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Showing 1 - 200 of 3031 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 79, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 389, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Allergologia et Immunopathologia
  [SJR: 0.46]   [H-I: 29]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 0301-0546
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Should countries implement asthma strategies' Some fresh ideas from
           the Global Asthma Network; and a quote from Carl Sandburg
    • Authors: L. Garcia-Marcos
      Pages: 103 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 2
      Author(s): L. Garcia-Marcos

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T21:16:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.02.001
  • Comparison of two diagnostic techniques, skin-prick test and component
           resolved diagnosis in the follow-up of a cohort of paediatric patients
           with pollinosis. Multicentre pilot study in a highly exposed allergenic
    • Authors: E. González-Mancebo; J. Domínguez-Ortega; S. Blanco-Bermejo; E. González-Seco; M.J. Trujillo; F. de la Torre
      Pages: 121 - 126
      Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 2
      Author(s): E. González-Mancebo, J. Domínguez-Ortega, S. Blanco-Bermejo, E. González-Seco, M.J. Trujillo, F. de la Torre
      Background Over the last years, different works have been published about the importance of incorporating new diagnosis techniques in allergic patients such as component-resolved diagnosis (CRD). The objective of this study is to compare the evolution of allergic sensitisation profiles by means of CRD and cutaneous tests (SPT) on pollen-allergic patients. Methods A total of 123 patients aged between 2 and 14 years were included in an open, prospective, multicentre study. All the children had symptoms suggestive of seasonal respiratory allergic disease, with the diagnosis confirmed by cutaneous tests. Specific-IgE to major pollen-allergens (CRD) and SPT were performed at basal and after three years of follow-up. Results Out of 123 patients included, a total of 85 were analysed. The mean age was 8±3 years. Significant changes in the allergic sensitisation profiles were observed for the most prevalent allergens (Olea and grass) but it is in grass, the most relevant allergen in terms of allergen pressure, where changes in both absolute and relative frequencies between SPT and CRD were more evident. Conclusion CRD seems to be an essential tool to carry out an appropriate follow-up of patients with allergic respiratory disease, as well as to decide on the immunotherapy composition that best matches the allergic sensitisation profile of patients.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T21:16:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.04.005
  • Prevalence of oral allergy syndrome in children with allergic diseases
    • Authors: M. Bedolla-Barajas; A. Kestler-Gramajo; G. Alcalá-Padilla; J. Morales-Romero
      Pages: 127 - 133
      Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 2
      Author(s): M. Bedolla-Barajas, A. Kestler-Gramajo, G. Alcalá-Padilla, J. Morales-Romero
      Introduction The oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is a particular type of food allergy rarely explored in the paediatric population that is already considered an adult problem. Objective Identify the prevalence of OAS, symptoms and pollen species associated with its presence in children affected by allergic diseases. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted. Consecutive sampling included children from 6 to 14 years who needed allergy treatment for the first time. A structured questionnaire was carried out to collect demographic and clinical data and history of OAS. Besides sensitisation to various allergens, the skin prick-by-prick test was performed to corroborate sensitisation to food related to OAS. Prevalence of OAS and its association with pollens was established following the covariate adjusted logistic regression. Results 267 subjects were included. Overall prevalence of OAS was 8.9% (95%CI 6.1–13.1%). Prevalence of OAS for allergic rhinitis and asthma were 8.8% and 9.1%, respectively. In patients sensitised to pollen, the prevalence ranged from 9.6% to 12.2% depending on the type of pollen. 62.5% of children with OAS were sensitive to pineapple. After adjusting for gender and family history of atopic disease, trees from the Quercus species showed an association with OAS (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.2–6.2). Conclusions OAS is not uncommon in our environment. Pineapple, a typical fruit from the region, was the main food related. Quercus sp., but not birch nor olive, was the pollen associated with this syndrome.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T21:16:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.04.017
  • Management of chronic spontaneous urticaria in routine clinical practice:
           A Delphi-method questionnaire among specialists to test agreement with
           current European guidelines statements
    • Authors: A. Giménez-Arnau; M. Ferrer; J. Bartra; I. Jáuregui; M. Labrador-Horrillo; J. Ortiz de Frutos; J.F. Silvestre; J. Sastre; M. Velasco; A. Valero
      Pages: 134 - 144
      Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 2
      Author(s): A. Giménez-Arnau, M. Ferrer, J. Bartra, I. Jáuregui, M. Labrador-Horrillo, J. Ortiz de Frutos, J.F. Silvestre, J. Sastre, M. Velasco, A. Valero
      Background Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a frequent clinical entity that often presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Objective To explore the degree of agreement that exists among the experts caring for patients with CSU diagnosis, evaluation, and management. Methods An online survey was conducted to explore the opinions of experts in CSU, address controversial issues, and provide recommendations regarding its definition, natural history, diagnosis, and treatment. A modified Delphi method was used for the consensus. Results The questionnaire was answered by 68 experts (dermatologists, allergologists, and primary care physicians). A consensus was reached on 54 of the 65 items posed (96.4%). The experts concluded that CSU is a difficult-to-control disease of unpredictable evolution. Diagnostic tests should be limited and based on clinical history and should not be indiscriminate. Autoinflammatory syndromes and urticarial vasculitis must be ruled out in the differential diagnosis. A cutaneous biopsy is only recommended when wheals last more than 24h, to rule out urticarial vasculitis. The use of specific scales to assess the severity of the disease and the quality of life is recommended. In patients with severe and resistant CSU, second-generation H1-antihistamines could be used at doses up to four times the standard dose before giving second-line treatments. Omalizumab is a safe and effective treatment for CSU that is refractory to H1-antihistamines treatment. In general, diagnosis and treatment recommendations given for adults could be extrapolated to children. Conclusions This work offers consensus recommendations that may be useful in the management of CSU.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T21:16:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.06.007
  • Sleep disorders in Latin-American children with asthma and/or allergic
           rhinitis and normal controls
    • Authors: M. Urrutia-Pereira; D. Solé; H.J. Chong Neto; V. Acosta; A.M. Cepeda; M. Álvarez-Castelló; C.F. Almendarez; J. Lozano-Saenz; J.C. Sisul-Alvariza; N.A. Rosario; A.J. Castillo; M. Valentin-Rostan; H. Badellino; R.L. Castro-Almarales; M. González-León; C. Sanchez-Silot; M.M. Avalos; C. Fernandez; F. Berroa; M.M. De la Cruz; R.O.S. Sarni
      Pages: 145 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 2
      Author(s): M. Urrutia-Pereira, D. Solé, H.J. Chong Neto, V. Acosta, A.M. Cepeda, M. Álvarez-Castelló, C.F. Almendarez, J. Lozano-Saenz, J.C. Sisul-Alvariza, N.A. Rosario, A.J. Castillo, M. Valentin-Rostan, H. Badellino, R.L. Castro-Almarales, M. González-León, C. Sanchez-Silot, M.M. Avalos, C. Fernandez, F. Berroa, M.M. De la Cruz, R.O.S. Sarni
      Background Asthma and/or allergic rhinitis have been associated with sleep disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep disorders in Latin-American children (4–10 years) from nine countries, with persistent asthma (A) and/or allergic rhinitis (AR) and in normal controls (C). Methods Parents from 454 C children and 700 A and/or AR children followed up in allergy reference clinics completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) which is a retrospective one-week questionnaire composed of 33 questions composed of seven subscales (bedtime resistance, sleep duration, sleep anxiety, night wakings, parasomnias, sleep-disordered breathing and daytime sleepiness). The total scale of CSHQ and the subscales were compared between groups C and A+AR, A (n =285) vs. AR (n =390), and between controlled A (CA, n =103) vs. partially controlled/uncontrolled A (UA, n =182). Results The comparison between C and A+AR showed no significant differences in age (6.7 years vs. 7.0 years, respectively), mean Body Mass Index and total scale of CSHQ (53.3 vs. 63.2, respectively) and the subscales were significantly higher in the A+AR group. Comparison between groups A and AR, except for sleep anxiety, showed significantly higher values for CSHQ total scale (66.9 vs. 61.0, respectively) and subscales for group A. The UA group showed significantly higher values for total CSHQ scale and subscales in comparison to CA (71.1 vs. 59.4, respectively). Conclusions Latin-American children with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis showed sleep disorders identified by the CSHQ when compared to normal controls. Despite being treated, asthma causes sleep impairment, especially when uncontrolled.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T21:16:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.05.005
  • Airway tone dysfunction among pre-schoolers with positive asthma
           predictive index: A case–control study
    • Authors: V. Lezana; A. Gajardo; L. Bofill; M. Gutierrez; S. Mora; J.A. Castro-Rodriguez
      Pages: 169 - 174
      Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 2
      Author(s): V. Lezana, A. Gajardo, L. Bofill, M. Gutierrez, S. Mora, J.A. Castro-Rodriguez
      Objective To measure lung function by impulse oscillometry (IOS) and spirometry in recurrent wheezer pre-schoolers according to their asthma predictive index (API) condition. Methods We performed a case–control study enrolling all pre-schoolers with recurrent wheezing episodes (>3 episodes confirmed by physician) who presented at a paediatric pulmonology clinic. The population was divided according to stringent API criteria into positive or negative. Results In the nine-month period, 109 pre-schoolers were enrolled. After excluding one patient (due to lung function technique problems) 108 pre-schoolers (56 males, age range from 24 to 72 months) completed the study; 50 belong to positive API and 58 to negative API group. There were no differences in demographics between groups. More use of ICS was found in those with positive API than with negative API (62% vs. 12%, respectively, p =0.001). No differences in basal lung function and post-bronchodilator response to salbutamol (by IOS or spirometry) were found between positive and negative API pre-schoolers. However, those positive API pre-schoolers with ICS had significantly higher central basal airway resistance (RA at 20Hz) and higher post-BD response (% change in FEF25–75 and in FEV0.5) than those positive API without ICS. Conclusion Recurrent wheezer pre-schoolers with positive API and ICS used may have airway dysfunction. More studies are needed to confirm this finding.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T21:16:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.05.006
  • Comparison of various classifications for patients with common variable
           immunodeficiency (CVID) using measurement of B-cell subsets
    • Authors: R. Yazdani; R. Seify; M. Ganjalikhani-Hakemi; H. Abolhassani; N. Eskandari; F. Golsaz-Shirazi; B. Ansaripour; E. Salehi; G. Azizi; N. Rezaei; A. Aghamohammadi
      Pages: 183 - 192
      Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 2
      Author(s): R. Yazdani, R. Seify, M. Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, H. Abolhassani, N. Eskandari, F. Golsaz-Shirazi, B. Ansaripour, E. Salehi, G. Azizi, N. Rezaei, A. Aghamohammadi
      Background Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disease, characterised by hypogammaglobulinaemia leading to recurrent infections and various complications. The aim of this study was to classify CVID patients based on four known classifications (Paris, Freiburg, EUROclass, and B-cell patterns) by measurement of B-cell subsets and to assess the relation of each classification with clinical manifestations. Methods We measured all B-cell subsets as both absolute count and percentage in 30 CVID patients and 30 healthy individuals using four-colour flow cytometry. Moreover, we evaluated antibody responses to pneumococcal vaccine in patients. Results A significant reduction in percentage of terminal B-cell subsets (total, marginal zone-like, switched memory, IgM-only memory, total memory B-cells and plasmablast) and absolute count of all B-cell subsets along with a strong increase in CD21low B-cells has been observed in patients. Patients with splenomegaly and hepatomegaly clustered in group Ia, smB+21low and group 1 based on known classifications, and significantly tended to have a decreased transitional and marginal zone-like B-cells count, as well as an increase in CD21low B-cell counts. Patients with lymphadenopathy, bronchiectasis and allergy had a significant decrease in absolute count of total memory, switched memory and total B-cells, respectively. Conclusion Classification of patients could provide useful information to guide clinicians in long-term follow-up of CVID patients. Our data demonstrate that it may be more accurate to use absolute counts of B-cell subpopulations in CVID patients because absolute counts of B-cell subsets are more associated with clinical manifestations compared with their percentage and also four known classifications.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T21:16:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.07.001
  • Exhaled breath condensate in asthma: Are we stupid if we do not keep it
    • Authors: L. Garcia-Marcos
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 1
      Author(s): L. Garcia-Marcos

