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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3160 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3160 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 96, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 420, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 277, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 405, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 357, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 463, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.504
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0301-0546
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3160 journals]
  • Current therapeutic paradigm in pediatric atopic dermatitis: Practical
           guidance from a national expert panel
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 2Author(s): A. Chiricozzi, A. Belloni Fortina, E. Galli, G. Girolomoni, I. Neri, G. Ricci, M. Romanelli, D. Peroni Introduction and ObjectivesAtopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common cutaneous inflammatory disease in both adults and children. Although emerging therapeutic approaches are being investigated for the management of pediatric AD, it still needs to be managed with conventional treatments. This consensus document is aimed at providing an update on general management and therapies of pediatric AD, defining practical recommendations for using both topical and systemic agents.Material and MethodsA panel of experts consisting of dermatologists and pediatricians were convened in order to define statements, through a Delphi process, standardizing the management of AD in pediatric subjects in a real-world setting.ResultsA set of practical recommendations obtaining an at least 75% agreement was presented.ConclusionsThis set of practical recommendations represents a simple and fast snapshot on the pediatric use of common anti-AD therapeutics.
       
  • The profile of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and GATA3 in patients with LRBA
           deficiency and CVID with no known monogenic disease: Association with
           disease severity
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 2Author(s): G. Azizi, Y. Bagheri, R. Yazdani, M. Zaki-Dizaji, M. Jamee, F. Jadidi-Niaragh, A.N. Kamali, H. Abolhassani, A. Aghamohammadi BackgroundCommon variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common symptomatic form of primary immunodeficiency (PID). LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by a CVID-like phenotype. T cell abnormality was reported in patients with CVID and LRBA deficiency. The study's aim was to evaluate IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and GATA3 expression in patients with LRBA deficiency and CVID with no known monogenic disease, and further evaluate its relevance with immunological futures and clinical complications of patients.MethodsThe study population comprised patients with CVID, LRBA deficiency and age–sex matched healthy controls. Mutation analysis was done by whole exome sequencing in CVID patients to rule out monogenic PIDs. After CD4+ T cell stimulation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies, gene expression of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and transcription factor GATA3 was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The protein of mentioned cytokines was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.ResultsThe main clinical presentations of CVID patients were infections only and lymphoproliferations phenotypes, but in LRBA patients were autoimmune and enteropathy phenotype. The frequencies of CD4+ T cells were significantly reduced in LRBA and CVID patients. There were no statistically significant differences among GATA3, IL4, and IL5 gene expressions by CD4+ T cells of patients and controls, however, the IL10 expressions in CVID patients was significantly lower than in LRBA patients and HCs. As compared with HCs, CVID patients showed a prominent decrease in IL-4 and IL-10 production by CD4+ T cells.ConclusionsOur findings demonstrated that patients with CVID and LRBA deficiency (even with severe infectious and inflammatory complications) have not imbalance in Th2 response, which is in parallel with lower frequency of allergy and asthma in these patients.
       
  • Focus group parental opinions regarding treatment with topical
           corticosteroids on children with atopic dermatitis
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 2Author(s): S. Veenje, H. Osinga, I. Antonescu, B. Bos, T.W. de Vries Introduction and objectivesAtopic dermatitis is common among children of 0–5 years old. Treatment consists of emollients and topical corticosteroids. Due to corticophobia, however, adherence to topical corticosteroids is low. Our aim was to find factors that influence opinions about topical corticosteroids among parents of children with atopic dermatitis.MethodsA qualitative focus group study in secondary care with parents of children with atopic dermatitis. Questions concerned opinions, attitude, sources of information, and the use of topical corticosteroids.ResultsThe parents indicated that they lack knowledge about the working mechanism and side effects of topical corticosteroids. Dermatologists and paediatricians emphasise the beneficial effects, whereas other healthcare workers and lay people often express a negative attitude.ConclusionsThis study gives a complete overview of factors influencing adherence. Treatment with topical corticosteroids can be improved by better informing parents about the working mechanisms, the use, and how to reduce the dose. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of the consequences of their negative attitude concerning topical corticosteroids.
       
  • Association of M470V polymorphism of CFTR gene with variability of
           clinical expression of asthma: Case-report study
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 2Author(s): Imen Wahabi, Sondess Hadj Fredj, Malek Nefzi, Rym Dabboubi, Hajer Siala, Fatma Khalsi, Khedija Bousetta, Taieb Messaoud Introduction and ObjectivesAsthma is a complex genetic disorder. Several genes have been found associated with asthma. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene is one of them. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the genotype and allele frequency distributions of the biallelic marker M470V within the CFTR gene on mutant and wide chromosomes.Patients and methodsThe molecular approach consists in the genotyping of the M470V marker by the PCR-RFLP technique in 105 asthmatic patients, aged between four months and 17 years, and 105 healthy subjects.ResultsWe found a significant difference in the genotype frequencies between the two studied groups (χ2 = 9.855, P = 0.007). The V/V genotype was over represented in the asthmatic group as compared to the controls (32.38% vs. 16.19%). Whereas, the M/V genotype is more frequent in healthy subjects (40.95% vs. 28.71%). We also noted a significant difference in allelic distribution of M470V with associated diseases (χ2 = 9.610, P = 0.022).ConclusionsThe present study is the first report on the distribution of the M470V polymorphism in asthmatic Tunisian patients. We noticed that the M470V variant could modulate the clinical phenotype of asthmatic patients. This preliminary study will establish the molecular basis of this disease in Tunisia.
       
  • Phenotyping and long-term follow up of patients with hyper IgE syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 2Author(s): S. Alyasin, H. Esmaeilzadeh, N. Ebrahimi, S.H. Nabavizadeh, S. Kashef, E. Esmaeilzadeh, M. Babaei, R. Amin Introduction and objectivesLong-term follow up of patients with hyper IgE syndrome (HIES), as a primary immunodeficiency disorder, has been poorly investigated. This study describes common clinical and immunological features of patients with HIES in the last 10 years in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.Methods and patientsIn this cross-sectional study, the symptoms and medical records of 18 patients, who were diagnosed with HIES, were observed. Genetic and immunologic study was also performed.ResultsEighteen patients with the mean age of 13 years old were investigated. Ten patients were detected to have mutations in DOCK8 gene and autosomal recessive HIES (AR-HIES); and four patients were found with STAT3 mutation and autosomal dominant HIES (AD-HIES). So, 14 patients with known genetic results were considered for further data analysis. Food allergy, eczema, viral and skin infections were the major complications of AR-HIES patients. The major clinical complications of AD-HIES patients were pneumonia, skin infections and eczema. Food allergy and viral infection were significantly higher in DOCK8 deficient patients. The most common causes of hospitalization in both AR-HIES and AD-HIES patients were pneumonia, skin infections and sepsis. The most common cause of death was found to be sepsis.ConclusionsAD-HIES and AR-HIES cannot be differentiated only based on the clinical presentations. Genetic features are also necessary for better diagnosis. This study, summarizing the clinical, immunological and genetic information of the patients with AD-HIES and AR-HIES, may open a way for better diagnosis and management of HIES.
       
  • Microdeletion 22q11.2 syndrome: Does thymus incidental surgical resection
           affect its immunological profile'
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 2Author(s): E.M. Navarrete-Rodríguez, B.E. Del-Rio-Navarro, D.E. García-Fajardo, G.J. Baay-Guzmán, S.E. Espinosa-Padilla, E.A. Medina-Torres, N.I. Moguel-Molina, M. Sánchez-Curiel-Loyo, N. Nájera-Martínez, J. Navarro-Munguía, N. Reyes-Noriega, N.A. Balderrábano-Saucedo, R. Sánchez-Urbina, C. García Delgado, J.J.L. Sienra-Monge, V.F. Morán-Barroso BackgroundThe del22q11 syndrome patients present immunological abnormalities associated to thymus alterations. Up to 75% of them present cardiopathies and thymus is frequently removed during surgery. The thymectomy per se has a deleterious effect concerning lymphocyte subpopulations, and T cell function. When compared to healthy controls, these patients have higher infections propensity of variable severity. The factors behind these variations are unknown. We compared immunological profiles of del22q11.2 Syndrome patients with and without thymectomy to establish its effect in the immune profile.MethodsForty-six del22q11.2 syndrome patients from 1 to 16 years old, 19 of them with partial or total thymectomy were included. Heart disease type, heart surgery, infections events and thymus resection were identified. Immunoglobulin levels, flow cytometry for lymphocytes subpopulations and TREC levels were determined, and statistical analyses were performed.ResultsThe thymectomy group had a lower lymphocyte index, both regarding total cell count and when comparing age-adjusted Z scores. Also, CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ lower levels were observed in this group, the lowest count in those patients who had undergone thymus resection during the first year of life. Their TREC level median was 23.6/μL vs 16.1 μL in the non-thymus group (p = 0.22). No differences were identified regarding immunoglobulin levels or infection events frequencies over the previous year.ConclusionPatients with del22q11.2 syndrome subjected to thymus resection present lower lymphocyte and TREC indexes when compared to patients without thymectomy. This situation may be influenced by the age at the surgery and the time elapsed since the procedure.
       
