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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3163 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3163 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 88, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 394, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 243, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.732, CiteScore: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 385, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 337, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 437, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 201, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)

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Journal Cover
Acta Oecologica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.834
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 10  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1146-609X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • Sacred hills of Imerina and the voyage of Ficus lutea Vahl (Amontana) in
           Madagascar
    • Authors: Yildiz Aumeeruddy-Thomas; Verohanitra Miarivelomalala Rafidison; Finn Kjellberg; Martine Hossaert-McKey
      Pages: 18 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Yildiz Aumeeruddy-Thomas, Verohanitra Miarivelomalala Rafidison, Finn Kjellberg, Martine Hossaert-McKey
      Humans have favored the presence of Ficus species within anthropogenic landscapes and near human settlements throughout the planet due to a number of beliefs and for practical purposes. An intimate or mutualistic relationship between Ficus spp and human societies has been suggested but explanations about the motivations of these proximities between humans and Ficus remain very fragmentary. The case study presented in this paper, which was conducted in the sacred hills located in the surroundings of an urban area, Antananarivo, capital city of Madagascar, inhabited by the Merina, aims at finding some answers to the following two questions. To what extent are Ficus species integrated into the ecologies of human groups, understood here as interactions between humans (social, political and economic dimensions)' 2) Do humans introduce Ficus species into new habitats, potentially offering new ecological opportunities' This study builds on initial work conducted in Madagascar in the region of Fianarantsoa in Betsileo rural communities. Results shown in this paper suggest that: 1) the kings of Imerina, the region located in the north-eastern part of the High Plateau of Madagascar, have planted Ficus species abundantly, especially Ficus lutea Vahl and Ficus. polita Vahl, to claim ownership upon new territories of the Imerina and symbolically establish their political hegemony. Marriages with women from non-Merina cultural groups, such as the Sakalava inhabiting the Western Coast, and the use of Ficus species as symbols of power has contributed, with other activities, to the unification process of Madagascar; 2) The ecological distribution of F. lutea has been substantially manipulated by people from Imerina by planting this species quite abundantly in the sacred hills surrounding Antananarivo, an area where this species is at its ecological limit of distribution and also in faraway places such as the Western coast where the tree is not naturally distributed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T13:46:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 90 (2018)
       
  • Are species photosynthetic characteristics good predictors of seedling
           post-hurricane demographic patterns and species spatiotemporal
           distribution in a hurricane impacted wet montane forest'
    • Authors: Denneko Luke; Kurt McLaren
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 89
      Author(s): Denneko Luke, Kurt McLaren
      In situ measurements of leaf level photosynthetic response to light were collected from seedlings of ten tree species from a tropical montane wet forest, the John Crow Mountains, Jamaica. A model-based recursive partitioning ('mob') algorithm was then used to identify species associations based on their fitted photosynthetic response curves. Leaf area dark respiration (RD) and light saturated maximum photosynthetic (Amax) rates were also used as 'mob' partitioning variables, to identify species associations based on seedling demographic patterns (from June 2007 to May 2010) following a hurricane (Aug. 2007) and the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of stems in 2006 and 2012. RD and Amax rates ranged from 1.14 to 2.02 μmol (CO2) m−2s−1 and 2.97–5.87 μmol (CO2) m−2s−1, respectively, placing the ten species in the range of intermediate shade tolerance. Several parsimonious species 'mob' groups were formed based on 1) interspecific differences among species response curves, 2) variations in post-hurricane seedling demographic trends and 3) RD rates and species spatiotemporal distribution patterns at aspects that are more or less exposed to hurricanes. The composition of parsimonious groupings based on photosynthetic curves was not concordant with the groups based on demographic trends but was partially concordant with the RD - species spatiotemporal distribution groups. Our results indicated that the influence of photosynthetic characteristics on demographic traits and species distributions was not straightforward. Rather, there was a complex pattern of interaction between ecophysiological and demographic traits, which determined species successional status, post-hurricane response and ultimately, species distribution at our study site.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T17:27:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
       
  • Pollination and reproduction of an invasive plant inside and outside its
           ancestral range
    • Authors: Theodora Petanidou; Mary V. Price; Judith L. Bronstein; Aphrodite Kantsa; Thomas Tscheulin; Rupesh Kariyat; Nikos Krigas; Mark C. Mescher; Consuelo M. De Moraes; Nickolas M. Waser
      Pages: 11 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 89
      Author(s): Theodora Petanidou, Mary V. Price, Judith L. Bronstein, Aphrodite Kantsa, Thomas Tscheulin, Rupesh Kariyat, Nikos Krigas, Mark C. Mescher, Consuelo M. De Moraes, Nickolas M. Waser
      Comparing traits of invasive species within and beyond their ancestral range may improve our understanding of processes that promote aggressive spread. Solanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade) is a noxious weed in its ancestral range in North America and is invasive on other continents. We compared investment in flowers and ovules, pollination success, and fruit and seed set in populations from Arizona, USA (“AZ”) and Greece (“GR”). In both countries, the populations we sampled varied in size and types of present-day disturbance. Stature of plants increased with population size in AZ samples whereas GR plants were uniformly tall. Taller plants produced more flowers, and GR plants produced more flowers for a given stature and allocated more ovules per flower. Similar functional groups of native bees pollinated in AZ and GR populations, but visits to flowers decreased with population size and we observed no visits in the largest GR populations. As a result, plants in large GR populations were pollen-limited, and estimates of fecundity were lower on average in GR populations despite the larger allocation to flowers and ovules. These differences between plants in our AZ and GR populations suggest promising directions for further study. It would be useful to sample S. elaeagnifolium in Mediterranean climates within the ancestral range (e.g., in California, USA), to study asexual spread via rhizomes, and to use common gardens and genetic studies to explore the basis of variation in allocation patterns and of relationships between visitation and fruit set.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T17:27:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
       
  • Nutritional quality of fish faeces is enhanced by highly unsaturated fatty
           acid-producing heterotrophic protozoa
    • Authors: Megumu Fujibayashi; Nobuyuki Tanaka; Shun Hashido; Aya Takasawa; Osamu Nishimura
      Pages: 21 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 89
      Author(s): Megumu Fujibayashi, Nobuyuki Tanaka, Shun Hashido, Aya Takasawa, Osamu Nishimura
      Highly unsaturated fatty acids such as 20:5n3 (EPA) are both hormone precursors and cell membrane components, making them important nutrients for aquatic animals. Many animals must obtain EPA from their diets because they cannot synthesize enough EPA to meet their requirements, and algae are the main source of EPA in aquatic ecosystems. In a previous study, we detected EPA in the faeces of Danio rerio, a freshwater fish, even though the fish consumed a green algae diet that did not contain EPA. The objective of this study was to determine why EPA was detected in fish faeces. A significant positive relationship was detected between the number of heterotrophic protozoa and the concentration of EPA in the faeces, which suggests that this EPA was of protozoan origin. In addition, another experiment showed that protozoa adhered to faeces far more than the green algal diet remnants, which indicates that protozoa preferred to swarm on faeces. Furthermore, we cultured protozoa in an EPA-free medium and fed them a bacterial diet also lacking EPA, and found that Cyclidium sp. synthesized EPA de novo. The results demonstrate that protozoa produce essential fatty acids and enhance the nutritional quality of animal faeces in detritus-based food webs in freshwater ecosystems.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T13:46:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
       
  • Do McKinnon lists provide reliable data in bird species frequency' A
           comparison with transect-based data
    • Authors: Michele Cento; Roberto Scrocca; Michele Coppola; Maurizio Rossi; Riccardo Di Giuseppe; Corrado Battisti; Luca Luiselli; Giovanni Amori
      Pages: 27 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 89
      Author(s): Michele Cento, Roberto Scrocca, Michele Coppola, Maurizio Rossi, Riccardo Di Giuseppe, Corrado Battisti, Luca Luiselli, Giovanni Amori
      Although occurrence-based listing methods could provide reliable lists of species composition for a site, the effective reliability of this method to provide more detailed information about species frequency (and abundance) has been rarely tested. In this paper, we compared the species frequencies obtained for the same set of species-rich sites (wetlands of central Italy) from two different methods: McKinnon lists and line transects. In all sites we observed: (i) rapid cumulating curves of line transect abundance frequencies toward the asymptote represented by the maximum value in McKinnon occurrence frequency; (ii) a large amount of species having a low frequency with line transect method showing a high range of variation in frequency obtained by McKinnon lists; (iii) a set of species having a subdominant (>0.02-<0.05) and dominant species (>0.05) frequency with line transect showed all the highest value in McKinnon frequency. McKinnon lists provides only a coarse-grained proxy of species frequency of individuals distinguishing only between common species (having the highest values of McKinnon frequency) and rare species (all the other species). Although McKinnon lists have some points of strength, this method does not discriminate the frequencies inside the subset of common species (sub-dominant and dominant species). Therefore, we suggest a cautionary approach when McKinnon frequencies should be used to obtain complex univariate metrics of diversity.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T13:46:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
       
