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Showing 1 - 200 of 3118 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 89, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 371, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 366, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 334, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 446, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 202, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Accident Analysis & Prevention
  [SJR: 1.109]   [H-I: 94]   [89 followers]  Follow
   Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
   ISSN (Print) 0001-4575
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3118 journals]
  • Perceptions, intentions and behavioral norms that affect pre-license
           driving among Arab youth in Israel
    • Authors: Anat Gesser-Edelsburg; Mina Zemach; Tsippy Lotan; Wafa Elias; Einat Grimberg
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Anat Gesser-Edelsburg, Mina Zemach, Tsippy Lotan, Wafa Elias, Einat Grimberg
      The present study examines reported pre-license driving among youth from the population of Arab citizens of Israel. The purpose of the present study is to examine which sociodemographic variables, attitudes and perceptions about safe driving and individual and societal behavioral norms are associated with pre-license driving. The research distinguished between the factors that actually contribute to pre-license driving (reported behavior, peer norms, gender and parents' messages) and the factors that explain the intention (parental authority, social norms, parents' messages and fear of road crashes). Even though there was a significant partial overlap (84%) between those who intend to drive without a license and those who reported driving without a license, the main factors that distinguish pre-license driving groups are different from the factors that distinguish the intention to drive before receiving a license. What is unique about the findings is the identification of the context in which social norms are influential and that in which parental authority is influential. The study indicated that in the case of pre-license driving, the main motivating factor is subjective norms, whereas in the case of expecting to drive without a license, the main motivating factor is the interaction between parental authority and the messages that parents convey. While actual behavior pertains to the behavioral level, we argue that intended behavior pertains to the cognitive level. At this level, rational considerations arise, such as fear of parental punishment and fear of accidents. These considerations compete with the influence of friends and their norms, and may outweigh them. The findings suggest that it is important to safeguard youth against the influence of peer pressure as early as the stage of behavioral intentions. Follow-up studies can simulate situations of pre-license driving due to social pressure and identify the factors that might affect young people’s decision-making. Moreover, providing parents with training before the accompaniment period is highly recommended.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T16:28:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Analysis of crash proportion by vehicle type at traffic analysis zone
           level: A mixed fractional split multinomial logit modeling approach with
           spatial effects
    • Authors: Jaeyoung Lee; Shamsunnahar Yasmin; Naveen Eluru; Mohamed Abdel-Aty; Qing Cai
      Pages: 12 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Jaeyoung Lee, Shamsunnahar Yasmin, Naveen Eluru, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Qing Cai
      In traffic safety literature, crash frequency variables are analyzed using univariate count models or multivariate count models. In this study, we propose an alternative approach to modeling multiple crash frequency dependent variables. Instead of modeling the frequency of crashes we propose to analyze the proportion of crashes by vehicle type. A flexible mixed multinomial logit fractional split model is employed for analyzing the proportions of crashes by vehicle type at the macro-level. In this model, the proportion allocated to an alternative is probabilistically determined based on the alternative propensity as well as the propensity of all other alternatives. Thus, exogenous variables directly affect all alternatives. The approach is well suited to accommodate for large number of alternatives without a sizable increase in computational burden. The model was estimated using crash data at Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) level from Florida. The modeling results clearly illustrate the applicability of the proposed framework for crash proportion analysis. Further, the Excess Predicted Proportion (EPP)—a screening performance measure analogous to Highway Safety Manual (HSM), Excess Predicted Average Crash Frequency is proposed for hot zone identification. Using EPP, a statewide screening exercise by the various vehicle types considered in our analysis was undertaken. The screening results revealed that the spatial pattern of hot zones is substantially different across the various vehicle types considered.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T16:28:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.017
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Interactive risk analysis on crash injury severity at a mountainous
           freeway with tunnel groups in China
    • Authors: Helai Huang; Yunying Peng; Jie Wang; Qizhang Luo; Xiang Li
      Pages: 56 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Helai Huang, Yunying Peng, Jie Wang, Qizhang Luo, Xiang Li
      Traffic safety of freeways has attracted major concerns, especially for a mountainous freeway affected by adverse terrain conditions, constrained roadway geometry and complicated driving environments. On the basis of a comprehensive dataset collected from a mountainous freeway with a length of 61km but gathering 12 tunnels, this study seeks to examining the interactive effect of mountainous freeway alignment, driving behaviors, vehicle characteristics and environmental factors on crash severity. A classification and regression tree (CART) model is employed as it can deal with high-order interactions between explanatory variables. Results show that the driving behavior is the most important determinant for injury severity of mountainous freeway crashes, followed by the crash time, grade, curve radius and vehicle type. These variables, interacted with the factors of season and crash location, may largely account for the likelihood of high risk events which may result in severe crashes. Events associated with a notably higher probability of severe crashes include coach drivers involved in improper lane changing and other improper actions, drivers involved in speeding during afternoon or evening, drivers involved in speeding along large curve and straight segment during morning, noon or night, and drivers involved in fatigue while passing along the downgrade. Safety interventions to prevent severe crashes at the mountainous freeway include hierarchical supervision in terms of hazardous driving events, enhanced enforcement for speeding and fatigue driving, deployment of advanced driving assistance systems for fatigue driving warning, and cumulative driving time monitoring for long-distance-travel freight vehicles.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T16:28:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.024
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Evaluating the effect of lane width and roadside configurations on speed,
           lateral position and likelihood of comfortable overtaking in exclusive
           motorcycle lane
    • Authors: Mohd Khairul Alhapiz Ibrahim; Hussain Hamid; Teik Hua Law; Shaw Voon Wong
      Pages: 63 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Mohd Khairul Alhapiz Ibrahim, Hussain Hamid, Teik Hua Law, Shaw Voon Wong
      Construction of exclusive motorcycle lanes is one of the measures to reduce motorcycle fatalities. Previous studies highlighted the risk of crashes with roadside objects and the tendency of motorcyclists to ride with excessive speed on exclusive motorcycle lanes. However, the risk of same-direction crashes on exclusive motorcycle lanes was not explored in much detail, especially on the impact of lane geometry and roadside configurations. This study used naturalistic riding data to determine the effects of lane width and roadside configurations on overtaking speed, lateral position and likelihood of comfortable overtaking on tangential sections of an exclusive motorcycle lane. Twenty-nine recruited motorcyclists rode the instrumented motorcycles along a 20km stretch of an exclusive motorcycle lane along a major urban road. Results revealed that both the roadside configurations and lane width significantly affect the participants’ lateral position, while the roadside configurations only affects the overtaking speed. Participants’ overtaking speeds and the front motorcycles’ lateral position contribute significantly to the likelihood of comfortable overtaking in exclusive motorcycle lanes. The findings highlight the importance of micro-level behavior indicators in improving the design and overall safety of the exclusive motorcycle facility.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T16:28:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.023
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Barrier-relevant crash modification factors and average costs of crashes
           on arterial roads in Indiana
    • Authors: Yaotian Zou; Andrew P. Tarko
      Pages: 71 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Yaotian Zou, Andrew P. Tarko