  • Osteoprotegerin mediate RANK/RANKL signaling inhibition eases asthma
           inflammatory reaction by affecting the survival and function of dendritic
           cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 2Author(s): X. Yang, X. Wang, M. Chi, M. Zhang, H. Shan, Q.-H. Zhang, J. Zhang, J. Shi, J.-Z. Zhang, R.-M. Wu, Y.-L. Li IntroductionAsthma is a chronic inflammatory, heterogeneous airway disease affecting millions of people around the world. Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered the most important antigen-presenting cell in asthma airway inflammatory reaction. But whether osteoprotegerin (OPG) mediate RANK/RANKL signaling inhibition influences asthma development by affecting the survival and function of DCs remains unclear. In this study, we assessed the effects of OPG on DCs and asthma.Material and methodsBALB/c mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) were challenged thrice with an aerosol of OVA every second day for eight days. Dexamethasone (1.0 mg/kg) or OPG (50 μg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to OVA-immunized BALB/c mice on day 24 once a day for nine days. Mice were analyzed for effects of OPG on asthma, inflammatory cell infiltration and cytokine levels in lung tissue. The expression of RANK and β-actin was detected by Western Blot. DCs were isolated from mouse bone morrow. Cell survival was assessed by cell counting. The content of IL-12 was detected by ELISA.ResultsResults showed that OVA increased the number of inflammatory factors in BALF, elevated lung inflammation scores in mice. OPG reversed the alterations induced by OVA in the asthmatic mice. OPG inhibited the survival and function of DC via inhibition of RANK/RANKL signaling.ConclusionsThis research proved inhibition of RANK/RANKL signaling by OPG could ease the inflammatory reaction in asthma, providing new evidence for the application of OPG on asthma.
       
  • Prevalence of recurrent wheezing during the first year of life in
           Setúbal district, Portugal
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 2Author(s): Cláudio D’Elia, Javier Mallol, Dirceu Solé BackgroundRecurrent wheezing during the first year of life is a major cause of respiratory morbidity worldwide, yet there are no studies on its prevalence in Portugal.ObjectiveDetermine the prevalence and severity of recurrent wheezing, treatments employed and other related aspects, in infants during their first year of life in Setúbal, Portugal.MethodsThis is a cross-sectional study of a random sample of infants aged 12–15 months living in Setúbal district. It uses a validated questionnaire answered by parents/caregivers at local healthcare facilities where infants attend for growth/development monitoring and/or vaccine administration.ResultsAmong the 202 infants surveyed, 44.6% (95% CI 37.7–51.4) had at least one episode of wheezing; and 18.3% (95% CI 12.9–23.6) had recurrent wheezing. There was significant morbidity associated to recurrent wheezing in terms of severe episodes (17.3%–95% CI 12–22.5), visits to the emergency department (26.2%–95% CI 20.1–32.2) and hospital admissions (5.4%–95% CI 2.2–8.5); 10.4% (95% CI 6.1–14.6) used inhaled corticosteroids and 7.9% (95% CI 4.1–11.6) used a leukotriene receptor antagonist.ConclusionsThe prevalence of recurrent wheezing in infants during the first year of life is high and is associated with significant morbidity, presenting as a relevant public health problem. An important proportion of infants’ progress with a more severe condition, resulting in high use of health resources (visits to emergency department and hospitalisations). The prevalence of recurrent wheezing in this district of Portugal stays between those related in other European and Latin American Centres, suggesting that maybe some of the well-known risk factors are shared with affluent countries.
       
  • SO, AT WHAT AGE CAN ASTHMA BE DIAGNOSED'
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 2Author(s): Luis Garcia-Marcos
       
  • Anti-inflammatory and anti-remodeling effects of myrtenol in the lungs of
           asthmatic rats: Histopathological and biochemical findings
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 2Author(s): M.A. Bejeshk, M. Samareh Fekri, H. Najafipour, F. Rostamzadeh, E. Jafari, M.A. Rajizadeh, Y. Masoumi-Ardakani IntroductionAsthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of myrtenol on the inflammatory indices in the pulmonary parenchyma and airways and on the inflammatory and oxidative indices of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of asthmatic rats.MethodsThe allergic asthma was induced by sensitization (two weeks) followed by the inhalation of ovalbumin (four weeks). Animals were divided into two main groups: (1) Histopathology, and (2) measurement of inflammatory and oxidative biomarkers in the BALF. Each main group was subdivided into four subgroups: Control, Asthma, Asthma + Dexamethasone and Asthma + Myrtenol. (−)-Myrtenol (50 mg/kg) or Dexamethasone (2.5 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally once a day for one week, at the end of the inhalation period. On day 50, lung histopathologic parameters and inflammatory indices in BALF including INF-γ, IL-10, IL-1β, and TNF-α and oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, SOD, and GPX) were measured.ResultIn the Asthma group, leukocyte infiltration, the thickness of smooth muscle and epithelium of airways wall and the number of goblet cells increased. Myrtenol reduced all of the above-mentioned indices except the epithelium thickness. It also inhibited the increase in BALF IL-1β, TNF-α and MDA and increased the levels of INF-γ, IL-10 and SOD.ConclusionOur results suggest that myrtenol reduced damage caused by experimental asthma by reducing the inflammatory indices, normalizing the level of interleukins and balancing oxidative stress in the lungs. It also prevented airway remodeling. Myrtenol may be suggested as a potent herbal medicine for the treatment of allergic asthma.
       
  • Successful oral desensitization in children with cow's milk anaphylaxis:
           Clinical and laboratory evaluation up to nine-years follow-up
    • Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 2Author(s): M. Alves-Correia, Â. Gaspar, L.-M. Borrego, J. Azevedo, C. Martins, M. Morais-Almeida IntroductionCow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the most common food allergy in children worldwide. Some children have severe and persistent CMPA, with near-fatal reactions after exposure to trace amounts of cow's milk-proteins (CMP). Strict avoidance diet is difficult, negatively affects quality of life and represents a conservative approach. Therefore, different therapeutic strategies are necessary.ObjectiveWe aimed to assess long-term efficacy and safety of oral immunotherapy (OIT) in children with severe and long-lasting IgE-mediated CMPA.Materials and methodsThe authors present four case reports of patients with CMPA who underwent CMP-OIT, that have been under long-term follow-up up to nine years. We provide information about the clinical and laboratory evaluation. Skin prick tests (SPT), specific IgE and IgG4 were performed before, during, and after OIT. Immune profile after OIT was assessed by flow cytometry (lymphocyte subsets, regulatory T and B cells).ResultsThe success rate was 100%, and all patients currently have a free diet with minimal diary ingestion of 200 mL CMP or equivalent. Specific IgE levels and SPT to CMP have progressively decreased, and specific IgG4 levels have increased. CD4+CD25+CD127−/dim regulatory T cells were increased after OIT.ConclusionsOIT ensured a clinical tolerance state after up to nine years, confirmed by both clinical and immune profile, allowing a diet without restrictions, with high satisfaction from patients and caregivers. We emphasize that OIT should be performed only by allergy experts in the hospital setting, and that only motivated families should be enrolled, since it is essential to ensure CMP daily intake at home.
       
