Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3161 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3161 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 106, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 446, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 324, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 431, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 395, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 488, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 264, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.693
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 0  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1573-5214
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Do consumers care about local feedstuffs in local food' Results from a
           German consumer study
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 88Author(s): Adriano Profeta, Ulrich HammAbstractWe analyse if the introduction of a label showing a local feed origin is a promising product differentiation marketing strategy for animal products. Until now, animal products sold in Germany have not normally been labelled with any information about the feed origin. A Discrete-Choice experiment (DCE) was applied for pork cutlets and eggs. The German label ‘Regionalfenster’ (‘RF’) was used as the carrier for the local feed origin and different local feed-share levels (75%, 90%, 100%) were considered. The findings show a high market potential for a product differentiation strategy in the local supply chain. Results of a multinomial logit model (one-class-model) showed that there is a clear linear relationship between the percentage of the local feed-share and consumer preference. However, a more detailed latent class analysis revealed that for pork cutlets, 70% of the consumers would be satisfied with a local feed share below 100%, whereas for eggs, this holds true for only 37% of consumers.
  • A vertically linked dynamic partial equilibrium model to analyze market
           shocks caused by HPAI control in the Dutch egg production chain
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 88Author(s): N. Longworth, R.A. Jongeneel, H.W. SaatkampAbstractTo analyze the market effects of HPAI control in the Dutch layer sector an integrated modelling approach was developed to simulate these effects. This approach included (1) an extensive epidemiological simulation, (2) farm level costs calculation and conversion, and (3) partial equilibrium (PE) modelling of the Dutch layer sector. Model structure and behavioural equations of the latter are described. The basis for the analysis of model behaviour were simulated HPAI epidemics which resulted in changes of stocks, i.e. shocks. These epidemics were simulated for different regions, control strategies and severity. Using the epidemiological input subsequently model behaviour was analyzed on the impacts of supply and demand shocks, trade bans and channeling restrictions. The results showed a remarkable impact of the pyramidal production chain structure on the market effects: culling of parent stock during the epidemic could result in an under-capacity of subsequent levels of the production chain with associated price effects. In some cases, restoring the starting situation could take 3 years. Moreover, different and sometimes conflicting market effects per chain level could be observed. Finally, the impact of demand shocks and the potential for channeling to industrial processing of eggs was observed. The results were discussed in view of conceptual validity and internal model verification, data validity and operational validity. It was concluded that this modelling approach provides a suitable basis for extensive analysis of market effects of HPAI epidemics.
  • Public-private partnerships as systemic agricultural innovation policy
           instruments – Assessing their contribution to innovation system function
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 88Author(s): Frans Hermans, Floor Geerling-Eiff, Jorieke Potters, Laurens KlerkxAbstractThis paper addresses the question how public-private partnerships function as systemic innovation policy instruments within agricultural innovation systems. Public-private partnerships are a popular government tool to promote innovations. However, the wide ranging nature of PPPs make it difficult to assess their effects beyond the direct impacts they generate for the partners. This paper broadens the discussion on the evaluation of PPPs beyond the organisational and financial benefits of the actors involved, and assesses their contribution to the functioning of the innovation system itself. In this paper, we utilise an innovation system perspective that focusses on how PPPs influence the dynamic interplay of innovation system functions and how these functions form a set of feedback loops that constitute an ‘innovation motor’. We compare the innovation history of four cases that differ in their strategic policy goals, either working on agricultural sustainability, or on the international competitiveness in the Dutch agricultural sector. The results show the strengths and weaknesses of different types of public-private partnerships as systemic instruments and their capability to orchestrate other types of innovation policy instruments.
  • Saturation mapping of consistent QTLs for yield and days to flowering
           under drought using locally adapted landrace in rice (Oryza sativa L.)
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 88Author(s): Ashish B. Rajurkar, C. Muthukumar, A. Bharathi, Helen Baby Thomas, R. Chandra BabuAbstractDrought stress is a major constraint for rice production in rainfed ecosystems. Landraces are reservoir of genes that can help in breeding drought tolerant cultivars. Utilizing the genetic potential of these locally adapted resilient germplasm using quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and marker-assisted breeding (MAB) will hasten development of high yielding drought resilient cultivars. A total of 60 genomic regions linked to phenology and plant production traits under drought predominant in rainfed target populations of environment (TPE) were mapped using rice lines derived from a locally adapted landrace, Nootripathu and drought susceptible elite cultivar, IR20 evaluated in three drought stress and one non-stress experiments in the field. QTLs important in rice adaptation to drought have been saturated and refined with additional markers. For example, consistent QTL, RM8085-RM3825 on chromosome 1 for grain yield under drought in TPE, with additive effect from the landrace has been narrowed down to 42.8 Kb (from 1.6 Mb) between RM11873-RM3825. Another QTL for yield under drought was also identified at RM11943 on chromosome 1 with additive effect from IR20 and is also linked to sd1 locus governing plant height. Similarly, the consistent QTL detected for days to 50% flowering (DFF), between RM314-RM6836 on chromosome 6 was also narrowed down to 279.8 Kb (from 4.9 Mb) between RM19715-RM19727. This QTL also harbours Hd1 locus regulating heading date. A QTL for yield under drought was also mapped on chromosome 6 near RM314. Both these QTLs for DFF and yield are located within the meta-QTL for yield under drought (MQTL6.1). These consistent QTLs for yield and DFF under drought in TPE with linkage or pleiotropy to sd1 and Hd1 loci mapped using rice lines derived from locally adapted landrace may be useful in MAB of rice cultivars suitable for water-limited environments.
