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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3175 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3175 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 376, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 374, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 333, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 429, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Acta Oecologica
  [SJR: 0.915]   [H-I: 53]   [10 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1146-609X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Efficiency of protected areas in Amazon and Atlantic Forest conservation:
           A spatio-temporal view
    • Authors: Thadeu Sobral-Souza; Maurício Humberto Vancine; Milton Cezar Ribeiro; Matheus S. Lima-Ribeiro
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 87
      Author(s): Thadeu Sobral-Souza, Maurício Humberto Vancine, Milton Cezar Ribeiro, Matheus S. Lima-Ribeiro
      The Amazon and Atlantic Forest are considered the world's most biodiverse biomes. Human and climate change impacts are the principal drivers of species loss in both biomes, more severely in the Atlantic Forest. In response to species loss, the main conservation action is the creation of protected areas (PAs). Current knowledge and research on the PA network's conservation efficiency is scarce, and existing studies have mainly considered a past temporal view. In this study, we tested the efficiency of the current PA network to maintain climatically stable areas (CSAs) across the Amazon and Atlantic Forest. To this, we used an ecological niche modeling approach to biome and paleoclimatic simulations. We propose three categories of conservation priority areas for both biomes, considering CSAs, PAs and intact forest remnants. The biomes vary in their respective PA networks' protection efficiency. Regarding protect CSAs, the Amazon PA network is four times more efficient than the Atlantic Forest PA network. New conservation efforts in these two forest biomes require different approaches. We discussed the conservation actions that should be taken in each biome to increase the efficiency of the PA network, considering both the creation and expansion of PAs as well as restoration programs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2018)
       
  • Influence of primitive Biłgoraj horses on the glossy buckthorn (Frangula
           alnus)-dominated understory in a mixed coniferous forest
    • Authors: Daniel Klich
      Pages: 8 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 87
      Author(s): Daniel Klich
      Changes in the understory dominated by glossy buckthorn Frangula alnus via the influence of primitive horses were analyzed in a 28-year-old enclosure in the village of Szklarnia at the Biłgoraj Horse-Breeding Centre near Janów Lubelski (eastern Poland). The analysis was conducted in 20 circular plots (30 m2) defined in adjacent, similar forest stands (enclosed and control). Disturbance by the horses, mainly through trampling, caused numerous paths to form within the glossy buckthorn-dominated understory and led to a decrease in density of stems of lower height classes (30–80 and 81–130 cm, respectively). An increase in species diversity at the expense of glossy buckthorn density was also observed. The horses' trampling caused an increase in Padus avium density and the encroachment of other woody plant species that were less shade-tolerant and grew well in soils rich in nutrients. An increase in the density of woody plants over 180 cm above ground was observed within the enclosure, which was probably the result of the horses’ excretion of feces. The results presented here provide new insight into the ecological role that horses play in forest-meadow landscape mosaics, which, via altering the development of vegetation, may contribute to an increase in biodiversity within forest habitats.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:57:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2018)
       
  • Food source quality and ant dominance hierarchy influence the outcomes of
           ant-plant interactions in an arid environment
    • Authors: Rocío Vianey Flores-Flores; Armando Aguirre; Diego V. Anjos; Frederico S. Neves; Ricardo I. Campos; Wesley Dáttilo
      Pages: 13 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 87
      Author(s): Rocío Vianey Flores-Flores, Armando Aguirre, Diego V. Anjos, Frederico S. Neves, Ricardo I. Campos, Wesley Dáttilo
      In this study, we conducted a series of experiments in a population of Vachellia constricta (Fabaceae) in the arid Tehuacan-Cuicatláan valley, Mexico, in order to evaluate if the food source quality and ant dominance hierarchy influence the outcomes of ant-plant interactions. Using an experiment with artificial nectaries, we observed that ants foraging on food sources with higher concentration of sugar are quicker in finding and attacking potential herbivorous insects. More specifically, we found that the same ant species may increase their defence effectiveness according to the quality of food available. These findings indicate that ant effectiveness in plant protection is context-dependent and may vary according to specific individual characteristics of plants. In addition, we showed that competitively superior ant species tend to dominate plants in periods with high nectar activity, emphasizing the role of the dominance hierarchy structuring ant-plant interactions. However, when high sugar food sources were experimentally available ad libitum, the nocturnal and competitively superior ant species, Camponotus atriceps, did not dominate the artificial nectaries during the day possibly due to limitation of its thermal tolerance. Therefore, temporal niche partitioning may be allowing the coexistence of two dominant ant species (Camponotus rubritorax during the day and C. atriceps at night) on V. constricta. Our findings indicate that the quality of the food source, and temporal shifts in ant dominance are key factors which structure the biotic plant defences in an arid environment.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2018)
       
  • Moonlighting' - Consequences of lunar cues on anuran reproductive
           activity
    • Authors: Victoria A. Underhill; Gerlinde Höbel
      Pages: 20 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 87
      Author(s): Victoria A. Underhill, Gerlinde Höbel
      While the influence of environmental variables, particularly temperature and rainfall, on the breeding behavior of amphibians is widely recognized, relatively few studies have addressed how the moon affects amphibian behavior. Yet, the lunar cycle provides several rhythmic temporal cues that animals could use to time important group events such as spawning, and the substantial changes in light levels associated with the different moon phases may also affect the behavior of nocturnal frogs. Using seven years of field observation data, we tested for lunar effects on the reproductive activity of male and female Eastern Gray Treefrogs (Hyla versicolor). We found that chorusing and breeding activity was statistically more likely to occur around the first quarter of the moon and during intermediately bright nights, but that reproductive activity also occurred during various other times during the lunar cycle. We discuss these findings in relation to the two main hypotheses of lunar effects on animals: predator avoidance and temporal synchronization of breeding.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2018)
       
  • Qualitative aspects of the effectiveness of Culpeo foxes (Lycalopex
           culpaeus) as dispersers of Prosopis alba (Fabaceae) in a Bolivian dry
           valley
    • Authors: D.E. Maldonado; A.P. Loayza; E. Garcia; L.F. Pacheco
      Pages: 29 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 87
      Author(s): D.E. Maldonado, A.P. Loayza, E. Garcia, L.F. Pacheco
      Foxes disperse several plant species in arid and semi-arid environments, but their effectiveness as dispersal agents still remains unclear. In this study, we examined qualitative components of the effectiveness of L. culpaeus as a disperser of P. alba seeds in an inter-Andean dry valley of La Paz, Bolivia. Specifically, we determined seed deposition microhabitats, and the probabilities of germination, seed removal and seedling recruitment in these microhabitats. Additionally, we assessed the effect of gut-passage on P. alba germination. We collected 159 scats, which contained a total of 3402 endocarps fragments. Foxes dispersed seeds into two microhabitats: open areas and under woody vegetation, but more frequently in the former. The probability of germination did not differ between gut-passed and control seeds, but control seeds germinated faster than gut-passed ones. The likelihood of removal was greater for endocarps fragments in open microhabitats than under woody vegetation. Only a small percentage of the seeds in each microhabitat germinated, but none survived more than a week. We conclude that although the Culpeo fox can defecate intact P. alba seeds, it does not provide effective dispersal services.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2018)
       
  • Functional richness: Overview of indices and underlying concepts
    • Authors: G. Legras; N. Loiseau; J.-C. Gaertner
      Pages: 34 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 87
      Author(s): G. Legras, N. Loiseau, J.-C. Gaertner
      Functional richness, currently defined as the amount of niche space occupied by the species within a community, is one of the three major components of functional diversity. Different indices have been developed in order to quantify this component. However, the range of indices available for assessing functional richness, often mathematically complex and based on different rationales, can cause confusion for field ecologists and lead to misinterpretation of the results obtained. In this context, we have provided the first study exclusively focused on the comparison of the definitions, advantages and drawbacks of a large set of functional richness indices. The first part of this work is focused on four indices (FDP&G, FRic, TOP and N-hypervolumes indices) that are currently the most commonly used for assessing functional richness. We have completed our study by including recently developed indices that enable us to take into account the intraspecific trait variability (i.e. FRim index and TDP framework), because there is currently a growing scientific consensus regarding the necessity of including this aspect in the assessment of the functional diversity of communities. We demonstrate that although authors have argued that their index describes the functional richness, each of them describes only part of it, and this part may strongly differ from one index to another. Rather than advocating the general use of a single index and/or systematically avoiding others, our study highlights the need for selecting indices in close relation with the context, the available data and the aims of each study. Such a strategy is an essential preliminary step for preventing misunderstanding and artefactual controversies. Along these lines, we propose some guidelines to help users in selecting the most appropriate indices according both to the facet of functional richness on which they wish to focus and to the characteristics of the available data.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2018)
       