  • IFN-γ stimulation of dental follicle mesenchymal stem cells modulates
           immune response of CD4+ T lymphocytes in Der p1+ asthmatic patients in
           vitro
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): D. Genç, N. Zibandeh, E. Nain, Ü. Arığ, K. Göker, E.K. Aydıner, T. Akkoç BackgroundHouse dust mite (Dermataphagoides pteronyssinus) is a widespread risk factor in the development of asthma. CD4+ T lymphocytes have an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma by polarizing to Th2 cells.ObjectiveWe aimed to evaluate the immunoregulatory effects of dental follicle mesenchymal stem cells with and without IFN-γ stimulation on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of house dust mite sensitive asthmatic patients, and compared those with Dexamethasone as a systemic steroid.Material and methodsPBMC of asthmatic patients and healthy individuals separately cultured with or without DF-MSCs in the presence and absence of IFN-γ or Der p1 or Dexamethasone for 72 h. CD4+ T proliferation, cell viability, CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cell frequency and cytokine profiles of PBMC were evaluated via flow cytometry.ResultsDF-MSCs suppressed proliferation of CD4+ T lymphocytes (pCDmix 
       
  • Identification of polcalcin as a novel allergen of Amaranthus
           retroflexus
    pollen
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2019Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): M. Vakili Moghaddam, M. Fallahpour, M. Mohammadi, F.S. Rasi Varaee, K. Mokhtarian, M. Khoshmirsafa, R. Jafari, N. Shirzad, R. Falak IntroductionAmaranthus retroflexus (Redroot Pigweed) is one of the main sources of allergenic pollens in temperate areas. Polcalcin is a well-known panallergen involved in cross-reactivity between different plants. The aim of this study was the molecular cloning and expression of polcalcin, as well as evaluating its IgE-reactivity with A. retroflexus sensitive patients’ sera.MethodsAllergenic extract was prepared from A. retroflexus pollen and the IgE-reactivity profile was determined by ELISA and immunoblotting using sera from twenty A. retroflexus sensitive patients. Polcalcin-coding sequence was amplified by conventional PCR method and the product was inserted into pET-21b(+) vector. The recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 and purified by metal affinity chromatography. The IgE-binding capability of the recombinant protein was analyzed by ELISA and immunoblotting assays, and compared with crude extract.ResultsOf 20 skin prick test positive patients, 17 patients were positive in IgE-specific ELISA. Western blotting confirmed that approximately 53% of ELISA positive patients reacted with 10 kDa protein in crude extract. The A. retroflexus polcalcin gene, encoding to 80 amino acid residues was cloned and expressed as a soluble protein and designated as Ama r 3. The recombinant polcalcin showed rather identical IgE-reactivity in ELISA and western blotting with 10 kDa protein in crude extract. These results were confirmed by inhibition methods, too.ConclusionThe recombinant form of A. retroflexus polcalcin (Ama r 3) could be easily produced in E. coli in a soluble form and shows rather similar IgE-reactivity with its natural counterpart.
       
  • Reduced Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii levels in
           the gut microbiota of children with allergic asthma
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2019Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): M. Demirci, H.B. Tokman, H.K. Uysal, S. Demiryas, A. Karakullukcu, S. Saribas, H. Cokugras, B.S. Kocazeybek Introduction and objectivesThe amounts of Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in gut microbiota are reduced in patients with allergic diseases compared to healthy controls. We aimed to quantify levels of A. muciniphila and F. prausnitzii amounts using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the gut microbiota of children with allergic asthma and in healthy controls.Materials and methodsIn total, 92 children between the ages of three and eight who were diagnosed with asthma and 88 healthy children were included in the study and bacterial DNA was isolated from the stool samples using the stool DNA isolation Kit. qPCR assays were studied with the microbial DNA qPCR Kit for A. muciniphila and microbial DNA qPCR Kit for F. prausnitzii.ResultsBoth bacterial species showed a reduction in the patient group compared to healthy controls. A. muciniphila and F. prausnitzii were found to be 5.45 ± 0.004, 6.74 ± 0.01 and 5.71 ± 0.002, 7.28 ± 0.009 in the stool samples of the asthma and healthy control groups, respectively.ConclusionsF. prausnitzii and A. muciniphila may have induced anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and prevented the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-12. These findings suggest that A. muciniphila and F. prausnitzii may suppress inflammation through its secreted metabolites.
       
  • Predicting outgrowth of IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy: Diagnostic tests
           in children under two years of age
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2019Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): A. Uncuoglu, M.T. Cogurlu, I. Eser Simsek, N. Ergul, C. Baydemir, M. Aydogan BackgroundLimited studies conducted on children
       
  • Effect of ginger extract on expression of GATA3, T-bet and ROR-γt in
           peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with Allergic Asthma
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2019Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): M. Kardan, A. Rafiei, J. Ghaffari, R. Valadan, Z. Morsaljahan, S.T. Haj-ghorbani Introduction and objectivesAllergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways. Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells are the main cells involved in the pathophysiology of asthma. The function of these cells is affected by T-bet, GATA3 and RORγt transcription factors (respectively). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ginger (officinal Roscoe) extract on the expression of T-bet, GATA-3 and ROR-γ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of asthmatic patients, in comparison with healthy volunteers as controls.Materials and methodsIn this case-control study, a total of 50 individuals including 25 patients with severe, moderate and mild allergic asthma and 25 unrelated healthy controls were involved. The PBMCs were isolated and divided into four groups: negative control, two positive controls (Budesonide and PHA) and ginger-extract treated group. After cell treatment and incubation for 48 h, PBMCs were isolated and cDNA was synthesized. Gene expressions of T-bet, GATA3 and ROR-γt were evaluated by Real-time PCR.ResultsAccording to the results of this study, hydroalcoholic extract of ginger could reduce the expression of GATA-3, ROR-γt, and T-bet in PBMCs of asthmatic patients in comparison with untreated PBMCs (P values = 0.001, 0.001, and 0.002, respectively). It was also shown that the ginger extract could affect T-bet/GATA-3, T-bet/ROR-γt, and ROR-γt/GATA-3 expression ratios.ConclusionsThis study showed that the use of ginger extract could control asthma and decrease the severity of this disease by affecting the main cells involving the symptoms of asthma in the airways.
       
  • Prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in 6–7-year-old
           schoolchildren from Luanda, Angola
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2019Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): M. Arrais, O. Lulua, F. Quifica, J. Rosado-Pinto, J.M.R. Gama, L. Taborda-Barata BackgroundEpidemiological data have shown that the prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in children is still increasing, namely in Africa. However, there are no epidemiological studies on asthma or allergic diseases in Angolan children.ObjectiveTo study the prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases in Angolan children.MethodsDescriptive, observational, cross-sectional study, using the ISAAC study methodology, in the province of Luanda, Angola in 6–7-year-old children. Forty-six (8.3%) public schools were randomly selected. Data were analysed using the SPSS Statistics version 24.0 software.ResultsA total of 3080 children were studied. Results showed that the prevalence of asthma (wheezing in the previous 12 months) was 15.8%, that of rhinitis (sneezing, runny or blocked nose in the previous 12 months) was 19%, and that of eczema (itchy skin lesions in the previous 12 months) was 22%, without differences between sexes. Rhinitis was associated with a higher number of episodes of wheezing episodes, disturbed sleep and night cough, in children with asthma. Rhinitis, eczema, Split-type air conditioning system, antibiotic intake in the child's first year of life, frequent intake (more than once per month) of paracetamol and active maternal smoking were associated with a higher risk of having asthma, whereas electrical cooking was associated with a protective effect.ConclusionAsthma and allergic diseases are highly prevalent in children from Luanda. A strategy for preventive and control measures should be implemented.
       
  • The clinical relevance of molecular diagnosis in children allergic to
           grass pollen and treated with allergen immunotherapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2019Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): S. Barberi, G. Traina, M. Landi, G. De Castro, D. Peroni, A. Licari, G. Marseglia, G. Ciprandi
       
  • Headache deteriorates the quality of life in children with chronic
           spontaneous urticaria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2019Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): S. Filiz, M.G. Kutluk, D.F.K. Uygun BackgroundQuality of life, which is impaired in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), is influenced by comorbid mental disorders. Headaches could be another comorbid mental disorder that affects quality of life in children with CSU.ObjectivesTo investigate the effect of headaches on urticaria symptoms, disease activity and quality of life in children with CSU.MethodsA total of 83 patients with CSU were enrolled in the study and were separated into two groups as those with or without headache. Demographic and clinical characteristics were studied with the Urticaria Activity Score (UAS7), Urticaria Control test (UCT) and Chronic Urticaria Quality of Life Questionnaire (CU-Q2QoL). The headache questionnaire designed according to the Department of International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD-II) was used and VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) and NRS (Numerical Rating Scale) were used to assess the pain measurement. In patients diagnosed with migraine, the paediatric Migraine Disability Assessment Scale (PedMIDAS) was applied.ResultsCU-QoL total scores were significantly higher in patients with CSU with headache than in those without headache (p = 0.015). In the five domains of CU-QoL, impact of daily life activities domain and sleep problems domain had higher scores in CSU with headache (p = 0.008, 0.028, respectively). There was no significant relationship between UCT, UAS and CU-QoL and headache severity (p 
       
  • Epidemiologic studies about food allergy and food sensitization in
           tropical countries. Results and limitations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2019Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): Jorge Sánchez, Andres Sánchez The variety of foods and methods of preparation are part of the cultural identity of each population, and thus the main foods that cause symptoms vary among different regions. Due to their increasing frequency, Adverse Reactions to Food (AFR) have been the subject of extensive study, especially in North America and Europe but few studies have been conducted in other areas, especially in populations located in the tropics and subtropics. In this article, we review available information on the epidemiology of food sensitization and food allergies in tropical regions and explore the different epidemiological data considering the major food involved, the underlying immune mechanism and clinical symptoms partners. In addition, we identify the possible limitations and questions that arise from studies conducted in tropical countries, which helps to generate objectives for future research.
       
