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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3155 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3155 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 96, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 412, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 258, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 400, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 345, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 456, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 201, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Acta Histochemica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.661
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0065-1281
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3155 journals]
  • Differential expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in
           stomach and diverticulum of Otocinclus affinis (Steindachner, 1877) as a
           potential element of the epithelium remodeling mechanism
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Leszek Satora, Katarzyna Kozioł, Wojciech Waldman, Jennifer Mytych It is suggested that due to the several stomach modifications, Otocinculus affinis (dwarf sucking catfish) possess the ability to breathe air during hypoxia, however, the exact mechanism remains unknown. The aim of this study was detailed analysis of the expression of EGFR in the stomach and diverticulum of the O. affinis at the mRNA and protein levels together with the immunohistochemical localization of EGFR in these organs. The intensity of band fluorescence corresponding to the EGFR gene expression level is significantly higher in the stomach than in the diverticulum. Further, quantitative analysis of EGFR protein abundance also revealed its higher synthesis in the stomach than in the diverticulum and the immunohistochemistry method confirmed these results. As regional localization of respiratory function in gut air-breathing fishes seems to be connected with “morphological remodeling” of the epithelium of their gut, the present research demonstrated the potential efficiency of the O. affinis stomach as a respiratory organ. Having the potential possibility to create an air-blood barrier in the gastrointestinal tract allowing gas diffusion and respiration in hypoxic states seems to be very beneficial for these fish. It seems that facultative gut air breathing fish species are a relevant vertebrate model for high throughput screening, vascular biology and evolution.
       
  • Distribution of abalone egg-laying hormone-like peptide in the central
           nervous system and reproductive tract of the male mud crab, Scylla
           olivacea
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Kanjana Khornchatri, Jirawat Saetan, Tipsuda Thongbuakaew, Thanyaporn Senarai, Thanapong Kruangkum, Napamanee Kornthong, Yotsawan Tinikul, Prasert Sobhon The mud crab, Scylla olivacea, is a high value economic marine animal in Thailand. However, collection of these crabs from natural habitat for local consumption and export has caused rapid population decline. Hence, aquaculture of this species is required and to this measure understanding of endocrine control of their reproduction must be understood. Egg laying hormone (ELH) is a neuropeptide synthesized by the bag cells (neurons) in the abdominal ganglia of Aplysia gastropods. It plays a critical role in controlling egg production and laying in gastropods, and its possible homolog (ELH-like peptide) was reported in the neural and ovarian tissues of prawns and recently in female reproductive tract of the blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus. In this study, we have studied the histology of the male reproductive tract in Scylla olivacea which are comprised of anterior testis, posterior testis, early proximal spermatic duct (ePSD), proximal spermatic duct (PSD), middle spermatic duct (MSD) and distal spermatic duct (DSD), by immunohistochemistry, detected an abalone ELH- immunoreactivity (aELH-ir) in epithelium of ducts in posterior testis and epithelium of all parts of spermatic duct. Furthermore, we could detect aELH-ir in neurons of cluster 9, 11, olfactory neuropil (ON) in the brain and in the small neurons located between the third and the fourth thoracic neuropils (T3-T4) and between the fourth and the fifth thoracic neuropils (T4-T5) of thoracic ganglia. Thus, the presence of aELH in male S. olivacea was designated the role of female egg laying behavior in the male mud crab.
       
  • Unstained cell imaging: Morphological insights from coupled fixation and
           darkfield microscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Alessio Gnerucci, Paola Faraoni, Giovanni Romano, Franco Fusi Cell staining techniques are well established in cell biology and associated with a broad range of dedicated dyes; however, they are accompanied by non-negligible costs, preparation time and unavoidable alterations of the sample with foreign molecules. In this context, we point out and propose the use of darkfield microscopy (DM) combined with different fixation protocols (to be used anyway) to enhance the different cell structures and districts as a timesaving and inexpensive support to the techniques that need staining or immuno-staining protocols and products. In a first step, we have analysed the effect of different fixation protocols on DM images for various human cellular lines. The presented imaging study shows that cell morphology actually changes with the fixation protocols that enhance, through contrast and luminosity variations, different shapes and patterns and thus structures of the cells. The different chemical action of various fixations, in fact, modifies the local scattering coefficient, thus affecting in a different way the morphology shown by DM images. As a second step we have compared the observed DM morphologies to those of selective fluorescent staining being therefore able to associate them to specific cell districts (e.g. nucleus, membrane or cytoskeleton).The obtained results indicate that this common microscopy technique can give images with particular cellular structures or districts enhanced more than others depending on the choice of fixation protocol. Therefore Darkfield Microscopy can be considered as a simpler, cheaper and faster method to provide morphological indications, respect to staining techniques, even at low and medium magnifications
       
  • Unilateral nasal obstruction alters sweet taste preference and sweet taste
           receptors in rat circumvallate papillae
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Ershu Ren, Ippei Watari, Hsu Jui-Chin, Mariko Mizumachi-Kubono, Katarzyna Anna Podyma-Inoue, Masataka Narukawa, Takumi Misaka, Tetsuro Watabe, Takashi Ono Nasal obstruction causes mouth breathing, and affects the growth and development of craniofacial structures, muscle function in the stomatognathic system, and the taste perceptive system. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the effects of nasal obstruction on taste perception has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated this mechanism using the two-bottle taste preference test, immunohistological analysis, and quantification of the mRNA expression of taste-related molecules in the circumvallate papillae. Neonatal male Wistar rats were divided randomly into control and experimental groups. Rats in the experimental group underwent unilateral nasal obstruction by cauterization of the external nostril at the age of 8 days. Arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) was recorded in awake rats using collar clip sensors. Taste preference for five basic taste solutions was evaluated. Immunohistochemical analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were conducted to evaluate the expressions of taste-related molecules in the taste cells of the circumvallate papillae. Body weights were similar between the two groups throughout the experimental period. The SpO2 in the 7- to 12-week-old rats in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the age-matched rats in the control group. In the two-bottle taste preference test, the sensitivities to sweet taste decreased in the experimental group. The mRNA expression of T1R2, T1R3, α-gustducin, and PLCβ2 was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group as determined by quantitative RT-PCR, and the immunohistochemical staining for α-gustducin and PLCβ2 was less prominent. These findings suggest that nasal obstruction may affect sweet taste perception via the reduced expression of taste-related molecules in the taste cells in rat circumvallate papillae.
       
  • Toluidine blue staining for cell and tissue biology applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Benedicto de Campos Vidal, Maria Luiza S. Mello Toluidine blue (TB) staining either alone or in association with other methodologies has the potential to answer a variety of biological questions regarding the human, animal and plant tissues or cells. In this brief review, we not only report the primary use of TB to detect the anionic substrates and availability of their binding sites, but also unveil the resulting applications of TB staining in biological research. Among these applications, the uses of TB staining to identify the changes in chromatin DNA-protein complexes, nucleolus location, and extracellular matrix proteoglycan complexes associated with different physiological and pathological events are described. The usefulness of TB staining to monitor the effects elicited by environmental insults on chromatin and intercalation of drugs into the DNA is also included.
       
  • Comparison of different methodologies and cryostat versus paraffin
           sections for chromogenic immunohistochemistry
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Vashendriya V.V. Hira, Annique Loncq de Jong, Klea Ferro, Mohammed Khurshed, Remco J. Molenaar, Cornelis J.F. Van Noorden Immunohistochemistry (IHC) specifically localizes proteins in cells and tissues, but methodologies vary widely. Therefore, we performed a methodological IHC optimization and validation study. First, we compared advantages and disadvantages of cryostat sections versus paraffin sections. Second, we compared and optimized antigen retrieval in paraffin sections using citrate buffer and Tris/EDTA buffer. Third, aminoethyl carbazole (AEC) and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) were tested as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) substrates to obtain a water-insoluble coloured end product to visualize antigens. Fourth, secondary antibodies conjugated with either mono-HRP or poly-HRP were compared. The study was performed using serial sections of human tonsil. IHC was performed with primary antibodies against endothelial cell marker CD31, smooth muscle actin (SMA), chemokine stromal-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and its receptor C-X-C receptor type 4 (CXCR4), macrophage marker CD68 and proliferation marker Ki67. DAB rather than AEC, and cryostat sections rather than paraffin sections gave optimum staining at highest primary antibody dilutions, whereas tissue morphology in paraffin sections was superior. Loss of antigenicity in paraffin sections by formaldehyde fixation, heat and/or masking of epitopes was counteracted by antigen retrieval but not for all antigens. Two out of six antigens (CD31 and CD68) could not be retrieved irrespective time and type of retrieval. Tris-EDTA was superior to citrate buffer for antigen retrieval. The use of mono-HRP or poly-HRP depended on the affinity of the primary antibody for its antigen. We conclude that IHC methodology optimization and validation are crucial steps for each antibody and each research question.
       
