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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3043 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 351, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 238, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 353, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 325, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Allergologia et Immunopathologia
  [SJR: 0.46]   [H-I: 29]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0301-0546
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • What are the real effects of the Mediterranean diet on recurrent colds and
           their complications'
    • Authors: J.A. Castro-Rodriguez
      Pages: 415 - 416
      Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 5
      Author(s): J.A. Castro-Rodriguez


      PubDate: 2017-09-11T08:03:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.02.002
       
  • Effects of Mediterranean diet in patients with recurring colds and
           frequent complications
    • Authors: F.M. Calatayud; B. Calatayud; J.G. Gallego; C. González-Martín; L.F. Alguacil
      Pages: 417 - 424
      Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 5
      Author(s): F.M. Calatayud, B. Calatayud, J.G. Gallego, C. González-Martín, L.F. Alguacil
      Introduction In recent years, traditional diets enriched with fresh plant-based foods have been gradually abandoned, increasing the consumption of animal foods and highly processed food. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a nutritional intervention with a Traditional Mediterranean Diet in patients with recurring colds (RC) and frequent inflammatory complications (IC). Methods Prospective before-after comparison study of 63 girls and 65 boys aged 1–5 years were included over a year in the nutritional programme “Learning to eat from the Mediterranean”. We studied clinical and therapeutic variables and various anthropometric parameters. Results All the studied indicators (number of catarrhal episodes CB, degree of intensity, emergency and hospital admissions) showed a positive and statistically significant evolution, evidenced from the first weeks of starting treatment, until the end of the year, after which 53.9% of patients had no CB, 25% had only one, and 16.4% had two episodes, compared to the 4.64 episodes on average in the previous year. Antibiotic use decreased by 87.4%, from 3.85±1.27 times/patient/year to 0.49±0.79 (p <0.001). Symptomatic treatment decreased by 56.7%, from 7.03±2.76 to 3.05±1.69 (p <0.001). The satisfaction of the families was very high. The Kidmed index, which assesses the quality of the Mediterranean Diet, increased from 7.8 to 10.9 points. Conclusion The adoption of a Traditional Mediterranean Diet could be a major contribution to the improvement of patients with recurring colds and frequent inflammatory complications.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T08:03:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.08.006
       
  • Immune response of toddlers with history of prematurity
    • Authors: S.P. Muraro; P.M. Pitrez; A.P.D. de Souza; B.N. Porto; J.E. Vargas; I.P. Ewald; J.P. Heinzmann-Filho; G. dos Santos; T.S. Baptista; T.D. Gandolfi; F.D. Machado; M.H. Jones; C. Bonorino; R.T. Stein
      Pages: 425 - 431
      Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 5
      Author(s): S.P. Muraro, P.M. Pitrez, A.P.D. de Souza, B.N. Porto, J.E. Vargas, I.P. Ewald, J.P. Heinzmann-Filho, G. dos Santos, T.S. Baptista, T.D. Gandolfi, F.D. Machado, M.H. Jones, C. Bonorino, R.T. Stein
      Background It is not quite well established how immune responses differ in term and preterm infants beyond the first year of life. This study aimed to evaluate aspects of the innate and adaptive immune responses in a group of preterm infants in comparison with their term peers. Methods In this cross-sectional study peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from preterm and term children at age three years. Innate immune response was evaluated by the analysis of TLR receptors expression on CD11c+HLADRhigh cells and inflammatory cytokine production after PBMC stimulation with Toll like receptors (TLR) ligands. Adaptive immune response was evaluated by T cells’ phenotyping and function after stimulation with polyclonal conventional T cell stimulus. Conclusion We have found that the patterns of innate and adaptive immune responses at 3 years of age were not affected by the fact of the children having being born preterm or at term.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T08:03:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.020
       
  • Polymorphisms of TGFB1, TLE4 and MUC22 are associated with childhood
           asthma in Chinese population
    • Authors: J.B. Chen; J. Zhang; H.Z. Hu; M. Xue; Y.J. Jin
      Pages: 432 - 438
      Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 5
      Author(s): J.B. Chen, J. Zhang, H.Z. Hu, M. Xue, Y.J. Jin
      Objective To investigate whether the genetic variants of TGFB1, TLE4, MUC22 and IKZF3 are associated with the development of asthma in Chinese children. Methods 572 adolescent asthma patients and 590 age-matched healthy controls were included in this study. A total of four SNPs were genotyped, including rs2241715 of TGFB1, rs2378383 of TLE4, rs2523924 of MUC22, and rs907092 of IKZF3. Allele frequencies of the patients and the control group were compared by the Chi-square test. The Student t test was used to analyse the relationship between genotypes and clinical feature of the patients. Results Patients were found to have significantly different frequencies of allele A of rs2241715, allele G of rs2378383 and allele A of rs2523924 as compared with the controls (40.4% vs. 45.9%, p =0.01 for rs2241715; 17.2% vs. 13.4%, p =0.01 for rs2378383; 15.3% vs. 11.9%, p =0.02 for rs2523924). For patients with severe asthma, those with genotype AA/AG of rs2241715 had remarkably higher FEV1% as compared with those with genotype GG (59.1±4.3% vs. 55.4±3.7%, p <0.001). Moreover, those with genotype GG/GA of rs2378383 had remarkably lower FEV1% as compared with those with genotype AA (54.6±2.9% vs. 58.6±4.1%, p <0.001). Conclusions Genes TGFB1, TLE4 and MUC22 are associated with the risk of childhood asthma in Chinese population. Our results associating TGFB1 and TLE4 with clinical features of asthma suggest potential application of these parameters in the management of asthma children.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T08:03:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.021
       
  • The role of active B cells in allergen immunotherapy
    • Authors: M.H. Celiksoy; R. Sancak; A. Yildiran
      Pages: 439 - 444
      Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 5
      Author(s): M.H. Celiksoy, R. Sancak, A. Yildiran
      Background The purpose of this study is to examine the changes in B lymphocyte subsets in patients receiving allergen immunotherapy. Methods B lymphocyte subsets of patients before immunotherapy and one year after immunotherapy began were examined using the flow cytometric method. Age-matched healthy children served as the control group. Results Twenty-two patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 14 healthy, age-matched controls were included in the study. The median age of the patients was 13 years old (range: 6–20 years), and eleven (50.0%) were male. The median age of the healthy controls was also 13 years old (range: 7–17), and seven (50.0%) were male. In the age group from 11 to 15 years; the patients’ relative and absolute counts of active and mature sensitive B cells were higher than those of the healthy children (p =0.027–0.012 and p =0.032–0.010, respectively) before immunotherapy. The relative and absolute counts of active B cells before immunotherapy were also significantly higher than those of after immunotherapy (p =0.001–0.001, p =0.025–0.037, and p =0.029–0.035, respectively). Before immunotherapy, the relative and absolute counts of mature sensitive B cells were significantly higher than those obtained after immunotherapy (p =0.024–0.006) in the 11–15-year-old age group. Conclusions Allergen immunotherapy directly influences B cell differentiation and causes a decrease in the count of active B cells. This finding is relevant because the B cell count can be used as a guide in the assessment of an individual patient's treatment response and also when determining whether to continue the immunotherapy.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T08:03:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.017
       