  • Clinical and genetic profiles of patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia
           from southeast Turkey: Novel mutations in BTK gene
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 1Author(s): D. Doğruel, M. Serbes, A.Ş. Şaşihüseyinoğlu, M. Yılmaz, D.U. Altıntaş, A. Bişgin BackgroundX-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is characterized by absent or severely reduced B cells, low or undetectable immunoglobulin levels, and clinically by extracellular bacterial infections which mainly compromise the respiratory tract. We aimed to analyze the clinical, immunological and genetic characteristics of 22 male children with XLA.MethodsTwenty-two children with XLA from 12 unrelated families were enrolled in this study. Clinical and demographic features of patients, serum immunoglobulin levels, percentage of B cells and BTK gene mutations were reviewed retrospectively.ResultsWe identified 12 different mutations in 22 patients from 12 unrelated families. The most frequent type of mutation was premature stop codon (33.3%). Ten mutations had been reported previously including three missense mutations (c.1774T>C, c.1684C>T, c.83G>T), three premature stop codons (c.1558C>T, c.1573C>T, c.753G>A), two splice-site (c.683-1G>A, c.1567-12_1567-9delTTTG) and two small nucleotide deletions (c.902-904_delAAG, c.179_181delAGA). Two novel mutations of the BTK gene were also presented and included one splice-site mutation (c.391+1G>C) and one premature stop codon mutation (c.1243_1243delG). Six out of 12 mutations of the BTK gene were located in the SH1 domain, two in the PH domain, two in the SH3 domain and two in the SH2 domain. Three patients had a history of severe infection before diagnosis. We did not identify any correlation between severity of clinical symptoms and the genotype.ConclusionsOur results show that mutations in southeast Turkey could be different from those in the rest of the world and molecular genetic tests are an important tool for early confirmed diagnosis of XLA.
       
  • Rosmarinic acid affects immunological and inflammatory mediator levels and
           restores lung pathological features in asthmatic rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 1Author(s): F. Shakeri, N. Eftekhar, N. Mohammadian Roshan, R. Rezaee, A. Moghimi, M.H. Boskabady BackgroundThe effects of rosmarinic acid (RA) on immunological and inflammatory mediator levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as lung pathological changes in asthmatic rats were investigated.MethodsThe levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio, IgE, PLA2, and total protein (TP) in BALF and pathological changes in the lung were evaluated in control group (C), asthma group (sensitized to ovalbumin) (A), asthma groups treated with RA and dexamethasone.ResultsCompared to the control group, asthmatic rats showed increased levels of IL-4, IgE, PLA2, and TP as well as all pathological scores with decreased levels of IFN-γ and IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio (P 
       
  • Detection of profilin in SPT extracts that are supposed to contain it
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 1Author(s): C. Pitsios, A. Iliopoulou, M. Kontogianni, G. Papagregoriou Introduction and objectivesProfilin is a panallergen contained in pollen, plant foods and latex. Although cross-reactivity is expected while performing skin prick tests (SPT) with allergens that contain profilin, this is not always noticed. The purpose of this study was to detect if profilin is contained in the commercial SPT extracts of pollen and plant foods which, in their fresh form, contain determined epitopes of profilin.Material and methodsCommercial SPT extracts of different pharmaceuticals were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The study included purified palm date profilin, peach (whole, pulp and peel extracts), hazelnut, Olea europea, Parietaria judaica and Phleum pratense.ResultsProfilin was detected in all, but peach extracts; it was neither contained in the whole peach extract nor in the ones of peel or pulp.ConclusionThe only accurate way to detect sensitization to profilin, while performing SPT, is the use of purified profilin extract. Even if a plant food or pollen contain an identified molecule of profilin, the relevant SPT commercial extract may not.
       
  • The effect of neonatal maternal separation on short-chain fatty acids and
           airway inflammation in adult asthma mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 1Author(s): L. Qian, L. Lu, L. Huang, Q. Wen, J. Xie, W. Jin, H. Li, L. Jiang BackgroundTo investigate neonatal maternal separation (NMS) effects on airway inflammation of asthma and potential mechanism using a mouse model.Methods80 Balb/c neonatal male mice were randomly assigned to NMS and non-NMS groups. Feces were collected on PND21, 28, 35 and 42 to analyze microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Non-NMS group were then divided into control (group A) and asthma groups (group B), while NMS group was assigned to NMS + asthma (group C) and NMS + SCFAs + asthma groups (group D). Inflammatory cells and eosinophils (EOS) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were assessed. Pathological changes and cytokines in lung tissue were observed. Protein expression of Occludin and E-cadherin in airway epithelial was examined.ResultsThe number of S′, diversity index H′ and dominance index D′, as well as content butyric acid in NMS group C were significantly lower than non-NMS group B (p 
       
  • EARLY PROGRAMMING OF ASTHMA AND ALLERGY: IT IS TIME TO SERIOUSLY THINK OF
           PRIMARY PREVENTION
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 1Author(s): Luis Garcia-Marcos
       
  • Sublingual immunotherapy of house dust mite respiratory allergy in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 1Author(s): L. Cheng, W.-C. Zhou Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been widely used for the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases, but many problems remain unsolved. Currently available data suggest that SLIT is very effective in children and adults with IgE-mediated respiratory diseases. Most allergists in China generally believe that SLIT is suitable for allergic rhinitis and asthma due to its safety and tolerability. SLIT for three years is suitable for patients to acquire stable therapeutic effects, and the efficacy of single-allergen SLIT for polysensitized patients has also been confirmed. Nevertheless, there are still several factors restricting its application in China, such as the uncertainty of its long-term effects and the prevention of new sensitizations onset, the risk of asthma attacks, the low public awareness of SLIT and poor compliance by patients. This is a narrative review of current evidence on SLIT coming from China.
       
  • Features and roles of T helper 9 cells and interleukin 9 in immunological
           diseases
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 1Author(s): R. Yazdani, S. Shapoori, M. Rezaeepoor, R. Sanaei, M. Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, G. Azizi, W. Rae, A. Aghamohammadi, N. Rezaei T helper 9 (TH9) cells are considered as newly classified helper T cells that have an important role in the regulation of immune responses. Since these cells preferentially produce IL-9, these cells are termed TH9 cells. Recently, the role of TH9 and its signature cytokine (IL-9) has been investigated in a wide range of diseases, including autoimmunity, allergy, infections, cancer and immunodeficiency. Herein, we review the most recent data concerning TH9 cells and IL-9 as well as their roles in disease. These insights suggest that TH9 cells are a future target for therapeutic intervention.
       
  • Microbiome in the primary prevention of allergic diseases and bronchial
           asthma
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 1Author(s): B. Sozańska Tremendous progress in the ability to identify and test the function of microorganisms in recent years has led to a much better understanding of the role of environmental and host microbiome in the development of immune function, allergic sensitization and asthma. In this review, the most recent findings on the relationships between environmental microbiota, respiratory, intestinal microbiome, the consequences of early-life microbial exposure type and gut–lung microbial axis and the development of asthma and atopy are summarized. The current perspective on gut and airway microbiome manipulation for the primary prevention of allergic diseases and asthma is also discussed.
       
  • Molecular diagnostics improves diagnosis and treatment of respiratory
           allergy and food allergy with economic optimization and cost saving
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 1Author(s): S. Peveri, S. Pattini, M.T. Costantino, C. Incorvaia, M. Montagni, C. Roncallo, D. Villalta, E. Savi BackgroundComponent resolved diagnosis (CRD) allows to precisely identify the sensitization to specific molecules of a given allergenic source, resulting in an important improvement in clinical management, particularly of polysensitized subjects. This will end in the correct prescription of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for respiratory allergy and in adequate avoidance diets or prescription of self-injectable adrenaline in food allergy.ObjectiveThe aim of this multicenter, real life study is to evaluate the percentage change of the diagnostic-therapeutic choice in polysensitized patients with respiratory allergy and in patients with food allergy, after using CRD compared to a first level diagnosis, along with an economic analysis of the patient's overall management according to the two different approaches.MethodsAn overall number of 462 polysensitized patients, as suggested by skin prick tests (SPT), and with clinical symptoms related to a respiratory (275 pts) or food (187 pts) allergy, were recruited. All patients underwent CRD for specific IgE against food or inhalant recombinant molecules, which were chosen according to medical history and positivity to SPT. The first diagnostic-therapeutic hypothesis, based only on medical history and SPT, was recorded for each patient while the final diagnostic-therapeutic choice was based on the results from CRD. The rate of change of the diagnostic-therapeutic choice from the first hypothesis to the final choice was statistically evaluated. The economic impact of CRD on the overall management of the allergic patients was analyzed to evaluate whether the increase in the diagnostic costs would be compensated and eventually exceeded by savings coming from the improved diagnostic-therapeutic appropriateness.ResultsAn approximate 50% change (k index 0.54) in the prescription of AIT for respiratory allergy as well as a change in the prescription of self-injectable adrenaline (k index 0.56) was measured; an overall saving of financial resources along with a higher diagnostic-therapeutic appropriateness was also detected.ConclusionThere is moderate agreement concerning prescription of AIT and self-injectable adrenaline before and after performing CRD: this highlights the usefulness of CRD, at least in polysensitized patients, in indicating the risk assessment and therefore the correct therapy of respiratory and food allergy, which results in a cost-saving approach.
       