  • Transitioning towards commercial upland agriculture: A comparative study
           in Northern Lao PDR
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 88Author(s): Catherine M. Hepp, Thilde Bech Bruun, Andreas de NeergaardAbstractUpland agricultural systems are rapidly transitioning from traditional shifting cultivation to more commercialized agriculture, i.e. annual cash crop cultivation – a trend widely observed in the uplands of Northern Lao P.D.R. and with consequences to household livelihood strategies at the village-level. The main objective of this study was to compare village and household socioeconomic standings of two upland agricultural systems varying in degree of commercialization in Northern Lao P.D.R.: i) Navene, a village with a relatively recent introduction (2010) of the cash crop, fodder maize, where it is cultivated extensively with no added external inputs or mechanization and ii) Ko Ngiaw, where cultivation was introduced in 2004 and fodder maize is now successively cultivated on ploughed upland fields with herbicide application. Participatory mapping, household surveys (during planting and harvesting), farmer activity books and ranking exercises were conducted to collect data on village and household resources, crop production (upland rice, paddy rice and maize), labour productivity (maize) and general perspectives on commercial agriculture. We show both infrastructure development and accessibility (market access, support and services) are important underlying drivers of the commercialization of agriculture in upland areas. This leads to a transition of upland livelihoods towards market–orientation, with implications to household demographics, socioeconomic standings and income portfolios. Results capture how market integration progressively decouples livelihood strategies from the ‘land’, exposing households to market volatilizations, indebtedness and socio-cultural losses. Food security is no longer perceived from a ‘producer’s’ standpoint but from a ‘consumer’s’ as commercialized upland households are more dependent on markets for their food supply. We conclude that proper services, support and access to i.e. markets or non-farm employment in conjunction with infrastructure development should be prioritized if upland households are to transition towards commercialized agriculture equally and with minimal risk to their livelihood security.
  • Refining the smallholder market integration framework: A qualitative study
           of Ethiopian pastoralists
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 88Author(s): Workneh Kassa Tessema, Paul T.M. Ingenbleek, Hans C.M. van TrijpAbstractThe continued interest in market access and market integration policies targeting small-scale agricultural producers has led researchers to further explore the theoretical underpinnings of these concepts. This study presents an in-depth qualitative investigation into the behavioral consequences of market integration for Ethiopian pastoralists. The findings show that pastoralists further strengthen their strategic connection to the market by the processes of market sensing and market responding, which enable them to offer livestock with the quality attributes demanded by buyers. Pastoralists engaging in these activities typically generate more revenue from the market, thereby improving their livelihoods. They are also more capable of adapting to changes in natural conditions and are more likely to change their lifestyles. These findings imply that policymakers should not only foster the market participation of small-scale agricultural producers, but also ensure that producers align their products with the wants and needs of customers by sensing and responding to their market.
  • Perceived climate risks and adaptation drivers in diverse coffee
           landscapes of Uganda
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 88Author(s): Catherine Mulinde, J.G.M. Majaliwa, Revocatus Twinomuhangi, David Mfitumukiza, Everline Komutunga, Edidah Ampaire, Judith Asiimwe, Piet Van Asten, Laurence JassogneAbstractWhereas adaptation to climate variability takes center stage in the agricultural development discourse, implementation is poorly guided through adoption of ‘one-size-fits-all’ adaptation approaches in coffee landscapes. This study empirically provides evidence of diversity of rural coffee farm-households and climate vulnerabilities in Uganda. We specifically characterized farm-household systems in the coffee-based farming systems; identified perceived climate risks; identified generalized landscape-level and specific farm-household system-level adaptation practices; and determined socio-economic drivers that impacted uptake of adaptation practices. 688 farm-households were surveyed and asked what they perceived as major climate risks, and how they adapted to experienced shocks/stresses in Eastern (Arabica) and Central (Robusta) Uganda. Principal Component and Multivariate Cluster Analyses were adopted for farm-household systems identification, and Semi-Nonparametric model for uptake of adaptation practices. Distinct farm-household systems were identified in Central (coffee-maize-beans; coffee-livestock-off-farm) and Eastern Uganda (coffee-banana-maize; coffee-banana; coffee-off-farm). They differed by land allocations to crops, livestock rearing, rainfall/altitude gradients, off-farm activities and crop income. Farm-households experienced food shortages and crop losses resulting from prolonged drought and erratic shifts in rainfall distribution. The major generalized adaptation practice was inorganic fertilizer use while the specific included herbicide use and increase in livestock numbers in Central Uganda; and pesticides use, structural technologies and off-farm activities in Eastern. Adaptation drivers include household-head’s awareness of climate variability and involvement in policy-formulation process (both regions); farm-household’s total land area (Eastern Uganda); and access to input/output markets (Central Uganda). We conclude that policy makers should package adaptation practices per farm-household system to enhance effective adaptation to climate risks.
