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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3034 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3034 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 81, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 322, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 337, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 309, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 393, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Accident Analysis & Prevention
  [SJR: 1.109]   [H-I: 94]   [81 followers]  Follow
   Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
   ISSN (Print) 0001-4575
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3034 journals]
  • Comparing recall vs. recognition measures of accident under-reporting: A
           two-country examination
    • Authors: Tahira M. Probst; Laura Petitta; Claudio Barbaranelli
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Tahira M. Probst, Laura Petitta, Claudio Barbaranelli
      A growing body of research suggests that national injury surveillance data significantly underestimate the true number of non-fatal occupational injuries due to employee under-reporting of workplace accidents. Given the importance of accurately measuring such under-reporting, the purpose of the current research was to examine the psychometric properties of two different techniques used to operationalize accident under-reporting, one using a free recall methodology and the other a recognition-based approach. Moreover, in order to assess the cross-cultural generalizability of these under-reporting measures, we replicated our psychometric analyses in the United States (N=440) and Italy (N=592). Across both countries, the results suggest that both measures exhibited similar patterns of relationships with known antecedents, including job insecurity, production pressure, safety compliance, and safety reporting attitudes. However, the recall measures had more severe violations of normality and were less correlated with self-report workplace injuries. Considerations, implications, and recommendations for using these different types of accident measures are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T06:22:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Mobile phone conversations, listening to music and quiet (electric) cars:
           Are traffic sounds important for safe cycling?
    • Authors: A. Stelling-Konczak; G.P. van Wee; J.J.F. Commandeur; M. Hagenzieker
      Pages: 10 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): A. Stelling-Konczak, G.P. van Wee, J.J.F. Commandeur, M. Hagenzieker
      Listening to music or talking on the phone while cycling as well as the growing number of quiet (electric) cars on the road can make the use of auditory cues challenging for cyclists. The present study examined to what extent and in which traffic situations traffic sounds are important for safe cycling. Furthermore, the study investigated the potential safety implications of limited auditory information caused by quiet (electric) cars and by cyclists listening to music or talking on the phone. An Internet survey among 2249 cyclists in three age groups (16–18, 30–40 and 65–70year old) was carried out to collect information on the following aspects: 1) the auditory perception of traffic sounds, including the sounds of quiet (electric) cars; 2) the possible compensatory behaviours of cyclists who listen to music or talk on their mobile phones; 3) the possible contribution of listening to music and talking on the phone to cycling crashes and incidents. Age differences with respect to those three aspects were analysed. Results show that listening to music and talking on the phone negatively affects perception of sounds crucial for safe cycling. However, taking into account the influence of confounding variables, no relationship was found between the frequency of listening to music or talking on the phone and the frequency of incidents among teenage cyclists. This may be due to cyclists’ compensating for the use of portable devices. Listening to music or talking on the phone whilst cycling may still pose a risk in the absence of compensatory behaviour or in a traffic environment with less extensive and less safe cycling infrastructure than the Dutch setting. With the increasing number of quiet (electric) cars on the road, cyclists in the future may also need to compensate for the limited auditory input of these cars.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T06:22:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.014
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Gender roles, sex and the expression of driving anger
    • Authors: M.J.M. Sullman; J. Paxion; A.N. Stephens
      Pages: 23 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): M.J.M. Sullman, J. Paxion, A.N. Stephens
      The present study investigated the validity of the 25-item Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) as well as the role of sex and gender-roles in relation to the expression of driving anger in a sample of 378 French drivers (males=38%, M =32.9years old). Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported the four-factor structure of the 25-item DAX (Adaptive/Constructive Expression; Use of the Vehicle to Express Anger; Verbal Aggressive Expression and Personal Physical Aggressive Expression) and two of the three aggressive factors were found to have significant positive relationships with driving anger, while adaptive/constructive expression was negatively related to driving anger. Use of the vehicle to express anger was not significantly related to crash involvement, but was significantly related to all other crash-related conditions (traffic tickets, loss of concentration, loss of control of the vehicle, near crash). The presence of feminine traits, but not sex, was predictive of adaptive/constructive behaviours, while masculine traits predicted more frequent verbal aggressive expression, use of the vehicle to express anger, personal physical aggressive expression and total aggressive expression. This finding may account for the inconsistent relationship found between driving anger and sex in previous research. This research also found that the 25-item DAX is a valid tool to measure the expression of driving anger and that the endorsement of masculine traits are related to more aggressive forms of driving anger expression.

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T06:22:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.016
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • A meta-analysis of in-vehicle and nomadic voice-recognition system
           interaction and driving performance
    • Authors: Sarah M. Simmons; Jeff K. Caird; Piers Steel
      Pages: 31 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Sarah M. Simmons, Jeff K. Caird, Piers Steel
      Driver distraction is a growing and pervasive issue that requires multiple solutions. Voice-recognition (V-R) systems may decrease the visual-manual (V-M) demands of a wide range of in-vehicle system and smartphone interactions. However, the degree that V-R systems integrated into vehicles or available in mobile phone applications affect driver distraction is incompletely understood. A comprehensive meta-analysis of experimental studies was conducted to address this knowledge gap. To meet study inclusion criteria, drivers had to interact with a V-R system while driving and doing everyday V-R tasks such as dialing, initiating a call, texting, emailing, destination entry or music selection. Coded dependent variables included detection, reaction time, lateral position, speed and headway. Comparisons of V-R systems with baseline driving and/or a V-M condition were also coded. Of 817 identified citations, 43 studies involving 2000 drivers and 183 effect sizes (r) were analyzed in the meta-analysis. Compared to baseline, driving while interacting with a V-R system is associated with increases in reaction time and lane positioning, and decreases in detection. When V-M systems were compared to V-R systems, drivers had slightly better performance with the latter system on reaction time, lane positioning and headway. Although V-R systems have some driving performance advantages over V-M systems, they have a distraction cost relative to driving without any system at all. The pattern of results indicates that V-R systems impose moderate distraction costs on driving. In addition, drivers minimally engage in compensatory performance adjustments such as reducing speed and increasing headway while using V-R systems. Implications of the results for theory, design guidelines and future research are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T14:23:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.013
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Driving under the influence of drugs: Perceptions and attitudes of New
           Zealand drivers
    • Authors: Neha Malhotra; Nicola J. Starkey; Samuel G. Charlton
      Pages: 44 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Neha Malhotra, Nicola J. Starkey, Samuel G. Charlton
      This study explored the patterns of drug driving in New Zealand by investigating 1) drivers’ perceptions about impairment caused by legal and illegal drugs 2) countermeasures employed by drivers when under the influence of drugs (e.g., decisions not to drive) 3) drivers’ attitudes about police enforcement of drug driving and 4) the factors that predict the likelihood of engaging in drug driving. Participants (n =434) were licensed drivers who completed an online questionnaire. Results of the questionnaire indicated that drivers rated hallucinogens and opiates as being the illegal drugs producing the highest level of driving impairment and cannabis the lowest. For legal drugs, sedatives were rated as having the highest driving impairment and anti-nausea and anti-depressants the lowest. Respondents’ drug use history had an effect on their ratings of impairment for anti-anxiety drugs, anti-depressants, kava, sedatives, cannabis and hallucinogens such that drug users reported higher impairment ratings than Non-user. Making a decision not to drive after taking drugs was reported by users of alcohol (73.6%), cannabis (57.0%), strong painkillers (42.5%), and anti-depressants (10.0%). Respondents who reported drink driving were 3.26 times more likely to report drug driving than those reporting no drink driving. Respondents also showed greater acceptance towards driving under the influence of legal drugs (43.5%) compared to illegal drugs (10.3%). Those who did not have favourable attitudes about drug driving were less likely to report having driven under the influence of drugs. Drivers in this sample were less aware of the potential negative effects of legal drugs on driving compared to illegal drugs. More than half the respondents from this study acknowledged drug driving as a road safety issue which needs more resources dedicated to it.