  • Below and above-ground carbon distribution along a rainfall gradient. A
           case of the Zambezi teak forests, Zambia
    • Authors: Justine Ngoma; Eddy Moors; Bart Kruijt; James H. Speer; Royd Vinya; Emmanuel N. Chidumayo; Rik Leemans
      Pages: 45 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 87
      Author(s): Justine Ngoma, Eddy Moors, Bart Kruijt, James H. Speer, Royd Vinya, Emmanuel N. Chidumayo, Rik Leemans
      Understanding carbon (C) stocks or biomass in forests is important to examine how forests mitigate climate change. To estimate biomass in stems, branches and roots takes intensive fieldwork to uproot, cut and weigh the mass of each component. Different models or equations are also required. Our research focussed on the dry tropical Zambezi teak forests and we studied their structure at three sites following a rainfall gradient in Zambia. We sampled 3558 trees at 42 plots covering a combined area of 15ha. Using data from destructive tree samples, we developed mixed-species biomass models to estimate above ground biomass for small (<5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH, 1.3 m above-ground)) and large (≥5 cm DBH) trees involving 90 and 104 trees respectively, that belonged to 12 species. A below-ground biomass model was developed from seven trees of three species (16–44 cm DBH) whose complete root systems were excavated. Three stump models were also derived from these uprooted trees. Finally, we determined the C fractions from 194 trees that belonged to 12 species. The analysis revealed that DBH was the only predictor that significantly correlated to both above-ground and below-ground biomass. We found a mean root-to-shoot ratio of 0.38:0.62. The C fraction in leaves ranged from 39% to 42%, while it varied between 41% and 46% in wood. The C fraction was highest at the Kabompo site that received the highest rainfall, and lowest at the intermediate Namwala site. The C stocks varied between 15 and 36 ton C ha−1 and these stocks where highest at the wetter Kabompo site and lowest at the drier Sesheke site. Our results indicate that the projected future rainfall decrease for southern Africa, will likely reduce the C storage potential of the Zambezi teak forests, thereby adversely affecting their mitigating role in climate change.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2018)
       
  • Local versus landscape-scale effects of anthropogenic land-use on forest
           species richness
    • Authors: G. Buffa; S. Del Vecchio; E. Fantinato; V. Milano
      Pages: 49 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 86
      Author(s): G. Buffa, S. Del Vecchio, E. Fantinato, V. Milano
      The study investigated the effects of human-induced landscape patterns on species richness in forests. For 80 plots of fixed size, we measured human disturbance (categorized as urban/industrial and agricultural land areas), at ‘local’ and ‘landscape’ scale (500 m and 2500 m radius from each plot, respectively), the distance from the forest edge, and the size and shape of the woody patch. By using GLM, we analyzed the effects of disturbance and patch-based measures on both total species richness and the richness of a group of specialist species (i.e. the ‘ancient forest species’), representing more specific forest features. Patterns of local species richness were sensitive to the structure and composition of the surrounding landscape. Among the landscape components taken into account, urban/industrial land areas turned out as the most threatening factor for both total species richness and the richness of the ancient forest species. However, the best models evidenced a different intensity of the response to the same disturbance category as well as a different pool of significant variables for the two groups of species. The use of groups of species, such as the ancient forest species pool, that are functionally related and have similar ecological requirements, may represent an effective solution for monitoring forest dynamics under the effects of external factors. The approach of relating local assessment of species richness, and in particular of the ancient forest species pool, to land-use patterns may play an important role for the science-policy interface by supporting and strengthening conservation and regional planning decision making.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:57:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2018)
       
  • Complex foraging ecology of the red harvester ant and its effect on the
           soil seed bank
    • Authors: Pedro Luna; Juan Héctor García-Chávez; Wesley Dáttilo
      Pages: 57 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 86
      Author(s): Pedro Luna, Juan Héctor García-Chávez, Wesley Dáttilo
      Granivory is an important interaction in the arid and semi-arid zones of the world, since seeds form an abundant and nutritious resource in these areas. While species of the genus Pogonomyrmex have been studied in detail as seed predators, their impact on seed abundance in the soil has not yet been explored in sufficient depth. We studied the impact of the harvesting activities of the ant Pogonomyrmex barbatus on seed abundance in the soil of the Zapotitlán valley, Mexico. We found that P. barbatus activity significantly impacts the abundance of seeds in the soil, which is lower in the sites where P. barbatus forages than it is in sites with no recorded foraging. We also found that P. barbatus distributes intact seeds of three tree species, two of which are nurse plants, and could consequently be promoting the establishment of these species. Using tools derived from graph theory, we observed that the ant-seed interactions exhibit a nested pattern; where more depredated seed species seem to be the more spatially abundant in the environment. This study illustrates the complex foraging ecology of the harvester ant P. barbatus and elucidates its effect on the soil seed bank in a semi-arid environment.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:57:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2018)
       
  • Elevated native terrestrial snail abundance and diversity in association
           with an invasive understory shrub, Berberis thunbergii, in a North
           American deciduous forest
    • Authors: Ryan M. Utz; Timothy A. Pearce; Danielle L. Lewis; Joseph C. Mannino
      Pages: 66 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 86
      Author(s): Ryan M. Utz, Timothy A. Pearce, Danielle L. Lewis, Joseph C. Mannino
      Invasive terrestrial plants often substantially reshape environments, yet how such invasions affect terrestrial snail assemblages remains understudied. We investigated how snail assemblages in deciduous forest soils with dense Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry), an invasive shrub in eastern North America, differ from forest areas lacking the shrub. Leaf litter and soil samples were collected from forest patches with dense B. thunbergii understories and adjacent control areas within two exurban forest tracts in western Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Snails were identified to species and quantified by standard diversity metrics. Contrary to our expectations, snails were significantly more abundant and diverse in B. thunbergii-invaded areas. Despite differences in abundance, the snail community composition did not differ between invaded and control habitats. The terrestrial snail assemblage we observed, which was composed entirely of native species, appears to respond favorably to B. thunbergii invasion and therefore may not be negatively impacted by physicochemical changes to soils typically observed in association with the plant. Such findings could reflect the fact that B. thunbergii likely creates more favorable habitat for snails by creating cooler, more humid, and more alkaline soil environments. However, the snail assemblages we retrieved may consist mostly of species with high tolerance to environmental degradation due to a legacy of land use change and acid deposition in the region.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:57:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2018)
       
  • Effects of livestock exclusion on density, survival and biomass of the
           perennial sagebrush grass Hymenachne pernambucense (Poaceae) from a
           temperate fluvial wetland
    • Authors: Andrea L. Magnano; Analía S. Nanni; Pamela Krug; Elizabeth Astrada; Ricardo Vicari; Rubén D. Quintana
      Pages: 72 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 86
      Author(s): Andrea L. Magnano, Analía S. Nanni, Pamela Krug, Elizabeth Astrada, Ricardo Vicari, Rubén D. Quintana
      In Argentina, the intensification of soybean production has displaced a substantial proportion of cattle ranching to fluvial wetlands such as those in the Delta of the Paraná River. Cattle grazing affects structure and dynamics of native forage plants but there is little information on this impact in populations from fluvial wetlands. This study addresses the effect of cattle ranching on density, survival, mean life-span and aerial biomass of Hymenachne pernambucense (Poaceae), an important forage species in the region. The study was carried out monthly for one year in permanents plots subject to continuous grazing and plots excluded from grazing in the Middle Delta of the Paraná River. In plots excluded from grazing, tillers showed significantly higher population density and survival, and a two-fold increase in mean life-span, while continuous grazing decreased survival of cohorts. The largest contribution to tiller density in ungrazed and grazed populations was made by spring and summer cohorts, respectively. Total and green biomass were significantly higher in the ungrazed population, with highest differences in late spring-early summer. Cattle grazing affected the relationship between tiller density and green biomass suggesting that cattle prefer sprouts because they are more palatable and nutritious than older tissue.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:57:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2018)
       
  • Maximum standard metabolic rate corresponds with the salinity of maximum
           growth in hatchlings of the estuarine northern diamondback terrapin
           (Malaclemys terrapin terrapin): Implications for habitat conservation
    • Authors: Christopher L. Rowe
      Pages: 79 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 86
      Author(s): Christopher L. Rowe
      I evaluated standard metabolic rates (SMR) of hatchling northern diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin terrapin) across a range of salinities (salinity = 1.5, 4, 8, 12, and 16 psu) that they may encounter in brackish habitats such as those in the Maryland portion of the Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A. Consumption of O2 and production of CO2 by resting, unfed animals served as estimates of SMR. A peak in SMR occurred at 8 psu which corresponds closely with the salinity at which hatchling growth was previously shown to be maximized (salinity ∼ 9 psu). It appears that SMR is influenced by growth, perhaps reflecting investments in catabolic pathways that fuel anabolism. This ecophysiological information can inform environmental conservation and management activities by identifying portions of the estuary that are bioenergetically optimal for growth of hatchling terrapins. I suggest that conservation and restoration efforts to protect terrapin populations in oligo-to mesohaline habitats should prioritize protection or creation of habitats in regions where average salinity is near 8 psu and energetic investments in growth appear to be maximized.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:57:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2018)
       
