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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3184 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3184 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 100, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 436, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 421, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 383, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 475, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 218, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Accident Analysis & Prevention
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.462
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 100  
 
  Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
ISSN (Print) 0001-4575
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3184 journals]
  • The influence of the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory on risk
           perception and intentions to speed in young male and female drivers
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Emily Logan, Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Ioni Lewis This study applied the revised-Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (r-RST) to assess the influence of individual differences in young male and female drivers’ risk perceptions and intentions to exceed the posted speed limit in a 60 km/hr zone. Relevant to the current study was the Behavioural Activation System (BAS; sensitive to reward), with a specific focus on the BAS processes: Reward Interest, Goal-Drive Persistence, Reward Reactivity and Impulsivity, and the Fight-Flight-Freeze System (FFFS; sensitive to punishment). It was hypothesised that young male and female drivers with stronger BAS traits would report lower risk perceptions towards speeding behaviour than those with weaker BAS traits and this risk perception would predict greater intentions to exceed the posted speed limit in 60 km/hr zones. It was further hypothesised that young male and female drivers with stronger FFFS traits would report higher risk perceptions towards speeding behaviour than those with weaker FFFS traits and this risk perception would predict lower intentions to exceed the posted speed limit in 60 km/h zones. Participants were 367 young licensed Australian drivers aged between 17 and 25 years. The results of a mediation analyses showed that females with stronger Impulsivity had low perceptions of risk and higher intentions to speed than participants with weaker Impulsivity. Further, males with stronger Goal-Drive Persistence and reported higher perceptions of risk and lower intentions to speed than participants with weaker Goal-Drive Persistence. Contrary to expectations, the BAS processes of Reward Interest and Reward Reactivity, and the FFFS were not significant. The findings contribute to the theoretical understanding of how the r-RST traits, specifically Goal-Drive Persistence and Impulsivity may influence speeding behaviour as well as the understanding of the unique influence of the four underlying BAS processes.
       
  • Exploring microscopic driving volatility in naturalistic driving
           environment prior to involvement in safety critical events—Concept of
           event-based driving volatility
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Behram Wali, Asad J. Khattak, Thomas Karnowski The sequence of instantaneous driving decisions and its variations, known as driving volatility, prior to involvement in safety critical events can be a leading indicator of safety. This study focuses on the component of “driving volatility matrix” related to specific normal and safety-critical events, named “event-based volatility.” The research issue is characterizing volatility in instantaneous driving decisions in the longitudinal and lateral directions, and how it varies across drivers involved in normal driving, crash, and/or near-crash events. To explore the issue, a rigorous quasi-experimental study design is adopted to help compare driving behaviors in normal vs unsafe outcomes. Using a unique real-world naturalistic driving database from the 2nd Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP), a test set of 9593 driving events featuring 2.2 million temporal samples of real-world driving are analyzed. This study features a plethora of kinematic sensors, video, and radar spatiotemporal data about vehicle movement and therefore offers the opportunity to initiate such exploration. By using information related to longitudinal and lateral accelerations and vehicular jerk, 24 different aggregate and segmented measures of driving volatility are proposed that captures variations in extreme instantaneous driving decisions. In doing so, careful attention is given to the issue of intentional vs. unintentional volatility. The volatility indices, as leading indicators of near-crash and crash events, are then linked with safety critical events, crash propensity, and other event specific explanatory variables. Owing to the presence of unobserved heterogeneity and omitted variable bias, fixed- and random-parameter discrete choice models are developed that relate crash propensity to unintentional driving volatility and other factors. Statistically significant evidence is found that driver volatilities in near-crash and crash events are significantly greater than volatility in normal driving events. After controlling for traffic, roadway, and unobserved factors, the results suggest that greater intentional volatility increases the likelihood of both crash and near-crash events. A one-unit increase in intentional volatility is associated with positive vehicular jerk in longitudinal direction increases the chance of crash and near-crash outcome by 15.79 and 12.52 percentage points, respectively. Importantly, intentional volatility in positive vehicular jerk in lateral direction has more negative consequences than intentional volatility in positive vehicular jerk in longitudinal direction. Compared to acceleration/deceleration, vehicular jerk can better characterize the volatility in microscopic instantaneous driving decisions prior to involvement in safety critical events. Finally, the magnitudes of correlations exhibit significant heterogeneity, and that accounting for the heterogeneous effects in the modeling framework can provide more reliable and accurate results. The study demonstrates the value of quasi-experimental study design and big data analytics for understanding extreme driving behaviors in safe vs. unsafe driving outcomes.
       
  • Experimental assessment of vehicle performance and injury risk for cutaway
           buses using tilt table and modified dolly rollover tests
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): MohammadReza Seyedi, Sungmoon Jung, Grzegorz Dolzyk, Jerzy Wekezer BackgroundRollover crashes of buses occur less frequently than do those involving passenger cars; however, they are associated with higher fatality rates. During rollover crashes, a vehicle experiences multidirectional acceleration and multiple impacts, yielding a complex interaction between structural components and its occupants. A better understanding of vehicle and occupant’s motion, structural deformation, and vehicle and road interactions are necessary to improve the safety of the occupants during this event. One of the key factors in rollover crashworthiness assessment is to investigate the relationship between the strength of the vehicle’s structure and the risk of injury outcomes. However, rollover crashes involving buses have received less research attention than have those involving passenger cars. Experimental studies in bus rollover safety have mainly focused on the structural integrity of the passenger compartment without considering the occupant responses. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the rollover mechanism and associated injury risk during two experimental rollover tests for a paratransit cutaway bus that is commonly used by transit agencies.MethodsThe modified dolly rollover (MDR) and tilt table (TT) tests were conducted using a similar bus and anthropomorphic test device (ATD) configurations. In each test, a 2-point and 3-point belted Hybrid III 50th percent male ATDs were used to quantify the kinematics of the occupants. The deformation index (DI), accelerations and angular velocities of the bus’s CG were measured as vehicle responses. The collected data were then calibrated and filtered to assess the effects of the test procedure on kinematic responses of the vehicle and occupants. Next, the effectiveness of the 2-point vs 3-point seatbelt to reduce or prevent the injuries, the vulnerable body regions and corresponded injury risk were evaluated.ResultsThe residual space remained intact (DI 
       
  • Cannabis use in older drivers in Colorado: The LongROAD Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Carolyn G. DiGuiseppi, Alexandra A. Smith, Marian E. Betz, Linda Hill, Hillary D. Lum, Howard Andrews, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Hailey A. Hyde, David W. Eby, Guohua Li, on behalf of the LongROAD Research Team This study examined cannabis use and driving outcomes among older drivers in Colorado, which has legalized medical and recreational use. The associations of self-reported past-year cannabis use with diverse driving outcomes were assessed in 598 drivers aged 65–79 (51% female, 70% with postsecondary education), using regression analysis to adjust for health and sociodemographic characteristics. Two hundred forty four (40.8%) drivers reported ever using cannabis. Fifty-four drivers (9.0%) reported past-year use, ranging from more than once a day (13.0%) to less than once a month (50.0%). Of past-year users, 9.3% reported cannabis use within 1 h of driving in the past year. Past-year users were younger, less highly educated, lower income, and reported significantly worse mental, emotional, social and cognitive health status than drivers without past-year use. Past-year users were four times as likely to report having driven when they may have been over the legal blood-alcohol limit (adjusted OR [aOR] = 4.18; 95% CI: 2.11, 8.25) but were not more likely to report having had a crash or citation (aOR = 1.36; 95% CI: 0.70, 2.66) in the past year. Users and non-users had similar scores on self-rated abilities for safe driving (adjusted beta=-0.04; 95% CI: −0.23, 0.15) and on driving-related lapses, errors and violations in the past year (adjusted beta = 0.04; 95% CI: −0.04, 0.12). Further study is needed to establish driving risks and behaviours related to cannabis use, independent of other associated risk factors, among older adults.
       
  • Identifying risk of poor physical and mental health recovery following a
           road traffic crash: An industry-specific screening tool
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Esther Smits, Charlotte Brakenridge, Elise Gane, Jacelle Warren, Michelle Heron-Delaney, Justin Kenardy, Venerina Johnston This study aimed to develop an industry-specific tool to identify risk of poor physical and mental recovery following minor to moderate injuries sustained in a road traffic crash (RTC). Existing tools are often designed for implementation by health professionals rather than insurer case managers who may not have a background in health. This study is a secondary analysis of a longitudinal cohort study using data collected at 2–6 months and 24 months post-RTC. Participants were claimants (n = 254; Mean age = 50 years; 65% female) with mild-moderate injuries recruited through the common-law ‘fault-based’ compulsory third party scheme in Queensland, Australia. Sociodemographic, functional and psychological health factors were collected at baseline (2–6 months post RTC) and used as potential predictors for physical and mental health-related quality of life (Short Form 36 v2) at the 2-year follow-up. The LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) analysis identified six disability items (from the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2) to predict poor physical and one item to predict poor mental health-related quality of life. Logistic regressions of these items in addition to age and gender were used to develop a screening tool. Using the tool, 90% of those at risk of poor physical and 80% of those at risk of poor mental health-related quality of life were identified correctly. To conclude, this study presents an 8-item, context-specific tool to help injury managers identify individuals at risk of poor physical and mental health recovery following mild-moderate RTC-related injuries. The tool requires validation in a new cohort and confirmation of acceptability by end-users.
       