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T14:23:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.011
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Impact of in-vehicle navigation information on lane-change behavior in
           urban expressway diverge segments
    • Authors: Meiping Yun; Jing Zhao; Jianzhen Zhao; Xuyan Weng; Xiaoguang Yang
      Pages: 53 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Meiping Yun, Jing Zhao, Jianzhen Zhao, Xuyan Weng, Xiaoguang Yang
      Lane-changing behaviors frequently occur at upstream of the urban expressway off-ramp, which possibly cause bottleneck or accident. This paper studies how in-vehicle navigation information impacts lane-changing behavior at this urban expressway diverge segments with comparison to the traditional road signs by conducting a series of driving simulator experiments, in consideration of variation of the first provision time point and traffic flow density. Firstly, the driving simulator is validated by comparing data of lane-changing position and merging gap from both field survey and simulator. Then comparison study was performed for twelve scenarios which comprise four information provision design schemes under three different traffic flow density status. Lane-changing characteristics are analyzed by selecting six indicators, which are lane-changing merging gap, lane-changing position, lane change delay, lane-changing steering angle, lane-changing deceleration, and the safe distance of lane-changing. The results show that the impact of in-vehicle navigation information on lane-changing behavior varies with traffic flow density and the time point of the first navigation information provided. The in-vehicle navigation information had significant positive impact on lane-changing safety under medium to high density condition. However, the effect is not significant under light density condition. Moreover, more improvement in operational safety and smooth could be gained when the in-vehicle navigation information is provided earlier within range of 2km upstream of the exit gore.

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T14:23:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.025
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Work zone sign design for increased driver compliance and worker safety
    • Authors: Md Mahmudur Rahman; Lesley Strawderman; Teena Garrison; Deborah Eakin; Carrick C. Williams
      Pages: 67 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Md Mahmudur Rahman, Lesley Strawderman, Teena Garrison, Deborah Eakin, Carrick C. Williams
      Many studies have investigated the effect of dynamic message signs (DMS) on drivers’ speed reduction and compliance in work zones, yet only a few studies have examined the design of sign content of DMS. The purpose of this study was to develop design standards for DMS to improve driver compliance and worker safety. This study investigated the impact of sign content, frame refresh rate, and sign placement on driver speed reduction, compliance, and eye movements. A total of 44 participants were recruited for this study. Each participant completed 12 simulated driving tasks in a high-fidelity driving simulator. A small-scale field study was also conducted to test the effect of DMS on vehicle speed in a highway work zone. Results showed sign content and placement had no impact on speed reduction and compliance. However, sign frame refresh rate was found to have a significant effect on drivers’ initial speed and speed reduction. Participants had longer fixation duration on DMS when worker presence was mentioned in the sign content. Results of the field study suggested that the DMS is most effective at night.

      PubDate: 2017-06-06T06:04:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.023
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Self-monitoring of driving speed
    • Authors: Shelly Etzioni; Ido Erev; Robert Ishaq; Wafa Elias; Yoram Shiftan
      Pages: 76 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Shelly Etzioni, Ido Erev, Robert Ishaq, Wafa Elias, Yoram Shiftan
      In-vehicle data recorders (IVDR) have been found to facilitate safe driving and are highly valuable in accident analysis. Nevertheless, it is not easy to convince drivers to use them. Part of the difficulty is related to the “Big Brother” concern: installing IVDR impairs the drivers' privacy. The “Big Brother” concern can be mitigated by adding a turn-off switch to the IVDR. However, this addition comes at the expense of increasing speed variability between drivers, which is known to impair safety. The current experimental study examines the significance of this negative effect of a turn-off switch under two experimental settings representing different incentive structures: small and large fines for speeding. 199 students were asked to participate in a computerized speeding dilemma task, where they could control the speed of their “car” using “brake” and “speed” buttons, corresponding to automatic car foot pedals. The participants in two experimental conditions had IVDR installed in their “cars”, and were told that they could turn it off at any time. Driving with active IVDR implied some probability of “fines” for speeding, and the two experimental groups differed with respect to the fine’s magnitude, small or large. The results indicate that the option to use IVDR reduced speeding and speed variance. In addition, the results indicate that the reduction of speed variability was maximal in the small fine group. These results suggest that using IVDR with gentle fines and with a turn-off option maintains the positive effect of IVDR, addresses the “Big Brother” concern, and does not increase speed variance.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.024
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Comparison of US metropolitan region pedestrian and bicyclist fatality
    • Authors: J. Schneider; Jason Vargo; Aida Sanatizadeh
      Pages: 82 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): J. Schneider, Jason Vargo, Aida Sanatizadeh
      Annual US pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities involving motor vehicles have each increased by 30% in just six years, reaching their highest levels in two decades. To provide information to reverse this trend, we quantified pedestrian and bicyclist fatality rates in 46 of the largest US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) during two five-year time periods: 1999–2003 and 2007–2011. We divided the annual average number of pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities during 1999–2003 from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System by the annual estimates of pedestrian and bicycle trips, kilometers traveled, and minutes traveled from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and the annual average number of fatalities from 2007 to 2011 by similar estimates from the 2009 NHTS. The five most dangerous regions for walking during 2007–2011 averaged 262 pedestrian fatalities per billion trips while the five safest averaged 49 pedestrian fatalities per billion trips. The five most dangerous regions for bicycling averaged 458 bicyclist fatalities per billion trips while the five safest averaged 75 bicyclist fatalities per billion trips. Random-effects meta-analysis identified eight metropolitan regions as outliers with low pedestrian fatality rates, six with high pedestrian fatality rates, one with a low bicyclist fatality rate, and five with high bicyclist fatality rates. MSAs with low pedestrian and bicycle fatality rates tended to have central cities recognized as Walk Friendly Communities and Bicycle Friendly Communities for investing in pedestrian and bicycle projects and programs. Random-effects meta-regression showed that certain socioeconomic characteristics and high pedestrian and bicyclist mode shares were associated with lower MSA fatality rates. Results suggest that pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure and safety programs should be complemented with strategies to increase walking and bicycling. In particular, safety initiatives should be honed to reduce pedestrian and bicyclist fatality risk in immigrant communities and to make pedestrian travel safer for the growing senior-age population.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.04.018
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Angry thoughts in Spanish drivers and their relationship with
           crash-related events. The mediation effect of aggressive and risky driving
    • Authors: David Herrero-Fernández; Sara Fonseca-Baeza
      Pages: 99 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): David Herrero-Fernández, Sara Fonseca-Baeza
      Several studies have related aggressive and risky driving behaviours to accidents. However, the cognitive processes associated with driving aggression have received very little attention in the scientific literature. With the aim of shedding light on this topic, the present research was carried out on a sample of 414 participants in order to validate the Driver’s Angry Thoughts Questionnaire (DATQ) with a sample of Spanish drivers and to test the hypothesis of the mediation effect of aggressive and risky driving on the relationship between drivers’ angry thoughts and crash-related events. The results showed a good fit with the five-factor model of the questionnaire (Judgmental and Disbelieving Thinking, Pejorative Labelling and Verbally Aggressive Thinking, Revenge and Retaliatory Thinking, Physically Aggressive Thinking, and Coping Self-Instruction). Moreover, slight gender differences were observed in drivers’ angry thoughts, with women scoring higher than men (η2 =0.03). However, younger drivers had higher scores than older drivers in general (η2 =0.06). Finally, several mediation effects of aggressive driving and risky driving on the relationship between aggressive thinking and the crash-related events were found. Implications of the results for research in traffic psychology and clinical assessment of aggressive drivers as well as limitations of the study are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.015
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Does gender moderate the association between intellectual ability and
           accidental injuries? Evidence from the 1953 Stockholm Birth Cohort study
    • Authors: Carl Bonander; Carolina Jernbro
      Pages: 109 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Carl Bonander, Carolina Jernbro
      In this paper, we test for gender differences in the effects of intellectual ability on accidental injury risks using longitudinal data from the 1953 Stockholm Birth Cohort study (n=14,294). Intellectual ability was measured using IQ tests issued during a school survey at age ∼13, and outcome and covariate data was collected via record linkage to population and health registers, following the cohort from childhood to 55 years of age. We used ICD codes to identify accidental injuries resulting in hospital admissions and deaths, and shared frailty models to quantify the effects of IQ, while allowing for within-individual dependencies and recurrent events. The models included tests for the moderating effects of gender, as well as childhood family variables (parental socioeconomic status), and cohort member mediators (highest achieved education, socioeconomic status and income at the time of the event). The results indicate an inverse association between childhood IQ and subsequent accidental injury events, where 1 SD decrease in IQ implies a 17.8% increase in injury risk. We also found evidence that gender moderates this relationship, where the effect size was twice as large for men than for women (21.8% vs 9.3% per 1 SD decrease). Adult socioeconomic status can explain roughly half of the observed association. Potential explanations for these results are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Road traffic crash risk associated with prescription of hydroxyzine and