      PubDate: 2017-01-04T12:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.12.001
  • Diagnostic value of a pattern of exhaled breath condensate biomarkers in
           asthmatic children
    • Authors: I. Maloča Vuljanko; M. Turkalj; B. Nogalo; S. Bulat Lokas; D. Plavec
      Pages: 2 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 1
      Author(s): I. Maloča Vuljanko, M. Turkalj, B. Nogalo, S. Bulat Lokas, D. Plavec
      Background Diagnosing asthma in children is a challenge and using a single biomarker from exhaled breath condensate (EBC) showed the lack of improvement in it. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic potential of a pattern of simple chemical biomarkers from EBC in diagnosing asthma in children in a real-life setting, its association with lung function and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Methods In 75 consecutive children aged 5–7 years with asthma-like symptoms the following tests were performed: skin prick tests, spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS), exhaled NO (FENO), 24-hour oesophageal pH monitoring and EBC collection with subsequent analysis of pH, carbon dioxide tension, oxygen tension, and concentrations of magnesium, calcium, iron and urates. Results No significant differences were found for individual EBC biomarkers between asthmatics and non-asthmatics (p >0.05 for all). A pattern of six EBC biomarkers showed a statistically significant (p =0.046) predictive model for asthma (AUC=0.698, PPV=84.2%, NPV=38.9%). None to moderate association (R 2 up to 0.43) between EBC biomarkers and lung function measures and FENO was found, with IOS parameters showing the best association with EBC biomarkers. A significantly higher EBC Fe was found in children with asthma and GERD compared to asthmatics without GERD (p =0.049). Conclusions An approach that involves a pattern of EBC biomarkers had a better diagnostic accuracy for asthma in children in real-life settings compared to a single one. Poor to moderate association of EBC biomarkers with lung function suggests a complementary value of EBC analysis for asthma diagnosis in children.

      PubDate: 2017-01-04T12:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.05.001
  • Primary immunodeficiencies in Chile evaluated through ICD-10 coded
           hospital admissions
    • Authors: C. Poli; R. Hoyos-Bachiloglu; A. Borzutzky
      Pages: 33 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 1
      Author(s): C. Poli, R. Hoyos-Bachiloglu, A. Borzutzky
      Background The epidemiology and hospitalisation trends of primary immunodeficiency (PID) in Chile are unknown. We aimed to evaluate hospitalisation trends and demographic characteristics of PID admissions in Chile. Methods PID admissions between 2001 and 2010 (ICD-10 codes D70.0, D70.4, D71, 72.0, D76.1, D80-D84, E70.3, G11.3) were reviewed using national hospital discharge databases. Results During the study period, 5486 admissions due to PID were registered (0.03% of total). 58.5% of patients were male and 66.3% were under 18 years. Median length of stay was one day (range 1–403 days). The most frequent diagnoses were hypogammaglobulinaemia (27.6%), unspecified immunodeficiency (21.9%), haemophagocytic lymphohystiocytosis (18.3%) and common variable immunodeficiency (11.2%). There was a significant increase in PID admission rate and in one-day hospitalisations during this period (β =0.2; P =0.001 and β =33; P ≤0.001, respectively), however no significant variation was found for longer admissions (β =4.8; P =0.175). The increasing trend in PID admission rate was significant in patients with private, but not public insurance (β =0.53; P ≤0.001 vs. β =0.08; P =0.079, respectively). Conclusions We report an increasing trend in admissions due to PID in Chile over a 10-year period. Increase is mainly due to short hospitalisations, possibly accounting for improvements in IVIG access. Higher admission rates in patients with private vs. public insurance suggest socioeconomic disparities in access to PID treatment. ICD-10 coded hospitalisation databases may be useful to determine hospitalisation trends and demographic characteristics of PID admissions worldwide.

      PubDate: 2017-01-04T12:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.05.004
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug hypersensitivity in children
    • Authors: C. Alves; A.M. Romeira; C. Abreu; P. Carreiro-Martins; E. Gomes; P. Leiria-Pinto
      Pages: 40 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 1
      Author(s): C. Alves, A.M. Romeira, C. Abreu, P. Carreiro-Martins, E. Gomes, P. Leiria-Pinto
      Introduction There are rather few publications about hypersensitivity reactions to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) in the paediatric age. In this study, we aimed to assess the frequency of confirmed NSAID hypersensitivity in children with a previous reported reaction to NSAID in order to investigate the role of the drug provocation test (DPT) in the diagnostic workup and to explore the factors associated with confirmed NSAID hypersensitivity. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of the clinical files from every patient under 18 years old who attended two Portuguese paediatric allergy outpatient clinics, from January 2009 to August 2014, due to a suspected NSAID hypersensitivity. Results We included 119 patients, with a median age of nine years (P25–P75: 5–14). Ibuprofen was the commonest implicated NSAID in the patients’ reports (n =94–79%). After DPT, NSAID hypersensitivity was confirmed in nine (7.6%) patients, excluded in 93 (78.2%) and was inconclusive in 17 (14.3%). In the majority (n =95–79.8%), the reaction occurred in the first 24h after intake. Eighty-four patients (70.6%) reported only cutaneous manifestations and 18 (15.1%) had systemic symptoms. Anaphylaxis represented a relative risk to NSAID hypersensitivity confirmation. No association was found for atopy and the number of previous reactions. Conclusion In our study, NSAID hypersensitivity was confirmed in a small proportion of the patients with a previous reported reaction. Ibuprofen was the most implicated drug with urticaria/angio-oedema as the commonest manifestation. Anaphylaxis was associated with confirmed drug hypersensitivity. The drug provocation test was essential to establish the diagnosis.

      PubDate: 2017-01-04T12:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.04.004
  • Food allergy in Catalonia: Clinical manifestations and its association
           with airborne allergens
    • Authors: J. Sánchez-López; V. Gázquez; N. Rubira; L. Valdesoiro; M. Guilarte; A. Garcia-Moral; N. Depreux; L. Soto-Retes; M. De Molina; O. Luengo; R. Lleonart; M. Basagaña
      Pages: 48 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 1
      Author(s): J. Sánchez-López, V. Gázquez, N. Rubira, L. Valdesoiro, M. Guilarte, A. Garcia-Moral, N. Depreux, L. Soto-Retes, M. De Molina, O. Luengo, R. Lleonart, M. Basagaña
      Background Food allergy affects around 6% of the European population and its prevalence worldwide has been increasing in the last decades, but studies focused on investigating food allergy epidemiology in Europe are lacking. Objective The Cibus project was created to register the main culprit foods and their clinical manifestations in food allergic patients in Catalonia. Methods A specific online database was designed. Allergists from eight different Catalan hospitals registered the new diagnoses of food allergy. Results 618 food allergic patients were included. Egg and milk were the main elicitors in the early ages, while fruits and nuts were the most frequent in patients >14 years old. Fish was more frequent in children, while seafood and Anisakis allergy were more frequent in the >14-year-old group. Overall, peach was the most prevalent food eliciting an allergic reaction (10%). Food allergy diagnosis was reached using compatible clinical history and positive skin prick test to the involved food in 98% of cases. Globally, urticaria was the most frequently reported manifestation in our population (48.2%), followed by oral allergy syndrome (25.6%) and anaphylaxis (24.8%). Conclusions The Cibus project gives a full overview of the profile of food allergic patients in Catalonia and reinforces the predominance of plant food allergies in the Mediterranean area.