  • Presence of N-acetylglucosamine residues on the surface coating of
           bronchioloalveolar cells during rat postnatal development: What is their
           purpose'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Maria de Fátima Martins, Paula Martins, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves Mammalian lung development is a complex process that is partially accomplished during the postnatal period. Surface carbohydrates are crucial in many biological and pathological phenomena and are key partners during development. The outer surface of lung epithelial cells, which is rich in carbohydrate components, plays a pivotal role throughout the developmental process. However, systematic studies on the sugar residue content of the cell surface coating during postnatal rat lung development are scarce. The aim of the present study was to identify and determine the localization of N-acetylglucosamine residues on the bronchioloalveolar cell surface during rat lung development using light and pre-embedding transmission electron microscopy methodologies, and to associate these data with the components underlying postnatal lung growth. Strong binding sites for the lectin Triticum vulgare (common name Wheat Germ, WGA) are present on the luminal surface of adult rat bronchioloalveolar cells throughout the entire postnatal period and have been identified as N-acetylglucosamine residues. The consistent positive reaction observed on the surface coating of bronchioloalveolar lining cells before and after neuraminidase treatment suggests that aside from possible terminal sialic acids, the lectin specificity for N-acetylglucosamine residues is still evident.Our results also suggest a stronger positive reaction on the bronchioloalveolar cell surface when compared with endothelial cell surface. N-acetylglucosamine residues for lectin binding can be present in glycoproteins in the membrane and also within heparin sulfate chains of glycosaminoglycans, which are crucial for lung development. The work described here has sought to highlight the presence and possible importance of N-acetylglucosamine residues on the glycocalyx of bronchioloalveolar cells, during postnatal lung development.Graphical abstractPostnatal lung development can be influenced by several physical and biochemical factors, among which are glycans. This paper shows that N-acetylglucosamine residues, being present throughout postnatal development, might be crucial for lung morphogenesis.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Caveolin-1 is related to lipid droplet formation in hepatic stellate cells
           in human liver
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Hiroaki Yokomori, Wataru Ando, Masaya Oda Caveolins (CAVs) regulate intracellular cholesterol transport by a complex process involving caveolae, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the Golgi network. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the central site for retinoid storage in the liver and indeed the entire body. Herein, we attempted to elucidate the ultrastructural localization and expression of caveolin-1 (CAV-1) in human HSCs during the progression of liver cirrhosis (LC). Normal and hepatitis C-related cirrhotic liver samples were prepared using a modified perfusion-fixation method to fix organelle structures and molecules in their in vivo positions, and examined using immunoelectron microscopy. In control liver specimens, CAV-1 was minimally associated with low electron density lipid droplets (LDs) segregated around zones 1―2, and specifically associated with membranes surrounding LDs. CAV-1 was segregated in high-density LDs, consistent with the formation of membrane-enclosed lipid-rich vesicular structures, as well as caveolae on plasma membranes around zones 2―3. In cirrhotic liver specimens, CAV-1 molecules were inserted into the cytoplasmic leaflets of ER membranes for transportation to LDs. Thus, CAV-1 transport to LDs might represent an intracellular pathway from the ER in cirrhotic liver tissue.
       
  • Immunolocalization of VEGF/VEGFR system in human fetal vomeronasal organ
           during early development
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Mirca Marini, Mirko Manetti, Eleonora Sgambati The vomeronasal system (VNS) is an accessory olfactory structure present in most mammals adhibited to the detection of specific chemosignals implied in social and reproductive behavior. The VNS comprises the vomeronasal organ (VNO), vomeronasal nerve and accessory olfactory bulb. VNO is characterized by a neuroepithelium constituted by bipolar neurons and supporting and stem/progenitor cells. In humans, VNO is present during fetal life and is supposed to possess chemoreceptor activity and participate in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal precursor migration toward the hypothalamus. Instead, the existence and functions of VNO in postnatal life is debated. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFRs) have been demonstrated to play fundamental roles in various neurogenic events. However, there are no data regarding the localization and possible function of VEGF/VEGFRs in human fetal VNO. Therefore, this study was conceived to investigate the expression of VEGF/VEGFRs in human VNO in an early developmental period (9–12 weeks of gestation), when this organ appears well structured. Coronal sections of maxillofacial specimens were subjected to peroxidase-based immunohistochemistry for VEGF, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. Double immunofluorescence for VEGF, VEGFR-1 or VEGFR-2 and the neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) was also performed. VEGF expression was evident in the entire VNO epithelium, with particularly strong reactivity in the middle layer. Strongly VEGF-immunostained cells with aspect similar to bipolar neurons and/or their presumable precursors were detected in the middle and basal layers. Cells detaching from the basal epithelial layer and detached cell groups in the surrounding lamina propria showed moderate/strong VEGF expression. The strongest VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 expression was detected in the apical epithelial layer. Cells with aspect similar to bipolar neurons and/or their presumable precursors located in the middle and basal layers and the detaching/detached cells displayed a VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 reactivity similar to that of VEGF. The basal epithelial layer exhibited stronger staining for VEGFRs than for VEGF. Cells with morphology and VEGF/VEGFR expression similar to those of the detaching/detached cells were also detected in the middle and basal VNO epithelial layers. Double immunofluorescence using anti-PGP 9.5 antibodies demonstrated that most of the VEGF/VEGFR-immunoreactive cells were neuronal cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that during early fetal development the VEGF/VEGFR system might be involved in the presumptive VNO chemoreceptor activity and neuronal precursor migration.
       
  • Corrigendum to ‘The presence of abalone egg-laying hormone-like peptide
           in the central nervous system and ovary of the Spotted Babylon, Babylonia
           areolata’ [Acta histochemica 119 (2017) 701-707]
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Acta Histochemica, Volume 120, Issue 8Author(s): Jirawat Saetan, Piyakorn Boonyoung, Uraporn Vongvatcharanon, Thanapong Kruangkum, Kanjana Khornchatri, Pinij Thaweethamsewee, Prasert Sobhon, Prapee Sretarugsa
       
  • Corrigendum to “Neuroprotective effects of quercetin
           4'-O-β-d-diglucoside on human striatal precursor cells in nutrient
           deprivation condition.” [Acta Histochemica, 2018 Feb;120(2):122-128]
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Acta Histochemica, Volume 120, Issue 8Author(s): E Sarchielli, A Morelli, G Guarnieri, M Iorizzi, E Sgambati
       
  • The efficacy of chronic zinc oxide nanoparticles using on testicular
           damage in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Eman I. El-behery, Nesma I. El-naseery, Hanaa M. El-Ghazali, Yaser H.A. Elewa, Eman A.A. Mahdy, Enas El-Hady, Mervat M.H. Konsowa Testicular impairment is a common complication of Diabetes mellitus (DM). Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are a novel agent for Zn delivery with antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. However, few reports were recorded on it. The current study aimed to investigate the possible ameliorating effect of ZnO NPs treatment on testicular tissues alterations in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, thirty mature male Wistar rats were divided into three main groups: Control group (n = 18) was subdivided equally into three subgroups (negative control, vehicle and ZnO NPs), Diabetic group (n = 6) and ZnO NPs-treated diabetic group (n = 6). Induction of diabetes was done by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg bw). The rats were orally treated by ZnO NPs (10 mg/kg bw) for 30 constitutive days. At the end of the experiment, blood glucose and serum testosterone levels were measured. Also, testicular tissues were obtained for histopathological investigations and immunohistochemical staining with anti-PCNA (proliferating cell marker), anti-ssDNA (apoptotic cell marker), anti-SOX9 (Sertoli cell marker), anti-Stella (spermatogonia marker), anti-STRA8 (preleptotene and early-leptotene spermatocytes marker), anti-DMC1 (leptotene and zygotene spermatocytes marker), anti-Dnmt3a (a marker for cells under DNA methylation) and anti-α-SMA (peritubular myoid cell marker). The biochemical analysis revealed that diabetes resulted in a significant elevation in blood glucose level and a reduction in serum testosterone level. Moreover, histopathological investigations revealed disorganized seminiferous epithelium and sever hyalinization with vacuolization of the testicular interstitium containing Leydig cells. The immunohistochemical findings support spermatogenesis impairment in the diabetic group. However, ZnO NPs treatment restores architecture of seminiferous epithelium and Leydig cells. Furthermore, more PCNA, SOX9, Stella, STRA8, DMC1 and Dnmt3a immunopositive cells with an improvement of peritubular α-SMA immunopositive expression, as well as few ssDNA-immunopositive cells were detected in the seminiferous epithelium. This study suggested the possible protective role of orally administered ZnO NPs on testicular alterations in the STZ-induced diabetic group via steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis enhancement. In addition, further researches are acquired for evaluation mechanism of ZnO NPs treatment via oral or parenteral routes in a dose-dependent manner to identify the more effective route and dose in the treatment of testicular diabetic complications.
       
