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Showing 1 - 200 of 3177 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 380, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 378, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 335, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 431, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Accident Analysis & Prevention
  [SJR: 1.109]   [H-I: 94]   [90 followers]  Follow
   Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
   ISSN (Print) 0001-4575
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • A contextual and temporal algorithm for driver drowsiness detection
    • Authors: Anthony D. McDonald; John D. Lee; Chris Schwarz; Timothy L. Brown
      Pages: 25 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 113
      Author(s): Anthony D. McDonald, John D. Lee, Chris Schwarz, Timothy L. Brown
      This study designs and evaluates a contextual and temporal algorithm for detecting drowsiness-related lane. The algorithm uses steering angle, pedal input, vehicle speed and acceleration as input. Speed and acceleration are used to develop a real-time measure of driving context. These measures are integrated with a Dynamic Bayesian Network that considers the time dependencies in transitions between drowsiness and awake states. The Dynamic Bayesian Network algorithm is validated with data collected from 72 participants driving the National Advanced Driving Simulator. The algorithm has a significantly lower false positive rate than PERCLOS—the current gold standard—and baseline, non-contextual, algorithms under design parameters that prioritize drowsiness detection. Under these parameters, the algorithm reduces false positive rate in highway and rural environments, which are typically problematic for vehicle-based detection algorithms. This algorithm is a promising new approach to driver impairment detection and suggests contextual factors should be considered in subsequent algorithm development processes. It may be combined with comprehensive mitigation methods to improve driving safety.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2018)
  • A synthetic approach to compare the large truck crash causation study and
           naturalistic driving data
    • Authors: Jeffrey S. Hickman; Richard J. Hanowski; Joseph Bocanegra
      Pages: 11 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 112
      Author(s): Jeffrey S. Hickman, Richard J. Hanowski, Joseph Bocanegra
      Truck crashes represent a significant problem on our nation’s highways. There is a great opportunity to learn about crash causation by analyzing and comparing the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) and naturalistic driving (ND) data. These data sets provide in-depth information, but have contrasting strengths and weaknesses. The LTCCS contains information on high-severity crashes (crashes and fatal crashes), but relied on data collected during crash investigations. The LTCCS identified principal driver errors in the crash, such as the Critical Reason, but not detailed behaviors or scenario sequences. The ND data sets relate primarily to non-crashes that are detectable from dynamic vehicle events, such as hard braking, swerve, etc., provide direct video observations of the driver and the surrounding driving scene and precise information on driver inputs (kinematics) and captured events, and provide certain types of exposure data that cannot easily be obtained using crash reconstruction data. The ND data are collected continuously, thereby capturing both safety-critical events and normative driving (i.e., baseline). The current project evaluated large-truck crash data from the LTCCS and two large-truck ND data sets, the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study and the Drowsy Driver Warning System Field Operational Test. A synthetic risk ratio analysis on the associated factor, Following Too Closely, indicated that truck drivers in the LTCCS were 1.34 times more likely to be involved in a crash, than an ND crash-relevant conflict, if they were following too closely (i.e., tailgating). Given several caveats noted in the paper, this study suggests it’s possible to use the ND data set to calculate the exposure of a given behavior and use the LTCCS data set to calculate the crash exposure to the same behavior.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2018)
  • Display of required crossing speed improves pedestrian judgment of
           crossing possibility at clearance phase
    • Authors: Xiangling Zhuang; Changxu Wu
      Pages: 15 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 112
      Author(s): Xiangling Zhuang, Changxu Wu
      At crosswalks with countdown timers, pedestrians arriving at the clearance phase tend to start crossing when the remaining time is too short. It is unclear whether this phenomenon is due to errors in judging the possibility to finish crossing before signal lights turning red. This study evaluated and compared pedestrians’ accuracy in judgment of crossing possibility based on two cues: the amount of remaining time, and the minimum required speed to finish crossing within clearance phase (road width / remaining time). The results showed that pedestrians overestimated crossing possibility when they made judgments based on remaining time, especially when the road was narrow. By contrast, the display of required speed resulted in higher overall accuracy and lower false alarm rate, due to higher sensitivity to different crossing possibilities and more conservative set of response criterion. This advantage is consistent across different road widths. These findings suggest that pedestrians’ risky decisions based on the countdown timers are partly induced by overestimation of crossing possibilities. The advantages of required-speed display over traditional countdown timers indicate a strong possibility to improve pedestrian judgments by information design.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.12.022
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2018)
  • Road traffic accidents prediction modelling: An analysis of Anambra State,
    • Authors: Chukwutoo C. Ihueze; Uchendu O. Onwurah
      Pages: 21 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 112
      Author(s): Chukwutoo C. Ihueze, Uchendu O. Onwurah
      One of the major problems in the world today is the rate of road traffic crashes and deaths on our roads. Majority of these deaths occur in low-and-middle income countries including Nigeria. This study analyzed road traffic crashes in Anambra State, Nigeria with the intention of developing accurate predictive models for forecasting crash frequency in the State using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and autoregressive integrated moving average with explanatory variables (ARIMAX) modelling techniques. The result showed that ARIMAX model outperformed the ARIMA (1,1,1) model generated when their performances were compared using the lower Bayesian information criterion, mean absolute percentage error, root mean square error; and higher coefficient of determination (R-Squared) as accuracy measures. The findings of this study reveal that incorporating human, vehicle and environmental related factors in time series analysis of crash dataset produces a more robust predictive model than solely using aggregated crash count. This study contributes to the body of knowledge on road traffic safety and provides an approach to forecasting using many human, vehicle and environmental factors. The recommendations made in this study if applied will help in reducing the number of road traffic crashes in Nigeria.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.12.016
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2018)
  • Application of Fractal theory for crash rate prediction: Insights from
           random parameters and latent class tobit models
    • Authors: Sai Chand; Vinayak V. Dixit
      Pages: 30 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 112
      Author(s): Sai Chand, Vinayak V. Dixit
      The repercussions from congestion and accidents on major highways can have significant negative impacts on the economy and environment. It is a primary objective of transport authorities to minimize the likelihood of these phenomena taking place, to improve safety and overall network performance. In this study, we use the Hurst Exponent metric from Fractal Theory, as a congestion indicator for crash-rate modeling. We analyze one month of traffic speed data at several monitor sites along the M4 motorway in Sydney, Australia and assess congestion patterns with the Hurst Exponent of speed (Hspeed ). Random Parameters and Latent Class Tobit models were estimated, to examine the effect of congestion on historical crash rates, while accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. Using a latent class modeling approach, the motorway sections were probabilistically classified into two segments, based on the presence of entry and exit ramps. This will allow transportation agencies to implement appropriate safety/traffic countermeasures when addressing accident hotspots or inadequately managed sections of motorway.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.12.023
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2018)
  • Real-time prediction and avoidance of secondary crashes under unexpected
           traffic congestion
    • Authors: Hyoshin Park; Ali Haghani; Siby Samuel; Michael A. Knodler
      Pages: 39 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 112
      Author(s): Hyoshin Park, Ali Haghani, Siby Samuel, Michael A. Knodler