      PubDate: 2017-01-04T12:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.06.004
  • Prospective evaluation of Streptococcus pneumoniae serum antibodies in
           patients with primary immunodeficiency on regular intravenous
           immunoglobulin treatment
    • Authors: R.M. Simão-Gurge; B.T. Costa-Carvalho; F.A. Nobre; I.G.S. Gonzalez; M.I. de Moraes-Pinto
      Pages: 55 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 1
      Author(s): R.M. Simão-Gurge, B.T. Costa-Carvalho, F.A. Nobre, I.G.S. Gonzalez, M.I. de Moraes-Pinto
      Background This is a prospective study that assessed pneumococcal antibody levels in PID patients under intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment using different brands. Methods Twenty-one patients receiving regular IVIG every 28 days were invited to participate: 12 with common variable immunodeficiency, six with X-linked agammaglobulinaemia and three with hyper-IgM syndrome. One blood sample was collected from each patient just prior to IVIG administration at a three-month time interval during one year. A questionnaire was filled in with patient's demographic data and history of infections during the study period. Streptococcus pneumoniae antibodies against six serotypes (1, 5, 6B, 9V, 14 and 19F) were assessed by ELISA both in patients’ serum (trough levels) and in IVIG samples. Results Median total IgG trough serum levels were 7.91g/L (range, 4.59–12.20). All patients had antibody levels above 0.35μg/mL to the six serotypes on all four measurements. However, only 28.6% of patients had pneumococcal antibodies for the six analysed serotypes above 1.3μg/mL on all four evaluations during the one-year period. No correlation was found between IgG trough levels and pneumococcal specific antibodies. Eighteen of the 21 patients (85.7%) had infections at some point during the 12-month follow-up, 62/64 (96.9%) clinically classified in respiratory tract infections, four of which were pneumonia. Conclusions Pneumococcal antibodies are present in a high range of concentrations in sera from PID patients and also in IVIG preparations. Even maintaining a recommended IgG trough level, these patients can be susceptible to these bacteria and that may contribute to recurrent respiratory infections.

      PubDate: 2017-01-04T12:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.04.014
  • Prevalence and factors associated to peanut allergy in Mexican school
    • Authors: M. Bedolla-Barajas; F. Valdez-López; G. Alcalá-Padilla; T.I. Bedolla-Pulido; V. Rivera-Mejia; J. Morales-Romero
      Pages: 69 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 1
      Author(s): M. Bedolla-Barajas, F. Valdez-López, G. Alcalá-Padilla, T.I. Bedolla-Pulido, V. Rivera-Mejia, J. Morales-Romero
      Background In our country, the prevalence and the factors associated to peanut allergy are unknown, a health problem that has been emerging worldwide. Objective To establish the prevalence and the factors that are associated to peanut allergy amongst school children. Methods This is a population-based cross-sectional study. We included 756 children aged 6–7 years. The children's parents were questioned about their peanut intake habits. A structured questionnaire was applied, it included questions regarding peanut intake; family and personal history of asthma; rhinitis; and atopic dermatitis. Allergic reactions to peanuts were registered as: probable, convincing and systematic. The statistical analyses included logistical regression models to look for associated factors. Results Males were 356/756 (47.1%). Peanut allergy prevalence: probable reaction: 14/756 (1.8%), convincing reaction: 8/756 (1.1%) and systemic reaction: 3/756 (0.4%). Through multivariate analysis, the presence of symptoms of allergic rhinitis (OR=4.2 95% CI 1.3–13.2) and atopic dermatitis (OR=5.2; 95% CI 1.4–19.5) during the previous year, showed significant association to probable peanut reaction. The former year, the presence of atopic dermatitis was the only variable that was substantially associated to a convincing reaction (OR=7.5; 95% CI 1.4–38.4) and to a systematic reaction (OR=45.1; 95% CI 4.0–510.0), respectively. Conclusions The reported prevalence of peanut allergy was consistent with that found in previous studies; symptoms of allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis were identified as associated factors to peanut allergy.

      PubDate: 2017-01-04T12:17:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.04.013
  • Allergy is associated with reduced risk of glioma: A meta-analysis
    • Authors: C. Zhang; Q.-X. Zhu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): C. Zhang, Q.-X. Zhu
      Background Increasing evidences suggest that allergy may reduce the risk of glioma, so it is necessary to perform an up-to-data literature search and investigate this relationship by meta-analysis. Methods We identified the included studies by searching PubMed and Web of Science and excluding irrelevant or ineligible articles. Nineteen studies from 15 articles, including 8435 cases and 118,719 controls, were selected for data extraction and synthesis. Results Pooled outcomes showed that there was an inverse association between allergy and risk of glioma (OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.52–0.78, P <0.001). Meanwhile, asthma and eczema would reduce the risk of glioma by 33% and 23% (OR=0.67, 95% CI=0.59–0.75, P <0.001; OR=0.77, 95% CI=0.68–0.86, P <0.001), respectively. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the stability of these findings. Besides, no publication biases were detected regarding all the investigations. Conclusions Overall or specific allergy is protective against glioma. More prospective cohort studies or molecular laboratory experiments are warranted to elucidate the causation and key mechanism.

      PubDate: 2017-03-06T21:42:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.12.005
  • Comparison of inflammatory cytokine release from nasal epithelial cells of
           non-atopic non-rhinitic, allergic rhinitic and polyp subjects and effects
           of diesel exhaust particles in vitro
    • Authors: A.B. Ozturk; R. Bayraktar; B. Gogebakan; S. Mumbuc; H. Bayram
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): A.B. Ozturk, R. Bayraktar, B. Gogebakan, S. Mumbuc, H. Bayram
      Background Although studies have reported an association between air pollutants and increased allergic airway diseases, such as allergic rhinitis and nasal polyposis, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. A limited number of studies have suggested that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) play a role in atopy and the pathogenesis of allergic upper airway diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of DEP on inflammatory cytokine release, and mRNA expression of transcription factors such as JNK and NF-β in primary nasal epithelial cells (NECs), in vitro. Methods NECs from non-atopic, non-rhinitic subjects (controls) and patients with allergic rhinitis and nasal polyps were cultured and incubated with 0–100μg/ml DEP for 24h. ELISA and RT-PCR were used to assess the release of IL-8, GM-CSF, and RANTES, and mRNA expression for JNK and NF-κB, respectively. Results Compared to control cells, NECs from subjects with atopic polyps released significantly greater amounts of IL-8 (median=887 vs. 176.6pg/μg cellular protein; p <0.0001) and RANTES (median=0.191 vs. 0.02pg/μg cellular protein; p <0.001). While 50μg/ml DEP induced release of RANTES in NECs from patients with allergic rhinitis, 100μg/ml DEP decreased IL-8 levels in NECs from both control and allergic rhinitic subjects. DEP did not affect mRNA expression for JNK and NF-κB from NECs of subjects with polyps. Conclusions NECs from subjects with various pathologies may respond differently to DEP.

      PubDate: 2017-03-06T21:42:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.015
  • Polymorphisms of TGFB1, TLE4 and MUC22 are associated with childhood
           asthma in Chinese population
    • Authors: J.B. Chen; J. Zhang; H.Z. Hu; M. Xue; Y.J. Jin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): J.B. Chen, J. Zhang, H.Z. Hu, M. Xue, Y.J. Jin
      Objective To investigate whether the genetic variants of TGFB1, TLE4, MUC22 and IKZF3 are associated with the development of asthma in Chinese children. Methods 572 adolescent asthma patients and 590 age-matched healthy controls were included in this study. A total of four SNPs were genotyped, including rs2241715 of TGFB1, rs2378383 of TLE4, rs2523924 of MUC22, and rs907092 of IKZF3. Allele frequencies of the patients and the control group were compared by the Chi-square test. The Student t test was used to analyse the relationship between genotypes and clinical feature of the patients. Results Patients were found to have significantly different frequencies of allele A of rs2241715, allele G of rs2378383 and allele A of rs2523924 as compared with the controls (40.4% vs. 45.9%, p =0.01 for rs2241715; 17.2% vs. 13.4%, p =0.01 for rs2378383; 15.3% vs. 11.9%, p =0.02 for rs2523924). For patients with severe asthma, those with genotype AA/AG of rs2241715 had remarkably higher FEV1% as compared with those with genotype GG (59.1±4.3% vs. 55.4±3.7%, p <0.001). Moreover, those with genotype GG/GA of rs2378383 had remarkably lower FEV1% as compared with those with genotype AA (54.6±2.9% vs. 58.6±4.1%, p <0.001). Conclusions Genes TGFB1, TLE4 and MUC22 are associated with the risk of childhood asthma in Chinese population. Our results associating TGFB1 and TLE4 with clinical features of asthma suggest potential application of these parameters in the management of asthma children.

