep/Wake Predictor modelling tool.ResultsDrivers rated lower levels of sleepiness than pilots during both duty types, though predicted latent sleepiness levels were very similar among the two groups. Neither the results of sleep nor those of sleepiness countermeasures explained the difference in self-rated sleepiness.DiscussionThe results raise the possibility that long-haul truck drivers are actually sleepier than they report, and thus are at an increased risk for not responding to sleepiness in a timely manner. A potential explanation for this behavior is lack of education and training on sleepiness among truck drivers as compared with airline pilots. Alternatively, long-haul truck drivers may be exceptionally tolerant to soporific working conditions. The first reported results do not, however, support this hypothesis.
       
  • “It is frustrating to not have control even though I know it’s not
           legal!”: A mixed-methods investigation on applications to prevent mobile
           phone use while driving
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Verity Truelove, Mark KingAbstractMobile phone distracted driving is a major risk factor for crashes. However, this behaviour has been increasing in recent years. Effective enforcement of mobile phone bans while driving faces several obstacles; as such, it is important to consider additional countermeasures. Applications designed to prevent distracted driving are a promising solution, yet more research is needed that examines their effectiveness in reducing dangerous phone use while driving behaviours. Additionally, these applications are voluntary in nature; therefore, an understanding of drivers’ perceptions of the applications is necessary to determine how to improve uptake. A mixed methods design was utilised to examine these factors in a comprehensive manner. A total of 40 participants used the smartphone application “Do Not Disturb While Driving” for iOS phone operating systems or “Android Auto” for Android phone operating systems for approximately one week and completed three diary entries reporting on their experience. Two questionnaires that examined phone use while driving behaviours were also administered to participants; one before and one after completing the study. The quantitative results found that engagement in 1) visual-manual, 2) cognitive-auditory and 3) music mobile phone interactions significantly decreased while using the application. Distraction engagement and mental workload while driving also significantly decreased while using the application. The qualitative results identified a number of areas of improvement that need to be addressed, e.g. activation of the application and Bluetooth connection reliability. The features that required improvement presented an obstacle for effective use of the applications, and in some cases resulted in drivers deciding to stop using the application. Positive perceptions of the application were associated with the experiences of the application functioning appropriately and activating automatically. These results show that applications designed for voluntary use to prevent mobile phone distracted driving are a promising countermeasure, although current applications require several improvements.
       
  • Investigating the injury severity of single-vehicle truck crashes in a
           developing country
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Ehsan Rahimi, Ali Shamshiripour, Amir Samimi, Abolfazl (Kouros) MohammadianAbstractTrucking plays a vital role in economic development in every country, especially countries where it serves as the backbone of the economy. The fast growth of economy in Iran as a developing country has also been accompanied by an alarming situation in terms of fatalities in truck-involved crashes, among the drivers and passengers of the trucks as well as the other vehicles involved. Despite the sizable efforts to investigate the truck-involved crashes, very little is known about the safety of truck movements in developing countries, and about the single-truck crashes worldwide. Thus, this study aims to uncover significant factors associated with injury severities sustained by truck drivers in single-vehicle truck crashes in Iran. The explanatory factors tested in the models include the characteristics of drivers, vehicles, and roadways. A random threshold random parameters hierarchical ordered probit model is utilized to consider heterogeneity across observations. Several variables turned out to be significant in the model, including driver’s education, advanced braking system deployment, presence of curves on roadways, and high speed-limit. Using those results, we propose safety countermeasures in three categories of 1) educational, 2) technological, and 3) road engineering to mitigate the severity of single-vehicle truck crashes.
       
  • Detection of driver manual distraction via image-based hand and ear
           recognition
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Li Li, Boxuan Zhong, Clayton Hutmacher, Yulan Liang, William J. Horrey, Xu XuAbstractDriving distraction is a leading cause of fatal car accidents, and almost nine people are killed in the US each day because of distracting activities. Therefore, reducing the number of distraction-affected traffic accidents remains an imperative issue. A novel algorithm for detection of drivers’ manual distraction was proposed in this manuscript. The detection algorithm consists of two modules. The first module predicts the bounding boxes of the driver's right hand and right ear from RGB images. The second module takes the bounding boxes as input and predicts the type of distraction. 106,677 frames extracted from videos, which were collected from twenty participants in a driving simulator, were used for training (50%) and testing (50%). For distraction classification, the results indicated that the proposed framework could detect normal driving, using the touchscreen, and talking with a phone with F1-score 0.84, 0.69, 0.82, respectively. For overall distraction detection, it achieved F1-score of 0.74. The whole framework ran at 28 frames per second. The algorithm achieved comparable overall accuracy with similar research, and was more efficient than other methods. A demo video for the algorithm can be found at https://youtu.be/NKclK1bHRd4.
       