  • Differences in functional traits between invasive and native Amaranthus
           species under simulated acid deposition with a gradient of pH levels
    • Authors: Congyan Wang; Bingde Wu; Kun Jiang; Jiawei Zhou
      Pages: 32 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 89
      Author(s): Congyan Wang, Bingde Wu, Kun Jiang, Jiawei Zhou
      Co-occurring invasive plant species (invaders hereafter) and natives receive similar or even the same environmental selection pressures. Thus, the differences in functional traits between natives and invaders have become widely recognized as a major driving force of the success of plant invasion. Meanwhile, increasing amounts of acid are deposited into ecosystems. Thus, it is important to elucidate the potential effects of acid deposition on the functional traits of invaders in order to better understand the potential mechanisms for the successful invasion. This study aims to address the differences in functional traits between native red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.; amaranth hereafter) and invasive redroot pigweed (A. retroflexus L.; pigweed hereafter) under simulated acid deposition with a gradient of pH levels. Pigweed was significantly taller than amaranth under most treatments. The greater height of pigweed can lead to greater competitive ability for resource acquisition, particularly for sunlight. Leaf shape index of pigweed was also significantly greater than that of amaranth under all treatments. The greater leaf shape index of pigweed can enhance the efficiency of resource capture (especially sunlight capture) via adjustments to leaf shape and size. Thus, the greater height and leaf shape index of pigweed can significantly enhance its competitive ability, especially under acid deposition. Acid deposition of pH 5.6 significantly increased amaranth leaf width in the co-cultivation due to added nutrients. The pH 4.5 acid deposition treatment significantly increased the specific leaf area of amaranth in the monoculture compared with the pH 5.6 acid deposition treatment and the control. The main mechanism explaining this pattern may be due to acid deposition mediating a hormesis effect on plants, promoting plant growth. The values of the relative competition intensity between amaranth and pigweed for most functional traits were lower than zero under most treatments. Thus, competitive performance arose in most treatments when the two species were grown together. This may be due to the enhanced competitive intensity under interspecific coexistence. However, the values of the relative competition intensity of the leaf functional traits between amaranth and pigweed were all higher than zero under the pH 5.6 simulated acid deposition treatment. Thus, interspecific facilitation occurs when the two species are co-cultivated under the pH 5.6 simulated acid deposition treatment. This may be due the positive nutritional effects induced in the pH 5.6 simulated acid deposition treatment.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T13:46:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
       
  • The effects of overwintering and habitat type on body condition and
           locomotion of the wolf spider Pardosa alacris
    • Authors: Kapilkumar Ingle; Ádám Horváth; Nikolett Gallé-Szpisjak; Levente Gellért; Enikő Csata; Róbert Gallé
      Pages: 38 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 89
      Author(s): Kapilkumar Ingle, Ádám Horváth, Nikolett Gallé-Szpisjak, Levente Gellért, Enikő Csata, Róbert Gallé
      Overwintering in temperate regions is a prominent mortality risk for invertebrates and may affect their behaviour and body condition. Pardosa alacris is a common ground dwelling spider in central European native and plantation forests, and habitat type and prey availability may play important roles in their overwintering. The effect of overwintering on body condition and behaviour of spiders in semi natural and exotic habitats is relatively unknown. Here we assess the effects of winter on spiders from native poplar and exotic pine plantations. The locomotory behaviour of P. alacris (distance covered and speed) was assessed by tracking their movement in a white circular plastic arena. We assessed body condition, body size, and total fat content. Forest type and sex had significant effects on body length. Fat content was significantly higher in the spring than in autumn, and spiders covered larger distances and were faster in autumn than in spring. Fat content had a significant negative effect on average speed. Spiders in native forests were smaller but grew more during the winter than in exotic plantations, possibly due to higher prey availability in native forests. Visually-hunting predators may significantly affect spiders. Fat spiders with better body condition moved less, and were thus less detectable by predators. However the low movement rate may result in a low rate of encountering prey items, thus lowering feeding efficiency.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T13:46:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
       
  • Seasonal growth and translocation of some major and trace elements in two
           Mediterranean grasses (Stipa tenacissima Loefl. ex L. and Lygeum spartum
           Loefl. ex L.)
    • Authors: Bouzid Nedjimi
      Pages: 43 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 89
      Author(s): Bouzid Nedjimi
      The rangelands of Stipa tenacissima and Lygeum spartum (Poaceae) constitute one of the main typical ecosystems in the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa. This study examines the seasonal changes in aboveground biomass accumulation and translocation of some major (Ca and K) and trace elements (Br, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sr and Zn) from topsoil to shoots of these perennial grasses. Species, season and their interaction significantly affected the dry biomass (DW) and chemical composition of both species and their surrounding soil. The maximum DW was found in spring due to high physiological activity and was correlated positively with rainfall. A significant relationship between seasons and chemical elements was found. For both species the maximum concentrations of Ca, Cu and Zn were found in spring season. However L. spartum had the highest concentrations of K, Cr, Br, and Sr in autumn season, indicating exceptional ability of these species to accumulate large contents of these elements during the active growth periods. By way of contrast, in the topsoil the highest concentrations of almost all chemical elements were found in summer and autumn. Principal component analyses (PCA) showed that growth of L. spartum was highly associated with K, Ca, Zn, Br and Sr, whereas topsoil was correlated with Cu, Cr, Fe and Mn concentrations. Translocation factor (TF x) of chemical elements was not identical across the two species, demonstrating inter–specific variability to uptake chemical elements. The maximum values of TF x were recorded for K, Ca and Sr especially for L. spartum. To cope with arid conditions, S. tenacissima and L. spartum sprout quickly by increasing their rate of growth and nutrient uptake as soon as soil water is available after the rain.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T13:46:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 89 (2018)
       
  • Forest snail diversity and its environmental predictors along a sharp
           climatic gradient in southern Siberia
    • Authors: Michal Horsák; Lucie Juřičková; Veronika Horsáková; Adéla Pokorná; Petr Pokorný; Arnošt L. Šizling; Milan Chytrý
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 88
      Author(s): Michal Horsák, Lucie Juřičková, Veronika Horsáková, Adéla Pokorná, Petr Pokorný, Arnošt L. Šizling, Milan Chytrý
      Diversity patterns of forest snail assemblages have been studied mainly in Europe. Siberian snail faunas have different evolutionary history and colonization dynamics than European faunas, but studies of forest snail diversity are almost missing from Siberia. Therefore, we collected snails at 173 forest sites in the Russian Altai and adjacent areas, encompassing broad variation in climate and forest types. We found 51 species, with a maximum of 15 and an average of seven species per site. The main gradient in species composition was related to soil pH, a variable that also positively correlates with snail abundances. The second gradient was associated with climate characteristics of winter. We observed significant differences in both species richness and composition among six forest types defined based on vegetation classification. Hemiboreal continental forests were the poorest of these types but hosted several species characteristic of European full-glacial stages of the Late Pleistocene. A high snow cover in Temperate coniferous and mixed forests, protecting the soil from freezing, allowed the frost-sensitive large-bodied (>10 mm) species to inhabit this forest type. In contrast to most of the European snail assemblages studied so far we found that the factors responsible for the variation in species richness differed from those driving species composition. This may be attributed to the sharp climatic gradient and the presence of the cold-adapted species typical of the Pleistocene cold stages. We suggest that southern Siberian forests hosting these species can serve as modern analogues of full-glacial forests in periglacial Central and Eastern Europe.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T13:46:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 88 (2018)
       