      PubDate: 2017-03-06T21:42:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.021
  • Beneficial effects of ursodeoxycholic acid via inhibition of airway
           remodelling, apoptosis of airway epithelial cells, and Th2 immune response
           in murine model of chronic asthma
    • Authors: S. Işık; M. Karaman; S. Çilaker Micili; Ş. Çağlayan-Sözmen; H. Alper Bağrıyanık; Z. Arıkan-Ayyıldız; N. Uzuner; Ö. Karaman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): S. Işık, M. Karaman, S. Çilaker Micili, Ş. Çağlayan-Sözmen, H. Alper Bağrıyanık, Z. Arıkan-Ayyıldız, N. Uzuner, Ö. Karaman
      Background and aims In previous studies, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immunomodulatory effects of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on liver diseases have been shown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of UDCA on airway remodelling, epithelial apoptosis, and T Helper (Th)-2 derived cytokine levels in a murine model of chronic asthma. Methods Twenty-seven BALB/c mice were divided into five groups; PBS-Control, OVA-Placebo, OVA-50mg/kg UDCA, OVA-150mg/kg UDCA, OVA-Dexamethasone. Mice in groups OVA-50mg/kg UDCA, OVA-150mg/kg UDCA, OVA-Dexamethasone received the UDCA (50mg/kg), UDCA (150mg/kg), and dexamethasone, respectively. Epithelium thickness, sub-epithelial smooth muscle thickness, number of mast and goblet cells of samples isolated from the lung were measured. Immunohistochemical scorings of the lung tissue for matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEG-F), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick endlabeling (TUNEL) and cysteine-dependent aspartate-specific proteases (caspase)-3 were determined. IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, Nitric oxide, ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels were quantified. Results The dose of 150mg/kg UDCA treatment led to lower epithelial thickness, sub-epithelial smooth muscle thickness, goblet and mast cell numbers compared to placebo. Except for MMP-9 and TUNEL all immunohistochemical scores were similar in both UDCA treated groups and the placebo. All cytokine levels were significantly lower in group IV compared to the placebo. Conclusions These findings suggested that the dose of 150mg/kg UDCA improved all histopathological changes of airway remodelling and its beneficial effects might be related to modulating Th-2 derived cytokines and the inhibition of apoptosis of airway epithelial cells.

      PubDate: 2017-03-06T21:42:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.12.003
  • Diagnostic values for egg white specific IgE levels with the skin prick
           test in Turkish children with egg white allergy
    • Authors: H.T. Nacaroglu; S.B. Erdem; S. Karaman; D. Dogan; C.S. U.Karkiner; E. T. Kanık; D. Can
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): H.T. Nacaroglu, S.B. Erdem, S. Karaman, D. Dogan, C.S. U.Karkiner, E. T. Kanık, D. Can
      Background The diagnostic values for the skin prick test (SPT) diameters and egg white-specific IgE (EW-sIgE) levels that will allow us to predict the result of the oral food challenge test (OFC) in the diagnosis of egg white allergy vary by the community where the study is carried out. Objective This study aimed to determine the diagnostic values of SPT and EW-sIgE levels in the diagnosis of egg white allergy. Methods 59 patients followed with the diagnosis of egg allergy September 2013 to September 2015 were included in our retrospective cross-sectional study. The patients were investigated in terms of egg and anaphylaxis history or the requirement of the OFC positivity. The demographic, clinical and laboratory findings of the cases were recorded, and they were compared with the patients with the suspected egg allergy but negative OFC (n =47). Results In the study, for all age groups, the value of 5mm in SPT was found to be significant at 96.4% positive predictive value (PPV) and 97.8% specificity and the value of 5.27kU/L for EW-sIgE was found to be significant at 76% PPV and 86.6% specificity for egg white. The diagnostic power of the SPT for egg white (AUC: 72.2%) was determined to be significantly higher compared to the diagnostic power of the EW-sIgE (AUC: 52.3%) (p <0.05). Conclusion Along with the determination of the diagnostic values of communities, the rapid and accurate diagnosis of the children with a food allergy will be ensured, and the patient follow-up will be made easier.

      PubDate: 2017-02-27T21:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.018
  • Low dose treatment of mice with bacterial extract (OM-85) for attenuation
           of experimental atopic asthma in mice
    • Authors: P.G. Holt; D.H. Strickland
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): P.G. Holt, D.H. Strickland

      PubDate: 2017-02-27T21:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.12.002
  • The efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy in children and adult
           patients with allergic rhinitis
    • Authors: X. Lin; H. Lin; X. Wei; Q. Huang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): X. Lin, H. Lin, X. Wei, Q. Huang
      Background Clinical research has shown that sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is effective and safe in moderate-severe allergic rhinitis (AR) induced by house dust mite (HDM). However, the sample size in many studies is small. Meanwhile, the controversy on the efficacy and safety in the very young children younger than four years old still existed. Objective The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SLIT with Dermatophagoides farinae (Der.f) extracts in children and adult patients with allergic rhinitis, particularly in the very young children. Method A total of 573 subjects aged 3–69 with AR received a three-year course of sublingual immunotherapy with Der.f extracts along with pharmacotherapy. The total nasal symptoms score (TNSS), total medication score (TMS), visual analogue score (VAS) and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated at each visit. Result TNSS, TMS, VAS were significantly improved during the three-year course of treatment in comparison to the baseline values (P <0.01). Besides, significant improvement in nasal symptoms and reduction of medication use were also observed in young children aged 3–6 years (P <0.01). No severe systemic adverse events (AEs) were reported. Conclusion SLIT with Der.f drops is clinically effective and safe in children and adult patients with HDM-induced AR, including the very young children less than four years old.

      PubDate: 2017-02-27T21:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.016
  • Primary immunodeficiency diseases in Northern Iran
    • Authors: I. Mohammadzadeh; B. Moazzami; J. Ghaffari; A. Aghamohammadi; N. Rezaei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): I. Mohammadzadeh, B. Moazzami, J. Ghaffari, A. Aghamohammadi, N. Rezaei
      Introduction Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, characterised by recurrent severe infections, autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation. Despite impressive progress in identification of novel PID, there is an unfortunate lack of awareness among physicians in identification of patients with PID, especially in non-capital cities of countries worldwide. Result This study was performed in a single-centre paediatric hospital in Northern Iran during a 21-year period (1994–2015). Ninety-four patients were included in this study. The majority of cases had antibody deficiencies (37.23%), followed by well-defined syndromes with immunodeficiency in 16 (17.02%), phagocytic disorders in 15 patients (15.95%), complement deficiencies in 15 patients (15.95%), immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunity in nine patients (9.57%), disease of immune dysregulation in three (3.19%), and defects in intrinsic and innate immunity in one (1.06%). Conclusion It seems that there are major variations in frequency of different types of PID in different regions of a country. Therefore, reporting local data could provide better ideas to improve the local health care system strategists and quality of care of PID patients.

      PubDate: 2017-02-27T21:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.11.001
  • Prenatal paracetamol use and asthma in childhood: A systematic review and
    • Authors: G. Fan; B. Wang; C. Liu; D. Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): G. Fan, B. Wang, C. Liu, D. Li
      Objectives Some studies have suggested that prenatal paracetamol exposure might associate with the risk of child asthma. However, other studies have not confirmed this result. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate their relationship. Methods Two authors searched Pubmed and Embase databases up to June 2016. The strength of the association was calculated with the OR and respective 95% CIs. The random-effects model was chosen to calculate the pooled OR. Results A total of 13 articles of more than 1,043,109 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. A statistically significant association between prenatal paracetamol exposure and child asthma risk was found. The data showed that prenatal paracetamol exposure could increase the risk of child asthma (OR=1.19; 95% CI, 1.12–1.27; P <0.00001) in a random-effect model. Six studies reported paracetamol exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy. We found that paracetamol exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with increased risk of child asthma (OR=1.21; 95% CI, 1.14–1.28; P <0.00001). Furthermore, we observed that paracetamol exposure during the 2–3 trimesters of pregnancy was also associated with child asthma risk (OR=1.13; 95% CI, 1.04–1.23; P =0.005). Conclusions This study suggested that prenatal paracetamol exposure was significantly associated with the increased risk of child asthma.

      PubDate: 2017-02-27T21:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.014
  • The role of active B cells in allergen immunotherapy
    • Authors: M.H. Celiksoy; R. Sancak; A. Yildiran
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): M.H. Celiksoy, R. Sancak, A. Yildiran
      Background The purpose of this study is to examine the changes in B lymphocyte subsets in patients receiving allergen immunotherapy. Methods B lymphocyte subsets of patients before immunotherapy and one year after immunotherapy began were examined using the flow cytometric method. Age-matched healthy children served as the control group. Results Twenty-two patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 14 healthy, age-matched controls were included in the study. The median age of the patients was 13 years old (range: 6–20 years), and eleven (50.0%) were male. The median age of the healthy controls was also 13 years old (range: 7–17), and seven (50.0%) were male. In the age group from 11 to 15 years; the patients’ relative and absolute counts of active and mature sensitive B cells were higher than those of the healthy children (p =0.027–0.012 and p =0.032–0.010, respectively) before immunotherapy. The relative and absolute counts of active B cells before immunotherapy were also significantly higher than those of after immunotherapy (p =0.001–0.001, p =0.025–0.037, and p =0.029–0.035, respectively). Before immunotherapy, the relative and absolute counts of mature sensitive B cells were significantly higher than those obtained after immunotherapy (p =0.024–0.006) in the 11–15-year-old age group. Conclusions Allergen immunotherapy directly influences B cell differentiation and causes a decrease in the count of active B cells. This finding is relevant because the B cell count can be used as a guide in the assessment of an individual patient's treatment response and also when determining whether to continue the immunotherapy.

      PubDate: 2017-02-27T21:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.017
  • Immune response of toddlers with history of prematurity
    • Authors: S.P. Muraro; P.M. Pitrez; A.P.D. de Souza; B.N. Porto; J.E. Vargas; I.P. Ewald; J.P. Heinzmann-Filho; G. dos Santos; T.S. Baptista; T.D. Gandolfi; F.D. Machado; M.H. Jones; C. Bonorino; R.T. Stein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): S.P. Muraro, P.M. Pitrez, A.P.D. de Souza, B.N. Porto, J.E. Vargas, I.P. Ewald, J.P. Heinzmann-Filho, G. dos Santos, T.S. Baptista, T.D. Gandolfi, F.D. Machado, M.H. Jones, C. Bonorino, R.T. Stein
      Background It is not quite well established how immune responses differ in term and preterm infants beyond the first year of life. This study aimed to evaluate aspects of the innate and adaptive immune responses in a group of preterm infants in comparison with their term peers. Methods In this cross-sectional study peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from preterm and term children at age three years. Innate immune response was evaluated by the analysis of TLR receptors expression on CD11c+HLADRhigh cells and inflammatory cytokine production after PBMC stimulation with Toll like receptors (TLR) ligands. Adaptive immune response was evaluated by T cells’ phenotyping and function after stimulation with polyclonal conventional T cell stimulus. Conclusion We have found that the patterns of innate and adaptive immune responses at 3 years of age were not affected by the fact of the children having being born preterm or at term.