  • Predictivity of clinical efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) based
           on sensitisation pattern to molecular allergens in children with allergic
           rhinoconjunctivitis
    • Authors: A. di Coste; F. Occasi; G. De Castro; A.M. Zicari; R. Galandrini; A. Giuffrida; L. Indinnimeo; M. Duse
      Pages: 452 - 456
      Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 5
      Author(s): A. di Coste, F. Occasi, G. De Castro, A.M. Zicari, R. Galandrini, A. Giuffrida, L. Indinnimeo, M. Duse
      Background The diagnostic and therapeutic approach to grass pollen allergy is now possible by detecting specific IgE (sIgE) to its allergenic components. Aim To evaluate the correlation between the sensitisation to different molecular Phleum pratense (Phl p) allergens and clinical efficacy of SLIT. Methods The pilot study included 36 patients affected by allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, all treated with SLIT actively. We performed serum analysis of sIgE to Phl p 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11 and 12. The Average Rhinoconjunctivitis Total Symptom Score (ARTSS) and the Average Combined Score (ACS) were evaluated before and after one year of immunotherapy. Results Three different groups of sensitisation were defined based on the range of IgE reactivity to Phleum pratense allergens at baseline: group I (sIgE reactive to 1–3 allergens); group II (sIgE reactive to 4–5 allergens); and group III (sIgE reactive to 6–8 allergens). At T0 ACS was 1.79±0.18 in group I; 1.81±0.23 in group II; and 1.95±0.34 in group III. At T1 ACS was 0.85±0.55 in group I; 1.01±0.31 in group II; and 1.44±0.39 in group III. At T1 there was a significant improvement of ARTSS and ACS for group I (p =0.001). Conclusions Sublingual immunotherapy with a grass pollen is efficacious irrespective of the patients’ baseline sensitisation to either single or multiple grass pollen molecular allergens. We found that patients with few sensitisations have a greater improvement in combined symptom and medication score. SLIT improves the clinical course of allergic patients although new sensitisations may appear.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T08:03:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.01.001
       
  • The efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy in children and adult
           patients with allergic rhinitis
    • Authors: X. Lin; H. Lin; X. Wei; Q. Huang
      Pages: 457 - 462
      Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 5
      Author(s): X. Lin, H. Lin, X. Wei, Q. Huang
      Background Clinical research has shown that sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is effective and safe in moderate-severe allergic rhinitis (AR) induced by house dust mite (HDM). However, the sample size in many studies is small. Meanwhile, the controversy on the efficacy and safety in the very young children younger than four years old still existed. Objective The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SLIT with Dermatophagoides farinae (Der.f) extracts in children and adult patients with allergic rhinitis, particularly in the very young children. Method A total of 573 subjects aged 3–69 with AR received a three-year course of sublingual immunotherapy with Der.f extracts along with pharmacotherapy. The total nasal symptoms score (TNSS), total medication score (TMS), visual analogue score (VAS) and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated at each visit. Result TNSS, TMS, VAS were significantly improved during the three-year course of treatment in comparison to the baseline values (P <0.01). Besides, significant improvement in nasal symptoms and reduction of medication use were also observed in young children aged 3–6 years (P <0.01). No severe systemic adverse events (AEs) were reported. Conclusion SLIT with Der.f drops is clinically effective and safe in children and adult patients with HDM-induced AR, including the very young children less than four years old.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T08:03:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.016
       
  • Molecular diagnosis of allergy to Anisakis simplex and Gymnorhynchus gigas
           fish parasites
    • Authors: A. Armentia; J. Santos; Z. Serrano; B. Martín; S. Martín; J. Barrio; S. Fernández; M. González-Sagrado; F. Pineda; R. Palacios
      Pages: 463 - 472
      Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 5
      Author(s): A. Armentia, J. Santos, Z. Serrano, B. Martín, S. Martín, J. Barrio, S. Fernández, M. González-Sagrado, F. Pineda, R. Palacios
      Background There has been an increase in the prevalence of hypersensitivity to Anisakis simplex. There are fish parasites other than Anisakis simplex whose allergenicity has not yet been studied. Objective To assess IgE hypersensitivity caused by fish parasite allergens in patients with gastro-allergic symptoms after consumption of fish, shellfish or cephalopods, compared with healthy subjects, pollen allergic individuals and children with digestive symptoms after eating marine food. Methods We carried out in vivo tests (skin prick) and in vitro tests (specific IgE determination, Western blot) and component resolved diagnostics (CRD) using microarray analysis in all patients. Results CRD better detected sensitisation to allergens from marine parasites than skin prick tests and determination of specific IgE by CAP. Sensitisation to Gymnorhynchus gigas was detected in 26% of patients measured by skin prick tests and 36% measured by IgE. Conclusions The prevalence of hypersensitivity to marine parasite allergens other than Anisakis simplex should be studied, and the most appropriate technique for this is CRD.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T08:03:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.12.008
       
  • Comparison of inflammatory cytokine release from nasal epithelial cells of
           non-atopic non-rhinitic, allergic rhinitic and polyp subjects and effects
           of diesel exhaust particles in vitro
    • Authors: A.B. Ozturk; R. Bayraktar; B. Gogebakan; S. Mumbuc; H. Bayram
      Pages: 473 - 481
      Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 5
      Author(s): A.B. Ozturk, R. Bayraktar, B. Gogebakan, S. Mumbuc, H. Bayram
      Background Although studies have reported an association between air pollutants and increased allergic airway diseases, such as allergic rhinitis and nasal polyposis, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. A limited number of studies have suggested that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) play a role in atopy and the pathogenesis of allergic upper airway diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of DEP on inflammatory cytokine release, and mRNA expression of transcription factors such as JNK and NF-β in primary nasal epithelial cells (NECs), in vitro. Methods NECs from non-atopic, non-rhinitic subjects (controls) and patients with allergic rhinitis and nasal polyps were cultured and incubated with 0–100μg/ml DEP for 24h. ELISA and RT-PCR were used to assess the release of IL-8, GM-CSF, and RANTES, and mRNA expression for JNK and NF-κB, respectively. Results Compared to control cells, NECs from subjects with atopic polyps released significantly greater amounts of IL-8 (median=887 vs. 176.6pg/μg cellular protein; p <0.0001) and RANTES (median=0.191 vs. 0.02pg/μg cellular protein; p <0.001). While 50μg/ml DEP induced release of RANTES in NECs from patients with allergic rhinitis, 100μg/ml DEP decreased IL-8 levels in NECs from both control and allergic rhinitic subjects. DEP did not affect mRNA expression for JNK and NF-κB from NECs of subjects with polyps. Conclusions NECs from subjects with various pathologies may respond differently to DEP.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T08:03:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.015
       
  • Food allergy in childhood: Are we close to having an effective
           treatment'
    • Authors: M. Alvaro; M. Escarrer
      Pages: 313 - 315
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 4
      Author(s): M. Alvaro, M. Escarrer


      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.06.001
       
  • Duration of exclusive breastfeeding and wheezing in the first year of
           life: A longitudinal study
    • Authors: Elvira Verduci; Giuseppe Banderali; Diego Peroni; Carlotta Lassandro; Giovanni Radaelli
      Pages: 316 - 324
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 4
      Author(s): Elvira Verduci, Giuseppe Banderali, Diego Peroni, Carlotta Lassandro, Giovanni Radaelli
      Introduction Wheezing is the most common symptom associated with asthma in young children. There is a lack of well-designed prospective studies on the relationship of exclusive breastfeeding with wheezing in infants. This prospective cohort study investigated whether a relationship exists of exclusive breastfeeding with wheezing at 12 months of age. Materials and methods A series of 1632 mother–infant pairs were sequentially recruited. Mothers were trained at hospital on breastfeeding practices and how to recognise wheezing. At hospital discharge they received a calendar-diary to record the date at stopping breastfeeding and at onset of wheezing. Data were collected by telephone interviews through 12 months post-delivery. Breastfeeding was in accordance with the World Health Organisation and wheezing with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10-CM code R06.2). Results At 12 months 1522 mother–infant pairs were participating. Breastfeeding started in 95.9% of them and was exclusive in 86.1%. The incidence of wheezing ever and recurrent wheezing at 12 months of age was 33.7% and 10.0%, respectively. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding was shorter in wheezing than non-wheezing infants (median 2.6 months vs. 4.1 months, P <0.001). After adjustment for confounders each month of exclusive breastfeeding reduced the risk of wheezing ever by 11% and of recurrent wheezing by 15%, at 12 months of age. Conclusion Longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding reduces the risk of wheezing throughout the first 12 months of life. These findings would be relevant to all healthcare operators and mothers, also to improve their awareness about the best feeding practices for the infant's health.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.08.013
       