  • Complementary roles of two resilient neotropical mammalian seed dispersers
    • Authors: Adriana de Almeida; Rebecca J. Morris; Owen T. Lewis; Sandra B. Mikich
      Pages: 9 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 88
      Author(s): Adriana de Almeida, Rebecca J. Morris, Owen T. Lewis, Sandra B. Mikich
      Capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp. and Sapajus spp.) and coatis (Nasua spp.) coexist in most neotropical forests, including small forest remnants. Both capuchins and coatis eat fruit and disperse seeds, but little is known about whether their roles in seed dispersal are redundant or complementary. We compiled 49 studies from the literature on feeding by capuchins and/or coatis, of which 19 were comprehensive enough for our analyses. We determined the relative importance of fruit eating to each species and compared their diets. Additionally, we analysed the structure of three fruit–frugivore networks built with both animal groups and the fruits they eat and evaluated whether fruit traits influenced the network topology. Fruits represented the largest part of capuchin and coati diets, even though coatis have been known for their opportunistic and generalist diets. Capuchins and coatis also exhibited similar general diet parameters (niche breadth and trophic diversity). The three networks exhibited high connectance values and variable niche overlap. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis, failed to detect any trait or trait combination related to food use. In conclusion, capuchins and coatis both have generalist diets; they feed on many different species of fruits and exhibit important complementarity as seed dispersers. Both are likely to be particularly important seed dispersers in disturbed and fragmented forests.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T17:27:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 88 (2018)
       
  • The same but different: equally megadiverse but taxonomically variant
           spider communities along an elevational gradient
    • Authors: Jagoba Malumbres-Olarte; Luís Crespo; Pedro Cardoso; Tamás Szűts; Wouter Fannes; Thomas Pape; Nikolaj Scharff
      Pages: 19 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 88
      Author(s): Jagoba Malumbres-Olarte, Luís Crespo, Pedro Cardoso, Tamás Szűts, Wouter Fannes, Thomas Pape, Nikolaj Scharff
      Spatial variation in biodiversity is one of the key pieces of information for the delimitation and prioritisation of protected areas. This information is especially important when the protected area includes different climatic and habitat conditions and communities, such as those along elevational gradients. Here we test whether the megadiverse communities of spiders along an elevational gradient change according to two diversity models – a monotonic decrease or a hump-shaped pattern in species richness. We also measure compositional variation along and within elevations, and test the role of the preference of microhabitat (vegetation strata) and the functional (guild) structure of species in the changes. We sampled multiple spider communities using standardised and optimised sampling in three forest types, each at a different elevation along a climatic gradient. The elevational transects were at increasing horizontal distances (between 0.1 and 175 km) in the Udzungwa Mountains, Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania. The number of species was similar between plots and forest types, and therefore the pattern did not match either diversity model. However, species composition changed significantly with a gradual change along elevations. Although the number of species per microhabitat and guild also remained similar across elevations, the number of individuals varied, e.g. at higher elevations low canopy vegetation was inhabited by more spiders, and the spiders belonging to guilds that typically use this microhabitat were more abundant. Our findings reflex the complex effects of habitat-microhabitat interactions on spider communities at the individual, species and guild levels. If we aim to understand and conserve some of the most diverse communities in the world, researchers and managers may need to place more attention to small scale and microhabitat characteristics upon which communities depend.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T17:27:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 88 (2018)
       
  • How disturbances and management practices affect bird communities in a
           Carpathian river ecosystem'
    • Authors: Jozef Lacko; Ján Topercer; Marek Súľovský
      Pages: 29 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 88
      Author(s): Jozef Lacko, Ján Topercer, Marek Súľovský
      We studied how interactions between disturbances, succession, human alterations and other habitat and landscape attributes affect bird community patterns in a lower reach of a large West Carpathian river Váh with complex disturbance and alteration histories. Breeding-bird communities, their habitats (54 variables) and surrounding landscapes (11 metrics) were sampled using standardized point counts with limited distances at 40 riparian sites divided among two transects along a 12.9 km river stretch. The most frequent and abundant birds were generalists typically associated with forest edge habitats, such as Parus major, Sylvia atricapilla, Fringilla coelebs, Oriolus oriolus, Phylloscopus collybita, Sturnus vulgaris, Turdus merula and Luscinia megarhynchos. Abundances show significant increase at the lower transect responding apparently to greater size and heterogeneity of riparian habitats and more abundant food supply linked to more diverse and intense human influences in a suburban zone. Both indirect (NMDS) and direct ordination (CCA) revealed remarkably large number of evenly important factors underlying riparian bird-habitat interactions. It suggests considerable environmental heterogeneity and complexity of these interactions as a likely outcome of long and complex disturbance and alteration histories of the area. Yet structure and relative importance of first two gradients (longitudinal and lateral linkages) remains simple and stable, complying well with predictions of river continuum concept and stream ecosystem theory. Of the nine statistically significant variables most strongly correlated with first two CCA axes, percentages of Helianthus tuberosus, footpaths, fields, Calystegia sepium and steep banks uphold our hypotheses predicting significant effects of invasive species, visitor disturbances, agricultural land use and unaltered river banks/bed on bird community composition and structure. A small but significant contribution of patch size standard deviation within a 150 m radius to the CCA model provides the sole evidence for a hypothesized effect of adjacent terrestrial landscapes on riparian bird communities over different scales of patch size variability. Percentages of fields, invasive species and vertical banks along with average tree diameter were also the most productive predictors across our generalized linear models of riparian bird species diversity, evenness and abundance. Adopting an integrated river basin management, maintaining or restoring both longitudinal and lateral connectivity, taking advantage of natural processes and traditional management practices to maintain or restore riverine biodiversity can be recommended by our data in support of more systematic and evidence-based decision-making.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T17:27:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 88 (2018)
       
  • Seal carrion is a predictable resource for coastal ecosystems
    • Authors: Maria-Martina Quaggiotto; Philip S. Barton; Christopher D. Morris; Simon E.W. Moss; Patrick P. Pomeroy; Dominic J. McCafferty; David M. Bailey
      Pages: 41 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 88
      Author(s): Maria-Martina Quaggiotto, Philip S. Barton, Christopher D. Morris, Simon E.W. Moss, Patrick P. Pomeroy, Dominic J. McCafferty, David M. Bailey
      The timing, magnitude, and spatial distribution of resource inputs can have large effects on dependent organisms. Few studies have examined the predictability of such resources and no standard ecological measure of predictability exists. We examined the potential predictability of carrion resources provided by one of the UK's largest grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) colonies, on the Isle of May, Scotland. We used aerial (11 years) and ground surveys (3 years) to quantify the variability in time, space, quantity (kg), and quality (MJ) of seal carrion during the seal pupping season. We then compared the potential predictability of seal carrion to other periodic changes in food availability in nature. An average of 6893 kg of carrion ∙yr−1 corresponding to 110.5 × 103 MJ yr−1 was released for potential scavengers as placentae and dead animals. A fifth of the total biomass from dead seals was consumed by the end of the pupping season, mostly by avian scavengers. The spatial distribution of carcasses was similar across years, and 28% of the area containing >10 carcasses ha−1 was shared among all years. Relative standard errors (RSE) in space, time, quantity, and quality of carrion were all below 34%. This is similar to other allochthonous-dependent ecosystems, such as those affected by migratory salmon, and indicates high predictability of seal carrion as a resource. Our study illustrates how to quantify predictability in carrion, which is of general relevance to ecosystems that are dependent on this resource. We also highlight the importance of carrion to marine coastal ecosystems, where it sustains avian scavengers thus affecting ecosystem structure and function.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T17:27:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 88 (2018)
       