  • Analysis of the effectiveness of training school personnel in the
           management of food allergy and anaphylaxis
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 1Author(s): E. Gonzalez-Mancebo, M.M. Gandolfo-Cano, M.J. Trujillo-Trujillo, E. Mohedano-Vicente, A. Calso, R. Juarez, A. Melendez, P. Morales, F. Pajuelo. BackgroundFood allergy is a very frequent and increasingly common disease in children and adolescents. It affects quality of life and can even be life-threatening. Given that 10–18% of allergic/anaphylactic food reactions take place in schools, it is essential to provide school personnel with training on the management of reactions.MethodsThe Allergy Unit of Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, Spain, organized a conference entitled “Management of Food Allergy in Children and Adolescents in School Centers” during which teachers, cooks, cafeteria monitors, and summer-camp leaders underwent a training course. Attendees filled out a questionnaire with eight questions before and after the course to assess their self-efficacy in management of food allergy and anaphylaxis. The results were compared.ResultsA total of 191 people participated (51% dining-room monitors, 24% teachers, 13% cooks, and 12% other professions). The areas in which the attendees presented the lowest confidence before receiving the course were recognition of symptoms and treatment of the reactions/anaphylaxis. The mean score for each of the eight concepts evaluated improved after the training course. This improvement was significant in the management of anaphylaxis.ConclusionsOur study demonstrates the usefulness of a self-efficacy scale in school personnel as a tool to assess the ability to manage food allergy and anaphylaxis. It can help to identify problem areas in which more specific training programs can be implemented.
       
  • Increased IRF4 expression in isolated B cells from common variable
           immunodeficiency (CVID) patients
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 1Author(s): S. Afshar-Ghasemlou, N. Esmaeil, R. Sherkat, R. Yazdani, F. Abbasi-Rad, M. Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, A. Rezaei BackgroundCommon variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by low serum levels of immunoglobulins (Igs) and recurrent infection. In most CVID patients, a defect in the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells has been observed. Several factors play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of B cells, including IRF4 and XBP1 transcription factors.MethodsIn the present study we investigated the expression of IRF4 and XBP1 in the B-cells of CVID and healthy controls (HCs). For this purpose, we assessed the expression of IRF4 and XBP1 at both mRNA and protein levels by real time-PCR and flow cytometry, respectively.ResultsWe found that IRF4 expression was significantly increased in CVID patients compared with controls. Although the XBP1 protein level was lower in patients in comparison to controls, this difference was not significant.ConclusionTaken together, increased IRF4 expression could be involved in defective functions of B cells in CVID patients.
       
  • Contact sensitization in children with atopic dermatitis
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 1Author(s): D. Ozceker, F. Haslak, F. Dilek, S. Sipahi, E. Yucel, N. Guler, Z. Tamay BackgroundAtopic dermatitis is a common illness in childhood. Children with atopic dermatitis are prone to develop cutaneous sensitization due to skin barrier dysfunction.AimThe aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of cutaneous sensitizations in patients with atopic dermatitis and to identify the most frequent causative allergens.Study designThe study group consisted of 112 children with atopic dermatitis, aged 1–18 years (median 88.5 months) and 39 healthy controls, aged 1–8 years (median 88.48 months).MethodsThe diagnosis of atopic dermatitis was established by modified Hanifin and Rajka criteria; severity of the disease was assessed by scoring of atopic dermatitis. Serum blood eosinophil count, total IgE and skin prick tests for common aeroallergens and food allergens were performed. Patch tests with cosmetic series and European standard patch test series (Stallegenes© Ltd, Paris, France) were applied.ResultsOf the children with atopic dermatitis, 17% (n = 19) were sensitized to either cosmetic or standard series or both of them; no children in the control group had a positive patch test (p = 0.001). Atopy and severity of atopic dermatitis was not a significant risk factor for cutaneous sensitization. The most common allergens were Nickel sulphate and Methychloroisothiazinolone (4.5% and 4.5%) in the European standard patch test and cocamidoproplybetaine (12.5%) in the cosmetic series patch test.ConclusionCutaneous sensitization can develop in children with atopic dermatitis, therefore allergic contact dermatitis should be kept in mind.
       
  • Association between environmental exposure and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T
           cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 1Author(s): P. Fuss, K. Bal, J. Jerzyńska, D. Podlecka, W. Stelmach, I. Stelmach BackgroundIt is considered that farm areas protect young patients from allergy and asthma due to high exposure to endotoxins.AimTo compare CD4+/CD25+ T-regulatory cells and forkhead transcription factor Foxp3 expression in asthmatic children allergic to house dust mites (HDM) living in rural and farm areas.Materials and MethodsThis was a prospective analysis of 35 children living in farm areas (n = 19) and rural areas (n = 16), aged 8–16, with allergic rhinitis (allergic to dust mites) and newly diagnosed asthma. Surface molecule CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ expression on cultured PBMCs was estimated by flow cytometry using fluorophore-conjugated monoclonal antibodies in each patient.ResultsThirty-five children were included into the analysis: 19 children living in farm areas and 16 in rural areas. Within and between-groups (farm area vs. rural area) differences in CD4+/CD25+ and CD4+/CD25+Foxp3+ cell expression did not reach the level of significance.ConclusionThe current analysis showed that CD4+/CD25+ and CD4+/CD25+Foxp3+ cell expression was not associated with place of living in asthmatic children sensitive to HDM.
       
  • Evaluation of interleukin-12 receptor β1 and interferon gamma receptor 1
           deficiency in patients with disseminated BCG infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 1Author(s): B. Pourakbari, R. Hosseinpour Sadeghi, S. Mahmoudi, N. Parvaneh, S. Keshavarz Valian, S. Mamishi IntroductionDisseminated BCG infections among other complications of Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine are rare and have occurred in children with immunodeficiency disorders such as mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) which could be due to defects in some elements of IL-12/IFN-γ axis. MSMD-causing mutations have been identified in 10 genes during the last two decades. Among them, mutations in the IL12Rβ1 and IFNγR1 genes constitute about 80% of recorded cases of MSMD syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate IL-12Rβ1 and IFN-γR1 deficiencies in patients with disseminated BCG infection.MethodsThis study was performed on 31 children with disseminated BCG infections who referred to children's medical center. Whole blood cell culture was performed in presence of BCG, IL-12 and IFN-γ stimulators. The supernatants were assayed for IFN-γ and IL-12p70 by ELISA method. In order to evaluate IL12Rβ1 and IFN-γR1 receptors expression, flow cytometry staining was performed on the patients’ T-cells stimulated with PHA.ResultsFlow cytometry staining of 31 Iranian patients with disseminated BCG infections with the average age of 43 months showed lack of the expression of IL-12Rβ1 and IFN-γR1 genes in PHA-T-cells of the nine and one patients, respectively in whom the incomplete production of IFN-γ and IL-12 was reported by ELISA. Among these 10 patients, eight cases had related parents (80%).ConclusionIt is recommended that to avoid BCG complications, screening be performed for MSMD before BCG inoculation in individuals with positive family history of primary immunodeficiency diseases and inhabitants of areas with high frequency of consanguinity.
       