  • Adoption of climate change adaptation strategies by maize-dependent
           smallholders in Ethiopia
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 88Author(s): Sisay Bedeke, Wouter Vanhove, Muluken Gezahegn, Kolandavel Natarajan, Patrick Van DammeAbstractClimate change is an environmental process that is among the most limiting factors for increasing or even maintaining food production by small-farmer communities in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Adoption of climate change adaptation strategies that increase agricultural productivity and at the same time building farmers’ resilience capacity has become a top policy priority in SSA. In this study, we investigate how maize-dependent smallholders in Ethiopia adapt to climate change. Both household and plot-level data were collected, and subsequently analysed by a multivariate probit regression model. Results show that most climate change adaptation strategies implemented by maize-dependent smallholders, are complementary. Combining conservation tillage, mixed maize-legume cropping and terracing along with the use of drought-resistant maize varieties allows farmers to increase productivity while building resilience to climate change more than a subset of these strategies. Findings indicate that the likelihood of adopting soil and water conservation practices, drought-resistant maize varieties and chemical fertilizers significantly increase among young and male-headed households as well as farmers having confidence in extension agents and membership in local organisations. Hence, policies should aim at further building agricultural extension agents’ capacity by providing effective and continuous education and training on climate change impacts and responses. Promoting family ties and household memberships in local organisations through facilitating mutual cooperation and communication among farming communities would help to foster adoption of climate change adaptation strategies.
  • Social farming and work inclusion initiatives for adults with autism
           spectrum disorders: A pilot study
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 88Author(s): Biancamaria Torquati, Gianluca Stefani, Giulio Massini, Lucio Cecchini, Massimo Chiorri, Chiara PaffariniAbstractIn recent years, an increasing number of social farming initiatives have involved adults with autism spectrum disorders, both to improve their life conditions and promote their work inclusion. Several studies have assessed these experiences, showing that the participants derive important benefits from being part of a social community, working in the countryside, and establishing a good relationship with the farmer.This paper aims to assess the ability of 9 adults with autism spectrum disorders – who attend an adult day care centre in the Umbria region of Italy – to carry out agricultural and animal husbandry activities. Results from panel data analysis show that the activity of olive grove, indoor cleaning, and tidying at the agritourism farms has a considerable positive effect on the performances of the adults with autism spectrum disorders.Moreover, the adults studied prefer the activities in a greenhouse over those occurring inside (e.g., agritourism farm or the warehouse) and outside (e.g., vegetable, olive, and grape production). Further, the higher the precision level required to perform an action, the lower is their observed performance.Generally, the tasks that receive the highest evaluations are those in which the autistic person can relate with other people and/or animals. These findings confirm the role of social farming in developing working and relational skills in adults with autism spectrum disorders.
  • Understanding the heterogeneity of smallholder production systems in the
           Andean tropics – The case of Colombian tomato growers
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 88Author(s): Rodrigo Gil, Carlos Ricardo Bojacá, Eddie SchrevensAbstractIn developing countries, a common goal is to improve horticultural production systems as a strategy to increase food security and to improve the living conditions of these rural communities. However, smallholder-based agricultural systems are highly heterogeneous due to the wide range of biophysical conditions to which the crops are exposed, and the diversity in the management practices. In order to implement programs aimed at improving the productivity of these systems it is necessary to recognize its variability in quantitative terms. The main objective of this work was to describe the heterogeneity associated to smallholder production systems, using as a case study the Colombian tomato growers. Data were collected from two tomato production zones located in the Colombian Andes and under two cropping systems being the open field (OF) and the greenhouse (GH) production models. In both zones, the climate was described based on historical records, soil samples were taken to determine the natural fertility and the growers’ management practices were inquired. We also compared two instruments for data collection, surveys and detailed follow-ups. A higher heterogeneity in environmental conditions and management practices was evidenced for the OF system compared to the GH system. The fertilization strategies used by GH growers caused a significant increase in soil nutrient content, electrical conductivity and acidity. We found a higher productivity per square meter in the GH system, however the yield per plant was higher for the OF system (4.88 kg plant−1) in comparison with the GH system (2.84 kg plant−1). Results also indicated that follow-ups are an appropriate instrument to obtain accurate inventories. Knowledge empowerment arises as the key point to improve the smallholder’s productivities; in opposition to results elsewhere, where economic constraints are highlighted as the important sources of variability and low yields.