  • Leukocytes in expressed breast milk of asthmatic mothers
    • Authors: D.-L. Dixon; K.D. Forsyth
      Pages: 325 - 332
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 4
      Author(s): D.-L. Dixon, K.D. Forsyth
      Objective Infants are born immunologically immature. However, breastfeeding mothers retain an immunological link to their infants. While it is generally accepted that infants are at an immunological advantage when compared with formula-fed infants, the benefit of long-term exclusive breastfeeding by atopic mothers remains controversial. Inconsistency in the conferral of benefit may be due to differences in the immunological constituents passed to the recipient infant. The aim of this investigation was to examine the profile of human milk cells and cytokines from asthmatic compared to non-asthmatic mothers. Methods Twenty-five exclusively breastfeeding mothers with a clinical diagnosis of asthma were postpartum age matched in a double-control 2:1 design with 50 non-asthmatic controls. Each mother provided a single milk sample which was assayed for cell differential by flow cytometry, for ex vivo cytokine production in culture and for aqueous phase cytokines. Results Milks from asthmatic mothers differed from non-asthmatics in that they contained a higher proportion of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells and lower proportion of lymphocytes, predominantly CD3+/CD4+ T helper cells, reflected by a decrease in the chemokine CCL5 in the milk aqueous phase. More PMN and lymphocytes from asthmatic mothers expressed the adhesion molecule CD11b and lymphocytes the IgE receptor CD23, than those from non-asthmatic mothers. Conclusions Changes to human milk leucocyte prevalence, activation state and cytokines due to maternal asthma may result in changes to immunological priming in the infant. Consequently, the protective effect of long-term breastfeeding may be altered in these mother-infant pairs.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.08.015
       
  • Prevalence and risk factors for wheezing and allergic diseases in
           preschool children: A perspective from the Mediterranean coast of Turkey
    • Authors: E. Bolat; T. Arikoglu; M.A. Sungur; S.B. Batmaz; S. Kuyucu
      Pages: 362 - 368
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 4
      Author(s): E. Bolat, T. Arikoglu, M.A. Sungur, S.B. Batmaz, S. Kuyucu
      Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of allergic diseases in preschool children from one of the biggest cities in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Methods The study population included 396 preschool children attending to urban daycare centres in Mersin. In the first stage, a comprehensive standardised questionnaire modified from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) was employed. In the second stage, serum food and inhalant specific IgE, and skin tests were performed in 45 children with frequent wheezing and 28 children with no wheezing. Results The prevalence of ever wheezing, current wheezing, physician-diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema were 53% (210), 33.3% (132), 27.3% (108), 13.4% (53) and 8.3% (33), respectively. A family history of atopy (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.3–4.7, p =0.004), dampness at home (OR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.2–4.8, p =0.008), a history of intestinal parasites (OR=4.3, 95% CI: 1.7–10.9, p =0.002), previous history of pneumonia (OR=6.9, 95% CI: 1.9–25.9, p =0.004), initiation of complementary foods before the age of three months (OR=6.1, 95%CI: 1.4–26.9, p =0.02) and presence of food allergy (OR=3.1, 95% CI: 1.1–9.2, p =0.03) were found to be significant risk factors for physician-diagnosed asthma. The risk factors for frequent wheezing were maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR=5.2, 95% CI: 0.9–28.7, p =0.05) and high serum IgE levels (OR=2.9, 95% CI: 0.9–9.0, p =0.05) at borderline significance. Conclusion Our study was the first epidemiological study in preschool children in the Mediterranean region of Turkey and demonstrated a high prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases, probably related to humid climatic properties in addition to other environmental and genetic factors.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.01.002
       
  • Asthma education taught by physical education teachers at grade schools: A
           randomised cluster trial
    • Authors: M. Praena-Crespo; N. Aquino-Llinares; J.C. Fernández-Truan; L. Castro-Gómez; C. Segovia-Ferrera
      Pages: 375 - 386
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 4
      Author(s): M. Praena-Crespo, N. Aquino-Llinares, J.C. Fernández-Truan, L. Castro-Gómez, C. Segovia-Ferrera
      Objective Assess whether the Asthma, Sport and Health (ASAH) programme taught by teachers improves asthmatics’ quality of life, asthma knowledge, and reduces school absenteeism. Design Randomised cluster trial parallel group. Participants 2293 students (203 asthmatic) in the Intervention School group (IS) and 2214 in the Comparison School (CS) (224 asthmatic) belonging to primary school. Intervention Implementation of the educational programme “Asthma, Sport and Health” at grade schools, taught by physical education teachers. Main outcome Quality of life according to the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). Secondary outcomes Asthma knowledge, asthma control, school absenteeism. Results After implementing the programme in the IS group, global quality of life improved significantly (p <0.001) as did their domains, symptoms (p <0.001), emotional function (p <0.001) and activity limitations (p <0.01), while in the CS group improvement was seen in global life quality (p <0.01) without any significant changes in the domains for emotional function and activity limitations. Asthma knowledge only increased in IS, among asthmatic students from 16.51 (CI 95% 16.04–16.98) to 18.16 (CI 95% 17.69–18.62) (p <0.001) and students without asthma from 15.49 (CI95% 15.36–15.63) to 17.50 (CI95% 17.36–17.64) (p <0.001). The multiple regression analysis showed that quality of life and its domains depend on asthma knowledge and above all, having well-controlled asthma. We found no decrease in school absenteeism. Conclusions The ASAH programme improved certain quality of life aspects regarding asthma (emotional function and limitation of activities) and asthma knowledge, but it failed to reduce school absenteeism NCT01607749.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.022
       
  • Validation of a Spanish version of the EuroPrevall Food Allergy Quality of
           Life Questionnaire-Parental Form
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): E. Bartoll, M. Nieto, B. Selva, R. Badillo, G. Pereira, S. Uixera, A. Nieto, Á. Mazón
      Background Food allergy can have a major impact on quality of life of children and their parents. Questionnaires have been developed to measure the impact of this disorder. We aimed to validate the EuroPrevall questionnaire on Food Allergy-Quality of Life Questionnaire, Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF) and the Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM), translated into Spanish. Methods The internal consistency of the FAQLQ-PF and the FAIM, translated into Spanish (Spain) and completed by the parents of 74 children with IgE-mediated food allergy, were evaluated with Cronbach's alpha. To test construct validity of the FAQLQ-PF, its correlation with the FAIM was also calculated. To assess their discriminant validity, we compared the values of both depending on the number of offending foods and for children with and without anaphylaxis. Results The values of Cronbach's alpha for the three domains in the FAQLQ-PF were over 0.9. The value of alpha for FAIM questions was below 0.6, which was attributed to the wording of one question. When this question was removed, alpha increased to over 0.70. There was a significant correlation between the FAQLQ-PF score and the FAIM. There were significantly poorer FAQLQ-PF scores in children with more food allergies and worse FAIM in those who had had anaphylaxis. Conclusions The Spanish version of the FAQLQ-PF had a good internal consistency, good construct validity and validity to discriminate patients with more food allergies and anaphylaxis. It can be used as a tool to evaluate and monitor the quality of life in families with food allergic children.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T07:58:45Z
       