      The objective of this study was to develop crash modification factors (CMFs) and estimate the average crash costs applicable to a wide range of road-barrier scenarios that involved three types of road barriers (concrete barriers, W-beam guardrails, and high-tension cable barriers) to produce a suitable basis for comparing barrier-oriented design alternatives and road improvements. The intention was to perform the most comprehensive and in-depth analysis allowed by the cross-sectional method and the crash data available in Indiana. To accomplish this objective and to use the available data efficiently, the effects of barrier were estimated on the frequency of barrier-relevant (BR) crashes, the types of harmful events and their occurrence during a BR crash, and the severity of BR crash outcomes. The harmful events component added depth to the analysis by connecting the crash onset with its outcome. Further improvement of the analysis was accomplished by considering the crash outcome severity of all the individuals involved in a crash and not just drivers, utilizing hospital data, and pairing the observations with and without road barriers along same or similar road segments to better control the unobserved heterogeneity. This study confirmed that the total number of BR crashes tended to be higher where medians had installed barriers, mainly due to collisions with barriers and, in some cases, with other vehicles after redirecting vehicles back to traffic. These undesirable effects of barriers were surpassed by the positive results of reducing cross-median crashes, rollover events, and collisions with roadside hazards. The average cost of a crash (unit cost) was reduced by 50% with cable barriers installed in medians wider than 50ft. A similar effect was concluded for concrete barriers and guardrails installed in medians narrower than 50ft. The studied roadside guardrails also reduced the unit cost by 20%–30%. Median cable barriers were found to be the most effective among all the studied barriers due to the smaller increase in the crash frequency caused by these barriers and the less severe injury outcomes. More specifically, the occupants of vehicles colliding with near-side cable barriers tended to have less severe injuries than occupants of vehicles entering the median from median’s farther side. The near-side cable barriers provided protection against rollover inside the median and against a potentially dangerous collision with or running over the median drain; therefore, the greatest safety benefit can be expected where cable barriers are installed at both edges of the median. The CMFs and unit crash costs for 48 road-barrier scenarios produced in this study are included in this paper.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T16:28:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.020
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Correlates of fatality risk of vulnerable road users in Delhi
    • Authors: Rahul Goel; Parth Jain; Geetam Tiwari
      Pages: 86 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Rahul Goel, Parth Jain, Geetam Tiwari
      Pedestrians, cyclists, and users of motorised two-wheelers account for more than 85% of all the road fatality victims in Delhi. The three categories are often referred to as vulnerable road users (VRUs). Using Bayesian hierarchical approach with a Poisson-lognormal regression model, we present spatial analysis of road fatalities of VRUs with wards as areal units. The model accounts for spatially uncorrelated as well as correlated error. The explanatory variables include demographic factors, traffic characteristics, as well as built environment features. We found that fatality risk has a negative association with socio-economic status (literacy rate), population density, and number of roundabouts, and has a positive association with percentage of population as workers, number of bus stops, number of flyovers (grade separators), and vehicle kilometers travelled. The negative effect of roundabouts, though statistically insignificant, is in accordance with their speed calming effects for which they have been used to replace signalised junctions in various parts of the world. Fatality risk is 80% higher at the density of 50 persons per hectare (pph) than at overall city-wide density of 250 pph. The presence of a flyover increases the relative risk by 15% compared to no flyover. Future studies should investigate the causal mechanism through which denser neighborhoods become safer. Given the risk posed by flyovers, their use as congestion mitigation measure should be discontinued within urban areas.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T16:28:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.023
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Analyzing crash frequency in freeway tunnels: A correlated random
           parameters approach
    • Authors: Qinzhong Hou; Andrew P. Tarko; Xianghai Meng
      Pages: 94 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Qinzhong Hou, Andrew P. Tarko, Xianghai Meng
      The majority of past road safety studies focused on open road segments while only a few focused on tunnels. Moreover, the past tunnel studies produced some inconsistent results about the safety effects of the traffic patterns, the tunnel design, and the pavement conditions. The effects of these conditions therefore remain unknown, especially for freeway tunnels in China. The study presented in this paper investigated the safety effects of these various factors utilizing a four-year period (2009–2012) of data as well as three models: 1) a random effects negative binomial model (RENB), 2) an uncorrelated random parameters negative binomial model (URPNB), and 3) a correlated random parameters negative binomial model (CRPNB). Of these three, the results showed that the CRPNB model provided better goodness-of-fit and offered more insights into the factors that contribute to tunnel safety. The CRPNB was not only able to allocate the part of the otherwise unobserved heterogeneity to the individual model parameters but also was able to estimate the cross-correlations between these parameters. Furthermore, the study results showed that traffic volume, tunnel length, proportion of heavy trucks, curvature, and pavement rutting were associated with higher frequencies of traffic crashes, while the distance to the tunnel wall, distance to the adjacent tunnel, distress ratio, International Roughness Index (IRI), and friction coefficient were associated with lower crash frequencies. In addition, the effects of the heterogeneity of the proportion of heavy trucks, the curvature, the rutting depth, and the friction coefficient were identified and their inter-correlations were analyzed.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T15:26:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.018
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Monitoring city wide patterns of cycling safety
    • Authors: Darren Boss; Trisalyn Nelson; Meghan Winters
      Pages: 101 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Darren Boss, Trisalyn Nelson, Meghan Winters
      Many cities are making significant financial investments in cycling infrastructure with the aim of making cycling safer for riders of all ages and abilities. Methods for evaluating cycling safety tend to summarize average change for a city or emphasize change on a single road segment. Few spatially explicit approaches are available to evaluate how patterns of safety change throughout a city due to cycling infrastructure investments or other changes. Our goal is to demonstrate a method for monitoring changes in the spatial-temporal distribution of cycling incidents across a city. Using cycling incident data provided by the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia, we first compare planar versus network constrained kernel density estimation for visualizing incident intensity across the street network of Vancouver, Canada. Second, we apply a change detection algorithm explicitly designed for detecting statistically significant change in kernel density estimates. The utility of network kernel density change detection is demonstrated through the comparison of cycling incident densities following the construction of two cycle tracks in the downtown core of Vancouver. The methods developed and demonstrated for this study provide city planners, transportation engineers and researchers a means of monitoring city-wide change in the intensity of cycling incidents following enhancements to cycling infrastructure or other significant changes to the transportation network.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T15:26:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Cross or wait' Pedestrian decision making during clearance phase at
           signalized intersections
    • Authors: Xiangling Zhuang; Changxu Wu; Shu Ma
      Pages: 115 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Xiangling Zhuang, Changxu Wu, Shu Ma
      Pedestrians arriving at clearance phase (Flashing Don’t Walk) face different levels of risk depending on behavioral choice afterwards. However, few studies have focused on the choices pedestrians make during this phase. This field study analyzed pedestrian choices after arrival, evaluated safety of the choices, and built a model to identify the predictors of pedestrian choices. It was found that pedestrians arriving during clearance phase made dynamic decisions based on the changing contexts. Specifically, the majority made the decision to “cross” as opposed to “wait” (85.2% vs. 14.8% respectively), although only the latter choice is legal. Seventy-nine percent of the pedestrians did not finish crossing the intersection before the traffic light turned red, and they walked 41% of the road width during a red light. For those waited, roughly half of them waited until green or crossed at an intersecting crosswalk, while others finally started on red light. Nevertheless, the waited pedestrians still faced lower risk than those crossed prematurely in terms of running behaviors, and conflicts with vehicles. Pedestrians are more likely to cross immediately after arrival when they are younger, are not engaged in secondary tasks, arrived at a position farther from approaching vehicles at the near side of the road, or arrived at a time when there are more pedestrians crossing the road. Although fewer pedestrians choose to cross when the required speed is higher (due to a wider road or less remaining time), the required speed they choose to cross at is far higher than their actual speed. These findings are essential for realistic pedestrian simulations and targeted safety countermeasures. They also imply the need for changes to certain traffic regulations and signal design to facilitate safe decision making at clearance phase.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T15:26:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.019