  • Potatoes and livelihoods in Chencha, southern Ethiopia
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2019Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volume 88Author(s): Yenenesh Tadesse, Conny J.M. Almekinders, Rogier P.O. Schulte, Paul C. StruikAbstractPotato is highly productive crop and can provide a cheap and nutritionally-rich staple food. Its potential as a cash generator and source of food is much under-utilized in many emerging economies. In this paper we study the impact of an intervention that introduced improved potato technologies in Chencha, Ethiopia on the livelihoods of smallholder farmers. We collected information through in-depth interviews in order to explore possible pathways of impact on farmers’ livelihoods; and used this information as the basis for designing a household survey. The results show changes in agronomic practices and consumption; these changes were most pronounced among wealthy farmers who participated in the intervention. Farmers used the additional income from potato in different ways: wealthier farmers improved their houses and increased their livestock, whereas poor farmers mainly invested in furniture, cooking utensils, tools and in developing small businesses like selling and buying cereals, milk and weaving products in the local markets. Some wealthy farmers, who did not participate in the project, also derived some indirect benefits from the intervention. This underscores: i) interventions that promote uniform farming technologies in themselves are not always sufficient to improve the livelihoods of poor farmers, and ii) the need to broaden the scope of interventions so as to take into account the resources available to farmers in different wealth categories, and the diversity of strategies that they employ for improving their livelihoods. Our approach allows to understand and describe the different developmental effects of a single technological intervention on the different aspects of farmers’ livelihoods.
  • Ethics of smart farming: Current questions and directions for responsible
           innovation towards the future
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life SciencesAuthor(s): Simone van der Burg, Marc-Jeroen Bogaardt, Sjaak WolfertAbstractSensors, drones, weather satellites and robots are examples of technologies that make farming ‘smart’. In this article we present the results of our review of the literature that concerns the ethical challenges that smart farming raises. Our reading suggests that current ethical discussion about smart farming circles around three themes: (1) data ownership and access, (2) distribution of power and (3) impacts on human life and society. Discussions that fall under these themes have however not yet reached a satisfying conclusion, as there seem to be different ideas at work in the background regarding the purpose and function of digital farms in society. The pros and cons of these rivalling ideas are rarely foregrounded in the discussion. We suggest that future research should focus first on the content of these goals, especially on the content of societal and commercial goals and whether and how they can be combined in differing contexts. This will offer a lead to think about what data ought to be shared with whom, to set preconditions for trust between stakeholders and –eventually- develop appropriate guidelines and codes of conduct for future farming digitalization trajectories.
  • A sustainable approach to fostering agricultural knowledge sharing in
           conflict-affected areas of Eastern Ukraine
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2019Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life SciencesAuthor(s): Andrew F. Fieldsend, Yana Voitovska, Farrukh Toirov, Ruslan Markov, Nevena AlexandrovaAbstractThe agriculture sector of the Donbass Region in eastern Ukraine is facing serious challenges caused by the ongoing military conflict and consequent disruption of the earlier-established value chains. An advisory service potentially could help farmers to adapt to the changed circumstances. To inform the development process, an interview survey was conducted among 80 farmers in the region of their perceived information and advisory needs. Most interviewees stated that many issues affect the performance of their farm. Of all the given farmer × issue ‘interactions’ (i.e. a given farmer facing a specific issue), advice had been sought in around 70 per cent of instances. For any specific issue, most farmers sought advice from several sources. Interviewees attached very high importance to accessibility, convenience, previous personal experience, personal recommendation and confidence in the quality of advice given. Friends and family was the most popular source of advice, with farmers’ organisations, local government agencies and agricultural Internet portals all being consulted by more than half of the interviewees. Many other sources were used by fewer than ten farmers. Twelve interviewees said that they would seek advice from advisory services if this was available. Following the analysis of the questionnaire results, three farmer focus groups were held to help interpret them. We conclude that, even in the absence of a formal advisory service, many farmers in the region are actively acquiring and sharing knowledge and that the agricultural innovation system continues to function despite the disruption caused by the conflict. Any new intervention should recognise this fact and be designed to improve knowledge flows between actors further, rather than to replace those that currently exist.
  • ‘Smart farming’ in Ireland: A risk perception study with key
           governance actors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life SciencesAuthor(s): Áine ReganAbstractAs research and innovation around Smart Farming further advances, there is a need to consider the impact of these technologies including the socio-economic, behavioural and cultural issues that may arise from their adoption. The current study explores the perceived risks and benefits arising from the development of Smart Farming in Ireland and in particular focuses on the different interpretations ascribed to risk issues by different actors. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 21 actors who through their professional positions have some level of responsibility for the growth of Smart Farming in Ireland. Although the participants in the current study were largely in agreement about the benefits presented by Smart Farming for Irish agriculture and society, they held different interpretations and opinions when discussing identified risks. The main concerns related to consumer rejection of technologies, inequitable distribution of risks and benefits within the farming community, adverse socio-economic impacts of increased farmer-technology interactions, and ethical threats presented by the collection and sharing of farmers’ data. The current study reinforces how ambiguity can surround the discussion of risks as individuals form perceptions based on divergent value judgements. The findings reinforce the call for discourse-based management of risks and the embedding of frameworks such as Responsible Research and Innovation within Smart Farming.