  • Fatal crashes in the 5 years after recreational marijuana legalization in
           Colorado and Washington
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Jayson D. Aydelotte, Alexandra L. Mardock, Christine A. Mancheski, Shariq M. Quamar, Pedro G. Teixeira, Carlos V.R. Brown, Lawrence H. Brown Colorado and Washington legalized recreational marijuana in 2012, but the effects of legalization on motor vehicle crashes remains unknown. Using Fatality Analysis Reporting System data, we performed difference-in-differences (DD) analyses comparing changes in fatal crash rates in Washington, Colorado and nine control states with stable anti-marijuana laws or medical marijuana laws over the five years before and after recreational marijuana legalization. In separate analyses, we evaluated fatal crash rates before and after commercial marijuana dispensaries began operating in 2014. In the five years after legalization, fatal crash rates increased more in Colorado and Washington than would be expected had they continued to parallel crash rates in the control states (+1.2 crashes/billion vehicle miles traveled, CI: -0.6 to 2.1, p = 0.087), but not significantly so. The effect was more pronounced and statistically significant after the opening of commercial dispensaries (+1.8 crashes/billion vehicle miles traveled, CI: +0.4 to +3.7, p = 0.020). These data provide evidence of the need for policy strategies to mitigate increasing crash risks as more states legalize recreational marijuana.
       
  • Mobile phone related crashes among motorcycle taxi drivers
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Long T. Truong, Hang T.T. Nguyen In many countries, motorcycle taxis remain an important mode of travel due to their fast, flexible, and inexpensive service. The recent advent of ride-hailing services has led to dramatic growth in the fleet of motorcycle taxis and additional types of motorcycle taxi drivers. Furthermore, mobile phone use while riding a motorcycle is an emerging safety issue, particularly among ride-hailing motorcycle taxi drivers. This paper investigates mobile phone use while riding, crashes and mobile phone related crashes among ride-hailing, traditional, and hybrid motorcycle taxi drivers, using data from a survey in Hanoi, Vietnam. Results show that ride-hailing motorcycle taxi drivers had the highest prevalence of mobile phone use while riding a motorcycle taxi (95.3%), followed by hybrid (88.6%) and traditional taxi drivers (64%). Approximately 32.6%, 19.3%, and 9.7% of motorcycle taxi drivers reported being involved in a crash, injury crash, and mobile phone related crash respectively. Mobile phone related crashes represent 20.5% of all reported crashes. Logistic and negative binomial regression were used to explore factors influencing mobile phone use while riding and crash frequencies. Regression results indicate that ride-hailing taxi drivers were more likely to be involved in a mobile phone related crash. Delivery trips were found to be associated with increases in crashes whereas passenger trips were found to be associated with decreases in crashes. Policy implications are also discussed.
       
  • Mapping the knowledge domain of road safety studies: A scientometric
           analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Xin Zou, Hai L. Vu As a way of obtaining a visual expression of knowledge, mapping knowledge domain (MKD) provides a vision-based analytic approach to scientometric analysis which can be used to reveal an academic community, the structure of its networks, and the dynamic development of a discipline. This study, based on the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) articles on road safety, employs the bibliometric tools VOSviewer and CitNetExplorer to create maps of author co-citation, document co-citation, citation networks, analyze the core authors and classic documents supporting road safety studies and show the citation context and development of such studies. It shows that road safety studies clustered mainly into four groups, whose we will refer to as “effects of driving psychology and behavior on road safety”, “causation, frequency and injury severity analysis of road crashes”, “epidemiology, assessment and prevention of road traffic injury”, and “effects of driver risk factors on driver performance and road safety”, respectively. Through our analysis, the core publications and their citation relationships were quickly located and explored, and “crash frequency modeling analysis” has been identified to be the core research topic in road safety studies, with spatial statistical analysis technique emerging as a frontier of this topic.
       
  • Modeling of time-dependent safety performance using anonymized and
           aggregated smartphone-based dangerous driving event data
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Di Yang, Kun Xie, Kaan Ozbay, Hong Yang, Noah Budnick Safety performance functions (SPFs) are generally used to relate exposure to the expected number of crashes aggregated over a long time (e.g. a year) by holding all other risk factors constant, and to identify hotspots that have excessive crashes regardless of different time periods. However, it is highly likely that the relationships of exposure, risk factors and crash occurrence can vary across different times of day. This study aims to establish time-dependent SPFs for urban roads by using large-scale dangerous driving event data captured by smartphones in different times of day. Multivariate conditional autoregressive (MVCAR) models are developed to jointly account for spatial and temporal dependence of crash observations. Results of two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests affirm the heterogeneity of the safety effects of dangerous driving events in different time periods. Time-dependent hotspots are identified using potential for safety improvement (PSI) metric. The assumption here is that due to the change of traffic conditions and environment across different times of day, safety hotspots for different time periods should be different from each other. According to the results of Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, hotspots identified by times of day are found to be mostly different from each other. The findings of this study provide insights into temporal effects of risk factors and can support the development of time-dependent safety countermeasures. Besides, this study also shows the potential of leveraging anonymized and aggregated dangerous driving data to assess traffic safety issues.
       
  • Design guidelines for turbulence in traffic on Dutch motorways
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Aries van Beinum, Fred Wegman Over the years the characteristics of traffic on Dutch motorways has changed, but its design guidelines did not develop as rapidly and large parts remain unchanged since the first guidelines from the 1970s. During the latest revision of the Dutch motorway design guidelines it became clear that a solid and comprehensive theoretical, or evidence based, background was lacking for the validity of the prescribed ramp spacing and required length for weaving segments. This article presents the underpinning of revising the Dutch design manual for motorways for turbulence in traffic. For this study loop detector data at eight on-ramps and five off-ramps were collected as well as empirical trajectory data at fourteen different on-ramps (three), off-ramps (three) and weaving segments (eight) in The Netherlands. The results show that the areas around ramps that are influenced by turbulence are smaller than described in the design manuals and that, in their present form, the microscopic simulation software packages VISSIM and MOTUS fail to simulate the number and location of lane-changes around ramps realistically.
       
  • How does drivers’ visual search change as a function of experience'
           A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Chloe Robbins, Peter Chapman Novice drivers are statistically over-represented in reported road crashes, with recent evidence suggesting that some of this increased crash involvement may be a result of limitations in their cognitive processing. Such processing has typically been measured by recording drivers’ patterns of eye movements, however, the exact ways in which eye movements are reported and interpreted varies substantially between different studies in the literature. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review was to investigate whether novice drivers and experienced drivers do differ in clear and reproducible ways in their visual search.Studies were identified through searches of Web of Science, Medline, TRID Database, and the TRB Research in Progress Database, with no restrictions on publication status. Studies were included if they compared the visual search of a novice driver group (3 years driving experience) using an eye tracking method and reported at least one of the following four visual search outcomes: fixation durations, horizontal spread of search, vertical spread of search and number of fixations. Two reviewers independently screened searches and assessed the full texts of potentially included studies.Of the 235 studies initially identified 18 were included in the review, with 13 studies reporting sufficient data to be included in the meta-analysis for at least one outcome measure. Given that the included studies deployed a range of method types, additional sub-group analyses were conducted using this factor. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted by temporarily removing extreme experience groups (e.g. driving instructors and learner drivers) in order to test the effect of different levels of experience and training.The meta-analyses, along with support from results discussed narratively, revealed that novice drivers have a narrower horizontal spread of search compared to experienced drivers, however, there were no overall differences in fixation durations, vertical spread of search or number of fixations when the studies were pooled together. These findings have important primary implications for the development of novice training interventions, with novice drivers needing to develop a broader horizontal spread of visual search, but not to necessarily learn to fixate further down the road. Subgroup analyses also provided considerations for future research studies in terms of the experience of the driver groups, and the method type used.
       
  • Rank-ordering anti-speeding messages
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): A. Ian Glendon, Samantha Prendergast PurposeFurther explore the utility of protection motivation theory (PMT) in developing effective roadside anti-speeding messages.MethodVia an electronic link, 81 participants holding a current Australian driver’s license rated all possible pairs of 18 PMT-derived anti-speeding messages in terms of their perceived effectiveness in reducing speed for themselves, and for drivers in general.ResultsWhile some messages revealed third-person effects (perceived as being more relevant to drivers-in-general than to self-as-driver), others showed reverse third-person effects (perceived as being more relevant to self-as-driver than to drivers-in-general). Compared with messages based on coping appraisal components, those derived from threat appraisal PMT components (perceived severity, counter-rewards, vulnerability) were rated as being more effective, both for participants themselves as driver, and for drivers-in-general. Compared with females, males reported threat appraisal messages as being more effective for reducing speed in themselves (reverse third-person effect). Aggregate scores for the 18 messages derived from this ipsative methodology correlated modestly with those from a normative study using similarly-worded items.DiscussionAs jurisdictions globally recognize speeding as a major road safety issue, effective anti-speeding campaigns are essential. Findings added to current knowledge of PMT’s efficacy as a basis for generating effective anti-speeding messages and indicated areas for future research and application.
       