           other sedating H1-antihistamines: A responsibility and case-crossover
    • Authors: Ludivine Orriols; Audrey Luxcey; Benjamin Contrand; Anne Bénard-Laribière; Antoine Pariente; Blandine Gadegbeku; Emmanuel Lagarde
      Pages: 115 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Ludivine Orriols, Audrey Luxcey, Benjamin Contrand, Anne Bénard-Laribière, Antoine Pariente, Blandine Gadegbeku, Emmanuel Lagarde
      Background H1 antihistamines differ from each other by their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. The resulting sedating effect can be sought in therapy but may be a driving hazard. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of sedating H1-antihistamines on the risk of road traffic crash, with a particular focus on hydroxyzine which is also indicated as an anxiolytic in France. Methods The study consisted in extracting and matching data from three French nationwide databases: the national healthcare insurance database, police reports and the police national database of injurious crashes. All sedating H1-antihistamines, including hydroxyzine, were considered in the study. A case-control analysis, in which responsible drivers were cases and non-responsible were controls was performed. A case-crossover analysis, comparing for the same subject exposure during a period immediately before the crash with exposure during an earlier period, was also conducted. Results The extraction and matching procedures over the July 2005-December 2011 period led to the inclusion of 142,771 drivers involved in an injurious road traffic crash. The responsibility study found an increased risk of being responsible for an injurious road traffic crash in hydroxyzine users who were registered with a long-term chronic disease (mostly psychiatric disorders) on the day of the crash (OR=1.67 [1.22–2.30]). Among them, the risk was even higher in drivers with highest exposure levels (OR=2.60 [1.23–5.50]). There was no impact of sedating H1 antihistamine treatment initiation on the risk of crash. Conclusion Even if it is difficult to disentangle the part of the increased risk that would be causally related to hydroxyzine and the part related to behaviours of patients with a heavy psychiatric disorder, our study raises the alarm on the crash risk linked to hydroxyzine utilization in countries in which the anxiolytic indication is widespread.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.030
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Development of thoracic injury risk functions for the THOR ATD
    • Authors: Gerald S. Poplin; Timothy L. McMurry; Jason L. Forman; Joseph Ash; Daniel P. Parent; Matthew J. Craig; Eric Song; Richard Kent; Greg Shaw; Jeff Crandall
      Pages: 122 - 130
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Gerald S. Poplin, Timothy L. McMurry, Jason L. Forman, Joseph Ash, Daniel P. Parent, Matthew J. Craig, Eric Song, Richard Kent, Greg Shaw, Jeff Crandall
      The Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) aims to improve the ability to predict the risk of chest injury to restrained automobile occupants by measuring dynamic chest deflection at multiple locations. This research aimed to describe the methods for developing a thoracic injury risk function (IRF) using the multi-point chest deflection metrics from the 50th percentile male THOR Metric ATD with the SD-3 shoulder and associating to post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) outcomes that were matched on identical frontal and frontal-oblique impact sled testing conditions. Several deflection metrics were assessed as potential predictor variables for AIS 3+ injury risk, including a combined metric, called PC Score, which was generated from a principal component analysis. A parametric survival analysis (specifically, accelerated failure time (AFT) with Weibull distribution) was assessed in the development of the IRF. Model fit was assessed using various modeling diagnostics, including the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Models based on resultant deflection consistently exhibited improved fit compared to models based on x-axis deflection or chord deflection. Risk functions for the THOR PC Score and Cmax (maximum resultant deflection) were qualitatively equivalent, producing AUCs of 0.857 and 0.861, respectively. Adjusting for the potential confounding effects of age, AFT survival models with Cmax or PC Score as the primary deflection metric resulted in the THOR injury risk models with the best combination of biomechanical appropriateness, potential utility and model fit, and may be recommended as injury predictors.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Predictors of driving outcomes including both crash involvement and
           driving cessation in a prospective study of Japanese older drivers
    • Authors: Ritsu Kosuge; Kazuko Okamura; Makoto Kihira; Yukako Nakano; Goro Fujita
      Pages: 131 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Ritsu Kosuge, Kazuko Okamura, Makoto Kihira, Yukako Nakano, Goro Fujita
      The first aim of this study was to investigate predictors of future traffic crash involvement, taking into account bias in the handling of data for former drivers. The second aim was to compare characteristics of former drivers and crash-involved drivers in order to gain an understanding of appropriate driving cessation among older drivers. In all, 154 drivers aged 70 years or older participated in the baseline interview and the follow-up survey conducted two years later. In the baseline interview, participants were asked to respond to a questionnaire, take the Useful Field of View test® (UFOV), and complete the Mini-Mental State Examination. In the follow-up survey, participants were asked by mail or telephone whether they had stopped driving. Participants reporting that they still drove were invited to participate in a subsequent interview. Based on the information obtained in the follow-up survey, participants were classified as follows: driving cessation group (n =26); crash-involved group (n =18); and crash-free group (n =110). A multinomial logistic regression was then used to analyse the data. Contrary to the results of previous studies, we found older age to be associated with crash involvement but not with driving cessation. The cessation group had more decreased cognitive processing speed than the crash-involved and crash-free groups. Crash history was also predictive of crash involvement. Participants who were subject to license renewal between baseline and follow-up had a greater tendency to continue driving. Results suggested that age and crash history could potentially identify high-risk older drivers. The predictive power of cognitive processing speed is reduced under certain conditions. License-renewal procedures may induce Japanese older adults to continue driving. Future studies should use a large national sample to confirm the results of the present study.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.019
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Bicycle-vehicle interactions at mid-sections of mixed traffic streets:
           Examining passing distance and bicycle comfort perception
    • Authors: Peter Apasnore; Karim Ismail; Ali Kassim
      Pages: 141 - 148
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Peter Apasnore, Karim Ismail, Ali Kassim
      This paper studies the relevant factors in mixed urban traffic that may impact the lateral spacing between bicycles and vehicles (passing distance, PD), and their resulting effect on a bicyclists’ comfort based on a study of six sites in Ottawa, Canada. The observations are: [i] the average position of bicycles from the curb is 0.57m, and lesser (i.e. 0.35m) in the presence of parking; [ii] 90% of passes exceed 1.23m; [iii] PD is positively correlated with motor vehicle speed, lane width, and bicycle position from adjacent curb edge line, whiles inversely correlated to ambient traffic density and bicycle speed; [iv] motor vehicle speed has the highest prediction of PD variability; [v] PD and ambient traffic density (ATD) are found to be the most important factors to a bicyclists’ comfort perception (BCP). Two linear regression models for PD and BCP were developed and significant variables are identified as: motor vehicle speed, bicycle speed, ATD, number of lanes, and lane width. The presence or absence of a grade slope is found to be significant to the PD model and not to BCP. The models both exhibit limited predictive ability, however residual plots and significance of included variables are indicative of correct assumptions for the models. It is recommended that speed calming, sharrows, road signs instructing road sharing, and educating road users against “dooring” crashes be considered in improving road sharing, especially for narrow lanes (i.e. less than 3.6m) and lanes wider than 4.5m. It is also prudent for designers to avoid installing parking zones on narrow shared roads.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Another look at the safety effects of horizontal curvature on rural
           two-lane highways
    • Authors: Taha Saleem; Bhagwant Persaud
      Pages: 149 - 159
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Taha Saleem, Bhagwant Persaud
      Crash Modification Factors (CMFs) are used to represent the effects on crashes of changes to highway design elements and are usually obtained from observational studies based on reported crashes. The design element of interest for this paper is horizontal curvature on rural 2-lane highways. The data for this study came from the Washington State database in the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS). Crash prediction models are developed for curve sections on rural 2-lane highway and the tangent sections up- and down-stream of the curve sections. Different negative binomial models were developed for segments on level grades (<3%), moderate grades (3–6%), and steep grades (>6%) to account for the confounding effects of gradient. The relationships between crashes at different traffic volumes and deflection angles are explored to illustrate how to get estimates of CMFs for increases in the minimum radius, considering the effect of increased tangent length for sharper curves, an effect that is overlooked in the Highway Safety Manual CMF, in addition to the effect of gradient. The results of that exploration indicated that even at different design speeds and deflection angles, the CMF estimates for incremental increases in radius lie within the same range, and that the crash reduction rate (CRR) is higher at segments on higher grades compared to the ones on lower grades.