  • Temporospatial localization of telocytes during esophageal morphogenesis
           in rabbit
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Dalia Ibrahim, Wafaa Gaber, Mahmoud Awad Telocytes (TCs) are CD34 and Vimentin positive (+) immunoreactive stromal cells with a small-sized body and several extremely long telopodes. TCs have been described to provide a mechanical support throughout the tissue by making cellular connections (homo- or hetero) to form a 3D network. Such network can transmit the intercellular signaling. Recently, TCs have been described in the esophageal wall. However, information concerning the role of these cells in esophageal organization and development is rare. Thus, we aimed to record the temporo-spatial localization pattern of TCs during esophageal morphogenesis in rabbit. Embryos and fetuses of New Zealand White rabbits (10th–30th gestational days) were collected. Using CD34 immunostaining, TCs have not been demonstrated in the wall of the developing esophagus till the end of the second third of pregnancy. On 24th gestational day, CD34+ TCs were organized in the adventitia of the esophageal wall specifically in close association with the endothelial cells lining the micro vessels. Later on 26th gestational day, CD34+TCs were additionally expressed in the sub-mucosa and in lamina propria (sub-epithelial). On 28th gestational day, additional CD34+TCs were detected among the smooth muscle bundles of the muscular layer. Reaching the last gestational day, CD34+TCs formed several sheaths in the esophageal wall namely sub epithelial sheath, sub-mucosal, muscular (circular and longitudinal) and inter-muscular sheaths and an outer adventitial one. On the other hand, vimentin immunohistochemistry revealed wider spread TCs positivity in all developmental ages. Presumptively, arrangement of CD34 and vimentin positive TCs in all layers of the developing esophageal wall hypothesizes that TC may play a potential role as a progenitor cell initially in differentiation of the epithelial and muscular precursors and finally in shaping of the various layers of the rabbit esophageal wall during its morphogenesis. TCs are also proposed to be involved in the angiogenesis of the esophageal blood capillaries.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Amniotic fluid: Source of valuable mesenchymal stem cells and
           alternatively used as cryopreserved solution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Suteera Narakornsak, Sirinda Aungsuchawan, Peraphan Pothacharoen, Chaniporn Puaninta, Runchana Markmee, Waleephan Tancharoen, Tanongsak Laowanitwattana, Naree Poovachiranon, Chawapon Thaojamnong Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which possess remarkable capabilities, are found in amniotic fluid (AF). The findings of several studies have shown the potential benefits of these cells in applications of regenerative medicine. In clinical applications, an over-period of time is required in a preparation process that makes cell collection become more necessary. Herein, the aim of this study was to preserve and characterize the cell’s properties after cell cryopreservation into an appropriate cryogenic medium. The results illustrated that the highest hAF-MSCs viability was found when the cells were conserved in a solution of 5% DMSO + 10% FBS in AF. However, no statistical differences were identified in a chromosomal aberration of the post-thawed cells when compared to the non-frozen cells. These cells could also maintain their MSC features through the ability to express cell prolific quality, illustrating the typical MSC markers and immune privilege properties of CD44, CD73, CD90 and HLA-ABC. Additionally, post-thawed cells were able to differentiate into chondrogenic lineage by exhibiting chondrogenic related genes (SOX9, AGC, COL2A1) and proteins (transcription factor SOX9 protein (SOX9), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and aggrecan core protein (AGC)), as well as to present sGAGs accumulation. Interestingly, the use of a transmission electron microscope (TEM) uncovered the enrichment of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) that coincided with euchromatin and the prominent nucleolus in the chondrogenic-induced cells that are normally found in the cells of natural cartilage. All in all, this study manifested that AF can be a major consideration and applied for use as a co-mixture of cryogenic medium.
       
  • Protective effects of astaxanthin on subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced early
           brain injury: Reduction of cerebral vasospasm and improvement of neuron
           survival and mitochondrial function
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Yanbin Wang, Yao Liu, Yuchen Li, Binbing Liu, Pei Wu, Shancai Xu, Huaizhang Shi The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin on early brain injury (EBI) caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats and to explore possible molecular mechanisms. Experimental SAH model was introduced in adult male SD rats by injecting autologous arterial blood into the prechiasmatic cistern. Astaxanthin (75 mg/kg bodyweight) or olive oil was administered by oral gavage at 3 h after SAH. Our results showed that astaxanthin attenuated SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm and reduced neuronal apoptosis. Astaxanthin inhibited mitochondria-associated neuron apoptosis in the prefrontal cortex after SAH: increased mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, inhibited cytochrome C release in cytoplasm, and suppressed caspase-3 enzyme activity. Furthermore, the cerebral expression levels of synaptic proteins (Synapsin-1, postsynaptic density-95 and growth-associated protein-43) and nerve growth and neuronal differentiation factors (brain-derived neurotropic factor and purine-rich binding protein-alpha) were reduced following SAH. Astaxanthin partly restored their expression. In conclusion, our current work demonstrates that astaxanthin attenuates SAH-induced EBI, possibly by improving neuronal survival and mitochondrial function.
       
  • Different immunohistochemical localization for TMEM16A and CFTR in acinar
           and ductal cells of rat major salivary glands and exocrine pancreas
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Takuya Yokoyama, Masato Takemoto, Masato Hirakawa, Tomoyuki Saino We investigated the mRNA expression and immunohistochemical localization of Cl− channels, transmembrane member 16A (TMEM16A or anoctamin 1), and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in rat major salivary glands and exocrine pancreas. RT-PCR detected mRNA expression of TMEM16A and CFTR in the extracts of the parotid gland (PG), submandibular gland (SMG), sublingual gland (SLG), and pancreas. Immunoreactivity for TMEM16A was localized in the apical membrane of serous acinar and intercalated ductal cells in the PG and SMG as well as mucous acinar cells in the SLG; however, it was not detected in striated ductal cells of these tissues. Although striated ductal cells in the PG, SMG and SLG, and granular ductal cells in the SMG, were immunoreactive for CFTR in the luminal side, serous, mucous acinar, and intercalated ductal cells were not immunoreactive for CFTR in any of the major salivary glands. In the exocrine pancreas, immunoreactivity for TMEM16A was localized in the apical membrane of acinar cells, while immunoreactivity for CFTR was localized in the luminal side of intercalated ductal cells. These results suggest that different localization of TMEM16A and CFTR immunoreactivities reflects the respective functions of acinar and ductal cells in major salivary glands and exocrine pancreas.
       
  • Leptin in sperm analysis can be a new indicator
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Tuğçe Önel, Sule Ayla, İlknur Keskin, Cüneyd Parlayan, Türkan Yiğitbaşı, Bircan Kolbaşı, Tuba Varlı Yelke, Tuğba Şenel Ustabaş Purpose Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, various tumors and invasive surgery can result in ejaculatory dysfunction and testicular insufficiency. Sperm cryopreservation is the only method which can provide a baby for couples. Cryopreservation freezes tissues and cells, allowing them to be stored for future use by stopping all biological activities. Cryopreservation can cause some harmful changes in the structure and function of the sperm. Leptin molecule plays many roles in most biological processes including the satiety and cell renewal, proliferation, angiogenesis, modulation of energy expenditure and regulation of the neuroendocrine system. Leptin was also reported to be associated with spermatogenesis in several studies. Methods This study aims to use leptin molecule as a parameter for sperm motility and DNA fragmentation before and after the cryopreservation. In this study, semen samples were taken from 30 normospermic male volunteers. Each semen sample was examined for the same parameters before and after the cryopreservation. Samples were analyzed before and after cryopreservation in terms of sperm motility by morphological sperm analysis with spermac stain dye, DNA fragmentation by TUNEL assay, ultrastructural analysis with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), seminal leptin levels by ELISA method and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by colorimetric method. Results Decreased sperm motility, distribution of sperm morphology and increased DNA fragmentation were determined after cryopreservation. Similarly, seminal ROS and leptin levels were also increased significantly. There was a negative correlation between seminal leptin and sperm motility. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between seminal leptin and DNA fragmentation. Conclusion According to these results, leptin molecule can be used as a marker for sperm motility and DNA fragmentation before and after cryopreservation. We think that the results of this study can contribute to further studies in the clinical aspect.
       