  • “If they don’t tell us what they do with it, why would we trust
           them'” Trust, transparency and benefit-sharing in Smart Farming
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2018Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life SciencesAuthor(s): Emma Jakku, Bruce Taylor, Aysha Fleming, Claire Mason, Simon Fielke, Chris Sounness, Peter ThorburnAbstractAdvances in Smart Farming and Big Data applications have the potential to help agricultural industries meet productivity and sustainability challenges. However, these benefits are unlikely to be realised if the social implications of these technological innovations are not adequately considered by those who promote them. Big Data applications are intrinsically socio-technical; their development and deployment are a product of social interactions between people, institutional and regulatory settings, as well as the technology itself. This paper explores the socio-technical factors and conditions that influence the development of Smart Farming and Big Data applications, using a multi-level perspective on transitions combined with social practice theory. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 26 Australian grain farmers and industry stakeholders to elicit their perspectives on benefits and risks of these changes. The analysis shows that issues related to trust are central concerns for many participants. These include procedural concerns about transparency and distributional concerns about who will benefit from access to and use of “farmers’ data”. These concerns create scepticism about the value of ‘smart’ technologies amongst some industry stakeholders, especially farmers. It also points to a divergence of expectations and norms between actors and institutions at the regime and niche levels in the emerging transition towards Smart Farming. Bridging this divide will require niche level interventions to enhance the agency of farmers and their local networks in these transactions, and, the cooperative design of new institutions at regime level to facilitate the fair and transparent allocation of risk and benefit in farming data information chains.
  • Diagnosis of management of bacterial wilt and late blight in potato in
           Ethiopia: A systems thinking perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volumes 86–87Author(s): E. Damtew, Shiferaw Tafesse, R. Lie, B. van Mierlo, B. Lemaga, K. Sharma, P.C. Struik, C. LeeuwisAbstractPotato is one of the most important food crops for smallholder farmers in the Ethiopian highlands. Diseases, particularly bacterial wilt (caused by Ralstonia solanacearum) and late blight (caused by Phytophthora infestans), are among the major constraints of potato production, despite continuous efforts to control them. Bacterial wilt and late blight are complex problems with multiple technical and institutional features, involving multiple actors with different perceptions and understanding, not only of the problem but also of possible solutions. Appreciating such complexity, this study adopted a systems thinking perspective. It aimed to explore actors’ understanding of the complex problem situation and its implication for the management of the diseases at a collective level. Using a multi-stakeholder workshop and in-depth interviews, a qualitative study was conducted with actors that are directly or indirectly involved in the management of the two diseases. Results showed that actors essentially overlooked key systemic problems in the management of the two diseases. This is mainly reflected in actors’ tendency to give event-level responses, shift responsibilities and engage in a mutual blaming to the problem of bacterial wilt and late blight. Lack of a preventive disease management culture, limited recognition of interdependencies among activities of actors, power inequalities, and top-down and linear approaches in information and knowledge sharing are identified as key structural problems that are underrated by the actors. We contend that the most appropriate way forward towards the management of both diseases is designing and implementing management strategies that, on the one hand, are preventive of disease epidemics, and, on the other hand, foster horizontal information sharing, learning and collective action among the local actors in the system. Digital platforms, particularly mobile-based technologies, can play a role in catalyzing new forms of information sharing, broader learning, and collaboration among farmers and local actors.
  • A citizen science approach for malaria mosquito surveillance and control
           in Rwanda
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volumes 86–87Author(s): Marilyn Milumbu Murindahabi, Domina Asingizwe, P. Marijn Poortvliet, Arnold J.H. van Vliet, Emmanuel Hakizimana, Leon Mutesa, Willem Takken, Constantianus J.M. KoenraadtAbstractDespite the implementation of a number of interventions aimed at controlling malaria, Rwanda is experiencing a countrywide resurgence of simple malaria cases over the past five years. To support malaria control, mosquito surveillance activities, such as systematic reporting of the distribution, the diversity and the infectivity rate of malaria vectors throughout the country, have been undertaken. However, mosquito monitoring programmes are not carried out to monitor the impact of all vector control interventions or to determine the distribution of mosquito species in all areas, especially in the remote regions of the country. With a target of reducing malaria mortality by 2020, implementation of mosquito surveillance in those regions is urgently needed as well. In this paper, a Citizen science approach as a capacity resource for malaria vector monitoring for the Rwandan National Malaria Control Programme is presented. The ultimate aim is to complement existing mosquito surveillance currently in place by providing key information on the spatio-temporal distribution of mosquito nuisance and malaria vectors. This will contribute to an insight into the ecology of malaria vectors and thereby to a better understanding of malaria transmission patterns in Rwanda.
  • Digital platforms for smallholder credit access: The mediation of trust
           for cooperation in maize value chain financing
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volumes 86–87Author(s): Christopher Agyekumhene, Jasper R. de Vries, Annemarie van Paassen, Philip Macnaghten, Marc Schut, Arnold BregtAbstractMaize production is of critical importance to smallholder farmers in Ghana. Various factors limit the productivity of smallholder maize farming systems undergirded by the lack of capital for critical investments both at the farm and at national policy levels. Using a value chain approach, this diagnostic study explains how a complex configuration of actor interaction within an institutionally and agro-ecologically challenged value chain leads to the enduring absence of maize farming credit support. We find a cycle of credit rationing resulting from value chain challenges such as agro-ecological uncertainties, inadequate GAPs training, weak farmer groups and market insecurity. This condition is sustained by an interplay between mistrust, insufficient information across the value chain and inadequate control strategies in the maize credit system. We argue that Digital Platforms (DPs) show potential to help overcome some information and communication gaps and related uncertainties that impede traditional value chain credit arrangements. This is promising in terms of aiding awareness and coordinated responsiveness to agro-ecological farm conditions and the development of farming records databases. Thus, DPs could generate new networks and forms of cooperation in the maize value chain in this regard. As a tool for mediating trust in value chain credit cooperation, strategic use of these DP contributions could help initiate an entry point for recalibration of trust perceptions. Significant considerations and improvements are however needed to harness DPs effectively in mediating trust for maize credit provision, not least being farmer digital inclusion in DP implementation, effective intermediation and network governance arrangements and digital contributions towards cost-effective agro-ecological controls in the erratic maize farming context. This approach to trust building should therefore not be viewed as a quick fix but as a process of trial and error, and learning by doing.
