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Showing 1 - 200 of 3118 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 89, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 372, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 366, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 335, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 448, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 202, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 163, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Aeolian Research
  [SJR: 0.973]   [H-I: 22]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1875-9637
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3118 journals]
  • Characteristics of mineral dust impacting the Persian Gulf
    • Authors: Hesam Ahmady-Birgani; Kenneth G. McQueen; Hassan Mirnejad
      Pages: 11 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 30
      Author(s): Hesam Ahmady-Birgani, Kenneth G. McQueen, Hassan Mirnejad
      It is generally assumed that severe dust events in western Iran could be responsible for elevated levels of toxic and radioactive elements in the region. Over a period of 5 months, from January 2012 to May 2012, dust particles in the size range PM10 (i.e. <10 µm) were collected at Abadan, a site beside the Persian Gulf. The research aim was to compare chemical compositions of dust and aerosol samples collected during the non-dusty periods and during two severe dust events. Results of ICP-MS analysis of components indicate that during dust events the concentrations of major elements such as Ca, Mg, Al and K increase relative to ambient conditions when Fe and trace elements such as Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn are in higher proportions. Toxic trace elements that are generally ascribed to human activities, including industrial and urban pollution, are thus proportionately more abundant in the dust under calm conditions than during dust events, when their concentration is diluted by more abundant mineral particles of quartz, calcite and clay. The variability of chemical species during two dust events, noted by tracking the dust plumes in satellite images, was also assessed and the results relate to two different source areas, namely northern Iraq and northwestern Syria.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:36:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2017)
  • A conceptual magnetic fabric development model for the Paks loess in
    • Authors: B. Bradák; G. Újvári; Y. Seto; M. Hyodo; T. Végh
      Pages: 20 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 30
      Author(s): B. Bradák, G. Újvári, Y. Seto, M. Hyodo, T. Végh
      We describe magnetic fabric and depositional environments of aeolian (loess) deposits from Paks, Hungary, and develop a novel, complex conceptual sedimentation model based on grain size and low-field magnetic susceptibility anisotropy data. A plot of shape factor (magnetic fabric parameter) and dry deposition velocity estimated from grain-size reveals primary and secondary depositional processes during the sedimentation of loess. Primary ones are driven by gravity, with poorly oriented MF for fine grain materials, and by tangential stress, with flow-aligned or flow-transverse fabric for coarser grain sediments. The fabric developed by a primary process is called depositional magnetic fabric. Secondary processes develop in unconsolidated sediments, beginning right after deposition and terminating before the start of diagenesis. Under slow sedimentation conditions, deposited materials are likely to be exposed near the surface for longer periods. Therefore, relatively strong winds with a stable direction can alter the fabric of non-buried surficial sediments. As a result, grain orientations may change from scattered, non-flow oriented fabric to flow-oriented fabric. This type of fabric, developed by a secondary process, is called transformed magnetic fabric, and is characterized by relatively well-defined grain orientation, which allows us to estimate a dominant wind direction.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:36:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2017)
  • Shelter effect efficacy of sand fences: A comparison of systems in a wind
    • Authors: Tao Wang; Jianjun Qu; Yuquan Ling; Benli Liu; Jianhua Xiao
      Pages: 32 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 30
      Author(s): Tao Wang, Jianjun Qu, Yuquan Ling, Benli Liu, Jianhua Xiao
      The Lanzhou-Xinjiang High-speed Railway runs through an expansive wind area in the Gobi Desert and blown-sand disasters are a critical issue affecting its operation. To strengthen the blown-sand disaster shelter systems along the railway, the shelter effects of punching plate and wire mesh fences with approximately equal porosity (48%) were simulated in a wind tunnel. The experimental results showed that the wind velocity was reduced to a higher extent by the punching plate fence than by the wire mesh fence. When a single row of sand fencing was used, the wind velocity reduction coefficient (Rcz) values downwind of the punching plate fence and wire mesh fence reached 71.77% and 39.37%, respectively. When double rows of sand fencing were used, the Rcz values downwind of the punching plate and wire mesh fences were approximately 87.48% and 60.81%, respectively. For the flow field structure on the leeward side of the fencing, the deceleration zone behind the punching plate fence was more pronounced than that behind the wire mesh fence. The vortex zone was not obvious and the reverse flow disappeared for both types of fences, which indicates that the turbulent intensity was small. The sand-trapping efficiency of the wire mesh fence was close to that of punching plate fence. When a single row of sand fencing was set up, the total mass flux density decreased, on average, by 65.85% downwind of the wire mesh fence, and 75.06% downwind of the punching plate fence; when double rows of sand fencing were present, the total mass flux density decreased, on average, by 84.53% downwind of the wire mesh fence and 84.51% downwind of the punching plate fence. In addition, the wind-proof efficiency and the sand-proof efficiency of the punching plate fence and the wire mesh fence decreased with increasing wind velocities. Consequently, punching plate and wire mesh fences may effectively control the sand hazard in the expansive wind area of the Gobi Desert.