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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3159 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3159 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 407, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 395, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 340, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 442, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Acta Oecologica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.834
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 10  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1146-609X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3159 journals]
  • Processes structuring amphibian assemblages along a subtropical arid
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 91Author(s): Daniel EscorizaAbstractBiotic assemblages are organized according to multiple factors, including environmental filtering and species interactions. However, the roles of abiotic and biotic factors in the organization of amphibian assemblages in arid regions are still not completely understood. Here, I examined the distribution patterns of seven species of amphibians that occur in Tunisia (north-western Sahara Desert) and the composition of 328 amphibian assemblages, including their meta-structural organization. The species showed different responses to environmental gradients, predominantly the aridity and vegetation gradients. The assemblages in xeric regions were composed of nested subsets of the species present in mesic regions. Most of the significant species associations were explained by shared environmental responses, indicating that they can be largely attributed to environmental filtering. The only exception was between two species of generalist bufonids, Bufotes boulengeri and Sclerophrys mauritanica, which showed a residual correlation greater than their shared association with the gradient. In this case, phylogenetic and morphological similarities could favour patterns of mutual exclusion in habitats such as desert oases, where the resources are limited.
  • Phylogenetic structure of communities between temperate and tropical
           regions: Exploring patterns through literature datasets
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 91Author(s): Clarissa Araujo Martins, Maurício Silveira, Victor S. Saito, Raul Costa-Pereira, Larissa Sayuri Moreira Sugai, Olivier Pays, Fabio de Oliveira RoqueAbstractLatitudinal patterns of diversity are one of the most striking large-scale biological phenomena and several hypotheses have been proposed to explain them. Using data from literature-surveys we investigated how phylogenetic patterns in microorganisms, plants, and, metazoans communities differ between the tropical and temperate regions and then explored possible ecological and evolutionary process that could shape such patterns. Using the Net Relatedness Index, we analyzed data from 1486 biological communities, collected in 32 articles that considered the phylogenetic structure of biological communities. We found a pattern of phylogenetic clustering in both regions for microorganisms, while for plants we found phylogenetic clustering in temperate regions and phylogenetic overdispersion in the tropics. We did not detect a clear pattern of clustering or overdispersion in tropical or temperate regions in metazoans. From these patterns we explore different ecological and evolutionary processes that have shaped these communities over space and time.
  • Effects of soil properties and clonal growth on the apparent sex ratio of
           the flowering stems of the dioecious clonal shrub Aucuba japonica var.
           borealis growing in an evergreen coniferous secondary forest
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 91Author(s): Takeshi Torimaru, Sei Suzuki, Michinari Matsushita, Nobuhiko Matsuyama, Shinji AkadaAbstractIn dioecious plants, the frequencies of flowering stems in each sex produced through clonal growth provide important information on the potential for reproductive success in the populations. However, apart from the light environment in their habitat, the factors affecting the flowering of each sex have not been well documented in shrub species that can maintain their populations in shady environments. In this research, we investigated seven soil variables and the flowering of stems of Aucuba japonica var. borealis in patches of this dioecious clonal shrub with different apparent stem sex ratios in an evergreen coniferous secondary forest with a shady forest floor. Of the 53 patches examined, 52 contained stems with flowers. Flowering stem ratios exhibited a positive relationship with available soil phosphate but a marginal negative relationship with exchangeable magnesium, whereas soil water content was associated with a female-biased flowering sex ratio. Stem density tended to be negatively related to flowering stem ratios in patches containing stems with female flowers but not males. While the results demonstrate that abundant amounts of certain nutrients and moisture in soils promote the production of flowers and/or a bias toward femaleness in patches, it is suggested that antagonistic effects of cations in the soil can inhibit the flowering of both sexes. In addition, the trade-off between sexual reproduction and clonal propagation in the females may amplify the variations in flowering in the population.
  • Plant response to overcrowding – Lemna minor example
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 91Author(s): Lech Kufel, Małgorzata Strzałek, Anna PrzetakiewiczAbstractPlants adopt various strategies in response to increasing density. We tested that response in two populations of Lemna minor L. – a free floating aquatic plant that frequently experiences intraspecific competition for space. Surface area of fronds and colonies, colony size (the number of fronds per colony), the rate of reproduction (based on the number of produced fronds) and growth rate (enlargement of surface area of all colonies) were the analysed factors presumably affected by density. The study was performed in natural stands and in experimental conditions with the use of two contrasting plant densities. Plants growing in natural conditions produced fronds of smaller and less variable surface area as a response to overcrowding but the number of fronds per colony was unrelated to plant density. Stable experimental conditions facilitated formation of fronds and colonies larger than in the field but frond detachment decreasing colony size was more intensive at high than at low density. This strategy allowed plants to more efficiently occupy limited available space. No self-thinning was observed during experimental cultures. Due to increasing frond area in cultures, growth rate was always higher than the rate of plant reproduction. Both were strongly negatively affected by high density. Performed calculations indicate that density-dependent growth inhibition starts when L. minor colonies cover the available water surface with a mono-layer mat. Some types of responses were found to significantly differ between analysed populations, which was also shown by genetic differences tested with he ISSR-PCR technique. Possible causal relationship between plant strategies and their genomic structure needs, however, further studies.
  • Plant community composition along a peatland margin follows alternate
           successional pathways after hydrologic disturbance
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 91Author(s): Ellie M. Goud, Caitlin Watt, Tim R. MooreAbstractHydrological disturbances can alter the structure and function of ecosystems by changing plant species composition over time. Peatlands in the northern hemisphere are particularly sensitive to global change drivers related to soil water availability, such as drought and drainage, because of important ecohydrological feedbacks between species composition and water table position. Here, we examined the plant community structure and environmental drivers of species distributions over two growing seasons along a bog – margin gradient, pre- and post-disturbance by beaver activity. Pond drainage resulted in seasonal average water table depth 8–24 cm lower in the second season. Five plant communities corresponded to changes in water table depth and acidity: bog, poor fen, meadow, mudflat and pond. Plant cover increased in meadow and mudflat communities, decreased in the pond community and did not differ between years in bog and poor fen communities. Changes in species abundance between years showed signs of alternate successional pathways: one that favors Sphagnum moss and bog community expansion and another pathway that favors meadow and mudflat expansion. This study highlights the non-linear successional trajectory of plant communities with changes in water table depth, which has implications for land management goals that aim to conserve the ecological integrity of peatland ecosystems.