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Longitudinal safety evaluation of electric vehicles with the partial
           wireless charging lane on freeways
    • Authors: Ye Li; Wei Wang; Lu Xing; Qi Fan; Hao Wang
      Pages: 133 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Ye Li, Wei Wang, Lu Xing, Qi Fan, Hao Wang
      As an environment friendly transportation mode, the electric vehicle (EV) has drawn an increasing amount of attention from governments, vehicle manufactories and researchers recently. One of the biggest issue impeding EV’s popularization associates with the charging process. The wireless charging lane (WCL) has been proposed as a convenient charging facility for EVs. Due to the high costs, the application of WCL on the entire freeways is impractical in the near future, while the partial WCL (PWCL) may be a feasible solution. This study aims to evaluate longitudinal safety of EVs with PWCL on freeways based on simulations. The simulation experiments are firstly designed, including deployment of PWCL on freeways and distribution of state of charge (SOC) of EVs. Then, a vehicle behavior model for EVs is proposed based on the intelligent driver model (IDM). Two surrogate safety measures, derived from time-to-collision (TTC), are utilized as indicators for safety evaluations. Sensitivity analysis is also conducted for related factors. Results show that the distribution of EVs’ SOC significantly affect longitudinal safety when the PWCL is utilized. The low SOC in traffic consisting of EVs has the negative effect on longitudinal safety. The randomness and incompliance of EV drivers worsens the safety performance. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the larger maximum deceleration rate results in the higher longitudinal crash risks of EVs, while the length of PWCL has no monotonous effect. Different TTC thresholds also show no impact on results. A case study shows the consistent results. Based on the findings, several suggestions are discussed for EVs’ safety improvement. Results of this study provide useful information for freeway safety when EVs are applied in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T15:26:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.036
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Accident frequency and unrealistic optimism: Children’s assessment
           of risk
    • Authors: Mary Sissons Joshi; Morag Maclean; Claire Stevens
      Pages: 142 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Mary Sissons Joshi, Morag Maclean, Claire Stevens
      Accidental injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity among children, warranting research on their risk perceptions. Three hundred and seven children aged 10–11 years assessed the frequency, danger and personal risk likelihood of 8 accidents. Two social-cognitive biases were manifested. The frequency of rare accidents (e.g. drowning) was overestimated, and the frequency of common accidents (e.g. bike accidents) underestimated; and the majority of children showed unrealistic optimism tending to see themselves as less likely to suffer these accidents in comparison to their peers, offering superior skills or parental control of the environment as an explanation. In the case of pedestrian accidents, children recognised their seriousness, underestimated the frequency of this risk and regarded their own road crossing skill as protection. These findings highlight the challenging task facing safety educators who, when teaching conventional safety knowledge and routines, also need to alert children to the danger of over-confidence without disabling them though fear.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T15:26:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.034
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Identifying traffic accident black spots with Poisson-Tweedie models
    • Authors: Birgit Debrabant; Ulrich Halekoh; Wagner Hugo Bonat; Dennis L. Hansen; Jacob Hjelmborg; Jens Lauritsen
      Pages: 147 - 154
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Birgit Debrabant, Ulrich Halekoh, Wagner Hugo Bonat, Dennis L. Hansen, Jacob Hjelmborg, Jens Lauritsen
      This paper aims at the identification of black spots for traffic accidents, i.e. locations with accident counts beyond what is usual for similar locations, using spatially and temporally aggregated hospital records from Funen, Denmark. Specifically, we apply an autoregressive Poisson–Tweedie model, which covers a wide range of discrete distributions and handles zero-inflation as well as overdispersion. The estimated power parameter of the model was 1.6 (SE =0.06) suggesting a distribution close to the Pólya-Aeppli distribution. We identified nine black spots consistently standing out in all six considered calendar years and calculated by simulations a probability of p =0.03 for these to be chance findings. Altogether, our results recommend these sites for further investigation and suggest that our simple approach could play a role in future area based traffic accident prevention planning.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T15:26:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.021
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Analysis of passenger-car crash injury severity in different work zone
    • Authors: Mohamed Osman; Rajesh Paleti; Sabyasachee Mishra
      Pages: 161 - 172
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Mohamed Osman, Rajesh Paleti, Sabyasachee Mishra
      Work zone safety remains a priority to the Federal Highway Administration, State Highway Departments, highway engineers, and the traveling public. Work zones create a hospitable environment for crashes; an issue that gained tremendous share of attention in recent years. Therefore, every effort should be sought out to reduce the injury severity of crashes in work zones. In this paper we attempt to investigate factors contributing to the injury severity of passenger-car crashes in different work zone configurations. Considering the discrete ordinal nature of injury severity categories, a Mixed Generalized Ordered Response Probit (MGORP) modeling framework was developed. The model estimation was undertaken by compiling a database consisting of 10 years of crashes that involved at least one passenger car, and occurred in a work zone. Revealing the underlying factors contributing to injury severity levels for different work zone configurations will allow for distinguishing mitigation methods for higher severity outcomes that best suit each of the depicted work zone layouts. This can be accomplished through the implementation of specific safety measures based on the specific configuration of a work zone as a potential crash location. Elasticity analysis suggests that partial control of access, roadways classified as rural, crashes during evening times, crashes during weekends, and curved roadways are key factors that increase the likelihood of severe outcomes. Also, the effects of several covariates were found to vary across the different work zone configurations.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T15:26:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.026
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Mandatory helmet legislation as a policy tool for reducing motorcycle
           fatalities: Pinpointing the efficacy of universal helmet laws
    • Authors: Jonathan M. Lee
      Pages: 173 - 183
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Jonathan M. Lee
      This study uses repeated cross-sections of individual level crash data to study the effectiveness of motorcycle helmet legislation. Results suggest that motorcycle helmet laws reduce average individual fatality risks by 20.5%. From a policy standpoint, large states such as Florida and Texas can reduce annual motorcycle fatalities by an average 100 deaths through reinstating universal helmet laws. Valuing these fatality reductions at the U.S. DOT suggested $9.4 million value of a statistical life yields aggregate annual state benefits of approximately $940 million. The effectiveness of helmet legislation can be attributed to the technological efficacy of helmets as well as enhancing behavior in the form of reduced risk taking among motorcyclists. Specifically, motorcyclists who use helmets in order to comply with mandatory helmet laws are 29.8% less likely to receive a traffic citation for risky driving behavior (speeding, alcohol, etc.), travel at a 6 mph lower average speed, and have a 47.4% reduction in the probability of “severely” damaging their motorcycle in a crash.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T15:26:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.042
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Burden of injury of serious road injuries in six EU countries
    • Authors: Wendy Weijermars; Niels Bos; Ashleigh Filtness; Laurie Brown; Robert Bauer; Emmanuelle Dupont; Jean Louis Martin; Katherine Perez; Pete Thomas
      Pages: 184 - 192
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Wendy Weijermars, Niels Bos, Ashleigh Filtness, Laurie Brown, Robert Bauer, Emmanuelle Dupont, Jean Louis Martin, Katherine Perez, Pete Thomas