  • Freeway single and multi-vehicle crash safety analysis: Influencing
           factors and hotspots
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Xuesong Wang, Mingjie Feng Single-vehicle (SV) and multi-vehicle (MV) crashes have been recognized as differing in spatial distribution and influencing factors, but little consideration has been given to these differences as related to hotspot identification. For the purpose of better hotspot identification, this study aims to analyze influencing factors of SV and MV crashes and to explore the consistency between SV and MV hotspots. Crash data, roadway geometric design features, and traffic characteristics were collected along the two directions of a 45-km freeway section in Shanghai, China. Univariate negative binomial conditional autoregressive (NB-CAR) and bivariate negative binomial spatial conditional autoregressive (BNB-CAR) models were developed to analyze the influencing factors and specifically address (1) site correlation between SV and MV crashes within the same freeway segment, and (2) spatial correlation among different freeway segments within the same direction. The modeling results showed substantial differences in the significant factors that influence SV and MV crashes, including both roadway geometric features and traffic operational factors. A non-negligible site correlation was found between SV and MV crashes. Taking into account the site correlation, the BNB-CAR model outperformed the NB-CAR model in terms of parameter estimation and model fitting. For hotspot identification, potential for safety improvement based on the empirical Bayes method was adopted to handle the crash fluctuation problem. Substantial inconsistency was found between SV and MV hotspots despite the site correlation: in the top ten hotspots, no hotspot was shared by the two crash types. This result highlights the importance of differentiating SV and MV crashes when identifying hotspots, providing insight into freeway safety analysis.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The role of pre-crash driving instability in contributing to crash
           intensity using naturalistic driving data
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Ramin Arvin, Mohsen Kamrani, Asad J. Khattak While the cost of crashes exceeds $1 Trillion a year in the U.S. alone, the availability of high-resolution naturalistic driving data provides an opportunity for researchers to conduct an in-depth analysis of crash contributing factors, and design appropriate interventions. Although police-reported crash data provides information on crashes, this study takes advantage of the SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) which is a unique dataset that allows new insights due to detailed information on driver behavior in normal, pre-crash, and near-crash situations, in addition to trip and vehicle performance characteristics. This paper investigates the role of pre-crash driving instability, or driving volatility, in crash intensity (measured on a 4-point scale from a tire-strike to an injury crash) by analyzing microscopic vehicle kinematic data. NDS data are used to investigate not only the vehicle movements in space but also the instability of vehicles prior to the crash and their contribution to crash intensity using path analysis. A subset of the data containing 617 crash events with around 0.18 million temporal trajectories are analyzed. To quantify driving instability, microscopic variations or volatility in vehicular movements before a crash are analyzed. Specifically, nine measures of pre-crash driving volatility are calculated and used to explain crash intensity. While most of the measures are significantly correlated with crash intensity, substantial positive correlations are observed for two measures representing speed and deceleration volatilities. Modeling results of the fixed and random parameter probit models revealed that volatility is one of the leading factors increasing the probability of a severe crash. Additionally, the speed prior to a crash is highly correlated with intensity outcomes, as expected. Interestingly, distracted and aggressive driving are highly correlated with driving volatility and have substantial indirect effects on crash intensity. With volatile driving serving as a leading indicator of crash intensity, given the crashes analyzed in this study, early warnings and alerts for the subject vehicle driver and proximate vehicles can be helpful when volatile behavior is observed.
       
  • Evaluating the predictive power of an SPF for two-lane rural roads with
           random parameters on out-of-sample observations
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Houjun Tang, Vikash V. Gayah, Eric T. Donnell Negative binomial (NB) regression is among the most common statistical modeling methods used to model crash frequencies due to its simple functional form and ability to handle over-dispersion commonly found in crash data. However, a drawback of this approach is that regression parameters are assumed to be the same across observations, which could contribute to biased parameter estimates. To alleviate this concern, the random parameters negative binomial (RPNB) model was recently proposed, which allows regression parameters to differ across observations following some known distribution. The resulting coefficients should be less biased, and thus the RPNB approach is believed to provide a more accurate relationship between independent variables and expected crash frequency. However, the prediction accuracy of the RPNB model relative to the standard NB model has not been thoroughly evaluated, particularly with respect to out-of-sample observations for which unique random parameters cannot be estimated. In this paper, the predictive power of the RPNB and NB models are examined using two-lane rural highway data from three engineering Districts in Pennsylvania. Multiple evaluation metrics are applied—root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE), coefficients from calibration functions and cumulative residual (CURE) plots—to assess each model type. The results show that the RPNB model outperforms the NB model when applied to within sample observations (i.e., those used to estimate the model) by making use of the observation-specific coefficients. However, the predictive power of the RPNB model appears to be similar to or slightly less precise than the traditional NB model when applied to out-of-sample observations. Since the RPNB model is estimated using a simulation-based approach, sensitivity tests were also performed to see how the parameter estimates change with the number of Halton draws used to perform the simulation. For the sample sizes used in this paper, the estimates were fairly insensitive when more than 50 Halton draws were used. The findings suggest that the RPNB model is more reliable when applied to the same set of sites that were used to estimate the model but might not be as robust as the traditional NB model when applied to other sites.
       
  • Pedestrian injury severity in motor vehicle crashes: An integrated
           spatio-temporal modeling approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Jun Liu, Alexander Hainen, Xiaobing Li, Qifan Nie, Shashi Nambisan Traffic crashes are outcomes of human activities interacting with the diverse cultural, socio-economic and geographic contexts, presenting a spatial and temporal nature. This study employs an integrated spatio-temporal modeling approach to untangle the crashed injury correlates that may vary across the space and time domain. Specifically, this study employs Geographically and Temporally Weighted Ordinal Logistic Regression (GTWOLR) to examine the correlates of pedestrian injury severity in motor vehicle crashes. The method leverages the space- and time-referenced crash data and powerful computational tools. This study performed non-stationarity tests to verify whether the local correlates of pedestrian injury severity have a significant spatio-temporal variation. Results showed that some variables passed the tests, indicating they have a significantly varying spatio-temporal relationship with the pedestrian injury severity. These factors include the pedestrian age, pedestrian position, crash location, motorist age and gender, driving under the influence (DUI), motor vehicle type and crash time in a day. The spatio-temporally varying correlates of pedestrian injury severity are valuable for researchers and practitioners to localize pedestrian safety improvement solutions in North Carolina. For example, in near future, special attention may be paid to DUI crashes in the city of Charlotte and Asheville, because in such areas DUI-involved crashes are even more likely to cause severe pedestrian injuries that in other areas. More implications are discussed in the paper.
       
  • Macro-level accident modeling in Novi Sad: A spatial regression approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Miloš Pljakić, Dragan Jovanović, Boško Matović, Spasoje Mićić In this study, a macroscopic analysis was conducted in order to identify the factors which have an effect on traffic accidents in traffic analysis zones. The factors that impact accidents vary according to the characteristics of the observed area, which in turn leads to a discrepancy between research and practice. The total number of accidents was observed in this paper, along with the number of motorized and non-motorized mode accidents within a three-year period in the city of Novi Sad. The models used for this analysis were spatial predictive models comprised of the classical predictive space model, spatial lag model and spatial error model. The spatial lag model showed the best performances concerning the total number of accidents and number of motorized mode accidents, whereas the spatial error model was prominent within the number of non-motorized mode accidents. The results found that increasing Daily Vehicle-Kilometers Traveled, parking spaces, 5-legged intersections and signalized intersections increased all types of accidents. The other demographic, traffic, road and environment characteristics showed that they had a different effect on the observed types of accidents. The results of this research can be benefitial to reserachers who deal with traffic engineering, space planning as well as making decisions with the aim of preparing countermeasures necessary for road safety improvement in the analysed area.
       
  • Application of a model-based recursive partitioning algorithm to predict
           crash frequency
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Houjun Tang, Eric T. Donnell Count regression models have been applied widely in traffic safety research to estimate expected crash frequencies on road segments. Data mining algorithms, such as classification and regression trees, have recently been introduced into the field to overcome some of the assumptions associated with statistical models. However, these data-driven algorithms usually provide non-parametric output, making it difficult to draw statistical inference or to evaluate how independent variables are associated with expected crash frequencies. In this paper, the model-based recursive partitioning (MOB) algorithm is applied in a crash frequency application. The algorithm incorporates the concept of recursive partitioning data in tree models and develops user-defined statistical models as outputs. The objective of this paper is to explore the potential of the MOB algorithm as a methodological alternative to parametric modeling methods in crash frequency analysis. To accomplish the objective, a standard negative binomial (NB) regression model, a NB model developed using the MOB algorithm, adjusted NB models which incorporate variables identified by the MOB algorithm, and a random parameters NB model are compared using 8 years of data collected from two-lane rural highways in Pennsylvania. The models are compared in terms of data fitness, sign and magnitude of statistical association between the independent and dependent variables, and predictive power. The results show that the MOB-NB model yields better data fitness than other NB models, and provides similar performance to the RPNB model, suggesting that the MOB-NB model may be capturing unobserved heterogeneity by dividing the data into subgroups. The presence of a passing zone and posted speed limit are two covariates identified by the MOB algorithm that differentiate variable effects among subgroups. In addition, the MOB-NB model provides the highest prediction accuracy based on the training and test data sets, although the difference among models is small. The comparison results reveal that the MOB algorithm is a promising alternative to identify covariates, evaluate variable associations and instability, and make predictions in a crash frequency context.
       
  • Estimation of traffic conflicts using precise lateral position and width
           of vehicles for safety assessment
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Anna Charly, Tom V. Mathew Surrogate measures of safety (SMoS) aims at road safety evaluation without depending on historical crash data. Existing studies have evaluated SMoS in traffic conditions having good lane discipline. However, in several traffic conditions vehicles do not follow good lane discipline resulting in high crash rates. Moreover, existing studies do not consider type of the vehicle explicitly while estimating conflicts. This study aims to address these gaps by proposing a generic methodology for safety evaluation applicable also in non-lane-based multi-class traffic conditions. It utilizes precise position of the vehicles and their widths to identify critical interactions between all types of vehicles. Conflicts are then estimated from these critical interactions using the modified time-to-collision (MTTC), an existing SMoS. The proposed methodology is evaluated in both lane-based as well as non-lane based traffic conditions. The former uses NGSIM trajectory data and compares the estimated conflicts with the literature. The latter, on the other hand, uses simulated vehicle trajectories from an expressway but compares the estimated conflicts with historical crash data. The results show that estimated conflicts exhibit significant temporal and spatial correlation with real crashes. It also shows the suitability of the methodology for diverse traffic conditions.
       