  • Soil arthropod composition differs between old-fields dominated by exotic
           plant species and remnant native grasslands
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 91Author(s): Gimena Vilardo, Pedro M. Tognetti, Adelia González-Arzac, Laura YahdjianAbstractSecondary succession after agriculture abandonment (old-fields) is mostly dominated by exotic grass species. Non-native plant invasions may alter soil fauna, potentially inducing plant-soil feedbacks. Despite their importance in nutrient cycling and plant-soil interactions, meso and macrofauna received less attention than bacteria or fungi. Here we compared the composition of the soil arthropod community in native remnants and plant exotic-dominated old-fields grasslands in the Inland Pampa, Argentina. We sampled independent remnants and old-field grassland plots within a 100 km2 agricultural landscape to test the hypothesis that the abundance of soil arthropod organisms is related to the quality of the plant biomass, whereas the diversity of the soil biota is related to plant species richness, resulting in a different soil biota composition because of differing plant communities. When compared to non-invaded remnant grasslands, soil activity and soil food-web characteristics of the old-fields sites included: 1. Higher total arthropod abundance, particularly of Isopoda, Pseudoescorpionida and Blattaria; 2. Lower abundance of Hymenoptera and Enthomobryomorpha (Collembola); 3. Lower diversity, and evenness, but similar richness of soil organisms orders; 4. Higher soil respiration rates and soil temperature; and 5. Higher total soil N and K+content, but lower soil P content. These results illustrate that soil arthropod composition can vary widely within grasslands patches depending on plant species composition. Also, the more diverse plant community of remnant grasslands supports a more diverse soil biota, although soil activity is slower. Our results support the strong linkage between plant community and soil arthropod composition and suggest that changes in soil biota composition might promote plant-soil feedback interactions inducing the persistence of these alternative grassland states in new agricultural human-modified landscapes.
  • Assessing the risk effects of native predators on the exotic American
           bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) and their indirect consequences to
           ecosystem function
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 91Author(s): Rafael D. Guariento, Luciana S. Carneiro, Jaqueiuto S. Jorge, Adriano CalimanAbstractUnderstanding the factors and mechanisms that affect the impacts of invasive species in invaded environments has been widely debated among researchers. However, few studies about invasive species have explored the effects of predation risks by native predators on exotic prey. Herein, the traditional invasive predator-native prey framework was reversed. We tested if tadpoles, of the worldwide invasive American Bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus, were affected by the predation risk imposed by native predators. We used two different species of belostomatid predators and tested whether and how predation-induced phenotypic plasticity on L. catesbeianus reverberated in morphological, physiological, and ecosystem-level processes. Individuals of L. catesbeianus modified their morphological (tail muscle width), behavioral (activity and foraging), and physiological (growth and growth efficiency) traits in the presence of predation risk. Based on the observed morphological changes, our results suggest that prey may recognize predator-specific cues. In addition, we observed that L. catesbeianus' responses to predation risk can affect ecosystem-level properties, by inducing trophic cascades and reducing animal-mediated nutrient recycling rates. In summary, our study supports that exotic prey species who are subjected to native predators may display anti-predator responses, with implications for their development, as well as possible ecosystem-level effects.
  • Livestock grazing affects microclimate conditions for decomposition
           process through changes in vegetation structure in mountain grasslands
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 91Author(s): María Victoria Vaieretti, Sabrina Iamamoto, Natalia Pérez Harguindeguy, Ana María CingolaniAbstractIt is often assumed that a change in litter quality is the main driver of alterations in the decomposition process when grazers modify vegetation structure. Soil microclimate is also modified, but this driver of decomposition has been far less studied than litter quality. We analyzed the relationships among vegetation structure, microclimate and decomposition in different mountain grassland types, across a fence-line separating paddocks with different grazing intensity. Along the fence, we selected nine pairs of contrasting grassland types including lawns and tall tussock grasslands, which are associated with high and low local grazing pressure, respectively. At each site (N = 18) we estimated growth form composition and vegetation height. During the growing season we recorded soil temperature, soil moisture and the photosynthetically active radiation. Within the same period, we measured the decomposition rate of two common litter substrates. We analyzed the relationships among those variables at the landscape and at the local scale. At the landscape scale we considered the variation across all sites (N = 18). At the local scale we considered each pair as a sample (N = 9) and the differences between both sides of the fence as the variables to correlate. Our results indicate that when short grasslands are released from grazing and tall grasslands became dominant, temperature and light at the soil level are reduced, while soil moisture tends to increase, enhancing decomposition. Furthermore, these results show that the microclimatic conditions effect can counteract the litter quality effect (reported in previous studies) on decomposition, resulting in increased decomposition rates when grazing is reduced.
  • Termitaria vs. mistletoe: Effects on soil properties and plant structure
           in a semi-arid savanna
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 91Author(s): Hilton G.T. Ndagurwa, Tsitsi S. Maponga, Beauty Dube, Tendai M. Nzuma, Justice MuvengwiAbstractTermite mounds by creating patches of increased resource availability (e.g. water and nutrients) are a major source of spatial heterogeneity in savannas. Likewise, mistletoes via input of nutrient-rich litter alter nutrient and water availability increasing environmental heterogeneity in semi-arid savanna. Despite this recognition, the influence of termitaria and mistletoe on soil properties and plant community have not been investigated together. We established eight 100 m2 plots each on termitaria, under mistletoe-infected trees and in the surrounding savanna and examined the soil properties and the structure of Securinega virosa (Euphorbiaceae) and Euclea divinorum (Ebenaceae) in semi-arid savanna, southwest Zimbabwe. Soil properties significantly differed among the sampling sites (p = 0.001) with soils of increasing clay, soil moisture, pH and phosphorus, calcium and ammonium concentrations occurring on termite mounds. Soils under mistletoe-infected trees were associated with silt, organic matter, sodium, potassium, magnesium and nitrate and the surrounding savanna was associated with soils of increasing sand content. Plant structure also differed significantly between sites with greater basal area of both S. virosa and E. divinorum on termitaria relative to mistletoe-infected trees and the surrounding savanna. However, the stem density of S. virosa was greater under mistletoe-infected trees than on termitaria and in the surrounding savanna. Plant structural variables of individuals of the same species were affected by different soil properties across treatments. The major patterns showed that plant structure was influenced positively by soil moisture and nitrate and negatively by phosphorus on termitaria; positively by clay, soil moisture and ammonium and negatively by potassium under mistletoe-infected trees; and by phosphorus and calcium in the surrounding savanna. These findings show that soil properties, plant structure and their relationships differ between termitaria, mistletoe-infected trees and surrounding savanna, and these differences are suggested to increase heterogeneity in soil resources availability and vegetation structure in semi-arid savanna.
  • Abrupt and gradual temperature changes influence on the climatic
           suitability of Northwestern Alpine grapevine-growing regions for the
           invasive grape leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Hemiptera,
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 91Author(s): Ivo Ercole Rigamonti, Luigi Mariani, Gabriele Cola, Mauro Jermini, Johann BaumgärtnerAbstractThe paper aims to elucidate the influence of abrupt and gradual climate changes on the suitability for colonization of Scaphoideus titanus populations in grapevine-growing areas of the Northwestern Alpine region. This study spans several decades of temperature recordings and is carried out in ten grapevine-growing areas. A time-varying distributed delay with attrition model, linked to a grapevine phenology model, is used to simulate the development of S. titanus populations and produce an annual Climatic Suitability Index (CSI). Area-specific CSI time series were obtained. The Breusch-Godfrey test revealed few significant partial autocorrelations in nine areas and the occurrence of six consecutive - first decreasing and then increasing - partial correlations in one case only. The occurrence of abrupt and gradual changes of the index were studied via multiple least square regression analyses. In general, the climatic suitability of all areas tended to improve through time. However, gradual and abrupt temperature changes were not consistently reflected in gradual and abrupt CSI patterns: abrupt and gradual CSI changes were observed in two areas, abrupt changes were detected in three areas, and exclusively gradual changes in the remaining five. Pest control institutions of the region under study may deal with different scenarios of pest status such as long-time presence and increasing risks, high colonization risks or limited colonization risks for the foreseeable future. Institutions charged with pest control elsewhere are advised to use a mechanistic demographic model to study area-specific infestation patterns and colonization risks because the results obtained here cannot be transferred to other areas without site-specific evaluations.
