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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3043 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 83, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 332, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
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Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 345, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 309, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Allergologia et Immunopathologia
  [SJR: 0.46]   [H-I: 29]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0301-0546
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Food allergy in childhood: Are we close to having an effective
           treatment'
    • Authors: M. Alvaro; M. Escarrer
      Pages: 313 - 315
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 4
      Author(s): M. Alvaro, M. Escarrer


      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.06.001
       
  • Duration of exclusive breastfeeding and wheezing in the first year of
           life: A longitudinal study
    • Authors: Elvira Verduci; Giuseppe Banderali; Diego Peroni; Carlotta Lassandro; Giovanni Radaelli
      Pages: 316 - 324
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 4
      Author(s): Elvira Verduci, Giuseppe Banderali, Diego Peroni, Carlotta Lassandro, Giovanni Radaelli
      Introduction Wheezing is the most common symptom associated with asthma in young children. There is a lack of well-designed prospective studies on the relationship of exclusive breastfeeding with wheezing in infants. This prospective cohort study investigated whether a relationship exists of exclusive breastfeeding with wheezing at 12 months of age. Materials and methods A series of 1632 mother–infant pairs were sequentially recruited. Mothers were trained at hospital on breastfeeding practices and how to recognise wheezing. At hospital discharge they received a calendar-diary to record the date at stopping breastfeeding and at onset of wheezing. Data were collected by telephone interviews through 12 months post-delivery. Breastfeeding was in accordance with the World Health Organisation and wheezing with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10-CM code R06.2). Results At 12 months 1522 mother–infant pairs were participating. Breastfeeding started in 95.9% of them and was exclusive in 86.1%. The incidence of wheezing ever and recurrent wheezing at 12 months of age was 33.7% and 10.0%, respectively. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding was shorter in wheezing than non-wheezing infants (median 2.6 months vs. 4.1 months, P <0.001). After adjustment for confounders each month of exclusive breastfeeding reduced the risk of wheezing ever by 11% and of recurrent wheezing by 15%, at 12 months of age. Conclusion Longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding reduces the risk of wheezing throughout the first 12 months of life. These findings would be relevant to all healthcare operators and mothers, also to improve their awareness about the best feeding practices for the infant's health.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.08.013
       
  • Leukocytes in expressed breast milk of asthmatic mothers
    • Authors: D.-L. Dixon; K.D. Forsyth
      Pages: 325 - 332
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 4
      Author(s): D.-L. Dixon, K.D. Forsyth
      Objective Infants are born immunologically immature. However, breastfeeding mothers retain an immunological link to their infants. While it is generally accepted that infants are at an immunological advantage when compared with formula-fed infants, the benefit of long-term exclusive breastfeeding by atopic mothers remains controversial. Inconsistency in the conferral of benefit may be due to differences in the immunological constituents passed to the recipient infant. The aim of this investigation was to examine the profile of human milk cells and cytokines from asthmatic compared to non-asthmatic mothers. Methods Twenty-five exclusively breastfeeding mothers with a clinical diagnosis of asthma were postpartum age matched in a double-control 2:1 design with 50 non-asthmatic controls. Each mother provided a single milk sample which was assayed for cell differential by flow cytometry, for ex vivo cytokine production in culture and for aqueous phase cytokines. Results Milks from asthmatic mothers differed from non-asthmatics in that they contained a higher proportion of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells and lower proportion of lymphocytes, predominantly CD3+/CD4+ T helper cells, reflected by a decrease in the chemokine CCL5 in the milk aqueous phase. More PMN and lymphocytes from asthmatic mothers expressed the adhesion molecule CD11b and lymphocytes the IgE receptor CD23, than those from non-asthmatic mothers. Conclusions Changes to human milk leucocyte prevalence, activation state and cytokines due to maternal asthma may result in changes to immunological priming in the infant. Consequently, the protective effect of long-term breastfeeding may be altered in these mother-infant pairs.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.08.015
       
  • Prevalence and risk factors for wheezing and allergic diseases in
           preschool children: A perspective from the Mediterranean coast of Turkey
    • Authors: E. Bolat; T. Arikoglu; M.A. Sungur; S.B. Batmaz; S. Kuyucu
      Pages: 362 - 368
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 4
      Author(s): E. Bolat, T. Arikoglu, M.A. Sungur, S.B. Batmaz, S. Kuyucu
      Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of allergic diseases in preschool children from one of the biggest cities in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Methods The study population included 396 preschool children attending to urban daycare centres in Mersin. In the first stage, a comprehensive standardised questionnaire modified from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) was employed. In the second stage, serum food and inhalant specific IgE, and skin tests were performed in 45 children with frequent wheezing and 28 children with no wheezing. Results The prevalence of ever wheezing, current wheezing, physician-diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema were 53% (210), 33.3% (132), 27.3% (108), 13.4% (53) and 8.3% (33), respectively. A family history of atopy (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.3–4.7, p =0.004), dampness at home (OR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.2–4.8, p =0.008), a history of intestinal parasites (OR=4.3, 95% CI: 1.7–10.9, p =0.002), previous history of pneumonia (OR=6.9, 95% CI: 1.9–25.9, p =0.004), initiation of complementary foods before the age of three months (OR=6.1, 95%CI: 1.4–26.9, p =0.02) and presence of food allergy (OR=3.1, 95% CI: 1.1–9.2, p =0.03) were found to be significant risk factors for physician-diagnosed asthma. The risk factors for frequent wheezing were maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR=5.2, 95% CI: 0.9–28.7, p =0.05) and high serum IgE levels (OR=2.9, 95% CI: 0.9–9.0, p =0.05) at borderline significance. Conclusion Our study was the first epidemiological study in preschool children in the Mediterranean region of Turkey and demonstrated a high prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases, probably related to humid climatic properties in addition to other environmental and genetic factors.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.01.002
       
  • Asthma education taught by physical education teachers at grade schools: A
           randomised cluster trial
    • Authors: M. Praena-Crespo; N. Aquino-Llinares; J.C. Fernández-Truan; L. Castro-Gómez; C. Segovia-Ferrera
      Pages: 375 - 386
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 4
      Author(s): M. Praena-Crespo, N. Aquino-Llinares, J.C. Fernández-Truan, L. Castro-Gómez, C. Segovia-Ferrera
      Objective Assess whether the Asthma, Sport and Health (ASAH) programme taught by teachers improves asthmatics’ quality of life, asthma knowledge, and reduces school absenteeism. Design Randomised cluster trial parallel group. Participants 2293 students (203 asthmatic) in the Intervention School group (IS) and 2214 in the Comparison School (CS) (224 asthmatic) belonging to primary school. Intervention Implementation of the educational programme “Asthma, Sport and Health” at grade schools, taught by physical education teachers. Main outcome Quality of life according to the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). Secondary outcomes Asthma knowledge, asthma control, school absenteeism. Results After implementing the programme in the IS group, global quality of life improved significantly (p <0.001) as did their domains, symptoms (p <0.001), emotional function (p <0.001) and activity limitations (p <0.01), while in the CS group improvement was seen in global life quality (p <0.01) without any significant changes in the domains for emotional function and activity limitations. Asthma knowledge only increased in IS, among asthmatic students from 16.51 (CI 95% 16.04–16.98) to 18.16 (CI 95% 17.69–18.62) (p <0.001) and students without asthma from 15.49 (CI95% 15.36–15.63) to 17.50 (CI95% 17.36–17.64) (p <0.001). The multiple regression analysis showed that quality of life and its domains depend on asthma knowledge and above all, having well-controlled asthma. We found no decrease in school absenteeism. Conclusions The ASAH programme improved certain quality of life aspects regarding asthma (emotional function and limitation of activities) and asthma knowledge, but it failed to reduce school absenteeism NCT01607749.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.022
       
  • Interleukin-33 in children with asthma: A systematic review and
           meta-analysis
    • Authors: Y. Wang; L. Wang; S. Hua
      Pages: 387 - 392
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 4
      Author(s): Y. Wang, L. Wang, S. Hua
      Background Previous studies have shown that serum interleukin 33 serving as an “alarmin” is increased in children with asthma. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of serum IL33 test for early diagnosis of childhood asthma. Methods A literature search was performed in June 2016 using PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and other Chinese Medical Databases to identify studies. The search terms used were “cytokine”, “interleukin-33“, “asthma” and “children”. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3 software. Random-effects model was used to estimate the standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of eight studies were included into this meta-analysis, involving 330 asthmatic children and 248 healthy children. The meta-analysis results revealed that the serum IL33 level was higher in asthmatic children compared to that in healthy children (SMD=1.29, 95%CI=0.53–2.05, P =0.0009), with significant heterogeneity across studies (I 2 =94% and P <0.00001). Conclusions The meta-analysis showed that serum IL33 is a helpful biomarker for early diagnosis of childhood asthma. However, owing to lack of enough data, the increased serum concentration of IL33 cannot be an indicator for the asthma severity.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.12.007
       
  • Nutrition in the first 1000 days and respiratory health: A descriptive
           review of the last five years’ literature
    • Authors: E. Verduci; A. Martelli; V.L. Miniello; M. Landi; B. Mariani; M. Brambilla; L. Diaferio; D.G. Peroni
      Pages: 405 - 413
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 4
      Author(s): E. Verduci, A. Martelli, V.L. Miniello, M. Landi, B. Mariani, M. Brambilla, L. Diaferio, D.G. Peroni
      The aim of this paper is to discuss the current evidence regarding short and long-term health respiratory effects of nutrients and dietary patterns during the first 1000 days from conception. Population of interest included children from birth to two years and their mothers (during pregnancy and lactation). Studies were searched on MEDLINE® and Cochrane database, inserting individually and using the Boolean ANDs and ORs, ‘nutrients’, ‘micronutrients’, ‘LC-PUFA’, ‘Mediterranean Diet’, ‘human milk’, ‘complementary food’, ‘pregnancy’, ‘respiratory disease’, ‘pulmonary disease’, ‘asthma’, ‘epigenetics’, ‘first 1000 days’, ‘maternal diet’ and ‘respiratory health’. All sources were retrieved between 01-09-2015 and 07-12-2016. While unhealthy maternal dietary patterns (high fat intake) during pregnancy can result in alteration of foetal lung development, with increased risk of respiratory disorders, Mediterranean diet has been associated with a lower risk of allergic sensitisation and allergic rhinitis. Breastfeeding has beneficial effects on respiratory infections while evidences about its protective effect on allergic disorders are unclear. During complementary feeding there is no evidence to avoid or encourage exposition to ‘highly allergenic’ foods to have modification of tolerance development. In children from birth to two years of age, Mediterranean diet has been associated with a lower risk of atopy, wheezing and asthma. Micronutrients, antioxidant and LCPUFA supplementation is not recommended and a whole food approach should be preferred, except for Vitamin D.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.01.003
       