  • Relationship between hazard-perception-test scores and proportion of
           hard-braking events during on-road driving – An investigation using a
           range of thresholds for hard-braking
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Assaf Botzer, Oren Musicant, Yaniv Mama Drivers with higher proportion of hard braking events have greater potential to be involved in an accident. In this study, we tested if hard braking events might be accounted for by drivers' hazard perception (HP) ability. Our investigation was based on an original approach. Usually, researchers define hard braking according to a single deceleration threshold (e.g., g
       
  • Spatial analysis of traffic accidents near and between road intersections
           in a directed linear network
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Álvaro Briz-Redón, Francisco Martínez-Ruiz, Francisco Montes Although most of the literature on traffic safety analysis has been developed over areal zones, there is a growing interest in using the specific road structure of the region under investigation, which is known as a linear network in the field of spatial statistics. The use of linear networks entails several technical complications, ranging from the accurate location of traffic accidents to the definition of covariates at a spatial micro-level.Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to display a detailed analysis of a dataset of traffic accidents recorded in Valencia (Spain), which were located into a linear network representing more than 30 km of urban road structure corresponding to one district of the city. A set of traffic-related covariates was constructed at the road segment level for performing the analysis. Several issues and methodological approaches that are inherent to linear networks have been shown and discussed. In particular, the network was defined in a way that allowed the explicit investigation of traffic accidents around road intersections and the consideration of traffic flow directionality.Zero-inflated negative binomial count models accounting for spatial heterogeneity were used. Traffic safety at road intersections was specifically taken into account in the analysis by considering the higher variability and number of zeros that can be observed at these road entities and the differential contribution of the covariates depending on the proximity of a road intersection. To complement the results obtained from the count models fitted, coldspots and hotspots along the network were also detected, with explanatory objectives.The models confirmed that spatial heterogeneity, overdispersion and the close presence of road intersections explain the accident counts observed in the road network analyzed. Hotspot detection revealed that several covariates whose contribution was unclear in the modelling approaches may also be affecting accident counts at the road segment level.
       
  • Macroscopic road safety impacts of public transport: A case study of
           Melbourne, Australia
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Long T. Truong, Graham Currie Mode shift from private vehicle to public transport is often considered as a potential means of improving road safety, given public transport’s lower fatality rates. However, little research has examined how public transport travel contributes to road safety at a macroscopic level. Further, there is a limited understanding of the individual effects of different public transport modes. This paper explores the effects of commuting by public transport on road safety at a macroscopic level, using Melbourne as a case study. A random effect negative binomial (RENB) and a conditional autoregressive (CAR) model are adopted to explore links between total and severe crash data to commuting mode shares and a range of other zonal explanatory factors. Overall, results show the great potential of public transport as a road safety solution. It is evident that mode shift from private vehicle to public transport (i.e. train, tram, and bus), for commuting would reduce not only total crashes, but also severe crashes. Modelling also demonstrated that CAR models outperform RENB models. In addition, results highlight safety issues related to commuting by motorbike and active transport. Effects of sociodemographic, transport network, and land use factors on crashes at the macroscopic level are also discussed.
       
  • Analysis of commercial truck drivers’ potentially dangerous driving
           behaviors based on 11-month digital tachograph data and multilevel
           modeling approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Tuqiang Zhou, Junyi Zhang This study analyzed the potentially dangerous driving behaviors of commercial truck drivers from both macro and micro perspectives. The analysis was based on digital tachograph data collected over an 11-month period and comprising 4373 trips made by 70 truck drivers. First, different types of truck drivers were identified using principal component analysis (PCA) and a density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) at the macro level. Then, a multilevel model was built to extract the variation properties of speeding behavior at the micro level. Results showed that 40% of the truck drivers tended to drive in a substantially dangerous way and the explained variance proportion of potentially extremely dangerous truck drivers (79.76%) was distinctly higher than that of other types of truck drivers (14.70%˜34.17%). This paper presents a systematic approach to extracting and examining information from a big data source of digital tachograph data. The derived findings make valuable contributions to the development of safety education programs, regulations, and proactive road safety countermeasures and management.
       
  • Human-like car-following model for autonomous vehicles considering the
           cut-in behavior of other vehicles in mixed traffic
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Rui Fu, Zhen Li, Qinyu Sun, Chang Wang Car-following is a common driving behavior which has a significant effect on driver safety and comfort. Although a large number of studies have focused on car-following models for autonomous vehicles (AV) and connected vehicles (CV), car-following models for AV and CV which consider cut-ins in mixed traffic have not been investigated. In this study, a human-like car-following model for AV and CV was developed by examining the effect of cut-in vehicles on car-following behavior and the expectations of drivers. The cut-in position, reaction time, acceleration, and desired distance were investigated on a real freeway in an instrumented vehicle. Corresponding to results from previous studies, the cut-in vehicles maintain a safe distance from the preceding vehicle and a larger distance from the following vehicle to avoid conflict. Analysis of the behavior of the following driver illustrates that in the keeping stages, the reaction time after the cut-in is 0.85 s for the acceleration stimulus and 0.70 s for the deceleration stimulus. These times are shorter than the response time before the cut-in for the acceleration (1.95 s) and deceleration stimuli (1.66 s). The acceleration, rate of increase in the acceleration with the relative speed, and the desired distance are lower after than before the cut-in events. In this paper, a human-like car-following model for cut-in situations is proposed, which is designed for autonomous vehicles. Unlike previous car-following models, the proposed model has a shorter response time and lower deceleration in cut-in situations. The proposed model may help to improve car-following safety, driver comfort, and trust in AVs and CVs.
       
  • A multivariate-based variable selection framework for clustering traffic
           conflicts in a brazilian freeway
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Miriam Rocha, Michel Anzanello, Felipe Caleffi, Helena Cybis, Gabrielli Yamashita More than one million people die or suffer non-fatal injuries annually due to road accidents around the world. Understanding the causes that give rise to different types of conflict events, as well as their characteristics, can help researchers and traffic authorities to draw up strategies aimed at mitigating collision risks. This paper proposes a framework for grouping traffic conflicts relying on similar profiles and factors that contribute to conflict occurrence using self-organizing maps (SOM). In order to improve the quality of the formed groups, we developed a novel variable importance index relying on the outputs of the nonlinear principal component analysis (NLPCA) that intends to identify the most informative variables for grouping collision events. Such index guides a backward variable selection procedure in which less relevant variables are removed one-by-one; after each removal, the clustering quality is assessed via the Davies-Bouldin (DB) index. The proposed framework was applied to a real-time dataset collected from a Brazilian highway aimed at allocating traffic conflicts into groups presenting similar profiles. The selected variables suggest that lower average speeds, which are typically verified during congestion events, contribute to conflict occurrence. Higher variability on speed (denoted by high standard deviation, and speed’s coefficient of variation levels on that variable), which are also perceived in the assessed freeway near to congestion periods, also contribute to conflicts.
       
  • Driving distracted with friends: Effect of passengers and driver
           distraction on young drivers’ behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Fangda Zhang, Shashank Mehrotra, Shannon C. Roberts Both passengers and driver distraction can have negative effects on young driver behavior. However, it is not known how these two concepts interact to influence driver behavior. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of passenger presence and driver distraction on young drivers’ behavior. Forty-eight participants aged 18–20 participated in a driving simulator study. Participants completed three distracting tasks (visual, cognitive, or combined) while navigating a highway scenario. Results indicated that passenger presence interacted with driver distraction to have an effect on elevated g-force events in curves. Separately, distraction affected driving performance differently according to whether the task was visual, cognitive or combined. Having a close friendship resulted in less speeding and male drivers tended to maintain a better lane position compared to females. The results have implications for licensing laws as well as intervention programs aimed at improving young driver behavior.
       
  • Gender differences in accident risk with e-bikes—Survey data from
           Norway
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): A. Fyhri, O. Johansson, T. Bjørnskau E-bikes are becoming increasingly popular, and are given an important role in the green mobility of the future. However, some have raised concerns that the increased speed and the increased weight of the e-bike can lead to more accidents among cyclists riding an e-bike, as compared to conventional bicycles. Furthermore, it has been suggested that e-bikes may appeal to new groups of cyclists with little cycling experience, which may further impede cyclist safety. Previous research has not provided a clear picture. We investigate these questions with data from three surveys carried out in Norway (N = 7752). A logistic regression analysis comparing conventional and electric bicycles, controlling for age gender and exposure, shows an overall risk increase (all accidents) for e-bike users. The results suggest that this increased risk derives from females having a higher accident risk on e-bikes. For men there is no risk difference between e-bikes and conventional bikes. Some, but not all, of this elevated risk can be attributed to being unfamiliar with the bicycle. E-bikes are not more likely to cause serious accidents than conventional bicycles. In-depth analysis of accident causation showed that there was no difference in the factors leading to accidents, except that there was a somewhat higher prevalence of accidents resulting from balance problems with e-bikes.
       
  • Bayesian spatial-temporal model for the main and interaction effects of
           roadway and weather characteristics on freeway crash incidence
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Huiying Wen, Xuan Zhang, Qiang Zeng, N.N. Sze This study attempts to examine the main and interaction effects of roadway and weather conditions on crash incidence, using the comprehensive crash, traffic and weather data from the Kaiyang Freeway in China in 2014. The dependent variable is monthly crash count on a roadway segment (with homogeneous horizontal and vertical profiles). A Bayesian spatio-temporal model is proposed to measure the association between crash frequency and possible risk factors including traffic composition, presence of curve and slope, weather conditions, and their interactions. The proposed model can also accommodate the unstructured random effect, and spatio-temporal correlation and interactions. Results of parameter estimation indicate that the interactions between wind speed and slope, between precipitation and curve, and between visibility and slope are significantly correlated to the increase in the freeway crash risk, while the interaction between precipitation and slope is significantly correlated to the reduction in the freeway crash risk, respectively. These findings are indicative of the design and implementation of real-time traffic management and control measures, e.g. variable message sign, that could mitigate the crash risk under the adverse weather conditions.
       