      According to the Federal Highway Administration, nonrecurring congestion contributes to nearly half of the overall congestion. Temporal disruptions impact the effective use of the complete roadway, due to speed reduction and rubbernecking resulting from primary incidents that in turn provoke secondary incidents. There is an additional reduction of discharge flow caused by secondary incident that significantly increases total delay. Therefore, it is important to sequentially predict the probability of secondary incidents and develop appropriate countermeasures to reduce the associated risk. Advanced computing techniques were used to easily understand and reliably predict secondary incident occurrences that have low sample mean and a small sample size. The likelihood of a secondary incident was sequentially predicted from the point of incident response to the eventual road clearance. The quality of predictions improved with the availability of additional information. The prediction performance of the principled Bayesian learning approach to neural networks (bnn) was compared to the Stochastic Gradient Boosted Decision Trees (gbdt). A pedagogical rule extraction approach, trepan, which extracts comprehensible rules from the neural networks, improved the ability to understand secondary incidents in a simplified manner. With an acceptable accuracy, gbdt is a useful tool that presents the relative importance of the predictor variables. Unexpected traffic congestion incurred by an incident is a dominant causative factor for the occurrence of secondary incidents at different stages of incident clearance. This symbolic description represents a series of decisions that may assist emergency operators by improving their decision-making capabilities. Analyzing causes and effects of traffic incidents helps traffic operators develop incident-specific strategic plans for prompt emergency response and clearance. Application of the model in connected vehicle environments will help drivers receive proactive corrective feedback before a crash. The proposed methodology can be used to alert drivers about potential highway conditions and may increase the drivers’ awareness of potential events when no rerouting is possible, optimal or otherwise.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.025
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2018)
  • A study of at-fault older drivers in light-vehicle crashes in Singapore
    • Authors: Hoong Chor Chin; Mo Zhou
      Pages: 50 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 112
      Author(s): Hoong Chor Chin, Mo Zhou
      A number of studies on motor vehicle crashes have suggested that older drivers are more likely to be at-fault compared to younger drivers. The objective of this paper is to identify factors that contribute to older drivers (aged 65 and above) being at fault in light vehicle crashes in Singapore. Based on 3 years of crash data, the calibrated binary logit model shows that older drivers are more likely to be at fault during peak periods and festive seasons between November to February, as well as at gore areas of expressways, intersections. Curb lanes of multi-lane roads and single-lane roads are also found to increase the odds of older drivers being at fault. Furthermore, older drivers appear to have more problems on roads with wet surfaces and speed limits of 60 km/h and 70 km/h. In the light of an aging population in Singapore, it is imperative that more targeted countermeasures be taken from multiple perspectives to lower such risks.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.12.024
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2018)
  • Available sight distance on existing highways: Meeting stopping sight
           distance requirements of an aging population
    • Authors: Suliman A. Gargoum; Mostafa H. Tawfeek; Karim El-Basyouny; James C. Koch
      Pages: 56 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 112
      Author(s): Suliman A. Gargoum, Mostafa H. Tawfeek, Karim El-Basyouny, James C. Koch
      An important element of highway design is ensuring that the available sight distance (ASD) on a highway meets driver needs. For instance, if the ASD at any point on a highway is less than the distance required to come to a complete stop after seeing a hazard (i.e. Stopping Sight Distance (SSD)), the driver will not be able to stop in time to avoid a collision. SSD is function of a number of variables which vary depending on the driver, the vehicle driven and surface conditions; examples of such variables include a driver’s perception reaction time or PRT (i.e. the time required by the driver to perceive and react to a hazard) and the deceleration rate of the vehicle. Most design guides recommend deterministic values for PRT and deceleration rates. Although these values may serve the needs of the average driver, they may not satisfy the needs of drivers with limited abilities. In other words, even if the ASD exceeds required SSD defined in the design guide, it might not always satisfy the needs of all drivers. While it is impossible to design roads that satisfy the needs of all drivers, the fact that most developed countries suffer from an aging population, means that the number of old drivers on our roads is expected to increase. Since a large proportion of old drivers often have limited abilities, it is expected that the general population of drivers with limited abilities on our roads will increase with time. Accordingly, more efforts are required to ensure that existing road infrastructure is prepared to handle such a change. This paper aims to explore the extent to which ASD on highways satisfies the needs of drivers with limited abilities. The paper first develops MATLAB and Python codes to automatically estimate the ASD on highway point cloud data collected using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing technology. The developed algorithms are then used to estimate ASD on seven different crash prone segments in the Province of Alberta, Canada and the ASD is compared to the required SSD on each highway. Three different levels of SSD are defined (SSD for drivers with limited ability, AASHTOs SSD requirements and SSD for drivers with high skill). The results show that, when compared to SSD requirements which integrate limitations in cognitive abilities, a substantial portion of the analyzed segments do not meet the requirements (up to 20%). Similarly, when compared to AASHTO’s SSD requirements, up to 6% of the analyzed segments do not meet the requirements. In an attempt to explore the effects of such design limitations on safety, the paper also explores crash rates in noncompliant regions (i.e. regions that do not provide sufficient SSD) and compares them to crash rates in compliant regions. On average, it was found that noncompliant regions experience crash rates that are 2.15 and 1.25 times higher than compliant regions for AASHTO’s SSD requirements and those integrating driver limitations, respectively. Furthermore, the study found that a significantly higher proportion of drivers involved in collisions in the noncompliant regions were old drivers.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2018)
  • Evaluating the impact of Mobike on automobile-involved bicycle crashes at
           the road network level
    • Authors: Ye Li; Lu Xing; Wei Wang; Mingzhang Liang; Hao Wang
      Pages: 69 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 112
      Author(s): Ye Li, Lu Xing, Wei Wang, Mingzhang Liang, Hao Wang
      As a booming system, free-floating bicycle-sharing (denoted as Mobike) attracts a large number of users due to the convenient utilization procedure. However, it brings about a rapid increase of bicycle volume on roadways, resulting in safety problems especially on road segments shared by automobiles and bikes. This study aimed to evaluate impacts of Mobike on automobile-involved bicycle crashes on shared roadways at a macro level, the network level. Relation between traffic volumes and crashes was first established. Then, the travel mode choice before and after supplying Mobike in the market was analyzed, based on which the multi-class multi-modal user equilibrium (MMUE) models were formulated and solved. Two attributes of Mobike, supply quantity and fare, were investigated via various scenarios. Results suggested the Mobike attracted more walkers than auto-users in travel mode choices, which caused the volume increase of bicycles but few volume decline of automobiles and resulted in more crashes. The supply quantity of Mobike had a negative impact on safety, while the fare had a positive effect. The total supply of Mobike in the market should be regulated by governments to avoid over-supply and reduce bicycle crashes. The fares should be also regulated by including taxes and insurances, which can be used to build up more separated bicycle facilities and cover the Mobike accidents, respectively. The findings of this study provide useful information for governments and urban transportation managers to improve bicycle safety and regulate the Mobike market.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2018)
  • Driver education: Enhancing knowledge of sleep, fatigue and risky
           behaviour to improve decision making in young drivers
    • Authors: Pasquale K. Alvaro; Nicole M. Burnett; Gerard A. Kennedy; William Yu Xun Min; Marcus McMahon; Maree Barnes; Melinda Jackson; Mark E. Howard
      Pages: 77 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 112
      Author(s): Pasquale K. Alvaro, Nicole M. Burnett, Gerard A. Kennedy, William Yu Xun Min, Marcus McMahon, Maree Barnes, Melinda Jackson, Mark E. Howard
      This study assessed the impact of an education program on knowledge of sleepiness and driving behaviour in young adult drivers and their performance and behaviour during simulated night driving. Thirty-four participants (18–26 years old) were randomized to receive either a four-week education program about sleep and driving or a control condition. A series of questionnaires were administered to assess knowledge of factors affecting sleep and driving before and after the four-week education program. Participants also completed a two hour driving simulator task at 1am after 17 h of extended wakefulness to assess the impact on driving behaviour. There was an increase in circadian rhythm knowledge in the intervention group following the education program. Self-reported risky behaviour increased in the control group with no changes in other aspects of sleep knowledge. There were no significant differences in proportion of intervention and control participants who had microsleeps (p ≤ .096), stopped driving due to sleepiness (p = .107), recorded objective episodes of drowsiness (p = .455), and crashed (p = .761), although there was a trend towards more control participants having microsleeps and stopping driving. Those in the intervention group reported higher subjective sleepiness at the end of the drive [M = 6.25, SD = 3.83, t(31) = 2.15, p = .05] and were more likely to indicate that they would stop driving [M = 3.08, SD = 1.16, t(31) = 2.24, p = .04]. The education program improved some aspects of driver knowledge about sleep and safety. The results also suggested that the education program lead to an increased awareness of sleepiness. Education about sleep and driving could reduce the risk of drowsy driving and associated road trauma in young drivers, but requires evaluation in a broader sample with assessment of real world driving outcomes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.12.017