  • Low efficacy of atopy patch test in predicting tolerance development in
           non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): T.A. Gonzaga, F.A. Alves, M.F.A. Cheik, C.P. de Barros, E.R.M.A. Rezende, G.R.S. Segundo
      Background The food atopy patch (APT) test has been used in previous studies to help the diagnosis of non-IgE mediated food allergies (FA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different cow's milk APT preparations to predict oral tolerance in children with previous non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy (CMA) diagnosis. Methods Thirty-two patients non-IgE-mediated CMA diagnosed by oral food challenge (OFC) were enrolled to perform APT with three different cow's milk preparations (fresh, 2% in saline solution, 2% in petrolatum) and comparing with a new OFC after at least three months of diet exclusion. Results Only six (18.7%) subjects presented positive OFC to cow's milk. No differences in gender, onset symptoms age, OFC age, Z-score, and exclusion period were found between positive and negative OFC patients. Preparations using fresh milk and powdered milk in petrolatum presented sensitivity equal to zero and specificity 92.3% and 96.1%. The preparation using powdered milk in saline solution showed sensitivity and specificity of 33.3% and 96.1%. Two patients presented typical IgE symptoms after OFC. Conclusion Cow's milk APT presented a low efficacy to predict tolerance in patients with previous non-IgE-mediated CMA and should not be used in clinical routine. The presence of typical IgE reactions after OFC hallmark the necessity of previous IgE-mediated investigation for this patient group.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T07:58:45Z
       
  • Changing perspectives in atopic dermatitis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): E. Serra-Baldrich, J.O. de Frutos, I. Jáuregui, J.C. Armario-Hita, J.F. Silvestre, L. Herraez, A. Martín-Santiago, A. Valero, J. Sastre
      Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifaceted disease that involves a complex interplay between the skin and the immune system. The course of the disease depends strongly on the genetic background of the patient and on yet poorly-defined environmental factors. Changes in lifestyle could be behind the dramatic rise in the prevalence of AD across continents; including hygienic conditions, food, social habits, skin microbiome or exposure to a number of allergens. Although AD typically develops in childhood and disappears after a few years, in a relatively large number of patients it continues into adulthood. Adult AD can also appear de novo but it is often underdiagnosed and its treatment can be challenging. New, highly effective drugs are being developed to manage moderate and severe forms of the disease in adults. In this review, we highlight the most recent developments in diagnostic tools, current insights into the mechanistic basis of this disease, and therapeutic innovations.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T07:58:45Z
       
  • Use of anti-allergic drugs in children
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia, Volume 45, Issue 5
      Author(s): C. Suárez-Castañón, G. Modroño-Riaño, G. Solís-Sánchez
      Allergic rhinitis is one of the most frequent chronic diseases in children. We have analysed the prescriptions habits of anti-allergic medications in children (<14 years old) in 2011. We calculated the DHD (N°DDD/1000 children/day) for oral antihistamines and intranasal therapies (corticoids and antihistamines) in the region (sanitary districts I–VIII) and specifically in sanitary district V (health centres 1–15). We also reviewed the clinical records in six health centres in sanitary district V to know more details about age and diagnosis and to value if these prescriptions are adequate. We observed a use of 8.78 DHD in the group of oral antihistamines, with a predominance of desloratadine (3.48 DHD), a 3rd generation drug of this group, and in second place the intranasal therapy with a preference of corticoids (budesonide 3.5 DHD and mometasone 2.25 DHD). We think that it is necessary to improve the knowledge of anti-allergic drugs in children.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T08:03:19Z
       
  • Future prospect of faecal microbiota transplantation as a potential
           therapy in asthma
    • Authors: Kang Cai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): Y. Kang, Y. Cai
      There is convincing evidence from both human and animal studies suggesting that the gut microbiota plays an important role in regulating immune responses associated with the development of asthma. Certain intestinal microbial strains have been demonstrated to suppress or impair immune responsiveness in asthma experimental models, suggesting that specific species among gut commensal microbiota may play either a morbific or phylactic role in the progression of asthma. Evidence to date suggests that the intestinal microbiota represent fertile targets for prevention or management of asthma. The faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a rather straightforward therapy that manipulates the human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, by which a healthy donor microbiota is transferred into an existing but disturbed microbial ecosystem. The FMT may therefore represent a therapeutic approach for asthma treatment in the foreseeable future. At present, FMT therapy for asthma is very limited and should be actively studied. Considerable efforts are needed to increase our knowledge in the field of FMT therapy for asthma. In this review, we aimed to provide several insights into the development of FMT therapy for asthma.

      PubDate: 2017-08-18T07:26:46Z
       
  • Sinomenine ameliorates the airway remodelling, apoptosis of airway
           epithelial cells, and Th2 immune response in a murine model of chronic
           asthma
    • Authors: S. Işık; M. Karaman; S.Ç. Micili; Ş. Çağlayan-Sözmen; H.A. Bağrıyanık; Z. Arıkan-Ayyıldız; N. Uzuner; Ö. Karaman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): S. Işık, M. Karaman, S.Ç. Micili, Ş. Çağlayan-Sözmen, H.A. Bağrıyanık, Z. Arıkan-Ayyıldız, N. Uzuner, Ö. Karaman
      Background Sinomenine (SIN), an alkaloid isolated from the root of Sinomenium acutum which has a variety of pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammation, immunosuppression and anti-angiogenesis. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of SIN on airway remodelling, epithelial apoptosis, and T Helper (Th)-2 derived cytokine levels in a murine model of chronic asthma. Methods Twenty-two BALB/c mice were divided into four groups; I (control), II (placebo), III, IV. Mice in groups III and IV received the SIN (100mg/kg), and dexamethasone (1mg/kg) respectively. Epithelium thickness, sub-epithelial smooth muscle thickness, number of mast and goblet cells of samples isolated from the lung were measured. Immunohistochemical scorings of the lung tissue for matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEG-F), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick endlabeling (TUNEL) and cysteine-dependent aspartate-specific proteases (caspase)-3 were determined. IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, Nitric oxide in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E in serum were quantified by standard ELISA protocols. Results The dose of 100mg/kg SIN treatment provided beneficial effects on all of the histopathological findings of airway remodelling compared to placebo (p <0.05). All cytokine levels in BALF and serum and immunohistochemical scores were significantly lower in 100mg/kg SIN treated group compared to the placebo (p <0.05). Conclusions These findings suggested that the dose of 100mg/kg SIN improved all histopathological changes of airway remodelling and its beneficial effects might be related to modulating Th-2 derived cytokines and the inhibition of apoptosis of airway epithelial cells.

      PubDate: 2017-08-08T07:13:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.05.004
       
  • Air pollution and its relationship to lung function among adolescents from
           Taubate, São Paulo, Brazil
    • Authors: M. Froio Toledo; B. Mangueira Saraiva-Romanholo; R. Carvalho Oliveira; L. Ferraz da Silva; D. Solé
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): M. Froio Toledo, B. Mangueira Saraiva-Romanholo, R. Carvalho Oliveira, L. Ferraz da Silva, D. Solé
      Background This paper sought to evaluate individual exposure to air pollution by quantifying the carbon in alveolar macrophages (AMs) and its relationship to lung function. We also examined the proximity of participants’ residences to the Presidente Dutra highway (PDH) in adolescents with asthma from Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods This descriptive study examined fifty 13- to 14-year-old adolescents with asthma identified by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) in Taubaté. These adolescents underwent spirometry and sputum induction via the inhalation of 3% hypertonic saline (HSS). Sputum was collected after each nebulisation, and forced expiratory flow in one second (FEV1) was measured. The collected sputum was stored and transported to the laboratory; it was then processed and analysed for ultrafine particles (≤100nm). This analysis was correlated with the residence location and FEV1 of each adolescent. Results A total of 39 adolescents completed the study. The comparison of the carbon fraction within macrophages (CA/MA) showed no differences according to residence in relation to the PDH (p =0.758). After adjustment, a mixed linear model with FEV1 as the dependent variable and CA/MA, location, and evaluation condition as the predictors found that the interactions among the variables were not significant. Conclusions The amount of carbon present within the AMs of adolescents with asthma was not correlated with either lung function or residence location. Evaluations of the topography and local climatic conditions in Taubaté should be considered in future studies.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T07:00:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.04.007
       