  • Eye glances towards conflict-relevant cues: the roles of anticipatory
           competence and driver experience
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Patrick Stahl, Birsen Donmez, Greg A. Jamieson ObjectiveThis paper analyzes the effects of anticipatory competence and driver experience on glance patterns towards visual cues that indicate conflict situations. Background: Prior research has shown that experienced drivers’ visual scanning patterns differ from those of novices. Experienced drivers are less erratic and more systematic in their monitoring of the environment. We have also shown in an earlier study that driving experience improves anticipatory competence in that it leads to a higher number of timely proactive actions in conflict-scenarios (avoidance actions prior to, as opposed to in reaction to a conflict). This paper investigates glance patterns specifically to relevant visual cues in conflict scenarios to determine whether glance patterns of anticipatory drivers who exhibit proactive actions differ from those who do not. It also investigates whether experienced drivers pay more attention to these cues compared to novices. Method: We conducted a simulator experiment with 24 experienced and 24 novice drivers. As part of the experiment, all drivers completed three distinct traffic scenarios, each with a conflict situation. Results: The results show that drivers who exhibited proactive actions had more frequent and longer glances towards conflict-relevant cues than those who did not exhibit any. Similarly, experienced drivers focused on these visual cues more often, and for longer durations compared to novices. Further, experienced drivers who exhibited proactive actions looked at the cues more often compared to experienced drivers who did not exhibit any; there was no significant difference for novice drivers. Conclusion: These findings speak to the role of situation-specific visual cues for anticipatory competence, and to the importance of driver experience to aid in the interpretation of these cues. Future research should seek to confirm our findings in a wider variety of driving scenarios.
       
  • Crash risk, crash exposure, and the built environment: A conceptual review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2019Source: Accident Analysis & PreventionAuthor(s): Louis A. Merlin, Erick Guerra, Eric Dumbaugh sThis paper reviews the literature on the relationship between the built environment and roadway safety, with a focus on studies that analyse small geographical units, such as census tracts or travel analysis zones. We review different types of built environment measures to analyse if there are consistent relationships between such measures and crash frequency, finding that for many built environment variables there are mixed or contradictory correlations. We turn to the treatment of exposure, because built environment measures are often used, either explicitly or implicitly, as measures of exposure. We find that because exposure is often not adequately controlled for, correlations between built environment features and crash rates could be due to either higher levels of exposure or higher rates of crash risk per unit of exposure. Then, we identify various built environment variables as either more related to exposure, more related to risk, or ambiguous, and recommend further targeted research on those variables whose relationship is currently ambiguous.
       
  • Improving freeway segment crash prediction models by including
           disaggregate speed data from different sources
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 132Author(s): Nancy Dutta, Michael D. Fontaine Traditional traffic safety analyses use highly aggregated data, typically annual average daily traffic (AADT) and annual crash counts. This approach neglects the time-varying nature of critical factors such as traffic speed, volume, and density, and their effects on traffic safety. This paper evaluated the relationship between crashes and quality of flow at different levels of temporal aggregation using continuous count station data and probe data from 4 lane rural freeway and 6 lane urban freeway segments in Virginia. The performance of crash prediction models using traffic and geometric information at 15-minute, hourly, and annual aggregation intervals were contrasted. This study also assessed whether inclusion of speed data improved model performance and examined the effects of using speeds from physical sensors versus speed estimates from private-sector probe speed data. The results showed that using average hourly volume along with average speed and selected geometric variables improved predictions compared to annual models that did not use speed information. When comparing an AADT-based model to an average hourly volume model for total crashes, the mean absolute prediction error improved by 11% for rural models and 20% for urban models. This result was based on volume and speed data from continuous count stations. When private sector probe speed data was used, the rural model performance improved by 10% and urban models by 20%. This trend was consistent for all crash types irrespective of level of injury or number of vehicles involved. Even though models using private sector data performed slightly worse than the ones based on continuous count data, they were still far better than AADT based models. These results indicate that probe based data can be used in developing crash models without harming prediction capability.
       
  • Parent-adolescent bicycling safety communication and bicycling behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Cara J. Hamann, Steven Spears IntroductionEfforts to encourage bicycling to school have increased in the United States. However, little is known about how parent-child communication affects bicycle safety. The purpose of this study was to examine parent-child agreement on biking instructions and their correlation with the early adolescents’ real-world riding behavior.MethodsParent-child dyads were asked open-ended questions about instructions they had given/received about bicycling. Answers were then coded into nine categories (e.g., crossing the road, bicycle control/handling). Distributions of parent-child agreement on parent-given bicycle safety instructions were examined in relation to the adolescent’s real-world riding behaviors.Results36 parent-child dyads were included. Average age was 11.9 (Range: 10–15) for adolescents and 43.3 (Range: 30–59) for parents. Common parental instructions included: wear helmet, ride on sidewalk, and trip routing specifications. High ‘ride on sidewalk’ instruction (38.9% both parent and adolescent, 22.2% parent only, 16.7% adolescent only) was concerning due to potential driveway conflicts. Agreement between parents and adolescents on reported instructions was low, overall. Mean safety-relevant event rates in real-world cycling did not differ significantly between bicycle safety instruction agreement groups (both parent & adolescent reported, parent only, adolescent only, neither). The proportion of time an adolescent rode on different infrastructure types (sidewalk, street, etc.) did not vary between dyads reporting parents had given instructions to ride on the sidewalk and those who had not.ConclusionsResults highlight lack of agreement between parents and adolescents on cycling instructions the adolescent receives from the parent. Parent instructions to adolescents regarding bicycling safety were not associated with actual riding behaviors. Results suggest parent messaging to adolescents may be ineffective. Given parents are in a position of influence, results indicate a need for parental training on effective safety-related communication strategies to assist them in capitalizing on their parental role to increase their child’s safety.
       
  • Endogenous commercial driver’s traffic violations and freight
           truck-involved crashes on mainlines of expressway
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Jungyeol Hong, Juneyoung Park, Gunwoo Lee, Dongjoo Park Freight truck-involved crashes result in a high mortality rate and significantly impact logistic costs; therefore, many researchers have analyzed the causes of truck-involved traffic crashes. In the existing literature, it was found that truck-involved crashes are affected by factors such as road geometry, weather, driver and vehicle characteristics, and traffic volume based on a variety of statistical methodologies; however, the endogenous impact resulting from driver traffic violation has not been considered. The goal of the study is to discover the factors influencing freight vehicle crashes and develop more accurate crash probability estimation by explaining the endogenous driver traffic violations. To achieve the purpose of this study, we applied the two-stage residual inclusion (2SRI) approach, a methodology used in the nonlinear regression analysis model for capturing the endogeneity issue. This method improves the accuracy of the model by capturing the unobserved effects of driver traffic violations. From the results, traffic violations were identified to be influenced by the driver’s physical condition, as well as driver and vehicle characteristics. Furthermore, variables of driver traffic violations such as improper passing, speeding, and safe distance violation were found to be endogenous in the probability model of freight truck crashes on expressway mainlines.
       
  • Modelling severity of pedestrian-injury in pedestrian-vehicle crashes with
           latent class clustering and partial proportional odds model: A case study
           of North Carolina
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Yang Li, Wei (David) Fan There are more than 2000 pedestrians reported to be involved in traffic crashes with vehicles in North Carolina every year. 10%–20% of them are killed or severely injured. Research studies need to be conducted in order to identify the contributing factors and develop countermeasures to improve safety for pedestrians. However, due to the heterogeneity inherent in crash data, which arises from unobservable factors that are not reported by law enforcement agencies and/or cannot be collected from state crash records, it is not easy to identify and evaluate factors that affect the injury severity of pedestrians in such crashes. By taking advantage of the latent class clustering (LCC), this research firstly applies the LCC approach to identify the latent classes and classify the crashes with different distribution characteristics of contributing factors to the pedestrian-vehicle crashes. By considering the inherent ordered nature of the traffic crash severity data, a partial proportional odds (PPO) model is then developed and utilized to explore the major factors that significantly affect the pedestrian injury severities resulting from pedestrian-vehicle crashes for each latent class previously obtained in the LCC. This study uses police reported pedestrian crash data collected from 2007 to 2014 in North Carolina, containing a variety of features of motorist, pedestrian, environmental, roadway characteristics. Parameter estimates and associated marginal effects are mainly used to interpret the models and evaluate the significance of each independent variable. Lastly, policy recommendations are made and future research directions are also given.
       
  • A full Bayes approach for traffic conflict-based before–after safety
           evaluation using extreme value theory
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Lai Zheng, Tarek Sayed A full Bayes approach is proposed for traffic conflict-based before-after safety evaluations using extreme value theory. The approach combines traffic conflicts of different sites and periods and develops a uniform generalized extreme value (GEV) model for the treatment effect estimation. Moreover, a hierarchical Bayesian structure is used to link possible covariates to GEV parameters and to account for unobserved heterogeneity among different sites. The proposed approach was applied to evaluate the safety benefits of a left-turn bay extension project in the City of Surrey, Canada, in which traffic conflicts were collected from 3 treatment sites and 3 matched control sites before and after the treatment. A series of models were developed considering different combinations of covariates and their link to different GEV model parameters. Based on the best fitted model, the treatment effects were analyzed quantitatively using the odds ratio (OR) method as well as qualitatively by comparing the shapes of GEV distributions. The results show that there are significant reduction in the expected number of crashes (i.e., OR = 0.409). In addition, there are apparent changes in the shape of GEV distributions for the treatment sites, where GEV distributions shift further away from the risk of crash area after the treatment. Both of these results indicate significant safety improvements after the left-turn bay extension.
       