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2018)
  • Bayesian spatiotemporal crash frequency models with mixture components for
           space-time interactions
    • Authors: Wen Cheng; Gurdiljot Singh Gill; Yongping Zhang; Zhong Cao
      Pages: 84 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 112
      Author(s): Wen Cheng, Gurdiljot Singh Gill, Yongping Zhang, Zhong Cao
      The traffic safety research has developed spatiotemporal models to explore the variations in the spatial pattern of crash risk over time. Many studies observed notable benefits associated with the inclusion of spatial and temporal correlation and their interactions. However, the safety literature lacks sufficient research for the comparison of different temporal treatments and their interaction with spatial component. This study developed four spatiotemporal models with varying complexity due to the different temporal treatments such as (I) linear time trend; (II) quadratic time trend; (III) Autoregressive-1 (AR-1); and (IV) time adjacency. Moreover, the study introduced a flexible two-component mixture for the space-time interaction which allows greater flexibility compared to the traditional linear space-time interaction. The mixture component allows the accommodation of global space-time interaction as well as the departures from the overall spatial and temporal risk patterns. This study performed a comprehensive assessment of mixture models based on the diverse criteria pertaining to goodness-of-fit, cross-validation and evaluation based on in-sample data for predictive accuracy of crash estimates. The assessment of model performance in terms of goodness-of-fit clearly established the superiority of the time-adjacency specification which was evidently more complex due to the addition of information borrowed from neighboring years, but this addition of parameters allowed significant advantage at posterior deviance which subsequently benefited overall fit to crash data. The Base models were also developed to study the comparison between the proposed mixture and traditional space-time components for each temporal model. The mixture models consistently outperformed the corresponding Base models due to the advantages of much lower deviance. For cross-validation comparison of predictive accuracy, linear time trend model was adjudged the best as it recorded the highest value of log pseudo marginal likelihood (LPML). Four other evaluation criteria were considered for typical validation using the same data for model development. Under each criterion, observed crash counts were compared with three types of data containing Bayesian estimated, normal predicted, and model replicated ones. The linear model again performed the best in most scenarios except one case of using model replicated data and two cases involving prediction without including random effects. These phenomena indicated the mediocre performance of linear trend when random effects were excluded for evaluation. This might be due to the flexible mixture space-time interaction which can efficiently absorb the residual variability escaping from the predictable part of the model. The comparison of Base and mixture models in terms of prediction accuracy further bolstered the superiority of the mixture models as the mixture ones generated more precise estimated crash counts across all four models, suggesting that the advantages associated with mixture component at model fit were transferable to prediction accuracy. Finally, the residual analysis demonstrated the consistently superior performance of random effect models which validates the importance of incorporating the correlation structures to account for unobserved heterogeneity.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.12.020
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2018)
  • Collision risk analysis based train collision early warning strategy
    • Authors: Si-hui Li; Bai-gen Cai; Jiang Liu; Jian Wang
      Pages: 94 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 112
      Author(s): Si-hui Li, Bai-gen Cai, Jiang Liu, Jian Wang
      A Train Collision Early Warning System (TCEWS) has been developed for collision avoidance. However, there are few studies regarding how to evaluate the collision risk and provide an early warning concerning a preceding train on the railway. In this paper, we have found that the time for collision avoidance is constrained by the timing of events, such as wireless communication latency, driver reaction, safety protection distance and deceleration rate. Considering these timing components, the time to avoid a collision is calculated accurately. To evaluate the potential collision severity when the following train approaches, the collision risk is defined based on the time to avoid a collision. The train collision early warning signal is divided into a four-tier color-coded system based on the collision risk, with red representing the most severe collision risk, followed by orange, yellow and blue. A field test of the train collision early warning strategy on the Hankou–Yichang Railway is analysed. It is demonstrated that the strategy has sufficient capability to indicate a potential collision and warn the following train.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.039
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2018)
  • Modelling of road traffic fatalities in India
    • Authors: Rahul Goel
      Pages: 105 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 112
      Author(s): Rahul Goel
      Passenger modes in India include walking, cycling, buses, trains, intermediate public transport modes (IPT) such as three-wheeled auto rickshaws or tuk-tuks, motorised two-wheelers (2W) as well as cars. However, epidemiological studies of traffic crashes in India have been limited in their approach to account for the exposure of these road users. In 2011, for the first time, census in India reported travel distance and mode of travel for workers. A Poisson-lognormal mixture regression model is developed at the state level to explore the relationship of road deaths of all the road users with commute travel distance by different on-road modes. The model controlled for diesel consumption (proxy for freight traffic), length of national highways, proportion of population in urban areas, and built-up population density. The results show that walking, cycling and, interestingly, IPT are associated with lower risk of road deaths, while 2W, car and bus are associated with higher risk. Promotion of IPT has twofold benefits of increasing safety as well as providing a sustainable mode of transport. The mode shift scenarios show that, for similar mode shift across the states, the resulting trends in road deaths are highly dependent on the baseline mode shares. The most worrying trend is the steep growth of death burden resulting from mode shift of walking and cycling to 2W. While the paper illustrates a limited set of mode shift scenarios involving two modes at a time, the model can be applied to assess safety impacts resulting from a more complex set of scenarios.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.12.019
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2018)
  • Non-linear effects of the built environment on automobile-involved
           pedestrian crash frequency: A machine learning approach
    • Authors: Chuan Ding; Peng Chen; Junfeng Jiao
      Pages: 116 - 126
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 112
      Author(s): Chuan Ding, Peng Chen, Junfeng Jiao
      Although a growing body of literature focuses on the relationship between the built environment and pedestrian crashes, limited evidence is provided about the relative importance of many built environment attributes by accounting for their mutual interaction effects and their non-linear effects on automobile-involved pedestrian crashes. This study adopts the approach of Multiple Additive Poisson Regression Trees (MAPRT) to fill such gaps using pedestrian collision data collected from Seattle, Washington. Traffic analysis zones are chosen as the analytical unit. The effects of various factors on pedestrian crash frequency investigated include characteristics the of road network, street elements, land use patterns, and traffic demand. Density and the degree of mixed land use have major effects on pedestrian crash frequency, accounting for approximately 66% of the effects in total. More importantly, some factors show clear non-linear relationships with pedestrian crash frequency, challenging the linearity assumption commonly used in existing studies which employ statistical models. With various accurately identified non-linear relationships between the built environment and pedestrian crashes, this study suggests local agencies to adopt geo-spatial differentiated policies to establish a safe walking environment. These findings, especially the effective ranges of the built environment, provide evidence to support for transport and land use planning, policy recommendations, and road safety programs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.12.026
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2018)
  • Effects of the road environment on the development of driver sleepiness in
           young male drivers
    • Authors: Christer Ahlström; Anna Anund; Carina Fors; Torbjörn Åkerstedt