  • Predicting fundamental and realized distributions based on thermal niche:
           A case study of a freshwater turtle
    • Authors: João Fabrício Mota Rodrigues; Marco Túlio Pacheco Coelho; Bruno R. Ribeiro
      Pages: 52 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 88
      Author(s): João Fabrício Mota Rodrigues, Marco Túlio Pacheco Coelho, Bruno R. Ribeiro
      Species distribution models (SDM) have been broadly used in ecology to address theoretical and practical problems. Currently, there are two main approaches to generate SDMs: (i) correlative, which is based on species occurrences and environmental predictor layers and (ii) process-based models, which are constructed based on species' functional traits and physiological tolerances. The distributions estimated by each approach are based on different components of species niche. Predictions of correlative models approach species realized niches, while predictions of process-based are more akin to species fundamental niche. Here, we integrated the predictions of fundamental and realized distributions of the freshwater turtle Trachemys dorbigni. Fundamental distribution was estimated using data of T. dorbigni's egg incubation temperature, and realized distribution was estimated using species occurrence records. Both types of distributions were estimated using the same regression approaches (logistic regression and support vector machines), both considering macroclimatic and microclimatic temperatures. The realized distribution of T. dorbigni was generally nested in its fundamental distribution reinforcing theoretical assumptions that the species' realized niche is a subset of its fundamental niche. Both modelling algorithms produced similar results but microtemperature generated better results than macrotemperature for the incubation model. Finally, our results reinforce the conclusion that species realized distributions are constrained by other factors other than just thermal tolerances.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T17:27:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 88 (2018)
       
  • The effect of wildfire on population dynamics for two native small mammal
           species in a coastal heathland in Queensland, Australia
    • Authors: Adam C. Liedloff; John C. Wilson; Richard M. Engeman
      Pages: 58 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 88
      Author(s): Adam C. Liedloff, John C. Wilson, Richard M. Engeman
      The influences of wildfire through population dynamics and life history for two species of small mammals in a south-east Queensland heathland on Bribie Island are presented. Trapping results provided information on breeding, immigration and movement of Melomys burtoni (Grassland melomys) and Rattus lutreolus (Swamp rat). We first investigated and optimized the design of trapping methodology for producing mark-recapture population estimates to compare two adjacent populations, one of which was subjected to an extensive wildfire during the two year study. We consider how well rodents survive wildfire and whether the immediate impacts of fire or altered habitat have the greatest impact on each species. We found the R. lutreolus population was far more influenced by the fire than the M. burtoni population both immediately after the fire and over 18 months of vegetation recovery.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T17:27:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 88 (2018)
       
  • Large herbivores affect forest ecosystem functions by altering the
           structure of dung beetle communities
    • Authors: Taichi Iida; Masashi Soga; Shinsuke Koike
      Pages: 65 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 88
      Author(s): Taichi Iida, Masashi Soga, Shinsuke Koike
      Dramatic increases in populations of large mammalian herbivores have become a major ecological issue, particularly in the northern hemisphere, due to their substantial impacts on both animal and plant communities through processes such as grazing, browsing, and trampling. However, little is known about the consequences of these population explosions on ecosystem functions. Here, we experimentally investigated how the population density of sika deer (Cervus nippon) in temperate deciduous forest areas in Japan affected the decomposition of mammal dung by dung beetles, which is a key process in forest ecosystems. We measured a range of environmental variables (e.g., vegetation cover, soil hardness) and the dung decomposition rate, measured as the amount of deer dung decomposed during one week, and sampled dung beetles at 16 study sites with three different deer densities (high/intermediate/low). We then used structural equation modeling to investigate the relationships between deer density, environmental variables, the biomass of dung beetles (classified into small or large species), and the dung decomposition rate. We found that the biomass of small species increased with increasing deer density, whereas that of large species was not related to deer density. Furthermore, the dung decomposition rate was positively related to the biomass of small species but unrelated to that of large species. Overall, our results showed that an increase in deer density affects the decomposition rate of mammal dung by changing the structure of dung beetle communities (i.e., increasing the number of small dung beetles). Such an understanding of how increases in large herbivore populations affect ecosystem functions is important for accurately evaluating the ecological consequences of their overabundance and ultimately managing their populations appropriately.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T17:27:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 88 (2018)
       
  • Gibbons (Nomascus gabriellae) provide key seed dispersal for the Pacific
           walnut (Dracontomelon dao), in Asia's lowland tropical forest
    • Authors: Bach Thanh Hai; Jin Chen; Kim R. McConkey; Salindra K. Dayananda
      Pages: 71 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 88
      Author(s): Bach Thanh Hai, Jin Chen, Kim R. McConkey, Salindra K. Dayananda
      Understanding the mutualisms between frugivores and plants is essential for developing successful forest management and conservation strategies, especially in tropical rainforests where the majority of plants are dispersed by animals. Gibbons are among the most effective seed dispersers in South East Asia's tropical forests, but are also one of the highly threatened arboreal mammals in the region. Here we studied the seed dispersal of the Pacific walnut (Dracontomelon dao), a canopy tree which produces fruit that are common in the diet of the endangered southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae). We found that gibbons were the most effective disperser for this species; they consumed approximately 45% of the fruit crop, which was four times more than that consumed by macaques – the only other legitimate disperser. Gibbons tracked the temporal (but not spatial) abundance of ripe fruits, indicating this fruit was a preferred species for the gibbon. Both gibbons and macaques dispersed the majority (>90%) of the seeds at least 20 m away from parent crowns, with mean dispersal distances by gibbons measuring 179.3 ± 98.0 m (range: 4–425 m). Seeds defecated by gibbons germinated quicker and at greater rates than seeds spat by macaques, or in undispersed fruits. Gibbon-dispersed seeds were also more likely to be removed by unknown seed predators or unknown secondary dispersers. Overall, gibbons play a key role in the regeneration of the Pacific walnut. Our findings have significant implications both for the management of the Pacific walnut tree dominating tropical rainforest as well as the reintroduction program of the Southern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T17:27:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.03.011
      Issue No: Vol. 88 (2018)
       
  • Efficiency of protected areas in Amazon and Atlantic Forest conservation:
           A spatio-temporal view
    • Authors: Thadeu Sobral-Souza; Maurício Humberto Vancine; Milton Cezar Ribeiro; Matheus S. Lima-Ribeiro
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 87
      Author(s): Thadeu Sobral-Souza, Maurício Humberto Vancine, Milton Cezar Ribeiro, Matheus S. Lima-Ribeiro
      The Amazon and Atlantic Forest are considered the world's most biodiverse biomes. Human and climate change impacts are the principal drivers of species loss in both biomes, more severely in the Atlantic Forest. In response to species loss, the main conservation action is the creation of protected areas (PAs). Current knowledge and research on the PA network's conservation efficiency is scarce, and existing studies have mainly considered a past temporal view. In this study, we tested the efficiency of the current PA network to maintain climatically stable areas (CSAs) across the Amazon and Atlantic Forest. To this, we used an ecological niche modeling approach to biome and paleoclimatic simulations. We propose three categories of conservation priority areas for both biomes, considering CSAs, PAs and intact forest remnants. The biomes vary in their respective PA networks' protection efficiency. Regarding protect CSAs, the Amazon PA network is four times more efficient than the Atlantic Forest PA network. New conservation efforts in these two forest biomes require different approaches. We discussed the conservation actions that should be taken in each biome to increase the efficiency of the PA network, considering both the creation and expansion of PAs as well as restoration programs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2018)
       
  • Influence of primitive Biłgoraj horses on the glossy buckthorn (Frangula
           alnus)-dominated understory in a mixed coniferous forest
    • Authors: Daniel Klich
      Pages: 8 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 87
      Author(s): Daniel Klich
      Changes in the understory dominated by glossy buckthorn Frangula alnus via the influence of primitive horses were analyzed in a 28-year-old enclosure in the village of Szklarnia at the Biłgoraj Horse-Breeding Centre near Janów Lubelski (eastern Poland). The analysis was conducted in 20 circular plots (30 m2) defined in adjacent, similar forest stands (enclosed and control). Disturbance by the horses, mainly through trampling, caused numerous paths to form within the glossy buckthorn-dominated understory and led to a decrease in density of stems of lower height classes (30–80 and 81–130 cm, respectively). An increase in species diversity at the expense of glossy buckthorn density was also observed. The horses' trampling caused an increase in Padus avium density and the encroachment of other woody plant species that were less shade-tolerant and grew well in soils rich in nutrients. An increase in the density of woody plants over 180 cm above ground was observed within the enclosure, which was probably the result of the horses’ excretion of feces. The results presented here provide new insight into the ecological role that horses play in forest-meadow landscape mosaics, which, via altering the development of vegetation, may contribute to an increase in biodiversity within forest habitats.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:57:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2018)
       