  • Risk factors for recurrent wheezing in the first year of life in the city
           of Córdoba, Argentina
    • Authors: A. Teijeiro; H. Badellino; M.G. Raiden; M.N. Cuello; G. Kevorkof; C. Gatti; V.H. Croce; D. Solé
      Pages: 234 - 239
      Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 3
      Author(s): A. Teijeiro, H. Badellino, M.G. Raiden, M.N. Cuello, G. Kevorkof, C. Gatti, V.H. Croce, D. Solé
      Background Wheezing is a very common respiratory symptom in infants. The prevalence of wheezing in infants, conducted in developed countries shows prevalence rates ranging between 20% and 30%. However, we do not know the risk factors in our population of wheezing infants. Methods A standardised written questionnaire (WQ-P1-EISL) in infants between 12 and 18 months of age residing in the city of Cordoba was used; population/sample included 1031 infants. Recurrent wheezing (RW) was defined as three or more episodes of wheezing reported by the parents during the first 12 months of life. Data obtained were coded in Epi-Info™ (version 7) and statistically analysed with SPSS (version 17.5) software in Spanish. Parametric tests (one-way ANOVA) were performed for identifying significantly associated variables. Results The prevalence of wheezing infants was 39.7%; recurrent wheezing 33%; and severe wheezing 14.7%; 13.7% had pneumonia before the first year and of these 6.3% were hospitalised, multiple variables as risk factors for wheezing were found such as: >6 high airway infections and bronchiolitis in the first three months of life, smokers who smoke in the home among other risk factors and protective factors in those who have an elevated socioeconomic status. Conclusion It is known that persistent respiratory problems in children due to low socioeconomic status is a risk factor for wheezing, pneumonia and could be a determining factor in the prevalence and severity of RW in infants. Research suggests that there are areas for improvement in the implementation of new educational strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.08.009
       
  • Knowledge and attitudes among patients with asthma and parents and
           physicians towards influenza vaccination
    • Authors: A. Kaya; N. Altınel; G. Karakaya; F. Çetinkaya
      Pages: 240 - 243
      Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 3
      Author(s): A. Kaya, N. Altınel, G. Karakaya, F. Çetinkaya
      Background Influenza is an infectious disease, dangerous for all people, especially for some risk groups such as patients with chronic diseases and health care workers. But most of the people under the risk of influenza, including health care workers are not immunised because of misinformation. In this study, we aimed to determine the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma and parents of such children related to influenza vaccination. Attitudes and beliefs of physicians treating these patients about influenza vaccination were also investigated. Methods Two different questionnaires consisting of various items related to influenza vaccine were distributed to physicians and patients and parents of children with asthma and allergic disease. Results The physicians group consisted of 189 physicians from various branches. About one third of physicians from various branches reported that they did not believe the vaccine's effectiveness. Most of the participating physicians did not immunise themselves with influenza vaccination despite the fact that any patient of theirs had died due to influenza infection. Although nearly half of the 183 patients had been vaccinated with influenza vaccine, only 27% of adults and 11.7% of children had been vaccinated annually. Conclusions Asthmatic patients are not immunised regularly with influenza vaccine due to misperceptions about vaccine effectiveness and fear of adverse effects. Another important reason of this is that most the physicians caring for these patients neither immunise themselves nor recommend the vaccine to their patients.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.08.003
       
  • Incidence of allergic rhinitis in a cohort of young adults from 13–15
           years old to 23–25 years old in Castellon (Spain)
    • Authors: A. Arnedo-Pena; Mª A. Romeu-Gracia; J.B. Bellido-Blasco; N. Meseguer-Ferrer; E. Silvestre-Silvestre; F. Conde; S. Fernández-González; Mª A. Dubon; M. Ortuño-Forcada; J. Fabregat-Puerto; C. Fenollosa-Amposta; L. Segura-Navas; Mª R. Pac-Sa; L. Museros-Recatala; A. Vizcaino; R. Tosca-Segura
      Pages: 251 - 257
      Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 3
      Author(s): A. Arnedo-Pena, Mª A. Romeu-Gracia, J.B. Bellido-Blasco, N. Meseguer-Ferrer, E. Silvestre-Silvestre, F. Conde, S. Fernández-González, Mª A. Dubon, M. Ortuño-Forcada, J. Fabregat-Puerto, C. Fenollosa-Amposta, L. Segura-Navas, Mª R. Pac-Sa, L. Museros-Recatala, A. Vizcaino, R. Tosca-Segura
      Background The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of Allergic Rhinitis (AR) in young adults and its risk or protective factors. Methods A population-based prospective cohort study was carried out in 2012. The cohort participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood in Castellon in 1994 and 2002. A telephone survey was conducted using the same questionnaires. A new case of AR was defined as the participants free of the disease in 2002, who self-reported suffering from AR or taking medications for AR in the period 2002–2012. Results Of the 1805 schoolchildren in the cohort in 2002, 1435 young adults (23–25 years old) participated (follow-up 79.1%) in 2012; 743 were female and 692 male; their mean age was 24.9±0.6 years. Two hundred new cases of AR occurred in 1259 participants free of the disease with an incidence of 17.3 per 1000 person–years, and the incidence increased from 2002 (RR=1.42; 95% CI 1.15–1.75). The risk factors of AR adjusted by age and gender were sinusitis (RR=1.77; 95% CI 1.16–2.68), atopic dermatitis (RR=1.51; 95% CI 1.11–2.06) and constant exposure to truck traffic (RR=1.88; 95% CI 1.12–3.17). For male participants, the risk factors were asthma, sinusitis and atopic dermatitis, and for females bronchitis was a risk factor and presence of older siblings a protective factor. Conclusions An increase in AR incidence was observed. Sinusitis, atopic dermatitis and constant exposure to truck traffic were the risk factors of the AR with some differences by gender.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.08.012
       
  • Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin in asthmatic patients and its
           relation with asthma severity, lung function and BMI
    • Authors: R. Nasiri Kalmarzi; P. Ataee; M. Mansori; G. Moradi; S. Ahmadi; Z. Kaviani; B. Khalafi; W. Kooti
      Pages: 258 - 264
      Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 3
      Author(s): R. Nasiri Kalmarzi, P. Ataee, M. Mansori, G. Moradi, S. Ahmadi, Z. Kaviani, B. Khalafi, W. Kooti
      Introduction Asthma is one of the diseases which has a high prevalence in developed and developing countries. The relationship between asthma and obesity has always been focused by researchers. In this field, adipokines, especially adiponectin and leptin have highly attended by the scientist. The aim of this study was to determine the serum level of adiponectin, leptin and the leptin/adiponectin ratio in asthmatic patients and its relationship with disease severity, lung function and BMI (body mass index). Methods In this cross-sectional study, 90 asthmatic women admitted to the tertiary referral hospital in Kurdistan province – Iran, were examined. First, BMI was measured and then pulmonary function tests were performed in all asthmatics patient. Forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC, were measured. At the end, blood samples were collected and serum level of adiponectin and leptin were measured by ELISA method. Result Serum leptin and leptin/adiponectin levels correlated positively with asthma severity and BMI (p =0.0001), but there was no correlation between adiponectin level with asthma severity and BMI (p >0.05), also serum leptin and leptin/adiponectin levels inversely correlated with FEV1 and FVC in patient (p =0.0001). Conclusion Asthma is linked with obesity, and there is an association between asthma severity and BMI with serum leptin and leptin/adiponectin levels, but our results do not support a significant role of adiponectin in obesity or asthma.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.09.004
       
  • Future prospect of faecal microbiota transplantation as a potential
           therapy in asthma
    • Authors: Kang Cai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): Y. Kang, Y. Cai
      There is convincing evidence from both human and animal studies suggesting that the gut microbiota plays an important role in regulating immune responses associated with the development of asthma. Certain intestinal microbial strains have been demonstrated to suppress or impair immune responsiveness in asthma experimental models, suggesting that specific species among gut commensal microbiota may play either a morbific or phylactic role in the progression of asthma. Evidence to date suggests that the intestinal microbiota represent fertile targets for prevention or management of asthma. The faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a rather straightforward therapy that manipulates the human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, by which a healthy donor microbiota is transferred into an existing but disturbed microbial ecosystem. The FMT may therefore represent a therapeutic approach for asthma treatment in the foreseeable future. At present, FMT therapy for asthma is very limited and should be actively studied. Considerable efforts are needed to increase our knowledge in the field of FMT therapy for asthma. In this review, we aimed to provide several insights into the development of FMT therapy for asthma.