      Pages: 127 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 112
      Author(s): Christer Ahlström, Anna Anund, Carina Fors, Torbjörn Åkerstedt
      Latent driver sleepiness may in some cases be masked by for example social interaction, stress and physical activity. This short-term modulation of sleepiness may also result from environmental factors, such as when driving in stimulating environments. The aim of this study is to compare two road environments and investigate how they affect driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove two scenarios: a rural environment with winding roads and low traffic density, and a suburban road with higher traffic density and a more built-up roadside environment. The driving task was essentially the same in both scenarios, i.e. to stay on the road, without much interaction with other road users. A 2 × 2 design, with the conditions rural versus suburban, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived), was used. The results show that there were only minor effects of the road environment on subjective and physiological indicators of sleepiness. In contrast, there was an increase in subjective sleepiness, longer blink durations and increased EEG alpha content, both due to time on task and to night-time driving. The two road environments differed both in terms of the demand on driver action and of visual load, and the results indicate that action demand is the more important of the two factors. The notion that driver fatigue should be countered in a more stimulating visual environment such as in the city is thus more likely due to increased task demand rather than to a richer visual scenery. This should be investigated in further studies.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2018)
  • A novel framework to evaluate pedestrian safety at non-signalized
    • Authors: Ting Fu; Luis Miranda-Moreno; Nicolas Saunier
      Pages: 23 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Ting Fu, Luis Miranda-Moreno, Nicolas Saunier
      This paper proposes a new framework to evaluate pedestrian safety at non-signalized crosswalk locations. In the proposed framework, the yielding maneuver of a driver in response to a pedestrian is split into the reaction and braking time. Hence, the relationship of the distance required for a yielding maneuver and the approaching vehicle speed depends on the reaction time of the driver and deceleration rate that the vehicle can achieve. The proposed framework is represented in the distance-velocity (DV) diagram and referred as the DV model. The interactions between approaching vehicles and pedestrians showing the intention to cross are divided in three categories: i) situations where the vehicle cannot make a complete stop, ii) situations where the vehicle’s ability to stop depends on the driver reaction time, and iii) situations where the vehicle can make a complete stop. Based on these classifications, non-yielding maneuvers are classified as “non-infraction non-yielding” maneuvers, “uncertain non-yielding” maneuvers and “non-yielding” violations, respectively. From the pedestrian perspective, crossing decisions are classified as dangerous crossings, risky crossings and safe crossings accordingly. The yielding compliance and yielding rate, as measures of the yielding behavior, are redefined based on these categories. Time to crossing and deceleration rate required for the vehicle to stop are used to measure the probability of collision. Finally, the framework is demonstrated through a case study in evaluating pedestrian safety at three different types of non-signalized crossings: a painted crosswalk, an unprotected crosswalk, and a crosswalk controlled by stop signs. Results from the case study suggest that the proposed framework works well in describing pedestrian-vehicle interactions which helps in evaluating pedestrian safety at non-signalized crosswalk locations.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.015
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2018)
  • Impact of roadway geometric features on crash severity on rural two-lane
    • Authors: Nima Haghighi; Xiaoyue Cathy Liu; Guohui Zhang; Richard J. Porter
      Pages: 34 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Nima Haghighi, Xiaoyue Cathy Liu, Guohui Zhang, Richard J. Porter
      This study examines the impact of a wide range of roadway geometric features on the severity outcomes of crashes occurred on rural two-lane highways. We argue that crash data have a hierarchical structure which needs to be addressed in modeling procedure. Moreover, most of previous studies ignored the impact of geometric features on crash types when developing crash severity models. We hypothesis that geometric features are more likely to determine crash type, and crash type together with other occupant, environmental and vehicle characteristics determine crash severity outcome. This paper presents an application of multilevel models to successfully capture both hierarchical structure of crash data and indirect impact of geometric features on crash severity. Using data collected in Illinois from 2007 to 2009, multilevel ordered logit model is developed to quantify the impact of geometric features and environmental conditions on crash severity outcome. Analysis results revealed that there is a significant variation in severity outcomes of crashes occurred across segments which verifies the presence of hierarchical structure. Lower risk of severe crashes is found to be associated with the presence of 10-ft lane and/or narrow shoulders, lower roadside hazard rate, higher driveway density, longer barrier length, and shorter barrier offset. The developed multilevel model offers greater consistency with data generating mechanism and can be utilized to evaluate safety effects of geometric design improvement projects.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.014
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2018)
  • Linking mind wandering tendency to risky driving in young male drivers
    • Authors: Derek A. Albert; Marie Claude Ouimet; Julien Jarret; Marie-Soleil Cloutier; Martin Paquette; Nancy Badeau; Thomas G. Brown
      Pages: 125 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Derek A. Albert, Marie Claude Ouimet, Julien Jarret, Marie-Soleil Cloutier, Martin Paquette, Nancy Badeau, Thomas G. Brown
      Risky driving is a significant contributor to road traffic crashes, especially in young drivers. Transient mind wandering states, an internal form of distraction, are associated with faster driving, reduced headway distance, slower response times, reduced driver vigilance, and increased crash risk. It is unclear whether a trait tendency to mind wander predicts risky driving, however. Mind wandering is also associated with poor executive control, but whether this capacity moderates the putative link between mind wandering tendency and risky driving is uncertain. The present study tested whether mind wandering tendency predicts risky driving behaviour in young male drivers aged 18–21 (N =30) and whether this relationship is mediated by driver vigilance and moderated by executive control capacity. Mind wandering was measured with the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) and the Daydreaming Frequency Scale (DDFS). Risky driving was assessed by mean speed in a driving simulator and driver vigilance was quantified by horizontal eye movements measured with eye tracking. Results showed that greater mind wandering tendency based on SART performance significantly predicts faster mean speed, confirming the main hypothesis. Neither driver vigilance mediated nor executive control capacity moderated this relationship as hypothesized. These findings speak to the complexity of individual differences in mind wandering. Overall, mind wandering tendency is a significant marker of risky driving in young drivers, which could guide the development of targeted interventions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.019
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2018)
  • Police documentation of drug use in injured drivers: Implications for
           monitoring and preventing drug-impaired driving
    • Authors: Jeffrey R. Brubacher; Herbert Chan; Shannon Erdelyi; Mark Asbridge; Robert E. Mann; Roy A. Purssell; Robert Solomon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention
      Author(s): Jeffrey R. Brubacher, Herbert Chan, Shannon Erdelyi, Mark Asbridge, Robert E. Mann, Roy A. Purssell, Robert Solomon
      Introduction Most countries have laws against driving while impaired by drugs. However, in many countries, including Canada and the United States, police must have individualized suspicion that the driver has recently used an impairing substance before they can gather the evidence required for laying a criminal charge. This report studies police documentation of drug involvement among drivers who had a motor-vehicle crash after using an impairing substance. Methods We obtained blood samples and police reports on injured drivers treated in participating British Columbia trauma centres following a crash. Blood was analyzed for alcohol, cannabinoids, other recreational drugs, and impairing medications. Corresponding police reports were examined to determine whether police recorded that the driver’s ability was impaired by alcohol, drug or medication, or that one of these substances was a possible contributory factor in the crash. Results We obtained blood samples and corresponding police reports on 1816 injured drivers. Mean driver age was 44 years, 63.2% were male, and 25.8% were admitted to hospital. Alcohol was detected in 272 drivers (15.0%), THC (tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive ingredient in cannabis) in 136 (7.5%), other recreational drugs in 166 (9.1%), and potentially impairing medications in 363 (20.0%). Police reported that the driver’s ability was impaired by alcohol or that alcohol was a possible contributory factor in 64.1% of the crashes involving alcohol-positive drivers. Drug impairment or drugs as a possible contributory factor was reported in 5.9% of the crashes involving THC-positive drivers, and in 16.9% of the crashes involving drivers who tested positive for other recreational drugs. Medication impairment was reported in only 2.2% of the crashes involving medication-positive drivers. Conclusion Police seldom document drug involvement in drivers who were in a crash after using cannabis, other recreational drugs or potentially impairing medications. This finding raises serious concerns about the ability of the police to effectively enforce current drug-impaired driving laws and public health officials’ continued reliance on police crash reports to monitor the prevalence of drug-impaired driving.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T16:33:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.02.018