  • Correlation between serum vitamin D status and immunological changes in
           children affected by gastrointestinal food allergy
    • Authors: H. Guo; Y. Zheng; X. Cai; H. Yang; Y. Zhang; L. Hao; Y. Jin; G. Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): H. Guo, Y. Zheng, X. Cai, H. Yang, Y. Zhang, L. Hao, Y. Jin, G. Yang
      Background Low vitamin D status is linked to increased incidence of food allergy and intestinal inflammation. Whether vitamin D status is associated with immunological changes in children with gastrointestinal food allergy (GFA) remains unclear. Methods Forty-nine GFA children (aged 2–11 years old) were enrolled in this study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level, total immunoglobulin E (IgE), specific IgE against allergens, circulating regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs), and blood eosinophil numbers were measured. Results Levels of serum 25OHD in the GFA children ranged 35.5–156.4nmol/L, with a mean value similar to that of the healthy controls. Compared to those with normal 25OHD (≥75nmol/L), GFA children with low 25OHD (<75nmol/L) had increased total IgE (84% vs. 54%, P <0.05), persistent blood eosinophilia (56% vs. 25%, P <0.05), and delayed resolution of symptoms after food allergen elimination (odds ratio 3.51, 95% CI 1.00–12.36, P <0.05). Among the GFA children with elevated total IgE, those with low 25OHD had lower circulatory Tregs (8.79±2.4% vs. 10.21±1.37%, P <0.05), higher total IgE (1197.5±1209.8 vs. 418.5±304.6kU/L, P <0.05), and persistent eosinophilia (0.61±0.52 vs. 0.31±0.15×109 cells/L, P <0.05) compared to those with normal 25OHD. In addition, serum 25OHD concentrations inversely correlated with total IgE (R =−0.434, P <0.05), and positively with Treg population (R =0.356, P <0.05). Conclusion Low serum vitamin D status correlates with stronger allergic immune response in GFA children.

      PubDate: 2017-07-30T07:00:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.03.005
       
  • Single and multiple food allergies in infants with proctocolitis
    • Authors: B.T. Koksal; Z. Barıs; F. Ozcay; O. Yilmaz Ozbek
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): B.T. Koksal, Z. Barıs, F. Ozcay, O. Yilmaz Ozbek
      Background Food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis is a frequent cause of rectal bleeding in infants. Characteristics of infants with multiple food allergies have not been defined. Objective This study aimed to identify characteristics of infants with proctocolitis and compare infants with single and multiple food allergies. Methods A total of 132 infants with proctocolitis were evaluated retrospectively. All of the infants were diagnosed by a paediatric allergist and/or a paediatric gastroenterologist according to guidelines. Clinical features of the infants, as well as results of a complete blood count, skin prick test, specific immunoglobulin E, and stool examinations or colonoscopy were recorded. Results Cow's milk (97.7%) was the most common allergen, followed by egg (22%). Forty-five (34.1%) infants had allergies to more than one food. Infants with multiple food allergies had a higher eosinophil count (613±631.2 vs. 375±291.9) and a higher frequency of positive specific IgE and/or positive skin prick test results than that of patients with a single food allergy. Most of the patients whose symptoms persisted after two years of age had multiple food allergies. Conclusions There is no difference in clinical presentations between infants with single and multiple food allergies. However, infants with multiple food allergies have a high blood total eosinophil count and are more likely to have a positive skin prick test and/or positive specific IgE results.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T06:26:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.02.006
       
  • Component-resolved diagnosis in hymenoptera allergy
    • Authors: D. Antolín-Amérigo; B. Ruiz-León; E. Boni; T. Alfaya-Arias; M. Álvarez-Mon; J. Barbarroja-Escudero; D. González-de-Olano; C. Moreno-Aguilar; M. Rodríguez-Rodríguez; M.J. Sánchez-González; L. Sánchez-Morillas; A. Vega-Castro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): D. Antolín-Amérigo, B. Ruiz-León, E. Boni, T. Alfaya-Arias, M. Álvarez-Mon, J. Barbarroja-Escudero, D. González-de-Olano, C. Moreno-Aguilar, M. Rodríguez-Rodríguez, M.J. Sánchez-González, L. Sánchez-Morillas, A. Vega-Castro
      Component-resolved diagnosis based on the use of well-defined, properly characterised and purified natural and recombinant allergens constitutes a new approach in the diagnosis of venom allergy. Prospective readers may benefit from an up-to-date review on the allergens. The best characterised venom is that of Apis mellifera, whose main allergens are phospholipase A2 (Api m1), hyaluronidase (Api m2) and melittin (Api m4). Additionally, in recent years, new allergens of Vespula vulgaris have been identified and include phospholipase A1 (Ves v1), hyaluronidase (Ves v2) and antigen 5 (Ves v5). Polistes species are becoming an increasing cause of allergy in Europe, although only few allergens have been identified in this venom. In this review, we evaluate the current knowledge about molecular diagnosis in hymenoptera venom allergy.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T06:26:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.05.003
       
  • Autoimmunity and its association with regulatory T cells and B cell
           subsets in patients with common variable immunodeficiency
    • Authors: G. Azizi; H. Abolhassani; F. Kiaee; N. Tavakolinia; H. Rafiemanesh; R. Yazdani; SA. Mahdaviani; S. Mohammadikhajehdehi; M. Tavakol; V. Ziaee; B. Negahdari; J. Mohammadi; A. Mirshafiey; A. Aghamohammadi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): G. Azizi, H. Abolhassani, F. Kiaee, N. Tavakolinia, H. Rafiemanesh, R. Yazdani, SA. Mahdaviani, S. Mohammadikhajehdehi, M. Tavakol, V. Ziaee, B. Negahdari, J. Mohammadi, A. Mirshafiey, A. Aghamohammadi
      Background Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is one of the most prevalent symptomatic primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), which manifests a wide clinical variability such as autoimmunity, as well as T cell and B cell abnormalities. Methods A total of 72 patients with CVID were enrolled in this study. Patients were evaluated for clinical manifestations and classified according to the presence or absence of autoimmune disease. We measured regulatory T cells (Tregs) and B-cell subsets using flow cytometry, as well as specific antibody response (SAR) to pneumococcal vaccine, autoantibodies and anti-IgA in patients. Results Twenty-nine patients (40.3%) have shown at least one autoimmune manifestation. Autoimmune cytopenias and autoimmune gastrointestinal diseases were the most common. A significant association was detected between autoimmunity and presence of hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Among CVID patients, 38.5% and 79.3% presented a defect in Tregs and switched memory B-cells, respectively, whereas 69.0% presented CD21low B cell expansion. Among patients with a defect in Treg, switched memory and CD21low B cell, the frequency of autoimmunity was 80.0%, 52.2% and 55.0%, respectively. A negative correlation was observed between the frequency of Tregs and CD21low B cell population. 82.2% of patients had a defective SAR which was associated with the lack of autoantibodies. Conclusions Autoimmunity may be the first clinical manifestation of CVID, thus routine screening of immunoglobulins is suggested for patients with autoimmunity. Lack of SAR in CVID is associated with the lack of specific autoantibodies in patients with autoimmunity. It is suggested that physicians use alternative diagnostic procedures.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T06:26:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.04.004
       