      PubDate: 2017-06-15T09:48:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Canadian drivers’ attitudes regarding preventative responses to driving
           while impaired by alcohol
    • Authors: Ward Vanlaar; Louise Nadeau; Anna McKiernan; Marisela M. Hing; Marie Claude Ouimet; Thomas G. Brown
      Pages: 160 - 165
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Ward Vanlaar, Louise Nadeau, Anna McKiernan, Marisela M. Hing, Marie Claude Ouimet, Thomas G. Brown
      Background In many jurisdictions, a risk assessment following a first driving while impaired (DWI) offence is used to guide administrative decision making regarding driver relicensing. Decision error in this process has important consequences for public security on one hand, and the social and economic well being of drivers on the other. Decision theory posits that consideration of the costs and benefits of decision error is needed, and in the public health context, this should include community attitudes. The objective of the present study was to clarify whether Canadians prefer decision error that: i) better protects the public (i.e., false positives); or ii) better protects the offender (i.e., false negatives). Methods A random sample of male and female adult drivers (N=1213) from the five most populated regions of Canada was surveyed on drivers’ preference for a protection of the public approach versus a protection of DWI drivers approach in resolving assessment decision error, and the relative value (i.e., value ratio) they imparted to both approaches. The role of region, sex and age on drivers’ value ratio were also appraised. Results Seventy percent of Canadian drivers preferred a protection of the public from DWI approach, with the overall relative ratio given to this preference, compared to the alternative protection of the driver approach, being 3:1. Females expressed a significantly higher value ratio (M=3.4, SD=3.5) than males (M=3.0, SD=3.4), p<0.05. Regression analysis showed that both days of alcohol use in the past 30days (CI for B: −0.07, −0.02) and frequency of driving over legal BAC limits in the past year (CI for B=−0.19, −0.01) were significantly but modestly related to lower value ratios, R2(adj.)=0.014, p<0.001. Regional differences were also detected. Conclusions Canadian drivers strongly favour a protection of the public approach to dealing with uncertainty in assessment, even at the risk of false positives. Accounting for community attitudes concerning DWI prevention and the individual differences that influence them could contribute to more informed, coherent and effective regional policies and prevention program development.

      PubDate: 2017-06-15T09:48:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.012
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Occupant thorax response variations due to arm position and restraint
           systems in side impact crash scenarios
    • Authors: Donata Gierczycka; Duane S. Cronin
      Pages: 173 - 180
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Donata Gierczycka, Duane S. Cronin
      Recent epidemiological studies have identified that thoracic side airbags may vary in efficacy to reduce injury severity in side impact crash scenarios, while previous experimental and epidemiological studies have presented contrasting results. This study aimed to quantify the variations in occupant response in side impact conditions using a human body computational model integrated with a full vehicle model. The model was analyzed for a Moving Deformable Barrier side impact at 61km/h to assess two pre-crash arm positions, the incorporation of a seatbelt, and a thorax air bag on thorax response. The occupant response was evaluated using chest compression, the viscous criterion and thoracic spinal curvature. The arm position accounted for largest changes in the thorax response (106%) compared to the presence of the airbag and seatbelt systems (75%). It was also noted that the results were dependant on the method and location of thorax response measurement and this should be investigated further. Assessment using lateral displacement of the thoracic spine correlated positively with chest compression and Viscous Criterion, with the benefit of evaluating whole thorax response and provides a useful metric to compare occupant response for different side impact safety systems. The thoracic side airbag was found to increase the chest compression for the driving arm position (+70%), and reduced the injury metrics for the vertical arm position (−17%). This study demonstrated the importance of occupant arm position on variability in thoracic response, and provides insight for future design and optimization of side impact safety systems.

      PubDate: 2017-06-15T09:48:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.017
      Issue No: Vol. 106 (2017)
  • Crashes involving cyclists aged 50 and over in the Netherlands: An
           in-depth study
    • Authors: M.J. Boele-Vos; K. Van Duijvenvoorde; M.J.A. Doumen; C.W.A.E. Duivenvoorden; W.J.R. Louwerse; R.J. Davidse
      Pages: 4 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 105
      Author(s): M.J. Boele-Vos, K. Van Duijvenvoorde, M.J.A. Doumen, C.W.A.E. Duivenvoorden, W.J.R. Louwerse, R.J. Davidse
      The number of seriously injured cyclists is increasing in the Netherlands. The majority of these seriously injured cyclists were involved in single-bicycle or bicycle-bicycle crashes. Little is known about the circumstances in which these crashes occur, as the police only registers 4% of these crashes. Therefore, an in-depth study was carried out to gain insight into the factors and circumstances that influence the occurrence and consequences of these crashes. The focus was on crashes involving cyclists aged 50 and over, as this group has a large share in the number of cyclist-only crashes. Detailed information on 41 single-bicycle and bicycle-bicycle crashes was collected and analysed. This resulted in a description of the course of events for every analysed crash, including a list of factors that had contributed to the occurrence of the crash and possible injuries. Subsequently, crashes with a similar course of events and a comparable combination of contributory factors were grouped into types of crashes. Results showed that cyclists aged 75 and over are more often involved in falls from a bicycle than younger cyclists. Contributory factors that played a role in a large number of crashes were behaviour of another road user, distraction and narrow cycling facilities or traffic lanes. However, which factors played a role in the occurrence of a crash depended on the type of crash. Eight types of crashes were identified. Based on the factors that played a role in the occurrence of these crashes, remedial measures can be developed to prevent similar crashes from occurring in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2016.07.016
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
  • Cross-comparison of three surrogate safety methods to diagnose cyclist
           safety problems at intersections in Norway
    • Authors: Aliaksei Laureshyn; Maartje de Goede; Nicolas Saunier; Aslak Fyhri
      Pages: 11 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 105
      Author(s): Aliaksei Laureshyn, Maartje de Goede, Nicolas Saunier, Aslak Fyhri
      Relying on accident records as the main data source for studying cyclists’ safety has many drawbacks, such as high degree of under-reporting, the lack of accident details and particularly of information about the interaction processes that led to the accident. It is also an ethical problem as one has to wait for accidents to happen in order to make a statement about cyclists’ (un-)safety. In this perspective, the use of surrogate safety measures based on actual observations in traffic is very promising. In this study we used video data from three intersections in Norway that were all independently analysed using three methods: the Swedish traffic conflict technique (Swedish TCT), the Dutch conflict technique (DOCTOR) and the probabilistic surrogate measures of safety (PSMS) technique developed in Canada. The first two methods are based on manual detection and counting of critical events in traffic (traffic conflicts), while the third considers probabilities of multiple trajectories for each interaction and delivers a density map of potential collision points per site. Due to extensive use of microscopic data, PSMS technique relies heavily on automated tracking of the road users in video. Across the three sites, the methods show similarities or are at least “compatible” with the accident records. The two conflict techniques agree quite well for the number, type and location of conflicts, but some differences with no obvious explanation are also found. PSMS reports many more safety-relevant interactions including less severe events. The location of the potential collision points is compatible with what the conflict techniques suggest, but the possibly significant share of false alarms due to inaccurate trajectories extracted from video complicates the comparison. The tested techniques still require enhancement, with respect to better adjustment to analysis of the situations involving cyclists (and vulnerable road users in general) and further validation. However, we believe this to be a future direction for the road safety analysis as the number of accidents is constantly decreasing and the quality of accident data does not seem to improve.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2016.04.035
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
  • Crash risk: How cycling flow can help explain crash data
    • Authors: Marco Dozza
      Pages: 21 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 105
      Author(s): Marco Dozza
      Crash databases are commonly queried to infer crash causation, prioritize countermeasures to prevent crashes, and evaluate safety systems. However, crash databases, which may be compiled from police and hospital records, alone cannot provide estimates of crash risk. Moreover, they fail to capture road user behavior before the crash. In Sweden, as in many other countries, crash databases are particularly sterile when it comes to bicycle crashes. In fact, not only are bicycle crashes underreported in police reports, they are also poorly documented in hospital reports. Nevertheless, these reports are irreplaceable sources of information, clearly highlighting the surprising prevalence of single-bicycle crashes and hinting at some cyclist behaviors, such as alcohol consumption, that may increase crash risk. In this study, we used exposure data from 11 roadside stations measuring cyclist flow in Gothenburg to help explain crash data and estimate risk. For instance, our results show that crash risk is greatest at night on weekends, and that this risk is larger for single-bicycle crashes than for crashes between a cyclist and another motorist. This result suggests that the population of night-cyclists on weekend nights is particularly prone to specific crash types, which may be influenced by specific contributing factors (such as alcohol), and may require specific countermeasures. Most importantly, our results demonstrate that detailed exposure data can help select, filter, aggregate, highlight, and normalize crash data to obtain a sharper view of the cycling safety problem, to achieve a more fine-tuned intervention.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2016.04.033