  • Retrospective definition of reaction risk in Italian children with peanut,
           hazelnut and walnut allergy through component-resolved diagnosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 1Author(s): M. Giovannini, P. Comberiati, M. Piazza, E. Chiesa, G.L. Piacentini, A. Boner, G. Zanoni, D.G. Peroni BackgroundSerum IgE evaluation of peanut, hazelnut and walnut allergens through the use of component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) can be more accurate than IgE against whole food to associate with severe or mild reactions.ObjectivesThe aim of the study was to retrospectively define the level of reaction risk in children with peanut, hazelnut and walnut sensitization through the use of CRD.Methods34 patients [n = 22 males, 65%; median age eight years, interquartile range (IQR) 5.0–11.0 years] with a reported history of reactions to peanut and/or hazelnut and/or walnut had their serum analyzed for specific IgE (s-IgE) by ImmunoCAP® and ISAC® microarray technique.ResultsIn children with previous reactions to peanut, the positivity of Arah1 and Arah2 s-IgE was associated with a history of anaphylaxis to such food, while the positivity of Arah8 s-IgE were associated with mild reactions. Regarding hazelnut, the presence of positive Cora9 and, particularly, Cora14 s-IgE was associated with a history of anaphylaxis, while positive Cora1.0401 s-IgE were associated with mild reactions. Concerning walnut, the presence of positive Jug r 1, Jug r 2, Jug r 3 s-IgE was associated with a history of anaphylaxis to such food. ImmmunoCAP® proved to be more useful in retrospectively defining the risk of hazelnut anaphylaxis, because of the possibility of measuring Cor a14 s-IgE.ConclusionsOur data show that the use of CRD in patients with allergy to peanut, hazelnut and walnut could allow for greater accuracy in retrospectively defining the risk of anaphylactic reaction to such foods.
       
  • Prevalence of self-reported drug hypersensitivity reactions among
           Lithuanian children and adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2019Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 47, Issue 1Author(s): V. Kvedariene, B. Sitkauskiene, L. Tamasauskiene, O. Rudzeviciene, V. Kasiulevicius, G. Nekrosyte, E.R. Gomes, P. Demoly Introduction and objectivesDrug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) are the adverse effects of drugs that, when taken at doses generally tolerated by normal subjects, clinically resemble allergy. We aimed to assess the prevalence of self-reported DHRs among Lithuanian children and adults and to identify possible risk factors.Materials and methodsA cross-sectional survey of a population visiting their general practitioners in Vilnius and Kaunas regions of Lithuania was performed. Thirty-five questions on drug allergy symptoms, in addition, food, pollen allergy and family history were included.Results3222 (60.0%) children and 2148 (40.0%) adults were included in the study. 7.9% of children and 13.8% of adults reported a DHR for at least one drug (p 
       
  • Treatment, outcomes and costs of asthma exacerbations in Chilean children:
           a prospective multicenter observational study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): A.M. Herrera, P. Brand, G. Cavada, A. Koppmann, M. Rivas, J. Mackenney, H. Sepúlveda, M.E. Wevar, L. Cruzat, S. Soto, M.A. Pérez, A. León, I. Contreras, C. Alvarez, B. Walker, C. Flores, V. Lezana, C. Garrido, M.E. Herrera, A. Rojas ObjectiveTo describe potential regional variations in therapies for severe asthma exacerbations in Chilean children and estimate the associated health expenditures.MethodsObservational prospective cohort study in 14 hospitals over a one-year period. Children five years of age or older were eligible for inclusion. Days with oxygen supply and pharmacological treatments received were recorded from the clinical chart. A basic asthma hospitalization basket was defined in order to estimate the average hospitalization cost for a single patient. Six months after discharge, new visits to the Emergency Room (ER), use of systemic corticosteroids and adherence to the controller treatment were evaluated.Results396 patients were enrolled. Patients from the public health system and from the north zone received significantly more days of oxygen, systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics. Great heterogeneity in antibiotic use among the participating hospitals was found, from 0 to 92.3% (ICC 0.34, 95% CI 0.16–0.52). The use of aminophylline, magnesium sulfate and ketamine varied from 0 to 36.4% between the different Pediatric Intensive Care Units (ICC 0.353, 95% CI 0.010–0.608). The average cost per inpatient was of $1910 USD. 290 patients (73.2%) completed the follow-up six months after discharge. 76 patients (26.2%) were not receiving any controller treatment and nearly a fourth had new ER visits and use of systemic corticosteroids due to new asthma exacerbations.ConclusionsConsiderable practice variation in asthma exacerbations treatment was found among the participating hospitals, highlighting the poor outcome of many patients after hospital discharge, with an important health cost.
       
  • Molecular study of hypersensitivity to spores in adults and children from
           Castile & Leon
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2018Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): A. Armentia, S. Martín-Armentia, A. Moral, D. Montejo, B. Martin-Armentia, R. Sastre, S. Fernández, A. Corell, D. Fernandez Introduction and objectivesBiological aerosols play a vital role in the interactions between the atmosphere, biosphere, climate and public health and fungal spores are a component with allergic importance.We constructed a database in Castile & Leon (Spain) and carry out molecular-level component-resolved diagnosis to complete the air quality study carried out since 2006 by our aerobiological network (RACYL) to aid clinical diagnosis and treatment.MethodsWe reviewed a database of 19,774 patients (adults and children) with allergic respiratory disease treated in our unit during the last 12 years. We also made a component-resolved diagnosis of the molecules involved in the pathology in a randomly selected population of 150 patients.ResultsThe dimeric glycoprotein Alt a1 from Alternaria is the most prevalent and most useful allergen in the diagnosis of patients with allergy to fungi in our area (94.4%), followed by enolase Alt a 6 (Alternaria), ribonuclease Asp f 1 of Aspergillus and mannitol dehydrogenase from Cla h 8 (Cladosporium).ConclusionsOur results have helped determine which spore molecules are most-closely associated with allergies. Molecular analysis will be useful to determine more accurate and useful immunotherapy in these patients.
       
  • Predictive value of the number of adverse reaction episodes for the
           IgE-mediated food allergy diagnosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2018Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): S. Miceli Sopo, G. Gurnari, S. Monaco, A. Romano, L. Liotti, B. Cuomo, I. Dello Iacono, L. Badina, G. Longo, M. Calvani, A. Giannone, C. Calabrò, G. Scala, M.C. Verga Introduction and objectivesThe reproducibility of the adverse reaction increases the suggestiveness of a history of food allergy. However, the positive predictive value (PPV) of multiple adverse reaction episodes for the diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergy is not known. This evaluation was the objective of our study.Patients and methodsWe retrospectively studied 180 children with a history of non-anaphylactic adverse reactions after the ingestion of a food. All children had the prick test positive for the offending food and performed the oral food challenge (OFC) within 12 months after the last adverse reaction episode (ARE). We have evaluated whether increasing the number of ARE increased the probability that the OFC would be positive (failed).Results93 patients (52%) presented one ARE, 49 (27%) presented two ARE, 24 (13%) presented three ARE, 14 (8%) patients presented ≥ four ARE. The OFC was positive in 94/180 (52%). The outcome of the OFC was found to be positively correlated with the number of ARE (OR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.16–2.09; p = 0.003). A PPV = 100% was observed with a number of ARE ≥ five.ConclusionsThe number of ARE is an important predictor of the diagnosis of food allergy, although less than we would have imagined. The number of ARE could be used to increase the predictability of the diagnostic tests currently in use, to define clinical prediction rules alternative to OFC and easy to use in clinical practice.
       
  • Preterm birth is associated with higher prevalence of wheeze and asthma in
           a selected population of Japanese children aged three years
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2018Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): N. Takata, K. Tanaka, C. Nagata, M. Arakawa, Y. Miyake BackgroundThe present cross-sectional study investigated the associations between low birthweight (LBW), high birthweight, preterm birth (PTB), postterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA), and large for gestational age (LGA) and the prevalence of wheeze and asthma in Japanese children aged three years (age range, 33–54 months; mean age, 38.7 months).MethodsStudy subjects were 6364 children. A questionnaire was used to collect all data. Wheeze and asthma were defined according to the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood.ResultsThe prevalence values of wheeze and asthma were 19.5% and 7.7%, respectively. Of the 6364 subjects, 8.8% were classified as LBW (
       
  • Yogurt is tolerated by the majority of children with IgE-mediated cow's
           milk allergy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2018Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): S. Monaco, G. Russo, A. Romano, L. Liotti, M.C. Verga, S. Miceli Sopo BackgroundChildren with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy (IgE-CMA) with gastrointestinal symptoms tolerate yogurt at 100%. Yogurt tolerance in children with IgE-CMA with urticaria and anaphylaxis was 7%.MethodsWe enrolled children with IgE-CMA with cutaneous, respiratory, gastrointestinal and anaphylactic symptoms. All performed prick by prick (PbP) and oral food challenge (OFC) with yogurt. Some children performed also an OFC with CM mixed with wheat flour and baked, baked liquid CM, parmesan.Results34 children were enrolled, 31/34 (91%) with systemic adverse reaction after ingestion of CM (systemic CMA), 3/34 (9%) with isolated contact urticaria (ICU CMA). PbP with yogurt was negative only in one patient. OFC with yogurt was passed (that is, the OFC was negative) by 20/31 (64%) of the children with systemic CMA. 10/11 (91%) of the patients who failed OFC (that is, the OFC was positive) with yogurt were positive to SPT with casein vs. 8/20 (40%) of the patients who passed it (p = 0.018). None of the 19 children who passed OFC with yogurt failed all OFC with processed CM forms other than yogurt that tested vs. 4/8 among those who failed OFC with yogurt (p = 0.006). The rub test with yogurt was negative in 1/3 (33%) of the patients with ICU CMA.ConclusionsThe results of our study are placed alongside others already present in the literature and concerning other methods of processing CM proteins and help to reduce the dietary restrictions of the majority of children with systemic IgE-CMA.
       