  • Innovation intermediation in a digital age: Comparing public and private
           new-ICT platforms for agricultural extension in Ghana
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volumes 86–87Author(s): Nyamwaya Munthali, Cees Leeuwis, Annemarie van Paassen, Rico Lie, Richard Asare, Ron van Lammeren, Marc SchutAbstractAgricultural extension in sub-Saharan Africa has often been criticised for its focus on linear knowledge transfer, and limited attention to systemic approaches to service delivery. Currently, the region is experiencing a new-ICT revolution and there are high expectations of new-ICTs to enhance interaction and information exchange in extension service delivery. Using an innovation systems perspective, we distinguish the roles demand-articulation, matching demand and supply, and innovation process management for innovation-intermediaries. The study explores literature on how new-ICT may support these roles, with specific interest in the possibilities of environmental monitoring and new forms of organisation enabled by enhanced connectivity. In order to contribute to the understanding of this area, the paper reports on a comparative study of two new-ICT platforms embedded in Ghanaian public and private extension organisations respectively. We assess the roles that these platforms (aim to) support, and document achievements and constraints based on interviews with extension staff and farmers. The findings indicate that while both platforms aim to support innovation-intermediation roles the focus areas and level of detail differ due to diverging organisational rationales to service delivery. In addition, we see that new-ICTs' potential to support innovation-intermediation roles is far from realised. This is not due to (new) ICTs lacking the capacity to link people in new ways and make information accessible, but due to the wider social, organisational and institutional factors that define the realisation of their potential. Therefore, more conventional modes of interaction around production advice and also credit provision continue to be dominant and better adapted to the situation. However, beyond the two platforms that were developed specifically by and for the extension organisations, there were indications that more informal and self-organised new-ICT initiatives can transform and enhance interaction patterns in innovations systems to achieve collective goals through standard virtual platforms such as WhatsApp and Telegram.
  • Diagnosing the potential of hydro-climatic information services to support
           rice farming in northern Ghana
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volumes 86–87Author(s): Emmanuel Nyadzi, Andy B. Nyamekye, Saskia E. Werners, Robbert G. Biesbroek, Art Dewulf, Erik Van Slobbe, Hoang P. Long, Catrien J.A.M. Termeer, Fulco LudwigAbstractHydro-climatic information has a potential to improve agricultural productivity under climate variability. Recent developments in information sharing platforms (Environmental Virtual Observatories, EVOs) could make information provisioning more actionable. Here we present the results of a diagnostic study for the development of a hydro-climatic EVO that enables rice farmers in Northern Ghana to deal with climate variability and water shortage. The hydro-climatic EVO aims to combine data from scientific and indigenous forecast systems, facilitating information exchange using two-way interaction with stakeholders to co-produce knowledge. Data was collected through informal interviews with field practitioners, through focus group discussions with farmers and content analysis of documents. Results show that both the biophysical and socio-institutional circumstances need be taken into account for the development of the EVO. Existing governance and information exchange arrangements and lack of collaboration between actors were found to limit current hydro-climatic information flow, interpretation, and use. Our study reveals existing models of information exchange and their limitations in the study area. We discuss the proposed design of a hydro-climatic EVO from a responsible innovation perspective, considering possible future eventualities in a process that aims to be anticipatory, inclusive, reflexive and responsive. We conclude that such a hydro-climatic EVO has a potential to contribute to rice farmers’ adaptive decision-making in Northern Ghana, but there are challenges that need to be considered. The diagnostic study has helped to refine these challenges and offers concrete suggestions to improve both the design and implementation of the proposed platform in a responsible way.
  • Governance arrangements and adaptive decision-making in rice farming
           systems in Northern Ghana
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volumes 86–87Author(s): Andy Bonaventure Nyamekye, Art Dewulf, Erik Van Slobbe, Katrien Termeer, Cristina PintoAbstractClimate variability has consequences on water availability in rice farming systems. In Ghana, rice farmers in the Northern Savannah are amongst the most vulnerable to long periods of drought and erratic rainfall conditions. Within the Kumbungu district, farmers engaged in both rain-fed and irrigated rice farming are no exception. Coping with uncertain water availability conditions requires adaptive decision-making for sustained productivity in rice cropping. From an adaptive governance perspective, the extent to which formal and traditional governance arrangements enable adaptive decisions amongst rice farmers remains a key question. Using an exploratory research design, the study investigates three key questions; what water-dependent decisions rice farmers take and how these are adaptive to changing water availability conditions; what formal and informal governance arrangements rice cropping decisions are embedded in; and how existing governance arrangements enable or constrain adaptive decision-making. Rice farmers in twelve communities around the Bontanga Irrigation Scheme in the Kumbungu District in the Northern region were engaged through individual interviews and focus group discussions. The study reveals that farmers take six major water-dependent decisions throughout the cropping season; decision to or not to plant rice, land preparation, planting, weed control, fertilizer application and harvesting. Farmer decisions are most adaptive to water availability conditions during planting and fertilizer application. Both formal and traditional governance arrangements influence the extent to which farmers are able to adapt to changes in water availability conditions. The paper also reflects on the potential of hydro-climatic information and the place of Environmental Virtual Observatories (EVOs) in adaptive governance and decision-making.