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
  • Safe roundabouts for cyclists
    • Authors: Søren Underlien Jensen
      Pages: 30 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 105
      Author(s): Søren Underlien Jensen
      May roundabouts be safer for cyclists than intersections? How are safe roundabouts designed? This paper tries to answer these questions on the basis of a before-after safety study of conversions of intersections to 255 single-lane roundabouts in Denmark. The before-after study accounts for long-term accident and injury trends and regression-to-the-mean effects. In order to relate safety effects for cyclists of various roundabout design features it is crucial to split the converted sites by speed limit, because safety effects for both cyclists and other road users of converting intersections to roundabouts depend heavily on speed limits on roads entering the converted sites. If speed limits are 70km/h or higher then converting intersections to roundabouts have resulted in bicycle safety improvements in Denmark. Results show that diameter and height of central islands and type of bicycle facilities at single-lane roundabouts have considerable impacts on cyclists’ safety. Central island diameters of 20–40m are safer for cyclists than smaller or larger roundabouts. A central island, which middle is elevated 2m or more above the circulating lane, is safer for cyclists than single-lane roundabouts with lower central islands. Single-lane roundabouts with separate cycle paths, where cyclists must yield to motorists entering or exiting the roundabout, are safer than roundabouts with cycle lanes. Single-lane roundabouts are safer for cyclists than intersections regardless of speed limits when these roundabouts have high central islands and/or separate cycle paths.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2016.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
  • Can cycling safety be improved by opening all unidirectional cycle paths
           for cycle traffic in both directions? A theoretical examination of
           available literature and data
    • Authors: Rob Methorst; Paul Schepers; Jaap Kamminga; Theo Zeegers; Elliot Fishman
      Pages: 38 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 105
      Author(s): Rob Methorst, Paul Schepers, Jaap Kamminga, Theo Zeegers, Elliot Fishman
      Many studies have found bicycle-motor vehicle crashes to be more likely on bidirectional cycle paths than on unidirectional cycle paths because drivers do not expect cyclists riding at the right side of the road. In this paper we discuss the hypothesis that opening all unidirectional cycle paths for cycle traffic in both directions prevent this lack of expectancy and accordingly improves cycling safety. A new national standard requires careful consideration because a reversal is difficult once cyclists are used to their new freedom of route choice. We therefore explored the hypothesis using available data, research, and theories. The results show that of the length of cycle paths along distributor roads in the Netherlands, 72% is bidirectional. If drivers would become used to cyclists riding at the left side of the road, this result raises the question of why bidirectional cycle paths in the Netherlands still have a poor safety record compared to unidirectional cycle paths. Moreover, our exploration suggested that bidirectional cycle paths have additional safety problems. It increases the complexity of unsignalized intersections because drivers have to scan more directions in a short period of time. Moreover, there are some indications that the likelihood of frontal crashes between cyclists increases. We reject the hypothesis that opening all unidirectional cycle paths for cycle traffic in both directions will improve cycle safety. We recommend more attention for mitigating measures given the widespread application of bidirectional cycle paths in the Netherlands.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2016.05.018
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
  • Incidents between Straight-ahead Cyclists and Right-turning Motor Vehicles
           at Signalised Junctions
    • Authors: Thomas Skallebæk Buch; Søren Underlien Jensen
      Pages: 44 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 105
      Author(s): Thomas Skallebæk Buch, Søren Underlien Jensen
      Accidents between right-turning motor vehicles and straight-ahead cyclists are one of the most common accident types leading to cyclist injuries at signalised junctions in Denmark. A before-after safety evaluation of applying staggered stop lines in 189 arms at 123 signalised junctions is presented. The evaluation accounts for long-term accident trends and changes in motor vehicle traffic volumes. Applying staggered stop lines gives no decline in accidents between right-turning motor vehicles and straight-ahead cyclists. However, there is a statistical tendency to a decline of these right-turn accidents involving heavy vehicles. There are several questions about factors leading to right-turn accidents that cannot be answered by recorded accident data. A study of conflicting behaviour focuses on factors leading to conflicts. Video observations have been carried out in 10 arms at signalised junctions. A total of 45 situations with conflicting behaviour between right-turning motor vehicles and straight-ahead cyclists have been investigated and compared to a reference group of simultaneous arrivals. The relative risk is lowest when both parties stop on red before entering the junction. Upon simultaneous arrival of both parties at a green light, the relative risk is highest. Cyclists tend to have a higher relative risk of being involved in conflicts if they; a) ride through on yellow, b) have a time distance of at least 2seconds to other cyclists, c) wear a black jacket, and/or d) arrive at the junction at a speed of at least 25km/h. Much less can be said about the motor vehicles or their drivers on the basis of these video observations, but motor vehicles stopping in the cycle crossing in order to yield to pedestrians or cyclists have a higher relative risk of being involved in conflicts.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2016.07.035
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
  • New functional pavements for pedestrians and cyclists
    • Authors: V. Wallqvist; G. Kjell; E. Cupina; L. Kraft; C. Deck; R. Willinger
      Pages: 52 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 105
      Author(s): V. Wallqvist, G. Kjell, E. Cupina, L. Kraft, C. Deck, R. Willinger
      When many fields of pedestrian and cyclist safety have been extensively studied, the surfacing has long been left unquestioned, despite being developed for another mode of transport and being one of the main causes for falls and fall injuries. In this project new surfacing materials for pedestrian and cyclist safety have been produced. Focusing on augmenting previously largely disregarded parameters as impact absorption, comfort and visibility at the same time as avoiding deteriorating of crucial parameters as friction and wear resistance. Rubber content, binder type, and pigment addition have been varied and evaluated. The results demonstrate that by increasing rubber content of the mixtures the head injury criterion (HIC) value and injury risk can be decreased while maintaining frictional properties according to existing criteria. Assembly of test-lanes demonstrate that some developed materials experience lower flow and component separation than standard materials due to rubber addition, calling for further optimisation of construction procedure linked to content development. Initial trials on the test-lanes indicate that a polyurethane (PU) based material has high cycling comfort, visibility and can be modified with phosphorescence properties. For standard asphalt, impact absorption might be inflicted by modification of bitumen alone but is mostly augmented by rubber addition. The results also indicate that rubber content can decrease ice formation on the materials.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2016.04.032
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
  • Hazard perception in young cyclists and adult cyclists
    • Authors: Linus H.R.H. Zeuwts; Pieter Vansteenkiste; Frederik J.A. Deconinck; Greet Cardon; Matthieu Lenoir
      Pages: 64 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 105
      Author(s): Linus H.R.H. Zeuwts, Pieter Vansteenkiste, Frederik J.A. Deconinck, Greet Cardon, Matthieu Lenoir
      Child bicyclists are at greater risk to get involved in a traffic accident. Although hazard perception tests between inexperienced and experienced car drivers revealed significant differences in perceptual-cognitive skills, a similar test for bicyclists is not yet existent. Therefore this study aimed to compare visual search patterns and reaction times of child bicyclists and adult bicyclists utilizing a hazard perception test for cyclists. Seventy-five children and forty-one adults were presented with eleven video clips filmed from the perspective of the bicyclist. The participants were required to press a response button whenever they detected a hazardous situation. Children were found to have significantly delayed reaction times and time until the first fixation on the latent covert hazards compared to adults. The inefficient visual search patterns in children may be attributed to an immature visual system. However, the finding that children fixated later on the hazards and only responded to the covert latent hazards when they became salient indicate difficulties with identifying possible hazards. Altogether, the findings of this study suggest that children’s situation awareness is dependent upon experience too, and not just maturation. Therefore, implications for training young bicyclists will be discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2016.04.034
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
  • Learning game for training child bicyclists’ situation awareness
    • Authors: Esko Lehtonen; Heidi Sahlberg; Emilia Rovamo; Heikki Summala
      Pages: 72 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 105
      Author(s): Esko Lehtonen, Heidi Sahlberg, Emilia Rovamo, Heikki Summala