      Background Information about the burden of (non-fatal) road traffic injury is very useful to further improve road safety policy. Previous studies calculated the burden of injury in individual countries. This paper estimates and compares the burden of non-fatal serious road traffic injuries in six EU countries/regions: Austria, Belgium, England, The Netherlands, the Rhône region in France and Spain. Methods It is a cross-sectional study based on hospital discharge databases. Population of study are patients hospitalized with MAIS3+ due to road traffic injuries. The burden of injury (expressed in years lived with disability (YLD)) is calculated applying a method that is developed within the INTEGRIS study. The method assigns estimated disability information to the casualties using the EUROCOST injury classification. Results The average burden per MAIS3+ casualty varies between 2.4 YLD and 3.2 YLD per casualty. About 90% of the total burden of injury of MAIS3+ casualties is due to lifelong consequences that are experienced by 19% to 33% of the MAIS3+ casualties. Head injuries, spinal cord injuries and injuries to the lower extremities are responsible for more than 90% of the total burden of MAIS3+ road traffic injuries. Results per transport mode differ between the countries. Differences between countries are mainly due to differences in age distribution and in the distribution over EUROCOST injury groups of the casualties. Conclusion The analyses presented in this paper can support further improvement of road safety policy. Countermeasures could for example be focused at reducing skull and brain injuries, spinal cord injuries and injuries to the lower extremities, as these injuries are responsible for more than 90% of the total burden of injury of MAIS3+ casualties.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T15:26:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.040
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Good distractions: Testing the effects of listening to an audiobook on
           driving performance in simple and complex road environments
    • Authors: Robert J. Nowosielski; Lana M. Trick; Ryan Toxopeus
      Pages: 202 - 209
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Robert J. Nowosielski, Lana M. Trick, Ryan Toxopeus
      Distracted driving (driving while performing a secondary task) causes many collisions. Most research on distracted driving has focused on operating a cell-phone, but distracted driving can include eating while driving, conversing with passengers or listening to music or audiobooks. Although the research has focused on the deleterious effects of distraction, there may be situations where distraction improves driving performance. Fatigue and boredom are also associated with collision risk and it is possible that secondary tasks can help alleviate the effects of fatigue and boredom. Furthermore, it has been found that individuals with high levels of executive functioning as measured by the OSPAN (Operation Span) task show better driving while multitasking. In this study, licensed drivers were tested in a driving simulator (a car body surrounded by screens) that simulated simple or complex roads. Road complexity was manipulated by increasing traffic, scenery, and the number of curves in the drive. Participants either drove, or drove while listening to an audiobook. Driving performance was measured in terms of braking response time to hazards (HRT): the time required to brake in response to pedestrians or vehicles that suddenly emerged from the periphery into the path of the vehicle, speed, standard deviation of speed, standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). Overall, braking times to hazards were higher on the complex drive than the simple one, though the effects of secondary tasks such as audiobooks were especially deleterious on the complex drive. In contrast, on the simple drive, driving while listening to an audiobook lead to faster HRT. We found evidence that individuals with high OSPAN scores had faster HRTs when listening to an audiobook. These results suggest that there are environmental and individual factors behind difference in the allocation of attention while listening to audiobooks while driving.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T15:26:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.033
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • A questionnaire survey on road rage and anger-provoking situations in
    • Authors: Xiaolin Wu; Yan Wang; Zhongyi Peng; Qun Chen
      Pages: 210 - 221
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Xiaolin Wu, Yan Wang, Zhongyi Peng, Qun Chen
      This paper surveys the reactions of Chinese drivers when encountering anger-provoking situations, including traffic congestion, pedestrians crossing the street illegally, being flashed by the high beams of cars traveling in the opposite direction, aberrant overtaking by other cars and when the car ahead drives slowly. A questionnaire survey found that 69.4% of participants wait when encountering traffic congestion and that 71% of drivers tolerate pedestrians crossing the street illegally; moreover, 61.3% of drivers are “angry but tolerant” when encountering aberrant overtaking. However, 51.3% of drivers become enraged when flashed by the high beams of cars traveling in the opposite direction, and 34.1% of participants turn on their own high beams to fight back. Moreover, 61.4% of participants are dissatisfied when the car ahead drives slowly or fails to move when a traffic light turns green, and 53% of participants honk or flash their lights to prompt the driver of the car ahead. The results show that males become irritated more easily than females in all situations, except those in which pedestrians cross the street illegally. Age is a factor only when drivers are flashed by high beams or overtaken by other cars illegally. Driving experience has an effect when drivers encounter traffic congestion, are flashed by high beams, or are overtaken by other cars illegally or when the car ahead drives slowly; novices with fewer than two years of driving experience display greater tolerance for these events. The occupation of a driver acts on his/her responses when he/she is overtaken by other cars illegally or flashed by high beams or when pedestrians cross the street illegally. For the most effective measures to prevent road rage, 53.64% of participants chose “plan the trip in advance”, 57.14% chose “strengthen law enforcement”, and 71.5% chose “improve public transportation”. Females, young people, and novices pay more attention to these measures.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T15:26:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • What technologies do people engage with while driving and why'
    • Authors: Katie J. Parnell; Neville A. Stanton; Katherine L. Plant
      Pages: 222 - 237
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Katie J. Parnell, Neville A. Stanton, Katherine L. Plant
      This paper presents the findings of a semi-structured interview study that was conducted to identify drivers’ self-reported likelihood of engaging with technologies that are now commonly found in modern automobiles. Previous research has focused on the effect these technological tasks have on driving performance, but there has been less focus on how, why and when drivers choose to engage with them. As distraction remains a significant contributor to road accidents, an understanding of why it occurs will give important insights into how it can be prevented. A semi-structured interview schedule was developed to allow drivers to discuss the factors that influence their decision to engage with a variety of different technologies. The methodology facilitated both quantitative ratings of the drivers’ likelihood of engaging in a variety of tasks and qualitative insights into why. Age and gender had some influence on the propensity to engage, in line with other findings in the literature, as did road type and task type. The reasons drivers gave for why they engage with potentially distracting tasks inform recommendations for preventing distraction related accidents from the increasingly prevalent sources of technologies available to drivers.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T13:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Modelling how drivers respond to a bicyclist crossing their path at an
           intersection: How do test track and driving simulator compare'
    • Authors: Christian-Nils Boda; Marco Dozza; Katarina Bohman; Prateek Thalya; Annika Larsson; Nils Lubbe
      Pages: 238 - 250
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Christian-Nils Boda, Marco Dozza, Katarina Bohman, Prateek Thalya, Annika Larsson, Nils Lubbe
      Bicyclist fatalities are a great concern in the European Union. Most of them are due to crashes between motorized vehicles and bicyclists at unsignalised intersections. Different countermeasures are currently being developed and implemented in order to save lives. One type of countermeasure, active safety systems, requires a deep understanding of driver behaviour to be effective without being annoying. The current study provides new knowledge about driver behaviour which can inform assessment programmes for active safety systems such as Euro NCAP. This study investigated how drivers responded to bicyclists crossing their path at an intersection. The influences of car speed and cyclist speed on the driver response process were assessed for three different crossing configurations. The same experimental protocol was tested in a fixed-base driving simulator and on a test track. A virtual model of the test track was used in the driving simulator to keep the protocol as consistent as possible across testing environments. Results show that neither car speed nor bicycle speed directly influenced the response process. The crossing configuration did not directly influence the braking response process either, but it did influence the strategy chosen by the drivers to approach the intersection. The point in time when the bicycle became visible (which depended on the car speed, the bicycle speed, and the crossing configuration) and the crossing configuration alone had the largest effects on the driver response process. Dissimilarities between test-track and driving-simulator studies were found; however, there were also interesting similarities, especially in relation to the driver braking behaviour. Drivers followed the same strategy to initiate braking, independent of the test environment. On the other hand, the test environment affected participants’ strategies for releasing the gas pedal and regulating deceleration. Finally, a mathematical model, based on both experiments, is proposed to characterize driver braking behaviour in response to bicyclists crossing at intersections. This model has direct implications on what variables an in-vehicle safety system should consider and how tests in evaluation programs should be designed.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T13:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.032