  • Farmers’ knowledge and practices of potato disease management in
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volumes 86–87Author(s): Shiferaw Tafesse, E. Damtew, B. van Mierlo, R. Lie, B. Lemaga, K. Sharma, C. Leeuwis, P.C. StruikAbstractEffective management of potato diseases such as bacterial wilt and late blight depends to a large extent on farmers’ knowledge of the diseases as well as on the integration of recommended management methods in their daily practices. Late blight has continued to be a dominant potato disease for many decades in Ethiopia, whereas bacterial wilt has emerged more recently with a devastating impact on the country’s potato production systems. A survey of 261 randomly selected farmers was carried out in three major potato growing districts in the central highlands of Ethiopia to examine farmers’ knowledge and management practices of the two diseases, and to analyze the role of relevant knowledge in their practices. Considering their different characteristics, three groups of farmers were distinguished: producers of quality declared seed, producers of normal seed and producers of ware. The study shed light on the vital role the lack of knowledge about the diseases plays in shaping farmers’ daily potato production practices. Most farmers could recognize symptoms of the diseases on infected leaves and stems. However, they had very limited knowledge of the diseases including their causal agents, spreading mechanisms, and effective management methods, although they knew a little bit more about late blight than about bacterial wilt. Therefore, to effectively manage the diseases, farmers need to learn about the diseases and how to manage them in their local context applying a feasible combination of management options through a community-based approach. The effectivity of such an approach could be enhanced by stipulating operational standards in bylaws and through continuous monitoring of changes in farmers’ practices and environmental monitoring for disease occurrence by leveraging an interactive mobile-based platform.
  • Xanthomonas Wilt of Banana (BXW) in Central Africa: Opportunities,
           challenges, and pathways for citizen science and ICT-based control and
           prevention strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volumes 86–87Author(s): Mariette McCampbell, Marc Schut, Inge Van den Bergh, Boudy van Schagen, Bernard Vanlauwe, Guy Blomme, Svetlana Gaidashova, Emmanuel Njukwe, Cees LeeuwisAbstractXanthomonas Wilt of Banana (BXW) is a complex problem in the African Great Lakes Region that is affecting the livelihoods of millions of smallholder farmers. Since the first disease reports from Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2001, BXW has been studied widely. The majority of these studies focus on the technological or biophysical dimensions, while aspects and influence of socio-cultural, economic and institutional dimensions only recently started to gain attention. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the broader BXW problem using a systems perspective, with the aim to add to the understanding about reasons for poor uptake of appropriate disease management practices, and limited ability to prevent rather than control BXW in the region. We comprehensively describe and analyse the various problem dimensions, and determine relations with data, information, knowledge, and connectivity. Building on this, the paper explores and discusses entry-points for the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and citizen science tools to better address BXW in banana production systems.
  • Addressing socio-ecological development challenges in the digital age:
           Exploring the potential of Environmental Virtual Observatories for
           Connective Action (EVOCA)
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volumes 86–87Author(s): K.J. Cieslik, C. Leeuwis, A.R.P.J. Dewulf, R. Lie, S.E. Werners, M. van Wessel, P. Feindt, P.C. StruikAbstractClimate change, (a) biotic stresses and environmental degradation are adversely affecting the sustenance of farming communities in Africa. Addressing such challenges requires effective collective action and coordination among stakeholders, which often prove difficult to achieve. Timely and context-specific information on relevant environmental dynamics holds considerable promise to overcome these problems.This paper investigates the role of citizen science in facilitating knowledge co-creation and sharing between academia, development actors and users in developing country contexts. In our approach, we focus on information sharing platforms (known as Environmental Virtual Observatories, EVOs) and their potential to facilitate adaptive decision-making in six rural case-study areas in Africa.We complement the existing theory on EVOs with a focused exploration of the connective function of ICT-enabled multi-stakeholder exchange. We propose that increased connectivity may enable new forms of collective action (labelled ‘connective action’), relevant to addressing socio-ecological challenges. Along these lines, this paper presents the theoretical and conceptual grounding of a research program that aspires to develop Environmental Virtual Observatories for Connective Action (EVOCAs) and to explore their potential for improved crop, water, livestock and disease management in rural Africa.