      PubDate: 2017-08-18T07:26:46Z
       
  • Sinomenine ameliorates the airway remodelling, apoptosis of airway
           epithelial cells, and Th2 immune response in a murine model of chronic
           asthma
    • Authors: S. Işık; M. Karaman; S.Ç. Micili; Ş. Çağlayan-Sözmen; H.A. Bağrıyanık; Z. Arıkan-Ayyıldız; N. Uzuner; Ö. Karaman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): S. Işık, M. Karaman, S.Ç. Micili, Ş. Çağlayan-Sözmen, H.A. Bağrıyanık, Z. Arıkan-Ayyıldız, N. Uzuner, Ö. Karaman
      Background Sinomenine (SIN), an alkaloid isolated from the root of Sinomenium acutum which has a variety of pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammation, immunosuppression and anti-angiogenesis. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of SIN on airway remodelling, epithelial apoptosis, and T Helper (Th)-2 derived cytokine levels in a murine model of chronic asthma. Methods Twenty-two BALB/c mice were divided into four groups; I (control), II (placebo), III, IV. Mice in groups III and IV received the SIN (100mg/kg), and dexamethasone (1mg/kg) respectively. Epithelium thickness, sub-epithelial smooth muscle thickness, number of mast and goblet cells of samples isolated from the lung were measured. Immunohistochemical scorings of the lung tissue for matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEG-F), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick endlabeling (TUNEL) and cysteine-dependent aspartate-specific proteases (caspase)-3 were determined. IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, Nitric oxide in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E in serum were quantified by standard ELISA protocols. Results The dose of 100mg/kg SIN treatment provided beneficial effects on all of the histopathological findings of airway remodelling compared to placebo (p <0.05). All cytokine levels in BALF and serum and immunohistochemical scores were significantly lower in 100mg/kg SIN treated group compared to the placebo (p <0.05). Conclusions These findings suggested that the dose of 100mg/kg SIN improved all histopathological changes of airway remodelling and its beneficial effects might be related to modulating Th-2 derived cytokines and the inhibition of apoptosis of airway epithelial cells.

      PubDate: 2017-08-08T07:13:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.05.004
       
  • Air pollution and its relationship to lung function among adolescents from
           Taubate, São Paulo, Brazil
    • Authors: M. Froio Toledo; B. Mangueira Saraiva-Romanholo; R. Carvalho Oliveira; L. Ferraz da Silva; D. Solé
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): M. Froio Toledo, B. Mangueira Saraiva-Romanholo, R. Carvalho Oliveira, L. Ferraz da Silva, D. Solé
      Background This paper sought to evaluate individual exposure to air pollution by quantifying the carbon in alveolar macrophages (AMs) and its relationship to lung function. We also examined the proximity of participants’ residences to the Presidente Dutra highway (PDH) in adolescents with asthma from Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods This descriptive study examined fifty 13- to 14-year-old adolescents with asthma identified by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) in Taubaté. These adolescents underwent spirometry and sputum induction via the inhalation of 3% hypertonic saline (HSS). Sputum was collected after each nebulisation, and forced expiratory flow in one second (FEV1) was measured. The collected sputum was stored and transported to the laboratory; it was then processed and analysed for ultrafine particles (≤100nm). This analysis was correlated with the residence location and FEV1 of each adolescent. Results A total of 39 adolescents completed the study. The comparison of the carbon fraction within macrophages (CA/MA) showed no differences according to residence in relation to the PDH (p =0.758). After adjustment, a mixed linear model with FEV1 as the dependent variable and CA/MA, location, and evaluation condition as the predictors found that the interactions among the variables were not significant. Conclusions The amount of carbon present within the AMs of adolescents with asthma was not correlated with either lung function or residence location. Evaluations of the topography and local climatic conditions in Taubaté should be considered in future studies.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T07:00:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.04.007
       
  • Correlation between serum vitamin D status and immunological changes in
           children affected by gastrointestinal food allergy
    • Authors: H. Guo; Y. Zheng; X. Cai; H. Yang; Y. Zhang; L. Hao; Y. Jin; G. Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): H. Guo, Y. Zheng, X. Cai, H. Yang, Y. Zhang, L. Hao, Y. Jin, G. Yang
      Background Low vitamin D status is linked to increased incidence of food allergy and intestinal inflammation. Whether vitamin D status is associated with immunological changes in children with gastrointestinal food allergy (GFA) remains unclear. Methods Forty-nine GFA children (aged 2–11 years old) were enrolled in this study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level, total immunoglobulin E (IgE), specific IgE against allergens, circulating regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs), and blood eosinophil numbers were measured. Results Levels of serum 25OHD in the GFA children ranged 35.5–156.4nmol/L, with a mean value similar to that of the healthy controls. Compared to those with normal 25OHD (≥75nmol/L), GFA children with low 25OHD (<75nmol/L) had increased total IgE (84% vs. 54%, P <0.05), persistent blood eosinophilia (56% vs. 25%, P <0.05), and delayed resolution of symptoms after food allergen elimination (odds ratio 3.51, 95% CI 1.00–12.36, P <0.05). Among the GFA children with elevated total IgE, those with low 25OHD had lower circulatory Tregs (8.79±2.4% vs. 10.21±1.37%, P <0.05), higher total IgE (1197.5±1209.8 vs. 418.5±304.6kU/L, P <0.05), and persistent eosinophilia (0.61±0.52 vs. 0.31±0.15×109 cells/L, P <0.05) compared to those with normal 25OHD. In addition, serum 25OHD concentrations inversely correlated with total IgE (R =−0.434, P <0.05), and positively with Treg population (R =0.356, P <0.05). Conclusion Low serum vitamin D status correlates with stronger allergic immune response in GFA children.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T07:00:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.03.005
       
  • Evaluation of the frequency of food allergens based on skin prick test in
           children in Kurdistan Province – Iran
    • Authors: R. Kalmarzi; P. Ataee; Gh. Homagostar; M. Tagik; E. Ghaderi; W. Kooti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): R. Kalmarzi, P. Ataee, Gh. Homagostar, M. Tagik, E. Ghaderi, W. Kooti
      Introduction Food allergy refers to abnormal reactions of the body caused by an immune system response to food. This study was conducted aiming to investigate allergy to food allergens in children with food allergies. Materials and methods This study was conducted as a cross-sectional one on 304 children aged six months to seven years with food allergies admitted to the tertiary referral hospital in Kurdistan Province – Iran, during 2014–2015. All the patients were examined for skin prick test using 49 allergens. Finally, the obtained data were analysed using SPSS15 and chi-square and t tests. Results The highest percentage of occurrence of bump reaction (wheal) and redness (flare) was due to the consumption of fish, eggs, tomatoes, and cocoa. Moreover, the lowest rate of wheal and flare was caused by exposure to allergens like latex, tea, malt, and wheat flour. The reaction most created due to the consumption of foods was flare which was higher among under three-year-olds group (p <0.05), and between the sexes, girls showed the most common allergic reactions (p <0.05). Conclusion Since food allergy has a high prevalence in children, it should be considered with great interest. Considering that avoiding food allergens is the first step in the treatment of food allergies, the present study may be a useful guide in this regard.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T07:00:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.02.005
       
  • Single and multiple food allergies in infants with proctocolitis
    • Authors: B.T. Koksal; Z. Barıs; F. Ozcay; O. Yilmaz Ozbek
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): B.T. Koksal, Z. Barıs, F. Ozcay, O. Yilmaz Ozbek
      Background Food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis is a frequent cause of rectal bleeding in infants. Characteristics of infants with multiple food allergies have not been defined. Objective This study aimed to identify characteristics of infants with proctocolitis and compare infants with single and multiple food allergies. Methods A total of 132 infants with proctocolitis were evaluated retrospectively. All of the infants were diagnosed by a paediatric allergist and/or a paediatric gastroenterologist according to guidelines. Clinical features of the infants, as well as results of a complete blood count, skin prick test, specific immunoglobulin E, and stool examinations or colonoscopy were recorded. Results Cow's milk (97.7%) was the most common allergen, followed by egg (22%). Forty-five (34.1%) infants had allergies to more than one food. Infants with multiple food allergies had a higher eosinophil count (613±631.2 vs. 375±291.9) and a higher frequency of positive specific IgE and/or positive skin prick test results than that of patients with a single food allergy. Most of the patients whose symptoms persisted after two years of age had multiple food allergies. Conclusions There is no difference in clinical presentations between infants with single and multiple food allergies. However, infants with multiple food allergies have a high blood total eosinophil count and are more likely to have a positive skin prick test and/or positive specific IgE results.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T06:26:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.02.006
       
  • Component-resolved diagnosis in hymenoptera allergy
    • Authors: D. Antolín-Amérigo; B. Ruiz-León; E. Boni; T. Alfaya-Arias; M. Álvarez-Mon; J. Barbarroja-Escudero; D. González-de-Olano; C. Moreno-Aguilar; M. Rodríguez-Rodríguez; M.J. Sánchez-González; L. Sánchez-Morillas; A. Vega-Castro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): D. Antolín-Amérigo, B. Ruiz-León, E. Boni, T. Alfaya-Arias, M. Álvarez-Mon, J. Barbarroja-Escudero, D. González-de-Olano, C. Moreno-Aguilar, M. Rodríguez-Rodríguez, M.J. Sánchez-González, L. Sánchez-Morillas, A. Vega-Castro
      Component-resolved diagnosis based on the use of well-defined, properly characterised and purified natural and recombinant allergens constitutes a new approach in the diagnosis of venom allergy. Prospective readers may benefit from an up-to-date review on the allergens. The best characterised venom is that of Apis mellifera, whose main allergens are phospholipase A2 (Api m1), hyaluronidase (Api m2) and melittin (Api m4). Additionally, in recent years, new allergens of Vespula vulgaris have been identified and include phospholipase A1 (Ves v1), hyaluronidase (Ves v2) and antigen 5 (Ves v5). Polistes species are becoming an increasing cause of allergy in Europe, although only few allergens have been identified in this venom. In this review, we evaluate the current knowledge about molecular diagnosis in hymenoptera venom allergy.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T06:26:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.05.003
       