  • Correlation between pancreatic mast cells and the low grade inflammation
           in adipose tissue of experimental prediabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Ahmed A.M. Abdel-Hamid, Alaa El-Din L. Firgany The role of mast cells (MCs) in prediabetes (Pre-DM) is not clearly elucidated. In the current study rats (n = 22 each) were divided equally into; control and Pre-DM (received high fat diet, HFD) groups. Samples from pancreas as well as from visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were studied for the consequent changes.We detected a significantly increased mast cell count (MCC) in the pancreas of Pre-DM compared to that of control. Frequent degranulation of MC granules was observed in Pre-DM. VAT of the Pre-DM had significantly increased (p 
       
  • Morphofunctional parameters of rat somatotrophes after acute and repeated
           immobilization or restraint stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Svetlana Trifunović, Iva Lakić, Predrag Vujović, Tanja Jevdjović, Branka Šošić-Jurjević, Verica Milošević, Jelena Djordjević It is well known that stress changes levels of pituitary hormones in the bloodstream and in the pituitary itself. However, almost nothing is known about the impact of stress on histological and stereological parameters of the growth hormone producing cells (somatotrophs-GH cells). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of: acute and repeated immobilization; acute and repeated restraint on histological and morphofunctional parameters of somatotrophs in adult Wistar rats. Changes in the pituitary gland volume; the volume density and volume of somatotrophs following acute and repeated immobilization (IMO, R-IMO); acute and repeated restraint (R, R-R) were evaluated using a stereological system (newCAST), while growth hormone level within pituitary was determined by Western blot. Our results demonstrated the decrease (p 
       
  • Hypertension-induced changes in the rat myocardium during the development
           of cardiac hypertrophy – a comparison between the left and the right
           ventricle
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Alexandar Iliev, Georgi Kotov, Iva N. Dimitrova, Boycho Landzhov The hypertrophy of the cardiac muscle is one of the most significant maladaptive mechanisms activated in response to increased workload. It is associated with histological and ultrastructural alterations, changes in the quantitative parameters and the expression of different enzymes. While the structural and functional consequences of systemic hypertension on the left ventricle have been well evaluated, the right ventricle has received less attention. The aim of the present study was to analyse and compare the changes in the left and right ventricle during the development of cardiac hypertrophy initiated by systemic hypertension in different age groups of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Therefore, we studied the histology and ultrastructure of the cells of the myocardium, evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of the enzyme neuronal nitric oxide synthase and conducted a quantitative analysis of several morphometric parameters. We used three groups of spontaneously hypertensive rats. For the quantitative analysis we also used three age groups of age- and weight-matched control animals (normotensive Wistar rats). In both ventricles, we described cardiomyocytic hypertrophy, focal myocytolysis and increased collagen deposition in the interstitial space. Our observations on the ultrastructural level were associated with changes in the cardiomyocytic nuclei, the arrangement, maturity and organisation of the myofibrils, the localisation and ultrastructure of the mitochondria, the development and maturity of the intercalated discs, as well as changes in the components of the interstitium. The immunohistochemical expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the left ventricle was stronger than that in the right ventricle across all age groups. The comparative quantitative analysis revealed that changes in the studied morphometric parameters in the two ventricles occurred disproportionately. In conclusion, the present study characterised the development of cardiac hypertrophy in response to systemic hypertension in both ventricles and demonstrated the involvement of the right ventricle.
       
  • Luminescence control of Stomiidae photophores
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Jérôme Mallefet, Laurent Duchatelet, Claire Hermans, Fernand Baguet Nervous control of light emission from deep-sea mesopelagic fishes has been documented for several species. Studies on the nervous control of photophores from deep-sea luminescent fish, are mainly restricted to a pharmacological approach. For example, the light organs, called photophores, isolated from Argyropelecus hemygimnus and Maurolicus muelleri show a much higher sensitivity to adrenaline than to noradrenaline. According to these results and other information in different species, catecholamines are considered as main neurotransmitters triggering bioluminescence in deep-sea fishes. The present work is a study of the nervous control of the isolated photophores from two Stomiid fishes, Chauliodus sloani (the viperfish) and Stomias boa (the dragonfish) with the aim to determine the nature of the nervous control by pharmacological, biochemical and morphological approaches.Results show that, although the photophores of both species are sensitive to catecholamines, adrenaline is present in larger amount than noradrenaline in the light organs of C. sloani. Both catecholamines have different immunoreactive (IR) sites, noradrenaline showing a very diffuse localization as compared to adrenaline in C. sloani. On the contrary, only adrenaline is detected in the photocytes chamber and nerves innervating the photophore in S. boa. Knowing that the majority of dragonfishes exhibit a luminescent chin barbel, we also investigated the presence of catecholamines in this specific tissue in S. boa. Immunohistology reveals the presence of adrenaline within the tissue forming the chin barbel; adrenaline–IR is found in the connective tissue surroundings two group of muscle fibers and blood vessels in the stem but also around the multiple blood vessels located within the barbel bulb.Our results strongly support the adrenergic control of light emission in bioluminescent stomiid fishes.
       
  • Muscle fibre type composition in the lateral muscle of olive flounder
           Paralichthys olivaceus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Shuang Jiao, Xungang Tan, Yulei Sui, Feng You In this paper, a combined-method study has been made on the lateral muscle of the teleost olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in just-hatched and adult stages. In just-hatched stage, both slow and fast muscle fibres were detected: (1) in situ hybridization analysis indicated that slow and fast myosin heavy chain genes were specifically expressed in the superficial and deep part of the myotomal muscle, respectively; (2) immunohistochemistry analysis showed that fibres in the deep part reacted with anti-fast myosin antibody F310; (3) western blot analysis detected a weak expression of slow myosin and a strong expression of fast myosin. In adult stage, the slow and fast muscle fibres had their own distribution characteristics: (1) hematoxylin/eosin staining showed the histological characteristics of the muscle fibre composition; (2) histochemical observations showed that the deep muscle fibres, and some fibres near the epidermis, contain alkali-stable myofibrillar ATPase activity; (3) immunohistochemistry analysis indicated that all the deep muscle fibres reacted with F310 antibody and some fibres in the superficial layer of muscle also reacted with F310; (4) western blot analysis showed that fast myosin was expressed both in the blended muscles (the mix of superficial and deep muscles) and deep muscles, while slow myosin was mainly expressed in the blended muscles. These findings suggested that both slow and fast muscle fibres existed in the musculature of the olive flounder in just-hatched and adult stages. Notably, the adult fast fibres also exist in the superficial layer of the muscle.
       
  • Histological investigations on the dura mater vascular system of mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Badreddine Mecheri, Frank Paris, Hermann Lübbert The human dura mater encephali is a well innervated and vascularized membrane. Its vascular system plays a crucial role in disorders and pathological cases like dural hematoma, meningitis, and different headache types. To investigate these diseases mouse models are increasingly being used. However, the literature on the vascular system of the mouse dura mater is sparse and explicit studies concerned exclusively with its vasculature are lacking. Here we present a detailed light and scanning electron microscopic investigation of the supratentorial dura mater of the mouse species, with a focus on the largest part of it, the parietal dura mater. By utilizing different immunohistochemical and classical staining methods, a “cartography” of the vascular system was achieved. Additionally, the different blood vessel types with their mural cells were characterized. In contrast to humans, no arteries were found in the mouse parietal dura mater. Its supply is assured through frontolateral and occipital localized arteriolar branches. These arteriolar vessels exhibit in some specimens arteriolar anastomoses with one another. The venous blood is drained to the superior sagittal and transverse sinus through satellite venules accompanying the arterioles or through solitary venules. In all samples, large ruptured venules were identified in the frontolateral dural area. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these vessels were ruptured on the dorsal side (skull bones-oriented side) of the dura. Our results contribute to the anatomical data on the mouse species and may set up a basis for fundamental investigation of disorders, for which the role of dural blood vessels is not yet clarified.
       
  • Differential expression of mTOR signaling pathway proteins in lichen
           planopilaris and frontal fibrosing alopecia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Ozlem Dicle, Ciler Celik-Ozenci, Pinar Sahin, Eva Katharina Barbosa Pfannes, Annika Vogt, Berna Nazlim Altinok, Ulrike Blume-Peytavi Dysregulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway has a variety of effects on the immune system and stem cell proliferation. Lichen planopilaris (LPP) and frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) are inflammatory scalp conditions resulting in permanent alopecia, which are thought to be related to stem cell damage. Here we investigate the expression of mTOR signaling pathway proteins in human hair follicles of LPP and FFA patients. The expression of mTOR pathway proteins in biopsy specimens from lesional and non-lesional scalp areas of eight LPP and five FFA patients were compared to control scalp biopsies from patients undergoing surgical excisions of sebaceous cysts. We performed immunohistochemical evaluation using a panel of antibodies including mTOR, phospho-mTOR (Ser2448), phospho-p70S6K (Thr389), phospho-4EBP1 (Thr37146), and phospho-tuberin (T1462), as well as Western blot analysis for phospho-p70S6K (Thr389) expression. All evaluated mTOR pathway proteins were similarly expressed in the control and patient non-lesional scalps. While mTOR expression did not show significant alterations between the groups, p-mTOR, p-p70S6K, p-4EBP1, and p-tuberin expressions decreased in the interfollicular epidermis in the lesional scalps of patients. p-p70S6K and p-4EBP1 expression decreased in the outer root sheath (ORS) and inner root sheath (IRS) of the bulge of hair follicles in the lesional scalps of patients. p-mTOR and p-p70S6K expression increased in the lower follicle ORS and bulb of the hair follicles, and p-4EBP1 expression decreased in the bulb of the hair follicles in the lesional scalps of patients. Phospho-tuberin expression increased in the IRS of the bulge and lower follicle ORS of the hair follicles in the lesional scalps of patients, whereas its expression decreased in the bulb. Our results indicate that the mTOR signaling pathway proteins are localized throughout normal hair follicles and that expression of mTOR signaling pathway proteins is altered in the hair follicles of LPP and FFA patients. Further research is required to understand the mechanism by which mTOR operates in the pathogenesis of these diseases.
       