  • Past behaviours and future intentions: An examination of perceptual
           deterrence and alcohol consumption upon a range of drink driving events
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): James Freeman, Alexander Parkes, Naomi Lewis, Jeremy D. Davey, Kerry A. Armstrong, Verity TrueloveAbstractIntroductionThe threat of application of legal sanctions remains the prominent approach to reduce the prevalence of drink driving in a vast array of motoring jurisdictions. However, ongoing questions remain regarding: (a) the extent that such mechanisms impact upon offending behaviours, (b) the deleterious effect alcohol consumption has on decisions to drink and drive and (c) how best to operationalise (and measure) the concept of drink driving to enhance the accurate measurement of the dependent variable.MethodThis paper reports on an examination of 773 Queensland motorists' (across nine local government areas) perceptions of both legal and non-legal drink driving sanctions (as well as alcohol consumption) in order to gauge the deterrent impact upon a range of measures of drink driving: the driver thinking they are over the limit, the driver knowing they are over the limit, attempts to evade random breath testing, and intentions to re-offend. The sample completed an online or paper version of the questionnaire.ResultsThe majority of participants reported “never” engaging in “possible” (74.5 %) or “acknowledged” (83.4 %) drink driving events, although a considerable proportion of the sample reported engaging in “possible” (25.5 %) or “acknowledged” (16.6 %) drink driving and attempting to evade RBT (18 %) events, as well as possible intentions to drink and drive in the future (22 %). Males were more likely to report such events. Perceptions of both legal sanctions (certainty, severity and swiftness) as well as non-legal sanctions (fear of social, internal or physical harm) were relatively high and consistent with previous research. Interestingly, non-legal sanctions were reported as stronger deterrents than legal sanctions. However, multivariate analysis revealed that legal deterrents had limited utility predicting offending behaviours, but rather, demographic characteristics (e.g., younger motorists, males) as well as risky drinking behaviour were better predictors. In regards to intentions to offend, a past conviction for drink driving was also a predictor of re-offending.Practical applicationsThese results highlight the ongoing challenges of addressing the problem of drink driving and that some motorists: (a) have entrenched behaviour and/or (b) make the decision to drink and drive before they are under the influence of alcohol.
       
  • A composite zonal index for biking attractiveness and safety
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Mohamed Bayoumi Kamel, Tarek Sayed, Alexander BigazziAbstractZonal characteristics (e.g. built environment, network configuration, socio-demographics, and land use) have been shown to affect biking attractiveness and safety. However, previously developed bikeability indices do not account for cyclist-vehicle crash risk. This study aims to develop a comprehensive zone-based index to represent both biking attractiveness and cyclist crash risk. The developed Bike Composite Index (BCI) consists of two sub-indices representing bike attractiveness and bike safety, which are estimated using Bike Kilometers Travelled (BKT) and cyclist-vehicle crash data from 134 traffic analysis zones (TAZ) in the City of Vancouver, Canada. The Bike Attractiveness Index is calculated from five factors: bike network density, centrality, and weighted slope as well as land use mix and recreational density. The Bike Safety Index is calculated from bike network coverage, continuity, and complexity as well as signal density and recreational density. The correlation between the Bike Attractiveness Index and the Bike Safety Index in Vancouver is low (r = 0.11), supporting the need to account for both biking attractiveness and safety in the composite index.
       
  • A novel skateboarder-related near-crash identification method with
           roadside LiDAR data
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2020Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 137Author(s): Jianqing Wu, Yongsheng Zhang, Hao XuAbstractSkateboarding is being an emerging travel model, especially for young travelers. The conflict between skateboarders and the other road users has raised safety concerns for traffic engineers. Safety evaluation about skateboarder-related conflicts has not been well performed due to the low skateboarder-related crashes and the limited historical crash data. Near-crashes have been considered as surrogate data for skateboard-related safety evaluation. This paper developed a procedure to extract skateboarder-associated near-crashes automatically with the roadside Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). A new indicator: distance-deceleration-time profile (DDTP) which combined time, space, and deceleration information was introduced for skateboarder-pedestrian near-crash identification. The DDTP was developed for the roadside LiDAR data specially. The case studies showed that the proposed method can extract skateboarder-pedestrian safety-critical events with high accuracy. The proposed method can be also used for skateboarder-vehicle and skateboarder-bicycle near-crash identification.
       
 
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