  • Food source quality and ant dominance hierarchy influence the outcomes of
           ant-plant interactions in an arid environment
    • Authors: Rocío Vianey Flores-Flores; Armando Aguirre; Diego V. Anjos; Frederico S. Neves; Ricardo I. Campos; Wesley Dáttilo
      Pages: 13 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 87
      Author(s): Rocío Vianey Flores-Flores, Armando Aguirre, Diego V. Anjos, Frederico S. Neves, Ricardo I. Campos, Wesley Dáttilo
      In this study, we conducted a series of experiments in a population of Vachellia constricta (Fabaceae) in the arid Tehuacan-Cuicatláan valley, Mexico, in order to evaluate if the food source quality and ant dominance hierarchy influence the outcomes of ant-plant interactions. Using an experiment with artificial nectaries, we observed that ants foraging on food sources with higher concentration of sugar are quicker in finding and attacking potential herbivorous insects. More specifically, we found that the same ant species may increase their defence effectiveness according to the quality of food available. These findings indicate that ant effectiveness in plant protection is context-dependent and may vary according to specific individual characteristics of plants. In addition, we showed that competitively superior ant species tend to dominate plants in periods with high nectar activity, emphasizing the role of the dominance hierarchy structuring ant-plant interactions. However, when high sugar food sources were experimentally available ad libitum, the nocturnal and competitively superior ant species, Camponotus atriceps, did not dominate the artificial nectaries during the day possibly due to limitation of its thermal tolerance. Therefore, temporal niche partitioning may be allowing the coexistence of two dominant ant species (Camponotus rubritorax during the day and C. atriceps at night) on V. constricta. Our findings indicate that the quality of the food source, and temporal shifts in ant dominance are key factors which structure the biotic plant defences in an arid environment.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2018)
       
  • Moonlighting' - Consequences of lunar cues on anuran reproductive
           activity
    • Authors: Victoria A. Underhill; Gerlinde Höbel
      Pages: 20 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 87
      Author(s): Victoria A. Underhill, Gerlinde Höbel
      While the influence of environmental variables, particularly temperature and rainfall, on the breeding behavior of amphibians is widely recognized, relatively few studies have addressed how the moon affects amphibian behavior. Yet, the lunar cycle provides several rhythmic temporal cues that animals could use to time important group events such as spawning, and the substantial changes in light levels associated with the different moon phases may also affect the behavior of nocturnal frogs. Using seven years of field observation data, we tested for lunar effects on the reproductive activity of male and female Eastern Gray Treefrogs (Hyla versicolor). We found that chorusing and breeding activity was statistically more likely to occur around the first quarter of the moon and during intermediately bright nights, but that reproductive activity also occurred during various other times during the lunar cycle. We discuss these findings in relation to the two main hypotheses of lunar effects on animals: predator avoidance and temporal synchronization of breeding.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2018)
       
  • Qualitative aspects of the effectiveness of Culpeo foxes (Lycalopex
           culpaeus) as dispersers of Prosopis alba (Fabaceae) in a Bolivian dry
           valley
    • Authors: D.E. Maldonado; A.P. Loayza; E. Garcia; L.F. Pacheco
      Pages: 29 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 87
      Author(s): D.E. Maldonado, A.P. Loayza, E. Garcia, L.F. Pacheco
      Foxes disperse several plant species in arid and semi-arid environments, but their effectiveness as dispersal agents still remains unclear. In this study, we examined qualitative components of the effectiveness of L. culpaeus as a disperser of P. alba seeds in an inter-Andean dry valley of La Paz, Bolivia. Specifically, we determined seed deposition microhabitats, and the probabilities of germination, seed removal and seedling recruitment in these microhabitats. Additionally, we assessed the effect of gut-passage on P. alba germination. We collected 159 scats, which contained a total of 3402 endocarps fragments. Foxes dispersed seeds into two microhabitats: open areas and under woody vegetation, but more frequently in the former. The probability of germination did not differ between gut-passed and control seeds, but control seeds germinated faster than gut-passed ones. The likelihood of removal was greater for endocarps fragments in open microhabitats than under woody vegetation. Only a small percentage of the seeds in each microhabitat germinated, but none survived more than a week. We conclude that although the Culpeo fox can defecate intact P. alba seeds, it does not provide effective dispersal services.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2018)
       
  • Functional richness: Overview of indices and underlying concepts
    • Authors: G. Legras; N. Loiseau; J.-C. Gaertner
      Pages: 34 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 87
      Author(s): G. Legras, N. Loiseau, J.-C. Gaertner
      Functional richness, currently defined as the amount of niche space occupied by the species within a community, is one of the three major components of functional diversity. Different indices have been developed in order to quantify this component. However, the range of indices available for assessing functional richness, often mathematically complex and based on different rationales, can cause confusion for field ecologists and lead to misinterpretation of the results obtained. In this context, we have provided the first study exclusively focused on the comparison of the definitions, advantages and drawbacks of a large set of functional richness indices. The first part of this work is focused on four indices (FDP&G, FRic, TOP and N-hypervolumes indices) that are currently the most commonly used for assessing functional richness. We have completed our study by including recently developed indices that enable us to take into account the intraspecific trait variability (i.e. FRim index and TDP framework), because there is currently a growing scientific consensus regarding the necessity of including this aspect in the assessment of the functional diversity of communities. We demonstrate that although authors have argued that their index describes the functional richness, each of them describes only part of it, and this part may strongly differ from one index to another. Rather than advocating the general use of a single index and/or systematically avoiding others, our study highlights the need for selecting indices in close relation with the context, the available data and the aims of each study. Such a strategy is an essential preliminary step for preventing misunderstanding and artefactual controversies. Along these lines, we propose some guidelines to help users in selecting the most appropriate indices according both to the facet of functional richness on which they wish to focus and to the characteristics of the available data.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2018)
       
  • Below and above-ground carbon distribution along a rainfall gradient. A
           case of the Zambezi teak forests, Zambia
    • Authors: Justine Ngoma; Eddy Moors; Bart Kruijt; James H. Speer; Royd Vinya; Emmanuel N. Chidumayo; Rik Leemans
      Pages: 45 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 87
      Author(s): Justine Ngoma, Eddy Moors, Bart Kruijt, James H. Speer, Royd Vinya, Emmanuel N. Chidumayo, Rik Leemans
      Understanding carbon (C) stocks or biomass in forests is important to examine how forests mitigate climate change. To estimate biomass in stems, branches and roots takes intensive fieldwork to uproot, cut and weigh the mass of each component. Different models or equations are also required. Our research focussed on the dry tropical Zambezi teak forests and we studied their structure at three sites following a rainfall gradient in Zambia. We sampled 3558 trees at 42 plots covering a combined area of 15ha. Using data from destructive tree samples, we developed mixed-species biomass models to estimate above ground biomass for small (<5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH, 1.3 m above-ground)) and large (≥5 cm DBH) trees involving 90 and 104 trees respectively, that belonged to 12 species. A below-ground biomass model was developed from seven trees of three species (16–44 cm DBH) whose complete root systems were excavated. Three stump models were also derived from these uprooted trees. Finally, we determined the C fractions from 194 trees that belonged to 12 species. The analysis revealed that DBH was the only predictor that significantly correlated to both above-ground and below-ground biomass. We found a mean root-to-shoot ratio of 0.38:0.62. The C fraction in leaves ranged from 39% to 42%, while it varied between 41% and 46% in wood. The C fraction was highest at the Kabompo site that received the highest rainfall, and lowest at the intermediate Namwala site. The C stocks varied between 15 and 36 ton C ha−1 and these stocks where highest at the wetter Kabompo site and lowest at the drier Sesheke site. Our results indicate that the projected future rainfall decrease for southern Africa, will likely reduce the C storage potential of the Zambezi teak forests, thereby adversely affecting their mitigating role in climate change.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 87 (2018)
       