      PubDate: 2017-02-27T21:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.020
  • A critical review on serine protease: Key immune manipulator and pathology
    • Authors: Patel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): S. Patel
      Proteolytic activity is fundamental to survival, so it is not surprising that all living organisms have proteases, especially seine protease. This enzyme in its numerous isoforms and homologues, constitutes the quintessential offence and defence factors, in the form of surface proteins, secreted molecules, gut digestive enzymes, venom in specialised glands or plant latex, among other manifestations. Occurring as trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, collagenase, thrombin, subtilisin etc., it mediates a diverse array of functions, including pathological roles as inflammatory, coagulatory to haemorrhagic. This review emphasizes that despite the superficial differences in mechanisms, most health issues, be they infectious, allergic, metabolic, or neural have a common conduit. This enzyme, in its various glycosylated forms leads to signal misinterpretations, wreaking havoc. However, organisms are endowed with serine protease inhibitors which might restrain this ubiquitous yet deleterious enzyme. Hence, serine proteases-driven pathogenesis and antagonising role of inhibitors is the focal point of this critical review.

      PubDate: 2017-02-27T21:33:02Z
  • Acknowledgment to reviewers
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 2

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T21:16:42Z
  • Increased sputum levels of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in
           children with asthma not eosinophilic bronchitis
    • Authors: M.J. Kim; H.S. Lee; I.S. Sol; M.N. Kim; J.Y. Hong; K.E. Lee; Y.H. Kim; K.W. Kim; M.H. Sohn; K.-E. Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): M.J. Kim, H.S. Lee, I.S. Sol, M.N. Kim, J.Y. Hong, K.E. Lee, Y.H. Kim, K.W. Kim, M.H. Sohn, K.-E. Kim
      Background Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), a member of the CC chemokine family, plays a crucial role in Th2-specific inflammation. We aimed to determine the concentration of sputum TARC in children with asthma and eosinophilic bronchitis (EB) and its relation with eosinophilic inflammation, pulmonary function, and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Methods In total, 90 children with asthma, 38 with EB, and 45 control subjects were enrolled. TARC levels were measured in sputum supernatants using an ELISA. We performed pulmonary function tests and measured exhaled fractional nitric oxide, eosinophil counts in blood, and sputum and serum levels of total IgE in all children. Results Sputum TARC levels were significantly higher in children with asthma than in either children with EB (p =0.004) or the control subjects (p =0.014). Among patients with asthma, sputum TARC concentration was higher in children with sputum eosinophilia than in those without sputum eosinophilia (p =0.035). Sputum TARC levels positively correlated with eosinophil counts in sputum, serum total IgE levels, exhaled fractional nitric, and the bronchodilator response. Negative significant correlations were found between sputum TARC and FEV1/FVC (the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second and forced expiratory vital capacity) or PC20 (the provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% decrease in the FEV1). Conclusion Elevated TARC levels in sputum were detected in children with asthma but not in children with EB. Sputum TARC could be a supportive marker for discrimination of asthma from EB in children showing characteristics of eosinophilic airway inflammation.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T21:16:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.12.004
  • Knowledge of asthma and anaphylaxis among teachers in Spanish schools
    • Authors: J.C. Juliá-Benito; M. Escarrer-Jaume; M.T. Guerra-Pérez; J. Contreras-Porta; E. Tauler-Toro; A. Madroñero-Tentor; J.C. Cerdá-Mir
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): J.C. Juliá-Benito, M. Escarrer-Jaume, M.T. Guerra-Pérez, J. Contreras-Porta, E. Tauler-Toro, A. Madroñero-Tentor, J.C. Cerdá-Mir
      Introduction Allergic diseases affect 15–20% of the paediatric population in the industrialised world. Most educational centres in Spain do not have health professionals among their staff, and the teachers are in charge of child care in school. The advisability of specific training of the teaching staff should be considered, with the introduction of concrete intervention plans in the event of life-threatening emergencies in schools. Material and methods Evaluation of the training needs constitutes the first step in planning an educational project. In this regard, the Health Education Group of the Spanish Society of Clinical Immunology, Allergology and Paediatric Asthma (Grupo de Educación Sanitaria de la Sociedad Española de Inmunología Clínica, Alergología y Asma Pediátrica [SEICAAP]) assessed the knowledge of teachers in five Spanish Autonomous Communities, using a self-administered questionnaire specifically developed for this study. The data obtained were analysed using the SPSS statistical package. Results A total of 2479 teachers completed the questionnaire. Most of them claimed to know what asthma is, and almost one half considered that they would know how to act in the event of an asthma attack. This proportion was higher among physical education teachers. Most would not know how to act in the case of anaphylaxis or be able to administer the required medication. In general, the teachers expressed interest in receiving training and in having an interventional protocol applicable to situations of this kind. Discussion It is important to know what the training requirements are in order to develop plans for intervention in the event of an emergency in school. Teachers admit a lack of knowledge on how to deal with these disorders, but express a wish to receive training.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T21:16:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.019
  • Changes in IL-4 and IL-13 expression in allergic-rhinitis treated with
           hydrogen-rich saline in guinea-pig model
    • Authors: Zhao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): C. Zhao, S. Yu, J. Li, W. Xu, R. Ge
      Background Medical gas hydrogen (H2) has a special role in airway inflammation; however, the effect of H2 on allergic rhinitis (AR) remains unclear. This study explored the possible roles of H2 on the pathogenesis of AR and observed the influences of H2 on cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. Methods An AR guinea pig model was established by nasal ovalbumin sensitisation. Eighteen guinea pigs were divided into three groups, namely, saline control, AR-sensitised, and hydrogen-rich saline (HRS)-treated groups, with each group having six guinea pigs. The frequencies of sneezing and scratching were recorded. The IgE level and cytokine (IL-4 and IL-13) levels in the serum were measured. The expression levels of IL-4 and IL-13 mRNA and protein in the nasal mucosa were also determined by real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. We also observed the infiltration of cytokine (IL-4 and IL-13) in nasal mucosa by immunofluorescence. Results The frequencies of sneezing and scratching, as well as the levels of IgE, IL-4, and IL-13, in the serum were higher in the AR group than in the control group (p <0.01), whereas all these parameters were decreased significantly after HRS treatment (p <0.05). The expression levels of IL-4 and IL-13 mRNA and protein in the nasal mucosa were also lower in guinea pigs treated with HRS than those in the AR group (p <0.05). Conclusions HRS could affect anti-inflammation in AR and decreased the expression of IL-4 and IL-13.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T21:16:42Z
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms of IL-2, but not IL-12 and IFN-γ, are
    • Authors: M. Movahedi; M. Tavakol; F. Rahmani; A.A. Amirzargar; A.Z. Bidoki; K. Heidari; M. Gharagozlou; A. Aghamohammadi; M. Nabavi; S. Soltani; N. Rezaei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): M. Movahedi, M. Tavakol, F. Rahmani, A.A. Amirzargar, A.Z. Bidoki, K. Heidari, M. Gharagozlou, A. Aghamohammadi, M. Nabavi, S. Soltani, N. Rezaei
      Background A clear picture of interaction of Th1/Th2 cytokines in pathogenesis of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), remains elusive. Impaired IFN-γ production and decreased levels of IL-2 have been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of Th1 cytokines; IL-2, IL-12 and IFN-γ polymorphisms with CSU. Methods 90 patients with CSU and 140 age-sex matched subjects were included in this study. DNA samples were evaluated through PCR-SSP assay in order to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms of IL-12 (A/C −1188) or (rs3212227), IFN-γ (A/T UTR5644) or (rs2069717) and IL-2 (G/T −330 and G/T +166) or (rs2069762 and rs2069763). Results G allele at −330 at promoter region of IL-2 gene was overrepresented in CSU. Heterozygotes (GT) at this locus and heterozygotes at +166 of IL-2 gene (GT) were more prevalent in CSU group. Additionally, the haplotype GT for loci −330 and +166 of IL-2 gene was powerfully associated with CSU (OR (95%CI)=57.29 (8.43–112.7)). Conclusions SNP at position −330 and +166 of IL-2 gene are differently expressed in CSU. The haplotype GT of IL-2 at −330 and +166 might confer vulnerability to a number of immunological disorders in Iranian region.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T12:59:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.009
  • Baked milk tolerant patient: Is there any special feature?
    • Authors: C.P.G. Barbosa; A.P.M. Castro; G.H. Yonamine; A.K.F. Gushken; C.M.L. Beck; P.R.C. Macedo; M.B. Dorna; C.J.N. Santos; A.C. Pastorino; C.M.A. Jacob
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): C.P.G. Barbosa, A.P.M. Castro, G.H. Yonamine, A.K.F. Gushken, C.M.L. Beck, P.R.C. Macedo, M.B. Dorna, C.J.N. Santos, A.C. Pastorino, C.M.A. Jacob
      Background Determining whether patients with cow's milk allergy (CMA) can tolerate foods produced with baked milk could provide a better quality of life, a better prognosis, and an option for desensitization. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify which patients over four years of age with persistent CMA could tolerate baked milk, to compare the clinical and laboratory characteristics of reactive and non-reactive groups and to describe their clinical evolution. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted (January/13 to November/14) that included all the patients followed at a food allergy center who met the inclusion criteria. The patients underwent an oral food challenge (OFC) with a muffin (2.8g of cow's milk protein). To exclude cow's milk (CM) tolerance, the patients were subsequently challenged with unheated CM. Results Thirty patients met all the inclusion criteria. Fourteen patients (46.7%) were considered non-reactive to baked milk and reactive to unheated CM. When the groups that were reactive and non-reactive to baked milk were compared, no statistically significant differences in clinical features were found. The prick test for α-lactalbumin (p =0.01) and casein (p =0.004) and the serum specific IgE for casein (p =0.05) presented statistical differences. After one year, none of the patients who were reactive to baked milk were ingesting CM, while 28% of the tolerant patients were consuming fresh CM (p =0.037). Conclusions Baked milk can be tolerated by patients with CMA, especially those with lower levels of casein and α-lactalbumin. This option can improve quality of life and accelerate tolerance.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T12:59:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.008
  • Global Asthma Network survey suggests more national asthma strategies
           could reduce burden of asthma
    • Authors: I. Asher; T. Haahtela; O. Selroos; P. Ellwood; E. Ellwood
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): I. Asher, T. Haahtela, O. Selroos, P. Ellwood, E. Ellwood
      Background Several countries or regions within countries have an effective national asthma strategy resulting in a reduction of the large burden of asthma to individuals and society. There has been no systematic appraisal of the extent of national asthma strategies in the world. Methods The Global Asthma Network (GAN) undertook an email survey of 276 Principal Investigators of GAN centres in 120 countries, in 2013–2014. One of the questions was: “Has a national asthma strategy been developed in your country for the next five years? For children? For adults?”. Results Investigators in 112 (93.3%) countries answered this question. Of these, 26 (23.2%) reported having a national asthma strategy for children and 24 (21.4%) for adults; 22 (19.6%) countries had a strategy for both children and adults; 28 (25%) had a strategy for at least one age group. In countries with a high prevalence of current wheeze, strategies were significantly more common than in low prevalence countries (11/13 (85%) and 7/31 (22.6%) respectively, p <0.001). Interpretation In 25% countries a national asthma strategy was reported. A large reduction in the global burden of asthma could be potentially achieved if more countries had an effective asthma strategy.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T12:59:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.013
  • Use of anti-allergic drugs in children
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): C. Suárez-Castañón, G. Modroño-Riaño, G. Solís-Sánchez
      Allergic rhinitis is one of the most frequent chronic diseases in children. We have analysed the prescriptions habits of anti-allergic medications in children (<14 years old) in 2011. We calculated the DHD (N°DDD/1000 children/day) for oral antihistamines and intranasal therapies (corticoids and antihistamines) in the region (sanitary districts I–VIII) and specifically in sanitary district V (health centres 1–15). We also reviewed the clinical records in six health centres in sanitary district V to know more details about age and diagnosis and to value if these prescriptions are adequate. We observed a use of 8.78 DHD in the group of oral antihistamines, with a predominance of desloratadine (3.48 DHD), a 3rd generation drug of this group, and in second place the intranasal therapy with a preference of corticoids (budesonide 3.5 DHD and mometasone 2.25 DHD). We think that it is necessary to improve the knowledge of anti-allergic drugs in children.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T12:59:33Z
  • Allergy genuflection? It's surmount with special focus on ear, nose
           and throat
    • Authors: D. Gupta; L. Deshmukh; R. Gupta; S.S. Sandhu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): D. Gupta, L. Deshmukh, R. Gupta, S.S. Sandhu
      The system that protects body from infectious agents is immune system. On occasions, the system seldom reacts with some foreign particles and causes allergy. Allergies of the ear, nose and throat (ENT) often have serious consequences, including impairment and emotional strain that lowers the quality of life of patients. This is further responsible for the common cold, cough, tonsillitis, dermal infection, chest pain and asthma-like conditions which disturb one's day to day life. The present review enlightens some common ENT allergies which one can suffer more frequently in one's lifetime, and ignorance leads to making the condition chronic. Information regarding pathophysiology and the management of ENT allergy by this review could help clinicians and common people to better understand the circumstances and treatment of ENT allergy.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T12:59:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.010
  • Bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccine complications in Iranian children at a
           University Hospital
    • Authors: M.R. Bolursaz; F. Lotfian; A.A. Velayati
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): M.R. Bolursaz, F. Lotfian, A.A. Velayati
      Background Although the BCG vaccine remains the only available vaccine, a number of complications from local to systemic adverse reactions can occur. Objective The aim of the study was to review the clinical features and treatment of Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) complications in children. Methods Children with clinical and laboratory findings compatible with a diagnosis of local complication and disseminated disease at Masih Daneshvari Medical Center were enrolled from March 2013 to September 2015. Results Among 49 children with BCG complications, 35 (71%) had local complications and 14 (29%) had disseminated disease. The mean age at presentation was nine months (range: 1m–13y). The male to female ratio was 1.7:1. Suppurative lymphadenitis was seen in 25 of 35 (71%) cases. Among cases with disseminated disease, primary immunodeficiency (PID) was identified in nine (64%) cases. All cases with non-suppurative lymphadenitis were managed conservatively. Twenty (80%) cases with suppurative lymphadenitis were managed differently with medical treatment or surgery. In disseminated cases, three (43%) were treated with only medical treatment and eight (57%) with both medical and surgical treatment. Conclusions Most children with BCG complications had a local disease in our study. A higher rate of disseminated disease was also observed. In addition, PID was identified in most children with disseminated disease. Development of more appropriate BCG vaccines and changing the current vaccination programme in cases with suspected PID are required in our country.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T12:59:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.006
  • Tolerance development in food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis:
           Single centre experience
    • Authors: S.B. Erdem; H.T. Nacaroglu; S. Karaman; C.B. Erdur; C.U. Karkıner; D. Can
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): S.B. Erdem, H.T. Nacaroglu, S. Karaman, C.B. Erdur, C.U. Karkıner, D. Can
      Background Food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP) is characterised by inflammation of the distal colon in response to one or more food proteins. It is a benign condition of bloody stools in a well-appearing infant, with usual onset between one and four weeks of age. Objective Our objective was to examine the clinical properties of patients with FPIAP, tolerance development time as well as the risk factors that affect tolerance development. Methods The clinical symptoms, offending factors, laboratory findings, methods used in the diagnosis and tolerance development for 77 patients followed in the Paediatric Allergy and Gastroenterology Clinics with the diagnosis of FPIAP during January 2010–January 2015 were examined in our retrospective cross-sectional study. Results The starting age of the symptoms was 3.3±4.7 months (0–36). Milk was found as the offending substance for 78% of the patients, milk and egg for 13% and egg for 5%. Mean tolerance development time of the patients was 14.7±11.9 months (3–66 months). Tolerance developed before the age of one year in 40% of the patients. Tolerance developed between the age of 1–2 years in 27%, between the age of 2–3 years in 9% and after the age of 3 years in 5% of the patients. Conclusions Smaller onset age and onset of symptoms during breastfeeding were found associated with early tolerance development. In the majority of the patients, FPIAP resolves before the age of one year, however in some of the patients this duration may be much longer.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T12:59:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.005