  • The efficacy of a brief hazard perception interventional program for child
           bicyclists to improve perceptive standards
    • Authors: Linus H.R.H. Zeuwts; Greet Cardon; Frederik J.A. Deconinck; Matthieu Lenoir
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention
      Author(s): Linus H.R.H. Zeuwts, Greet Cardon, Frederik J.A. Deconinck, Matthieu Lenoir
      Introduction Even though child bicyclists are highly vulnerable in traffic only few studies focused on providing child bicyclists with means to enhance their abilities to deal with the complexity of dynamic traffic situations. The current study therefore evaluated whether a brief hazard perception intervention might be effective to improve hazard perception skills in child bicyclists towards a level more comparable to adult bicyclists. Methods Eighty children of the fourth grade (9.03 ± 0.43 years; 34 girls) and forty-six adults (34.67 ± 14.25 years age; 24 woman) first performed a Hazard Perception test for bicyclists. Response rate, reaction times, first fixation, duration of the first fixation, dwell time and total number of fixations on the events were measured. Next, the children took part in the HP intervention in which video clips of dangerous traffic situations were presented. The intervention comprised two classroom sessions of one hour (1/week). A post-test was performed one day after and the retention-test three weeks after the intervention. Results Children responded to more covert hazards immediately after the intervention (p < 0.05), but did not improve their response rate for overt hazards. Reaction times for the covert hazards improved on the post-test (p < 0.001) compared to the pre-test but this effect was reduced on the retention test. There was no effect of the intervention for entry time of the first fixation but the duration of the first fixation increased for the covert hazards (p < 0.05). Children made fewer fixations on the event compared to adults (p < 0.001), except for the covert hazards on the retention-test. The training also increased the number of fixations for the overt hazards on the post-test (p < 0.001) and the retention-test (p < 0.001) but only increased on the retention test for the covert hazards (p < 0.001). Conclusion The results demonstrated that a brief intervention for training hazard perception skills in child bicyclists is able to improve children’s situation awareness and hazard perception for potential dangerous situations. The training, however, was too short to improve children to higher adult levels.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T16:33:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.02.006
  • Comparing motor-vehicle crash risk of EU and US vehicles
    • Authors: Carol A.C. Flannagan; András Bálint; Kathleen D. Klinich; Ulrich Sander; Miriam A. Manary; Sophie Cuny; Michael McCarthy; Vuthy Phan; Caroline Wallbank; Paul E. Green; Bo Sui; Åsa Forsman; Helen Fagerlind
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention
      Author(s): Carol A.C. Flannagan, András Bálint, Kathleen D. Klinich, Ulrich Sander, Miriam A. Manary, Sophie Cuny, Michael McCarthy, Vuthy Phan, Caroline Wallbank, Paul E. Green, Bo Sui, Åsa Forsman, Helen Fagerlind
      Objective This study examined the hypotheses that passenger vehicles meeting European Union (EU) safety standards have similar crashworthiness to United States (US) -regulated vehicles in the US driving environment, and vice versa. Methods The first step involved identifying appropriate databases of US and EU crashes that include in-depth crash information, such as estimation of crash severity using Delta-V and injury outcome based on medical records. The next step was to harmonize variable definitions and sampling criteria so that the EU data could be combined and compared to the US data using the same or equivalent parameters. Logistic regression models of the risk of a Maximum injury according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale of 3 or greater, or fatality (MAIS3+F) in EU-regulated and US-regulated vehicles were constructed. The injury risk predictions of the EU model and the US model were each applied to both the US and EU standard crash populations. Frontal, near-side, and far-side crashes were analyzed together (termed “front/side crashes”) and a separate model was developed for rollover crashes. Results For the front/side model applied to the US standard population, the mean estimated risk for the US-vehicle model is 0.035 (sd = 0.012), and the mean estimated risk for the EU-vehicle model is 0.023 (sd = 0.016). When applied to the EU front/side population, the US model predicted a 0.065 risk (sd = 0.027), and the EU model predicted a 0.052 risk (sd = 0.025). For the rollover model applied to the US standard population, the US model predicted a risk of 0.071 (sd = 0.024), and the EU model predicted 0.128 risk (sd = 0.057). When applied to the EU rollover standard population, the US model predicted a 0.067 risk (sd = 0.024), and the EU model predicted 0.103 risk (sd = 0.040). Conclusions The results based on these methods indicate that EU vehicles most likely have a lower risk of MAIS3+F injury in front/side impacts, while US vehicles most likely have a lower risk of MAIS3+F injury in llroovers. These results should be interpreted with an understanding of the uncertainty of the estimates, the study limitations, and our recommendations for further study detailed in the report.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T16:33:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.01.003
  • Practice makes better – Learning effects of driving with a
           multi-stage collision warning
    • Authors: Susann Winkler; Juela Kazazi; Mark Vollrath
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention
      Author(s): Susann Winkler, Juela Kazazi, Mark Vollrath
      Advanced driver assistance systems like (forward) collision warnings can increase traffic safety. As safety-critical situations (especially in urban traffic) can be diverse, integrated adaptive systems (such as multi-stage warnings) need to be developed and examined in a variety of use cases over time instead of the more common approach of testing only one-time effectiveness in the most relevant use case. Thus, this driving simulator experiment investigated a multi-stage collision warning in partially repetitive trials (T) of various safety-critical situations (scenarios confronting drivers with hazards in form of pedestrians, obstacles or preceding vehicles). Its output adapted according to the drivers’ behavior in two warning stages (W1 – warning for moderate deceleration in less critical situations; W2 – urgent warning for strong, fast braking in more critical situations). To analyze how much drivers benefit from the assistance when allowed practice with it, the driving behavior and subjective ratings of 24 participants were measured over four trials. They comprised a baseline without assistance (T1) and three further trials with assistance – a learning phase repeating the scenarios from T1 twice (T2 + T3) and a concluding transfer drive with new scenarios (T4). As expected, the situation criticality in the urgent warning (W2) scenarios was rated higher than in the warning (W1) scenarios. While the brake reaction time differed more between the W1 scenarios, the applied brake force differed more between the W2 scenarios. However, the scenario factor often interacted with the trial factor. Since in later warning stages reaction time reductions become finite, the reaction strength gains importance. Overall the drivers benefited from the assistance. Both warning stages led to faster brake reactions (of similar strength) in all three assisted trials compared to the baseline, which additionally improved successively over time (T1–T3, T1 vs. T4, T2 vs. T4). Moreover, the drivers applied the gained knowledge from the learning phase to various new situations (transfer: faster brake reactions in T4 compared to T1 or T2). The well accepted and positively rated (helpful and understandable) two-stage collision warning can thus be recommended as it facilitates accident mitigation by earlier decelerations. Practice with advanced driver assistance systems (even in driving simulators) should be endorsed to maximize their benefits for traffic safety and accident prevention.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T16:33:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.01.018
  • Fatigue as a mediator of the relationship between quality of life and
           mental health problems in hospital nurses
    • Authors: Ahmad Bazazan; Iman Dianat; Zohreh Mombeini; Aydin Aynehchi; Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention
      Author(s): Ahmad Bazazan, Iman Dianat, Zohreh Mombeini, Aydin Aynehchi, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi
      The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships among quality of life (QoL), mental health problems and fatigue among hospital nurses, and to test whether fatigue and its multiple dimensions would mediate the effect of QoL on mental health problems. Data were collected using questionnaires (including the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF [WHOQOL-BREF], General Health Questionnaire [GHQ-12] and Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory [MFI-20] for evaluation of QoL, mental health problems and fatigue, respectively) from 990 Iranian hospital nurses, and analysed by generalized structural equation modelling (GSEM). The results indicated that QoL, mental health problems and fatigue were interrelated, and supported the direct and indirect (through fatigue) effects of QoL on mental health problems. All domains of the WHOQOL-BREF, and particularly physical (sleep problems), psychological (negative feelings) and environmental health (leisure activities) domains, were strongly related to the mental health status of the studied nurses. Fatigue and its multiple dimensions partially mediated the relationship between QoL and mental health problems. The results highlighted the importance of physical, psychological and environmental aspects of QoL and suggested the need for potential interventions to improve fatigue (particularly physical fatigue along with mental fatigue) and consequently mental health status of this working population. The findings have possible implications for nurses' health and patient safety outcomes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T16:33:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.01.042
  • Prevalence of operator fatigue in winter maintenance operations
    • Authors: Matthew C. Camden; Alejandra Medina-Flintsch; Jeffrey S. Hickman; James Bryce; Gerardo Flintsch; Richard J. Hanowski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention
      Author(s): Matthew C. Camden, Alejandra Medina-Flintsch, Jeffrey S. Hickman, James Bryce, Gerardo Flintsch, Richard J. Hanowski
      Similar to commercial motor vehicle drivers, winter maintenance operators are likely to be at an increased risk of becoming fatigued while driving due to long, inconsistent shifts, environmental stressors, and limited opportunities for sleep. Despite this risk, there is little research concerning the prevalence of winter maintenance operator fatigue during winter emergencies. The purpose of this research was to investigate the prevalence, sources, and countermeasures of fatigue in winter maintenance operations. Questionnaires from 1043 winter maintenance operators and 453 managers were received from 29 Clear Road member states. Results confirmed that fatigue was prevalent in winter maintenance operations. Over 70% of the operators and managers believed that fatigue has a moderate to significant impact on winter maintenance operations. Approximately 75% of winter maintenance operators reported to at least sometimes drive while fatigued, and 96% of managers believed their winter maintenance operators drove while fatigued at least some of the time. Furthermore, winter maintenance operators and managers identified fatigue countermeasures and sources of fatigue related to winter maintenance equipment. However, the countermeasures believed to be the most effective at reducing fatigue during winter emergencies (i.e., naps) were underutilized. For example, winter maintenance operators reported to never use naps to eliminate fatigue. These results indicated winter maintenance operations are impacted by operator fatigue. These results support the increased need for research and effective countermeasures targeting winter maintenance operator fatigue.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.01.009
  • Modeling when and where a secondary accident occurs
    • Authors: Junhua Wang; Boya Liu; Ting Fu; Shuo Liu; Joshua Stipancic
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention
      Author(s): Junhua Wang, Boya Liu, Ting Fu, Shuo Liu, Joshua Stipancic
      The occurrence of secondary accidents leads to traffic congestion and road safety issues. Secondary accident prevention has become a major consideration in traffic incident management. This paper investigates the location and time of a potential secondary accident after the occurrence of an initial traffic accident. With accident data and traffic loop data collected over three years from California interstate freeways, a shock wave-based method was introduced to identify secondary accidents. A linear regression model and two machine learning algorithms, including a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) and a least squares support vector machine (LSSVM), were implemented to explore the distance and time gap between the initial and secondary accidents using inputs of crash severity, violation category, weather condition, tow away, road surface condition, lighting, parties involved, traffic volume, duration, and shock wave speed generated by the primary accident. From the results, the linear regression model was inadequate in describing the effect of most variables and its goodness-of-fit and accuracy in prediction was relatively poor. In the training programs, the BPNN and LSSVM demonstrated adequate goodness-of-fit, though the BPNN was superior with a higher CORR and lower MSE. The BPNN model also outperformed the LSSVM in time prediction, while both failed to provide adequate distance prediction. Therefore, the BPNN model could be used to forecast the time gap between initial and secondary accidents, which could be used by decision makers and incident management agencies to prevent or reduce secondary collisions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.01.024
  • Perceptions, intentions and behavioral norms that affect pre-license
           driving among Arab youth in Israel
    • Authors: Anat Gesser-Edelsburg; Mina Zemach; Tsippy Lotan; Wafa Elias; Einat Grimberg
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Anat Gesser-Edelsburg, Mina Zemach, Tsippy Lotan, Wafa Elias, Einat Grimberg
      The present study examines reported pre-license driving among youth from the population of Arab citizens of Israel. The purpose of the present study is to examine which sociodemographic variables, attitudes and perceptions about safe driving and individual and societal behavioral norms are associated with pre-license driving. The research distinguished between the factors that actually contribute to pre-license driving (reported behavior, peer norms, gender and parents' messages) and the factors that explain the intention (parental authority, social norms, parents' messages and fear of road crashes). Even though there was a significant partial overlap (84%) between those who intend to drive without a license and those who reported driving without a license, the main factors that distinguish pre-license driving groups are different from the factors that distinguish the intention to drive before receiving a license. What is unique about the findings is the identification of the context in which social norms are influential and that in which parental authority is influential. The study indicated that in the case of pre-license driving, the main motivating factor is subjective norms, whereas in the case of expecting to drive without a license, the main motivating factor is the interaction between parental authority and the messages that parents convey. While actual behavior pertains to the behavioral level, we argue that intended behavior pertains to the cognitive level. At this level, rational considerations arise, such as fear of parental punishment and fear of accidents. These considerations compete with the influence of friends and their norms, and may outweigh them. The findings suggest that it is important to safeguard youth against the influence of peer pressure as early as the stage of behavioral intentions. Follow-up studies can simulate situations of pre-license driving due to social pressure and identify the factors that might affect young people’s decision-making. Moreover, providing parents with training before the accompaniment period is highly recommended.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T16:28:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Analysis of crash proportion by vehicle type at traffic analysis zone
           level: A mixed fractional split multinomial logit modeling approach with
           spatial effects
    • Authors: Jaeyoung Lee; Shamsunnahar Yasmin; Naveen Eluru; Mohamed Abdel-Aty; Qing Cai
      Pages: 12 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Jaeyoung Lee, Shamsunnahar Yasmin, Naveen Eluru, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Qing Cai
      In traffic safety literature, crash frequency variables are analyzed using univariate count models or multivariate count models. In this study, we propose an alternative approach to modeling multiple crash frequency dependent variables. Instead of modeling the frequency of crashes we propose to analyze the proportion of crashes by vehicle type. A flexible mixed multinomial logit fractional split model is employed for analyzing the proportions of crashes by vehicle type at the macro-level. In this model, the proportion allocated to an alternative is probabilistically determined based on the alternative propensity as well as the propensity of all other alternatives. Thus, exogenous variables directly affect all alternatives. The approach is well suited to accommodate for large number of alternatives without a sizable increase in computational burden. The model was estimated using crash data at Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) level from Florida. The modeling results clearly illustrate the applicability of the proposed framework for crash proportion analysis. Further, the Excess Predicted Proportion (EPP)—a screening performance measure analogous to Highway Safety Manual (HSM), Excess Predicted Average Crash Frequency is proposed for hot zone identification. Using EPP, a statewide screening exercise by the various vehicle types considered in our analysis was undertaken. The screening results revealed that the spatial pattern of hot zones is substantially different across the various vehicle types considered.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T16:28:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.017
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Interactive risk analysis on crash injury severity at a mountainous
           freeway with tunnel groups in China
    • Authors: Helai Huang; Yunying Peng; Jie Wang; Qizhang Luo; Xiang Li
      Pages: 56 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Helai Huang, Yunying Peng, Jie Wang, Qizhang Luo, Xiang Li