  • Potential therapeutic role of melatonin on STZ-induced diabetic central
           neuropathy: A biochemical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and
           ultrastructural study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Mohamed M.M. Metwally, Lamiaa L.M. Ebraheim, Azza A.A. Galal The aim of the present study was to assess the therapeutic potential of melatonin (Mel) in diabetic central neuropathy in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. The rats were injected with 60 mg/kg STZ and diabetes was confirmed by blood glucose levels (BGL) ≥ 250 mg/dL. Mel treatment (50 mg/kg) was started 72 h before the STZ injection and continued for 45 days. In addition, normal control, vehicle (5% ethanol) control, and Mel-treated non-diabetic control were also included. STZ induced a diabetic phenotype with persistent hyperglycemia and elevated oxidative stress in the brain, liver, and kidneys compared to the control groups. In addition, the diabetic rats showed severe β-cell necrosis with reduced insulin levels, cerebral neuronopathy, myelinopathy, axonopathy, microglial and astroglial activation, and vascular damage. While Mel treatment did not prevent the development of STZ-induced diabetes mellitus and had no significant effect on the BGLs of the diabetic rats, it significantly ameliorated the diabetes-induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. Taken together, Mel showed potent therapeutic effects against the neurological complications of hyperglycemia and therefore can be used to treat diabetic neuropathy.
       
  • Air- breathing in fish: Air- breathing organs and control of respiration:
           Nerves and neurotransmitters in the air-breathing organs and the skin
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Giacomo Zaccone, Eugenia Rita Lauriano, Gioele Capillo, Michał Kuciel In fishes, exploitation of aerial gas exchange has evolved independently many times, involving a variety of air-breathing organs. Indeed, air-breathing occurs in at least 49 known families of fish (Graham, 1997). Many amphibious vertebrates, at some stage of their development are actually trimodal breathers that use various combinations of respiratory surfaces to breath both water (skin and/or gill) and air (skin and/or lung). The present review examines the evolutionary implications of air-breathing organs in fishes and the morphology of the peripheral receptors and the neurotransmitter content of the cells involved in the control of air-breathing. Control of breathing, whether gill ventilation or air-breathing, is influenced by feedback from peripheral and/or central nervous system receptors that respond to changes in PO2, PCO2 and/or pH. Although the specific chemoreceptors mediating the respiratory reflexes have not been conclusively identified, studies in water-breathing teleosts have implicated the neuroepithelial cells (NECs) existing in gill tissues as the O2 sensitive chemoreceptors that initiate the cardiorespiratory reflexes in aquatic vertebrates. Some of the air-breathing fishes, such as Protopterus, Polypterus and Amia have been shown to have NECs in the gills and/or lungs, although the role of these receptors and their innervation in the control of breathing is not known. NECs have been also reported in the specialized respiratory epithelia of accessory respiratory organs (ARO’s) of some catfish species and in the gill and skin of the mudskipper Periophthalmodon schlosseri. Unlike teleosts matching an O2-oriented ventilation to ambient O2 levels, lungfishes have central and peripheral H+/CO2 receptors that control the acid-base status of the blood.
       
  • Expression pattern of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in rat testes and
           epididymis during postnatal development
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Mehmet Özbek, Mustafa Hitit, Nuh Yıldırım, Özge Özgenç, Emel Ergün, Levent Ergün, Feyzullah Beyaz, Nevin Kurtdede, Hikmet Altunay Galectins are a family of lectins-binding beta-galactosides involved in a variety of extracellular and intracellular processes, thereby contributing to homeostasis, cell adhesion, cellular turnover, and immunity. This study aimed to determine the localization and expression of galectin-1 (Gal-1) and galectin-3 (Gal-3) in the testis and epididymis of rats at postnatal [(prepubertal (day 5), pubertal (day 20), postpubertal (day 50) and mature (day 70)] periods by using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Gal-1 and Gal-3 were differentially expressed in different types of cells in the testis and epididymis during postnatal development. While we detected Gal-1 expression in some spermatogenic cells and Leydig cells in the testis, not in the epididymal epithelium, Gal-3 was expressed in Sertoli cells, peritubular myoid cells, Leydig cells, smooth muscles and interstitial CD68-positive macrophages. Epithelial cells of the corpus and cauda epididymis showed an intense Gal-3 expression. Gal-1 expression was higher in the testis than in the epididymis on days 50 and 70. The expression of Gal-3 in the testis increased from the prepubertal to mature period. While the expression difference of Gal-3 was not statistically significant in the testis and epididymis until puberty, Gal-3 expression in the postpubertal and mature periods was higher in the epididymis. The expression of Gal-3 in the corpus and cauda epididymis was higher than that in the caput epididymis. In conclusion, our findings suggest that puberty has potential regulatory effect on the expression of galectins in testis and epididymis of rats. Gal-1 and 3 may play a role in the development of the reproductive system and the preservation of the immune-privileged environment in the testis, due to their pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic functions. The presence of intense expression of Gal-3 in the corpus and cauda epididymis may contribute to the maturation and storage of spermatozoa.
       
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of the development of olfactory organs in two
           species of turtles Pelodiscus sinensis and Mauremys reevesii
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Shoko Nakamuta, Satoshi Kusuda, Makoto Yokosuka, Kazumi Taniguchi, Yoshio Yamamoto, Nobuaki Nakamuta The nasal cavity of turtles is composed of the upper and lower chambers, lined by the upper and lower chamber epithelia, respectively. In many turtles including the Reeve’s turtle Mauremys reevesii, the upper chamber epithelium contains ciliated olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and the lower chamber epithelium contains microvillous ORNs. However, in the olfactory organ of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis, both the upper and lower chamber epithelia contain ciliated ORNs. In the present study, we immunohistochemically examined the developmental process of olfactory organs in soft-shelled turtle and the Reeve’s turtle to clarify the developmental origins of the lower chamber epithelium in these turtles. Obtained data indicate that olfactory organs of these turtles have identical origin and follow similar process of development, suggesting that, in the lower chamber epithelium of the nasal cavity, ciliated ORNs differentiate in soft-shelled turtle whereas microvillous ORNs differentiate in the Reeve’s turtle.
       
  • Effect of formalin fixation on pcr amplification of DNA isolated from
           healthy autopsy tissues
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Katarina Vitošević, Miloš Todorović, Tatjana Varljen, Živana Slović, Stevan Matić, Danijela Todorović The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of formalin fixation on the degradation of DNA molecules in five different healthy tissues exempted during the autopsy, as well as the selection of the method that is most suitable for the DNA isolation. Heart muscle, liver, brain, lung and kidney tissue obtained from the healthy people who suddenly died from a violent death were used. The parts of tissue were fixed in 10% phosphate-buffered formalin as well as in 4% unbuffered formalin at room temperature. Morphology of tissue was studied using H&E staining. The DNA was isolated 6 h, 1–7 days (every 24 h), 10, 14, 28 days and 2 months after fixation using two different methods: extraction with phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol as well as with PureLink Genomic DNA Kit. Yield and purity of the DNA samples were measured spectrophotometrically at 260 nm and 280 nm. The PCR amplifications of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1, 150 bp), ß actin (ACTB, 262 bp) and ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4, 407 bp) genes were performed to evaluate the degree of DNA fragmentation. The RPL4 gene was amplified up to 72 h, ACTB gene up to 14 days and GPD1 gene up to 28 days from tissue fixed in phosphate-buffered formalin using phenol-chloroform-isoamylalcohol protocol for DNA isolation. Liver and kidney gave better results of PCR amplification, but statistical significance between tissues was not found. Preserving period, fixative and DNA extracting method are important factors for successful PCR amplification. The healthy tissue, fixed in phosphate-formalin up to 28 days, can be useful source in molecular studies. Tissues fixed in unbuffered formalin are suitable for molecular analysis up to 7 days.
       
  • Cholecalciferol in ethanol-preferring rats muscle fibers increases the
           number and area of type II fibers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Carina Guidi Pinto, Kátia Colombo Marchi, Ailton Amarante Arizza, Ana Paula Silveira Leite, Carlos Renato Tirapelli, Selma Maria Michelin Matheus The chronic use of ethanol causes neuropathy and atrophy of type II fibers and promotes vitamin D decrease. This study evaluated cholecalciferol effects on the deep fibular nerve and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle using an UChB ethanol-preferring rats model. Blood analyses were carried out to measure levels of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D), calcium (Ca2+), Phosphorus (P), and parathyroid hormone (PTH). It was used EDL muscle to evaluate oxidative stress. The deep fibular nerve and EDL muscle were used for morphologic and morphometric assessment. 25(OH)D plasma levels were higher in the supplemented group and no alterations were observed in other parameters including the oxidative stress evaluation. The G ratio remained constant which indicates nervous conduction normality. Cholecalciferol supplementation promoted an increase in the number and area of type II fibers and a decrease in the area of type I fibers. In the studied model, there was neither alcoholic myopathy nor neuropathy. The EDL muscle glycolytic patterns in the high-drinker UChB rats may be associated with the differential effects of cholecalciferol on metabolism and protein synthesis in skeletal muscle.
       