  • ‘Real-life’ experience in asthmatic children treated with omalizumab
           up to six-years follow-up
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): M.M. Folqué, J. Lozano, C. Riggioni, M. Piquer, M. Álvaro, A. Machinena, M.T. Giner, O. Domínguez, R.M. Jiménez-Feijoo, M. Dias da Costa, A.M. Plaza Introduction and objectivesOmalizumab is present in international guidelines for the control of severe asthma, but data on the long-term effects in children are limited. Our objective was to perform a ‘real-life’ long-term trial of omalizumab in children with allergic asthma.Materials and methodsAn observational single center ‘real-life’ study was performed. Data for treatment, lung function, side effect, asthma exacerbations and hospitalizations were recorded at six months and annually.ResultsForty-eight patients
       
  • Self-reported hypersensitivity and allergy to foods amongst Mexican
           adolescents: Prevalence and associated factors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): T.R. Bedolla-Pulido, M. Bedolla-Barajas, J. Morales-Romero, T.I. Bedolla-Pulido, M.V. Domínguez-García, D.D. Hernández-Colín, M.V. Flores-Merino BackgroundThe prevalence of food allergy is on the rise on a global scale.ObjectiveTo determine the prevalence of food hypersensitivity (FHS) and probable food allergy (PFA), as well as the foods and factors associated with these occurrences.MethodsA cross-sectional study was carried out among 1992 adolescents (aged 15–18 years). Each adolescent answered a structured questionnaire. A multivariate analysis was used to identify the association between the variables.ResultsThe prevalence of FHS was 10.6% (the most commonly associated foods were shrimp, cow's milk and avocado) and the PFA was 7.8% (shrimp, cow's milk and pecan). The prevalences of oral allergy syndrome, food-associated urticaria and systemic reaction were 4.9%, 3.6% and 1.5%, respectively. The following factors were associated with FHS: personal history of asthma (OR 1.63; 95% CI: 1.11–2.41), allergic rhinitis (OR 2.60; 95% CI: 1.75–3.87), atopic dermatitis (OR 2.07; 95% CI: 1.25–3.43), maternal history of asthma (OR 1.80; 95% CI: 1.02–3.16), atopic dermatitis (OR 6.11; 95% CI: 2.45–15.29), and female sex (OR 1.89; 95% CI: 1.38–2.59). PFA was associated with a personal history of asthma (OR 1.65; 95% CI: 1.06–2.56), allergic rhinitis (OR 2.46; 95% CI: 1.56–3.88), atopic dermatitis (OR 2.02; 95% CI: 1.15–3.54), paternal allergic rhinitis (OR 2.52; 95% CI: 1.15–5.51), maternal atopic dermatitis (OR 7.46; 95% CI: 2.93–19.00), and female sex (OR 1.89; 95% CI: 1.31–2.72).ConclusionThe adverse reactions associated with foods among late adolescents are a frequent occurrence, and the most commonly associated factor is atopy.
       
  • Development of a tool for screening adverse food reactions and food
           allergy in Portuguese children
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): A. Jorge, M. Santos Silva, C. Lozoya-Ibánez, F. Lorente, E. Sarinho, R.M. Afonso, H. Pereira, L. Taborda-Barata Introduction and objectivesA standardised questionnaire may be an excellent tool for epidemiological studies aiming at screening children with suspected food allergies. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a screening questionnaire for assessing children with suspected food allergy and to analyse its reproducibility.Materials and methodsA questionnaire of adverse food reactions was developed by literary review of similar questionnaires validated in other countries as well as less well defined, non-validated Portuguese questionnaires. Peer review of the questionnaire by a panel of specialists and subsequent exploratory analysis was carried out by applying the questionnaire in children with confirmed food allergy. Test–retest analysis was performed by giving a face-to-face questionnaire to 159 children with suspected adverse food reactions, aged between three and 11 years. Temporal stability using Spearman Rho correlation test and reproducibility was studied using Cohen's Kappa index.Results115 children confirmed adverse food reactions that occurred with one or more foods. Retest was given about three weeks after the test, to 50 of these children who were randomly selected. The questionnaire showed good temporal stability (Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.834), and good reproducibility (only two of the 27 items had a Kappa index
       
  • IgE-mediated allergic responses associated to Ailanthus altissima pollen
           using an animal model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): F. Mousavi, G.A. Kardar, Z. Pourpak BackgroundMurine models have been widely used in the study of allergy as sensitized mice can produce IgE and/or IgG1in response after the injection of an antigen/adjuvant combination. Ailanthus altissima pollen (AAP) has been recently reported as an emerging aeroallergen in Iran. So far, several AAP candidate allergens by the screening of allergen-specific IgE in the sera from AAP sensitized patients in Iran.ObjectiveThe aim of the present study was to detect and compare the allergens eliciting an IgE response in a mouse model, and in human, using pollen extract of A. altissima and an immunoproteomics based approach.MethodsThe pollen proteins were extracted in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Thirty male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into two groups of AP extract sensitized and sham that respectively received AAP PBS extract and a PBS control by intraperitoneal injections at regular intervals. The optimized AAP protein extracts were analyzed using 2D-gel electrophoresis and were subsequently confronted to pooled sera of sensitized mice.ResultsTwo-D gel electrophoresis of AAP extract allowed the separation of 125 protein spots distributed in a wide range of pI and molecular masses. Two-DE immunoblotting using pooled sera of sensitized mice led to the detection of 14 IgE reactive spots with molecular masses ranging from 12 to 40–42 kDa.ConclusionThe results do not correlate with our previous analyses using human AAP-sensitized sera. These findings reflect some differences in the sIgE reactivity to allergenic proteins in animal models.
       
  • Evidence for respiratory viruses interactions in asymptomatic
           preschool-aged children
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): K. Douros, D. Kotzia, C. Kottaridi, A. Giotas, B. Boutopoulou, E. Bozas, V. Matziou, K. Priftis, V. Papaevangelou AimTo prospectively evaluate interferences between viruses of the upper respiratory tract in asymptomatic preschool children.MethodsNasal-pharyngeal swabs from 233 preschool aged children were prospectively collected over four consecutive time periods, during one school year. The samples were tested using a RT-PCR DNA/RNA microarray system for nine respiratory viruses.ResultsRespiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was a predictor of the presence of influenza virus (INFL) (OR: 9.12, CI: 1.52–54.75, p = 0.016), and similarly, INFL predicted the presence of RSV (OR: 4.01, CI: 1.14–14.16, p = 0.030). Also, rhinovirus (RV) was a predictor of adenovirus (ADV) presence (OR: 3.66, CI: 1.10–12.14, p = 0.034), and similarly, ADV predicted the presence of RV (OR: 4.05, CI: 1.02–16.05, p = 0.046). No other significant associations between viruses were observed.ConclusionOur results indicate that respiratory viruses found in carrier stage in asymptomatic children may interact with other viruses and even facilitate their settling in the upper respiratory tract. The pathophysiological role of these interactions is not yet clear.
       