  • Fruiting patterns of macrofungi in tropical and temperate land use types
           in Yunnan Province, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 91Author(s): Huili Li, Jiayu Guo, Stefanie D. Goldberg, Rachakonda Sreekar, Lei Ye, Xia Luo, Phongeun Sysouphanthong, Jianchu Xu, Kevin D. Hyde, Peter E. MortimerAbstractDespite the important contribution of fungi to forest health, biomass turnover and carbon cycling, little is known about the factors that influence fungal phenology. Therefore, in order to further our understanding on how macrofungal fruiting patterns change along a gradient from temperate to tropical climate zones, we investigated the phenological patterns of macrofungal fruiting at five sites along a combined altitudinal and latitudinal gradient in SW China and NW Laos, ranging from temperate to tropical climates. Observations were conducted in the dominant land use types at these study sites: mixed forest (all sites), coniferous forest (temperate sites) and grassland (temperate sites). In total, 2866 specimens were collected, belonging to 791 morpho species, 162 genera, and 71 families. At the site level, the fruiting of ectomycorrhizal (EcMF) and saprotrophic fungi (SapF) occurred at the same time among all land use types. The fruiting season of fungi in the tropical sites began earlier and ended later compared to that of fungi in the temperate sites, which we attribute mainly to the higher temperature and more abundant rainfall of the tropical areas. EcMF taxa richness in temperate forests (both coniferous and mixed forest) showed a distinct peak at the end of the rainy season in August and September, while no significant peak was observed for SapF taxa richness. Neither functional fungal groups showed significant seasonal fluctuations in tropical areas. The temporal turnover of fungal fruiting significantly increased with the shift from tropical to temperate forests along the elevation gradient. In the grasslands, macrofungal abundance was less than 22% of that of corresponding forest sites, and taxa richness was 42% of that of corresponding forest sites. Fungal fruiting showed no significant fluctuations across the rainy season. This work represents a case study carried out over one year, and further measurements will be needed to test if these results hold true in the longer term.
  • Edge, area and anthropization effects on mangrove-dwelling ant communities
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 91Author(s): Bianca Caitano, Pavel Dodonov, Jacques Hubert Charles DelabieAbstractIn mangroves the habitat fragmentation has contributed to area reduction and increased edge extension, as well as other anthropogenic consequences that can change abiotic conditions, interfere with ecosystem functioning and lead to the loss of biodiversity. These impacts may affect terrestrial and marine invertebrates living in this coastal system. This study investigated the effects of fragment characteristics (size and matrix type) and distance to edge on ant richness, occurrence of functional groups and of the most frequent species in mangroves in North-Eastern Brazil. Our research covered ten mangrove fragments. We used sardine and honey baits in twelve randomly selected points per area. Twenty-five species of ants were recorded, with Camponotus arboreus, Crematogaster erecta, Azteca sp. and Neoponera villosa being the most frequent. Only four functional groups were found, the most representative of which were the Arboreal Omnivores with Massive Recruitment and the Generalist Predators. No relationship was found between the response variables and the environmental characteristics. Mangroves ants are mostly arboreal; thus, the pattern of competition between ant species or even tree architecture elements may have stronger effects than those related to anthropization, loss of area and fragmentation in this environment. Furthermore, the harsh physical conditions in the mangrove serve as barriers for most exotic species and to some functional groups of ants. This study highlights the natural restrictive nesting and foraging conditions in mangrove areas as the powerful forces in ant community structuring, possibly even more than anthropization itself.
  • Diet and trophic structure in assemblages of montane frugivorous
           phyllostomid bats
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 91Author(s): John Harold Castaño, Jaime Andrés Carranza, Jairo Pérez-TorresAbstractNeotropical frugivorous bats display a trophic structure composed of bat species with dietary preferences of core plant taxa (Artibeus-Ficus  +  Cecropia, Carollia-Piper, Sturnira- Solanum  +  Piper). This structure is hypothesized to be an ancestral trait, suggesting that similar diets would be observed throughout a species' range. However, most evidence comes from lowlands where data from montane habitats are scarce. In high mountain environments both diversity of bats and plants decreases with altitude; such decline in plant diversity produces less plants to feed from, which should ultimately affect the trophic structure of frugivorous bats in mountain environments. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the diet of frugivorous bats in Neotropical montane environments and evaluate their trophic structure in middle and higher elevations by combining a literature database with field data. We use the concept of modularity to test whether frugivorous montane bats have dietary preferences on core plant taxa. Our database revealed 47 species of montane bats feeding on 211 plant species. We find that the networks are modular, reflecting the trophic structure previously reported. We also found that in highlands the tribe Ectophyllini are Cecropia  +  Cavendishia-specialists rather than Ficus-specialists, and we describe new interactions reflecting 14 species of plants, including three botanical families previously not reported to be consumed by bats.
  • Litter decomposition of three lignin-deficient mutants of Sorghum bicolor
           during spring thaw
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 91Author(s): Christopher T. Ruhland, Amanda J. Remund, Celsey M. Tiry, Timothy E. SecottAbstractDecomposition of plant litter during the freeze-thaw season has recently gained attention as having a significant role in nutrient cycling in many cold ecosystems. However, few studies have examined decomposition of crop remnants during the freeze-thaw season in an agronomic setting when microbial activity is presumably low. We examined decomposition of four cultivars of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) leaves in a field in Southern Minnesota, USA using the litterbag method. Three of the four cultivars we examined expressed the brown midrib (bmr) mutation which have altered/reduced levels of lignin in their secondary cell walls compared to the wild-type (WT). Litter was buried in the fall and harvested during the spring thaw. After 160 d the bmr mutants lost 57–62% of their initial mass, compared to 51% in the WT. Mass loss agreed with presumed initial litter quality, as the bmr litter had higher initial N, and holocellulose:lignin and lower lignin, C:N and lignin:N values compared to the WT. The increased decomposition of the bmr cultivars appears to be related to increased loss of hemicellulose and holocellulose (cellulose+hemicellulose) or higher initial N concentrations. Alterations in cell-wall deposition in the bmr cultivars may increase accessibility of microbial cell-wall degrading enzymes that accelerate mass loss. Our results demonstrate that alterations in initial lignin chemistry may influence decomposition of sorghum litter in an agronomic setting.