  • Local versus landscape-scale effects of anthropogenic land-use on forest
           species richness
    • Authors: G. Buffa; S. Del Vecchio; E. Fantinato; V. Milano
      Pages: 49 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 86
      Author(s): G. Buffa, S. Del Vecchio, E. Fantinato, V. Milano
      The study investigated the effects of human-induced landscape patterns on species richness in forests. For 80 plots of fixed size, we measured human disturbance (categorized as urban/industrial and agricultural land areas), at ‘local’ and ‘landscape’ scale (500 m and 2500 m radius from each plot, respectively), the distance from the forest edge, and the size and shape of the woody patch. By using GLM, we analyzed the effects of disturbance and patch-based measures on both total species richness and the richness of a group of specialist species (i.e. the ‘ancient forest species’), representing more specific forest features. Patterns of local species richness were sensitive to the structure and composition of the surrounding landscape. Among the landscape components taken into account, urban/industrial land areas turned out as the most threatening factor for both total species richness and the richness of the ancient forest species. However, the best models evidenced a different intensity of the response to the same disturbance category as well as a different pool of significant variables for the two groups of species. The use of groups of species, such as the ancient forest species pool, that are functionally related and have similar ecological requirements, may represent an effective solution for monitoring forest dynamics under the effects of external factors. The approach of relating local assessment of species richness, and in particular of the ancient forest species pool, to land-use patterns may play an important role for the science-policy interface by supporting and strengthening conservation and regional planning decision making.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:57:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2018)
       
  • Complex foraging ecology of the red harvester ant and its effect on the
           soil seed bank
    • Authors: Pedro Luna; Juan Héctor García-Chávez; Wesley Dáttilo
      Pages: 57 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 86
      Author(s): Pedro Luna, Juan Héctor García-Chávez, Wesley Dáttilo
      Granivory is an important interaction in the arid and semi-arid zones of the world, since seeds form an abundant and nutritious resource in these areas. While species of the genus Pogonomyrmex have been studied in detail as seed predators, their impact on seed abundance in the soil has not yet been explored in sufficient depth. We studied the impact of the harvesting activities of the ant Pogonomyrmex barbatus on seed abundance in the soil of the Zapotitlán valley, Mexico. We found that P. barbatus activity significantly impacts the abundance of seeds in the soil, which is lower in the sites where P. barbatus forages than it is in sites with no recorded foraging. We also found that P. barbatus distributes intact seeds of three tree species, two of which are nurse plants, and could consequently be promoting the establishment of these species. Using tools derived from graph theory, we observed that the ant-seed interactions exhibit a nested pattern; where more depredated seed species seem to be the more spatially abundant in the environment. This study illustrates the complex foraging ecology of the harvester ant P. barbatus and elucidates its effect on the soil seed bank in a semi-arid environment.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:57:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2018)
       
  • Elevated native terrestrial snail abundance and diversity in association
           with an invasive understory shrub, Berberis thunbergii, in a North
           American deciduous forest
    • Authors: Ryan M. Utz; Timothy A. Pearce; Danielle L. Lewis; Joseph C. Mannino
      Pages: 66 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica, Volume 86
      Author(s): Ryan M. Utz, Timothy A. Pearce, Danielle L. Lewis, Joseph C. Mannino
      Invasive terrestrial plants often substantially reshape environments, yet how such invasions affect terrestrial snail assemblages remains understudied. We investigated how snail assemblages in deciduous forest soils with dense Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry), an invasive shrub in eastern North America, differ from forest areas lacking the shrub. Leaf litter and soil samples were collected from forest patches with dense B. thunbergii understories and adjacent control areas within two exurban forest tracts in western Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Snails were identified to species and quantified by standard diversity metrics. Contrary to our expectations, snails were significantly more abundant and diverse in B. thunbergii-invaded areas. Despite differences in abundance, the snail community composition did not differ between invaded and control habitats. The terrestrial snail assemblage we observed, which was composed entirely of native species, appears to respond favorably to B. thunbergii invasion and therefore may not be negatively impacted by physicochemical changes to soils typically observed in association with the plant. Such findings could reflect the fact that B. thunbergii likely creates more favorable habitat for snails by creating cooler, more humid, and more alkaline soil environments. However, the snail assemblages we retrieved may consist mostly of species with high tolerance to environmental degradation due to a legacy of land use change and acid deposition in the region.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T21:57:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 86 (2018)
       
  • Spatial patterns and competition in trees in early successional reclaimed
           and natural boreal forests
    • Authors: Sanatan Das Gupta; Bradley D. Pinno
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Sanatan Das Gupta, Bradley D. Pinno
      Spatial distribution of plants in early successional stands provides an indication of future plant community structure and population dynamics. Determining the factors driving plant interactions and their demographic relationships at stand initiation is critical to gain a better understanding of plants’ responses to competition and limited resource conditions. Reclaimed ecosystems are ideal for studying such community mechanisms because they are completely reconstructed ecosystems with known community filters such as soil type, propagule composition, and the presence of both planted and naturally establishing trees. The current study explored the spatial patterns and competition-facilitation mechanisms in deciduous and evergreen trees in two oil sands reclaimed sites with different reclamation age (2-year old and 5-year old) and cover soils (wetland peat origin – PMM; and forest floor origin – FFMM) in Alberta, Canada, and compared this with a naturally-disturbed site at 5 years since fire. Spatial point pattern analysis was performed using pair correlation function g(r), mark correlation function k m m ( r ) , and bivariate g-function. Intraspecific competition in deciduous seedlings was stronger in the 5-year old reclaimed site than in the 2-year old site. Spatial patterns in deciduous seedlings on PMM were aggregated at 1–3 m scale similar to the natural site, whereas seedlings on FFMM sites had aggregated patterns at greater than 5 m scale. Planted conifers had regular pattern at 1–2 m scale in the 2-year old sites which reflects the plantation spacing, but showed a random pattern in the 5-year old sites indicating the effect of random mortality. Bivariate spatial analysis indicated a significant repulsion between deciduous and coniferous seedling at 1 m in the 2-year old PMM site and a significant attraction in the 5-year old FFMM site suggesting that the mechanism of competition-facilitation between trees is different in different cover soils. Density dependent thinning was only observed in the 2-year old PMM and natural sites; however, a gradual increase in nearest neighbour distances with increasing seedling size in all the reclaimed sites suggests that density dependent thinning has started.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T13:46:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.05.003
       
  • Influence of seed size on performance of non-native annual plant species
           in a novel community at two planting densities
    • Authors: Janina Radny; Wim H. van der Putten; Katja Tielbörger; Katrin M. Meyer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Janina Radny, Wim H. van der Putten, Katja Tielbörger, Katrin M. Meyer
      Climate warming enables plant species to migrate to higher latitudes and altitudes. Within Europe, the Mediterranean harbours many species that might expand their ranges towards Western Europe. Small seed size may facilitate dispersal, however, it may impair establishment of the range-expanding plant species in the novel vegetation. In a greenhouse experiment, we examined effects of average seed size of Mediterranean plant species on their establishment in a mixed community of Western European plant species. Applying two levels of densities of the natives and a herbivory treatment, we tested how seed size is linked to response in plant growth and fitness in novel vegetation. While all non-native plant species showed a negative response to increased planting density, species with small seeds showed a less negative response. This effect persisted under herbivory. Our data suggest that small-seeded non-native plant species may tolerate competitive pressure from novel plant communities better than large-seeded species, so that small seed size may confer a higher probability of establishment of non-native species in novel communities.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T13:46:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.05.005
       
  • Ecology and conservation of West African forests: An introduction
    • Authors: Luca Luiselli; John E. Fa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Luca Luiselli, John E. Fa


      PubDate: 2018-05-31T13:46:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.04.004
       