  • Tolerance to baked and fermented cow's milk in children with IgE-mediated
           and non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy in patients under two years of age
           
    • Authors: A. Uncuoglu; N. Yologlu; I.E. Simsek; Z.S. Uyan; M. Aydogan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): A. Uncuoglu, N. Yologlu, I.E. Simsek, Z.S. Uyan, M. Aydogan
      Background IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy (CMA) has been shown consistent in milder heated-milk tolerant and severe heated-milk reactant groups in patients older than two years. Little is known whether fermentation of milk gives rise to similar clinical phenotypes. We aimed to determine the influence of extensively heated and fermented cow's milk on the IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated CMA in children younger than two years. Methods Subjects followed with the diagnosis of IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated CMA for at least six months underwent unheated milk challenge. IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated groups were categorised as unheated milk-reactive and tolerant, separately. Unheated milk-reactive groups were further challenged sequentially with fermented milk (yoghurt) and baked milk, 15 days apart. Allergy evaluation with skin tests, prick-to-prick tests and atopy patch tests were performed. Results Fifty-seven children (median age: 14 months; range: 7–24 months) underwent unheated milk challenge. Eleven of 27 children with IgE-mediated CMA and 14 of 30 children with non-IgE-mediated CMA tolerated unheated milk. Among subjects who reacted to unheated milk; 15 of 16 subjects (93%) with IgE-mediated CMA also reacted to yoghurt, whereas 11 of 16 subjects (68%) with non-IgE-mediated CMA tolerated fermented milk. Thirteen subjects (81%) of the unheated milk-reactive IgE-mediated group tolerated to heated milk. None of 16 subjects of unheated milk-reactive non-IgE-mediated group reacted to baked milk. Conclusion The majority of children under the age of two years with both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated CMA tolerated baked-milk products. Yoghurt was tolerated in two thirds of unheated milk reactive patients suffering from non-IgE-mediated CMA.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T06:26:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.02.008
       
  • MHC class II deficiency: Report of a novel mutation and special review
    • Authors: S. Farrokhi; M. Shabani; Z. Aryan; S. Zoghi; A. Krolo; K. Boztug; N. Rezaei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): S. Farrokhi, M. Shabani, Z. Aryan, S. Zoghi, A. Krolo, K. Boztug, N. Rezaei
      The MHC II deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency syndrome with increased susceptibility to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, failure to thrive and early mortality. This syndrome is caused by mutations in transcription regulators of the MHC II gene and results in development of blind lymphocytes due to the lack of indicatory MHC II molecules. Despite homogeneity of clinical manifestations of patients with MHC II deficiency, the genetic defects underlying this disease are heterogeneous. Herein, we report an Iranian patient with MHC II deficiency harbouring a novel mutation in RFXANK and novel misleading clinical features. He had ataxic gait and dysarthria from 30 months of age. Epidemiology, clinical and immunological features, therapeutic options and prognosis of patients with MHC II are reviewed in this paper.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.04.006
       
  • Incidence of asthma in young adults from Castellon, Spain: A prospective
           cohort study
    • Authors: L. Segura-Navas; A. Arnedo-Pena; R. Tosca-Segura; M.A. Romeu-García; N. Meseguer-Ferrer; E. Silvestre-Silvestre; F. Conde; S. Fernández-González; M. Dubon; M. Ortuño-Forcada; J. Fabregat-Puerto; C. Fenollosa-Amposta; M.R. Pac-Sa; L. Museros-Recatala; A. Vizcaino-Batllés; J.B. Bellido-Blasco
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): L. Segura-Navas, A. Arnedo-Pena, R. Tosca-Segura, M.A. Romeu-García, N. Meseguer-Ferrer, E. Silvestre-Silvestre, F. Conde, S. Fernández-González, M. Dubon, M. Ortuño-Forcada, J. Fabregat-Puerto, C. Fenollosa-Amposta, M.R. Pac-Sa, L. Museros-Recatala, A. Vizcaino-Batllés, J.B. Bellido-Blasco
      Background The objective was to estimate the incidence of asthma in young adults from 13–15 years old to 23–25 years old, and associated factors. Methods In 2012, a population-based prospective cohort study was carried out in Castellon from the cohort who had participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood in 1994 and 2002. A telephone survey was undertaken using the same questionnaires. A new case of asthma was defined as a participant free of the disease in 2002 who suffered asthma, was diagnosed with asthma, or took medications against asthma based on self-report from 2002 to 2012. Results The mean age of participants was 24.9±0.6 with a follow-up of 79.1%. Asthma cumulative incidence was 3.4%: 44 new cases occurred among 1280 participants. The incidence was higher in females than males with relative risk (RR)=2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–3.8). A significant decrease of asthma incidence density was observed (8.2 cases to 3.5 cases per 1000 person/year). Factors associated with the incidence of asthma were allergic rhinitis (RR=4.05; 95% CI 1.7–9.6), bronchitis (RR=2.13; 95% CI 1.0–4.5), mother's age at time of birth (RR=0.87; 95% CI 0.8–0.9) and a pet other than a dog or cat (RR=0.42; 95% CI 0.2–0.9). For gender, some variations in the risk factors were observed. Conclusions A significant decrease in the incidence of asthma was observed. Several risk and protective factors were found.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.03.003
       
  • Effects of icariin on asthma mouse model are associated with regulation of
           prostaglandin D2 level
    • Authors: J. Qiao; S. Sun; L. Yuan; J. Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): J. Qiao, S. Sun, L. Yuan, J. Wang
      Background We aimed to observe the effect of icariin on an asthma mouse model and explore the potential underlying mechanisms. Methods The asthma mouse model was established by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitisation and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and then treated with icariin. Airway resistance was assessed by whole body plethysmograph. In addition, pathological slides were stained with haematoxylin–eosin, and the peribronchial inflammation was observed microscopically. The concentration of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was detected by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The relative level of prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 (CRTH2) mRNA was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results Compared with the icariin-untreated group, there was a significant reduction of Penh in the treated group. Total leucocyte amount and all sorts of leukocytes were lower in the treated group than in the untreated group. HE staining results revealed that a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated into the peribronchial tissues of untreated group, and the degree of airway inflammation decreased significantly in the treated group. PGD2 in serum and BALF, as well as CRTH2 mRNA level in lung tissues were lower in the treated group than in the untreated group. Conclusion Icariin is a promising therapeutic strategy for asthma, and PGD2 might be a new target for asthma therapy in OVA-induced and RSV-infected asthma model.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.02.007
       
  • Helicobacter pylori seropositivity protects against childhood asthma and
           inversely correlates to its clinical and functional severity
    • Authors: E.M. Fouda; T.B. Kamel; E.S. Nabih; A.A. Abdelazem
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): E.M. Fouda, T.B. Kamel, E.S. Nabih, A.A. Abdelazem
      Background In recent years, the prevalence of asthma has risen in developed countries, and its extent related to a change in our indigenous microbiota. Helicobacter pylori disappearance across the population represents a fundamental change in our human microbiota and has preceded the rise in asthma prevalence. Objective To assess the relationship between childhood asthma and Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods Quantitative determination of Helicobacter pylori IgG among 90 asthmatic children and 90 – age and gender – matched non-atopic, non-asthmatic healthy children was performed using ELISA in serum of all participants. Results Helicobacter pylori IgG seropositivity was found in 25.6% of asthmatics compared to 44.4% of controls. Asthmatics showed lower median Helicobacter pylori IgG titre compared to healthy controls. We also detected a significant inverse relationship between Helicobacter pylori IgG titre and asthma severity. Conclusion Helicobacter pylori seropositivity protects against childhood asthma and inversely correlates to its clinical and functional severity.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.03.004
       