  • Sugar secretion and ant protection in Ficus benguetensis: Toward a general
           trend of fig–ant interactions
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 90Author(s): Shang-Yang Lin, Lien-Siang Chou, Anthony BainAbstractThe relationship between plants and ants is often mediated by the presence of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) that attract ants and provide rewards by protecting plants from herbivores or parasites. Ficus trees (Moraceae) and their pollinators (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) are parasitized by many nonpollinating fig wasp species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) that decrease the reproductive output of the mutualistic partners. Previous studies have shown that ants living on and patrolling Ficus species can efficiently deter parasitic wasps. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of EFNs on figs of Ficus benguetensis and test the hypothetical protection service provided by ants. Figs in different developmental stages were collected from Fu-Yang Eco Park, Taipei, Taiwan. Sugars on the fig surface were collected and analyzed through high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Moreover, ants were excluded from the figs to determine the effect of ants on the nonpollinating fig wasps. We identified three oligosaccharides whose relative proportions varied with the fig developmental phase. In addition, results showed that the ant-excluded figs were heavily parasitized and produced three times less pollinators than did the control figs. Finally, the specific interactions of Ficus benguetensis with ants and the relationship between figs and ants in general are discussed.
  • Laticifer distribution in fig inflorescence and its potential role in the
           fig-fig wasp mutualism
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 90Author(s): Cristina Ribeiro Marinho, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo Pereira, Yan-Qiong Peng, Simone Pádua TeixeiraAbstractAlthough in Moraceae the presence of laticifers is considered to be a synapomorphy, little is known about the distribution and morphology of this type of secretory structure in the reproductive organs of its species. Ficus, the largest genus of Moraceae, is characterized by an inflorescence known as syconium and by an obligate mutualistic interaction with pollinating wasps. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the distribution and morphology of laticifers in syconia of 36 species belonging to different Ficus sections and to survey traits of taxonomic and adaptive value for the group. Syconia containing flowers in a receptive state were collected, fixed and processed for anatomical analysis. All species studied have branched laticifers distributed in the syconium receptacle, in the ostiolar bracts and in the pedicel of staminate flowers. Almost all species show laticifers in the pedicel of shorter-styled flowers. Laticifers also occur in the pedicel of longer-styled flowers in most Ficus sections, except F. curtipes (Conosycea section) and more than 75% of the studied species of the Americanae section. Laticifers are observed in the sepals of 25 of the 36 species studied and occasionally in the pistil. The presence of laticifers in the pedicel of shorter-style flowers and its absence in the pistil suggest that the distribution of this secretory structure in the fig flower was selected by pressures imposed by the fig-fig wasp mutualism. The laticifers in the pedicel of shorter-styled flowers may confer protection to the developing wasp larvae against natural enemies. However, the absence of laticifers in the pistil of most Ficus species studied was probably selected by the mutualistic relationship with the agaonid pollinating wasps since the latex could interfere with oviposition through the style, with the larval development of the pollinating fig wasps, and the emergence of pollinator offspring from their galls.
  • Ecological factors associated with pre-dispersal predation of fig seeds
           and wasps by fig-specialist lepidopteran larvae
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 90Author(s): Finn Piatscheck, Justin Van Goor, Derek D. Houston, John D. NasonAbstractIn brood pollination mutualisms, predation of developing fruit can have large negative repercussions for both plant and pollinator population dynamics. The Sonoran Desert rock fig Ficus petiolaris and its highly-coevolved wasp pollinator are subject to frequent attack by lepidopteran larvae that consume fig fruit and the developing seeds and larval pollinators they contain. We used generalized linear mixed models to investigate how the phenology, quantity, and spatial distribution of fig fruits is associated with variation in lepidopteran damage intensity on individual trees at nine geographic locations spanning a 741 km latitudinal transect along Mexico's Baja California Peninsula. We found lepidopteran damage to be strongly positively associated with more synchronous fig crops and larger trees, and only weakly associated with lower local host tree density. These results imply that fruit production that is asynchronous within trees and spread out over time, as observed in several fig species, benefits female and male components of fitness (pollen disperser and seed production, respectively) by reducing pre-dispersal predation by frugivores.
  • Figs, pollinators, and parasites: A longitudinal study of the effects of
           nematode infection on fig wasp fitness
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 90Author(s): Justin Van Goor, Finn Piatscheck, Derek D. Houston, John D. NasonAbstractMutualisms are interactions between two species in which the fitnesses of both symbionts benefit from the relationship. Although examples of mutualism are ubiquitous in nature, the ecology, evolution, and stability of mutualism has rarely been studied in the broader, multi-species community context in which they occur. The pollination mutualism between figs and fig wasps provides an excellent model system for investigating interactions between obligate mutualists and antagonists. Compared to the community of non-pollinating fig wasps that develop within fig inflorescences at the expense of fig seeds and pollinators, consequences of interactions between female pollinating wasps and their host-specialist nematode parasites is much less well understood. Here we focus on a tri-partite system comprised of a fig (Ficus petiolaris), pollinating wasp (Pegoscapus sp.), and nematode (Parasitodiplogaster sp.), investigating geographical variation in the incidence of attack and mechanisms through which nematodes may limit the fitness of their wasp hosts at successive life history stages. Observational data reveals that nematodes are ubiquitous across their host range in Baja California, Mexico; that the incidence of nematode infection varies across seasons within- and between locations, and that infected pollinators are sometimes associated with fitness declines through reduced offspring production. We find that moderate levels of infection (1–9 juvenile nematodes per host) are well tolerated by pollinator wasps whereas higher infection levels (≥10 nematodes per host) are correlated with a significant reduction in wasp lifespan and dispersal success. This overexploitation, however, is estimated to occur in only 2.8% of wasps in each generation. The result that nematode infection appears to be largely benign – and the unexpected finding that nematodes frequently infect non-pollinating wasps – highlight gaps in our knowledge of pollinator-Parasitodiplogaster interactions and suggest previously unappreciated ways in which this nematode may influence fig and pollinator fitness, mutualism persistence, and non-pollinator community dynamics.
  • The role of non-fig-wasp insects on fig tree biology, with a proposal of
           the F phase (Fallen figs)
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 90Author(s): Luciano Palmieri, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo PereiraAbstractThe two seminal papers by Galil and Eisikowitch describing the development of Ficus flowers and their sycophilous wasps (i.e., phases A-E) have been adopted in several ecological and evolutionary studies on a wide range of fig tree-insect interactions. Their classification, however, is not inclusive enough to encompass all the diversity of insects associated with the fig development, and the impact of this fauna on the fig-fig wasp mutualism is still unexplored. Here we describe the life history of the non-fig-wasp insects and propose an additional phase to fig-development classification, the F phase (Fallen figs). These figs are not consumed by frugivores while still on the parent tree, fall to the ground and turn into a resource for a diverse range of animals. To support the relevance of the F phase, we summarized a 5-years-period of field observations made on different biomes in three continents. Additionally, we compiled data from the literature of non-fig-wasp insects including only insects associated with inflorescences of wild fig tree species. We report 129 species of non-fig-wasp insects feeding on figs; they colonize the figs in different phases of development and some groups rely on the fallen figs to complete their life cycles. Their range of interaction varies from specialists – that use exclusively fig pulp or fig seeds in their diets – to generalists, opportunists and parasitoids species. The formalization of this additional phase will encourage new studies on fig tree ecology and improve our knowledge on the processes that affect the diversification of insects. It will also help us to understand the implications this fauna may have had on the origin and maintenance of mutualistic interactions.