  • Insights into the structure of plant-insect communities: Specialism and
           generalism in a regional set of non-pollinating fig wasp communities
    • Authors: F.H.A. Farache; A. Cruaud; J.-Y. Rasplus; M.T. Cerezini; L. Rattis; F. Kjellberg; R.A.S. Pereira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): F.H.A. Farache, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus, M.T. Cerezini, L. Rattis, F. Kjellberg, R.A.S. Pereira
      Insects show a multitude of symbiotic interactions that may vary in degree of specialization and structure. Gall-inducing insects and their parasitoids are thought to be relatively specialized organisms, but despite their ecological importance, the organization and structure of the interactions they establish with their hosts has seldom been investigated in tropical communities. Non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW) are particularly interesting organisms for the study of ecological networks because most species strictly develop their offspring within fig inflorescences, and show a multitude of life history strategies. They can be gall-makers, cleptoparasites or parasitoids of pollinating or of other non-pollinating fig wasps. Here we analysed a set of non-pollinating fig wasp communities associated with six species of Ficus section Americanae over a wide area. This allowed us to investigate patterns of specialization in a diverse community composed of monophagous and polyphagous species. We observed that most NPFW species were cleptoparasites and parasitoids, colonizing figs several days after oviposition by pollinators. Most species that occurred in more than one host were much more abundant in a single preferential host, suggesting specialization. The food web established between wasps and figs shows structural properties that are typical of specific antagonistic relationships, especially of endophagous insect networks. Two species that occurred in all available hosts were highly abundant in the network, suggesting that in some cases generalized species can be more competitive than strict specialists. The Neotropical and, to a lesser extent, Afrotropical NPFW communities seem to be more generalized than other NPFW communities. However, evidence of host sharing in the Old World is quite limited, since most studies have focused on particular taxonomic groups (genera) of wasps instead of sampling the whole NPFW community. Moreover, the lack of quantitative information in previous studies prevents us from detecting patterns of host preferences in polyphagous species.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.02.006
       
  • Morphological diversity and function of the stigma in Ficus species
           (Moraceae)
    • Authors: Simone Pádua Teixeira; Marina F.B. Costa; João Paulo Basso-Alves; Finn Kjellberg; Rodrigo A.S. Pereira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Simone Pádua Teixeira, Marina F.B. Costa, João Paulo Basso-Alves, Finn Kjellberg, Rodrigo A.S. Pereira
      The stigma plays several roles such as pollen hydration and selection, and pollen tube nutrition. In the Ficus-fig wasp mutualism, stigmata have an additional, almost unknown, function by representing a physical interface for both plant and wasp reproduction. We used light and electron microscopy to compare the detailed morphology of the stigmata of nine Ficus species of different sections and with different pollination modes and sexual expressions. Figs were collected at the stage when the stigmata were receptive for pollination. Stigmata in actively pollinated monoecious species have well developed papillae concentrated on the adaxial surface exposed towards the fig cavity. Conversely, the passively pollinated monoecious species have the whole surface of the stigmata covered by somewhat smaller papillae. In both actively and passively pollinated monoecious species these features are consistent, irrespective of style length. In all actively pollinated gynodioecious species, the stigmata of pistillate flowers were tubular or infundibuliform whereas in almost all actively pollinated monoecious species (except F. racemosa) the stigmata were filiform, with one branch or two asymmetric branches. In gynodioecious species the short-styled flowers in “male” figs show a limited receptive surface with small papillae, while the stigmata of long-styled flowers in “female” figs are covered by papillae that extend down the sides of the style, increasing the stigmatic surface. In actively pollinated species, stigmata are cohesive, forming a common surface for pollen tube germination (= synstigma). The synstigma arrangement was quite variable: lax, cohesive or very cohesive, with entanglement by stigmatic papillae and stylar trichomes. Entanglement by stylar trichomes is common in gynodioecious species. The synstigma arrangement did not correlate with phylogeny or breeding system. This study is the first to report a very loose synstigma in actively pollinated monoecious Ficus species. Our analyses revealed that, in Ficus, the synstigma is functionally analogous to an extra-gynoecial compitum. Comparative studies will be required to test further hypotheses about the evolutionary determinants of such variation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.02.008
       
  • Weak genetic divergence suggests extensive gene flow at the northeastern
           range limit of a dioecious Ficus species
    • Authors: Rong Wang; Chang-Hong Yang; Yuan-Yuan Ding; Xin Tong; Xiao-Yong Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Rong Wang, Chang-Hong Yang, Yuan-Yuan Ding, Xin Tong, Xiao-Yong Chen
      Genus Ficus (Moraceae) plays a critical role in the sustainability and biodiversity in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. Ficus species and their host specific pollinating fig wasps (Agaonidae) represent a classic example of obligate mutualism. The genetic consequence of range expansion and range shift is still under investigation, but extensive gene flow and subsequently low level of genetic divergence may be expected to occur among the populations at the poleward range limit of some Ficus species due to long distance gene flow in the genus. In the present study, we focused on populations of F. sarmentosa var. henryi at its northeastern range limit in southeast China to test whether edge populations were genetically fragile. Consistent with our hypothesis, high level of genetic diversity and weak genetic structure were revealed in Ficus sarmentosa var. henryi populations, suggesting extensive gene flow at the plant's range limit. Long-distance movements of both pollinators and frugivorous birds were likely to be frequent and thereby predominantly contributed to the extensive gene flow at large scale despite of some magnificent landscape elements like huge mountains.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.02.002
       
  • Transcriptome analysis of genes involved in the response of a pollinator
           fig wasp to volatile organic compounds from its host figs
    • Authors: Jiqing Zeng; Hui Yu; Finn Kjellberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Jiqing Zeng, Hui Yu, Finn Kjellberg
      The mutualism of figs and their pollinating fig wasps is widely regarded as a model for coevolved mutualism. A high degree of host specificity is ensured by female wasps only being attracted by their specific fig tree species through the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by the figs when they are ready to be pollinated. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the production of VOCs and how pollinators respond to these VOCs. Here we present transcriptome sequencing data from VOC-treated fig wasps and control fig wasps. Using Illumina paired-end sequencing, approximately 6.47 Gbp and 6.48 Gbp high quality reads were generated for fig wasps that had been exposed or not to VOCs of their host fig. After read trimming, the de novo assembly of both types of reads produced 58,192 unigenes with an average length of 817 bp. Then functional annotation and GO enrichment analysis was performed by aligning all-unigenes with public protein databases including NR, SwissProt, and KEGG. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were investigated using the RPKM method. Overall, 16 up-regulated genes and 13 down-regulated genes were identified. We further performed GO enrichment and metabolic pathway enrichment analyses. One gene involved in the synoptic vesicle cycle and two genes coding for odorant binding proteins (OBP) are likely to have potential impacts on the response of fig wasps to the VOCs emitted by their host figs. This is the first transcriptome sequencing of a fig wasp in the presence of VOCs of its host figs using the next-generation sequencing technology. Our studies suggest that the expression of some genes in the olfactory neural system of the fig wasps is affected by the VOCs released from the figs. This suggests the presence of a dynamic molecular system of detection and hence response to host plant VOCs. As such our findings provide indications for further mechanistic studies on the fig-fig wasp interactions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.01.003
       
  • Soil conditions drive changes in a key leaf functional trait through
           environmental filtering and facilitative interactions
    • Authors: Rafael Molina-Venegas; Abelardo Aparicio; Sébastien Lavergne; Juan Arroyo
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 86
      Author(s): Rafael Molina-Venegas, Abelardo Aparicio, Sébastien Lavergne, Juan Arroyo
      Non-random patterns in the functional structure of communities are often interpreted as evidence for different forces governing their assemblage. However, community assembly processes may act antagonistically, countering each other's signatures on the functional structure of communities, which may lead to spurious inferences on the underlying mechanisms. To illustrate this issue, we assessed the joint effects of environmental filtering and facilitative interactions on a key leaf functional trait (i.e. specific leaf area, SLA) in Mediterranean dwarf-shrub communities, using a two-scale sampling approach. Specifically, we analyzed differences in community-weighted mean SLA values (CWM-SLA) between communities (community-scale) and between guilds within communities (guild-scale, i.e. individuals sampled in understorey, overstorey and open-ground conditions) across contrasted soil environments and elevational gradients. We found that communities on harsh edaphic conditions (i.e. dolomite habitats) showed significantly lower CWM-SLA values than communities on more fertile habitats. In contrast, elevation was a poor predictor of differences in CWM-SLA between the communities. This suggests that environmental filtering may influence leaf trait variation along soil gradients irrespective of elevation. On the other hand, communities on dolomite habitats showed strong differences in CWM-SLA between understorey (higher CWM-SLA) and either open-ground and overstorey guilds (lower CWM-SLA), whereas communities on more fertile soils showed no differences between the guilds. The strong differences in CWM-SLA between understorey and non-understorey guilds in dolomite communities suggest that facilitative interactions may be particularly at stake under stressful edaphic conditions, thus partially mitigating the effect of environmental filtering (i.e. low SLA values) on communities growing in harsh soils.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:19:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2017)
       