  • Working conditions and risk exposure of employees whose occupations
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): E. Fort, B. Gadegbeku, E. Gat, C. Pelissier, M. Hours, B. Charbotel IntroductionSeveral studies of the working conditions of drivers, and in particular on their pace of work, have enabled a better understanding of the risk factors for road accidents that occur during work. However, few studies are available on the risk exposure and working conditions of employees whose occupations involve driving. The purpose of this paper is to identify the different groups of employees occupationally exposed to road risk and to classify them according to working conditions.MethodologyA Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) was implemented on the 41,727 individuals from the SUMER 2010 survey (Medical Monitoring of Occupational Risk Exposure: SUrveillance Médicale des Expositions aux Risques professionnels) and for 45 variables about working conditions. The analysis used 5 categories of weekly driving exposure as a supplementary variable (variable which is not used to perform the MCA): Non-exposure; Exposed 20 h. The results of the MCA were used to construct an ascending hierarchical classification.ResultsThe first factorial axis differentiates between conventional and unconventional work schedules. Axis 2 differentiates modalities corresponding to the working hours of the most recent working week. The third axis chiefly contrasts persons who have rules to follow with those who have none. An ascending hierarchical classification distinguishes 10 clusters of individuals according to working conditions. Four clusters of employees were excessively exposed to occupational driving. Clusters also have distinct demographic, occupational and psychosocial characteristics.ConclusionAnalysis of data from the SUMER survey confirms that employees exposed to road risk are particularly affected by atypical work time characteristics, but can be found in all activity sectors and in all types of job.
       
  • The transportation safety of elderly pedestrians: Modeling contributing
           factors to elderly pedestrian collisions
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Dohyung Kim For the elderly, walking is an important, reliable mobility option, since the elderly frequently lose their physical and/or sensory ability to drive as their age increases. However, elderly pedestrians are vulnerable on the streets and are at great risk of injury or death, when involved in a collision. This is due to not only increased frailty but also such issues as reaction speed and confidence on the streets. Therefore, pedestrian safety for older adults is a growing concern. This paper comprehensively examines the relationship between physical conditions and elderly pedestrian safety at the intersection level. By constructing a multinomial logistic regression (MLR) model, this paper identifies the exclusive contributing factors to elderly pedestrian collisions rather than younger pedestrian collisions. The outputs from the model suggest that facilities such as raised median, three-way intersection, street tree, and park and recreational land use improve the safety of elderly pedestrians. They also imply that bus stops increase elderly pedestrian collisions, while the intersections with crosswalks or colored crosswalks do not contribute to elderly pedestrians’ safety, but the safety of younger pedestrians. The findings of this paper provide insight to transportation policies like Complete Street and Vision Zero and help to improve the current road system that are designed for automobiles and young, healthy road users.
       
  • Association between higher-order driving instruction and risky driving
           behaviours: Exploring the mediating effects of a self-regulated safety
           orientation
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Natalie Watson-Brown, Bridie Scott-Parker, Teresa Senserrick Adolescents’ risky driving behaviours contribute to their over-representation in road trauma. Higher-order driving instruction is suggested to reduce such behaviours. To sustain positive behaviours in the long-term, self-determination theory identifies self-regulation as fundamental. The current research explored associations between higher-order driving instruction, risky driving behaviours, and a self-regulated safety orientation. Learner drivers (n = 544), aged 16–19 years, responded to a 91-item survey. Self-regulated safety orientation was found to fully mediate the relationship between higher-order driving instruction and inattentive risky driving behaviours, and between anticipatory higher-order driving instruction and intentional risky driving behaviours. A partial mediation was found between self-regulatory higher-order instruction and intentional risky driving behaviours. These results support that higher-order driving instruction, delivered to develop a self-regulated safety orientation, has potential to reduce young novice drivers’ risky driving behaviours. Further research is recommended to triangulate these results through direct observation and longitudinal evaluation.
       
  • Explaining crash modification factors: Why it’s needed and how it
           might be done
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Gary A. Davis Although the Highway Safety Manual (HSM) now provides empirical tools for predicting the safety consequences of highway engineering decisions, these tools represent the driver and vehicle conditions prevailing in the United States during the last few decades. As automated vehicles improve in capability and increase in market share these conditions will change, possibly reducing the accuracy of HSM predictions. Assessing the transferability of a crash modification factor to new situations almost certainly requires an explanation of how the modification achieves its effect, but at present there is little guidance on how such explanations might be posed and tested. This paper describes the use of micro-simulation to develop an explanation of how pedestrian hybrid beacons (PHB) modify pedestrian crash likelihood. Since the literature indicated that PHBs can affect both pedestrian and driver behavior it was necessary to include both possibilities in the model. To simulate injury severity distributions similar to those recorded in a crash database it was necessary to propose that almost all simulated drivers attempt to brake in pedestrian/vehicle encounters. Then changing the simulated fraction of careful pedestrians from between 0% and 30% to between 80% and 90% gave simulated crash modification factors similar to estimates reported in the literature. The resulting working hypothesis then is that PHBs achieve their crash reduction effect in large part by modifying pedestrian behavior. This is not so much a direct observation as it is an inference to the best explanation. That is, the support for the hypothesis comes from its ability to explain the data at hand. This hypothesis should be tested further, and additional tests are proposed.
       
  • Is that move safe' Case study of cyclist movements at intersections
           with cycling discontinuities
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Matin S. Nabavi Niaki, Nicolas Saunier, Luis F. Miranda-Moreno The cycling safety research literature has proposed methods to analyse safety and case studies to better understand the factors that lead to cyclist crashes. Surrogate measures of safety (SMoS) are being used as a proactive approach to identify severe interactions that do not result in an accident and interpreting them for a safety diagnosis. While most cyclist studies adopting SMoS have evaluated interactions by counting the total number of severe events per location, only a few have focused on the interactions between general directions of movement e.g. through cyclists and right turning vehicles. However, road users perform maneuvers that are more varied at a high spatiotemporal resolution such as a range of sharp to wide turning movements. These maneuvers (motion patterns) have not been considered in past studies as a basis for analysis to identify, among a range of possible motion patterns in each direction of travel, which ones are safer, and which are more likely to result in a crash.This paper presents a novel movement-based probabilistic SMoS approach to evaluate the safety of road users’ trajectories based on clusters of trajectories representing the various movements. This approach is applied to cyclist-vehicle interactions at two locations of cycling network discontinuity and two control sites in Montréal. The Kruskal-Wallis and Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests are used to compare the time-to-collision (TTC) distribution between motion patterns in each site and between sites with and without a discontinuity. Results demonstrate the insight provided by the new approach and indicate that cyclist interactions are more severe and less safe at locations with a cycling network discontinuity and that cyclists following different movements have statistically different levels of safety.
       
  • Dual-target hazard perception: Could identifying one hazard hinder a
           driver’s capacity to find a second'
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Robert J. Sall, Jing Feng Low-level cognitive processes like visual search are crucial for hazard detection. In dual-target searches, subsequent search misses (SSMs) are known to occur when the identification of one target impedes detection of another that is concurrently presented. Despite the high likelihood of concurrent hazards in busy driving environments, SSMs have not been empirically investigated in driving. In three studies, participants were asked to identify safety-related target(s) in simulated traffic scenes that contained zero, one, or two target(s) of low or high perceptual saliency. These targets were defined as objects or events that would have prevented safe travel in the direction indicated by an arrow preceding the traffic scene. Findings from the pilot study (n = 20) and Experiment 1 (n = 29) demonstrated that detecting one target hindered drivers’ abilities to find a second from the same scene. In Experiment 2 (n = 30), explicit instructions regarding the level of risk were manipulated. It was found that search times were affected by the instructions, though SSMs persisted. Implications of SSMs in understanding the causes of some crashes are discussed, as well as future directions to improve ecological and criterion validity and to explore the roles of expertise and cognitive capabilities in multi-hazard detection.
       
  • In a heart beat: Using driver’s physiological changes to determine the
           quality of a takeover in highly automated vehicles
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Mohamed Taher Alrefaie, Stever Summerskill, Thomas W Jackon Developing conditionally automated driving systems is on the rise. Vehicles with full longitudinal and latitudinal control will allow drivers to engage in secondary tasks without monitoring the roadway, but users may be required to resume vehicle control to handle critical hazards. The loss of driver’s situational awareness increases the potential for accidents. Thus, the automated systems need to estimate the driver’s ability to resume control of the driving task.The aim of this study was to assess the physiological behaviour (heart rate and pupil diameter) of drivers. The assessment was performed during two naturalistic secondary tasks. The tasks were the email and the twenty questions task in addition to a control group that did not perform any tasks. The study aimed at finding possible correlations between the driver’s physiological data and their responses to a takeover request. A driving simulator study was used to collect data from a total of 33 participants in a repeated measures design to examine the physiological changes during driving and to measure their takeover quality and response time.Secondary tasks induced changes on physiological measures and a small influence on response time. However, there was a strong observed correlation between the physiological measures and response time. Takeover quality in this study was assessed using two new performance measures called PerSpeed and PerAngle. They are identified as the mean percentage change of vehicle’s speed and heading angle starting from a take-over request time. Using linear mixed models, there was a strong interaction between task, heart rate and pupil diameter and PerSpeed, PerAngle and response time. This, in turn, provided a measurable understanding of a driver’s future responses to the automated system based on the driver’s physiological changes to allow better decision making. The present findings of this study emphasised the possibility of building a driver mental state model and prediction system to determine the quality of the driver's responses in a highly automated vehicle. Such results will reduce accidents and enhance the driver’s experience in highly automated vehicles.
       