      Encouraging more children to bicycle would produce both environmental and health benefits, but bicycling accidents are a major source of injuries and fatalities among children. One reason for this may be children’s less developed hazard perception skills. We assume that children’s situation awareness could be trained with a computer based learning game, which should also improve their hazard perception skills. In this paper, we present a prototype for such a game and pilot it with 8–9year old children. The game consisted of videos filmed from a bicyclist’s perspective. Using a touchscreen, the player's task was to point out targets early enough to gain points. The targets were either overt (other visible road users on a potentially conflicting course) or covert (occlusions, i.e. locations where other road users could suddenly emerge). If a target was missed or identified too late, the video was paused and feedback was given. The game was tested with 49 children from the 2nd grade of primary school (aged 8–9). 31 young adults (aged 22–34) played the game for comparison. The effect of the game on situation awareness was assessed with situation awareness tests in a crossover design. Similar videos were used in the tests as in the game, but instead of pointing out the targets while watching, the video was suddenly masked and participants were asked to locate all targets which had been present just before the masking, choosing among several possible locations. Their performance was analyzed using Signal Detection Theory and answer latencies. The game decreased answer latency and marginally changed response bias in a less conservative direction for both children and adults, but it did not significantly increase sensitivity for targets. Adults performed better in the tests and in the game, and it was possible to satisfactorily predict group membership based on the scores. Children found it especially difficult to find covert targets. Overall, the described version of the learning game cannot be regarded as an effective tool for situation awareness/hazard perception training, but ways to improve the game are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2016.07.036
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
  • Effect of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists in real traffic
           in relation to age and use of pedelecs
    • Authors: M.J. Boele-Vos; J.J.F. Commandeur; D.A.M. Twisk
      Pages: 84 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 105
      Author(s): M.J. Boele-Vos, J.J.F. Commandeur, D.A.M. Twisk
      To improve cycling safety, insight is required into the factors that contribute to road safety of older cyclists. From the wide range of possible factors, this paper addresses the role of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists with the aim to investigate whether physical effort affects mental workload of cyclists in real traffic in a field experiment. Two instrumented bicycles, a conventional bicycle and a pedelec, were used. Mental workload of cyclists in two age groups – 30–45 years and 65 years and over – was measured by means of a secondary cognitive task requiring the detection and reaction to visual stimuli on a cycle route that varied in physical effort and task complexity. We expected physical effort to impair performance on the secondary task in complex traffic sections and not in simple sections, and that this impairment would be greater for older cyclists because of age related reduced muscle strength than for younger cyclists. We expected this impairment to be smaller if a pedelec was used. If such would be the case, this would indicate pedelecs to be beneficial for this older age group, because of a lower mental workload. Our study confirmed that increased physical effort in complex traffic sections deteriorated the detection of relevant stimuli in both age groups. Overall, older cyclists had longer reaction times and lower hit rates than younger cyclists. Mental workloads of cyclists are basically the same when cycling on a conventional bicycle or on a pedelec. In theory, pedelecs may be beneficial to reduce physical effort in cycling in order to maintain enough mental capacity to handle complex traffic situations. However, this study did not demonstrate these benefits. As pedelecs are often used for longer trips, by elderly with low muscle strength, future studies should also explore the effect of higher physical effort over longer periods of time, and also specifically in elderly with low muscle strength.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2016.11.025
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
  • Alcohol consumption and cycling in contrast to driving
    • Authors: Carmen Hagemeister; Markus Kronmaier
      Pages: 102 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 105
      Author(s): Carmen Hagemeister, Markus Kronmaier
      In Germany, the legal blood alcohol limit for cyclists is much higher (0.16 percent) than the limit for drivers (0.05 percent) − as long as no crash has occurred. The proportion of police-recorded crashes with personal damage under the influence is higher for cyclists than drivers, and the blood alcohol concentrations are higher for cyclists than drivers. 63 women and 204 men who drive a car and use a bike and drink alcohol participated in the online study. In the sample, cycling under the influence (CUI) was more frequent and was observed more frequently among friends than driving under the influence (DUI). Persons who use a particular vehicle type more often in general and when they visit friends also use it more often after alcohol consumption. Persons who drink alcohol more often cycle more often after alcohol consumption. In all aspects covered, drink cycling was seen as more acceptable and less dangerous than drink driving. Persons who cycle more often under the influence observe drink cycling more often among their friends. They think they are less of a danger to themselves and others when cycling after alcohol consumption, and they agree less with the statement that one should leave one's bike parked after alcohol consumption. The attitudes that drinking is unsafe for one's own driving and that one should leave one's car parked are important predictors of (non-)drink driving. For cycling, the most important predictors are bike use frequency and observing drink cycling among friends.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
  • An experiment on rider stability while mounting: Comparing middle-aged and
           elderly cyclists on pedelecs and conventional bicycles
    • Authors: D.A.M. Twisk; S. Platteel; G.R. Lovegrove
      Pages: 109 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 105
      Author(s): D.A.M. Twisk, S. Platteel, G.R. Lovegrove
      Pedelecs, popular among elderly cyclists, are associated with a higher injury risk than conventional bicycles. About 17% of these injuries are due to falls while (dis)mounting. Using instrumented bicycles, this study aimed to identify factors contributing to the stability of self-chosen mounting methods in four user groups: 30–45 versus 65+ years of age and males versus females. Mounting stability on pedelecs was compared with that on conventional bicycles, in controlled experimental setting (task in a fenced off parking lot) but also in real traffic conditions (traffic light turns green). Two mounting phases were differentiated: phase 1 as the transition from ‘earth bound’ to ‘balance’ and phase 2 as the acceleration to achieve harmonized cycling. Stability was operationalised in terms of the duration of these phases: the shorter their duration, the higher the stability. Pedelecs were shown to be less stable in phase 1 than conventional bicycles, irrespective of user group. For all user groups, only in phase 2 the advantages of electrical support kicked in. Results obtained in traffic conditions confirmed the patterns obtained in the controlled setting, with as only difference a lower speed in traffic conditions, which held for both mounting phases and bicycle types. Also measures of physical limitations due to low muscle strength were shown only to be compensated for by pedal support in phase 2 and not in phase 1. Further, mounting characteristics affected pedelec stability in phase 1 and not in phase 2. Higher stability was associated with a) starting while seated and b) using the pedal to push off. Although, these mounting characteristics were confounded with age, gender, and muscle strength, the pattern of results still suggest certain mounting techniques to be more beneficial for pedelecs. The results further illustrate the importance of a deeper understanding of the interactions of bicycle types and user groups on critical manoeuvres and their potential contribution to the optimisation of pedelec design and the training of safe mounting techniques.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
  • SOFIE, a bicycle that supports older cyclists?
    • Authors: R. Dubbeldam; C. Baten; J.H. Buurke; J.S. Rietman
      Pages: 117 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 105
      Author(s): R. Dubbeldam, C. Baten, J.H. Buurke, J.S. Rietman
      Older cyclists remain at high risk of sustaining an injury after a fall with their bicycle. A growing awareness for the need and possibilities to support safety of older cyclists has been leading to bicycle design ideas. However, the effectiveness and acceptance of such designs has not been studied yet. This study aims to analyse the effect of 3 support systems: an automatic adjustable saddle height, optimised frame and wheel geometry and drive-off assistance. The support systems are integrated on the SOFIE bicycle, a prototype bicycle designed to support older cyclists during (dis-)mounting and at lower cycling speeds. Nine older cyclists (65–80 years) were asked to cycle on a ‘normal’ and on the ‘SOFIE’ bicycle. They cycled on a parking lot to avoid interaction with traffic. The following tasks were analysed: cycling at comfortable and low speed avoiding an obstacle and (dis-)mounting the bicycle. Bicycle and cyclist motions were recorded with 10 Inertial Measurement Units and by 2 video cameras. FUSION software (LABVIEW) was used to assess kinematic parameters. First, a subjective analysis of the different cycling tasks was made, supported by video analysis. Second, differences in cyclist and bicycle kinematic parameters between the normal and SOFIE bicycle were studied for the various cycling tasks. The SOFIE bicycle was experienced as a ‘supportive’ and comfortable bicycle and objectively performed ‘safer’ on various cycling tasks. For example: The optimised frame geometry with low step-in enabled a faster (dis-)mounting time and less sternum roll angle and angular acceleration. The adjustable saddle height enabled the participants to keep both feet on the ground till they started cycling with the ‘drive-off’ support. The latter reduces steering activity: maximum steer angle and angular acceleration. During sudden obstacle avoidance, less upper body and thigh accelerations are recorded. In conclusion, the SOFIE bicycle was able to support older cyclists during various cycling tasks and may reduce fall risk.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2016.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
  • Can cyclist safety be improved with intelligent transport systems?