  • The effect of nebulised magnesium sulphate in the management of childhood
           moderate asthma exacerbations as adjuvant treatment
    • Authors: S. Turker; M. Dogru; F. Yildiz; S. Bozkaya Yilmaz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): S. Turker, M. Dogru, F. Yildiz, S. Bozkaya Yilmaz
      Background After the bronchodilator effect of magnesium was shown, the use of magnesium in treatment of asthma exacerbations became common. With the results of recent studies, the use of intravenous magnesium in severe asthma exacerbations took its place. We aimed to examine the effects of adding isotonic magnesium sulphate instead of isotonic saline into nebulised salbutamol on the Modified Pulmonary Index Score (MPIS) and the hospitalisation rate in moderate asthma exacerbations. Methods Our study population included 100 children age between 3 and 15 years with asthma admitted to emergency department due to moderate asthma exacerbations. The patients were randomised to placebo or magnesium, with 50 patients in each arm. All patients received 1mg/kg of systemic methylprednisolone at the beginning of treatment and thereafter received either nebulised salbutamol (0.15mg/kg/dose) and 1ml magnesium sulphate (15%)+1.5ml isotonic saline on three occasions at roughly 20min intervals (Magnesium group) or nebulised salbutamol (0.15mg/kg/dose) and 2.5ml isotonic saline mixture on three occasions at roughly 20min intervals (Placebo group). The MPIS of patients on 0th min, 20th min, 40th and 120th min were calculated and compared. The primary outcome was to compare MPIS values at the end of 120th min. Results Both groups have similar demographic, allergic characteristics and baseline MPIS scores. When the MPIS scores in the 120th min and admission rates in the 200th min, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions The use of nebulised magnesium sulphate in moderate asthma exacerbation as adjuvant treatment showed no benefit to standard treatment in our study.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T12:59:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.003
  • The impact of age on serum allergen-specific IgE to inhaled molecular
    • Authors: M.A. Tosca; M. Silvestri; R. Olcese; A. Pistorio; G.A. Rossi; G. Ciprandi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): M.A. Tosca, M. Silvestri, R. Olcese, A. Pistorio, G.A. Rossi, G. Ciprandi
      Background Respiratory allergy is characterised by an IgE-mediated reaction. The immune system functions, including IgE production, progressively decline over time, such as growing up and ageing. Molecular-based allergy diagnostic defines sensitisation profile. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of age on serum allergen-specific IgE to molecular component levels in a large sample of subjects. Methods Serum IgE to: Phl p1, Bet v1, Ole e1, Cup a1, Par j2, Can f1, Der p2, and Fel d1 were assessed by ISAC method. Sera from 2788 patients, 1230 males (44.1%) and 1558 females (55.9%), median age 23 years (1st and 3rd quartiles: 9.7–49.7 years; age range: 1 month–103 years) were analysed. Results The number of positive tests (i.e. sensitisation) tended to increase between birth and school-age till young adulthood and then decreased (p <0.0001) with the exception of Fel d 1 (p =0.14). A similar age-dependent trend was observed considering the levels of each allergen components: the levels of each allergen component, with the exception of Fel d 1, tended to increase till early adulthood and then to decrease reaching the lowest levels in the elderly. Conclusions Allergen-specific IgE production to inhaled molecular components trend to reduce with ageing, but with differences between allergens. This phenomenon should be adequately evaluated managing allergic patients.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T12:59:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.004
  • The influence of gender and atopy in the relationship between obesity and
           asthma in childhood
    • Authors: N. Alvarez Zallo; I. Aguinaga-Ontoso; I. Alvarez-Alvarez; F. Guillén-Grima; C. Azcona San Julian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): N. Alvarez Zallo, I. Aguinaga-Ontoso, I. Alvarez-Alvarez, F. Guillén-Grima, C. Azcona San Julian
      Background The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between asthma and overweight–obesity in Spanish children and adolescents and to determine whether this relationship was affected by gender and atopy. Methods The study involves 8607 Spanish children and adolescents from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood phase III. Unconditional logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between asthma symptoms and overweight–obesity in the two groups. Afterwards, it was stratified by sex and rhinoconjunctivitis. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity in 6–7-year-old children was 18.6% and 5.2% respectively and in 13–14 year-old teenagers was 11.4% and 1.1% respectively. Only the obese children, not the overweight children, of the 6–7 year old group had a higher risk of any asthma symptoms (wheezing ever: OR 1.68 [1.15–2.47], asthma ever: OR 2.29 [1.43–3.68], current asthma 2.56 [1.54–4.28], severe asthma 3.18 [1.50–6.73], exercise-induced asthma 2.71 [1.45–5.05]). The obese girls had an increased risk of suffering any asthma symptoms (wheezing ever: OR 1.73 [1.05–2.91], asthma ever: OR 3.12 [1.67–5.82], current asthma 3.20 [1.65–6.19], severe asthma 4.83[1.94–12.04], exercise-induced asthma 3.68 [1.67–8.08]). The obese children without rhinoconjunctivitis had a higher risk of asthma symptoms. Conclusions Obesity and asthma symptoms were associated in 6–7 year-old children but not in 13–14 year-old teenagers. The association was stronger in non-atopic children and obese girls.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T12:50:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.09.005
  • The relation of innate and adaptive immunity with viral-induced acute
           asthma attacks: Focusing on IP-10 and cathelicidin
    • Authors: T. Arikoglu; E. Akyilmaz; D.D. Yildirim; S.B. Batmaz; S.T. Ulger; G. Aslan; S. Kuyucu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2016
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): T. Arikoglu, E. Akyilmaz, D.D. Yildirim, S.B. Batmaz, S.T. Ulger, G. Aslan, S. Kuyucu
      Background Despite growing evidence suggesting potential association between innate and adaptive immunity in viral-induced acute asthma, there is paucity of data in this area. Objective This study aimed to investigate the association of innate and adaptive immunity with acute asthma attacks by analysing the role of IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), TLR2, cathelicidin, vitamin D and cytokines. Material and methods This prospective study included 33 patients with viral-induced acute asthma and 30 children with controlled asthma. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected for virus identification and asthma attack scores assessed in acute asthma group. Blood sampling for IP-10, TLR2, cathelicidin, vitamin D levels, and spirometric indices were employed. Results Serum IP-10 and cathelicidin levels of acute asthma group were significantly higher and vitamin D levels were lower than controlled asthma group (IP-10; p =0.006, cathelicidin; p =0.002, vitamin D; p <0.001). Serum IP-10 levels showed a significant negative correlation with age (p =0.009), TLR2 (p =0.05) and spirometric indices (p =0.002) in all asthmatics and a significant positive correlation with parameters of asthma attack severity (p =0.03) in acute asthma group. Higher cathelicidin values showed significant positive relation to IP-10 (beta coefficient: 33, p =0.02). Serum IP-10 levels higher than 38.9pg/ml (sensitivity: 85%, specificity: 47%, p =0.002) were predictive of virus-induced asthma. Serum IP-10 and vitamin D levels were found to be significantly related to viral-asthma attacks (IP-10; aOR: 8.93, p =0.03 and vitamin D; aOR: 0.82, p =0.001). Conclusions Innate immunity biomarkers such as serum IP-10 and cathelicidin can be used to predict viral-induced acute asthma. These biomarkers may provide potential new treatment targets for acute asthma.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T11:42:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.07.003
  • Safety of immunotherapy with glutaraldehyde modified allergen extracts in
           children and adults
    • Authors: M. Guzmán-Fulgencio; R. Caballero; B. Lara; M. Mena; M. Tejera; A. Sastre; J.-L. Subiza; E. Fernández-Caldas; M. Casanovas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2016
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): M. Guzmán-Fulgencio, R. Caballero, B. Lara, M. Mena, M. Tejera, A. Sastre, J.-L. Subiza, E. Fernández-Caldas, M. Casanovas
      Background Glutaraldehyde-modified natural allergen extracts show significant reduction in the IgE-binding capacity and proteolytic activity. This allows the administration of higher doses in a shorter period of time, and to mix different allergen extracts. Objective Evaluate the safety of different concentrations and mixtures of glutaraldehyde-modified allergen extracts in a large group of paediatric and adult patients undergoing specific immunotherapy treatment. Materials and methods 1855 patients (1156 adults and 699 children), suffering from rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma, participated in an observational multicentre cohort study, to evaluate the safety of immunotherapy using vaccines containing modified allergen extracts. Patients were monosensitised, or polysensitised, and received a therapeutic vaccine containing polymerised allergen extracts adsorbed onto aluminium hydroxide. Safety was assessed by recording all side reactions related to immunotherapy. Results The clinically relevant local reactions totalled 120, (90 immediate and 30 delayed) (1.02% of injections). Of them, 31 (0.26% of injections) occurred in children (26 immediate and 5 delayed) and 89 (0.76% of injections) in adults (64 immediate and 25 delayed). There were 38 systemic reactions. Eleven reactions were immediate (9 of grade 1 and 2 of grade 2) and 27 delayed (22 of grade 1 and 5 of grade 2). There were seven grade 2 systemic reactions (0.06% of the injections). No differences (P >0.05) in the number of reactions were observed between adults and children and between treatments were found in systemic reactions. All systemic reactions were mild and resolved spontaneously without the need of medication. Conclusion Specific immunotherapy using natural modified allergen vaccines is safe to treat allergic patients, even at higher doses and in mixtures of unrelated allergen extracts. The percentage of adverse reactions detected is lower than those reported in the literature with native unmodified allergen extracts.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T11:42:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.08.008
  • Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus: Changes in sensitisation in the past 11
           years and comparison with other centres in Mexico
    • Authors: E.M. Navarrete-Rodríguez; J.R. Fernández-Soto; B.E. Del Rio-Navarro; O.J. Saucedo-Ramírez; J.J.L. Sienra-Monge
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2016
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): E.M. Navarrete-Rodríguez, J.R. Fernández-Soto, B.E. Del Rio-Navarro, O.J. Saucedo-Ramírez, J.J.L. Sienra-Monge
      Background House dust mites are a ubiquitous air allergen in the human habitat. It has been shown that exposure to them is a fundamental factor in sensitisation and development of atopic disease. The objective of the study was to analyse changes in sensitisation to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p.) in children treated in a tertiary level care hospital in Mexico City for a period of 11 years and compare with other studies carried out in Mexico. Methods A retrospective study was performed at the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (HIMFG). Information was gathered from skin tests for Der p. performed in the Allergy Laboratory from January 2004 to April 2015. Patients 2–18 years old who presented for examination of some type of allergic condition and who had immediate hypersensitivity tests to Der p. were included in the study. Results were compared with prior reports from other institutions. Descriptive analysis and χ 2 statistics were used. Results A total of 8794 patients were included in the study; 49.3% of the tests (95% CI 48–50) were positive for Der p. The percentage of monosensitised to mites was 2.7% for Der p. (95% CI 2–3). A significant difference was found between the results of older patients and those <6 years old. The frequency of sensitisation had a tendency to decrease during the 11 years analysed in all age groups. Conclusions and clinical relevance The frequency of sensitisation to Der p. increased with age until reaching adolescence. In the last 11 years a decrease in sensitisation to this air allergen was observed.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T11:04:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.09.002
  • Knowledge, perspectives and attitudes about allergen-specific
           immunotherapy for respiratory allergic disease among paediatricians in
    • Authors: S. Işık; A. Çağlar; B. Eroğlu-Filibeli; Ş. Çağlayan-Sözmen; Z. Arıkan-Ayyıldız; S. Asilsoy; N. Uzuner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2016
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): S. Işık, A. Çağlar, B. Eroğlu-Filibeli, Ş. Çağlayan-Sözmen, Z. Arıkan-Ayyıldız, S. Asilsoy, N. Uzuner
      Background Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASI) is the only effective treatment for allergic respiratory diseases which has the potential to change the natural course of the disease. In this present study we aimed to evaluate the paediatricians’ knowledge, perspectives and attitudes about ASI for allergic respiratory diseases. Materials and methods The study was conducted between September 2014 – January 2015. A survey of 25 questions assessing paediatricians’ knowledge, perceptions and attitudes about ASI was developed by an expert panel and applied by physicians in hospitals in Izmir, Turkey, where the paediatricians work. Data were recorded in SPSS for Windows v.16. Descriptive statistics, chi square analysis was used. P <0.05 was considered as significant. Results Fully completed surveys from 180 paediatricians were analysed. The respondent paediatricians had an age of 37±8.2 years, and 56 of them were male. The majority of the respondents (n: 146) were working fewer than five years as a paediatric specialist. 93.9% of the paediatricians believed that ASI was effective for the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases. There was satisfactory knowledge of the characteristics, aims, effects and limits of ASI. Conclusion ASI is generally well-known and accepted among paediatricians. A better synergy between paediatricians and paediatric allergy specialists can provide more use of this treatment method for allergic respiratory diseases in childhood.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T10:13:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.07.004
  • Uncovering potential key genes associated with the pathogenesis of asthma:
           A microarray analysis of asthma-relevant tissues
    • Authors: Y. Guan; X. Jin; X. Liu; Y. Huang; M. Wang; X. Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2016
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): Y. Guan, X. Jin, X. Liu, Y. Huang, M. Wang, X. Li
      Background The present study aimed to discover more potential genes associated with the pathogenesis of asthma. Methods The microarray data of GSE67940 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in bronchial alveolar lavage cells from patients with mild-moderate asthma (notSA) and severe asthma (SA) compared with normal controls (NC), respectively. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis, protein–protein interaction (PPI) network analysis were performed upon the identified up- and down-regulated DEGs. Besides, the gene association network based on the common up-regulated and down-regulated genes was generated and transcriptional regulatory pairs of overlapping DEGs in the PPI network were identified. Results A total of 104 DEGs (30 up- and 74 down-regulated genes) were identified in notSA vs. NC. Additionally, 2796 DEGs were screened out in SA vs. NC group, including 320 up-regulated DEGs, and 135 down-regulated DEGs. Specially, 41 overlapping DEGs were screened out in notSA vs. NC and SA vs. NC, including 16 common up-regulated genes and 25 common down-regulated genes. No pathways were enriched by the DEGs in notSA vs. NC. DEGs in SA vs. NC were associated with cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction. VEGFA was a hub protein in both the PPI networks of DEGs in notSA vs. NC and SA vs. NC. Gene association network showed that signalling pathways and cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction were involved in. The overlapping VEGFA, and IFRD1, and ZNF331 were regulated by more TFs. Conclusion Genes such as VEGFA, and IFRD1, and ZNF331 may be associated with pathogenesis of asthma.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T18:43:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.08.007
  • Alternaria alternata acts on human Monocyte-derived Dendritic cells to
           mediate Th2/Th17 polarisation
    • Authors: A. Loghmani; R. Raoofi; A. Ownagh; N. Delirezh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2016
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): A. Loghmani, R. Raoofi, A. Ownagh, N. Delirezh
      Introduction Although the mechanism of asthma is not precisely understood in humans, clinical and epidemiological studies have offered a potential relationship between exposure to environmental fungi, such as Alternaria alternata (A. alternata) and the development and exacerbation of asthma. The aim of this project is to investigate the mechanisms of Th2 responses by A. alternata as a clinically relevant model for the environmental exposure. Materials and methods Plastic adherent monocytes were cultured with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) to convert these cells into Monocyte-derived Dendritic cells (MoDc) and then matured in the presence of Monocyte-Conditioned Medium (MCM) as the control group and MCM+ A. alternata extract as the inductive groups. Results The results indicated that the expression of CD14 decreased and CD83 and anti-human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) increased in the inductive groups in comparison with the control group. More importantly, A. alternata inhibited IL-12 production by activated dendritic cells (DCs), and the DCs exposed to A. alternata enhanced the Th2 polarisation of CD4+ T cells. The production amount of IL-10 overcame IL-12 as well as Il-23 increased significantly, and hand in T cells the production of cytokines Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) decreased. However, both IL-17 and IL-4 increased (p <0.05). Phagocytic activity in the inductive groups decreased significantly compared with the control group. Conclusion The asthma-related environmental fungus A. alternata, with an effect on dendritic cells profile mediates TH2/TH17. Such immunodysregulation properties of causative environmental fungi may explain their strong relationship with human asthma and allergic diseases.