  • Herbivory alters plant carbon assimilation, patterns of biomass allocation
           and nitrogen use efficiency
    • Authors: María Laura Peschiutta; Fabián Gustavo Scholz; Guillermo Goldstein; Sandra Janet Bucci
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 86
      Author(s): María Laura Peschiutta, Fabián Gustavo Scholz, Guillermo Goldstein, Sandra Janet Bucci
      Herbivory can trigger physiological processes resulting in leaf and whole plant functional changes. The effects of chronic infestation by an insect on leaf traits related to carbon and nitrogen economy in three Prunus avium cultivars were assessed. Leaves from non-infested trees (control) and damaged leaves from infested trees were selected. The insect larvae produce skeletonization of the leaves leaving relatively intact the vein network of the eaten leaves and the abaxial epidermal tissue. At the leaf level, nitrogen content per mass (N mass) and per area (N area), net photosynthesis per mass (A mass) and per area (A area), photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE), leaf mass per area (LMA) and total leaf phenols content were measured in the three cultivars. All cultivars responded to herbivory in a similar fashion. The N mass, A mass, and PNUE decreased, while LMA and total content of phenols increased in partially damaged leaves. Increases in herbivore pressure resulted in lower leaf size and total leaf area per plant across cultivars. Despite this, stem cumulative growth tended to increase in infected plants suggesting a change in the patterns of biomass allocation and in resources sequestration elicited by herbivory. A larger N investment in defenses instead of photosynthetic structures may explain the lower PNUE and A mass observed in damaged leaves. Some physiological changes due to herbivory partially compensate for the cost of leaf removal buffering the carbon economy at the whole plant level.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:19:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2017)
       
  • Predation risk of artificial ground nests in managed floodplain meadows
    • Authors: Susanne Arbeiter; Elisabeth Franke
      Pages: 17 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 86
      Author(s): Susanne Arbeiter, Elisabeth Franke
      Nest predation highly determines the reproductive success in birds. In agricultural grasslands, vegetation characteristics and management practices influences the predation risk of ground breeders. Little is known so far on the predation pressure on non-passerine nests in tall swards. Investigations on the interaction of land use with nesting site conditions and the habitat selection of nest predators are crucial to develop effective conservation measures for grassland birds. In this study, we used artificial nests baited with quail and plasticine eggs to identify potential predators of ground nests in floodplain meadows and related predation risk to vegetation structure and grassland management. Mean daily predation rate was 0.01 (±0.012) after an exposure duration of 21 days. 70% of all observed nest predations were caused by mammals (Red Fox and mustelids) and 17.5% by avian predators (corvids). Nest sites close to the meadow edge and those providing low forb cover were faced with a higher daily predation risk. Predation risk also increased later in the season. Land use in the preceding year had a significant effect on predation risk, showing higher predation rates on unmanaged sites than on mown sites. Unused meadows probably attract mammalian predators, because they provide a high abundance of small rodents and a more favourable vegetation structure for foraging, increasing also the risk of incidental nest predations. Although mowing operation is a major threat to ground-nesting birds, our results suggest that an annual removal of vegetation may reduce predation risk in the subsequent year.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:19:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2017)
       
  • Analysis of spatial patterns informs community assembly and sampling
           requirements for Collembola in forest soils
    • Authors: Tara Dirilgen; Edite Juceviča; Viesturs Melecis; Pascal Querner; Thomas Bolger
      Pages: 23 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 86
      Author(s): Tara Dirilgen, Edite Juceviča, Viesturs Melecis, Pascal Querner, Thomas Bolger
      The relative importance of niche separation, non-equilibrial and neutral models of community assembly has been a theme in community ecology for many decades with none appearing to be applicable under all circumstances. In this study, Collembola species abundances were recorded over eleven consecutive years in a spatially explicit grid and used to examine (i) whether observed beta diversity differed from that expected under conditions of neutrality, (ii) whether sampling points differed in their relative contributions to overall beta diversity, and (iii) the number of samples required to provide comparable estimates of species richness across three forest sites. Neutrality could not be rejected for 26 of the forest by year combinations. However, there is a trend toward greater structure in the oldest forest, where beta diversity was greater than predicted by neutrality on five of the eleven sampling dates. The lack of difference in individual- and sample-based rarefaction curves also suggests randomness in the system at this particular scale of investigation. It seems that Collembola communities are not spatially aggregated and assembly is driven primarily by neutral processes particularly in the younger two sites. Whether this finding is due to small sample size or unaccounted for environmental variables cannot be determined. Variability between dates and sites illustrates the potential of drawing incorrect conclusions if data are collected at a single site and a single point in time.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:19:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2017)
       
  • Genetic diversity of dispersed seeds is highly variable among leks of the
           long-wattled umbrellabird
    • Authors: Kym Ottewell; Luke Browne; Domingo Cabrera; Jorge Olivo; Jordan Karubian
      Pages: 31 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 86
      Author(s): Kym Ottewell, Luke Browne, Domingo Cabrera, Jorge Olivo, Jordan Karubian
      Frugivorous animals frequently generate clumped distributions of seeds away from source trees, but genetic consequences of this phenomenon remain poorly resolved. Seed dispersal of the palm Oenocarpus bataua by long-wattled umbrellabirds Cephalopterus penduliger generates high seed densities in leks (i.e., multi-male display sites), providing a suitable venue to investigate how dispersal by this frugivore may influence seed source diversity and genetic structure at local and landscape levels. We found moderate levels of maternal seed source diversity in primary seed rain across five leks in northwest Ecuador (unweighted mean alpha diversity α = 9.52, weighted mean αr = 3.52), with considerable variation among leks (αr range: 1.81–24.55). Qualitatively similar findings were obtained for allelic diversity and heterozygosity. Higher densities of O. bataua adults around leks were associated with higher values of αr and heterozygosity (non-significant trends) and allelic diversity (significant correlation). Seed source overlap between different leks was not common but did occur at low frequency, providing evidence for long-distance seed dispersal by umbrellabirds into leks. Our findings are consistent with the idea that seed pool diversity within leks may be shaped by the interaction between density of local trees, which can vary considerably between leks, and umbrellabird foraging ecology, particularly a lack of territorial defense of fruiting trees. Taken as a whole, this work adds to our growing appreciation of the ways resource distribution and associated frugivore foraging behaviors mechanistically shape seed dispersal outcomes and the distribution of plant genotypes across the landscape.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:19:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2017)
       
  • Intra-specific downsizing of frugivores affects seed germination of
           fleshy-fruited plant species
    • Authors: Néstor Pérez-Méndez; Airam Rodríguez; Manuel Nogales
      Pages: 38 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 86
      Author(s): Néstor Pérez-Méndez, Airam Rodríguez, Manuel Nogales
      The loss of largest-bodied individuals within species of frugivorous animals is one of the major consequences of defaunation. The gradual disappearance of large-bodied frugivores is expected to entail a parallel deterioration in seed dispersal functionality if the remaining smaller-sized individuals are not so effective as seed dispersers. While the multiple impacts of the extinction of large bodied species have been relatively well studied, the impact of intraspecific downsizing (i.e. the extinction of large individuals within species) on seed dispersal has rarely been evaluated. Here we experimentally assessed the impact of body-size reduction in the frugivorous lizard Gallotia galloti (Lacertidae), an endemic species of the Canary Islands, on the seed germination patterns of two fleshy-fruited plant species (Rubia fruticosa and Withania aristata). Seed germination curves and the proportions of germinated seeds were compared for both plant species after being defecated by large-sized individuals and small-sized individuals. The data show that seeds of W. aristata defecated by larger-sized lizards germinated faster and in a higher percentage than those defecated by small-sized lizards, while no differences were found for R. fruticosa seeds. Our results suggest that disappearance of the largest individuals of frugivorous species may impair recruitment of some plant species by worsening seed germination. They also warn us of a potential cryptic loss of seed dispersal functionality on defaunated ecosystems, even when frugivorous species remain abundant.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:19:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.11.017
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2017)
       
  • Rangewide determinants of population performance in Prunus lusitanica:
           Lessons for the contemporary conservation of a Tertiary relict tree
    • Authors: Adara Pardo; Yonatan Cáceres; Fernando Pulido
      Pages: 42 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 86
      Author(s): Adara Pardo, Yonatan Cáceres, Fernando Pulido
      Relict species are an extremely important part of biodiversity and as such studies on the factors that allow their current persistence are required. The aim of this study was to assess the determinants of the distribution and range-wide population performance of the Tertiary relict tree Prunus lusitanica L. This threatened species is confined to Iberia, Northern Morocco and Macaronesia with a fragmented and scattered distribution. Using ecological niche modelling, we calculated the level of range filling across the range and tested its relationship with human impact. We then assessed the relative importance of climatic suitability as obtained through niche modelling, topographic factors and contemporary human impact on range-wide population performance. Results showed that the species occupies only 2.4% of the overall area predicted to be climatically suitable for its presence and the level of range filling varied across regions. A weak negative relationship among range filling and human impact was found. Overall climatic suitability was the strongest predictor of population performance. However, it showed high variability across regions: the effect was positive in Iberia whereas negative but not significant in Macaronesia and Morocco. Human impact showed a significant negative effect and finally topographic factors such as altitude had a minor negative effect. Our results highlight that both climate and human impact play a major role in the current limited range filling and performance of the species. Management plans to minimize anthropogenic disturbances together with reforestation measures are urgently needed in order to conserve this unique species.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:19:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2017)
       