  • Autoimmunity and its association with regulatory T cells and B cell
           subsets in patients with common variable immunodeficiency
    • Authors: G. Azizi; H. Abolhassani; F. Kiaee; N. Tavakolinia; H. Rafiemanesh; R. Yazdani; SA. Mahdaviani; S. Mohammadikhajehdehi; M. Tavakol; V. Ziaee; B. Negahdari; J. Mohammadi; A. Mirshafiey; A. Aghamohammadi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): G. Azizi, H. Abolhassani, F. Kiaee, N. Tavakolinia, H. Rafiemanesh, R. Yazdani, SA. Mahdaviani, S. Mohammadikhajehdehi, M. Tavakol, V. Ziaee, B. Negahdari, J. Mohammadi, A. Mirshafiey, A. Aghamohammadi
      Background Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is one of the most prevalent symptomatic primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), which manifests a wide clinical variability such as autoimmunity, as well as T cell and B cell abnormalities. Methods A total of 72 patients with CVID were enrolled in this study. Patients were evaluated for clinical manifestations and classified according to the presence or absence of autoimmune disease. We measured regulatory T cells (Tregs) and B-cell subsets using flow cytometry, as well as specific antibody response (SAR) to pneumococcal vaccine, autoantibodies and anti-IgA in patients. Results Twenty-nine patients (40.3%) have shown at least one autoimmune manifestation. Autoimmune cytopenias and autoimmune gastrointestinal diseases were the most common. A significant association was detected between autoimmunity and presence of hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Among CVID patients, 38.5% and 79.3% presented a defect in Tregs and switched memory B-cells, respectively, whereas 69.0% presented CD21low B cell expansion. Among patients with a defect in Treg, switched memory and CD21low B cell, the frequency of autoimmunity was 80.0%, 52.2% and 55.0%, respectively. A negative correlation was observed between the frequency of Tregs and CD21low B cell population. 82.2% of patients had a defective SAR which was associated with the lack of autoantibodies. Conclusions Autoimmunity may be the first clinical manifestation of CVID, thus routine screening of immunoglobulins is suggested for patients with autoimmunity. Lack of SAR in CVID is associated with the lack of specific autoantibodies in patients with autoimmunity. It is suggested that physicians use alternative diagnostic procedures.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T06:26:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.04.004
       
  • Tolerance to baked and fermented cow's milk in children with IgE-mediated
           and non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy in patients under two years of age
           
    • Authors: A. Uncuoglu; N. Yologlu; I.E. Simsek; Z.S. Uyan; M. Aydogan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): A. Uncuoglu, N. Yologlu, I.E. Simsek, Z.S. Uyan, M. Aydogan
      Background IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy (CMA) has been shown consistent in milder heated-milk tolerant and severe heated-milk reactant groups in patients older than two years. Little is known whether fermentation of milk gives rise to similar clinical phenotypes. We aimed to determine the influence of extensively heated and fermented cow's milk on the IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated CMA in children younger than two years. Methods Subjects followed with the diagnosis of IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated CMA for at least six months underwent unheated milk challenge. IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated groups were categorised as unheated milk-reactive and tolerant, separately. Unheated milk-reactive groups were further challenged sequentially with fermented milk (yoghurt) and baked milk, 15 days apart. Allergy evaluation with skin tests, prick-to-prick tests and atopy patch tests were performed. Results Fifty-seven children (median age: 14 months; range: 7–24 months) underwent unheated milk challenge. Eleven of 27 children with IgE-mediated CMA and 14 of 30 children with non-IgE-mediated CMA tolerated unheated milk. Among subjects who reacted to unheated milk; 15 of 16 subjects (93%) with IgE-mediated CMA also reacted to yoghurt, whereas 11 of 16 subjects (68%) with non-IgE-mediated CMA tolerated fermented milk. Thirteen subjects (81%) of the unheated milk-reactive IgE-mediated group tolerated to heated milk. None of 16 subjects of unheated milk-reactive non-IgE-mediated group reacted to baked milk. Conclusion The majority of children under the age of two years with both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated CMA tolerated baked-milk products. Yoghurt was tolerated in two thirds of unheated milk reactive patients suffering from non-IgE-mediated CMA.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T06:26:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.02.008
       
  • Oral immunotherapy for food allergy: A Spanish guideline. Immunotherapy
           egg and milk Spanish guide (items guide). Part I: Cow milk and egg oral
           immunotherapy: Introduction, methodology, rationale, current state,
           indications contraindications and oral immunotherapy build-up phase
    • Authors: Martorell Alonso; Escudero Blasco Bone Borja-Segade Bracamonte Claver J.L. Corzo
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 4
      Author(s): A. Martorell, E. Alonso, L. Echeverría, C. Escudero, R. García-Rodríguez, C. Blasco, J. Bone, J. Borja-Segade, T. Bracamonte, A. Claver, J.L. Corzo, B. De la Hoz, R. Del Olmo, O. Dominguez, V. Fuentes-Aparicio, I. Guallar, H. Larramona, F. Martín-Muñoz, V. Matheu, A. Michavila, I. Ojeda, P. Ojeda, M. Piquer, P. Poza, M. Reche, P. Rodríguez del Río, M. Rodríguez, F. Ruano, S. Sánchez-García, S. Terrados, L. Valdesoiro, M. Vazquez-Ortiz
      Introduction Cow's milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Treatments such as oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guides on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. Objectives To develop a clinical guide on OIT based on the available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. Methods A review was made of studies published in the period between 1984 and June 2016, Doctoral Theses published in Spain, and summaries of communications at congresses (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, AAAAI), with evaluation of the opinion consensus established by a group of experts pertaining to the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC. Results Recommendations have been established regarding the indications, requirements and practical aspects of the different phases of OIT, as well as special protocols for patients at high risk of suffering adverse reactions. Conclusions A clinical practice guide is presented for the management of OIT with milk and egg, based on the opinion consensus of Spanish experts.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
       
  • MHC class II deficiency: Report of a novel mutation and special review
    • Authors: S. Farrokhi; M. Shabani; Z. Aryan; S. Zoghi; A. Krolo; K. Boztug; N. Rezaei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): S. Farrokhi, M. Shabani, Z. Aryan, S. Zoghi, A. Krolo, K. Boztug, N. Rezaei
      The MHC II deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency syndrome with increased susceptibility to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, failure to thrive and early mortality. This syndrome is caused by mutations in transcription regulators of the MHC II gene and results in development of blind lymphocytes due to the lack of indicatory MHC II molecules. Despite homogeneity of clinical manifestations of patients with MHC II deficiency, the genetic defects underlying this disease are heterogeneous. Herein, we report an Iranian patient with MHC II deficiency harbouring a novel mutation in RFXANK and novel misleading clinical features. He had ataxic gait and dysarthria from 30 months of age. Epidemiology, clinical and immunological features, therapeutic options and prognosis of patients with MHC II are reviewed in this paper.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.04.006
       
  • Oral immunotherapy for food allergy: A Spanish guideline. Egg and milk
           immunotherapy Spanish guide (ITEMS GUIDE). Part 2: Maintenance phase of
           cow milk (CM) and egg oral immunotherapy (OIT), special treatment dosing
           schedules. Models of dosing schedules of OIT with CM and EGG
    • Authors: Martorell Alonso; Escudero Blasco Bone Borja-Segade Bracamonte Claver J.L. Corzo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): A. Martorell, E. Alonso, L. Echeverría, C. Escudero, R. García-Rodríguez, C. Blasco, J. Bone, J. Borja-Segade, T. Bracamonte, A. Claver, J.L. Corzo, B. De la Hoz, R. Del Olmo, O. Dominguez, V. Fuentes-Aparicio, I. Guallar, H. Larramona, F. Martín-Muñoz, V. Matheu, A. Michavila, I. Ojeda, P. Ojeda, M. Piquer, P. Poza, M. Reche, P. Rodríguez del Río, M. Rodríguez, F. Ruano, S. Sánchez-García, S. Terrados, L. Valdesoiro, M. Vazquez-Ortiz
      Introduction Cow's milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Treatments such as oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guides on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. Objectives To develop a clinical guide on OIT based on the available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. Methods A review was made of studies published in the period between 1984 and June 2016, Doctoral Theses published in Spain, and summaries of communications at congresses (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, AAAAI), with evaluation of the opinion consensus established by a group of experts pertaining to the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC. Results Recommendations have been established regarding the indications, requirements and practical aspects of the different phases of OIT, as well as special protocols for patients at high risk of suffering adverse reactions. Conclusions A clinical practice guide is presented for the management of OIT with milk and egg, based on the opinion consensus of Spanish experts.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
       
  • Incidence of asthma in young adults from Castellon, Spain: A prospective
           cohort study
    • Authors: L. Segura-Navas; A. Arnedo-Pena; R. Tosca-Segura; M.A. Romeu-García; N. Meseguer-Ferrer; E. Silvestre-Silvestre; F. Conde; S. Fernández-González; M. Dubon; M. Ortuño-Forcada; J. Fabregat-Puerto; C. Fenollosa-Amposta; M.R. Pac-Sa; L. Museros-Recatala; A. Vizcaino-Batllés; J.B. Bellido-Blasco
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): L. Segura-Navas, A. Arnedo-Pena, R. Tosca-Segura, M.A. Romeu-García, N. Meseguer-Ferrer, E. Silvestre-Silvestre, F. Conde, S. Fernández-González, M. Dubon, M. Ortuño-Forcada, J. Fabregat-Puerto, C. Fenollosa-Amposta, M.R. Pac-Sa, L. Museros-Recatala, A. Vizcaino-Batllés, J.B. Bellido-Blasco
      Background The objective was to estimate the incidence of asthma in young adults from 13–15 years old to 23–25 years old, and associated factors. Methods In 2012, a population-based prospective cohort study was carried out in Castellon from the cohort who had participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood in 1994 and 2002. A telephone survey was undertaken using the same questionnaires. A new case of asthma was defined as a participant free of the disease in 2002 who suffered asthma, was diagnosed with asthma, or took medications against asthma based on self-report from 2002 to 2012. Results The mean age of participants was 24.9±0.6 with a follow-up of 79.1%. Asthma cumulative incidence was 3.4%: 44 new cases occurred among 1280 participants. The incidence was higher in females than males with relative risk (RR)=2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–3.8). A significant decrease of asthma incidence density was observed (8.2 cases to 3.5 cases per 1000 person/year). Factors associated with the incidence of asthma were allergic rhinitis (RR=4.05; 95% CI 1.7–9.6), bronchitis (RR=2.13; 95% CI 1.0–4.5), mother's age at time of birth (RR=0.87; 95% CI 0.8–0.9) and a pet other than a dog or cat (RR=0.42; 95% CI 0.2–0.9). For gender, some variations in the risk factors were observed. Conclusions A significant decrease in the incidence of asthma was observed. Several risk and protective factors were found.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.03.003
       