  • Biomarkers of airway and systemic inflammation in obese asthmatic
           paediatric patients
    • Authors: H.T. Nacaroglu; O.B. Gayret; M. Erol; O. Buke; O. Zengi; M. Tasdemir; Z. Tasdemir; O. Yigit
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): H.T. Nacaroglu, O.B. Gayret, M. Erol, O. Buke, O. Zengi, M. Tasdemir, Z. Tasdemir, O. Yigit
      Background It is thought that airway inflammation is more common in obese asthmatic patients because inflammation is harder to control and does not respond well to glucocorticoid treatment. Objective This study's aim was to investigate the effect of obesity on airway and systemic inflammation in children with asthma and to identify the biomarkers that play a role in this inflammation. Methods The study included patients aged 6–16 years who were diagnosed with asthma in the paediatric allergy outpatient clinic of Bagcilar Training and Research Hospital in Turkey. Complete blood count parameters were compared between three groups: obese asthmatic (n =43), obese non-asthmatic (n =45), and non-obese non-asthmatic (control group, n =30). Levels of high-sensitive CRP (hs-CRP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), osteopontin (OPN), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and 25(OH)-vitamin D were compared between the groups. Results No statistically significant differences were observed in 25(OH)-vitamin D, NGAL, OPN, hs-CRP, and MMP-9 levels between groups. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between FEV1/FVC and NGAL and MMP-9. Conclusion This is the first study to investigate levels of hs-CRP, NGAL, OPN, MMP-9, and 25(OH)-vitamin D in obese asthmatic children. Larger studies with sputum and BAL examinations are required to determine the potential of biomarkers for identifying inflammation in obese asthmatic children.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.01.013
       
  • Influence of the Mediterranean diet during pregnancy in the development of
           wheezing and eczema in infants in Pamplona, Spain
    • Authors: N. Alvarez Zallo; I. Aguinaga-Ontoso; I. Alvarez-Alvarez; B. Marin-Fernandez; F. Guillén-Grima; C. Azcona-San Julián
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): N. Alvarez Zallo, I. Aguinaga-Ontoso, I. Alvarez-Alvarez, B. Marin-Fernandez, F. Guillén-Grima, C. Azcona-San Julián
      Background This study examined the relationship between different food groups and the adherence to a Mediterranean diet during pregnancy and the risk of wheezing and eczema in children aged 12–15 months. Methods The study involves 1087 Spanish infants from the International Study of Wheezing in Infants (Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes, EISL). The study of the association of the different food consumption and Mediterranean diet with wheezing, recurrent wheezing and eczema was performed using different models of unconditional logistic regression to obtain adjusted prevalence odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results No association was found between a good adherence to the Mediterranean diet during pregnancy and the development of wheezing (p =0.372), recurrent wheezing (p =0.118) and eczema (p =0.315). The consumption once or twice a week of white fish (OR: 1.95[1.01–3.75]), cooked potatoes (OR: 1.75[1.22–2.51]) and industrial pastry (OR: 1.59[1.13–2.24]), and the consumption more than three times a week of industrial pastry (OR: 1.47 [1.01–2.13]) during pregnancy increases the risk of “wheezing” at 12 months. Instead, high fruit consumption during the pregnancy has a protective effect against “wheezing” in 12-month-old infants (OR: 0.44 [0.20–0.99]). No statistically significant differences were observed between food intake during pregnancy and “recurrent wheezing”. No statistically significant differences were observed between the consumption of any food during pregnancy and the presence of eczema at 12 months. Conclusions The present study showed that the consumption of Mediterranean diet during pregnancy did not have a protective effect for wheezing, recurrent wheezing or eczema.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.02.009
       
  • Oral immunisation with Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide
           adjuvant with recombinant Lactococcus lactis-expressing Proteus mirabilis
           ompA confers optimal protection in mice
    • Authors: J. Zhou; K. Wei; C. Wang; W. Dong; N. Ma; L. Zhu; L.P. Hu; H. Huang; R. Zhu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): J. Zhou, K. Wei, C. Wang, W. Dong, N. Ma, L. Zhu, L.P. Hu, H. Huang, R. Zhu
      Background Proteus mirabilis poses a critical burden on the breeding industry, but no efficient vaccine is available for animals. Method A recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing the ompA of P. mirabilis was used to develop a vaccine. The mucosal and systemic immune responses of the recombinant vaccine were evaluated in mice after oral immunisation. The inhibition on P. mirabilis colonisation of vaccines was also determined. Moreover, Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharides (TPPPS) were used as adjuvants to examine the immunomodulatory effects. Results The pure recombinant L. lactis vaccine significantly induced the production of specific IgA and IgG, IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, and T lymphocyte proliferation, and the immunised mice exhibited significant resistance to P. mirabilis colonisation. Notably, the TPPPS adjuvant vaccines induced higher levels of immune responses than the pure L. lactis. Conclusions The L. lactis as a vaccine vehicle combined with TPPPS adjuvant provides a feasible method for preventing P. mirabilis infection.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.04.005
       
  • A comparison of two clinical scores for bronchiolitis. A multicentre and
           prospective study conducted in hospitalised infants
    • Authors: C. Rivas-Juesas; J.M. Rius Peris; A.L. García; A.A. Madramany; M.G. Peris; L.V. Álvarez; J. Primo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): C. Rivas-Juesas, J.M. Rius Peris, A.L. García, A.A. Madramany, M.G. Peris, L.V. Álvarez, J. Primo
      Background There are a number of clinical scores for bronchiolitis but none of them are firmly recommended in the guidelines. Method We designed a study to compare two scales of bronchiolitis (ESBA and Wood Downes Ferres) and determine which of them better predicts the severity. A multicentre prospective study with patients <12 months with acute bronchiolitis was conducted. Each patient was assessed with the two scales when admission was decided. We created a new variable “severe condition” to determine whether one scale afforded better discrimination of severity. A diagnostic test analysis of sensitivity and specificity was made, with a comparison of the AUC. Based on the optimum cut-off points of the ROC curves for classifying bronchiolitis as severe we calculated new Se, Sp, LR+ and LR− for each scale in our sample. Results 201 patients were included, 66.7% males and median age 2.3 months (IQR=1.3–4.4). Thirteen patients suffered bronchiolitis considered to be severe, according to the variable severe condition. ESBA showed a Se=3.6%, Sp=98.1%, and WDF showed Se=46.2% and Sp=91.5%. The difference between the two AUC for each scale was 0.02 (95%CI: 0.01–0.15), p =0.72. With new cut-off points we could increase Se and Sp for ESBA: Se=84.6%, Sp=78.7%, and WDF showed Se=92.3% and Sp=54.8%; with higher LR. Conclusions None of the scales studied was considered optimum for assessing our patients. With new cut-off points, the scales increased the ability to classify severe infants. New validation studies are needed to prove these new cut-off points.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.01.012
       
  • Plasticity of immune system vs. memory therapy IST
    • Authors: A. Tammaro; I. Romano; F. Persechino; F.R. Parisella; I. Trimarchi; S. Persechino
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): A. Tammaro, I. Romano, F. Persechino, F.R. Parisella, I. Trimarchi, S. Persechino
      Background Pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy are the main treatments for allergic diseases to inhalants. Objective This study investigates whether to repeat short cycles of immunotherapy after 3 or 5 years the from interruption of the first therapeutic cycle, lasting 3–4 years, to maintain immune memory in individuals subjected to IST. Methods and Results We have compared two groups, one of 452 patients who, after the first treatment for 3–4 years of IST, performed a cycle of four months after three and 10 years from the suspension, and a second group of 126 individuals who have performed only the IST treatment for 3–4 years. The best results were obtained in the first group. Conclusions These results are due to the immune system's plasticity, a very important concept in clinical practice.