  • Correlation of OX40 ligand on B cells with serum total IgE and IL-4 levels
           by CD4+ T cells in allergic rhinitis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): S. Fouladi, M. Masjedi, M. G. Hakemi, R. Ghasemi, N. Eskandari Introduction and objectivesAllergic rhinitis (AR) is a classic Th2-mediated disease, with important contributions to the pathology of interleukins 4, 5, and 13. The co-stimulatory molecule of OX40 and its ligand interaction participate in the immune response by regulation of Th1/Th2 cells balance. Considering the paucity of information on the relation between OX40 ligand (OX40L) and AR, this study aimed to examine its expression on B lymphocytes.Patients and methodsThis case–control study consisted of 20 AR patients and 20 healthy subjects. The serum level of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) was measured using the electro-chemiluminescence (ECL) technology. The percentage of B-lymphocytes expressing OX40L was assessed by flow cytometry. The amounts of IL-4 in CD4+ T cells culture supernatant was also measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).ResultsOX40L expression on B lymphocytes of patients was significantly higher than the control group (44.32 ± 19.21% vs. 2.79 ± 2.48% respectively, p 
       
  • Taurine administration prevents the intestine from the damage induced by
           beta-lactoglobulin sensitization in a murine model of food allergy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): S. Aïnad-Tabet, H. Grar, A. Haddi, H. Negaoui, A. Guermat, O. Kheroua, D. Saïdi BackgroundAllergy to cow's milk proteins has often been associated with dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa caused by chronic inflammation in infants. This study evaluated the protective effect of taurine on intestinal damage induced by beta-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) in Balb/c mice used as an animal model of allergy to cow's milk proteins.MethodsBalb/c mice were treated with taurine administered orally by gavage (3 mmol/kg/day) or intraperitoneally (100 mg/kg/day) for two weeks, then sensitized intraperitoneally with β-Lg. The electrophysiological parameters: active ion transport of chloride (Short-circuit current: Isc) and the passive ion permeability (Conductance: G) were measured ex vivo in Ussing chamber by intestine challenge with β-Lg. Histological study was used to assess gut inflammation. Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were measured. Serum IgG and IgE anti-β-Lg were determined by ELISA.ResultsCompared with sensitized mice, β-Lg challenge of intestinal epithelium of taurine-pre-treated mice in Ussing chamber did not influence the intensity of Isc, nor produce any changes in the G, reflecting a reduction in the secretory response and epithelial permeability. Histological and morphometric analysis showed that taurine reduced the intestinal damage and limited intestine retraction caused by β-Lg sensitization. No statistically significant difference in the serum levels of TNF-α or IL-6 was found after oral or intraperitoneal administration of taurine. Treatment with taurine significantly decreased the IgG (p 
       
  • Thrombin lag time is increased in children with mild asthma
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): B.T. Koksal, I. Eker, N.Y. Ozbek, I. Dogan, O. Y. Ozbek BackgroundInflammation and coagulation are closely linked events. Thrombin is the key enzyme in coagulation system and also has roles in inflammation.ObjectiveThe aim of our study was to evaluate thrombin generation in children with mild asthma.MethodsForty-two children with mild asthma and 49 healthy children were included in the study. All patients performed spirometry. Thrombin generation tests (TGT) were performed with a calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) in children without asthma exacerbation during the last six months. During CAT assay thrombogram curves were obtained. The area under the curve showed endogenous thrombin potentials and indicated the total amount of endogenous thrombin generated; the peak height showed the highest thrombin value, thrombin lag time and time to thrombin peak were measured.ResultsThrombin lag time was significantly longer in children with asthma (3.98 ± 1.2 min) compared to those in the control group (3.29 ± 0.6 min) (p 
       
  • Th17 cells in Bulgarian children with chronic obstructive lung diseases
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): T. Velikova, S. Lazova, P. Perenovska, K. Tumangelova-Yuzeir, D. Miteva, P. Velikov, E. Ivanova-Todorova, D. Kyurkchiev, G. Petrova Introduction and objectivesTh17 lymphocytes are now widely believed to be critical in various chronic pulmonary diseases. However, there is still a small number of investigations regarding children. We aimed to assess the percentage of Th17 lymphocytes and IL-17A in peripheral blood of children with chronic obstructive lung diseases.Patients and methodsWe included a total of 42 children: 20 with bronchial asthma (BA), 12 with cystic fibrosis (CF) and 10 healthy children without a history of allergies, aged 4–17 years. Th17 cells (CD3+CD4+CD161+CCR6+) were determined in peripheral blood by flow cytometry. The concentration of serum IL-17A was measured by ELISA.ResultsThe BA patients had a significantly higher percentage of Th17 (12.40 ± 1.16%) compared to the CF children (7.64 ± 0.87%, p = 0.0035) and healthy (7.25 ± 0.45%, p = 0.008). Stratifying the BA group, we found higher levels of Th17 in patients with severe BA (p = 0.03), whereas patients with moderate BA had Th17 cells close to those in CF and healthy children. We found that patients with better control of BA had Th17 closer to those with CF (p = 0.98) than BA children with poor control (p 
       
  • What do we know about cancer immunotherapy' Long-term survival and
           immune-related adverse events
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): Jesus Miranda Poma, Lorena Ostios Garcia, Julia Villamayor Sanchez, Gabriele D’errico Immunotherapy delivered a new therapeutic option to the oncologist: Ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4), Nivolumab and Pembrolizumab (anti-PD1), and Atezolizumab (anti-PD-L1) increase overall survival and show a better safety profile compared to chemotherapy in patients with metastatic melanoma, lung, renal cancer among others. But all that glitters is not gold and there is an increasing number of reports of adverse effects while using immune-checkpoint inhibitors. While chemotherapy could weaken the immune system, this novel immunotherapy could hyper-activate it, resulting in a unique and distinct spectrum of adverse events, called immune-related adverse events (IRAEs). IRAEs, ranging from mild to potentially life-threatening events, can involve many systems, and their management is radically different from that of cytotoxic drugs: immunosuppressive treatments, such as corticoids, infliximab or mycophenolate mofetil, usually result in complete reversibility, but failing to do so can lead to severe toxicity or even death. Patient selection is an indirect way to reduce adverse events minimizing the number of subjects exposed to this drugs: unfortunately PDL-1, the actual predictive biomarker, would not allow clinicians select or exclude patients for treatment with checkpoint inhibitors.
       
  • Impulse oscillometry in the assessment of children's lung function
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2018Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): P.P. de Oliveira Jorge, J.H.P. de Lima, D.C. Chong e Silva, D. Medeiros, D. Solé, G.F. Wandalsen PurposeTo review available evidence in the literature on impulse oscillometry in the assessment of lung function in children with respiratory diseases, especially asthma.Data collectionResearch in the Medline, PubMed, and Lilacs databases, with the keywords forced oscillation, impulse oscillometry, asthma and impulse oscillometry.ResultsThe Impulse Oscillometry System (IOS) allows the measurement of resistance and reactance of airways and is used as a diagnostic resource. A significant association between the findings of the IOS and those of spirometry is observed. In asthma, the IOS has already been used to assess the bronchodilator response and the therapeutic response to different drugs and has shown to be a sensitive technique to evaluate disease control. There are limitations to this assessment, such as children with attention deficit and in some cases it is difficult to interpret the results from a clinical point of view.ConclusionThe IOS is a useful tool for the measurement of the lung function of children. It is an easy test, although its interpretation is not straightforward.
       
  • Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and inflammatory markers in children
           with asthma
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2018Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): Konstantinos Douros, Maria-Ioanna Thanopoulou, Barbara Boutopoulou, Anna Papadopoulou, Anastassios Papadimitriou, Andrew Fretzayas, Kostas N. Priftis IntroductionThere is accumulated evidence supporting a beneficial role of Mediterranean diet (MD) in the control of asthma symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between adherence to MD and serum levels of certain cytokines namely, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-17 known to have a pathogenetic role in the airway changes associated with asthma.MethodsWe measured serum IL-4, IL-33, and IL-17, in 44 asthmatic and 26 healthy children, 5–15 years old. Their adherence to MD was estimated with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents (KIDMED) score.ResultsKIDMED score did not differ between the two groups (P = 0.59) and was not correlated with any of the three measured cytokines. However, when the analysis was restricted only to asthmatic children, the KIDMED score was correlated with IL-4, IL-33, and IL-17 (Beta: −0.56, P = 0.007; Beta: 0.57, P = 0.010; Beta: −0.62, P = 0.017, respectively).ConclusionOur results indicate that MD can modulate the production of some of the main inflammatory mediators of asthma, in asthmatic children.
       
  • Asthma, exercise and metabolic dysregulation in paediatrics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2018Source: Allergologia et ImmunopathologiaAuthor(s): Manlio Milanese, Emanuele Miraglia del Giudice, Diego G. Peroni Asthma is the most frequent chronic disease in childhood. Chest tightness, cough, wheezing and dyspnoea during or after exercise may be unique manifestations of asthma in up to 90% of subjects. Physical activity may be reduced by uncontrolled asthma symptoms and parental beliefs, impairing physical fitness of asthmatic children. Clinicians working in the field of allergy are aware of evidence supporting the benefits of physical activity for patients with asthma. Treatment of asthma is required in order to obtain its control and to avoid any limitation in sports and active play participation. As exercise performance in children with controlled asthma is not different from that of healthy controls, any exercise limitation cannot be accepted. Overweight and obesity may interfere with asthma and exercise, leading to dyspnoea symptoms. Evidences on the effect of insulin resistance on airway smooth muscle and on bronchial hyperactivity are presented.ConclusionExercise is part of the strategy to obtain the best control of asthma in childhood, but we have to optimise the asthma control therapy before starting exercise programming. Furthermore, it is crucial to give best attention on the effects of obesity and insulin resistance, because they could in turn influence patients’ symptoms.
       
 
 
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