  • Environmental filtering determines patterns of tree species composition in
           small mountains of Atlantic Central African forests
    • Authors: Christelle Gonmadje; Charles Doumenge; Terry Sunderland; Doyle McKey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Christelle Gonmadje, Charles Doumenge, Terry Sunderland, Doyle McKey
      The determinants of patterns of plant species composition on small mountains are poorly known, especially in Central Africa. We aimed here to identify variation in tree species composition throughout the Ngovayang Massif (southern Cameroon) and determine the relative contributions of environmental factors and spatial autocorrelation in shaping tree species composition. Vegetation surveys were conducted in fifteen 1-ha (100 m × 100 m) permanent plots established along a transect from lowland (200 m) to submontane forests (900 m) in which all trees with a diameter (dbh) ≥ 10 cm were inventoried. Data were investigated using ordination methods (Correspondence Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis). At the local scale, the most important variable in determining tree species composition patterns was slope exposure, followed by distance from the ocean and altitude. Together, these environmental variables explained 28% of floristic variation among plots, and the spatial structure almost disappeared when the effects of these variables were removed. Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that spatial variables (geographic coordinates of the plots) or geographic distance between plots explained only 1% of the total initial variance. Residual spatial variation not explained by the environmental variables probably reflects the history of vegetation and the effects of other climatic variables that were not included in this study. Floristic variation in the Ngovayang Massif is due to strong environmental heterogeneity. The sensitivity of floristic composition to environmental variables such as slope orientation and altitude suggests that tree species composition may shift with expected climate changes, such as changes in the movement of air masses, increase in mean annual temperatures or increasing severity of the dry season. Our study highlights the need for systematic on-the-ground measurements of climate variables in tropical montane areas in order to better understand the current climate regime and serve as a basis for modelling future changes.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T13:46:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.04.001
       
  • Detecting the elusive cost of parasites on fig seed production
    • Authors: Simon T. Segar; Ani Mardiastuti; Philip M. Wheeler; James M. Cook
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Simon T. Segar, Ani Mardiastuti, Philip M. Wheeler, James M. Cook
      Mutualisms provide essential ecosystem functions such as pollination and contribute considerably to global biodiversity. However, they are also exploited by parasites that remove resources and thus impose costs on one or both of the mutualistic partners. The fig/pollinator interaction is a classic obligate mutualism; it is pantropical and involves >750 Ficus species and their host-specific pollinating wasps (family Agaonidae). Figs also host parasites of the mutualism that should consume pollinators or seeds, depending on their larval ecology. We collected data from a large crop of figs on Ficus glandifera var. brachysyce in a Sulawesi rainforest with an unusually high number of Eukoebelea sp. parasites. We found that these parasites have a significant negative correlation with fig seed production as well as with pollinator offspring production. Eukoebelea wasps form the basal genus in subfamily Sycophaginae (Chalcidoidea) and their larval biology is considered unknown. Our analysis suggests that they feed as flower gallers and impose direct costs on the fig tree, but a strategy including the consumption of pollinator larvae cannot be ruled out. We also present baseline data on the composition of the fig wasp community associated with F. glandifera var brachysyce and light trap catch data.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T17:27:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.03.002
       
  • Figs, pollinators, and parasites: A longitudinal study of the effects of
           nematode infection on fig wasp fitness
    • Authors: Justin Van Goor; Finn Piatscheck; Derek D. Houston; John D. Nason
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Justin Van Goor, Finn Piatscheck, Derek D. Houston, John D. Nason
      Mutualisms are interactions between two species in which the fitnesses of both symbionts benefit from the relationship. Although examples of mutualism are ubiquitous in nature, the ecology, evolution, and stability of mutualism has rarely been studied in the broader, multi-species community context in which they occur. The pollination mutualism between figs and fig wasps provides an excellent model system for investigating interactions between obligate mutualists and antagonists. Compared to the community of non-pollinating fig wasps that develop within fig inflorescences at the expense of fig seeds and pollinators, consequences of interactions between female pollinating wasps and their host-specialist nematode parasites is much less well understood. Here we focus on a tri-partite system comprised of a fig (Ficus petiolaris), pollinating wasp (Pegoscapus sp.), and nematode (Parasitodiplogaster sp.), investigating geographical variation in the incidence of attack and mechanisms through which nematodes may limit the fitness of their wasp hosts at successive life history stages. Observational data reveals that nematodes are ubiquitous across their host range in Baja California, Mexico; that the incidence of nematode infection varies across seasons within- and between locations, and that infected pollinators are sometimes associated with fitness declines through reduced offspring production. We find that moderate levels of infection (1–9 juvenile nematodes per host) are well tolerated by pollinator wasps whereas higher infection levels (≥10 nematodes per host) are correlated with a significant reduction in wasp lifespan and dispersal success. This overexploitation, however, is estimated to occur in only 2.8% of wasps in each generation. The result that nematode infection appears to be largely benign – and the unexpected finding that nematodes frequently infect non-pollinating wasps – highlight gaps in our knowledge of pollinator-Parasitodiplogaster interactions and suggest previously unappreciated ways in which this nematode may influence fig and pollinator fitness, mutualism persistence, and non-pollinator community dynamics.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T17:27:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.03.007
       
  • Effect of heat on soil seedbank of three contrasting physiognomies in
           Shasha forest reserve, Southwestern Nigeria
    • Authors: D.S. Akinyemi; S.R. Oseni; S.O. Oke
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): D.S. Akinyemi, S.R. Oseni, S.O. Oke
      The effects of soil heating which usually occur during forest fires on the floristic composition and seed density of the soil seed bank of Shasha forest reserve in Southwestern Nigeria was investigated and the potential of the soil seedbank in forest restoration process (especially after a fire) was examined. Three distinct sites (Regrowth forest, Gmelina and Pinus plantations) were selected in the forest reserve. Species enumeration, identification and distribution into families of the standing vegetation were carried out. Soil samples were collected at 0–15 cm depth from each plot in March 2012. One set of replicate samples was heated in an oven until the soil reached 80 °C (to simulate typical temperature at soil surface during forest fires) while the other serves as a control. They were subjected to seedling emergence for six months to determine the density and species composition of the seed banks of the study sites. Seedling emergence result for heated and unheated soil samples showed that the seedbank density was higher in control than heated samples in the three sites. Few woody species emerged from the soil seedbank of three study sites and in both control and heated samples. There was a significant difference in total seed density when treatments were compared (P < 0.05) and no significant difference (P > 0.05) when sites were compared. Diversity and evenness indices follow the order Regrowth forest > Pinus plantation > Gmelina plantation. NMDS (non-metric multi-dimensional scaling) ordination revealed low similarity in the species composition of extant vegetation and seedbank. The potential of vegetation restoration of the disturbed forest reserve from seed bank is limited, and heat from fire had negative effects on the seed bank characteristics of the forest but selectively enhanced the emergence of species like Pinus carribaea.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T17:27:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.03.009
       
  • Ecological factors associated with pre-dispersal predation of fig seeds
           and wasps by fig-specialist lepidopteran larvae
    • Authors: Finn Piatscheck; Justin Van Goor; Derek D. Houston; John D. Nason
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Finn Piatscheck, Justin Van Goor, Derek D. Houston, John D. Nason
      In brood pollination mutualisms, predation of developing fruit can have large negative repercussions for both plant and pollinator population dynamics. The Sonoran Desert rock fig Ficus petiolaris and its highly-coevolved wasp pollinator are subject to frequent attack by lepidopteran larvae that consume fig fruit and the developing seeds and larval pollinators they contain. We used generalized linear mixed models to investigate how the phenology, quantity, and spatial distribution of fig fruits is associated with variation in lepidopteran damage intensity on individual trees at nine geographic locations spanning a 741 km latitudinal transect along Mexico's Baja California Peninsula. We found lepidopteran damage to be strongly positively associated with more synchronous fig crops and larger trees, and only weakly associated with lower local host tree density. These results imply that fruit production that is asynchronous within trees and spread out over time, as observed in several fig species, benefits female and male components of fitness (pollen disperser and seed production, respectively) by reducing pre-dispersal predation by frugivores.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T17:27:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.03.001
       
  • Adaptive phenology of Ficus subpisocarpa and Ficus caulocarpa in Taipei,
           Taiwan
    • Authors: Yun-Peng Chiang; Anthony Bain; Wen-Jer Wu; Lien-Siang Chou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Yun-Peng Chiang, Anthony Bain, Wen-Jer Wu, Lien-Siang Chou
      Insect pollination is the main strategy used by Angiosperm plants to transport pollen to another individual. The interaction between entomophilous plants and their pollinators is often mutualistic, with many species pairs being interdependent. In obligate pollination mutualism, the plant relies on its partner for pollination, whereas the pollen vector relies on plant resources. In the mutualism between Ficus (Moraceae) and the fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae), the plant provides oviposition sites to its exclusive pollinator, which has an extremely short lifespan (a maximum lifespan of few days). This study examined how fig trees maintain their associated pollinator populations by conducting a 45-month phenological survey of 27 and 64 trees belonging to the species Ficus caulocarpa and F. subpisocarpa in Taipei, Taiwan. The observations indicated that the trees produce figs year-round with no clear seasonal pattern, and are not affected by meteorological factors. On average, about 30% of the trees of both species were bearing figs during the survey. The duration of the fig development was longer during the winter-spring period than during the summer-fall period. The trees displayed strong asynchrony among trees in the population but each crop was synchronous within a tree. However, after wasp emergence, crops lost their synchrony with part of the figs ripening within few days whereas some figs only ripened eight weeks later for F. subpisocarpa and four weeks later for F. caulocarpa. This study also discusses the implications of fig frugivory and mutualism.