      PubDate: 2017-07-13T05:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2017.01.007
       
  • Beneficial effects of ursodeoxycholic acid via inhibition of airway
           remodelling, apoptosis of airway epithelial cells, and Th2 immune response
           in murine model of chronic asthma
    • Authors: S. Işık; M. Karaman; S. Çilaker Micili; Ş. Çağlayan-Sözmen; H. Alper Bağrıyanık; Z. Arıkan-Ayyıldız; N. Uzuner; Ö. Karaman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): S. Işık, M. Karaman, S. Çilaker Micili, Ş. Çağlayan-Sözmen, H. Alper Bağrıyanık, Z. Arıkan-Ayyıldız, N. Uzuner, Ö. Karaman
      Background and aims In previous studies, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immunomodulatory effects of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on liver diseases have been shown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of UDCA on airway remodelling, epithelial apoptosis, and T Helper (Th)-2 derived cytokine levels in a murine model of chronic asthma. Methods Twenty-seven BALB/c mice were divided into five groups; PBS-Control, OVA-Placebo, OVA-50mg/kg UDCA, OVA-150mg/kg UDCA, OVA-Dexamethasone. Mice in groups OVA-50mg/kg UDCA, OVA-150mg/kg UDCA, OVA-Dexamethasone received the UDCA (50mg/kg), UDCA (150mg/kg), and dexamethasone, respectively. Epithelium thickness, sub-epithelial smooth muscle thickness, number of mast and goblet cells of samples isolated from the lung were measured. Immunohistochemical scorings of the lung tissue for matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEG-F), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick endlabeling (TUNEL) and cysteine-dependent aspartate-specific proteases (caspase)-3 were determined. IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, Nitric oxide, ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels were quantified. Results The dose of 150mg/kg UDCA treatment led to lower epithelial thickness, sub-epithelial smooth muscle thickness, goblet and mast cell numbers compared to placebo. Except for MMP-9 and TUNEL all immunohistochemical scores were similar in both UDCA treated groups and the placebo. All cytokine levels were significantly lower in group IV compared to the placebo. Conclusions These findings suggested that the dose of 150mg/kg UDCA improved all histopathological changes of airway remodelling and its beneficial effects might be related to modulating Th-2 derived cytokines and the inhibition of apoptosis of airway epithelial cells.

      PubDate: 2017-03-06T21:42:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.12.003
       
  • Knowledge of asthma and anaphylaxis among teachers in Spanish schools
    • Authors: J.C. Juliá-Benito; M. Escarrer-Jaume; M.T. Guerra-Pérez; J. Contreras-Porta; E. Tauler-Toro; A. Madroñero-Tentor; J.C. Cerdá-Mir
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): J.C. Juliá-Benito, M. Escarrer-Jaume, M.T. Guerra-Pérez, J. Contreras-Porta, E. Tauler-Toro, A. Madroñero-Tentor, J.C. Cerdá-Mir
      Introduction Allergic diseases affect 15–20% of the paediatric population in the industrialised world. Most educational centres in Spain do not have health professionals among their staff, and the teachers are in charge of child care in school. The advisability of specific training of the teaching staff should be considered, with the introduction of concrete intervention plans in the event of life-threatening emergencies in schools. Material and methods Evaluation of the training needs constitutes the first step in planning an educational project. In this regard, the Health Education Group of the Spanish Society of Clinical Immunology, Allergology and Paediatric Asthma (Grupo de Educación Sanitaria de la Sociedad Española de Inmunología Clínica, Alergología y Asma Pediátrica [SEICAAP]) assessed the knowledge of teachers in five Spanish Autonomous Communities, using a self-administered questionnaire specifically developed for this study. The data obtained were analysed using the SPSS statistical package. Results A total of 2479 teachers completed the questionnaire. Most of them claimed to know what asthma is, and almost one half considered that they would know how to act in the event of an asthma attack. This proportion was higher among physical education teachers. Most would not know how to act in the case of anaphylaxis or be able to administer the required medication. In general, the teachers expressed interest in receiving training and in having an interventional protocol applicable to situations of this kind. Discussion It is important to know what the training requirements are in order to develop plans for intervention in the event of an emergency in school. Teachers admit a lack of knowledge on how to deal with these disorders, but express a wish to receive training.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T21:16:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.019
       
  • Changes in IL-4 and IL-13 expression in allergic-rhinitis treated with
           hydrogen-rich saline in guinea-pig model
    • Authors: Zhao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): C. Zhao, S. Yu, J. Li, W. Xu, R. Ge
      Background Medical gas hydrogen (H2) has a special role in airway inflammation; however, the effect of H2 on allergic rhinitis (AR) remains unclear. This study explored the possible roles of H2 on the pathogenesis of AR and observed the influences of H2 on cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. Methods An AR guinea pig model was established by nasal ovalbumin sensitisation. Eighteen guinea pigs were divided into three groups, namely, saline control, AR-sensitised, and hydrogen-rich saline (HRS)-treated groups, with each group having six guinea pigs. The frequencies of sneezing and scratching were recorded. The IgE level and cytokine (IL-4 and IL-13) levels in the serum were measured. The expression levels of IL-4 and IL-13 mRNA and protein in the nasal mucosa were also determined by real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. We also observed the infiltration of cytokine (IL-4 and IL-13) in nasal mucosa by immunofluorescence. Results The frequencies of sneezing and scratching, as well as the levels of IgE, IL-4, and IL-13, in the serum were higher in the AR group than in the control group (p <0.01), whereas all these parameters were decreased significantly after HRS treatment (p <0.05). The expression levels of IL-4 and IL-13 mRNA and protein in the nasal mucosa were also lower in guinea pigs treated with HRS than those in the AR group (p <0.05). Conclusions HRS could affect anti-inflammation in AR and decreased the expression of IL-4 and IL-13.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T21:16:42Z
       
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms of IL-2, but not IL-12 and IFN-γ, are
           
    • Authors: M. Movahedi; M. Tavakol; F. Rahmani; A.A. Amirzargar; A.Z. Bidoki; K. Heidari; M. Gharagozlou; A. Aghamohammadi; M. Nabavi; S. Soltani; N. Rezaei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2017
      Source:Allergologia et Immunopathologia
      Author(s): M. Movahedi, M. Tavakol, F. Rahmani, A.A. Amirzargar, A.Z. Bidoki, K. Heidari, M. Gharagozlou, A. Aghamohammadi, M. Nabavi, S. Soltani, N. Rezaei
      Background A clear picture of interaction of Th1/Th2 cytokines in pathogenesis of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), remains elusive. Impaired IFN-γ production and decreased levels of IL-2 have been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of Th1 cytokines; IL-2, IL-12 and IFN-γ polymorphisms with CSU. Methods 90 patients with CSU and 140 age-sex matched subjects were included in this study. DNA samples were evaluated through PCR-SSP assay in order to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms of IL-12 (A/C −1188) or (rs3212227), IFN-γ (A/T UTR5644) or (rs2069717) and IL-2 (G/T −330 and G/T +166) or (rs2069762 and rs2069763). Results G allele at −330 at promoter region of IL-2 gene was overrepresented in CSU. Heterozygotes (GT) at this locus and heterozygotes at +166 of IL-2 gene (GT) were more prevalent in CSU group. Additionally, the haplotype GT for loci −330 and +166 of IL-2 gene was powerfully associated with CSU (OR (95%CI)=57.29 (8.43–112.7)). Conclusions SNP at position −330 and +166 of IL-2 gene are differently expressed in CSU. The haplotype GT of IL-2 at −330 and +166 might confer vulnerability to a number of immunological disorders in Iranian region.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T12:59:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2016.10.009
       
 
 
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