    • Authors: Anne Silla; Lars Leden; Pirkko Rämä; Johan Scholliers; Martijn Van Noort; Daniel Bell
      Pages: 134 - 145
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 105
      Author(s): Anne Silla, Lars Leden, Pirkko Rämä, Johan Scholliers, Martijn Van Noort, Daniel Bell
      In recent years, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) have assisted in the decrease of road traffic fatalities, particularly amongst passenger car occupants. Vulnerable Road Users (VRUs) such as pedestrians, cyclists, moped riders and motorcyclists, however, have not been that much in focus when developing ITS. Therefore, there is a clear need for ITS which specifically address VRUs as an integrated element of the traffic system. This paper presents the results of a quantitative safety impact assessment of five systems that were estimated to have high potential to improve the safety of cyclists, namely: Blind Spot Detection (BSD), Bicycle to Vehicle communication (B2V), Intersection safety (INS), Pedestrian and Cyclist Detection System+Emergency Braking (PCDS+EBR) and VRU Beacon System (VBS). An ex-ante assessment method proposed by Kulmala (2010) targeted to assess the effects of ITS for cars was applied and further developed in this study to assess the safety impacts of ITS specifically designed for VRUs. The main results of the assessment showed that all investigated systems affect cyclist safety in a positive way by preventing fatalities and injuries. The estimates considering 2012 accident data and full penetration showed that the highest effects could be obtained by the implementation of PCDS+EBR and B2V, whereas VBS had the lowest effect. The estimated yearly reduction in cyclist fatalities in the EU-28 varied between 77 and 286 per system. A forecast for 2030, taking into accounts the estimated accident trends and penetration rates, showed the highest effects for PCDS+EBR and BSD.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2016.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
  • Reading cyclist intentions: Can a lead cyclist’s behaviour be
    • Authors: Frank Westerhuis; Dick De Waard
      Pages: 146 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 105
      Author(s): Frank Westerhuis, Dick De Waard
      As a cyclist, it is essential to make inferences about the intentions of other road users in order to anticipate their behaviour. There are official ways for cyclists to communicate their intentions to other road users, such as using their arms to point in the intended direction of travel. However, in everyday traffic cyclists often do not use such active forms of communication. Therefore, other visual cues have to be used to anticipate (critical) encounters or events. During this study, 108 participants completed a video internet survey in which they predicted the intentions of a lead cyclist based on visible behaviour preceding a turning manoeuvre. When the lead cyclist approached the intersection, each video was stopped just before the cyclist initiated turning. Based on visual cues, the participants had to select which direction they thought the cyclist would go. After entering their prediction, they were asked how certain they were about their prediction and on which visible behaviour(s) each prediction was based. The results show that it is very hard to predict the direction of a turning cyclist based on visual cues before the turning manoeuvre is initiated. Exploratory regression analyses revealed that observable behaviours such as head movements and cycling speed were related to prediction accuracy. These results may be used to support cyclists in traffic interactions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T07:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2016.06.026
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2017)
  • Age, gender and deterrability: Are younger male drivers more likely to
           discount the future?
    • Authors: James Freeman; Sherrie-Anne Kaye; Verity Truelove; Jeremy Davey
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 104
      Author(s): James Freeman, Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Verity Truelove, Jeremy Davey
      Utilizing the Classical Deterrence theory and Stafford and Warr’s (1993) reconceptualized model of deterrence, the current study examined whether age, gender, and discounting the future tendencies influence perceptions of being apprehended for speeding offences. Licensed motorists (N =700; 57% female) in Queensland (Australia) were recruited to complete a self-report questionnaire that measured perceptual deterrence, speeding related behaviors and discounting the future tendencies. Data were analyzed utilizing descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regressions. Significant (albeit weak) positive correlations were found between age and perceptions of apprehension certainty. Males were significantly more likely to report higher incidences of speeding (including while avoiding detection) compared to females. In contrast, females were more likely to perceive high levels of apprehension certainty and consider impending penalties to be more severe. At a multivariate level, discounting the future tendencies (in addition to being male, reporting lower levels of perceptual severity and swiftness, and more instances of punishment avoidance) were predictive of lower perceptual certainty levels. This study is one of the first to reveal that being male and having a tendency to discount the consequences of the future may directly influence drivers’ perceptual deterrence levels.

      PubDate: 2017-04-24T11:59:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.022
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
  • Drinking and driving behavior at stop signs and red lights
    • Authors: Jingyan Wan; Changxu Wu; Yiqi Zhang; Rebecca J. Houston; Chang Wen Chen; Panya Chanawangsa
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 104
      Author(s): Jingyan Wan, Changxu Wu, Yiqi Zhang, Rebecca J. Houston, Chang Wen Chen, Panya Chanawangsa
      Alcohol is one of the principal risk factors for motor vehicle crashes. One factor that contributes to vehicle crashes is noncompliance with stop signs and red lights. The present experiment investigated the effects of alcohol and drinking patterns on driving behavior at stop signs and red lights. 28 participants participated in drinking and simulated driving sessions during which they received a moderate dose of alcohol (0.08% BAC) or a placebo. Simulated driving tasks measured participants’ driving performance at stop signs and red lights in response to each dose. Results suggested that alcohol impaired the driver control of speed and direction and prolonged their simple and complex reaction time, which were exhibited by impaired speed and lateral control, longer reaction time when the lights turned yellow, and lower deceleration towards stop signs and red lights. Visual degradation may also occur under alcohol intake. It was also suggested that alcohol impaired non-binge drinkers more severely. To be specific, higher acceleration was observed in impaired non-binge drinkers.

      PubDate: 2017-05-01T12:04:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.04.008
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
  • Adolescent and adult drivers’ mobile phone use while driving with
           different interlocutors
    • Authors: Jessica H. Mirman; Dennis R. Durbin; Yi-Ching Lee; Sara J. Seifert
      Pages: 18 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 104
      Author(s): Jessica H. Mirman, Dennis R. Durbin, Yi-Ching Lee, Sara J. Seifert
      Purpose We examined the frequency of adolescents’ and their parents’ mobile phone use while driving (MPUWD) in the context of their peer and parent-child interlocutors (i.e., communication partners), considering individual differences in perceived risk and symptoms of technology addiction. Methods Ninety-four participants (47 parent-adolescent dyads) completed a survey battery measuring their symptoms of technology addiction, perceived risk of MPUWD, and MPUWD with family members and with their peers as assessed via the proportion of trips when drivers used a mobile phone to communicate. Results For both adolescents and their parents across both types of interlocutors (parent-child, peer), stronger risk perceptions were associated with less MPUWD, and stronger symptoms of technology addiction were associated with more MPUWD. A three-way interaction among technology addiction, interlocutor (parent-child, peer), and driver (parent, adolescent) was observed. For adolescents, the association between technology addiction and MPUWD was significantly stronger for MPUWD with their peers than it was for their MPUWD with their parents; this association was not observed for parents. Parents engaged in MPUWD with their children as frequently as adolescents engaged in MPUWD with their peers. Conclusions Symptoms of technology addiction play a stronger role for adolescents’ MPUWD with their peers than it does for adolescents’ MPUWD with their parents. These and other driver-by-interlocutor interactions should be considered in future research on distracted driving and in prevention efforts.

      PubDate: 2017-05-01T12:04:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
  • Evaluating public education messages aimed at monitoring and responding to
           social interactive technology on smartphones among young drivers
    • Authors: Cassandra S. Gauld; Ioni Lewis; Katherine M. White; Judy J. Fleiter; Barry Watson
      Pages: 24 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 104
      Author(s): Cassandra S. Gauld, Ioni Lewis, Katherine M. White, Judy J. Fleiter, Barry Watson
      Young drivers are more likely than any other age group to access social interactive technology (e.g., Facebook, E-mail) on a smartphone while driving. The current study formed part of a larger investigation and was guided by The Step Approach to Message Design and Testing (SatMDT) to evaluate the relative effectiveness of three different public education messages aimed at reducing smartphone use among young drivers. The messages were each adapted to the specific behaviours of monitoring/reading and responding to social interactive technology on smartphones. Participants (n =288; 199F, 89M) were drivers aged 17–25 years who resided in the Australian state of Queensland. Message acceptance (i.e., intention and effectiveness) and message rejection were both assessed using a self-report survey. Multivariate analyses found that, overall, the messages targeting monitoring/reading behaviour were considered more effective than those targeting responding behaviour. The message that challenged the underlying motivation that believing you are a good driver makes it easier to monitor/read social interactive technology while driving was considered particularly effective by young male drivers.