  • A driving simulation study to examine the impact of available sight
           distance on driver behavior along rural highways
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): M. Bassani, L. Catani, A. Salussolia, C.Y.D. Yang The available sight distance (ASD) is the maximum length of the roadway ahead visible to the driver. It is a fundamental factor in road geometry principles and is used by road designers to ensure safe driving conditions. However, designers do not know how a specific ASD may affect the longitudinal and transversal behavior of drivers engaged in negotiating curves.This paper focuses on analyzing driver longitudinal behavior along rural highways curves with limited visibility. A number of virtual sight condition scenarios were recreated and tested in the driving simulator. Three tracks were designed with various combinations of radii and sight obstructions (a continuous wall) along the roadside located at various offsets from the lane centerline, combinations which resulted with a minimum ASD of 56.6 m. Roadside factors capable of influencing the risk perception of drivers (e.g., traffic barriers, posted speed limit signs, vegetation) were all excluded from the simulations.Results indicate that speed and trajectory dispersion from the lane centerline depend linearly on ASD in the investigated range of curve radii (from 120 to 430 m). In general, when ASD increases, so does speed and the trajectories tend to be less dispersed around the lane centerline. As a result, in safety terms, any variation in ASD will have the polar opposite effect on safety related parameters. Furthermore, different curves with similar ASD values resulted in different speed and lateral control behaviors. Analysis from ANOVA support the same findings; in addition, radius, curve direction, and distance from trajectory to sight obstruction have been identified as significant independent parameters. Road designers should adjust the ASD and these parameters when seeking to encourage drivers to adopt appropriate behaviors. To optimize safe driving conditions, ASD should be designed so that it is slightly greater than the required sight distance, since excessive ASD values may encourage drivers to drive at inappropriate speeds.
       
  • Multigroup invariance of the DAS across a random and an internet-sourced
           sample
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): M.J.M. Sullman, A.N. Stephens, J.E. Taylor It is well established that angry and, subsequently, aggressive drivers pose a problem for road safety. Over recent years, there has been an increase in the number of published studies examining driver anger, particularly using the Driving Anger Scale (DAS). The DAS measures six broad types of situations likely to provoke anger while driving (i.e., police presence, illegal driving, discourtesy, traffic obstructions, slower drivers, and hostile gestures). The majority of the recent studies have moved away from traditional paper-and-pencil methodologies, using the internet to collect data, for reasons of convenience. However, it is not yet completely clear whether data obtained from this methodology differs from more traditional methods. While research outside of the driving arena has not found substantial differences, it is important to establish whether this also applies to driving-related research and measures, such as the DAS. The present study used Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MGCFA) to investigate the invariance of the DAS across a random sample from the electoral roll (n = 1,081: males = 45%) and an internet sourced sample (n = 627; males = 55%). The MGCFA showed the same six-factor solution was supported in both datasets. The relationships between the DAS factors and age, sex, trait anger, and annual mileage were broadly similar, although more significant differences were identified in the internet sample. This research demonstrates that driving measures administered over the internet produce similar results to those obtained using more traditional methods.
       
  • “I Snapchat and Drive!” A mixed methods approach examining snapchat
           use while driving and deterrent perceptions among young adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Verity Truelove, James Freeman, Jeremy Davey This research utilised a qualitative and quantitative study to examine a sample of young drivers’ perceptions of deterrent forces, both legal and non-legal, for the behaviour of phone use while driving. First, focus groups were conducted with 60 drivers between the ages of 17 and 25 years who resided in Queensland, Australia. This qualitative study utilised an inductive approach to elicit participants’ perceptions without omitting important ideas. Legal sanctions were associated with low perceptions of enforcement certainty. Meanwhile, the only non-legal sanction to emerge was the concept of “safety”; many participants were deterred from using their phone while driving for fear of injury or death to themselves or others. The types of social media most likely to be engaged in were explored and sending videos or photos via the application Snapchat emerged as the most common social media application used among the sample. Consequently, the subsequent quantitative study focused on deterrent forces associated with Snapchat use while driving. A survey was utilised with a separate sample of young drivers aged 17–25 years (n = 503). The impact of the threat of legal sanctions on Snapchat use while driving was examined through classical deterrence theory and Stafford and Warr’s (1993) reconceptualised deterrence theory. The non-legal factor of perceived safety was also included in the quantitative study. None of the classical deterrence variables (e.g., certainty, severity and swiftness) reached significance while all the reconceptualised deterrence variables (e.g., direct and indirect punishment and punishment avoidance), as well as perceived safety, were significant predictors of Snapchat use while driving. It is suggested that perceptions of certainty of apprehension need to be increased for phone use while driving. The findings show the current impact of deterrent initiatives for phone use while driving as well as provide the first examination of deterrents for the specific mobile phone behaviour of Snapchat use while driving.
       
  • Adjusting finite sample bias in traffic safety modeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Huiying Mao, Xinwei Deng, Dominique Lord, Gerardo Flintsch, Feng Guo Poisson and negative binomial regression models are fundamental statistical analysis tools for traffic safety evaluation. The regression parameter estimation could suffer from the finite sample bias when event frequency is low, which is commonly observed in safety research as crashes are rare events. In this study, we apply a bias-correction procedure to the parameter estimation of Poisson and NB regression models. We provide a general bias-correction formulation and illustrate the finite sample bias through a special scenario with a single binary explanatory variable. Several factors affecting the magnitude of bias are identified, including the number of crashes and the balance of the crash counts within strata of a categorical explanatory variable. Simulations are conducted to examine the properties of the bias-corrected coefficient estimators. The results show that the bias-corrected estimators generally provide less bias and smaller variance. The effect is especially pronounced when the crash count in one stratum is between 5 and 50. We apply the proposed method to a case study of infrastructure safety evaluation. Three scenarios were evaluated, all crashes collected in three years, and two hypothetical situations, where crash information was collected for “half-year” and “quarter-year” periods. The case-study results confirm that the magnitude of bias correction is larger for smaller crash counts. This paper demonstrates the finite sample bias associated with the small number of crashes and suggests bias adjustment can provide more accurate estimation when evaluating the impacts of crash risk factors.
       
  • Accounting for mediation in cyclist-vehicle crash models: A Bayesian
           mediation analysis approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Mohamed Bayoumi Kamel, Tarek Sayed Cyclist safety is affected by many factors on the zonal level. Previous studies have found associations between cyclist-vehicle crashes and vehicle and bike exposures, network configuration, land use, road facility, and the built environment. In addition, the network configuration, land use, and road facility were found to affect bike exposure levels. The association of zonal characteristics with both exposure and crashes may bias the development of macro-level bike safety models. This paper aims to explain these associations simultaneously using a form of Structural Equation Modelling approach. The analysis assesses the mediated effects that some variables have on crashes through their effects on bike exposure (by setting bike exposure as a mediator). Data from 134 traffic analysis zones (TAZ’s) in the City of Vancouver, Canada is used as a case study. The indirect effect of network configuration, land use, and road facility on cyclist-vehicle crashes was assessed through Bayesian mediation analysis. Mediation analysis is an approach used to estimate how one variable transmits its effects to another variable through a certain mediator. These effects could be direct only, indirect only (through a certain mediator), or both direct and indirect. The results showed that the bike kilometers travelled (BKT) was a mediator of the relationship between network configuration, land use, and road facility and cyclist-vehicle crashes. The mediation analysis showed that some variables have different direct and indirect effect on cyclist-vehicle crashes. This indicates that while some variables may have negative direct association with crashes, their total crash effect can be positive after accounting for their effect through exposure. For example, bike network coverage and recreational density have negative direct association with cyclist-vehicle crashes, and positive indirect association leading to positive total effect on cyclist-vehicle crashes.
       
  • Using telematics data to find risky driver behaviour
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Manda Winlaw, Stefan H. Steiner, R. Jock MacKay, Allaa R. Hilal Usage-based insurance schemes provide new opportunities for insurers to accurately price and manage risk. These schemes have the potential to better identify risky drivers which not only allows insurance companies to better price their products but it allows drivers to modify their behaviour to make roads safer and driving more efficient. However, for Usage-based insurance products, we need to better understand how driver behaviours influence the risk of a crash or an insurance claim. In this article, we present our analysis of automotive telematics data from over 28 million trips. We use a case control methodology to study the relationship between crash drivers and crash-free drivers and introduce an innovative method for determining control (crash-free) drivers. We fit a logistic regression model to our data and found that speeding was the most important driver behaviour linking driver behaviour to crash risk.
       
  • The association of helmet use with the risk of death for occupants of
           motorcycles involved in traffic crashes: A meta-analysis.
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Mingming Liang, Yun Zhang, Xiaotian Zhang, Min Min, Tingting Shi, Yehuan Sun
       
  • Vulnerable road users in low-, middle-, and high-income countries:
           Validation of a Pedestrian Behaviour Questionnaire
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Rich C. McIlroy, Katherine L. Plant, Usanisa Jikyong, Vũ Hoài Nam, Brenda Bunyasi, Gilbert O. Kokwaro, Jianping Wu, Md. Shamsul Hoque, John M. Preston, Neville A. Stanton The primary aim of this study was to validate the short version of a Pedestrian Behaviour Questionnaire across six culturally and economically distinct countries; Bangladesh, China, Kenya, Thailand, the UK, and Vietnam. The questionnaire comprised 20 items that asked respondents to rate the extent to which they perform certain types of pedestrian behaviours, with each behaviour belonging to one of five categories identified in previous literature; violations, errors, lapses, aggressive behaviours, and positive behaviours. The sample consisted of 3423 respondents across the six countries. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of the data to the five-factor structure, and a four-factor structure in which violations and errors were combined into one factor (seen elsewhere in the literature). For some items, factor loadings were unacceptably low, internal reliability was low for two of the sub-scales, and model fit indices were generally unacceptable for both models. As such, only the violations, lapses, and aggressions sub-scales were retained (those with acceptable reliability and factor loadings), and the three-factor model tested. Although results suggest that the violations sub-scale may need additional attention, the three-factor solution showed the best fit to the data. The resulting 12-item scale is discussed with regards to country differences, and with respect to its utility as a research tool in cross-cultural studies of road user behaviour.
       