  • Trade-off between light availability and soil fertility determine refugial
           conditions for the relict light-demanding species in lowland forests
    • Authors: Marcin Kiedrzyński; Józef Krzysztof Kurowski; Edyta Kiedrzyńska
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Marcin Kiedrzyński, Józef Krzysztof Kurowski, Edyta Kiedrzyńska
      Identifying potential refugial habitats in the face of rapid environmental change is a challenge faced by scientists and nature conservation managers. Relict populations and refugial habitats are the model objects in those studies. Based on the example of Actaea europaea from Central Poland, we analyse the habitat factors influencing relict populations of continental, light-demanding species in lowland forests and examine which habitats of studied species corresponding most closely to ancient vegetation. Our results indicate that the current refugial habitats of Actaea europaea include not only communities which are very similar to ancient open forest but also forests with a closed canopy. Although the populations are influenced by nitrogen and light availability, the co-occurrence of these two factors in forest communities is limited by dense canopy formation by hornbeam and beech trees on fertile soils and in more humid conditions. Our findings indicate that the future survival of relict, light-demanding communities in lowland forests requires low-intensity disturbances to be performed in tree-stands, according to techniques, which imitate traditional forests management.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T15:20:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Temporal variation in bat-fruit interactions: Foraging strategies
           influence network structure over time
    • Authors: Natalya Zapata-Mesa; Sebastián Montoya-Bustamante; Oscar E. Murillo-García
      Pages: 9 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Natalya Zapata-Mesa, Sebastián Montoya-Bustamante, Oscar E. Murillo-García
      Mutualistic interactions, such as seed dispersal, are important for the maintenance of structure and stability of tropical communities. However, there is a lack of information about spatial and temporal variation in plant-animal interaction networks. Thus, our goal was to assess the effect of bat's foraging strategies on temporal variation in the structure and robustness of bat-fruit networks in both a dry and a rain tropical forest. We evaluated monthly variation in bat-fruit networks by using seven structure metrics: network size, average path length, nestedness, modularity, complementary specialization, normalized degree and betweenness centrality. Seed dispersal networks showed variations in size, species composition and modularity; did not present nested structures and their complementary specialization was high compared to other studies. Both networks presented short path lengths, and a constantly high robustness, despite their monthly variations. Sedentary bat species were recorded during all the study periods and occupied more central positions than nomadic species. We conclude that foraging strategies are important structuring factors that affect the dynamic of networks by determining the functional roles of frugivorous bats over time; thus sedentary bats are more important than nomadic species for the maintenance of the network structure, and their conservation is a must.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T15:20:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Light as a regulator of structural and chemical leaf defenses against
           insects in two Prunus species
    • Authors: Ewa Mąderek; Marcin Zadworny; Joanna Mucha; Piotr Karolewski
      Pages: 18 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Ewa Mąderek, Marcin Zadworny, Joanna Mucha, Piotr Karolewski
      Light is a key factor influencing competition between species, and the mechanisms by which trees overcome insect outbreaks can be associated with alternation of the leaves structure, which then prevent or promotes their susceptibility to herbivores. It was predicted that leaf tissue anatomy would likely be different in sun and shade leaves, with a gradual decline of leaves resistance coupled with reduction of accessible light. We quantified anatomical patterns and the distribution of defence compounds (phenols, total tannins, catechol tannins) within heavily grazed leaves of Prunus padus, native in Europe and Prunus serotina, an invasive to Central Europe. Both species were strongly attacked by folivorous insects when shrubs grew in the shade. In the sun, however only P. padus leaves were grazed, but P. serotina leaves were almost unaffected. We identified that anatomical characteristics are not linked to different P. padus and P. serotina leaf vulnerability to insects. Furthermore, the staining of defence compounds of P. serotina leaves grown in full sun revealed that the palisade mesophyll cells had a higher content of phenolic compounds and catechol tannins. Thus, our results indicate that a specific distribution of defence compounds, but not the anatomical relationships between palisade and spongy mesophyll, may be beneficial for P. serotina growth outside its natural range. The identified pattern of defence compounds distribution is linked to a lower susceptibility of P. serotina leaves to herbivores, and is associated with its invasiveness. This likely reflects that P. serotina is a stronger competitor than P. padus, especially at high sunlit sites i.e. gaps in the forest.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:57:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Physiological plasticity of epiphytic orchids from two contrasting
           tropical dry forests
    • Authors: Edilia de la Rosa-Manzano; José Luis Andrade; Gerhard Zotz; Casandra Reyes-García
      Pages: 25 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Edilia de la Rosa-Manzano, José Luis Andrade, Gerhard Zotz, Casandra Reyes-García
      An enormous variation in light, both temporally and spatially, exists in tropical forests, which represents a potential driver for plant physiological plasticity. The physiological plasticity of epiphytic orchids from two tropical dry forests in response to different light environments was experimentally investigated. Plants of five species were growing in a shade-house under three different light regimes (photosynthetic photon flux density; PPFD of 20, 50 and 70% of total daily incident radiation) under watered and drought conditions. Orchids with similar leaf morphology but from different forests responded differently to the same light environment. Linear leaves of Encyclia nematocaulon avoided drought stress through stomata control and had a notable increase of photosynthesis, lower osmotic potential, and high photosynthetic efficiency under 50% daily PPFD during both drought and watered periods. In contrast, orchids with cylindrical and oval leaves had a marked decrease of these physiological parameters under 50 and 70% of PPFD during the drought period, but then recovered after rewatering. Oval leaves of Lophiaris oerstedii were more sensitive to high light and water availability because they had a strong decrease of their physiological parameters at 70% of PPFD, even during the rewatering period. Contrary to our predictions, E. nematocaulon had low plasticity and Laelia rubescens, from the deciduous forest, was the most able to acclimate. In general, orchids from the drier forest had higher plasticity than those from the more humid forest, which might help them to tolerate the higher fluctuations of light and water availability that occur there.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:57:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Spatial pattern of Baccharis platypoda shrub as determined by sex and life
           stages
    • Authors: Darliana da Costa Fonseca; Marcio Leles Romarco de Oliveira; Israel Marinho Pereira; Anne Priscila Dias Gonzaga; Cristiane Coelho de Moura; Evandro Luiz Mendonça Machado
      Pages: 33 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Darliana da Costa Fonseca, Marcio Leles Romarco de Oliveira, Israel Marinho Pereira, Anne Priscila Dias Gonzaga, Cristiane Coelho de Moura, Evandro Luiz Mendonça Machado
      Spatial patterns of dioecious species can be determined by their nutritional requirements and intraspecific competition, apart from being a response to environmental heterogeneity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spatial pattern of populations of a dioecious shrub reporting to sex and reproductive stage patterns of individuals. Sampling was carried out in three areas located in the meridional portion of Serra do Espinhaço, where in individuals of the studied species were mapped. The spatial pattern was determined through O-ring analysis and Ripley's K-function and the distribution of individuals' frequencies was verified through x 2 test. Populations in two areas showed an aggregate spatial pattern tending towards random or uniform according to the observed scale. Male and female adults presented an aggregate pattern at smaller scales, while random and uniform patterns were verified above 20 m for individuals of both sexes of the areas A2 and A3. Young individuals presented an aggregate pattern in all areas and spatial independence in relation to adult individuals, especially female plants. The interactions between individuals of both genders presented spatial independence with respect to spatial distribution. Baccharis platypoda showed characteristics in accordance with the spatial distribution of savannic and dioecious species, whereas the population was aggregated tending towards random at greater spatial scales. Young individuals showed an aggregated pattern at different scales compared to adults, without positive association between them. Female and male adult individuals presented similar characteristics, confirming that adult individuals at greater scales are randomly distributed despite their distinct preferences for environments with moisture variation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:57:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Effects of grassland degradation and precipitation on carbon storage
           
    • Authors: Xiaobing Li; Yunxiao Bai; Wanyu Wen; Hong Wang; Ruihua Li; Guoqing Li; Han Wang
      Pages: 44 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Xiaobing Li, Yunxiao Bai, Wanyu Wen, Hong Wang, Ruihua Li, Guoqing Li, Han Wang
      Environmental degradation influences carbon (C) cycling and storage in grassland ecosystems by altering vegetation productivity. However, the impacts of different degradation intensities on vegetation–soil C distributions in grasslands have not been well documented. We measured C storage in soil, roots, and plants under light, moderate, and severe degradation levels in a typical steppe region of Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China in 2011 and 2012. Grassland C storage was highest in soil, followed by roots, and then aboveground plant biomass. Grassland degradation and precipitation significantly influenced C storage distributions. During the dry year (2011), total C storage in vegetation and soil was highest under light degradation. Carbon storage in aboveground plant biomass and roots increased with degradation intensity. During the wet year (2012), C storage was highest in aboveground plant biomass and roots under light degradation. Root biomass tended to be concentrated in the soil surface during the wet year.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:57:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Population demography of alpine butterflies: Boloria pales and Boloria
           napaea (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and their specific adaptations to high
           mountain environments
    • Authors: Stefan Ehl; Marlene Ebertshäuser; Patrick Gros; Thomas Schmitt
      Pages: 53 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Stefan Ehl, Marlene Ebertshäuser, Patrick Gros, Thomas Schmitt
      High mountain ecosystems are extreme habitats, and adaptation strategies to this ecosystem are still poorly understood in most groups. To unravel such strategies, we performed a MRR study in the Hohe Tauern National Park (Salzburg, Austria) with two nymphalid butterfly species, Boloria pales and B. napaea. We analysed their population structure over one flight period by studying the development of population size and wing wear. B. pales had more individuals and a higher survival probability than B. napaea; the sensitivity to extreme weather conditions or other external influences was higher in B. napaea. We only observed proterandry in B. pales. Imagines of both species survived under snow for at least some days. Additionally, we observed a kind of risk-spreading, in that individuals of both species, and especially B. pales, have regularly emerged throughout the flight period. This emergence pattern divided the population's age structure into three phases: an initial phase with decreasing wing quality (emergence > mortality), followed by an equilibrium phase with mostly constant average wing condition (emergence = mortality) and a final ageing phase with strongly deteriorating wing condition (mortality » emergence). Consequently, neither species would likely become extinct because of particularly unsuitable weather conditions during a single flight period. The observed differences between the two species suggest a better regional adaptation of B. pales, which is restricted to high mountain systems of Europe. In contrast, the arctic-alpine B. napaea might be best adapted to conditions in the Arctic and not the more southern high mountain systems. However, this needs to be examined during future research in the Arctic.