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Understanding international road safety disparities: Why is Australia so
           much safer than the United States'
    • Authors: Wesley E. Marshall
      Pages: 251 - 265
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Wesley E. Marshall
      Despite similarities to the US in terms of transportation, land use, and culture, Australia kills 5.3 people per 100,000 population on the roads each year, as compared to the US rate of 12.4. Similar trends hold when accounting for distance driven and the number of registered cars. This paper seeks to understand what is behind the road safety disparities between these two countries. The results suggest that a number of inter-related factors seem to play a role in the better road safety outcomes of Australia as compared to the US. This includes Australia’s strategies related to seat belt usage and impaired driving as well as their efforts to help curb vehicle speeds and reduce exposure. Design-related differences include a much greater reliance on roundabouts and narrower street cross-sections as well as guidelines that encourage self-enforcing roads. Policy-related differences include stronger and more extensive enforcement programs, restrictive licensing programs, and higher driving costs. Combined with a more urban population and multimodal infrastructure, Australia tends to discourage driving mileage and exposure while encouraging safer modes of transportation such as transit, at least more so than in most of the US. Australia also enacted their version of Vision Zero – called the Safe System Approach – more than a decade before similar policies began cropping up in US cities. While it is difficult to attribute recent road safety successes to any specific policy, Australia continues to expand their lead on the US in terms of safety outcomes and is a road safety example worthy of consideration.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T13:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.031
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Analysis and comparison of safety models using average daily, average
           hourly, and microscopic traffic
    • Authors: Ling Wang; Mohamed Abdel-Aty; Xuesong Wang; Rongjie Yu
      Pages: 271 - 279
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Ling Wang, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Xuesong Wang, Rongjie Yu
      There have been plenty of traffic safety studies based on average daily traffic (ADT), average hourly traffic (AHT), or microscopic traffic at 5 min intervals. Nevertheless, not enough research has compared the performance of these three types of safety studies, and seldom of previous studies have intended to find whether the results of one type of study is transferable to the other two studies. First, this study built three models: a Bayesian Poisson-lognormal model to estimate the daily crash frequency using ADT, a Bayesian Poisson-lognormal model to estimate the hourly crash frequency using AHT, and a Bayesian logistic regression model for the real-time safety analysis using microscopic traffic. The model results showed that the crash contributing factors found by different models were comparable but not the same. Four variables, i.e., the logarithm of volume, the standard deviation of speed, the logarithm of segment length, and the existence of diverge segment, were positively significant in the three models. Additionally, weaving segments experienced higher daily and hourly crash frequencies than merge and basic segments. Then, each of the ADT-based, AHT-based, and real-time models was used to estimate safety conditions at different levels: daily and hourly, meanwhile, the real-time model was also used in 5 min intervals. The results uncovered that the ADT- and AHT-based safety models performed similar in predicting daily and hourly crash frequencies, and the real-time safety model was able to provide hourly crash frequency.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T13:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Exploring the relationships between drivers’ familiarity and two-lane
           rural road accidents. A multi-level study
    • Authors: Paolo Intini; Nicola Berloco; Pasquale Colonna; Vittorio Ranieri; Eirin Ryeng
      Pages: 280 - 296
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Paolo Intini, Nicola Berloco, Pasquale Colonna, Vittorio Ranieri, Eirin Ryeng
      Previous research has suggested that drivers’ route familiarity/unfamiliarity (using different definitions of familiarity), and the interactions between familiar and unfamiliar drivers, may affect both the driving performances and the likelihood of road crashes. The purpose of this study is to provide a contribution in the search for relationships between familiarity and crashes by: 1) introducing a measure of familiarity based on the distance from residence; 2) analyzing a traffic and accident dataset referred to rural two-lane sections of the Norwegian highways E6 and E39; 3) using a multi-level approach, based on different perspectives, from a macro analysis to more detailed levels. In the macro analyses, the accident rates computed for different seasons and for different summer traffic variation rates (used as indicators of the share of familiar drivers in the flow) were performed. At the second level, a logistic regression model was used to explain the familiarity/unfamiliarity of drivers (based on their distance from residence), through variables retrieved from the database. In the last step, an in-depth analysis considering also accident types and dynamics was conducted. In the macro analysis, no differences were found between accident rates in the different conditions. Whereas, as emerged from the detailed analyses, the factors: high traffic volume, low summer traffic variation, autumn/winter, minor intersections/driveways, speed limits <80 km/h, travel purposes (commuting/not working) are associated to higher odds of having familiar drivers involved in crashes; while the factors: high traffic volume, high summer traffic variation, summer, head on/rear end-angle crashes, heavy vehicles involved, travel purposes (not commuting), young drivers involved are associated to higher odds of finding unfamiliar drivers involved. To a minor extent, some indications arise from the in-depth analyses about crash types and dynamics, especially for familiar drivers. With regard to the definitions used in this article, the familiarity was confirmed as an influential factor on the accident risk, possibly due to distraction and dangerous behaviors, while the influence of being unfamiliar on the accident proneness has some unclarified aspects. However, crashes to unfamiliar drivers may cluster at sites showing high summer traffic variation and in summer months.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T13:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.013
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Cyclist-related content in novice driver education and training
    • Authors: Jennifer Bonham; Marilyn Johnson
      Pages: 321 - 327
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Jennifer Bonham, Marilyn Johnson
      In Australia, the increasing public profile and policy interest in cycling contrasts with variable cycling participation rates across jurisdictions (Australian Bicycle Council, 2017) and lack of cyclist-specific infrastructure. Cyclists and drivers often share road space, usually without indication from the built environment about how to maximise each other’s safety and utility. Yet despite this regular interaction, cyclists are largely absent from the driver licensing process in Australia. That is, novice drivers are not taught how to share the road with cyclists. This case study used a mixed methods approach to examine the cyclist-related content in the Graduated Driver Licensing System (GDLS) in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). The case study was conducted in four stages: 1) content analysis of all documents used through the GDLS; 2) observations of the Road Ready course and learner driver lessons; 3) online survey; and, 4) semi-structured interviews. Cyclists are rarely mentioned in the GDLS in the ACT and references often constructed cyclists as problematic or were based in instructors’ personal opinion (rather than scripted responses). Outcomes from this study have directly informed a new vulnerable road user driver licence competency in the ACT and findings include recommendations for greater inclusion of cyclists in the driver licensing system.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T13:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Safety assessment on pedestrian crossing environments using MLS data
    • Authors: Mario Soilán; Belén Riveiro; Ana Sánchez-Rodríguez; Pedro Arias
      Pages: 328 - 337
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Mario Soilán, Belén Riveiro, Ana Sánchez-Rodríguez, Pedro Arias
      In the framework of infrastructure analysis and maintenance in an urban environment, it is important to address the safety of every road user. This paper presents a methodology for the evaluation of several safety indicators on pedestrian crossing environments using geometric and radiometric information extracted from 3D point clouds collected by a Mobile Mapping System (MMS). The methodology is divided in four main modules which analyze the accessibility of the crossing area, the presence of traffic lights and traffic signs, and the visibility between a driver and a pedestrian on the proximities of a pedestrian crossing. The outputs of the analysis are exported to a Geographic Information System (GIS) where they are visualized and can be further processed in the context of city management. The methodology has been tested on approximately 30 pedestrian crossings in cluttered urban environments of two different cities. Results show that MMS are a valid mean to assess the safety of a specific urban environment, regarding its geometric conditions. Remarkable results are presented on traffic light classification, with a global F-score close to 95%.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T13:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.12.009