      PubDate: 2016-11-07T18:20:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.07.005
  • Prenatal and postnatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and
           allergy symptoms in city children
    • Authors: J. Jerzynska; D. Podlecka; K. Polanska; W. Hanke; I. Stelmach; W. Stelmach
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2016
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): J. Jerzynska, D. Podlecka, K. Polanska, W. Hanke, I. Stelmach, W. Stelmach
      Background Studies indicate that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is associated with adverse respiratory and allergy outcomes. Exposure to PAH may impair the immune function of the foetus and, subsequently, be responsible for an increased susceptibility of children to allergic diseases. Objectives The aim of the present study was to assess the association between mother's exposure to PAH during pregnancy and allergy diseases in their infants. We also assessed the above associations using measured PAH exposure in children's urine during the first two years of life. Methods The current analysis was restricted to 455 mothers and their children from Lodz district. The women were interviewed three times during the pregnancy in order to collect demographic, socio-economic and medical history data. Children's health status was assessed at the age of 10–18 months and repeated at two years of age. The associations between dependent dichotomous variables and urine concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) were analysed using logistic regression. Results We showed that higher urine concentrations of 1-HP in mothers at 20–24 weeks of pregnancy increased the risk of more frequent respiratory infections (p =0.02) in children during their first year of life. Higher 1-HP concentrations in children's urine increased the risk of food allergy (p =0.002) in children during their first two years of life. Conclusions This study suggests awareness of environmental factors, which may affect children's health since PAH showed to be a risk factor for airway infections and food allergy in children after adjustment for other risk factors.