  • Effects of icariin on asthma mouse model are associated with regulation of
           prostaglandin D2 level
    • Authors: J. Qiao; S. Sun; L. Yuan; J. Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): J. Qiao, S. Sun, L. Yuan, J. Wang
      Background We aimed to observe the effect of icariin on an asthma mouse model and explore the potential underlying mechanisms. Methods The asthma mouse model was established by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitisation and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and then treated with icariin. Airway resistance was assessed by whole body plethysmograph. In addition, pathological slides were stained with haematoxylin–eosin, and the peribronchial inflammation was observed microscopically. The concentration of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was detected by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The relative level of prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 (CRTH2) mRNA was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results Compared with the icariin-untreated group, there was a significant reduction of Penh in the treated group. Total leucocyte amount and all sorts of leukocytes were lower in the treated group than in the untreated group. HE staining results revealed that a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated into the peribronchial tissues of untreated group, and the degree of airway inflammation decreased significantly in the treated group. PGD2 in serum and BALF, as well as CRTH2 mRNA level in lung tissues were lower in the treated group than in the untreated group. Conclusion Icariin is a promising therapeutic strategy for asthma, and PGD2 might be a new target for asthma therapy in OVA-induced and RSV-infected asthma model.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.02.007
       
  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia as a risk factor for asthma in school children
           and adolescents: A systematic review
    • Authors: S. Pérez Tarazona; P. Solano Galán; E. Bartoll Alguacil; J. Alfonso Diego
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): S. Pérez Tarazona, P. Solano Galán, E. Bartoll Alguacil, J. Alfonso Diego
      Background Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease that mainly affects extremely pre-term infants, and remains the most common complication of prematurity. Several studies have shown that prematurity predisposes to the development of asthma in school children and adolescents. Nevertheless, it is not clear to what extent a history of BPD involves an additional risk. Methods A systematic review of studies assessing the association between BPD and asthma in school-children and adolescents was made. A literature search was carried out in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases to retrieve articles published between 1 January 2000 and 31 August 2016. Results A total of 17 studies comprising 7433 patients were included in the review. There was considerable heterogeneity in the definitions of BPD and asthma among studies. Overall, the prevalence of asthma was higher in children and adolescents with a history of prematurity and BPD compared with those who did not develop BPD. However, in only one of the studies did this difference reach statistical significance. The main limitation of this review was potential bias due to the lack of adjustment for confounding factors between exposure (BPD) and outcome (asthma) in most of the studies. Conclusion Based on the studies reviewed, it cannot be argued that BPD, as an independent factor of prematurity, increases the risk of asthma defined by clinical parameters in school-children and adolescents. Further studies of greater methodological quality and homogeneous diagnostic criteria of BPD and asthma are needed for improved assessment of this association.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.02.004
       
  • Helicobacter pylori seropositivity protects against childhood asthma and
           inversely correlates to its clinical and functional severity
    • Authors: E.M. Fouda; T.B. Kamel; E.S. Nabih; A.A. Abdelazem
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): E.M. Fouda, T.B. Kamel, E.S. Nabih, A.A. Abdelazem
      Background In recent years, the prevalence of asthma has risen in developed countries, and its extent related to a change in our indigenous microbiota. Helicobacter pylori disappearance across the population represents a fundamental change in our human microbiota and has preceded the rise in asthma prevalence. Objective To assess the relationship between childhood asthma and Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods Quantitative determination of Helicobacter pylori IgG among 90 asthmatic children and 90 – age and gender – matched non-atopic, non-asthmatic healthy children was performed using ELISA in serum of all participants. Results Helicobacter pylori IgG seropositivity was found in 25.6% of asthmatics compared to 44.4% of controls. Asthmatics showed lower median Helicobacter pylori IgG titre compared to healthy controls. We also detected a significant inverse relationship between Helicobacter pylori IgG titre and asthma severity. Conclusion Helicobacter pylori seropositivity protects against childhood asthma and inversely correlates to its clinical and functional severity.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.03.004
       
  • Biomarkers of airway and systemic inflammation in obese asthmatic
           paediatric patients
    • Authors: H.T. Nacaroglu; O.B. Gayret; M. Erol; O. Buke; O. Zengi; M. Tasdemir; Z. Tasdemir; O. Yigit
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): H.T. Nacaroglu, O.B. Gayret, M. Erol, O. Buke, O. Zengi, M. Tasdemir, Z. Tasdemir, O. Yigit
      Background It is thought that airway inflammation is more common in obese asthmatic patients because inflammation is harder to control and does not respond well to glucocorticoid treatment. Objective This study's aim was to investigate the effect of obesity on airway and systemic inflammation in children with asthma and to identify the biomarkers that play a role in this inflammation. Methods The study included patients aged 6–16 years who were diagnosed with asthma in the paediatric allergy outpatient clinic of Bagcilar Training and Research Hospital in Turkey. Complete blood count parameters were compared between three groups: obese asthmatic (n =43), obese non-asthmatic (n =45), and non-obese non-asthmatic (control group, n =30). Levels of high-sensitive CRP (hs-CRP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), osteopontin (OPN), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and 25(OH)-vitamin D were compared between the groups. Results No statistically significant differences were observed in 25(OH)-vitamin D, NGAL, OPN, hs-CRP, and MMP-9 levels between groups. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between FEV1/FVC and NGAL and MMP-9. Conclusion This is the first study to investigate levels of hs-CRP, NGAL, OPN, MMP-9, and 25(OH)-vitamin D in obese asthmatic children. Larger studies with sputum and BAL examinations are required to determine the potential of biomarkers for identifying inflammation in obese asthmatic children.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.01.013
       
  • The safety profile of subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy in children with
           asthma in Hangzhou, East China
    • Authors: J.-L. Liu; W.-X. Ning; S.-X. Li; Y.-C. Xu; L. Wu; Y.-S. Wang; X.-F. Xu; Y. Jiang; Y.-J. Sheng; Y.-L. Zhou; J.-H. Wang; L.-F. Tang; Z.-M. Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): J.-L. Liu, W.-X. Ning, S.-X. Li, Y.-C. Xu, L. Wu, Y.-S. Wang, X.-F. Xu, Y. Jiang, Y.-J. Sheng, Y.-L. Zhou, J.-H. Wang, L.-F. Tang, Z.-M. Chen
      Background The aim of the current study is to evaluate the prevalence, severity and possible risk factors of systemic reactions (SRs) to subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) in children and adolescents with asthma in Hangzhou, east China's Zhejiang province. Methods From January 2011 to December 2016, this survey analysed the SCIT-related SRs involving 429 patients (265 children and 134 adolescents) affected by allergic asthma. Recorded data included demographics, diagnosis, patient statuses, pulmonary function testing results before and after each injection, allergen dosage, and details of SRs. Results All patients finished the initial phase and six patients withdrew during the maintenance phase. There were 2.59% (328/12,655) SRs in all injections (3.28% in children and 1.47% in adolescents); 15.62% (67/429) patients experienced SRs (18.49% children and 10.98% adolescents). There were 54.57% SRs of grade 1; 42.37% SRs of grade 2; 3.05% SRs of grade 3; and no grades 4 or grade 5 SRs occurred in patients. Most reactions were mild, and were readily controlled by immediate emergency treatment. There was no need for hospitalisation. The occurrence of SRs was significantly higher in children than that in adolescents (p <0.01). A higher ratio of SRs was found among patients with moderate asthma. Conclusion This retrospective survey showed that properly-conducted SCIT was a safe treatment for children and adolescents with asthma in Hangzhou, East China. Children and patients with moderate asthma may be prone to develop SRs.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.04.002
       
  • Does atopy affect the course of viral pneumonia'
    • Authors: S.B. Erdem; D. Can; S. Girit; F. Çatal; V. Şen; S. Pekcan; H. Yüksel; A. Bingöl; I. Bostancı; D. Erge; R. Ersu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): S.B. Erdem, D. Can, S. Girit, F. Çatal, V. Şen, S. Pekcan, H. Yüksel, A. Bingöl, I. Bostancı, D. Erge, R. Ersu
      Background The presence of atopy is considered as a risk factor for severe respiratory symptoms in children. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of atopy on the course of disease in children hospitalised with viral pneumonia. Methods Children between the ages of 1 and 6 years hospitalised due to viral pneumonia between the years of 2013 and 2016 were included to this multicentre study. Patients were classified into two groups as mild–moderate and severe according to the course of pneumonia. Presence of atopy was evaluated with skin prick tests. Groups were compared to evaluate the risk factors associated with severe viral pneumonia. Results A total of 280 patients from nine centres were included in the study. Of these patients, 163 (58.2%) were male. Respiratory syncytial virus (29.7%), Influenza A (20.5%), rhinovirus (18.9%), adenovirus (10%), human metapneumovirus (8%), parainfluenza (5.2%), coronavirus (6%), and bocavirus (1.6%) were isolated from respiratory samples. Eighty-five (30.4%) children had severe pneumonia. Atopic sensitisation was found in 21.4% of the patients. Ever wheezing (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.4), parental asthma (RR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1–2.2), other allergic diseases in the family (RR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2–2.9) and environmental tobacco smoke (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–3.5) were more common in the severe pneumonia group. Conclusions When patients with mild–moderate pneumonia were compared to patients with severe pneumonia, frequency of atopy was not different between the two groups. However, parental asthma, ever wheezing and environmental tobacco smoke exposure are risk factors for severe viral pneumonia in children.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.04.003
       