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Risk factors for adverse driving outcomes in Dutch adults with ADHD and
    • Authors: Tannetje I. Bron; Denise Bijlenga; Minda Breuk; Marieke Michielsen; Aartjan T.F. Beekman; J.J. Sandra ​Kooij
      Pages: 338 - 344
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Tannetje I. Bron, Denise Bijlenga, Minda Breuk, Marieke Michielsen, Aartjan T.F. Beekman, J.J. Sandra ​Kooij
      Objective To identify risk factors for adverse driving outcomes and unsafe driving among adults with and without ADHD in a Dutch sample. Methods In this cross-sectional study, validated self-report questionnaires were used to compare driving history and current driving behavior between 330 adults diagnosed with ADHD and 330 controls. Results Adults with ADHD had significantly more adverse driving outcomes when compared to controls. Having an ADHD diagnosis significantly increased the odds for having had 3 or more vehicular crashes (OR = 2.72; p = .001). Driving frequency, male gender, age, high anxiety levels, high hostility levels, and alcohol use all significantly influenced the odds for unsafe driving behavior, for having had 12 or more traffic citations, and/or for having had 3 or more vehicular crashes. Conclusions Alcohol use, and high levels of anxiety and hostility are highly prevalent among adults with ADHD, and they mediate the risk for negative driving outcomes in this group.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T13:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.12.011
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Injury severity analysis in taxi-pedestrian crashes: An application of
           reconstructed crash data using a vehicle black box
    • Authors: Younshik Chung
      Pages: 345 - 353
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Younshik Chung
      In-vehicle recording devices have enabled recent changes in methodological paradigms for traffic safety research. Such devices include event data recorders (EDRs), vehicle black boxes (VBBs), and various sensors used in naturalistic driving studies (NDSs). These technologies may help improve the validity of models used to assess impacts on traffic safety. The objective of this study is to analyze the injury severity in taxi-pedestrian crashes using the accurate crash data from VBBs, such as the time-to-collision (TTC), speed, angle, and region of the crash. VBB data from a two-year period (2010–2011) were collected from taxis operating in Incheon, South Korea. An ordered probit model was then applied to analyze the injury severity in crashes. Five variables were found to have a greater effect on injury severity: crash speed, crashes in no-median sections, crashes where the secondary impact object of pedestrians was the crash vehicle, crashes where the third impact object of pedestrians was another moving vehicle, and crashes where the third impact region of pedestrians was their head. However, injuries were less severe in crashes where the first impact region on the pedestrian was their leg, crashes with the car moving in a straight line, and crashes involving junior high school students.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T13:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.016
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Identification of significant factors in fatal-injury highway crashes
           using genetic algorithm and neural network
    • Authors: Yunjie Li; Dongfang Ma; Mengtao Zhu; Ziqiang Zeng; Yinhai Wang
      Pages: 354 - 363
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Yunjie Li, Dongfang Ma, Mengtao Zhu, Ziqiang Zeng, Yinhai Wang
      Identification of the significant factors of traffic crashes has been a primary concern of the transportation safety research community for many years. A fatal-injury crash is a comprehensive result influenced by multiple variables involved at the moment of the crash scenario, the main idea of this paper is to explore the process of significant factors identification from a multi-objective optimization (MOP) standpoint. It proposes a data-driven model which combines the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) with the Neural Network (NN) architecture to efficiently search for optimal solutions. This paper also defines the index of Factor Significance (Fs) for quantitative evaluation of the significance of each factor. Based on a set of three year data of crash records collected from three main interstate highways in the Washington State, the proposed method reveals that the top five significant factors for a better Fatal-injury crash identification are 1) Driver Conduct, 2) Vehicle Action, 3) Roadway Surface Condition, 4) Driver Restraint and 5) Driver Age. The most sensitive factors from a spatiotemporal perspective are the Hour of Day, Most Severe Sobriety, and Roadway Characteristics. The method and results in this paper provide new insights into the injury pattern of highway crashes and may be used to improve the understanding of, prevention of, and other enforcement efforts related to injury crashes in the future.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T13:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.028
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Development of a lane change risk index using vehicle trajectory data
    • Authors: Hyunjin Park; Cheol Oh; Jaepil Moon; Seongho Kim
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Hyunjin Park, Cheol Oh, Jaepil Moon, Seongho Kim
      Surrogate safety measures (SSMs) have been widely used to evaluate crash potential, which is fundamental for the development of effective safety countermeasures. Unlike existing SSMs, which are mainly focused on the evaluation of longitudinal vehicle maneuvering leading to rear-end crashes, this study proposes a new method for estimating crash risk while a subject vehicle changes lanes, referred to as the lane change risk index (LCRI). A novel feature of the proposed methodology is its incorporation of the amount of exposure time to potential crash and the expected crash severity level by applying a fault tree analysis (FTA) to the evaluation framework. Vehicle interactions between a subject vehicle and adjacent vehicles in the starting lane and the target lane are evaluated in terms of crash potential during lane change. Vehicle trajectory data obtained from a traffic stream, photographed using a drone flown over a freeway segment, is used to investigate the applicability of the proposed methodology. This study compares the characteristics of compulsory and discretionary lane changes observed in a work zone section and a general section of a freeway using the LCRI. It is expected that the outcome of this study will be valuable in evaluating the effectiveness of various traffic operations and control strategies in terms of lane change safety.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.015
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Young drivers and their cars: Safe and sound or the perfect storm'
    • Authors: Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios; Bridie Scott-Parker
      Pages: 18 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Bridie Scott-Parker
      Consistent with the experiences in high-income countries, young drivers remain overrepresented in road trauma statistics in low- and middle-income countries. This article pursues the emerging interest of approaching the young driver problem from a systems thinking perspective in order to design and deliver robust countermeasures. Specifically, the focus of this paper is the cars driven by young drivers. The study of vehicles’ characteristics and their interaction with driving behaviour is, more often than not, considered a minor concern when developing countermeasures in young drivers’ safety not only in developed nations, but especially in developing nations. Participants completed an online survey containing the 44-item Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale Spanish version (BYNDS-Sp), in addition to providing information regarding their vehicle, any crash involvement, and driving offences. Based on the vehicle model information, the assessment of vehicle safety was conducted for three safety programs (ANCAP, Latin NCAP, U.S. NCAP). Young drivers in Colombia reported a breadth of risky driving behaviours worth targeting in broader interventions. For example, interventions can target speeding, particularly as three quarters of the participants drove small-medium cars associated with poorer road safety outcomes. Moreover, risky driving exposure was highly prevalent amongst the young driver participants, demonstrating the need for them to be driving the safest vehicles possible. It is noteworthy that few cars were able to be assessed by the Latin NCAP (with half of the cars rated having only 0–2 star ratings), and that there was considerable discrepancy between ANCAP, U.S. NCAP, and Latin NCAP ratings. The need for system-wide strategies to increase young driver road safety—such as improved vehicle safety—is vital to improve road safety outcomes in jurisdictions such as Colombia. Such improvements may also require systemic changes such as enhanced vehicle safety rating scales and investigation of the nature of vehicles sold in developing nations, particularly as these vehicles typically contain fewer safety features than their counterparts sold in developed nations.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • How safe is tuning a radio': using the radio tuning task as a
           benchmark for distracted driving
    • Authors: Ja Young Lee; John D. Lee; Jonas Bärgman; Joonbum Lee; Bryan Reimer