  • Morphological diversity and function of the stigma in Ficus
           species (Moraceae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 90Author(s): Simone Pádua Teixeira, Marina F.B. Costa, João Paulo Basso-Alves, Finn Kjellberg, Rodrigo A.S. PereiraAbstractThe stigma plays several roles such as pollen hydration and selection, and pollen tube nutrition. In the Ficus-fig wasp mutualism, stigmata have an additional, almost unknown, function by representing a physical interface for both plant and wasp reproduction. We used light and electron microscopy to compare the detailed morphology of the stigmata of nine Ficus species of different sections and with different pollination modes and sexual expressions. Figs were collected at the stage when the stigmata were receptive for pollination. Stigmata in actively pollinated monoecious species have well developed papillae concentrated on the adaxial surface exposed towards the fig cavity. Conversely, the passively pollinated monoecious species have the whole surface of the stigmata covered by somewhat smaller papillae. In both actively and passively pollinated monoecious species these features are consistent, irrespective of style length. In all actively pollinated gynodioecious species, the stigmata of pistillate flowers were tubular or infundibuliform whereas in almost all actively pollinated monoecious species (except F. racemosa) the stigmata were filiform, with one branch or two asymmetric branches. In gynodioecious species the short-styled flowers in “male” figs show a limited receptive surface with small papillae, while the stigmata of long-styled flowers in “female” figs are covered by papillae that extend down the sides of the style, increasing the stigmatic surface. In actively pollinated species, stigmata are cohesive, forming a common surface for pollen tube germination (= synstigma). The synstigma arrangement was quite variable: lax, cohesive or very cohesive, with entanglement by stigmatic papillae and stylar trichomes. Entanglement by stylar trichomes is common in gynodioecious species. The synstigma arrangement did not correlate with phylogeny or breeding system. This study is the first to report a very loose synstigma in actively pollinated monoecious Ficus species. Our analyses revealed that, in Ficus, the synstigma is functionally analogous to an extra-gynoecial compitum. Comparative studies will be required to test further hypotheses about the evolutionary determinants of such variation.
  • Ovipositor morphology correlates with life history evolution in agaonid
           fig wasps
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 90Author(s): Larissa Galante Elias, Finn Kjellberg, Fernando Henrique Antoniolli Farache, Eduardo A.B. Almeida, Jean-Yves Rasplus, Astrid Cruaud, Yan-Qiong Peng, Da-Rong Yang, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo PereiraAbstractThe high adaptive success of parasitic Hymenoptera might be related to the use of different oviposition sites, allowing niche partitioning among co-occurring species resulting in life history specialization and diversification. In this scenario, evolutionary changes in life history and resources for oviposition can be associated with changes in ovipositor structure, allowing exploitation of different substrates for oviposition. We used a formal phylogenetic framework to investigate the evolution of ovipositor morphology and life history in agaonid wasps. We sampled 24 species with different life histories belonging to all main clades of Agaonidae including representatives of all described genera of non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW). Our results show an overall correlation between ovipositor morphology and life history in agaonid fig wasps. Ovipositor morphologies seem to be related to constraints imposed by features of the oviposition sites since ovipositor morphology has experienced convergent evolution at least four times in Sycophaginae (Agaonidae) according to the resource used. Non-galling species have more distantly spaced teeth with uneven spacing, as opposed to the observed morphology of galling species. Our results suggest that the ancestral condition for ovipositor morphology was most likely the presence of one or two apical teeth. Regarding life history, ovary galling species that oviposit in receptive figs possibly represent the ancestral condition. Different ovipositor characteristics allow exploitation of new niches and may be related to resource partitioning and species co-existence in the fig-fig wasp system.
  • Comparison of the antennal sensilla of females of four fig-wasps
           associated with Ficus auriculata
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 90Author(s): Pei Yang, Zong-bo Li, Da-rong Yang, Yan-qiong Peng, Finn KjellbergAbstractA comparison was performed of the antennal sensilla of females of four chalcid wasp species Ceratosolen emarginatus Mayr, 1906, Sycophaga sp., Philotrypesis longicaudata Mayr, 1906, and Sycoscapter roxburghi Joseph, 1957, which are specific and obligatory associated with Ficus auriculata (Lour, 1790). The four species exhibit different oviposition strategies in the fig ovules where their offspring hatch and develop. Antennal sensilla morphology was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Females of the four species present 11 morphologically similar types of sensilla: trichoid sensilla, sensilla obscura, chaetica sensilla 1 and 2, which all have mechanosensory functions; uniporous basiconic sensilla, which are presumably contact chemosensilla; basiconic capitate peg sensilla, coeloconic sensilla 1, multiporous basiconic and placoid sensilla, which may be regarded as olfactory sensilla, and coeloconic sensilla 2 and 3, which are presumed to be proprioreceptors or pressure receptors. The four species have significant differences in the abundance and arrangement of trichoid sensilla and chaetica sensilla 1 on the flagellum. The coeloconic sensilla and sensilla obscura only occur on the antennae of C. emarginatus that enter figs. The chemosensilla which are presumably involved in host discrimination, i.e., basiconic sensilla, multiporous placoid sensilla and basiconic capitate peg sensilla, are similar in shape and configuration, although they present some differences in abundance. These findings provide practical information on the adaptations of fig wasps and the relationship between multisensory antennae and functions in fig wasp behaviour.
  • Transcriptome analysis of genes involved in the response of a pollinator
           fig wasp to volatile organic compounds from its host figs
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 90Author(s): Jiqing Zeng, Hui Yu, Finn KjellbergAbstractThe mutualism of figs and their pollinating fig wasps is widely regarded as a model for coevolved mutualism. A high degree of host specificity is ensured by female wasps only being attracted by their specific fig tree species through the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by the figs when they are ready to be pollinated. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the production of VOCs and how pollinators respond to these VOCs. Here we present transcriptome sequencing data from VOC-treated fig wasps and control fig wasps. Using Illumina paired-end sequencing, approximately 6.47 Gbp and 6.48 Gbp high quality reads were generated for fig wasps that had been exposed or not to VOCs of their host fig. After read trimming, the de novo assembly of both types of reads produced 58,192 unigenes with an average length of 817 bp. Then functional annotation and GO enrichment analysis was performed by aligning all-unigenes with public protein databases including NR, SwissProt, and KEGG. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were investigated using the RPKM method. Overall, 16 up-regulated genes and 13 down-regulated genes were identified. We further performed GO enrichment and metabolic pathway enrichment analyses. One gene involved in the synoptic vesicle cycle and two genes coding for odorant binding proteins (OBP) are likely to have potential impacts on the response of fig wasps to the VOCs emitted by their host figs. This is the first transcriptome sequencing of a fig wasp in the presence of VOCs of its host figs using the next-generation sequencing technology. Our studies suggest that the expression of some genes in the olfactory neural system of the fig wasps is affected by the VOCs released from the figs. This suggests the presence of a dynamic molecular system of detection and hence response to host plant VOCs. As such our findings provide indications for further mechanistic studies on the fig-fig wasp interactions.