  • A simple and efficient toolset for analysing mitochondrial trafficking in
           neuronal cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Victor A. Shahen, Laurence C. Cantrill, Nasim Bahram Sangani, John Christodoulou, Wendy A. Gold Mitochondria are crucial for cells, supplying up to 90% of the energy requirements for neurons. Their correct localisation is crucial and ensured by a transport system. Mitochondrial trafficking in neurons is particularly critical, because mitochondria must leave the soma and travel along the axon and dendritic network to facilitate neuronal function. Abnormal mitochondrial trafficking has been reported in several neurological disorders, therefore the ability to quantify and analyse mitochondrial trafficking is vital to improving our understanding of their pathogenesis. Commercial software currently lacks an automated approach for performing such quantitation. Here we demonstrate the development of the Mitochondrial Trafficking and Distribution (MiTrakD) analysis toolset, which consists of simple and free-to-use instructions for mitochondrial trafficking analysis using time-lapse microscopy. MiTrakD utilises existing Fiji (ImageJ) tools for semi-automated, fast and efficient analysis of mitochondrial trafficking and distribution, including velocity, abundance, localisation and distance travelled in neurons. We document MiTrakD’s efficiency and accuracy by analysing mitochondrial trafficking using two-dimensional fluorescence images of cortical neurons of wild type mice after 6 days (DIV6), 10 days (DIV10) and 14 days (DIV14) of in vitro incubation. Using MiTrakD we have demonstrated that neurons at all developmental stages exhibited the same percentage of mobile mitochondria, all of which travel in equidistance. Interestingly, the mitochondria in neurons at DIV10 were in greater abundance and were faster than those at DIV6 and DIV14. We can also conclude that MiTrakD is more efficient than manual analysis and is an accurate and reliable tool for performing mitochondrial trafficking analysis in neuronal cells.
       
  • Control of air-breathing in fishes: Central and peripheral receptors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Luiz Henrique Florindo, Vinicius Araújo Armelin, David John McKenzie, Francisco Tadeu Rantin This review considers the environmental and systemic factors that can stimulate air-breathing responses in fishes with bimodal respiration, and how these may be controlled by peripheral and central chemoreceptors. The systemic factors that stimulate air-breathing in fishes are usually related to conditions that increase the O2 demand of these animals (e.g. physical exercise, digestion and increased temperature), while the environmental factors are usually related to conditions that impair their capacity to meet this demand (e.g. aquatic/aerial hypoxia, aquatic/aerial hypercarbia, reduced aquatic hidrogenionic potential and environmental pollution). It is now well-established that peripheral chemoreceptors, innervated by cranial nerves, drive increased air-breathing in response to environmental hypoxia and/or hypercarbia. These receptors are, in general, sensitive to O2 and/or CO2/H+ levels in the blood and/or the environment. Increased air-breathing in response to elevated O2 demand may also be driven by the peripheral chemoreceptors that monitor O2 levels in the blood. Very little is known about central chemoreception in air-breathing fishes, the data suggest that central chemosensitivity to CO2/H+ is more prominent in sarcopterygians than in actinopterygians. A great deal remains to be understood about control of air-breathing in fishes, in particular to what extent control systems may show commonalities (or not) among species or groups that have evolved air-breathing independently, and how information from the multiple peripheral (and possibly central) chemoreceptors is integrated to control the balance of aerial and aquatic respiration in these animals.
       
  • Expression profile of some neuronal and glial cell markers in the ovine
           ileal enteric nervous system during prenatal development
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Mehmet Özbek, Mehmet Fatih Bozkurt, Feyzullah Beyaz, Emel Ergün, Levent Ergün The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a network of neurons and glia found in the gut wall and governs this gastrointestinal function independently from the central nervous system (CNS). ENS comprises the myenteric plexus (MP) and the submucous plexus (SP). In this study, we examined the expression profile of neurofilament heavy chain (NF-H), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), calcyclin (S100A6), vimentin and glial fibril acidic protein (GFAP) in ovine ileal enteric neurons and enteric glia cells (EGCs) during prenatal development using an immunohistochemical method. The material of the study consisted of 15 different fetal ileum tissues obtained between days 60 and 150 of pregnancy. NF-H was observed in the majority of ganglion cells in SP and MP throughout the fetal period. It was determined that there was no NF-H reaction in some ganglion cells in Peyer’s patches of internal submucosal plexus (ISPF). In the early stage of pregnancy (60–90 days), there was no expression of NSE and S1006 in ileum. After this period, NSE and S1006 were expressed in the ganglion cells of the plexus, indicating an increase in the amount of expression towards the end of pregnancy. In the early period, vimentin expression was only detected in intramuscular interstitial cells (ICs) (60–90 days), but later (90–150 days) it was also seen in the cells around the ganglion cells in the plexus. On days 60–90 of gestation, GFAP expression only occurred in MP, but in later stages, staining was also detected in SP. In the plexus, an immunoreactivity was present in EGCs forming a network around the ganglion cell. During the last period of gestation (120–150 days), the number of GFAP-positive plexus increased, with the majority of these stained cells being observed in MP. Interestingly, weak staining or reaction did not occur in ISPF, unlike other plexuses. In conclusion, this is the first study that demonstrated the expression of NF-H, vimentin, S100A6, NSE and glial fibril acidic protein (GFAP) in ovine ileal ENS in the prenatal period. In the last period of gestation (120–150 days), the expression profile of ENS was similar to that of adult animals. The expression of the used markers increased toward the end of pregnancy. Our results suggest that neurons and EGCs show heterogeneity, and GFAP and NF-H cannot be used as panenteric glial or panneuronal markers, respectively. We also demonstrated, for the first time, the prenatal expression of S100A6 in enteric neurons and the possibility of using this protein for the identification of enteric neurons.
       
  • Functional morphology of the respiratory organs of the air-breathing fish
           with particular emphasis on the African catfishes, Clarias mossambicus and
           C. gariepinus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): John N. Maina The evolution of air-breathing and transition from water to land were pivotal events that greatly determined the ecological diversification, the advances and the successes of animal life. During their relocation onto land, the so-called bimodal breathers were literally caught at the water-air interface. Among such animals are the diverse air-breathing bony fish. Such taxa, however, strictly do not constitute the so-called ‘bridging animals’, i.e., the inaugural animals that crossed from water to land, nor are they their direct progenitors. The pioneer transitional animals were the Devonian rhipidistian amphibians that possessed a primitive lung which acquired O2 directly from air and discharged CO2 back into the same. By having particular morphological and physiological adaptations for terrestrialness, the modern amphibious- and aquatic air-breathers are heuristic analogues of how and why animals relocated from water to land. It has generally been espoused that lack or dearth of O2 in water, especially in the warm tropical one, was an elemental driver for adoption of air-breathing. There is, however, no direct causal relationship between the evolution of air-breathing and the shift onto land: the move onto land was a direct solution to the existing inimical respiratory conditions in water. This is evinced in the facts that: a) even after attaining capacity of air-breathing, an important preadaptation for life on land, some animals continued living in water while periodically accessing air, b) in the fish species that live in the well-oxygenated waters, e.g., torrential rivers, only few air-breathe and c) air-breathing has still evolved in freshwaters and seawaters, where levels of dissolved O2 are sufficiently high. Here, the structure and function of the respiratory organs of the air-breathing fish are succinctly outlined. Two African catfishes, Clarias mossambicus and C. gariepinus are highlighted.
       
  • Glomeruli from patients with nephrin mutations show increased number of
           ciliated and poorly differentiated podocytes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Katarina Vukojevic, Fila Raguz, Marijan Saraga, Natalija Filipovic, Ivana Bocina, Darko Kero, Merica Glavina Durdov, Vlatka Martinovic, Mirna Saraga-Babic BackgroundPodocytes are postmitotic, highly specialized cells which maintain the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). Their injury is characterized by foot processes effacement and change in protein expression leading to proteinuria and end-stage kidney disease.MethodsOur study focuses on the morphological and immunohistochemical changes of human podocytes during normal development and postnatal period, compared to congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type (CNF). Kidney tissues taken from 17 human conceptuses 8th–38th weeks old, two healthy and three CNF kidneys were embedded in paraffin for immunohistochemical or double immunofluorescence methods, or were embedded in resin for electron microscopy. Paraffin sections were stained with markers for proliferation (Ki-67), proteins nephrin and nestin, and alpha-tubulin. Quantification of positive cells were performed using Mann Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis test.ResultsTissue analysis showed that proliferation of podocytes gradually decreased during development and disappeared in postnatal period. Decrease in number of ciliated glomerular cells and visceral podocytes (from 47% to 3%), and parietal epithelial cells (from 32% to 7%) characterized normal development. Nestin and nephrin co-expressed in developing podocytes in different cellular compartments. During development, nephrin expression increased (from 17% to 75%) and postnatally changed its pattern, while nestin positive glomerular cells decreased from 98% to 40%. CNF glomeruli displayed increased number of immature ciliated podocytes (6%) and parietal epithelial cells (9%).ConclusionChanges in cytoplasmic alpha-tubulin expression and reduced nephrin expression (20%) indicating association of incomplete podocyte maturation with failure of GFB function and appearance of prenatal proteinuria in CNF patients.
       