      PubDate: 2017-09-24T01:57:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Identification of the key ecological factors influencing vegetation
           
    • Authors: Yu Peng; Qinghui Wang; Min Fan
      Pages: 62 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Yu Peng, Qinghui Wang, Min Fan
      When assessing re-vegetation project performance and optimizing land management, identification of the key ecological factors inducing vegetation degradation has crucial implications. Rainfall, temperature, elevation, slope, aspect, land use type, and human disturbance are ecological factors affecting the status of vegetation index. However, at different spatial scales, the key factors may vary. Using Helin County, Inner-Mongolia, China as the study site and combining remote sensing image interpretation, field surveying, and mathematical methods, this study assesses key ecological factors affecting vegetation degradation under different spatial scales in a semi-arid agro-pastoral ecotone. It indicates that the key factors are different at various spatial scales. Elevation, rainfall, and temperature are identified as crucial for all spatial extents. Elevation, rainfall and human disturbance are key factors for small-scale quadrats of 300 m × 300 m and 600 m × 600 m, temperature and land use type are key factors for a medium-scale quadrat of 1 km × 1 km, and rainfall, temperature, and land use are key factors for large-scale quadrats of 2 km × 2 km and 5 km × 5 km. For this region, human disturbance is not the key factor for vegetation degradation across spatial scales. It is necessary to consider spatial scale for the identification of key factors determining vegetation characteristics. The eco-restoration programs at various spatial scales should identify key influencing factors according their scales so as to take effective measurements. The new understanding obtained in this study may help to explore the forces which driving vegetation degradation in the degraded regions in the world.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T02:34:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Frugivorous birds influence the spatial organization of tropical forests
           
    • Authors: Franck Trolliet; Pierre-Michel Forget; Jean-Louis Doucet; Jean-François Gillet; Alain Hambuckers
      Pages: 69 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Franck Trolliet, Pierre-Michel Forget, Jean-Louis Doucet, Jean-François Gillet, Alain Hambuckers
      Animal-mediated seed dispersal is recognized to influence the spatial organization of plant communities but little is known about how frugivores cause such patterns. Here, we explored the role of hornbills and primates in generating recruitment foci under two zoochoric trees, namely Staudtia kamerunensis (Myristicaceae) and Dialium spp. (Fabaceae - Caesalpiniodea) in a forest-savanna mosaic landscape in D.R. Congo. We also examined the influence of the availability of fruits in the neighborhood and the amount of forest cover in the landscape on such clumping patterns. The density and species richness of hornbill-dispersed and the density of primate-dispersed seedlings were significantly higher under Staudtia kamerunensis trees than at control locations. However, we did not find such patterns under Dialium spp. trees compared to control locations except for the density of hornbill-dispersed seedlings which was lower at control locations. Also, we found that an increasing amount of forest cover in the landscape was associated with an increase in the density of hornbill-dispersed seedlings, although the tendency was weak (R2 = 0.065). We concluded that S. kamerunensis acts as a recruitment foci and plays a structuring role in Afrotropical forests. Hornbills were probably the main frugivore taxon responsible for the clumping under that tree and appear as a key ecological component in fragmented and disturbed landscapes where the diversity of large frugivores such as primates is reduced. Our findings improve our understanding of the causal mechanisms responsible for the spatial organization of tropical forests.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T02:34:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Trunk structural traits explain habitat use of a tree-dwelling spider
           (Selenopidae) in a tropical forest
    • Authors: German Antonio Villanueva-Bonilla; Adriana Trevizoli Salomão; João Vasconcellos-Neto
      Pages: 108 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): German Antonio Villanueva-Bonilla, Adriana Trevizoli Salomão, João Vasconcellos-Neto
      Habitat selection by spiders may be strongly influenced by biotic, climatic, and physical factors. However, it has been shown that the selection of habitats by generalist predators (like spiders) is regulated more by the physical structure of the habitat than by prey availability. Yet, the preferences of spiders in relation to plants or plant traits remain poorly explored. In a remnant of the Atlantic forest in Brazil, the spider Selenops cocheleti is frequently detected on the trunks of plants from the Myrtaceae family. Here, we investigated quantitatively and experimentally whether the colonization of trees by S. cocheleti is related to plant species or the presence of specific structures on trunks. We found that S. cocheleti preferentially occurred on plants of the family Myrtaceae. This spider was also strongly associated with trees that have smooth trunks and/or exfoliating bark. Non-Myrtaceae plants that were occupied by this species have exfoliating bark (e.g., Piptadenia gonoacantha) or deep fissures on the trunk (e.g., the exotic species Pinus elliottii). Our results indicate that the selection of host plants by S. cocheleti is not species-specific, but based on the structural characteristics of plants. Trunks with exfoliating bark may benefit spiders by providing shelter against predators and harsh climatic conditions. Smooth surfaces might allow rapid movements, facilitating both attacks on preys and escape from predators. Our study emphasizes the importance of the physical structure of the habitat on spider's distribution. Future studies investigating how specific plant characteristics influence prey acquisition and predator avoidance would improve our understanding of habitat selection by these animals.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T01:03:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Thermodynamics, ecology and evolutionary biology: A bridge over troubled
           water or common ground'
    • Authors: Keith R. Skene
      Pages: 116 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Keith R. Skene
      This paper addresses a key issue confronting ecological and evolutionary biology, namely the challenge of a cohesive approach to these fields given significant differences in the concepts and foundations of their study. Yet these two areas of scientific research are paramount in terms addressing the spatial and temporal dynamics and distribution of diversity, an understanding of which is needed if we are to resolve the current crisis facing the biosphere. The importance of understanding how nature responds to change is now of essential rather than of metaphysical interest as our planet struggles with increasing anthropogenic damage. Ecology and evolutionary biology can no longer remain disjointed. While some progress has been made in terms of synthetic thinking across these areas, this has often been in terms of bridge building, where thinking in one aspect is extended over to the other side. We review these bridges and the success or otherwise of such efforts. This paper then suggests that in order to move from a descriptive to a mechanistic understanding of the biosphere, we may need to re-evaluate our approach to the studies of ecology and evolutionary biology, finding a common denominator that will enable us to address the critical issues facing us, particularly in terms of understanding what drives change, what determines tempo and how communities function. Common ground, we argue, is essential if we are to comprehend how resilience operates in the natural world and how diversification can counter increasing extinction rates. This paper suggests that thermodynamics may provide a bridge between ecology and evolutionary biology, and that this will enable us to move forward with otherwise intractable problems.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T03:44:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • How do patch quality and spatial context affect invertebrate communities
           in a natural moss microlandscape'
    • Authors: Hendrik Trekels; Mario Driesen; Bram Vanschoenwinkel
      Pages: 126 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Hendrik Trekels, Mario Driesen, Bram Vanschoenwinkel
      Globally, moss associated invertebrates remain poorly studied and it is largely unknown to what extent their diversity is driven by local environmental conditions or the landscape context. Here, we investigated small scale drivers of invertebrate communities in a moss landscape in a temperate forest in Western Europe. By comparing replicate quadrats of 5 different moss species in a continuous moss landscape, we found that mosses differed in invertebrate density and community composition. Although, in general, richness was similar among moss species, some invertebrate taxa were significantly linked to certain moss species. Only moss biomass and not relative moisture content could explain differences in invertebrate densities among moss species. Second, we focused on invertebrate communities associated with the locally common moss species Kindbergia praelonga in isolated moss patches on dead tree trunks to look at effects of patch size, quality, heterogeneity and connectivity on invertebrate communities. Invertebrate richness was higher in patches under closed canopies than under more open canopies, presumably due to the higher input of leaf litter and/or lower evaporation. In addition, increased numbers of other moss species in the same patch seemed to promote invertebrate richness in K. praelonga, possibly due to mass effects. Since invertebrate richness was unaffected by patch size and isolation, dispersal was probably not limiting in this system with patches separated by tens of meters, or stochastic extinctions may be uncommon. Overall, we conclude that invertebrate composition in moss patches may not only depend on local patch conditions, in a particular moss species, but also on the presence of other moss species in the direct vicinity.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T03:44:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Refuse dumps from leaf-cutting ant nests reduce the intensity of
           above-ground competition among neighboring plants in a Patagonian steppe
    • Authors: Alejandro G. Farji-Brener; María Natalia Lescano
      Pages: 136 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Alejandro G. Farji-Brener, María Natalia Lescano
      In arid environments, the high availability of sunlight due to the scarcity of trees suggests that plant competition take place mainly belowground for water and nutrients. However, the occurrence of soil disturbances that increase nutrient availability and thereby promote plant growth may enhance shoot competition between neighboring plants. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to evaluate the influence of the enriched soil patches generated by the leaf-cutting ant, Acromyrmex lobicornis, on the performance of the alien forb Carduus thoermeri (Asteraceae) under different intraspecific competition scenarios. Our results showed that substrate type and competition scenario affected mainly aboveground plant growth. As expected, plants growing without neighbors and in nutrient-rich ant refuse dumps showed more aboveground biomass than plants growing with neighbors and in nutrient-poor steppe soils. However, aboveground competition was more intense in nutrient-poor substrates: plants under shoot and full competition growing in the nutrient-rich ant refuse dumps showed higher biomass than those growing on steppe soils. Belowground biomass was similar among focal plants growing under different substrate type. Our results support the traditional view that increments in resource availability reduce competition intensity. Moreover, the fact that seedlings in this sunny habitat mainly compete aboveground illustrates how limiting factors may be scale-dependent and change in importance as plants grow.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T03:44:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Modeling impacts of human footprint and soil variability on the potential
           distribution of invasive plant species in different biomes
    • Authors: Ji-Zhong Wan; Chun-Jing Wang; Fei-Hai Yu
      Pages: 141 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Ji-Zhong Wan, Chun-Jing Wang, Fei-Hai Yu
      Human footprint and soil variability may be important in shaping the spread of invasive plant species (IPS). However, until now, there is little knowledge on how human footprint and soil variability affect the potential distribution of IPS in different biomes. We used Maxent modeling to project the potential distribution of 29 IPS with wide distributions and long introduction histories in China based on various combinations of climatic correlates, soil characteristics and human footprint. Then, we evaluated the relative importance of each type of environmental variables (climate, soil and human footprint) as well as the difference in range and similarity of the potential distribution of IPS between different biomes. Human footprint and soil variables contributed to the prediction of the potential distribution of IPS, and different types of biomes had varying responses and degrees of impacts from the tested variables. Human footprint and soil variability had the highest tendency to increase the potential distribution of IPS in Montane Grasslands and Shrublands. We propose to integrate the assessment in impacts of human footprint and soil variability on the potential distribution of IPS in different biomes into the prevention and control of plant invasion.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T03:44:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2017)
       