  • Trends in prevalence and risk factors of allergic rhinitis symptoms in
           primary schoolchildren six years apart in Budapest
    • Authors: M. Sultész; I. Balogh; G. Katona; G. Mezei; A. Hirschberg; G. Gálffy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): M. Sultész, I. Balogh, G. Katona, G. Mezei, A. Hirschberg, G. Gálffy
      Background Few data are available concerning the time trends and risk factors associated with allergic rhinitis (AR) in schoolchildren in Hungary. Methods At an interval of six years, parents of 6–12-year-old children completed identical ISAAC-based and additional questionnaires related to possible risk factors. Results Response rate was 62.8% with 6335 questionnaires distributed in 2007, and 52.9% with 6441 questionnaires in 2013. The prevalence of current AR symptoms (subjects presenting clinical symptoms of AR in the past 12 months, but had yet to be diagnosed by physician) increased significantly from 14.9% to 23.5% (p <0.001). There was no significant change in the prevalence of physician-diagnosed AR (11.6–11.2%). In multivariate analysis, gender (OR 0.733; CI 0.642–0.931), a family history of atopy (OR 2.017; CI 1.669–2.436), frequent upper respiratory tract infections (OR 2.033; CI 1.659–2.492), long-lasting disease before the appearance of the allergy (OR 2.119; CI 1.311–3.428), feather bedding (OR 0.773; CI 0.599–0.996) and living in a green area (OR 1.367; CI 1.133–1.650) were found to be significant risk factors of cumulative AR in 2013. In both of the groups with (p <0.000) or without (p <0.003) AR the families with a history of atopy used feather bedding less frequently than families without atopy. Conclusion Although the prevalence of physician-diagnosed AR has not shown significant changes during the studied interval, the significant increase of the current AR symptoms suggests growing prevalence of AR among children in Budapest. Our results revealed new aspects of bedding customs in atopic families.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.02.010
       
  • Influence of the Mediterranean diet during pregnancy in the development of
           wheezing and eczema in infants in Pamplona, Spain
    • Authors: N. Alvarez Zallo; I. Aguinaga-Ontoso; I. Alvarez-Alvarez; B. Marin-Fernandez; F. Guillén-Grima; C. Azcona-San Julián
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): N. Alvarez Zallo, I. Aguinaga-Ontoso, I. Alvarez-Alvarez, B. Marin-Fernandez, F. Guillén-Grima, C. Azcona-San Julián
      Background This study examined the relationship between different food groups and the adherence to a Mediterranean diet during pregnancy and the risk of wheezing and eczema in children aged 12–15 months. Methods The study involves 1087 Spanish infants from the International Study of Wheezing in Infants (Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes, EISL). The study of the association of the different food consumption and Mediterranean diet with wheezing, recurrent wheezing and eczema was performed using different models of unconditional logistic regression to obtain adjusted prevalence odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results No association was found between a good adherence to the Mediterranean diet during pregnancy and the development of wheezing (p =0.372), recurrent wheezing (p =0.118) and eczema (p =0.315). The consumption once or twice a week of white fish (OR: 1.95[1.01–3.75]), cooked potatoes (OR: 1.75[1.22–2.51]) and industrial pastry (OR: 1.59[1.13–2.24]), and the consumption more than three times a week of industrial pastry (OR: 1.47 [1.01–2.13]) during pregnancy increases the risk of “wheezing” at 12 months. Instead, high fruit consumption during the pregnancy has a protective effect against “wheezing” in 12-month-old infants (OR: 0.44 [0.20–0.99]). No statistically significant differences were observed between food intake during pregnancy and “recurrent wheezing”. No statistically significant differences were observed between the consumption of any food during pregnancy and the presence of eczema at 12 months. Conclusions The present study showed that the consumption of Mediterranean diet during pregnancy did not have a protective effect for wheezing, recurrent wheezing or eczema.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.02.009
       
  • Oral immunisation with Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide
           adjuvant with recombinant Lactococcus lactis-expressing Proteus mirabilis
           ompA confers optimal protection in mice
    • Authors: J. Zhou; K. Wei; C. Wang; W. Dong; N. Ma; L. Zhu; L.P. Hu; H. Huang; R. Zhu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): J. Zhou, K. Wei, C. Wang, W. Dong, N. Ma, L. Zhu, L.P. Hu, H. Huang, R. Zhu
      Background Proteus mirabilis poses a critical burden on the breeding industry, but no efficient vaccine is available for animals. Method A recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing the ompA of P. mirabilis was used to develop a vaccine. The mucosal and systemic immune responses of the recombinant vaccine were evaluated in mice after oral immunisation. The inhibition on P. mirabilis colonisation of vaccines was also determined. Moreover, Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharides (TPPPS) were used as adjuvants to examine the immunomodulatory effects. Results The pure recombinant L. lactis vaccine significantly induced the production of specific IgA and IgG, IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, and T lymphocyte proliferation, and the immunised mice exhibited significant resistance to P. mirabilis colonisation. Notably, the TPPPS adjuvant vaccines induced higher levels of immune responses than the pure L. lactis. Conclusions The L. lactis as a vaccine vehicle combined with TPPPS adjuvant provides a feasible method for preventing P. mirabilis infection.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.04.005
       
  • A comparison of two clinical scores for bronchiolitis. A multicentre and
           prospective study conducted in hospitalised infants
    • Authors: C. Rivas-Juesas; J.M. Rius Peris; A.L. García; A.A. Madramany; M.G. Peris; L.V. Álvarez; J. Primo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): C. Rivas-Juesas, J.M. Rius Peris, A.L. García, A.A. Madramany, M.G. Peris, L.V. Álvarez, J. Primo
      Background There are a number of clinical scores for bronchiolitis but none of them are firmly recommended in the guidelines. Method We designed a study to compare two scales of bronchiolitis (ESBA and Wood Downes Ferres) and determine which of them better predicts the severity. A multicentre prospective study with patients <12 months with acute bronchiolitis was conducted. Each patient was assessed with the two scales when admission was decided. We created a new variable “severe condition” to determine whether one scale afforded better discrimination of severity. A diagnostic test analysis of sensitivity and specificity was made, with a comparison of the AUC. Based on the optimum cut-off points of the ROC curves for classifying bronchiolitis as severe we calculated new Se, Sp, LR+ and LR− for each scale in our sample. Results 201 patients were included, 66.7% males and median age 2.3 months (IQR=1.3–4.4). Thirteen patients suffered bronchiolitis considered to be severe, according to the variable severe condition. ESBA showed a Se=3.6%, Sp=98.1%, and WDF showed Se=46.2% and Sp=91.5%. The difference between the two AUC for each scale was 0.02 (95%CI: 0.01–0.15), p =0.72. With new cut-off points we could increase Se and Sp for ESBA: Se=84.6%, Sp=78.7%, and WDF showed Se=92.3% and Sp=54.8%; with higher LR. Conclusions None of the scales studied was considered optimum for assessing our patients. With new cut-off points, the scales increased the ability to classify severe infants. New validation studies are needed to prove these new cut-off points.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.01.012
       
  • The protective role of Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein
           in childhood asthma
    • Authors: A. Karakullukcu; H.B. Tokman; S. Nepesov; M. Demirci; S. Saribas; S. Vehid; R. Caliskan; Z. Taner; H. Cokugras; T. Ziver; S. Demiryas; B. Kocazeybek
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): A. Karakullukcu, H.B. Tokman, S. Nepesov, M. Demirci, S. Saribas, S. Vehid, R. Caliskan, Z. Taner, H. Cokugras, T. Ziver, S. Demiryas, B. Kocazeybek
      Background Helicobacter pylori quantity and HP-NAP gene expression were evaluated in the faeces of healthy and asthmatic children. Methods H. pylori DNAs and RNAs were isolated from the stool samples of 92 asthmatic children (AC; 3–8 years) and 88 healthy controls (HC). Quantitative PCR was used to determine the quantity of H. pylori and HP-NAP expression relative to the 16S rRNA (reference gene). Gene expression was analysed using the delta delta-Ct method. Results H. pylori DNA was detected in the stool samples of 18 (20.4%) of the 88 HC (p <0.0001, OR=0.79) and none of AC. No meaningful statistical differences were found between individuals with positive and negative family histories for asthma in AC and HC (p >0.05). H. pylori quantity was higher in seven of 18 H. pylori-positive samples, but HP-NAP expression levels were low in four of these seven samples. Based on a multivariate logistic regression analysis of these three variables together, only males displayed a significant difference based on gender differences (p <0.02) and it was determined that, based on the OR value of 0.46 and the 95% CI range of 0.241–0.888, male gender was an independent protective factor in asthma. Conclusions HP-NAP levels vary to the relative concentrations of bacteria in the stationary or late logarithmic phases. Different napA expression levels may be caused by different endogenous napA gene expression or different environmental conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.01.008
       
  • Plasticity of immune system vs. memory therapy IST
    • Authors: A. Tammaro; I. Romano; F. Persechino; F.R. Parisella; I. Trimarchi; S. Persechino
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): A. Tammaro, I. Romano, F. Persechino, F.R. Parisella, I. Trimarchi, S. Persechino
      Background Pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy are the main treatments for allergic diseases to inhalants. Objective This study investigates whether to repeat short cycles of immunotherapy after 3 or 5 years the from interruption of the first therapeutic cycle, lasting 3–4 years, to maintain immune memory in individuals subjected to IST. Methods and Results We have compared two groups, one of 452 patients who, after the first treatment for 3–4 years of IST, performed a cycle of four months after three and 10 years from the suspension, and a second group of 126 individuals who have performed only the IST treatment for 3–4 years. The best results were obtained in the first group. Conclusions These results are due to the immune system's plasticity, a very important concept in clinical practice.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.01.007
       
  • True and false contraindications to vaccines
    • Authors: R. Opri; G. Zanoni; C. Caffarelli; P. Bottau; S. Caimmi; G. Crisafulli; F. Franceschini; L. Liotti; F. Saretta; M. Vernich; D.G. Peroni
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): R. Opri, G. Zanoni, C. Caffarelli, P. Bottau, S. Caimmi, G. Crisafulli, F. Franceschini, L. Liotti, F. Saretta, M. Vernich, D.G. Peroni
      Nowadays, the awareness of risks related to infectious diseases has decreased, whereas THE perception of risks related to vaccination is growing. Therefore, it may be difficult for health care providers to convince people of the importance of vaccination and adherence to the immunisation schedule. Selected situations that might raise uncertainties about vaccine recommendations are discussed in order to help health care providers to identify real and perceived contraindications to vaccines, and cases to be referred to specialised pre-vaccination consultation due to an increased risk of adverse events to vaccines.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.02.003
       