  • Silymarin amplifies apoptosis in ectopic endometrial tissue in rats with
           endometriosis; implication on growth factor GDNF, ERK1/2 and Bcl-6b
           expression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Elaheh Nahari, Mazdak Razi The present prospective study was done to evaluate the effect of silymarin (SMN) on endometriotic-like legions establishment and growth in experimentally-induced endometriosis. For this purpose, the experimental endometriosis was induced in 12 rats and then the animals subdivided into endometriosis-sole and SMN (50 mg kg−1, orally)+endometriosis groups. Following 28 days, the legions establishment, size, Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), gfrα1, B Cell Lymphoma 6 (Bcl-6b), Bcl-2, extracellular regulator kinase (ERK1/2) expression ratios, angiogenesis, the apoptosis and fibrosis indices were investigated. The SMN significantly (P 
       
  • The morphological and functional significance of the NOS/NO system in the
           respiratory, osmoregulatory, and contractile organs of the African
           lungfish
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Bruno Tota, Daniela Amelio, Maria Carmela Cerra, Filippo Garofalo This review aims to summarize the changes of the NOS/NO system which occur in the lungs, gills, kidney, heart, and myotomal muscle of air breathing fish of the genus Protopterus, i.e. P. dolloi and P. annectens, in relation to the switch from freshwater to aestivation, and vice-versa. The modifications of NOS and its partners Akt and Hsp-90, and HIF-1α, detected by immunohistochemical and molecular biology methods, are discussed together with the apoptosis rate, evaluated by TUNEL. We hypothesize that these molecular components are key elements of the stress-induced signal transduction/integration networks which allow the lungfish to overcome the dramatic environmental challenges experienced at the beginning, during, and at the end of the dry season.
       
  • Air-breathing and excretory nitrogen metabolism in fishes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 September 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Yuen K. Ip, Shit F. Chew During water-land transition, ancient fishes acquired the ability to breathe air, but air-breathing engendered problems in nitrogenous waste excretion. Nitrogen is a fundamental component of amino acids, proteins, and nucleic acids, and the degradation of these nitrogen-containing compounds releases ammonia. Ammonia is toxic and must be removed. Fishes in water excrete ammonia as the major nitrogenous waste through gills, but gills of air-breathing fishes are modified for air-breathing or largely replaced by air-breathing organs. Notably, fishes emerged from water can no longer excrete ammonia effectively because of a lack of water to flush the gills. Hence, ancient fishes that participated in water-land transition must have developed means to deal with ammonia toxicity. Extant air-breathing fishes, particularly amphibious ones, can serve as models to examine adaptations which might have facilitated the emergence of ancient fishes from water. Some of these fishes can actively emerge from water and display complex behaviors on land, while a few can burrow into mud and survive for years during drought. Many of them are equipped with mechanisms to ameliorate ammonia toxicity during emersion. In this review, the mechanisms adopted by air-breathing fishes to deal with ammonia toxicity during emersion were organized into seven disparate strategies. In addition, eight extant air-breathing fishes with distinctive terrestrial behaviors and peculiar natural habitats were selected to describe in detail how these seven strategies could be adopted in disparate combinations to ameliorate ammonia toxicity during emersion.
       
  • Ionoregulatory and oxidative stress issues associated with the evolution
           of air-breathing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Bernd Pelster, Chris M. Wood Aquatic areas frequently face hypoxic conditions. In order to get sufficient oxygen to support aerobic metabolism, a number of freshwater fish resort to aerial respiration to supplement gill respiration especially in situations with reduced oxygen availability in the water. In many species a concomitant reduction in gill surface area or in gill perfusion reduces possible loss of aerially acquired oxygen to the water at the gills, but it also compromises the ion regulatory capacity of gill tissue. In consequence, the reduced gill contact area with water requires appropriate compensation to maintain ion and acid-base homeostasis, often with important ramifications for other organs. Associated modifications in the structure and function of the gills themselves, the skin, the gut, the kidney, and the physiology of water exchange and ion-linked acid-base regulation are discussed. In air-breathing fish, the gut may gain particular importance for the uptake of ions. In addition, tissues frequently exposed to environmental air encounter much higher oxygen partial pressures than typically observed in fish tissues. Physostomous fish using the swimbladder for aerial respiration, for example, will encounter aerial oxygen partial pressure at the swimbladder epithelium when frequently gulping air in hypoxic water. Hyperoxic conditions or rapid changes in oxygen partial pressures result in an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Accordingly, in air-breathing fish, strategies of ionoregulation may be greatly modified, and the ROS defense capacity of air-exposed tissues is improved.
       
  • Lungs and gas bladders: Morphological insights
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): José M. Icardo This paper summarizes the main morphological tracts exhibited by lungs and gas bladders in fishes. The origin and organ location, the presence of a glottal region, the inner architecture, the characteristics of the exchange barrier and the presence of pulmonary arteries have been reviewed in the two types of air-breathing organs. With the exception of the dorsal (bladders) or ventral (lungs) origin from the posterior pharynx, none of the morphological traits analyzed can be considered specific for either lungs or gas bladders. This is exemplified by analysis of the morphology of the lung of the Dipnoii and Polypteriformes and of the bladder of the Lepisosteiformes. All of them are obligate air-breathers and show a lung-like (pulmonoid) air-breathing organ. However, while the lungfish lung and the bladder of the Lepisosteiformes occupy a dorsal position and are highly trabeculated, the polypterid lung occupies a ventral position and shows a smooth inner surface. Structural and ultrastructural differences are also highlighted. Noticeably, a large part of the inner surface area of the lung of the Australian lungfish is covered by a ciliated epithelium. A restricted respiratory surface area may help to explain the incapability of this species to aestivate. The respiratory bladder of basal teleosts displays a more complex morphology than that observed in more primitive species. The bladder of basal teleosts may appear divided into respiratory and non-respiratory portions, exhibit intricate shapes, invade adjacent structures and gain additional functions. The increase in morphological and functional complexity appears to prelude the loss of the respiratory functions.
       
  • Central control of air breathing in fishes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): William K. Milsom The diversity of sites and surfaces that are utilized for gas transfer from air to blood in fish is remarkable. While a few species do utilize their gills for gas exchange in air, this is a rare occurrence and most air-breathing fish utilize other surfaces including air-breathing organs and lungs. At present almost nothing is known about the central sites that initiate and regulate air breathing although hypotheses can be put forward based on our rudimentary understanding of the sites involved in water breathing in lampreys and teleost fishes, and those involved in air breathing in pre-metamorphic anuran ampibians. The pumps involved in producing both water and air breathing in fishes are highly conserved, a buccal pump, assisted by pharyngeal and/or parabranchial/opercular pumps, produce both forms of ventilation. What varies between species are the manner in which air breaths are produced (in two versus four phases), and the ‘valving’ involved in producing water flow over the gills versus air flow in and out of air-breathing organs. The latter suggests that a major step in the evolution of air breathing was the evolution of the mechanisms that control the flow of the respiratory medium. The neural matrix that underlies the co-ordination of the pump and the valving events remains enigmatic and in much need of further research.
       
  • Insights into the evolution of polymodal chemoreceptors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Michael G. Jonz Respiratory chemoreceptors in vertebrates are specialized cells that detect chemical changes in the environment or arterial blood supply and initiate autonomic responses, such as hyperventilation or changes in heart rate, to improve O2 uptake and delivery to tissues. These chemoreceptors are sensitive to changes in O2, CO2 and/or H+. In fish and mammals, respiratory chemoreceptors may be additionally sensitive to ammonia, hypoglycemia, and numerous other stimuli. Thus, chemoreceptors that affect respiration respond to different types of stimuli (or modalities) and are considered to be "polymodal". This review discusses the polymodal nature of respiratory chemoreceptors in vertebrates with a particular emphasis on chemoreceptors of the carotid body and pulmonary epithelium in mammals, and on neuroepithelial cells in water- and air-breathing fish. A major goal will be to examine the evidence for putative polymodal chemoreceptors in fish within the context of studies on mammalian models, for which polymodal chemoreceptors are well described, in order to improve our understanding of the evolution of polymodal chemoreceptors in vertebrates, and to aid in future studies that aim to identify putative receptors in air- and water-breathing fish.
       