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:36:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2017)
  • Differential erosion and the formation of layered yardangs in the Loulan
           region (Lop Nur), eastern Tarim Basin
    • Authors: Yongchong Lin; Lishuai Xu; Guijin Mu
      Pages: 41 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 30
      Author(s): Yongchong Lin, Lishuai Xu, Guijin Mu
      Yardangs are a type of wind-sculpted landform which generally form in hyper-arid regions. Several factors affect the development of yardangs, and the relative importance of these factors likely varies with differences in regional environmental factors. In the Loulan region of Lop Nur, wind dynamics are the principal factor affecting the development of yardangs. However, layered yardangs, which have undergone a unique form of differential erosion, are common in the region. These erosional landforms differ from typical yardangs which are eroded solely by abrasion and deflation. We conducted field and laboratory investigations of layered yardangs to determine their origin. The results indicate that there are two types of strata comprising the yardangs: uncompacted sand-silt layers, with a lower carbonate content; and compacted clay-silt layers, with a higher carbonate content. Both types of strata are horizontal and occur in alternating layers. This type of structure enables the wind to more easily erode the less resistant sand-silt layers at different heights, leaving the more resistant compacted clay-silt layers relatively intact. Eventually the undercut remnant clay-silt layers collapse once the weight of the suspended strata exceeds their elastic resistance (more than 90% of the fallen blocks have length/thickness ratios between 1.2 and 2.5). Therefore, in addition to wind dynamics, the lithology and structure of the strata are important factors affecting the development of the layered yardangs. This type of differential erosion accelerates the development of the yardangs in the Loulan region.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:36:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2017)
  • Martian sand sheet characterization and implications for formation: A case
    • Authors: Kirby D. Runyon; Nathan T. Bridges; Claire E. Newman
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 29
      Author(s): Kirby D. Runyon, Nathan T. Bridges, Claire E. Newman
      Windblown sand and dust dominate surface geologic processes in Mars’ current environment. Besides sand dune fields, areally extensive sand sheets are common across Mars, blanketing the underlying topography with several meters of rippled sand. Earth’s sand sheets commonly form upwind or cross-wind to dunes and both partially trap and source sediment to downwind dunes. In contrast, Mars’ sheets are frequently located downwind of active barchan and dome sand dunes, suggesting they cannot be a sediment source for the dunes as on Earth. Here, we characterize a Martian sand sheet and its geologic context, model the regional atmospheric circulation, and more broadly consider the implications for sand sheet formation on Mars. Our case study sand sheet in central Herschel Crater is<5m thick, with an upwind margin forming in the lee of topographic obstacles such as dunes, crater rims, and small hills. The sheet has actively migrating superposing ripples with estimated total sand fluxes comparable to total fluxes measured from slip faces on local, regional, and global dunes, some of which have eroded away. A smooth geologic unit interpreted as outcrops of paleo-sand sheets is adjacent to the active sheets. Our observations and atmospheric modeling—which predict wind shear stresses above the sand suspension threshold—indicate that the upwind dunes may be eroding and their sand deposited downwind in sheets in what may be a cyclical process, possibly related to Mars’ axial obliquity cycles.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T11:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
  • Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) contents in the
           respirable dust emitted by an agricultural soil of the central semiarid
           region of Argentina
    • Authors: Mariano J. Mendez; Silvia B. Aimar; Virginia C. Aparicio; Nancy B. Ramirez Haberkon; Daniel E. Buschiazzo; Eduardo De Gerónimo; José L. Costa
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 29
      Author(s): Mariano J. Mendez, Silvia B. Aimar, Virginia C. Aparicio, Nancy B. Ramirez Haberkon, Daniel E. Buschiazzo, Eduardo De Gerónimo, José L. Costa
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T12:15:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
  • Measurements of windblown dust characteristics and ocean fertilization
           potential: The ephemeral river valleys of Namibia