  • Can fine-scale post-pollination variation of fig volatile compounds
           explain some steps of the temporal succession of fig wasps associated with
           Ficus racemosa'
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 90Author(s): Magali Proffit, Jean-Marie Bessière, Bertrand Schatz, Martine Hossaert-McKeyAbstractVolatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by flowers play an essential role in mediating the attraction of pollinators. However, they also attract other species exploiting resources associated with flowers. For instance, VOCs emitted by figs play a major role in encounters between Ficus spp., their mutualistic pollinating wasps, and all the members of the community of non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFWs) that exploit the mutualistic interaction. Because pollinators might be in limited supply for a tree bearing many inflorescences, the plant might maximize its individual reproductive success by reducing the attractiveness of inflorescences once they are pollinated, so that pollinators orient only towards the tree's unpollinated figs. Changes in VOCs emission that bring this about could represent an important cue for NPFWs that exploit particular stages of fig development. In this study, by monitoring precisely the presence of fig-associated wasps on figs of F. racemosa, a common widespread fig species, we demonstrated that 4–5 days and 15 days following pollination represent two critical transitional steps in the succession of different wasp species. Then, focusing on the first one of these transitional steps, by investigating the composition of fig VOCs at receptivity and from 1 to 5 days following pollination, we detected progressive quantitative and qualitative variation of floral scent following pollination. These changes are significant at 5 days following pollination. The qualitative changes are mainly due to an increase in the relative proportions of two monoterpenes (α-pinene and limonene). These variations of the floral VOCs following pollination could explain why pollinating wasps stop visiting figs very shortly after the first pollinators enter receptive figs. They also possibly explain the succession of non-pollinating wasps on the figs following pollination.
  • Spatial variation in pollinator gall failure within figs of the
           gynodioecious Ficus hirta
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 90Author(s): Hui Yu, Stephen G. Compton, Lanfen WuAbstractFigs, the inflorescences of Ficus species (Moraceae), contain numerous uni-ovulate flowers. Male trees of gynodioecious Ficus have figs that support development of pollinator fig wasp offspring (Agaonidae) and rarely produce seeds. Pollinator larvae develop inside galled ovules that expand rapidly after eggs are laid to fill the available space. Galls that fail to support successful larval development can be abundant and failures may influence oviposition behavior and modify realized offspring sex ratios. We examined pollinator reproductive success in figs of the Asian Ficus hirta where we had allowed entry by either one or two foundresses and prevented attack by parasitoids. At the developmental stage when adult offspring were about to emerge from their galls, we recorded where in the figs their galls were located, the distributions of sons and daughters in the galls and whether galls that developed closest to the periphery of the figs were more likely to fail. Foundress number had an effect on gall location, but not total offspring numbers. No spatial variation in the distribution of male and female adult offspring was detected. Overall, over 25% of the galled ovaries failed to support offspring development, and failure rates were independent of foundress number. More peripheral galls were more likely to fail in figs entered by two foundresses. Gall location in gynodioecious figs is determined largely by the extent to which their basal pedicels expand after galling. Competition for nutrients between galls, with those developing shorter pedicels being at a disadvantage, may explain the results. If pedicel length is related to timing of oviposition, then pollinator eggs laid later are less likely to survive.
  • Detecting the elusive cost of parasites on fig seed production
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 90Author(s): Simon T. Segar, Ani Mardiastuti, Philip M. Wheeler, James M. CookAbstractMutualisms provide essential ecosystem functions such as pollination and contribute considerably to global biodiversity. However, they are also exploited by parasites that remove resources and thus impose costs on one or both of the mutualistic partners. The fig/pollinator interaction is a classic obligate mutualism; it is pantropical and involves>750 Ficus species and their host-specific pollinating wasps (family Agaonidae). Figs also host parasites of the mutualism that should consume pollinators or seeds, depending on their larval ecology. We collected data from a large crop of figs on Ficus glandifera var. brachysyce in a Sulawesi rainforest with an unusually high number of Eukoebelea sp. parasites. We found that these parasites have a significant negative correlation with fig seed production as well as with pollinator offspring production. Eukoebelea wasps form the basal genus in subfamily Sycophaginae (Chalcidoidea) and their larval biology is considered unknown. Our analysis suggests that they feed as flower gallers and impose direct costs on the fig tree, but a strategy including the consumption of pollinator larvae cannot be ruled out. We also present baseline data on the composition of the fig wasp community associated with F. glandifera var brachysyce and light trap catch data.
  • Host–parasitoid development and survival strategies in a
           non-pollinating fig wasp community
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 90Author(s): Pratibha Yadav, Renee M. BorgesIn a tritrophic system, parasitoid development and galler host survival strategies have rarely been investigated simultaneously, an approach crucial for a complete understanding of the complexity of host–parasitoid interactions. Strategies in parasitoids to maximize host exploitation and in gallers to reduce predation risk can greatly affect the structure of tritrophic communities. In this study, the developmental strategies of galler hosts and their associated parasitoids in the tritrophic fig–fig wasp system are experimentally investigated for the first time. In this highly co-evolved system, wasp development is intrinsically tied with the phenology of the wasp brood sites that are restricted to the enclosed urn-shaped fig inflorescence called the syconium which can be regarded as a microcosm. Wasp exclusion experiments to determine host specificity, gall dissections and developmental assays were conducted with non-pollinating fig wasps in Ficus racemosa. Our results provide evidence for exceptions to the widely accepted koinobiont–idiobiont parasitoid dichotomy. This is also the first time fig wasps were raised ex situ from non-feeding stages onwards, a technique that enabled us to monitor their development from their pre-pupal to adult stages and record their development time more accurately. Based on variation in development time and host specificity, the possibility of a cryptic parasitoid species is raised. The frequency of different wasp species eclosing from the microcosms of individual syconia is explained using host–parasitoid associations and interactions under the modulating effect of host plant phenology.Graphical abstractImage 1
  • Insights into the structure of plant-insect communities: Specialism and
           generalism in a regional set of non-pollinating fig wasp communities
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 90Author(s): F.H.A. Farache, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus, M.T. Cerezini, L. Rattis, F. Kjellberg, R.A.S. PereiraAbstractInsects show a multitude of symbiotic interactions that may vary in degree of specialization and structure. Gall-inducing insects and their parasitoids are thought to be relatively specialized organisms, but despite their ecological importance, the organization and structure of the interactions they establish with their hosts has seldom been investigated in tropical communities. Non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW) are particularly interesting organisms for the study of ecological networks because most species strictly develop their offspring within fig inflorescences, and show a multitude of life history strategies. They can be gall-makers, cleptoparasites or parasitoids of pollinating or of other non-pollinating fig wasps. Here we analysed a set of non-pollinating fig wasp communities associated with six species of Ficus section Americanae over a wide area. This allowed us to investigate patterns of specialization in a diverse community composed of monophagous and polyphagous species. We observed that most NPFW species were cleptoparasites and parasitoids, colonizing figs several days after oviposition by pollinators. Most species that occurred in more than one host were much more abundant in a single preferential host, suggesting specialization. The food web established between wasps and figs shows structural properties that are typical of specific antagonistic relationships, especially of endophagous insect networks. Two species that occurred in all available hosts were highly abundant in the network, suggesting that in some cases generalized species can be more competitive than strict specialists. The Neotropical and, to a lesser extent, Afrotropical NPFW communities seem to be more generalized than other NPFW communities. However, evidence of host sharing in the Old World is quite limited, since most studies have focused on particular taxonomic groups (genera) of wasps instead of sampling the whole NPFW community. Moreover, the lack of quantitative information in previous studies prevents us from detecting patterns of host preferences in polyphagous species.