  • Impact of meteorological factors on the emergence of bronchiolitis in
           North-western Greece
    • Authors: S. Tsabouri; A. Gkoutsias; C.J. Lolis; A. Makis; N. Chaliasos; A. Bartzokas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): S. Tsabouri, A. Gkoutsias, C.J. Lolis, A. Makis, N. Chaliasos, A. Bartzokas
      Objective To evaluate the relationship between meteorological factors in North-western Greece and the incidence of bronchiolitis. Methods Meteorological data (air temperature and rainfall) for Ioannina city in North-western Greece and medical data from hospitalised patients at University Hospital of Ioannina were collected between January 2002 and December 2013. The association between meteorological factors and rate of hospitalisation due to bronchiolitis was investigated. The data processing was done using the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient and applying the chi-square test at contingency tables of the parameters. Results Of the 792 hospitalised cases, 670 related to infants (<1 year) and 122 concerned patients aged 1–2 years old. The disease is more common among boys (59.5%) than girls (40.5%). The disease course through the year has a double variation with a main maximum in March and a main minimum in August. The statistical study showed statistically significant correlation of bronchiolitis with: (a) the temperature parameters on an annual basis; (b) precipitation in autumn and dryness in spring; and (c) with sudden changes in diurnal temperature range on an annual basis. Conclusion A peak incidence of bronchiolitis was noticed in cold and wet seasons during the five days preceding hospitalisation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.01.009
       
  • A rural environment does not protect against asthma or other allergic
           diseases amongst Mexican children
    • Authors: M. Bedolla-Barajas; F. Javier Ramírez-Cervantes; J. Morales-Romero; J. Jesús Pérez-Molina; C. Meza-López; N. Delgado-Figueroa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): M. Bedolla-Barajas, F. Javier Ramírez-Cervantes, J. Morales-Romero, J. Jesús Pérez-Molina, C. Meza-López, N. Delgado-Figueroa
      Introduction The commonly held notion that a rural environment decreases the frequency of allergic diseases has proven to be inconsistent amongst children. Objective Our objective was to contrast the prevalence of bronchial asthma (BA), allergic rhinitis (AR), and atopic dermatitis (AD) between children that live in a rural environment and those that live in urban areas. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study amongst children aged six to seven; they were selected through probabilistic, stratified and conglomerated sampling. The prevalence of BA, AR, and AD was identified with the use of the questionnaire provided by The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, additionally, we inquired about each child's family history of atopy, their exposure to farm animals, the intake of unpasteurised cow's milk, and the number of siblings related to every child. We used logistic regression and multivariate analysis to determine the correlation between asthma, allergic diseases, and rural environment. Results We included 189/1003 (18.8%) children from a rural environment, and 814/1003 (81.2%) from an urban area. BA and AR were associated to a family history of atopy (OR=2.15, p =0.001; OR=2.58, p =0.002, respectively). BA was more prevalent in males (OR=1.92, p =0.007). Notably, a higher number of siblings seems to protect against AR (OR=0.45, p =0.008). A paternal history of allergies was associated to AD. Conclusions In our study, we were unable to find protective factors in a rural environment that might decrease the prevalence of asthma or allergic diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.01.010
       
  • Recent thymic emigrants, T regulatory cells, and BAFF level in children
           with X-linked agammaglobulinaemia in association with chronic respiratory
           disease
    • Authors: S.O. Sharapova; O.E. Pashchenko; I.E. Guryanova; A.A. Migas; I.V. Kondratenko; O.V. Aleinikova
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): S.O. Sharapova, O.E. Pashchenko, I.E. Guryanova, A.A. Migas, I.V. Kondratenko, O.V. Aleinikova
      Background X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) is a genetic disorder affecting B cell maturation, which is characterised by a low number of B cells, agammaglobulinaemia and increased susceptibility to a variety of bacterial infections. This study was performed to assess T cell subpopulations in a group of children with XLA in association with chronic respiratory disease (CRD). Methods Numbers of T cell subpopulations (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD3+DR+, naïve, memory, recent thymic emigrants (RTE), regulatory T cells, follicular T helpers) were measured by eight-colour flow cytometry in 22 XLA patients and 50 controls. BAFF level was measured by ELISA. Results XLA patients with CRD had a significantly lower percentage of RTE numbers and Tregs, while significantly higher absolute counts of lymphocytes, CD3+, CD8+, CD3+DR+ and CD4+CD45RO+ T cells were detected as compared with healthy controls. In patients with XLA without CRD, the number of follicular T helper cells was altered significantly (percentage and absolute), as compared with healthy controls. Additionally, they had significantly higher counts (percentage and absolute) of CD4+CD45RA+ cells and lower percentage of CD4+CD45RO+ cells in comparison with healthy controls. Conclusions Our study affords new information concerning CRD and T cell subsets that differentiate or are maintained in the absence of B cells in children with XLA. T cell's homeostasis depends on the presence of chronic respiratory disease that may be caused by the delay in diagnosis.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.01.011
       
  • FPIES: The dark side of food allergy
    • Authors: C.A.
      Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 3
      Author(s): C.A. Sánchez-Salguero


      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
       
  • Beneficial effects of ursodeoxycholic acid via inhibition of airway
           remodelling, apoptosis of airway epithelial cells, and Th2 immune response
           in murine model of chronic asthma
    • Authors: S. Işık; M. Karaman; S. Çilaker Micili; Ş. Çağlayan-Sözmen; H. Alper Bağrıyanık; Z. Arıkan-Ayyıldız; N. Uzuner; Ö. Karaman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): S. Işık, M. Karaman, S. Çilaker Micili, Ş. Çağlayan-Sözmen, H. Alper Bağrıyanık, Z. Arıkan-Ayyıldız, N. Uzuner, Ö. Karaman
      Background and aims In previous studies, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immunomodulatory effects of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on liver diseases have been shown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of UDCA on airway remodelling, epithelial apoptosis, and T Helper (Th)-2 derived cytokine levels in a murine model of chronic asthma. Methods Twenty-seven BALB/c mice were divided into five groups; PBS-Control, OVA-Placebo, OVA-50mg/kg UDCA, OVA-150mg/kg UDCA, OVA-Dexamethasone. Mice in groups OVA-50mg/kg UDCA, OVA-150mg/kg UDCA, OVA-Dexamethasone received the UDCA (50mg/kg), UDCA (150mg/kg), and dexamethasone, respectively. Epithelium thickness, sub-epithelial smooth muscle thickness, number of mast and goblet cells of samples isolated from the lung were measured. Immunohistochemical scorings of the lung tissue for matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEG-F), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick endlabeling (TUNEL) and cysteine-dependent aspartate-specific proteases (caspase)-3 were determined. IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, Nitric oxide, ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels were quantified. Results The dose of 150mg/kg UDCA treatment led to lower epithelial thickness, sub-epithelial smooth muscle thickness, goblet and mast cell numbers compared to placebo. Except for MMP-9 and TUNEL all immunohistochemical scores were similar in both UDCA treated groups and the placebo. All cytokine levels were significantly lower in group IV compared to the placebo. Conclusions These findings suggested that the dose of 150mg/kg UDCA improved all histopathological changes of airway remodelling and its beneficial effects might be related to modulating Th-2 derived cytokines and the inhibition of apoptosis of airway epithelial cells.

      PubDate: 2017-03-06T21:42:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.12.003
       
  • Primary immunodeficiency diseases in Northern Iran
    • Authors: I. Mohammadzadeh; B. Moazzami; J. Ghaffari; A. Aghamohammadi; N. Rezaei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): I. Mohammadzadeh, B. Moazzami, J. Ghaffari, A. Aghamohammadi, N. Rezaei
      Introduction Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, characterised by recurrent severe infections, autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation. Despite impressive progress in identification of novel PID, there is an unfortunate lack of awareness among physicians in identification of patients with PID, especially in non-capital cities of countries worldwide. Result This study was performed in a single-centre paediatric hospital in Northern Iran during a 21-year period (1994–2015). Ninety-four patients were included in this study. The majority of cases had antibody deficiencies (37.23%), followed by well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiency in 16 (17.02%), phagocytic disorders in 15 patients (15.95%), complement deficiencies in 15 patients (15.95%), immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity in nine patients (9.57%), disease of immune dysregulation in three (3.19%), and defects in intrinsic and innate immunity in one (1.06%). Conclusion It seems that there are major variations in frequency of different types of PID in different regions of a country. Therefore, reporting local data could provide better ideas to improve the local health care system strategists and quality of care of PID patients.

      PubDate: 2017-02-27T21:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.11.001
       
  • Increased sputum levels of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in
           children with asthma not eosinophilic bronchitis
    • Authors: M.J. Kim; H.S. Lee; I.S. Sol; M.N. Kim; J.Y. Hong; K.E. Lee; Y.H. Kim; K.W. Kim; M.H. Sohn; K.-E. Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): M.J. Kim, H.S. Lee, I.S. Sol, M.N. Kim, J.Y. Hong, K.E. Lee, Y.H. Kim, K.W. Kim, M.H. Sohn, K.-E. Kim
      Background Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), a member of the CC chemokine family, plays a crucial role in Th2-specific inflammation. We aimed to determine the concentration of sputum TARC in children with asthma and eosinophilic bronchitis (EB) and its relation with eosinophilic inflammation, pulmonary function, and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Methods In total, 90 children with asthma, 38 with EB, and 45 control subjects were enrolled. TARC levels were measured in sputum supernatants using an ELISA. We performed pulmonary function tests and measured exhaled fractional nitric oxide, eosinophil counts in blood, and sputum and serum levels of total IgE in all children. Results Sputum TARC levels were significantly higher in children with asthma than in either children with EB (p =0.004) or the control subjects (p =0.014). Among patients with asthma, sputum TARC concentration was higher in children with sputum eosinophilia than in those without sputum eosinophilia (p =0.035). Sputum TARC levels positively correlated with eosinophil counts in sputum, serum total IgE levels, exhaled fractional nitric, and the bronchodilator response. Negative significant correlations were found between sputum TARC and FEV1/FVC (the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second and forced expiratory vital capacity) or PC20 (the provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% decrease in the FEV1). Conclusion Elevated TARC levels in sputum were detected in children with asthma but not in children with EB. Sputum TARC could be a supportive marker for discrimination of asthma from EB in children showing characteristics of eosinophilic airway inflammation.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T21:16:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.12.004
       