      Pages: 29 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Ja Young Lee, John D. Lee, Jonas Bärgman, Joonbum Lee, Bryan Reimer
      Drivers engage in non-driving tasks while driving, such as interactions entertainment systems. Studies have identified glance patterns related to such interactions, and manual radio tuning has been used as a reference task to set an upper bound on the acceptable demand of interactions. Consequently, some view the risk associated with radio tuning as defining the upper limit of glance measures associated with visual-manual in-vehicle activities. However, we have little knowledge about the actual degree of crash risk that radio tuning poses and, by extension, the risk of tasks that have similar glance patterns as the radio tuning task. In the current study, we use counterfactual simulation to take the glance patterns for manual radio tuning tasks from an on-road experiment and apply these patterns to lead-vehicle events observed in naturalistic driving studies. We then quantify how often the glance patterns from radio tuning are associated with rear-end crashes, compared to driving only situations. We used the pre-crash kinematics from 34 crash events from the SHRP2 naturalistic driving study to investigate the effect of radio tuning in crash-imminent situations, and we also investigated the effect of radio tuning on 2,475 routine braking events from the Safety Pilot project. The counterfactual simulation showed that off-road glances transform some near-crashes that could have been avoided into crashes, and glance patterns observed in on-road radio tuning experiment produced 2.85–5.00 times more crashes than baseline driving.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Virtual testing of speed reduction schemes on urban collector roads
    • Authors: Lorenzo Domenichini; Valentina Branzi; Monica Meocci
      Pages: 38 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Lorenzo Domenichini, Valentina Branzi, Monica Meocci
      Urban collector roads are complex driving environments often encompassing both the mobility and the access road functions. In these conditions motorized traffic and vulnerable road users compete continually. Speed reduction measures may play a relevant role in these contexts, provided that such measures are also designed in compliance with the driver’s capabilities and expectations. The paper describes a test procedure using driving simulation experiments, designed to evaluate the reconfiguration project of Via Pistoiese, an urban road collector located in Florence (Italy). The road improvement design consisted of several engineering treatments aimed to reduce and homogenize the driving speed, as well as to manage the co-existence of the different road users and mainly to protect pedestrians. The main focus of the research was to understand if the drivers’ behaviour was according to the design hypothesis before the safety treatments are implemented in the real world. Due to the multiple engineering treatments included in the reconfiguration project, the evaluation of the overall safety effectiveness of the project rather than the single treatment safety impact was the main concern of the research study. In addition, the study aimed to assess the usefulness of the considered testing method to understand how to integrate road design with drivers' performances, especially in heterogeneous traffic environments where drivers’ behaviour plays a decisive role in the success of the proposed design solutions. Fifty-eight participants drove through two immersive virtual environments, reproducing the existing configuration and the project reconfiguration, while data relating to different driving aspects were collected. Two analyses were performed. The first was focused on the analysis of the mean speed profiles and revealed that the considered engineering treatments are able to control the speeding behaviour without providing a too high discomfort to the drivers. The second analysis was finalized to evaluate the driver's behaviour approaching zebra crossing, evaluating the impact of countermeasures allowing the drivers to perceive in advance a critical situation (a pedestrian that suddenly crossed the street) and consequently to perform a smoother and safer manoeuvre. The experiments confirmed the validity of the considered engineering treatments, allowing expecting the improvement of the traffic safety in via Pistoiese, and support the usefulness of virtual reality experimentations to predict of the safety effectiveness of design solutions, taking into account the drivers’ behaviour.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.09.020
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Exploring road design factors influencing tram road safety – Melbourne
           tram driver focus groups
    • Authors: Farhana Naznin; Graham Currie; David Logan
      Pages: 52 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Farhana Naznin, Graham Currie, David Logan
      Melbourne, Australia has the largest tram/streetcar network in the world including the largest mixed traffic tram operating environment. Therefore, Melbourne tram drivers are responsible for controlling one of the heaviest vehicles on road ranging from shared tram lanes to exclusive tram lanes. In addition to different tram lane configurations, tram drivers need to follow different traffic signal phases at intersections including tram priority signals as well as need to serve passengers at various types of closely spaced tram stops. Despite all these challenges, no research has explored tram driver perceptions of the risk factors on different tram route road design configurations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate how tram drivers’ safety perceptions alter along various tram route sections, signal settings and stop configurations. A tram driver focus group approach was adopted for this research involving thirty tram drivers (4 female and 26 male drivers). The tram drivers’ age ranged from 29 to 63 years, with an average age of 47.6 years (standard deviation of 10.1 years), and their experience of tram driving ranged from 1.17 to 31 years, with an average experience of 12.5 years (standard deviation of 10.2 years). The participating tram drivers perceived that the raised tram tracks and tramways with raised yellow curbing beside tracks are safer lane priority features on the Melbourne tram network compared to full-time, part-time and mixed traffic tram lanes. They regarded ‘hook turns’ as a safe form of tram signal priority treatment at intersections and platform tram stops as the safest tram stop design for all passengers among all other tram stop designs in Melbourne. Findings of this research could enhance the understanding of crash risk factors for different tram route features and thus can offer effective planning strategies for transit agencies to improve tram road safety.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.017
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Graduated driver licensing and differential deterrence: The effect of
           license type on intentions to violate road rules
    • Authors: Brigitte Poirier; Etienne Blais; Camille Faubert
      Pages: 62 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Brigitte Poirier, Etienne Blais, Camille Faubert
      In keeping with the differential deterrence theory, this article assesses the moderating effect of license type on the relationship between social control and intention to violate road rules. More precisely, the article has two objectives: (1) to assess the effect of license type on intentions to infringe road rules; and (2) to pinpoint mechanisms of social control affecting intentions to violate road rules based on one’s type of driver license (a restricted license or a full license). This effect is examined among a sample of 392 young drivers in the province of Quebec, Canada. Drivers taking part in the Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) program have limited demerit points and there is zero tolerance for drinking-and-driving. Propensity score matching techniques were used to assess the effect of the license type on intentions to violate road rules and on various mechanisms of social control. Regression analyses were then conducted to estimate the moderating effect of license type. Average treatment effects from propensity score matching analyses indicate that respondents with a restricted license have lower levels of intention to infringe road rules. While moral commitment and, to a lesser extent, the perceived risk of arrest are both negatively associated with intentions to violate road rules, the license type moderates the relationship between delinquent peers and intentions to violate road rules. The effect of delinquent peers is reduced among respondents with a restricted driver license. Finally, a diminished capability to resist peer pressure could explain the increased crash risk in months following full licensing.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Effects of a penalty point system on traffic violations
    • Authors: Fridulv Sagberg; Rikke Ingebrigtsen
      Pages: 71 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Fridulv Sagberg, Rikke Ingebrigtsen
      We analysed data from the Norwegian driver’s licence penalty point register over a three-year period, in order to investigate whether the number of incurred penalty points in a given time period can predict the probability of incurring additional points in the subsequent period. Data for all category B drivers without penalty points at the start of the study period were included in the analyses. Norway’s penalty point system implies that speeding and various other traffic violations result in two or three penalty points for full-license drivers and four or six points for probationary-license drivers. Eight points within a three-year period results in a six-month disqualification. Two hypotheses were formulated: 1) A “driving style effect” implying that drivers with previous penalty points have a higher probability of incurring new points than drivers without previous points; and 2) a “deterrence effect” implying that drivers with more than four points have a reduced probability of incurring new points, due to impending risk of license revocation. Results showed an inverted U-shaped relationship between number of penalty points incurred during a one-year period and the number of additional penalty points incurred in the subsequent year, with the highest number for drivers with four previous points. Thus, both hypotheses were clearly supported, and it is concluded that the penalty point system has a significant deterring effect for drivers who are at high risk of losing their license at the next infraction.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Safe Driving Climate among Friends (SDCaF): A new scale