    • Authors: A.P. Dansie; G.F.S. Wiggs; D.S.G Thomas; R. Washington
      Pages: 30 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 29
      Author(s): A.P. Dansie, G.F.S. Wiggs, D.S.G Thomas, R. Washington
      Delivery of nutrients to the ocean by mineral aerosol deposition involves complex biogeochemical interactions that include atmospheric processing, dissolution and biotic uptake of available nutrients in the surface waters. Research into the fertilization potential of aeolian dust is currently constrained by a lack of understanding of the nutrient composition and bioavailability in dust source areas. Further, research into hot-spots of dust emission has largely focused on paleo-lacustrine sources and pans, to the detriment of other potential sources such as ephemeral river valleys in desert regions. Here, we investigate the sediment characteristics and nutrient content of windblown and surface sediments of a largely overlooked southern African dust source, Namibia’s ephemeral river valleys. We deployed monitoring equipment in three river valleys to capture deflated sediments and monitor airborne dust concentration and meteorological conditions throughout an annual dust season. Our results show that windblown dust within the river valleys is easily transportable offshore from Namibia over the Benguela Upwelling System, an intensely productive region of the South Atlantic Ocean. We demonstrate that the windblown dust contains iron, phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients, each of which may positively impact primary production rates when deposited in the complex upwelling system. The river valley dust has a significantly higher content of nutrients than either of southern Africa’s major dry lake bed dust sources, Etosha and Makgadikgadi Pans. This aeolian work builds on previous source sediment findings proposing the ephemeral river valleys of Namibia as regionally important sources of dust with enhanced ocean fertilisation potential.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T08:16:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
  • Sand-grain micromorphology used as a sediment-source indicator for Kharga
           Depression dunes (Western Desert, S Egypt)
    • Authors: B. Woronko; M. Dłużewski; D. Woronko
      Pages: 42 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 29
      Author(s): B. Woronko, M. Dłużewski, D. Woronko
      Roundness and surface-feature characteristics of sand grains collected from two dune ridges in Kharga Depression (southern Egypt) were tested for potential use as source-to-sink indicators of dunes movement. Grain examination was accommodated through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. Five grain types were distinguished: A) fresh; B) sheet precipitated with “raindrop” structures; C) platy precipitated; D) broken; and E) with chemically etched surfaces—each type diagnostic of a specific geomorphic inheritance. Regarding the level of sphericity, these grains were subdivided into nine roundness classes (0.1–0.9), where angular grains are marked by 0.1 and very well-rounded grains by 0.9. Significant roundness and grain-type surface variations are observed both along dune ridges and between them. Poorly and medium-rounded grain populations dominate, along with sheet-precipitated grains. The contribution of well- and very well-rounded grains is low. The northern part of both eastern and western dune ridges is characterized by grains that represent high-energy aqueous environments with well-rounded grains, whereas platy precipitated grains with a lower level of roundness are concentrated in the middle part of the dune ridges. The southern part of the Kharga Depression is again characterized by sheet-precipitated grains. Our results indicate that the northern part of dune ridges in the Kharga Depression is mainly built of sands that originate from beyond the depression (e.g., Ghard Abu-Maharik) and the weathered deposits of the Nubian and Moghra Sandstones. The dunes in central and southern part of the Kharga Depression also derive sand from a local depression bottom comprised of playa and fluvial deposits. The growing importance of the local sand source may be explained by the lowering of the local groundwater table, which resulted in playa drying. This groundwater loss resulted in the degradation of the vegetation cover, facilitating an increase in wind entrainment of playa sediments.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T08:16:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
  • Origins of late- Pleistocene coastal dune sheets, Magdalena and Guerrero
           Negro, from continental shelf low-stand supply (70–20ka), under
           conditions of southeast littoral- and eolian-sand transport, in Baja
           California Sur, Mexico
    • Authors: Curt D. Peterson; Janette M. Murillo-Jiménez; Errol Stock; David M. Price; Steve W. Hostetler; David Percy
      Pages: 13 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 28
      Author(s): Curt D. Peterson, Janette M. Murillo-Jiménez, Errol Stock, David M. Price, Steve W. Hostetler, David Percy