      Traffic safety of freeways has attracted major concerns, especially for a mountainous freeway affected by adverse terrain conditions, constrained roadway geometry and complicated driving environments. On the basis of a comprehensive dataset collected from a mountainous freeway with a length of 61km but gathering 12 tunnels, this study seeks to examining the interactive effect of mountainous freeway alignment, driving behaviors, vehicle characteristics and environmental factors on crash severity. A classification and regression tree (CART) model is employed as it can deal with high-order interactions between explanatory variables. Results show that the driving behavior is the most important determinant for injury severity of mountainous freeway crashes, followed by the crash time, grade, curve radius and vehicle type. These variables, interacted with the factors of season and crash location, may largely account for the likelihood of high risk events which may result in severe crashes. Events associated with a notably higher probability of severe crashes include coach drivers involved in improper lane changing and other improper actions, drivers involved in speeding during afternoon or evening, drivers involved in speeding along large curve and straight segment during morning, noon or night, and drivers involved in fatigue while passing along the downgrade. Safety interventions to prevent severe crashes at the mountainous freeway include hierarchical supervision in terms of hazardous driving events, enhanced enforcement for speeding and fatigue driving, deployment of advanced driving assistance systems for fatigue driving warning, and cumulative driving time monitoring for long-distance-travel freight vehicles.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T16:28:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.024
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Evaluating the effect of lane width and roadside configurations on speed,
           lateral position and likelihood of comfortable overtaking in exclusive
           motorcycle lane
    • Authors: Mohd Khairul Alhapiz Ibrahim; Hussain Hamid; Teik Hua Law; Shaw Voon Wong
      Pages: 63 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Mohd Khairul Alhapiz Ibrahim, Hussain Hamid, Teik Hua Law, Shaw Voon Wong
      Construction of exclusive motorcycle lanes is one of the measures to reduce motorcycle fatalities. Previous studies highlighted the risk of crashes with roadside objects and the tendency of motorcyclists to ride with excessive speed on exclusive motorcycle lanes. However, the risk of same-direction crashes on exclusive motorcycle lanes was not explored in much detail, especially on the impact of lane geometry and roadside configurations. This study used naturalistic riding data to determine the effects of lane width and roadside configurations on overtaking speed, lateral position and likelihood of comfortable overtaking on tangential sections of an exclusive motorcycle lane. Twenty-nine recruited motorcyclists rode the instrumented motorcycles along a 20km stretch of an exclusive motorcycle lane along a major urban road. Results revealed that both the roadside configurations and lane width significantly affect the participants’ lateral position, while the roadside configurations only affects the overtaking speed. Participants’ overtaking speeds and the front motorcycles’ lateral position contribute significantly to the likelihood of comfortable overtaking in exclusive motorcycle lanes. The findings highlight the importance of micro-level behavior indicators in improving the design and overall safety of the exclusive motorcycle facility.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T16:28:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.10.023
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Barrier-relevant crash modification factors and average costs of crashes
           on arterial roads in Indiana
    • Authors: Yaotian Zou; Andrew P. Tarko
      Pages: 71 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Yaotian Zou, Andrew P. Tarko
      The objective of this study was to develop crash modification factors (CMFs) and estimate the average crash costs applicable to a wide range of road-barrier scenarios that involved three types of road barriers (concrete barriers, W-beam guardrails, and high-tension cable barriers) to produce a suitable basis for comparing barrier-oriented design alternatives and road improvements. The intention was to perform the most comprehensive and in-depth analysis allowed by the cross-sectional method and the crash data available in Indiana. To accomplish this objective and to use the available data efficiently, the effects of barrier were estimated on the frequency of barrier-relevant (BR) crashes, the types of harmful events and their occurrence during a BR crash, and the severity of BR crash outcomes. The harmful events component added depth to the analysis by connecting the crash onset with its outcome. Further improvement of the analysis was accomplished by considering the crash outcome severity of all the individuals involved in a crash and not just drivers, utilizing hospital data, and pairing the observations with and without road barriers along same or similar road segments to better control the unobserved heterogeneity. This study confirmed that the total number of BR crashes tended to be higher where medians had installed barriers, mainly due to collisions with barriers and, in some cases, with other vehicles after redirecting vehicles back to traffic. These undesirable effects of barriers were surpassed by the positive results of reducing cross-median crashes, rollover events, and collisions with roadside hazards. The average cost of a crash (unit cost) was reduced by 50% with cable barriers installed in medians wider than 50ft. A similar effect was concluded for concrete barriers and guardrails installed in medians narrower than 50ft. The studied roadside guardrails also reduced the unit cost by 20%–30%. Median cable barriers were found to be the most effective among all the studied barriers due to the smaller increase in the crash frequency caused by these barriers and the less severe injury outcomes. More specifically, the occupants of vehicles colliding with near-side cable barriers tended to have less severe injuries than occupants of vehicles entering the median from median’s farther side. The near-side cable barriers provided protection against rollover inside the median and against a potentially dangerous collision with or running over the median drain; therefore, the greatest safety benefit can be expected where cable barriers are installed at both edges of the median. The CMFs and unit crash costs for 48 road-barrier scenarios produced in this study are included in this paper.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T16:28:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.020
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Correlates of fatality risk of vulnerable road users in Delhi
    • Authors: Rahul Goel; Parth Jain; Geetam Tiwari
      Pages: 86 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Rahul Goel, Parth Jain, Geetam Tiwari
      Pedestrians, cyclists, and users of motorised two-wheelers account for more than 85% of all the road fatality victims in Delhi. The three categories are often referred to as vulnerable road users (VRUs). Using Bayesian hierarchical approach with a Poisson-lognormal regression model, we present spatial analysis of road fatalities of VRUs with wards as areal units. The model accounts for spatially uncorrelated as well as correlated error. The explanatory variables include demographic factors, traffic characteristics, as well as built environment features. We found that fatality risk has a negative association with socio-economic status (literacy rate), population density, and number of roundabouts, and has a positive association with percentage of population as workers, number of bus stops, number of flyovers (grade separators), and vehicle kilometers travelled. The negative effect of roundabouts, though statistically insignificant, is in accordance with their speed calming effects for which they have been used to replace signalised junctions in various parts of the world. Fatality risk is 80% higher at the density of 50 persons per hectare (pph) than at overall city-wide density of 250 pph. The presence of a flyover increases the relative risk by 15% compared to no flyover. Future studies should investigate the causal mechanism through which denser neighborhoods become safer. Given the risk posed by flyovers, their use as congestion mitigation measure should be discontinued within urban areas.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T16:28:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.023
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Analyzing crash frequency in freeway tunnels: A correlated random
           parameters approach
    • Authors: Qinzhong Hou; Andrew P. Tarko; Xianghai Meng
      Pages: 94 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Qinzhong Hou, Andrew P. Tarko, Xianghai Meng
      The majority of past road safety studies focused on open road segments while only a few focused on tunnels. Moreover, the past tunnel studies produced some inconsistent results about the safety effects of the traffic patterns, the tunnel design, and the pavement conditions. The effects of these conditions therefore remain unknown, especially for freeway tunnels in China. The study presented in this paper investigated the safety effects of these various factors utilizing a four-year period (2009–2012) of data as well as three models: 1) a random effects negative binomial model (RENB), 2) an uncorrelated random parameters negative binomial model (URPNB), and 3) a correlated random parameters negative binomial model (CRPNB). Of these three, the results showed that the CRPNB model provided better goodness-of-fit and offered more insights into the factors that contribute to tunnel safety. The CRPNB was not only able to allocate the part of the otherwise unobserved heterogeneity to the individual model parameters but also was able to estimate the cross-correlations between these parameters. Furthermore, the study results showed that traffic volume, tunnel length, proportion of heavy trucks, curvature, and pavement rutting were associated with higher frequencies of traffic crashes, while the distance to the tunnel wall, distance to the adjacent tunnel, distress ratio, International Roughness Index (IRI), and friction coefficient were associated with lower crash frequencies. In addition, the effects of the heterogeneity of the proportion of heavy trucks, the curvature, the rutting depth, and the friction coefficient were identified and their inter-correlations were analyzed.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T15:26:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.018