    • Authors: Noga Guggenheim; Orit Taubman – Ben-Ari
      Pages: 78 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Noga Guggenheim, Orit Taubman – Ben-Ari
      Reckless driving among young people, especially young men, is a major cause of injury and fatalities the world over. Like other aspects of this age group, young drivers’ driving behaviors and norms are influenced by the accepted social discourse of their peers. Yet despite extensive existing knowledge on young drivers, very few studies have dealt specifically with their characteristic friendship relations. This lacuna in the literature may reflect the absence of specific research tools for examining driving with friends. To fill this gap, we conducted a series of studies with 706 young drivers (aged 17–24) of both sexes aimed at developing and validating a multidimensional scale designed to examine the effect of the social relations of adolescents and young adults on their driving. Entitled Safe Driving Climate among Friends (SDCaF), the final scale consists of 19 items, which tap four dimensions of driving with friends: friends' pressure; social costs of driving with friends; communication with friends about driving; and shared commitment to safe driving. The validity of the scale was established by examining associations between its four dimensions and various variables of personality, friendship, and driving. The findings indicate good reliability and validity, with the three variables of resistance to peer influence, self-disclosure, and personal responsibility for safe driving yielding positive associations with the SDCaF dimensions communication and shared commitment to safe driving, and negative associations with the dimensions friends' pressure and social costs. General tendency to respond to social pressure was positively associated with the dimensions of friends' pressure and social costs, and negatively associated with shared commitment to safe driving. Gender differences were also found, with men scoring higher than women on friends’ pressure, and lower than women on shared commitment to safe driving. The SDCaF can serve as a research tool, as well as a diagnostic instrument for detecting susceptibility to reckless driving among young drivers, thereby aiding in the design of targeted educational and intervention programs.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.021
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • The impact of police presence on angry and aggressive driving
    • Authors: Predrag Stanojević; Mark J.M. Sullman; Dragan Jovanović; Dragana Stanojević
      Pages: 93 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Predrag Stanojević, Mark J.M. Sullman, Dragan Jovanović, Dragana Stanojević
      An extensive body of research has found that angry and aggressive driving are both significantly related to crash involvement. There has also been a large body of research investigating the situational factors related to angry and aggressive driving, but one interesting question that has not yet been answered is whether the enforcement of traffic laws causes or reduces angry and aggressive driving. The independent region of Northern Kosovo represents a unique opportunity to investigate the impact of a lack of traffic enforcement on driving behaviour. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate whether the presence of traffic enforcement has a significant impact on the level of driver anger and aggressive driving. Registered owners of motor vehicles in Northern Kosovo and Serbia were both sent a questionnaire which contained the 28-item Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) and the 21-item UK Driving Anger Scale (UKDAS). This found that anger was higher in two of the four driving anger factors (direct hostility and progress impeded) and two of the three DDDI factors (risky driving & aggressive driving). Furthermore, the present study found that the lack of police enforcement was a significant predictor of both aggressive and risky driving, even after the driving anger and demographic variables had been partialled out. Therefore, it appears that introducing or increasing traffic enforcement may be one method of reducing aggressive and risky driving behaviour.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Improving autocoding performance of rare categories in injury
           classification: Is more training data or filtering the solution'
    • Authors: Gaurav Nanda; Kirsten Vallmuur; Mark Lehto
      Pages: 115 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Gaurav Nanda, Kirsten Vallmuur, Mark Lehto
      Introduction: Classical Machine Learning (ML) models have been found to assign the external-cause-of-injury codes (E-codes) based on injury narratives with good overall accuracy but often struggle with rare categories, primarily due to lack of enough training cases and heavily skewed nature of injurdata. In this paper, we have: a) studied the effect of increasing the size of training data on the prediction performance of three classical ML models: Multinomial Naïve Bayes (MNB), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Logistic Regression (LR), and b) studied the effect of filtering based on prediction strength of LR model when the model is trained on very-small (10,000 cases) and very-large (450,000 cases) training sets. Method Data from Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit from years 2002–2012, which was categorized into 20 broad E-codes was used for this study. Eleven randomly chosen training sets of size ranging from 10,000 to 450,000 cases were used to train the ML models, and the prediction performance was analyzed on a prediction set of 50,150 cases. Filtering approach was tested on LR models trained on smallest and largest training datasets. Sensitivity was used as the performance measure for individual categories. Weighted average sensitivity (WAvg) and Unweighted average sensitivity (UAvg) were used as the measures of overall performance. Filtering approach was also tested for estimating category counts and was compared with approaches of summing prediction probabilities and counting direct predictions by ML model. Results The overall performance of all three ML models improved with increase in the size of training data. The overall sensitivities with maximum training size for LR and SVM models were similar (∼82%), and higher than MNB (76%). For all the ML models, the sensitivities of rare categories improved with increasing training data but they were considerably less than sensitivities of larger categories. With increasing training data size, LR and SVM exhibited diminishing improvement in UAvg whereas the improvement was relatively steady in case of MNB. Filtering based on prediction strength of LR model (and manual review of filtered cases) helped in improving the sensitivities of rare categories. A sizeable portion of cases still needed to be filtered even when the LR model was trained on very large training set. For estimating category counts, filtering approach provided best estimates for most E-codes and summing prediction probabilities approach provided better estimates for rare categories. Conclusions Increasing the size of training data alone cannot solve the problem of poor classification performance on rare categories by ML models. Filtering could be an effective strategy to improve classification performance of rare categories when large training data is not available.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.020
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
  • Pedestrians’ perception and response towards vehicles during
           road-crossing at nighttime
    • Authors: Venkatesh Balasubramanian; Rahul Bhardwaj
      Pages: 128 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 110
      Author(s): Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Rahul Bhardwaj
      Pedestrian being involved in road traffic accidents (RTA) is about 22% of all road traffic related deaths. In this study, we have estimated the pedestrian’s response towards an approaching vehicle and the time taken to correctly recognize it while they crossed the road in dim-light nighttime conditions. This is also extendable to cycles and other low powered vehicles. Thirty volunteers participated in this study. A collection of six videos, which comprised of different vehicle scenarios were shown to each of the participants. It was observed that correct identification and time to recognize the vehicle was fastest when light emitting diode (LED) strip was fixed between headlights of a four–wheeler. Average time to recognize a low beam car and a high beam car with an LED strip was 7.62±2.39s and 11.23±2.94s respectively, whereas correct identification rates of the said low beam and high beam cars with LED strips were 93.33% and 86.67% respectively. Earlier when no LED was used, time to recognize low beam car and high beam car without LED strip were 20.55±3.50s and 25.57±4.14s respectively whereas correct identification of low beam car without LED strip and high beam car without LED strip were 90.00% and 56.67% respectively. Pedestrians are therefore less confused and can take right decision while crossing the road – particularly in a poor lighting environment – when there is a demarcating illumination between headlights of vehicle.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.025
      Issue No: Vol. 110 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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