  • A randomized trial to test the impact of parent communication on improving
           in-vehicle feedback systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Corinne Peek-Asa, Michelle L. Reyes, Cara J. Hamann, Brandon D. Butcher, Joseph E. Cavanaugh This randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of integrating Steering Teens Safe, a parent communication intervention, with feedback from an in-vehicle video recording system. In-vehicle video systems that trigger a recording when the vehicle exceeds a g-force threshold have been used to provide feedback to young drivers. Few of these programs have involved parental engagement. Parent-teen dyads were randomized to three groups and 150 dyads completed the study. All groups received an in-vehicle video system that recorded driving events. The control group received no feedback or intervention. In the first intervention group, teens received real-time feedback, and parent-teen dyads received summary feedback, based on information recorded by the in-vehicle system. The second intervention group received the same feedback, plus parents were taught strategies to improve communication with their teen about safe driving. The primary outcome variable was unsafe driving event rates per 1000 miles driven and the primary independent variable was group assignment. Generalized linear models were used to calculate effect estimates. Compared with the control group, the Event Recorder Feedback group had a rate ratio of 0.35 (95% CI = 0.24 – 0.50) and the combined intervention group (Event Recorder Feedback and parent communication) had a rate ratio of 0.21 (95% CI = 0.15 – 0.30). Furthermore, the combined intervention group had a significantly lower event rate than the Event Recorder Feedback only group (rate ratio = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.41 – 0.87). While in-vehicle feedback systems can help reduce unsafe driving events in early independent driving, teaching parents strategies for effective communication with their young driver may further improve impact.
       
  • Examining correlations between motorcyclist’s conspicuity, apparel
           related factors and injury severity score: Evidence from new motorcycle
           crash causation study
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Behram Wali, Asad J. Khattak, Numan Ahmad Motorcyclists are vulnerable road users at a particularly high risk of serious injury or death when involved in a crash. In order to evaluate key risk factors in motorcycle crashes, this study quantifies how different “policy-sensitive” factors correlate with injury severity, while controlling for rider and crash specific factors as well as other observed/unobserved factors. The study analyzes data from 321 motorcycle injury crashes from a comprehensive US DOT FHWA’s Motorcycle Crash Causation Study (MCCS). These were all non-fatal injury crashes that are representative of the vast majority (82%) of motorcycle crashes. An anatomical injury severity scoring system, termed as Injury Severity Score (ISS), is analyzed providing an overall score by accounting for the possibility of multiple injuries to different body parts of a rider. An ISS ranges from 1 to 75, averaging at 10.32 for this sample (above 9 is considered serious injury), with a spike at 1 (very minor injury). Preliminary cross-tabulation analysis mapped ISS to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) injury classification and examined the strength of associations between the two. While the study finds a strong correlation between AIS and ISS classification (Kendall’s tau of 0.911), significant contrasts are observed in that, when compared to ISS, AIS tends to underestimate the severity of an injury sustained by a rider. For modeling, fixed and random parameter Tobit modeling frameworks were used in a corner-solution setting to account for the left-tail spike in the distribution of ISS and to account for unobserved heterogeneity. The developed random parameters Tobit framework additionally accounts for the interactive effects of key risk factors, allowing for possible correlations among random parameters. A correlated random parameter Tobit model significantly out-performed the uncorrelated random parameter Tobit and fixed parameter Tobit models. While controlling for various other factors, we found that motorcycle-specific shoes and retroreflective upper body clothing correlate with lower ISS on-average by 5.94 and 1.88 units respectively. Riders with only partial helmet coverage on-average sustained more severe injuries, whereas, riders with acceptable helmet fit had lower ISS Methodologically, not only do the individual effects of several key risk factors vary significantly across observations in the form of random parameters, but the interactions between unobserved factors characterizing random parameters significantly influence the injury severity score as well. The implications of the findings are discussed.
       
  • Safety aspects of riding with children: Descriptive analysis of adult
           riders’ self-report
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): J. Hatfield, R.G. Poulos, S.M. Murphy, L.K. Flack, C. Rissel, R. Grzebieta, A.S. McIntosh Active transport, including cycling, is promoted as an effective way of increasing children’s physical activity and health. Parents can support children’s riding by riding with them and it is important to address relevant safety issues. Little is known about parents’ experience of safety-relevant aspects of riding with children. Participants in the Safer Cycling Study in New South Wales, Australia, who reported that they had ridden with children in the last 12 months were questioned about how they ride with children, and their experience of safety issues and crashes. Among the 187 respondents who had ridden with children on their bicycle, the most common form of carrier was a rear-mounted seat (48%) followed by a trailer (29%). Many respondents (79%) identified risks specific to riding carrying children, including those linked with specific carrier types and with use of footpaths. Most (92%) indicated that they change their behaviour when carrying a child on their bicycle; for example, riding more slowly, more carefully, and away from roads. Among crashes with a child on the bicycle, most were falls. Among the 345 participants who had ridden to accompany a child on a bicycle, approximately three quarters identified risks specific to accompanying children, such as managing the child’s limited skill, awareness and predictability. Ninety-seven percent reported behavioural changes including positioning themselves as a barrier for their child and caution crossing roads. Findings suggest strategies to support parents in riding safely with children.
       
  • Reducing the time loss bias: Two ways to improved driving safety and
           energy efficiency
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Mario Herberz, Celina Kacperski, Florian Kutzner The time loss bias describes the systematic overestimation of time lost when decelerating from a relatively high speed. In the present study, we investigated the debiasing effect of two educational interventions, the Paceometer (Peer and Gamliel, 2013) and a newly designed Pop-up assistant, in a video-based controlled-access highway driving scenario. The Paceometer provides participants with pace information (min/km) added to the common speedometer. The Pop-up assistant informs about the time lost when decreasing speed according to a specific situation. A mixed-design ANOVA confirmed the improvement of time loss estimations for both debiasing tools and the superiority of the Pop-up assistant, which produced temporal spillover effects. We discuss potential explanations in terms of simplifying information and anchoring and the potential benefits of both tools to reduce risky driving, fuel costs and range restrictions of electric vehicles.
       
  • A safety assessment of mixed fleets with Connected and Autonomous Vehicles
           using the Surrogate Safety Assessment Module
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Navreet Virdi, Hanna Grzybowska, S. Travis Waller, Vinayak Dixit The transportation network can provide additional utility by addressing the safety concerns on roads. On-road fatalities are an unfortunate loss of life and lead to significant costs for society and the economy. Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs), envisaged as operating with idealised safety and cooperation, could be a means of mitigating these costs. This paper intends to provide insights into the safety improvements to be attained by incrementally transitioning the fleet to CAVs. This investigation is done by constructing a calibrated microsimulation environment in Vissim and deploying the custom developed Virdi CAV Control Protocol (VCCP) algorithm for CAV behaviour. The CAV behaviour is implemented using an application programming interface and a dynamic linking library. CAVs are introduced to the environment in 10% increments, and safety performance is assessed using the Surrogate Safety Assessment Module (SSAM). The results of this study show that CAVs at low penetrations result in an increase in conflicts at signalised intersections but a decrease at priority-controlled intersections. The initial 20% penetration of CAVs is accompanied by a +22%, −87%, −62% and +33% change in conflicts at the signalised, priority, roundabout and DDI intersection respectively. CAVs at high penetrations indicate a global reduction in conflicts. A 90% CAV penetration is accompanied by a −48%, −100%, −98% and −81% change in conflicts at the signalised, priority, roundabout and DDI intersection respectively.
       
  • Unsafe riding behaviors of shared-bicycle riders in urban China: A
           retrospective survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 131Author(s): Xiaolin Wu, Wangxin Xiao, Conghui Deng, David C. Schwebel, Guoqing Hu Shared-bicycle use has skyrocketed in urban China, but little is known about the safety of bicycle users. The Chinese popular media reports multiple risky riding behaviors among shared bicycle riders, but scientific research on the topic is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective WeChat-based online survey to examine how often shared bicycle riders report engaging in risky cycling behaviors in urban China. Eight unsafe shared bicycle riding behaviors were assessed: not wearing helmets, running red lights, cycling against the traffic flow, riding in lanes designed for motor vehicles, riding in lanes designed for pedestrians, carrying passengers on bicycles, using cell phones while riding, and eating while riding. In total, 1960 valid questionnaires were collected. The proportion of participants who reported always or often having unsafe riding behavior in the past month, ranged from 1.1% for carrying passengers on the bicycles to 97.6% for failing to wear a helmet. Demographic characteristics were associated with unsafe behaviors through multivariate logistic regression, with male riders and riders aged 25 years or younger more likely to ride while using cell phones than females (AOR = 2.94) and those 36 years or older (AOR = 3.57). Cyclists with undergraduate education were more likely to wear helmets than those with postgraduate education or higher (AOR = 0.21). Compared to riders from central municipalities governed directly by the central government, riders from provincial capitals, deputy provincial cities, and smaller cities were at higher risks of riding in lanes for pedestrians, respectively (AOR = 1.59, 2.82 and 1.61). Riders who rode over 5 h a week and who rode on weekends were more likely to carry passengers than those who rode less than 1 h a week (AOR = 4.72) and those who rode only on weekdays (AOR = 3.93). We conclude that shared-bicycle riders frequently engage in some unsafe riding behaviors in urban China. Younger age, lower level of education, and longer hours of riding each week are associated with greater risks of some unsafe riding behaviors. Shared bicycles offer substantial benefit to societal health and transportation, but evidence-based interventions should be considered to reduce risks from unsafe shared bicycle riding behaviors. A well-designed road infrastructure with dedicated on-road bicycle lanes and readily-accessible comfortable, low-cost, and safe helmets may also reduce unsafe riding behaviors and unwanted crashes and injuries for shared bicycle riders.
       
  • Road Safety on Five Continents – Conference in Jeju, South Korea
           2018
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: Accident Analysis & PreventionAuthor(s): Anna Vadeby
       
 
 
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