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Monitoring city wide patterns of cycling safety
    • Authors: Darren Boss; Trisalyn Nelson; Meghan Winters
      Pages: 101 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Darren Boss, Trisalyn Nelson, Meghan Winters
      Many cities are making significant financial investments in cycling infrastructure with the aim of making cycling safer for riders of all ages and abilities. Methods for evaluating cycling safety tend to summarize average change for a city or emphasize change on a single road segment. Few spatially explicit approaches are available to evaluate how patterns of safety change throughout a city due to cycling infrastructure investments or other changes. Our goal is to demonstrate a method for monitoring changes in the spatial-temporal distribution of cycling incidents across a city. Using cycling incident data provided by the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia, we first compare planar versus network constrained kernel density estimation for visualizing incident intensity across the street network of Vancouver, Canada. Second, we apply a change detection algorithm explicitly designed for detecting statistically significant change in kernel density estimates. The utility of network kernel density change detection is demonstrated through the comparison of cycling incident densities following the construction of two cycle tracks in the downtown core of Vancouver. The methods developed and demonstrated for this study provide city planners, transportation engineers and researchers a means of monitoring city-wide change in the intensity of cycling incidents following enhancements to cycling infrastructure or other significant changes to the transportation network.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T15:26:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Cross or wait' Pedestrian decision making during clearance phase at
           signalized intersections
    • Authors: Xiangling Zhuang; Changxu Wu; Shu Ma
      Pages: 115 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Xiangling Zhuang, Changxu Wu, Shu Ma
      Pedestrians arriving at clearance phase (Flashing Don’t Walk) face different levels of risk depending on behavioral choice afterwards. However, few studies have focused on the choices pedestrians make during this phase. This field study analyzed pedestrian choices after arrival, evaluated safety of the choices, and built a model to identify the predictors of pedestrian choices. It was found that pedestrians arriving during clearance phase made dynamic decisions based on the changing contexts. Specifically, the majority made the decision to “cross” as opposed to “wait” (85.2% vs. 14.8% respectively), although only the latter choice is legal. Seventy-nine percent of the pedestrians did not finish crossing the intersection before the traffic light turned red, and they walked 41% of the road width during a red light. For those waited, roughly half of them waited until green or crossed at an intersecting crosswalk, while others finally started on red light. Nevertheless, the waited pedestrians still faced lower risk than those crossed prematurely in terms of running behaviors, and conflicts with vehicles. Pedestrians are more likely to cross immediately after arrival when they are younger, are not engaged in secondary tasks, arrived at a position farther from approaching vehicles at the near side of the road, or arrived at a time when there are more pedestrians crossing the road. Although fewer pedestrians choose to cross when the required speed is higher (due to a wider road or less remaining time), the required speed they choose to cross at is far higher than their actual speed. These findings are essential for realistic pedestrian simulations and targeted safety countermeasures. They also imply the need for changes to certain traffic regulations and signal design to facilitate safe decision making at clearance phase.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T15:26:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.08.019
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Longitudinal safety evaluation of electric vehicles with the partial
           wireless charging lane on freeways
    • Authors: Ye Li; Wei Wang; Lu Xing; Qi Fan; Hao Wang
      Pages: 133 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Ye Li, Wei Wang, Lu Xing, Qi Fan, Hao Wang
      As an environment friendly transportation mode, the electric vehicle (EV) has drawn an increasing amount of attention from governments, vehicle manufactories and researchers recently. One of the biggest issue impeding EV’s popularization associates with the charging process. The wireless charging lane (WCL) has been proposed as a convenient charging facility for EVs. Due to the high costs, the application of WCL on the entire freeways is impractical in the near future, while the partial WCL (PWCL) may be a feasible solution. This study aims to evaluate longitudinal safety of EVs with PWCL on freeways based on simulations. The simulation experiments are firstly designed, including deployment of PWCL on freeways and distribution of state of charge (SOC) of EVs. Then, a vehicle behavior model for EVs is proposed based on the intelligent driver model (IDM). Two surrogate safety measures, derived from time-to-collision (TTC), are utilized as indicators for safety evaluations. Sensitivity analysis is also conducted for related factors. Results show that the distribution of EVs’ SOC significantly affect longitudinal safety when the PWCL is utilized. The low SOC in traffic consisting of EVs has the negative effect on longitudinal safety. The randomness and incompliance of EV drivers worsens the safety performance. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the larger maximum deceleration rate results in the higher longitudinal crash risks of EVs, while the length of PWCL has no monotonous effect. Different TTC thresholds also show no impact on results. A case study shows the consistent results. Based on the findings, several suggestions are discussed for EVs’ safety improvement. Results of this study provide useful information for freeway safety when EVs are applied in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T15:26:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.036
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Accident frequency and unrealistic optimism: Children’s assessment
           of risk
    • Authors: Mary Sissons Joshi; Morag Maclean; Claire Stevens
      Pages: 142 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Mary Sissons Joshi, Morag Maclean, Claire Stevens
      Accidental injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity among children, warranting research on their risk perceptions. Three hundred and seven children aged 10–11 years assessed the frequency, danger and personal risk likelihood of 8 accidents. Two social-cognitive biases were manifested. The frequency of rare accidents (e.g. drowning) was overestimated, and the frequency of common accidents (e.g. bike accidents) underestimated; and the majority of children showed unrealistic optimism tending to see themselves as less likely to suffer these accidents in comparison to their peers, offering superior skills or parental control of the environment as an explanation. In the case of pedestrian accidents, children recognised their seriousness, underestimated the frequency of this risk and regarded their own road crossing skill as protection. These findings highlight the challenging task facing safety educators who, when teaching conventional safety knowledge and routines, also need to alert children to the danger of over-confidence without disabling them though fear.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T15:26:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.034
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
  • Identifying traffic accident black spots with Poisson-Tweedie models
    • Authors: Birgit Debrabant; Ulrich Halekoh; Wagner Hugo Bonat; Dennis L. Hansen; Jacob Hjelmborg; Jens Lauritsen
      Pages: 147 - 154
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 111
      Author(s): Birgit Debrabant, Ulrich Halekoh, Wagner Hugo Bonat, Dennis L. Hansen, Jacob Hjelmborg, Jens Lauritsen
      This paper aims at the identification of black spots for traffic accidents, i.e. locations with accident counts beyond what is usual for similar locations, using spatially and temporally aggregated hospital records from Funen, Denmark. Specifically, we apply an autoregressive Poisson–Tweedie model, which covers a wide range of discrete distributions and handles zero-inflation as well as overdispersion. The estimated power parameter of the model was 1.6 (SE =0.06) suggesting a distribution close to the Pólya-Aeppli distribution. We identified nine black spots consistently standing out in all six considered calendar years and calculated by simulations a probability of p =0.03 for these to be chance findings. Altogether, our results recommend these sites for further investigation and suggest that our simple approach could play a role in future area based traffic accident prevention planning.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T15:26:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.021
      Issue No: Vol. 111 (2017)
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