  • Techne meets Metis: Knowledge and practices for tick control in Laikipia
           County, Kenya
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volumes 86–87Author(s): Faith Mutavi, Noelle Aarts, Annemarie Van Paassen, Ignas Heitkönig, Barbara WielandAbstractPrevention of tick borne diseases is often through tick control practices. This article diagnoses tick control practices, knowledge underlying these practices and how knowledge is shared at the wildlife-livestock interface in Laikipia County, Kenya. It identifies diverse land use and tick control practices by different land and livestock owners from a scientific knowledge-based (techne) and context driven experiential knowledge-based (metis) perspective.Interviews, focus group discussions, observations and documents yielded qualitative data to unravel i) the historical development of tick control in Kenya ii) techne and metis tick control practices within three ranches and among pastoralists in Laikipia County, and iii) status of tick knowledge sharing between stakeholders.Historical tick control measures date back to about 100 years ago, with increasingly strong veterinary measures over the decades under government control. However, the veterinary control system collapsed around 1991 and livestock owners took tick control into their own hands. All respondents indicated having relevant techne available about tick ecology and tick management practices. To adapt to the changing social, economic and institutional context, they further developed metis, integrating the known techne. Metis and techne complemented each other. Our study reveals that metis is developed within stakeholder groups. The data also suggest that metis practices sometimes develop risky effects to animal, human and environmental health. Knowledge on tick control is mainly shared within a social group, not between groups. We esteem, knowledge sharing between different stakeholder groups (ranchers, pastoralists, DVS) may provide opportunities for better informed decision-making based on fruitful combinations of techne and metis for effective and safe tick management.
  • Reflections on the potential of virtual citizen science platforms to
           address collective action challenges: Lessons and implications for future
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volumes 86–87Author(s): Cees Leeuwis, K.J. Cieslik, M.N.C. Aarts, A.R.P.J. Dewulf, F. Ludwig, S.E. Werners, P.C. StruikAbstractRural communities in Africa are facing numerous challenges related to human health, agricultural production, water scarcity and service delivery. Addressing such challenges requires effective collective action and coordination among stakeholders, which often prove difficult to achieve. Against the background of the increased availability of information and communication technologies (ICTs), this article synthesizes the lessons from six case-studies reported in this Special Issue. The cases investigate the possible role of digital citizen science platforms (labelled EVOCAs: Environmental Virtual Observatories for Connective Action) in overcoming the challenges of integrating heterogeneous actors in collective management of common resources and/or the provision of public goods. Inspired by the seminal work of Elinor Ostrom, our expectation was that such platforms could help operationalize communication and information-related design principles and community conditions that are known to enhance the capacity to address environmental challenges.This article presents some cross-cutting insights and reflections regarding the nature of the challenges identified by the diagnostic studies, and on the relevance and significance of Ostrom’s framework and analysis. It also reflects on the plausibility of our original ideas and assumptions by assessing what the various studies tell us about the significance and potential of key components of an EVOCA-type intervention: i.e. environmental monitoring, ICT, connective action, citizen science and responsible design. At the same time, we draw lessons for follow-up research and action in our research program and beyond by identifying several issues and themes that merit further investigation.Based on the case-studies, we conclude that many collective action challenges are of a more complex nature than originally anticipated, and often cannot be resolved within clearly demarcated communities. While this complicates the realization of Ostrom’s communication and information-related design principles and community features, there may still be a meaningful role for digital citizen science platforms. To help address complex challenges, they must be oriented towards fostering adaptive and systemic learning across interdependent stakeholder communities, rather than focusing on the self-betterment of the communities alone. Such digital platforms need to be developed in a responsible manner that ensures complementarity with already existing patterns of communication and ICT-use, that anticipates dynamics of trust and distrust among interdependent stakeholders, and that prevents typical problems associated with the sharing of information such as privacy infringement and undesirable control over information by outsiders.
  • Applying citizen science for malaria prevention in Rwanda: An integrated
           conceptual framework
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, Volumes 86–87Author(s): Domina Asingizwe, P. Marijn Poortvliet, Constantianus J.M. Koenraadt, Arnold J.H. Van Vliet, Marilyn M. Murindahabi, Chantal Ingabire, Leon Mutesa, Peter H. FeindtAbstractMalaria remains a major threat to public health. Long-Lasting Insecticide-treated Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) have been widely adopted as important malaria prevention and control interventions and have contributed to significant reduction in malaria incidence. However, recently malaria resurgence has been reported in different countries, including Rwanda, indicating that current attempts to control and eliminate malaria may be failing due to environmental changes and changes in human behaviour. Engaging citizens in malaria prevention and control would help them to identify and prioritize their own health concerns and be able to make appropriate decisions. A citizen science approach to monitor ecological changes by providing timely information is likely to support more effective and consistent use of malaria prevention and control interventions. However, the application of citizen science in malaria prevention and control has lagged behind when comparing with areas of disease diagnosis and treatment. In addition, the determinants of participation in such a citizen science program have not been fully analyzed. This paper presents a conceptual model of likely determinants of participation in connective action (sharing and exchange of malaria-related information), effective and consistent use of malaria preventive and control measures (LLINs and IRS) and collective action (participating in public goods for malaria prevention). The model will guide future research on behavioural and contextual factors and may enhance the effective and consistent use of malaria preventive and control interventions.
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