      PubDate: 2017-05-01T12:04:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
  • Evaluating the Safety In Numbers effect for pedestrians at urban
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Brendan Murphy, David M. Levinson, Andrew Owen
      Assessment of collision risk between pedestrians and automobiles offers a powerful and informative tool in urban planning applications, and can be leveraged to inform proper placement of improvements and treatment projects to improve pedestrian safety. Such assessment can be performed using existing datasets of crashes, pedestrian counts, and automobile traffic flows to identify intersections or corridors characterized by elevated collision risks to pedestrians. The Safety In Numbers phenomenon, which refers to the observable effect that pedestrian safety is positively correlated with increased pedestrian traffic in a given area (i.e. that the individual per-pedestrian risk of a collision decreases with additional pedestrians), is a readily observed phenomenon that has been studied previously, though its directional causality is not yet known. A sample of 488 intersections in Minneapolis were analyzed, and statistically-significant log-linear relationships between pedestrian traffic flows and the per-pedestrian crash risk were found, indicating the Safety In Numbers effect. Potential planning applications of this analysis framework towards improving pedestrian safety in urban environments are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T09:59:15Z
  • Evaluating pedestrian behavior at crosswalks: Validation of a pedestrian
           behavior questionnaire for the U.S. population
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Shuchisnigdha Deb, Lesley Strawderman, Janice DuBien, Brian Smith, Daniel W. Carruth, Teena M. Garrison
      The aim of this study was to develop and validate a self-reporting Pedestrian Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ) for the U.S. population to measure frequency of risky behaviors among pedestrians. The PBQ includes 50 survey items that allow respondents to rate the frequency with which they engage in different types of road-using behaviors as pedestrians. The validation study was conducted on 425 participants (228 males and 197 females) between the ages of 18 and 71. Confirmatory factor analysis differentiated pedestrian behaviors into five factor categories: violations, errors, lapses, aggressive behaviors, and positive behaviors. A short version of the PBQ with 20 items was also created by selecting four items with high factor loadings from each of the five factor categories. Regression analyses investigated associations with scenario-based survey behavioral responses to validate the five-factor PBQ subscale scores and composite score. For both long and short versions, each of these five individual factor scales were found to be reliable (0.7<Cronbach’s alpha (α)<0.9) and valid (significant association with p< 0.0001), except in the case of positive behaviors (α<0.6) which requires further expansion. The effects of gender and age on the PBQ scores were investigated and found to be consistent with previous research. This PBQ can serve as an instrument of pedestrian self-assessment in educational and training contexts as well as can be useful to all researchers investigating pedestrian safety for all age groups.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T09:59:15Z
  • Injunctive safety norms, young worker risk-taking behaviors, and workplace
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Simon Pek, Nick Turner, Sean Tucker, E. Kevin Kelloway, Jayne Morrish
      Injunctive safety norms (ISNs) refer to perceptions of others’ expectations of one’s safety-related conduct. Drawing on a sample of Canadian young workers (n =11,986; M age=17.90years; 55% males), we study the relationships among four sources of non-work-related (i.e., parents, siblings, friends, teachers), two sources of work-related (i.e., supervisors, co-workers) ISNs, young workers’ self-reported work-related risk-taking behaviors, and workplace injuries. Structural equation modeling suggests that ISNs from parents, supervisors, and co-workers were related to less frequent work-related risk-taking behaviors, and with fewer workplace injuries via less frequent work-related risk-taking behaviors. In addition, ISNs from supervisors were directly associated with fewer workplace injuries. In contrast, ISNs from teachers and siblings were not associated with work-related risk-taking behaviors, but ISNs from siblings were associated with fewer work injuries. Finally, ISNs from friends were associated with more frequent work-related risk-taking and more frequent work injuries via more frequent work-related risk-taking. This study draws attention to the relative roles of non-work sources of social influence and provides some evidence of how ISNs might be related to young workers’ work-related risk-taking behaviors and their workplace injuries. It also contributes to practice by suggesting specific interventions that parents, supervisors, and co-workers could undertake to reduce young workers’ work-related risk-taking and workplace injuries, namely encouraging youth to be safe at work.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T09:59:15Z
  • Take-over performance in evasive manoeuvres
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Riender Happee, Christian Gold, Jonas Radlmayr, Sebastian Hergeth, Klaus Bengler
      We investigated after effects of automation in take-over scenarios in a high-end moving-base driving simulator. Drivers performed evasive manoeuvres encountering a blocked lane in highway driving. We compared the performance of drivers 1) during manual driving, 2) after automated driving with eyes on the road while performing the cognitively demanding n-back task, and 3) after automated driving with eyes off the road performing the visually demanding SuRT task. Both minimum time to collision (TTC) and minimum clearance towards the obstacle disclosed a substantial number of near miss events and are regarded as valuable surrogate safety metrics in evasive manoeuvres. TTC proved highly sensitive to the applied definition of colliding paths, and we prefer robust solutions using lane position while disregarding heading. The extended time to collision (ETTC) which takes into account acceleration was close to the more robust conventional TTC. In line with other publications, the initial steering or braking intervention was delayed after using automation compared to manual driving. This resulted in lower TTC values and stronger steering and braking actions. Using automation, effects of cognitive distraction were similar to visual distraction for the intervention time with effects on the surrogate safety metric TTC being larger with visual distraction. However the precision of the evasive manoeuvres was hardly affected with a similar clearance towards the obstacle, similar overshoots and similar excursions to the hard shoulder. Further research is needed to validate and complement the current simulator based results with human behaviour in real world driving conditions. Experiments with real vehicles can disclose possible systematic differences in behaviour, and naturalistic data can serve to validate surrogate safety measures like TTC and obstacle clearance in evasive manoeuvres.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T09:59:15Z
  • Using network screening methods to determine locations with specific
           safety issues: A design consistency case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Andrew J. Butsick, Jonathan S. Wood, Paul P. Jovanis
      The Highway Safety Manual provides multiple methods that can be used to identify sites with promise (SWiPs) for safety improvement. However, most of these methods cannot be used to identify sites with specific problems. Furthermore, given that infrastructure funding is often specified for use related to specific problems/programs, a method for identifying SWiPs related to those programs would be very useful. This research establishes a method for Identifying SWiPs with specific issues. This is accomplished using two safety performance functions (SPFs). This method is applied to identifying SWiPs with geometric design consistency issues. Mixed effects negative binomial regression was used to develop two SPFs using 5 years of crash data and over 8754km of two-lane rural roadway. The first SPF contained typical roadway elements while the second contained additional geometric design consistency parameters. After empirical Bayes adjustments, sites with promise (SWiPs) were identified. The disparity between SWiPs identified by the two SPFs was evident; 40 unique sites were identified by each model out of the top 220 segments. By comparing sites across the two models, candidate road segments can be identified where a lack design consistency may be contributing to an increase in expected crashes. Practitioners can use this method to more effectively identify roadway segments suffering from reduced safety performance due to geometric design inconsistency, with detailed engineering studies of identified sites required to confirm the initial assessment.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T09:59:15Z
  • Do we see how they perceive risk' An integrated analysis of risk
           perception and its effect on workplace safety behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention, Volume 106
      Author(s): Nini Xia, Xueqing Wang, Mark A. Griffin, Chunlin Wu, Bingsheng Liu
      While risk perception is a key factor influencing safety behavior, the academia lacks specific attention to the ways that workers perceive risk, and thus little is known about the mechanisms through which different risk perceptions influence safety behavior. Most previous research in the workplace safety domain argues that people tend to perceive risk based on rational formulations of risk criticality. However, individuals’ emotions can be also useful in understanding their perceptions. Therefore, this research employs an integrated analysis concerning the rational and emotional perspectives. Specifically, it was expected that the identified three rational ways of perceiving risk, i.e., perceived probability, severity, and negative utility, would influence the direct emotional risk perception. Furthermore, these four risk perceptions were all expected to positively but differently influence safety behavior. The hypotheses were tested using a sample of 120 construction workers. It was found that all the three rational risk perceptions significantly influenced workers’ direct perception of risk that is mainly based on emotions. Furthermore, safety behavior among workers relied mainly on emotional perception but not rational calculations of risk. This research contributes to workplace safety research by highlighting the importance of integrating the emotional assessment of risk, especially when workers’ risk perception and behavior are concerned. Suggested avenues for improving safety behavior through improvement in risk perception include being aware of the possibility of different ways of perceiving risk, promoting experience sharing and accident simulation, and uncovering risk information.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T09:59:15Z
  • Editorial for special issue – ‘Improving cyclist safety through
           scientific research’
    • Authors: Divera. A.M. Twisk; Stefanie H.H.M. de Hair– Buijssen; Dietmar Otte
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2017
      Source:Accident Analysis & Prevention
      Author(s): Divera. A.M. Twisk, Stefanie H.H.M. de Hair– Buijssen, Dietmar Otte

      PubDate: 2017-06-01T14:23:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.05.021
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