  • Geographic variation of fruit scents in a dispersion mutualism, the case
           of Ficus lutea
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 90Author(s): Catherine C.L. Soler, Bertrand Schatz, Jean-Marie Bessière, Martine Hossaert-McKeyAbstractChemical mediation is often involved in interactions between plants and animals, as in pollination and in seed dispersion mutualisms. Extensive investigation has been done in floral scents and on their interspecific and intraspecific variations, but similar research on fruit scent remains poorly explored and only focused on interspecific variations. We investigated in this study the intraspecific variations of volatile bouquet emitted by mature fruits of Ficus lutea, in two sites within its wide distribution range, i.e. in South Africa and in Madagascar. We demonstrated a clear geographic variation in the volatile bouquet emitted by ripe figs in these two study sites, especially due to the presence of sesquiterpenes in Madagascan bouquets, while scents present at both sites high amounts of fatty acid derivatives. We discuss here different possible explanations for such variations in fruit scents, potentially resulting from insular and/or geographic isolation. This novel result of an intraspecific variation linked to fig seed dispersion serves to increase our knowledge of the role of scents in seed dispersal mutualisms.
  • Adaptive phenology of Ficus subpisocarpa and Ficus
    in Taipei, Taiwan
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 90Author(s): Yun-Peng Chiang, Anthony Bain, Wen-Jer Wu, Lien-Siang ChouAbstractInsect pollination is the main strategy used by Angiosperm plants to transport pollen to another individual. The interaction between entomophilous plants and their pollinators is often mutualistic, with many species pairs being interdependent. In obligate pollination mutualism, the plant relies on its partner for pollination, whereas the pollen vector relies on plant resources. In the mutualism between Ficus (Moraceae) and the fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae), the plant provides oviposition sites to its exclusive pollinator, which has an extremely short lifespan (a maximum lifespan of few days). This study examined how fig trees maintain their associated pollinator populations by conducting a 45-month phenological survey of 27 and 64 trees belonging to the species Ficus caulocarpa and F. subpisocarpa in Taipei, Taiwan. The observations indicated that the trees produce figs year-round with no clear seasonal pattern, and are not affected by meteorological factors. On average, about 30% of the trees of both species were bearing figs during the survey. The duration of the fig development was longer during the winter-spring period than during the summer-fall period. The trees displayed strong asynchrony among trees in the population but each crop was synchronous within a tree. However, after wasp emergence, crops lost their synchrony with part of the figs ripening within few days whereas some figs only ripened eight weeks later for F. subpisocarpa and four weeks later for F. caulocarpa. This study also discusses the implications of fig frugivory and mutualism.
  • Sacred hills of Imerina and the voyage of Ficus lutea Vahl (Amontana) in
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 90Author(s): Yildiz Aumeeruddy-Thomas, Verohanitra Miarivelomalala Rafidison, Finn Kjellberg, Martine Hossaert-McKeyAbstractHumans have favored the presence of Ficus species within anthropogenic landscapes and near human settlements throughout the planet due to a number of beliefs and for practical purposes. An intimate or mutualistic relationship between Ficus spp and human societies has been suggested but explanations about the motivations of these proximities between humans and Ficus remain very fragmentary. The case study presented in this paper, which was conducted in the sacred hills located in the surroundings of an urban area, Antananarivo, capital city of Madagascar, inhabited by the Merina, aims at finding some answers to the following two questions. To what extent are Ficus species integrated into the ecologies of human groups, understood here as interactions between humans (social, political and economic dimensions)' 2) Do humans introduce Ficus species into new habitats, potentially offering new ecological opportunities' This study builds on initial work conducted in Madagascar in the region of Fianarantsoa in Betsileo rural communities. Results shown in this paper suggest that: 1) the kings of Imerina, the region located in the north-eastern part of the High Plateau of Madagascar, have planted Ficus species abundantly, especially Ficus lutea Vahl and Ficus. polita Vahl, to claim ownership upon new territories of the Imerina and symbolically establish their political hegemony. Marriages with women from non-Merina cultural groups, such as the Sakalava inhabiting the Western Coast, and the use of Ficus species as symbols of power has contributed, with other activities, to the unification process of Madagascar; 2) The ecological distribution of F. lutea has been substantially manipulated by people from Imerina by planting this species quite abundantly in the sacred hills surrounding Antananarivo, an area where this species is at its ecological limit of distribution and also in faraway places such as the Western coast where the tree is not naturally distributed.
  • Weak genetic divergence suggests extensive gene flow at the northeastern
           range limit of a dioecious Ficus species
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 90Author(s): Rong Wang, Chang-Hong Yang, Yuan-Yuan Ding, Xin Tong, Xiao-Yong ChenAbstractGenus Ficus (Moraceae) plays a critical role in the sustainability and biodiversity in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. Ficus species and their host specific pollinating fig wasps (Agaonidae) represent a classic example of obligate mutualism. The genetic consequence of range expansion and range shift is still under investigation, but extensive gene flow and subsequently low level of genetic divergence may be expected to occur among the populations at the poleward range limit of some Ficus species due to long distance gene flow in the genus. In the present study, we focused on populations of F. sarmentosa var. henryi at its northeastern range limit in southeast China to test whether edge populations were genetically fragile. Consistent with our hypothesis, high level of genetic diversity and weak genetic structure were revealed in Ficus sarmentosa var. henryi populations, suggesting extensive gene flow at the plant's range limit. Long-distance movements of both pollinators and frugivorous birds were likely to be frequent and thereby predominantly contributed to the extensive gene flow at large scale despite of some magnificent landscape elements like huge mountains.
  • Rush hour at the Museum – Diversification patterns provide new clues for
           the success of figs (Ficus L., Moraceae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 90Author(s): Sam Bruun-Lund, Brecht Verstraete, Finn Kjellberg, Nina RønstedAbstractTropical rainforests harbour much of the earth's plant diversity but little is still known about how it evolved and why a small number of plant genera account for the majority. Whether this success is due to rapid turnover or constant evolution for these hyper-diverse plant genera is here tested for the species-rich genus Ficus L. (figs). The pan-tropical distribution of figs makes it an ideal study group to investigate rainforest hyper-diversification patterns. Using a recently published, dated and comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis, we infer that figs are an old lineage that gradually accumulated species and exhibits very low extinction rates, which corresponds to the ‘museum model’ of evolution. Overall, no major significant shifts in evolutionary dynamics are detected, yet two shifts with lower probability are found. Hemi-epiphytism, monoecy, and active pollination are traits that possibly are associated with the hyper-diversity found in figs, making it possible for the plants to occupy new niches followed by extensive radiation over evolutionary time scales. Figs possess unique diversification patterns compared to other typical rainforest genera.