      PubDate: 2018-04-24T17:27:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2017.11.013
       
  • Insights into the structure of plant-insect communities: Specialism and
           generalism in a regional set of non-pollinating fig wasp communities
    • Authors: F.H.A. Farache; A. Cruaud; J.-Y. Rasplus; M.T. Cerezini; L. Rattis; F. Kjellberg; R.A.S. Pereira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): F.H.A. Farache, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus, M.T. Cerezini, L. Rattis, F. Kjellberg, R.A.S. Pereira
      Insects show a multitude of symbiotic interactions that may vary in degree of specialization and structure. Gall-inducing insects and their parasitoids are thought to be relatively specialized organisms, but despite their ecological importance, the organization and structure of the interactions they establish with their hosts has seldom been investigated in tropical communities. Non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW) are particularly interesting organisms for the study of ecological networks because most species strictly develop their offspring within fig inflorescences, and show a multitude of life history strategies. They can be gall-makers, cleptoparasites or parasitoids of pollinating or of other non-pollinating fig wasps. Here we analysed a set of non-pollinating fig wasp communities associated with six species of Ficus section Americanae over a wide area. This allowed us to investigate patterns of specialization in a diverse community composed of monophagous and polyphagous species. We observed that most NPFW species were cleptoparasites and parasitoids, colonizing figs several days after oviposition by pollinators. Most species that occurred in more than one host were much more abundant in a single preferential host, suggesting specialization. The food web established between wasps and figs shows structural properties that are typical of specific antagonistic relationships, especially of endophagous insect networks. Two species that occurred in all available hosts were highly abundant in the network, suggesting that in some cases generalized species can be more competitive than strict specialists. The Neotropical and, to a lesser extent, Afrotropical NPFW communities seem to be more generalized than other NPFW communities. However, evidence of host sharing in the Old World is quite limited, since most studies have focused on particular taxonomic groups (genera) of wasps instead of sampling the whole NPFW community. Moreover, the lack of quantitative information in previous studies prevents us from detecting patterns of host preferences in polyphagous species.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.02.006
       
  • Morphological diversity and function of the stigma in Ficus species
           (Moraceae)
    • Authors: Simone Pádua Teixeira; Marina F.B. Costa; João Paulo Basso-Alves; Finn Kjellberg; Rodrigo A.S. Pereira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Simone Pádua Teixeira, Marina F.B. Costa, João Paulo Basso-Alves, Finn Kjellberg, Rodrigo A.S. Pereira
      The stigma plays several roles such as pollen hydration and selection, and pollen tube nutrition. In the Ficus-fig wasp mutualism, stigmata have an additional, almost unknown, function by representing a physical interface for both plant and wasp reproduction. We used light and electron microscopy to compare the detailed morphology of the stigmata of nine Ficus species of different sections and with different pollination modes and sexual expressions. Figs were collected at the stage when the stigmata were receptive for pollination. Stigmata in actively pollinated monoecious species have well developed papillae concentrated on the adaxial surface exposed towards the fig cavity. Conversely, the passively pollinated monoecious species have the whole surface of the stigmata covered by somewhat smaller papillae. In both actively and passively pollinated monoecious species these features are consistent, irrespective of style length. In all actively pollinated gynodioecious species, the stigmata of pistillate flowers were tubular or infundibuliform whereas in almost all actively pollinated monoecious species (except F. racemosa) the stigmata were filiform, with one branch or two asymmetric branches. In gynodioecious species the short-styled flowers in “male” figs show a limited receptive surface with small papillae, while the stigmata of long-styled flowers in “female” figs are covered by papillae that extend down the sides of the style, increasing the stigmatic surface. In actively pollinated species, stigmata are cohesive, forming a common surface for pollen tube germination (= synstigma). The synstigma arrangement was quite variable: lax, cohesive or very cohesive, with entanglement by stigmatic papillae and stylar trichomes. Entanglement by stylar trichomes is common in gynodioecious species. The synstigma arrangement did not correlate with phylogeny or breeding system. This study is the first to report a very loose synstigma in actively pollinated monoecious Ficus species. Our analyses revealed that, in Ficus, the synstigma is functionally analogous to an extra-gynoecial compitum. Comparative studies will be required to test further hypotheses about the evolutionary determinants of such variation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.02.008
       
  • Weak genetic divergence suggests extensive gene flow at the northeastern
           range limit of a dioecious Ficus species
    • Authors: Rong Wang; Chang-Hong Yang; Yuan-Yuan Ding; Xin Tong; Xiao-Yong Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Rong Wang, Chang-Hong Yang, Yuan-Yuan Ding, Xin Tong, Xiao-Yong Chen
      Genus Ficus (Moraceae) plays a critical role in the sustainability and biodiversity in tropical and subtropical ecosystems. Ficus species and their host specific pollinating fig wasps (Agaonidae) represent a classic example of obligate mutualism. The genetic consequence of range expansion and range shift is still under investigation, but extensive gene flow and subsequently low level of genetic divergence may be expected to occur among the populations at the poleward range limit of some Ficus species due to long distance gene flow in the genus. In the present study, we focused on populations of F. sarmentosa var. henryi at its northeastern range limit in southeast China to test whether edge populations were genetically fragile. Consistent with our hypothesis, high level of genetic diversity and weak genetic structure were revealed in Ficus sarmentosa var. henryi populations, suggesting extensive gene flow at the plant's range limit. Long-distance movements of both pollinators and frugivorous birds were likely to be frequent and thereby predominantly contributed to the extensive gene flow at large scale despite of some magnificent landscape elements like huge mountains.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.02.002
       
  • Transcriptome analysis of genes involved in the response of a pollinator
           fig wasp to volatile organic compounds from its host figs
    • Authors: Jiqing Zeng; Hui Yu; Finn Kjellberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018
      Source:Acta Oecologica
      Author(s): Jiqing Zeng, Hui Yu, Finn Kjellberg
      The mutualism of figs and their pollinating fig wasps is widely regarded as a model for coevolved mutualism. A high degree of host specificity is ensured by female wasps only being attracted by their specific fig tree species through the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by the figs when they are ready to be pollinated. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the production of VOCs and how pollinators respond to these VOCs. Here we present transcriptome sequencing data from VOC-treated fig wasps and control fig wasps. Using Illumina paired-end sequencing, approximately 6.47 Gbp and 6.48 Gbp high quality reads were generated for fig wasps that had been exposed or not to VOCs of their host fig. After read trimming, the de novo assembly of both types of reads produced 58,192 unigenes with an average length of 817 bp. Then functional annotation and GO enrichment analysis was performed by aligning all-unigenes with public protein databases including NR, SwissProt, and KEGG. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were investigated using the RPKM method. Overall, 16 up-regulated genes and 13 down-regulated genes were identified. We further performed GO enrichment and metabolic pathway enrichment analyses. One gene involved in the synoptic vesicle cycle and two genes coding for odorant binding proteins (OBP) are likely to have potential impacts on the response of fig wasps to the VOCs emitted by their host figs. This is the first transcriptome sequencing of a fig wasp in the presence of VOCs of its host figs using the next-generation sequencing technology. Our studies suggest that the expression of some genes in the olfactory neural system of the fig wasps is affected by the VOCs released from the figs. This suggests the presence of a dynamic molecular system of detection and hence response to host plant VOCs. As such our findings provide indications for further mechanistic studies on the fig-fig wasp interactions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T22:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actao.2018.01.003
       
 
 
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