  • Modelling the spatial baseline for amphibian conservation in West Africa
    • Authors: Johannes Penner; Moritz Augustin; Mark-Oliver Rödel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Johannes Penner, Moritz Augustin, Mark-Oliver Rödel
      To answer questions such as whether the existing network of protected areas is sufficient, conservation needs data covering complete taxonomic groups and large geographic areas. However, most distributional data sets are either coarse, patchy and/or based solely on expert opinion which is often hard to verify. In addition, not all regions are equally well studied. For example sub-Saharan Africa remains comparatively under-sampled for most taxa, especially Central and Western Africa. However, these regions contain many threatened species, including a high diversity of highly threatened vertebrates - amphibians. To fill this knowledge gap, we extrapolated species occurrence records (n = 15,944) on a 30 arc-seconds grid for most known West African amphibian taxa (92%), using environmental niche modelling and employing relevant environmental parameters (climate, vegetation, elevation & distance to rivers). We provide, for the first time, a fine scale distribution map of amphibian alpha diversity for the entire West African region. Already known centres of high biodiversity were confirmed (e.g. south-western Ghana and south-eastern Côte d’Ivoire) and new ones were identified (e.g. northern Liberia and the borders of Liberia with Guinea and Sierra Leone). Diversity analyses focusing on unique amphibians, i.e. threatened, endemic and evolutionary distinct species', revealed that areas of high diversity also contained many high conservation-priority species. Herewith, we offer a comprehensive baseline for identifying those areas which are important for amphibian conservation for one of the most periled regions on the continent. Those areas of high diversity were only partly in accordance with previous analyses such as the hotspot definitions, the ecoregion analyses, or analyses of other taxa, highlighting the added new value of our approach. The most outstanding areas of amphibian diversity were only partly covered by the existing network of protected areas. Thus there is an urgent need to devise a regional conservation concept to protect West African amphibians from extinction.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:19:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.11.018
       
  • Geographic variation of fruit scents in a dispersion mutualism, the case
           of Ficus lutea
    • Authors: Catherine C.L. Soler; Bertrand Schatz; Jean-Marie Bessière; Martine Hossaert-McKey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Catherine C.L. Soler, Bertrand Schatz, Jean-Marie Bessière, Martine Hossaert-McKey
      Chemical mediation is often involved in interactions between plants and animals, as in pollination and in seed dispersion mutualisms. Extensive investigation has been done in floral scents and on their interspecific and intraspecific variations, but similar research on fruit scent remains poorly explored and only focused on interspecific variations. We investigated in this study the intraspecific variations of volatile bouquet emitted by mature fruits of Ficus lutea, in two sites within its wide distribution range, i.e. in South Africa and in Madagascar. We demonstrated a clear geographic variation in the volatile bouquet emitted by ripe figs in these two study sites, especially due to the presence of sesquiterpenes in Madagascan bouquets, while scents present at both sites high amounts of fatty acid derivatives. We discuss here different possible explanations for such variations in fruit scents, potentially resulting from insular and/or geographic isolation. This novel result of an intraspecific variation linked to fig seed dispersion serves to increase our knowledge of the role of scents in seed dispersal mutualisms.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:19:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.11.014
       
  • Keep it simple' Dispersal abilities can explain why species range
           sizes differ, the case study of West African amphibians
    • Authors: Johannes Penner; Mark-Oliver Rödel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Johannes Penner, Mark-Oliver Rödel
      A well-known positive correlation between niche breadth and range size exists across a number of animal and plant taxa. A relatively more simple explanation, range size being connected to differing dispersal abilities, was recently presented for passerine birds. Unfortunately, respective datasets are not easily available for other taxonomic groups. We circumvented this problem by developing a simple dispersal index, incorporating niche information (body size, litter size, preferred habitats of adults and offspring, ecotype of adults) which can be collected straightforwardly for most animal taxa. We tested this dispersal index for species which are generally considered poor dispersers, amphibians. Our results from West Africa revealed a positive correlation between the dispersal index and range size (p < 0.001). Our index can easily be transferred to and tested with other taxa. Furthermore, our results suggest one possible way of integrating information on dispersal abilities in niche modelling (distribution modelling) processes which assess the impact of climate change on future species distributions.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:19:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.11.011
       
  • Spatial variation in pollinator gall failure within figs of the
           gynodioecious Ficus hirta
    • Authors: Hui Yu; Stephen G. Compton; Lanfen Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Hui Yu, Stephen G. Compton, Lanfen Wu
      Figs, the inflorescences of Ficus species (Moraceae), contain numerous uni-ovulate flowers. Male trees of gynodioecious Ficus have figs that support development of pollinator fig wasp offspring (Agaonidae) and rarely produce seeds. Pollinator larvae develop inside galled ovules that expand rapidly after eggs are laid to fill the available space. Galls that fail to support successful larval development can be abundant and failures may influence oviposition behavior and modify realized offspring sex ratios. We examined pollinator reproductive success in figs of the Asian Ficus hirta where we had allowed entry by either one or two foundresses and prevented attack by parasitoids. At the developmental stage when adult offspring were about to emerge from their galls, we recorded where in the figs their galls were located, the distributions of sons and daughters in the galls and whether galls that developed closest to the periphery of the figs were more likely to fail. Foundress number had an effect on gall location, but not total offspring numbers. No spatial variation in the distribution of male and female adult offspring was detected. Overall, over 25% of the galled ovaries failed to support offspring development, and failure rates were independent of foundress number. More peripheral galls were more likely to fail in figs entered by two foundresses. Gall location in gynodioecious figs is determined largely by the extent to which their basal pedicels expand after galling. Competition for nutrients between galls, with those developing shorter pedicels being at a disadvantage, may explain the results. If pedicel length is related to timing of oviposition, then pollinator eggs laid later are less likely to survive.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:19:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.11.009
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board Page/Cover image legend if applicable
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85


      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:19:11Z
       
  • Rush hour at the Museum – Diversification patterns provide new clues for
           the success of figs (Ficus L., Moraceae)
    • Authors: Sam Bruun-Lund; Brecht Verstraete; Finn Kjellberg; Nina Rønsted
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Sam Bruun-Lund, Brecht Verstraete, Finn Kjellberg, Nina Rønsted
      Tropical rainforests harbour much of the earth's plant diversity but little is still known about how it evolved and why a small number of plant genera account for the majority. Whether this success is due to rapid turnover or constant evolution for these hyper-diverse plant genera is here tested for the species-rich genus Ficus L. (figs). The pan-tropical distribution of figs makes it an ideal study group to investigate rainforest hyper-diversification patterns. Using a recently published, dated and comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis, we infer that figs are an old lineage that gradually accumulated species and exhibits very low extinction rates, which corresponds to the ‘museum model’ of evolution. Overall, no major significant shifts in evolutionary dynamics are detected, yet two shifts with lower probability are found. Hemi-epiphytism, monoecy, and active pollination are traits that possibly are associated with the hyper-diversity found in figs, making it possible for the plants to occupy new niches followed by extensive radiation over evolutionary time scales. Figs possess unique diversification patterns compared to other typical rainforest genera.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T04:59:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.11.001
       