  • Knowledge of asthma and anaphylaxis among teachers in Spanish schools
    • Authors: J.C. Juliá-Benito; M. Escarrer-Jaume; M.T. Guerra-Pérez; J. Contreras-Porta; E. Tauler-Toro; A. Madroñero-Tentor; J.C. Cerdá-Mir
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): J.C. Juliá-Benito, M. Escarrer-Jaume, M.T. Guerra-Pérez, J. Contreras-Porta, E. Tauler-Toro, A. Madroñero-Tentor, J.C. Cerdá-Mir
      Introduction Allergic diseases affect 15–20% of the paediatric population in the industrialised world. Most educational centres in Spain do not have health professionals among their staff, and the teachers are in charge of child care in school. The advisability of specific training of the teaching staff should be considered, with the introduction of concrete intervention plans in the event of life-threatening emergencies in schools. Material and methods Evaluation of the training needs constitutes the first step in planning an educational project. In this regard, the Health Education Group of the Spanish Society of Clinical Immunology, Allergology and Paediatric Asthma (Grupo de Educación Sanitaria de la Sociedad Española de Inmunología Clínica, Alergología y Asma Pediátrica [SEICAAP]) assessed the knowledge of teachers in five Spanish Autonomous Communities, using a self-administered questionnaire specifically developed for this study. The data obtained were analysed using the SPSS statistical package. Results A total of 2479 teachers completed the questionnaire. Most of them claimed to know what asthma is, and almost one half considered that they would know how to act in the event of an asthma attack. This proportion was higher among physical education teachers. Most would not know how to act in the case of anaphylaxis or be able to administer the required medication. In general, the teachers expressed interest in receiving training and in having an interventional protocol applicable to situations of this kind. Discussion It is important to know what the training requirements are in order to develop plans for intervention in the event of an emergency in school. Teachers admit a lack of knowledge on how to deal with these disorders, but express a wish to receive training.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T21:16:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.019
       
  • Changes in IL-4 and IL-13 expression in allergic-rhinitis treated with
           hydrogen-rich saline in guinea-pig model
    • Authors: Zhao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): C. Zhao, S. Yu, J. Li, W. Xu, R. Ge
      Background Medical gas hydrogen (H2) has a special role in airway inflammation; however, the effect of H2 on allergic rhinitis (AR) remains unclear. This study explored the possible roles of H2 on the pathogenesis of AR and observed the influences of H2 on cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. Methods An AR guinea pig model was established by nasal ovalbumin sensitisation. Eighteen guinea pigs were divided into three groups, namely, saline control, AR-sensitised, and hydrogen-rich saline (HRS)-treated groups, with each group having six guinea pigs. The frequencies of sneezing and scratching were recorded. The IgE level and cytokine (IL-4 and IL-13) levels in the serum were measured. The expression levels of IL-4 and IL-13 mRNA and protein in the nasal mucosa were also determined by real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. We also observed the infiltration of cytokine (IL-4 and IL-13) in nasal mucosa by immunofluorescence. Results The frequencies of sneezing and scratching, as well as the levels of IgE, IL-4, and IL-13, in the serum were higher in the AR group than in the control group (p <0.01), whereas all these parameters were decreased significantly after HRS treatment (p <0.05). The expression levels of IL-4 and IL-13 mRNA and protein in the nasal mucosa were also lower in guinea pigs treated with HRS than those in the AR group (p <0.05). Conclusions HRS could affect anti-inflammation in AR and decreased the expression of IL-4 and IL-13.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T21:16:42Z
       
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms of IL-2, but not IL-12 and IFN-γ, are
           
    • Authors: M. Movahedi; M. Tavakol; F. Rahmani; A.A. Amirzargar; A.Z. Bidoki; K. Heidari; M. Gharagozlou; A. Aghamohammadi; M. Nabavi; S. Soltani; N. Rezaei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): M. Movahedi, M. Tavakol, F. Rahmani, A.A. Amirzargar, A.Z. Bidoki, K. Heidari, M. Gharagozlou, A. Aghamohammadi, M. Nabavi, S. Soltani, N. Rezaei
      Background A clear picture of interaction of Th1/Th2 cytokines in pathogenesis of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), remains elusive. Impaired IFN-γ production and decreased levels of IL-2 have been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of Th1 cytokines; IL-2, IL-12 and IFN-γ polymorphisms with CSU. Methods 90 patients with CSU and 140 age-sex matched subjects were included in this study. DNA samples were evaluated through PCR-SSP assay in order to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms of IL-12 (A/C −1188) or (rs3212227), IFN-γ (A/T UTR5644) or (rs2069717) and IL-2 (G/T −330 and G/T +166) or (rs2069762 and rs2069763). Results G allele at −330 at promoter region of IL-2 gene was overrepresented in CSU. Heterozygotes (GT) at this locus and heterozygotes at +166 of IL-2 gene (GT) were more prevalent in CSU group. Additionally, the haplotype GT for loci −330 and +166 of IL-2 gene was powerfully associated with CSU (OR (95%CI)=57.29 (8.43–112.7)). Conclusions SNP at position −330 and +166 of IL-2 gene are differently expressed in CSU. The haplotype GT of IL-2 at −330 and +166 might confer vulnerability to a number of immunological disorders in Iranian region.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T12:59:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.009
       
  • Bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccine complications in Iranian children at a
           University Hospital
    • Authors: M.R. Bolursaz; F. Lotfian; A.A. Velayati
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): M.R. Bolursaz, F. Lotfian, A.A. Velayati
      Background Although the BCG vaccine remains the only available vaccine, a number of complications from local to systemic adverse reactions can occur. Objective The aim of the study was to review the clinical features and treatment of Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) complications in children. Methods Children with clinical and laboratory findings compatible with a diagnosis of local complication and disseminated disease at Masih Daneshvari Medical Center were enrolled from March 2013 to September 2015. Results Among 49 children with BCG complications, 35 (71%) had local complications and 14 (29%) had disseminated disease. The mean age at presentation was nine months (range: 1m–13y). The male to female ratio was 1.7:1. Suppurative lymphadenitis was seen in 25 of 35 (71%) cases. Among cases with disseminated disease, primary immunodeficiency (PID) was identified in nine (64%) cases. All cases with non-suppurative lymphadenitis were managed conservatively. Twenty (80%) cases with suppurative lymphadenitis were managed differently with medical treatment or surgery. In disseminated cases, three (43%) were treated with only medical treatment and eight (57%) with both medical and surgical treatment. Conclusions Most children with BCG complications had a local disease in our study. A higher rate of disseminated disease was also observed. In addition, PID was identified in most children with disseminated disease. Development of more appropriate BCG vaccines and changing the current vaccination programme in cases with suspected PID are required in our country.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T12:59:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.006
       
  • Tolerance development in food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis:
           Single centre experience
    • Authors: S.B. Erdem; H.T. Nacaroglu; S. Karaman; C.B. Erdur; C.U. Karkıner; D. Can
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): S.B. Erdem, H.T. Nacaroglu, S. Karaman, C.B. Erdur, C.U. Karkıner, D. Can
      Background Food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP) is characterised by inflammation of the distal colon in response to one or more food proteins. It is a benign condition of bloody stools in a well-appearing infant, with usual onset between one and four weeks of age. Objective Our objective was to examine the clinical properties of patients with FPIAP, tolerance development time as well as the risk factors that affect tolerance development. Methods The clinical symptoms, offending factors, laboratory findings, methods used in the diagnosis and tolerance development for 77 patients followed in the Paediatric Allergy and Gastroenterology Clinics with the diagnosis of FPIAP during January 2010–January 2015 were examined in our retrospective cross-sectional study. Results The starting age of the symptoms was 3.3±4.7 months (0–36). Milk was found as the offending substance for 78% of the patients, milk and egg for 13% and egg for 5%. Mean tolerance development time of the patients was 14.7±11.9 months (3–66 months). Tolerance developed before the age of one year in 40% of the patients. Tolerance developed between the age of 1–2 years in 27%, between the age of 2–3 years in 9% and after the age of 3 years in 5% of the patients. Conclusions Smaller onset age and onset of symptoms during breastfeeding were found associated with early tolerance development. In the majority of the patients, FPIAP resolves before the age of one year, however in some of the patients this duration may be much longer.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T12:59:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.005
       
  • The influence of gender and atopy in the relationship between obesity and
           asthma in childhood
    • Authors: N. Alvarez Zallo; I. Aguinaga-Ontoso; I. Alvarez-Alvarez; F. Guillén-Grima; C. Azcona San Julian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): N. Alvarez Zallo, I. Aguinaga-Ontoso, I. Alvarez-Alvarez, F. Guillén-Grima, C. Azcona San Julian
      Background The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between asthma and overweight–obesity in Spanish children and adolescents and to determine whether this relationship was affected by gender and atopy. Methods The study involves 8607 Spanish children and adolescents from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood phase III. Unconditional logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between asthma symptoms and overweight–obesity in the two groups. Afterwards, it was stratified by sex and rhinoconjunctivitis. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity in 6–7-year-old children was 18.6% and 5.2% respectively and in 13–14 year-old teenagers was 11.4% and 1.1% respectively. Only the obese children, not the overweight children, of the 6–7 year old group had a higher risk of any asthma symptoms (wheezing ever: OR 1.68 [1.15–2.47], asthma ever: OR 2.29 [1.43–3.68], current asthma 2.56 [1.54–4.28], severe asthma 3.18 [1.50–6.73], exercise-induced asthma 2.71 [1.45–5.05]). The obese girls had an increased risk of suffering any asthma symptoms (wheezing ever: OR 1.73 [1.05–2.91], asthma ever: OR 3.12 [1.67–5.82], current asthma 3.20 [1.65–6.19], severe asthma 4.83[1.94–12.04], exercise-induced asthma 3.68 [1.67–8.08]). The obese children without rhinoconjunctivitis had a higher risk of asthma symptoms. Conclusions Obesity and asthma symptoms were associated in 6–7 year-old children but not in 13–14 year-old teenagers. The association was stronger in non-atopic children and obese girls.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T12:50:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.09.005
       
 
 
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