      PubDate: 2016-10-30T21:24:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.07.006
  • Allergic rhinitis and allergy are risk factors for otitis media with
           effusion: A meta-analysis
    • Authors: X. Cheng; H. Sheng; R. Ma; Z. Gao; Z. Han; F. Chi; N. Cong; J. Wang; X. Liu; X. Luo; J. Yu; Y. Ra
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2016
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): X. Cheng, H. Sheng, R. Ma, Z. Gao, Z. Han, F. Chi, N. Cong, J. Wang, X. Liu, X. Luo, J. Yu, Y. Ra
      Objective/Hypothesis We systematically reviewed the associations between allergic rhinitis or allergy and otitis media with effusion, by reference to published data. Study design A meta-analysis of case-controlled studies. Data source Five databases (Pubmed, Highwire, Medline, Wanfang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure) were searched for relevant studies in the English language published prior to November 12, 2015. Studies chosen Studies with clearly defined experimental and control groups, in which the experimental groups had otitis media with effusion together with allergic rhinitis or allergy, were selected. Methods We performed a meta-analysis on data from the identified cross-sectional and case-controlled studies using fixed- or random-effects models (depending on heterogeneity). We used Reviewer Manager 5.3 software to this end. Results Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis in patients with otitis media with effusion and the control groups differed significantly in three studies (P <0.00001), as did the prevalence of allergy (in six studies; P =0.003). Conclusion Allergic rhinitis and allergy appear to be risk factors for otitis media with effusion.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T19:24:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.03.004
  • Assessment of IgE-mediated food allergies in children with atopic
    • Authors: A. Mavroudi; A. Karagiannidou; I. Xinias; D. Cassimos; N. Karantaglis; E. Farmaki; G. Imvrios; M. Fotoulaki; M. Eboriadou; J. Tsanakas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2016
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): A. Mavroudi, A. Karagiannidou, I. Xinias, D. Cassimos, N. Karantaglis, E. Farmaki, G. Imvrios, M. Fotoulaki, M. Eboriadou, J. Tsanakas
      Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory disease of the skin, which is characterised by a chronic relapsing course. Aim The aim of the study was to assign the prevalence of clinically active food allergies among a group of children between 3 months and 7 years of age, with AD. Methods Eighty-eight children with AD were screened for specific IgE antibodies to food proteins. All patients with AD and specific IgE antibodies to food proteins were subjected to Oral Food Challenges (OFCs) with the relevant foods. Results Food-sensitised patients with moderate levels of sIgE had clinically active food allergy to milk (39.28%) and egg (42.34%) on the basis of positive OFCs. High IgE and eosinophilia had a prevalence of almost 80% and 25%, regardless of concomitant food sensitisation and disease severity. Conclusions In this study, clinically active food allergies were recognised in 26.13% of children with AD. Nevertheless, no association was confirmed between food sensitisation and AD severity. High IgE and peripheral eosinophilia have not been found more prevalent among children with severe AD nor among children with food sensitisation. Infants and younger children with AD should be screened for an underlying food allergy, regardless of disease severity.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T19:24:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.06.006
  • Efficacy of parthenolide on lung histopathology in a murine model of
    • Authors: Z. Arıkan-Ayyıldız; M. Karaman; S. Özbal; A. Bağrıyanık; O. Yilmaz; Ö. Karaman; N. Uzuner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2016
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): Z. Arıkan-Ayyıldız, M. Karaman, S. Özbal, A. Bağrıyanık, O. Yilmaz, Ö. Karaman, N. Uzuner
      Background Parthenolide is the active constituent of the plant ‘Tanacetum parthenium’ (Feverfew) which has been used for centuries as a folk remedy for inflammatory conditions. Aim of the study In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of parthenolide in a murine model of chronic asthma. Materials and methods Thirty-five BALB/c mice were divided into five groups; I (control), II (placebo), III (dexamethasone), IV (parthenolide) and V (dexamethasone and parthenolide combination). Lung histology was evaluated after treatment with the study drugs. Levels of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 were determined by ELISA. Results Histologic parameters except the number of mast and goblet cells improved in the parthenolide group when compared with placebo. All parameters except basal membrane thickness and number of mast cells were improved significantly better in the group receiving dexamethasone when compared with the parthenolide group. Improvement of most of the histologic parameters was similar in Groups III and V. Interleukin-4 levels were significantly reduced in the parthenolide group when compared to the placebo group. Conclusion We demonstrated that parthenolide administration alleviated some of the pathological changes in asthma. But parthenolide alone is not efficient as dexamethasone therapy and the parthenolide and dexamethasone combination also did not add any beneficial effect to the dexamethasone treatment.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T19:24:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.06.005
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