  • Fifty years later, figs and their associated communities
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Acta Oecologica, Volume 90Author(s): Renee M. Borges, Stephen G. Compton, Finn Kjellberg
  • Spatial patterns and competition in trees in early successional reclaimed
           and natural boreal forests
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018Source: Acta OecologicaAuthor(s): Sanatan Das Gupta, Bradley D. PinnoAbstractSpatial distribution of plants in early successional stands provides an indication of future plant community structure and population dynamics. Determining the factors driving plant interactions and their demographic relationships at stand initiation is critical to gain a better understanding of plants’ responses to competition and limited resource conditions. Reclaimed ecosystems are ideal for studying such community mechanisms because they are completely reconstructed ecosystems with known community filters such as soil type, propagule composition, and the presence of both planted and naturally establishing trees. The current study explored the spatial patterns and competition-facilitation mechanisms in deciduous and evergreen trees in two oil sands reclaimed sites with different reclamation age (2-year old and 5-year old) and cover soils (wetland peat origin – PMM; and forest floor origin – FFMM) in Alberta, Canada, and compared this with a naturally-disturbed site at 5 years since fire. Spatial point pattern analysis was performed using pair correlation function g(r), mark correlation function kmm(r), and bivariate g-function. Intraspecific competition in deciduous seedlings was stronger in the 5-year old reclaimed site than in the 2-year old site. Spatial patterns in deciduous seedlings on PMM were aggregated at 1–3 m scale similar to the natural site, whereas seedlings on FFMM sites had aggregated patterns at greater than 5 m scale. Planted conifers had regular pattern at 1–2 m scale in the 2-year old sites which reflects the plantation spacing, but showed a random pattern in the 5-year old sites indicating the effect of random mortality. Bivariate spatial analysis indicated a significant repulsion between deciduous and coniferous seedling at 1 m in the 2-year old PMM site and a significant attraction in the 5-year old FFMM site suggesting that the mechanism of competition-facilitation between trees is different in different cover soils. Density dependent thinning was only observed in the 2-year old PMM and natural sites; however, a gradual increase in nearest neighbour distances with increasing seedling size in all the reclaimed sites suggests that density dependent thinning has started.
  • Influence of seed size on performance of non-native annual plant species
           in a novel community at two planting densities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018Source: Acta OecologicaAuthor(s): Janina Radny, Wim H. van der Putten, Katja Tielbörger, Katrin M. MeyerAbstractClimate warming enables plant species to migrate to higher latitudes and altitudes. Within Europe, the Mediterranean harbours many species that might expand their ranges towards Western Europe. Small seed size may facilitate dispersal, however, it may impair establishment of the range-expanding plant species in the novel vegetation. In a greenhouse experiment, we examined effects of average seed size of Mediterranean plant species on their establishment in a mixed community of Western European plant species. Applying two levels of densities of the natives and a herbivory treatment, we tested how seed size is linked to response in plant growth and fitness in novel vegetation. While all non-native plant species showed a negative response to increased planting density, species with small seeds showed a less negative response. This effect persisted under herbivory. Our data suggest that small-seeded non-native plant species may tolerate competitive pressure from novel plant communities better than large-seeded species, so that small seed size may confer a higher probability of establishment of non-native species in novel communities.
  • Ecology and conservation of West African forests: An introduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018Source: Acta OecologicaAuthor(s): Luca Luiselli, John E. Fa
  • Environmental filtering determines patterns of tree species composition in
           small mountains of Atlantic Central African forests
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018Source: Acta OecologicaAuthor(s): Christelle Gonmadje, Charles Doumenge, Terry Sunderland, Doyle McKeyAbstractThe determinants of patterns of plant species composition on small mountains are poorly known, especially in Central Africa. We aimed here to identify variation in tree species composition throughout the Ngovayang Massif (southern Cameroon) and determine the relative contributions of environmental factors and spatial autocorrelation in shaping tree species composition. Vegetation surveys were conducted in fifteen 1-ha (100 m × 100 m) permanent plots established along a transect from lowland (200 m) to submontane forests (900 m) in which all trees with a diameter (dbh) ≥ 10 cm were inventoried. Data were investigated using ordination methods (Correspondence Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis). At the local scale, the most important variable in determining tree species composition patterns was slope exposure, followed by distance from the ocean and altitude. Together, these environmental variables explained 28% of floristic variation among plots, and the spatial structure almost disappeared when the effects of these variables were removed. Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that spatial variables (geographic coordinates of the plots) or geographic distance between plots explained only 1% of the total initial variance. Residual spatial variation not explained by the environmental variables probably reflects the history of vegetation and the effects of other climatic variables that were not included in this study. Floristic variation in the Ngovayang Massif is due to strong environmental heterogeneity. The sensitivity of floristic composition to environmental variables such as slope orientation and altitude suggests that tree species composition may shift with expected climate changes, such as changes in the movement of air masses, increase in mean annual temperatures or increasing severity of the dry season. Our study highlights the need for systematic on-the-ground measurements of climate variables in tropical montane areas in order to better understand the current climate regime and serve as a basis for modelling future changes.
  • Effect of heat on soil seedbank of three contrasting physiognomies in
           Shasha forest reserve, Southwestern Nigeria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018Source: Acta OecologicaAuthor(s): D.S. Akinyemi, S.R. Oseni, S.O. OkeAbstractThe effects of soil heating which usually occur during forest fires on the floristic composition and seed density of the soil seed bank of Shasha forest reserve in Southwestern Nigeria was investigated and the potential of the soil seedbank in forest restoration process (especially after a fire) was examined. Three distinct sites (Regrowth forest, Gmelina and Pinus plantations) were selected in the forest reserve. Species enumeration, identification and distribution into families of the standing vegetation were carried out. Soil samples were collected at 0–15 cm depth from each plot in March 2012. One set of replicate samples was heated in an oven until the soil reached 80 °C (to simulate typical temperature at soil surface during forest fires) while the other serves as a control. They were subjected to seedling emergence for six months to determine the density and species composition of the seed banks of the study sites. Seedling emergence result for heated and unheated soil samples showed that the seedbank density was higher in control than heated samples in the three sites. Few woody species emerged from the soil seedbank of three study sites and in both control and heated samples. There was a significant difference in total seed density when treatments were compared (P  0.05) when sites were compared. Diversity and evenness indices follow the order Regrowth forest > Pinus plantation > Gmelina plantation. NMDS (non-metric multi-dimensional scaling) ordination revealed low similarity in the species composition of extant vegetation and seedbank. The potential of vegetation restoration of the disturbed forest reserve from seed bank is limited, and heat from fire had negative effects on the seed bank characteristics of the forest but selectively enhanced the emergence of species like Pinus carribaea.
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