  • Docosahexaenoic acid induces changes in microglia/macrophage polarization
           after spinal cord injury in rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Olga Manzhulo, Anna Tyrtyshnaia, Yulia Kipryushina, Inessa Dyuizen, Igor Manzhulo Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 (n-3)) leads to recovery of locomotor functions observed of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. In present study, we characterized the expression of iba-1, CD86, CD163 in microglia/macrophages, to assess activation state and M1 (pro-inflammatory)/M2 (anti-inflammatory) phenotypes respectively, in the rostral, central and caudal segment of the spinal cord on 7 and 35 days after SCI. We found that DHA treatment leads to: (1) an increased activation and proliferation of microglial cells; (2) an alteration in the dynamics between M1 and M2 microglia/macrophages phenotypes (3) and increased production of an antioxidant enzymes. Overall, our data demonstrates that DHA has a complex effect in post-traumatic process within the central nervous system, and supports the therapeutic potential of DHA-based drugs.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Efficient differentiation of vascular endothelial cells from
           dermal-derived mesenchymal stem cells induced by endothelial cell lines
           conditioned medium
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 August 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Ling Zhou, Xuping Niu, Jiannan Liang, Junqin Li, Jiao Li, Yueai Cheng, Yanfeng Meng, Qiang Wang, Xiaoli Yang, Gang Wang, Yu Shi, Erle Dang, Kaiming Zhang ObjectiveTo directionally-differentiate dermis-derived mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs) into vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in vitro, providing an experimental basis for studies on the pathogenesis and treatment of vascular diseases.MethodsAfter separation by adherent culture, VEC line supernatant, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), bone morphogenetic protein-4 and hypoxia were used for the differentiation of VECs from DMSCs. The cell type was authenticated by flow cytometry, matrigel angiogenesis assay in vitro, and immunofluorescent staining during differentiation. The VEGF concentration was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.ResultsAfter 28 days of differentiation, the cell surface marker CD31 was significantly positive (80%–90%) by flow cytometry in the VEC line-conditioned culture, which was significantly higher than in the other groups. Differentiated DMSCs had the ability to ingest Dil-ac-LDL and vascularize in the conditioned culture, but not in the other groups. In the VEC line supernatant, the concentration of VEGF was very low. The VEGF concentration changed along with the differentiation into VECs in the medium of the conditioned culture group.ConclusionVEC line supernatant can induce the differentiation of DMSCs into VECs, possibly through the pathway except VEGF.
       
  • The effects of bisphenol A on some plasma cytokine levels and distribution
           of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes in spleen, ileal Peyer’s patch and
           bronchus associated lymphoid tissue in rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Tuğba Özaydın, Yasemin Öznurlu, Emrah Sur, İlhami Çelik, Deniz Uluışık The effects of bisphenol A on the some plasma cytokine levels and distribution of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes in spleen, ilealPeyer’s patch and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in rats were investigated. A total of fourty male Wistar Albino rats were divided into five groups including 8 rats in each one: control, vehicle, BPA 5, BPA 50 and BPA 500 groups. Doses of 5, 50 and 500 μg/kg BPA were dissolved in ethanol, then mixed with corn oil. The control group received no treatment. The vehicle group was given the ethanol-corn oil mixture. BPA 5, BPA 50 and BPA 500 groups were given, respectively, 5, 50, and 500 μg/kg/day orally. In blood samples, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α plasma levels were determined with ELISA. Tissue samples (spleen, ileal Peyer’s patches and lung) were processed by means of routine histological techniques. CD4 and CD8 were stained immunohistochemically. Data obtained from this study showed that, BPA causes the alteration on immune parameters including cytokine profile, distribution of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymhpocytes in spleen and ileal Peyer’s patches. Present study indicated that BPA may affect immune systems even at lower doses.Disruption of immun system cells and cytokine levels can result in harmful outcomes triggering autoimmune diseases and immunodeficiencies.
       
  • 3D approach visualizing cellular networks in human lymph nodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Marvin Siegfried Oswald, Martin-Leo Hansmann Lymph node diagnostics are essentially based on cutting thin sections of formalin fixed tissues. After hematoxylin and eosin stain, Giemsa stain and immunohistochemical staining of these tissues, the lymph node diagnosis is done using a light microscope, looking at two-dimensional pictures. Three-dimensional visualizations of lymph node tissue have not been used in lymphoma diagnostics yet. This article describes three-dimensional visualization of lymphoid tissue, using thick paraffin sections, immunostained with monoclonal antibodies, confocal laser scanning and data processing with appropriate software and the 3D printing process itself. The advantages and disadvantages of different printing techniques are discussed as well as the application of 3D models in diagnostics, teaching and research of lymph nodes.
       
  • The involvement of NR4A1 and NR4A2 in the regulation of the luteal
           function in rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Lina Qi, Nannan Guo, Quanwei Wei, Pengjin Jin, Wei Wang, Dagan Mao The nuclear receptor 4A (NR4A) members play important roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The current study first evaluate the expression of ovarian NR4A1 during different luteal stages in rats. Immature rats aged 28 days were treated with sequential Pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) (D -2) / human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (D 0) to induce pseudopregnancy. Serum progesterone (P4) and ovarian expression of NR4A1 were detected by RIA and WB, respectively, at follicle stage (D 0), early (D 2), middle (D 7) and late (D 14 and D 20) luteal stages. To confirm the role of NR4A1 during the luteal regression, rats were treated with prostaglandin F2α analog (PGF) for 0–8 h on D 7 to detect the expressions of NR4A1 and NR4A2. RIA result showed that serum P4 reached highest level on D 7 and then declined. WB results showed that there were two types of NR4A1 (NR4A1-L and NR4A1-S) expressed in the ovary. The ovarian NR4A1-L decreased at the late luteal stage (D 20). However, the NR4A1-S increased at the late luteal stage (D 14). After PGF treatment on D 7, the expression of NR4A1-S increased which peaked at 0.5–1 h and then declined; while NR4A1-L expression did not change within 8 h. Real-time PCR results showed that the ovarian NR4A1 mRNA increased within 0.5 h, maintained high at 1 h and then declined. The NR4A2 mRNA expression exhibited a similar pattern to that of NR4A1 mRNA, though its abundance was not as high as NR4A1. IHC results revealed that NR4A1-L was expressed mainly in the cytoplasm of luteal steroidogenic cells, faintly expressed in the follicle theca cells, oocytes and the pericytes; while NR4A2 was primarily localized in the cytoplasm of luteal steroidogenic cells. In conclusion, all these results demonstrate that NR4A2 as well as NR4A1 might be involved in the luteal development and luteolysis in rats.
       
  • Osteoblastic differentiation potential of human amniotic fluid-derived
           mesenchymal stem cells in different culture conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: Acta HistochemicaAuthor(s): Tanongsak Laowanitwattana, Sirinda Aungsuchawan, Suteera Narakornsak, Runchana Markmee, Waleephan Tancharoen, Junjira Keawdee, Nonglak Boonma, Witoon Tasuya, Lamaiporn Peerapapong, Nathaporn Pangjaidee, Peeraphan Pothacharoen Osteoporosis is a bone degenerative disease characterized by a decrease in bone strength and an alteration in the osseous micro-architecture causing an increase in the risk of fractures. These diseases usually happen in post-menopausal women and elderly men. The most common treatment involves anti-resorptive agent drugs. However, the inhibition of bone resorption alone is not adequate for recovery in patients at the severe stage of osteoporosis who already have a fracture. Therefore, the combination of utilizing osteoblast micro mimetic scaffold in cultivation with the stimulation of osteoblastic differentiations to regain bone formation is a treatment strategy of considerable interest. The aims of this current study are to investigate the osteoblastic differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human amniotic fluid and to compare the monolayer culture and scaffold culture conditions. The results showed the morphology of cells in human amniotic fluid as f-type, which is a typical cell shape of mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, the proliferation rate of cells in human amniotic fluid reached the highest peak after 14 days of culturing. After which time, the growth rate slowly decreased. Moreover, the positive expression of specific mesenchymal cell surface markers including CD44, CD73, CD90, and also HLA-ABC (MHC class I) were recorded. On the other hand, the negative expressions of the endothelial stem cells markers (CD31), the hematopoietic stem cells markers (CD34, 45), the amniotic stem cells markers (CD117), and also the HLA-DR (MHC class II) were also recorded. The expressions of osteoblastogenic related genes including OCN, COL1A1, and ALP were higher in the osteogenic-induced group when compared to the control group. Interestingly, the osteoblastogenic related gene expressions that occurred under scaffold culture conditions were superior to the monolayer culture conditions. Additionally, higher ALP activity and greater calcium deposition were recorded in the extracellular matrix in the osteogenic-induced group than in the culture in the scaffold group. In summary, the mesenchymal stem cells derived from human amniotic fluid can be induced to be differentiated into osteoblastic-like cells and can promote osteoblastic differentiation using the applied scaffold.
       
 
 
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