  • Comparison of the antennal sensilla of females of four fig-wasps
           associated with Ficus auriculata
    • Authors: Pei Yang; Zong-bo Li; Da-rong Yang; Yan-qiong Peng; Finn Kjellberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Pei Yang, Zong-bo Li, Da-rong Yang, Yan-qiong Peng, Finn Kjellberg
      A comparison was performed of the antennal sensilla of females of four chalcid wasp species Ceratosolen emarginatus Mayr, 1906, Sycophaga sp., Philotrypesis longicaudata Mayr, 1906, and Sycoscapter roxburghi Joseph, 1957, which are specific and obligatory associated with Ficus auriculata (Lour, 1790). The four species exhibit different oviposition strategies in the fig ovules where their offspring hatch and develop. Antennal sensilla morphology was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Females of the four species present 11 morphologically similar types of sensilla: trichoid sensilla, sensilla obscura, chaetica sensilla 1 and 2, which all have mechanosensory functions; uniporous basiconic sensilla, which are presumably contact chemosensilla; basiconic capitate peg sensilla, coeloconic sensilla 1, multiporous basiconic and placoid sensilla, which may be regarded as olfactory sensilla, and coeloconic sensilla 2 and 3, which are presumed to be proprioreceptors or pressure receptors. The four species have significant differences in the abundance and arrangement of trichoid sensilla and chaetica sensilla 1 on the flagellum. The coeloconic sensilla and sensilla obscura only occur on the antennae of C. emarginatus that enter figs. The chemosensilla which are presumably involved in host discrimination, i.e., basiconic sensilla, multiporous placoid sensilla and basiconic capitate peg sensilla, are similar in shape and configuration, although they present some differences in abundance. These findings provide practical information on the adaptations of fig wasps and the relationship between multisensory antennae and functions in fig wasp behaviour.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T03:44:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.11.002
       
  • Ovipositor morphology correlates with life history evolution in agaonid
           fig wasps
    • Authors: Larissa Galante Elias; Finn Kjellberg; Fernando Henrique Antoniolli Farache; Eduardo A.B. Almeida; Jean-Yves Rasplus; Astrid Cruaud; Yan-Qiong Peng; Da-Rong Yang; Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo Pereira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Larissa Galante Elias, Finn Kjellberg, Fernando Henrique Antoniolli Farache, Eduardo A.B. Almeida, Jean-Yves Rasplus, Astrid Cruaud, Yan-Qiong Peng, Da-Rong Yang, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo Pereira
      The high adaptive success of parasitic Hymenoptera might be related to the use of different oviposition sites, allowing niche partitioning among co-occurring species resulting in life history specialization and diversification. In this scenario, evolutionary changes in life history and resources for oviposition can be associated with changes in ovipositor structure, allowing exploitation of different substrates for oviposition. We used a formal phylogenetic framework to investigate the evolution of ovipositor morphology and life history in agaonid wasps. We sampled 24 species with different life histories belonging to all main clades of Agaonidae including representatives of all described genera of non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW). Our results show an overall correlation between ovipositor morphology and life history in agaonid fig wasps. Ovipositor morphologies seem to be related to constraints imposed by features of the oviposition sites since ovipositor morphology has experienced convergent evolution at least four times in Sycophaginae (Agaonidae) according to the resource used. Non-galling species have more distantly spaced teeth with uneven spacing, as opposed to the observed morphology of galling species. Our results suggest that the ancestral condition for ovipositor morphology was most likely the presence of one or two apical teeth. Regarding life history, ovary galling species that oviposit in receptive figs possibly represent the ancestral condition. Different ovipositor characteristics allow exploitation of new niches and may be related to resource partitioning and species co-existence in the fig-fig wasp system.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T03:44:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.10.007
       
  • Relationships between soil parameters and vegetation in abandoned terrace
           fields vs. non-terraced fields in arid lands (Lanzarote, Spain): An
           opportunity for restoration
    • Authors: Silvia Alfredo; Reyes-Betancort Marisa Tejedor Francisco
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): José Ramón Arévalo, Silvia Fernández-Lugo, J. Alfredo Reyes-Betancort, Marisa Tejedor, Concepción Jiménez, Francisco J. Díaz
      Over 90% of terraced fields have been abandoned on the island of Lanzarote in the last 40 years. The present work analyses the effects of abandonment on the soil and vegetation recovery of terraced field agroecosystems by comparing them with adjacent non-terraced fields in Lanzarote, Canary Islands (Spain). This information is necessary to take the appropriate management actions to achieve goals such as soil protection and biodiversity conservation. Results indicate that terraced fields display better soil quality than non-terraced ones, as shown by the significant differences found in parameters such as SAR, exchangeable Na, CaCO3, B content, moisture content or soil depth. Moreover, the terraced fields' plant community has more species similarities with the native plant community when compared with non-terraced areas. Owing to characteristics such as deeper soils, more water capacity, lower salinity and less sodic soils, terraced soils provide better conditions for passive restoration of both soil and vegetation. Therefore, the recovery and maintenance of wall structures and revegetation with native/endemic species are proposed to promote the restoration of native systems and preserve a landscape with cultural and aesthetic value.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T03:34:48Z
       
  • Seed-deposition and recruitment patterns of Clusia species in a disturbed
           tropical montane forest in Bolivia
    • Authors: Francisco Saavedra; Isabell Hensen Amira Apaza Quevedo Eike Lena Neuschulz
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Francisco Saavedra, Isabell Hensen, Amira Apaza Quevedo, Eike Lena Neuschulz, Matthias Schleuning
      Spatial patterns of seed dispersal and recruitment of fleshy-fruited plants in tropical forests are supposed to be driven by the activity of animal seed dispersers, but the spatial patterns of seed dispersal, seedlings and saplings have rarely been analyzed simultaneously. We studied seed deposition and recruitment patterns of three Clusia species in a tropical montane forest of the Bolivian Andes and tested whether these patterns changed between habitat types (forest edge vs. forest interior), distance to the fruiting tree and consecutive recruitment stages of the seedlings. We recorded the number of seeds deposited in seed traps to assess the local seed-deposition pattern and the abundance and distribution of seedlings and saplings to evaluate the spatial pattern of recruitment. More seeds were removed and deposited at the forest edge than in the interior. The number of deposited seeds decreased with distance from the fruiting tree and was spatially clustered in both habitat types. The density of 1-yr-old seedlings and saplings was higher at forest edges, whereas the density of 2-yr-old seedlings was similar in both habitat types. While seedlings were almost randomly distributed, seeds and saplings were spatially clustered in both habitat types. Our findings demonstrate systematic changes in spatial patterns of recruits across the plant regeneration cycle and suggest that the differential effects of biotic and abiotic factors determine plant recruitment at the edges and in the interior of tropical montane forests. These differences in the spatial distribution of individuals across recruitment stages may have strong effects on plant community dynamics and influence plant species coexistence in disturbed tropical forests.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T03:34:48Z
       
  • Cone and seed traits of two Juniperus species influence roles of
           frugivores and scatter-hoarding rodents as seed dispersal agents
    • Authors: Lindsay Dimitri; William Longland Stephen Vander Wall
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 85
      Author(s): Lindsay A. Dimitri, William S. Longland, Stephen B. Vander Wall
      Seed dispersal in Juniperus is generally attributed to frugivores that consume the berry-like female cones. Some juniper cones are fleshy and resinous such as those of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis), while others are dry and leathery such as those of Utah juniper (J. osteosperma). Rodents have been recorded harvesting Juniperus seeds and cones but are mostly considered seed predators. Our study sought to determine if rodents play a role in dispersal of western and Utah juniper seeds. We documented rodent harvest of cones and seeds of the locally-occurring juniper species and the alternate (non-local) juniper species in removal experiments at a western juniper site in northeastern California and a Utah juniper site in western Nevada. Characteristics of western and Utah juniper cones appeared to influence removal, as cones from the local juniper species were preferred at both sites. Conversely, removal of local and non-local seeds was similar. Piñon mice (Peromyscus truei) were responsible for most removal of cones and seeds at both sites. We used radioactively labeled seeds to follow seed fate and found many of these seeds in scattered caches (western juniper: 415 seeds in 82 caches, 63.0% of seeds found; Utah juniper: 458 seeds in 127 caches, 39.5% of seeds found) most of which were attributed to piñon mice. We found little evidence of frugivores dispersing Utah juniper seeds, thus scatter-hoarding rodents appear to be the main dispersal agents. Western juniper cones were eaten by frugivores, and scatter-hoarding is a complimentary or secondary form of seed dispersal. Our results support the notion that Utah juniper has adapted to xeric environments by conserving water through the loss of fleshy fruits that attract frugivores and instead relies on scatter-hoarding rodents as effective dispersal agents.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T03:34:48Z
       
 
 
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