      Shallow morpho-stratigraphic sections (n=11) in each of two large coastal dune sheets including the Magdalena (7000km2) and Guerrero Negro (8000km2) dune sheets, from the Pacific Ocean side of Baja California Sur, Mexico, have been analyzed for dune deposit age. The shallow morpho-stratigraphic sections (∼2–10m depth) include 11 new TL and 14C ages, and paleosol chronosequences, that differentiate cemented late Pleistocene dune deposits (20.7±2.1 to 99.8±9.4ka) from uncemented Holocene dune deposits (0.7±0.05 to at least 3.2±0.3ka). Large linear dune ridges (5–10m in height) in the dune sheet interiors trend southeast and are generally of late Pleistocene age (∼70–20ka). The late Pleistocene dune deposits reflect eolian transport of marine sand across the emerged continental shelf (30–50km southeast distance) from low-stand paleo-shorelines (−100±25m elevation), which were locally oriented nearly orthogonal to modeled deep-water wave directions (∼300° TN). During the Holocene marine transgression, onshore and alongshore wave transport delivered remobilized shelf-sand deposits to the nearshore areas of the large dune sheets, building extensive barrier islands and sand spits. Submerged back-barrier lagoons generally precluded marine sand supply to dune sheet interiors in middle to late Holocene time, though exceptions occur along some ocean and lagoon shorelines. Reactivation of the late Pleistocene dune deposits in the dune sheet interiors lead to generally thin (1–3m thickness), but widespread, covers of Holocene dune deposits (0.41±0.05 to 10.5±1.6ka). Mechanical drilling will be required to penetrate indurated subsoil caliche layers to reach basal Pleistocene dune deposits.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T02:36:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
  • Characterization of dustfall in rural and urban sites during three dust
           storms in northern China, 2010
    • Authors: Yanli Lyu; Zhiqiang Qu; Lianyou Liu; Lanlan Guo; Yanyan Yang; Xia Hu; Yiying Xiong; Guoming Zhang; Mengdi Zhao; Bo Liang; Jiadong Dai; Xiyang Zuo; Qingpan Jia; Hao Zheng; Xujiao Han; Shoudong Zhao; Qi Liu
      Pages: 29 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 28
      Author(s): Yanli Lyu, Zhiqiang Qu, Lianyou Liu, Lanlan Guo, Yanyan Yang, Xia Hu, Yiying Xiong, Guoming Zhang, Mengdi Zhao, Bo Liang, Jiadong Dai, Xiyang Zuo, Qingpan Jia, Hao Zheng, Xujiao Han, Shoudong Zhao, Qi Liu
      Dust transport and deposition processes are important for understanding the environmental risk of dust storms. This study investigated characteristics of dustfall at two rural sites and four urban sites from dust sources to downwind regions during three dust storms (DS1: March 19–22, DS2: April 24–26, DS3: May 7–10, 2010). Analysis of near-surface instantaneous maximum wind speed and prevailing wind direction revealed the dust storms bursted out from northwestern arid and semiarid regions to eastern China. Microaggregates, angular, subangular, columnar, subrounded, and spherical particles were identified by scanning electron microscope. Dust deposition flux (DDF) during the dust storms was significantly high at sites near sand deserts and sandy land. During DS2, DDF was 25.1, 9.9, 2.3, and 1.5gm−2 in Jingbian, Shapotou, Lanzhou, and Beijing, respectively. The three dust storms contributed 7.3% of Beijing’s annual dustfall in 2010, which suggests anthropogenic dust might contribute the majority of annual dustfall in urban areas. The mass medium diameter of dustfall during DS2 in Shapotou, Jingbian, Lanzhou, and Beijing was 26.1, 9.0, 16.4, and 15.5μm, respectively. Urban dustfall contained more heavy metals, sulfur and arsenic than rural dustfall. Cadmium contamination was identified in all urban dust particles. Anthropogenic pollutants in combination with mineral dust might lead to complex environmental risk on local, regional, and global scales. China’s environmental pollution control should integrate reductions in land desertification and multisource anthropogenic emissions within the context of climate change mitigation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T02:36:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
  • Wind sorting affects differently the organo-mineral composition of
           saltating and particulate materials in contrasting texture agricultural
    • Authors: Laura Antonela Iturri; Roger Funk; Martin Leue; Michael Sommer; Daniel Eduardo Buschiazzo
      Pages: 39 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 28
      Author(s): Laura Antonela Iturri, Roger Funk, Martin Leue, Michael Sommer, Daniel Eduardo Buschiazzo
      There is little information about the mineral and organic composition of sediments eroded by wind at different heights. Because of that, wind tunnel simulations were performed on four agricultural loess soils of different granulometry and their saltating materials collected at different heights. The particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter mainly smaller than 10µm (PM10) of these soils was obtained separately by a laboratory method. Results indicated that the granulometric composition of sediments collected at different heights was more homogeneous in fine- than in sandy-textured soils, which were more affected by sorting effects during wind erosion. This agrees with the preferential transport of quartz at low heights and of clay minerals at greater heights. SOC contents increased with height, but the composition of the organic materials was different: stable carboxylic acids, aldehydes, amides and aromatics were preferentially transported close to the ground because their were found in larger aggregates, while plant debris and polysaccharides, carbohydrates and derivatives of microbial origin from organic matter dominated at greater heights for all soil types. The amount of SOC in the PM10 fraction was higher when it was emitted from sandy than from fine textured soils. Because of the sorting process produced by wind erosion, the stable organic matter compounds will be transported at low heights and local scales, modifying soil fertility due to nutrient exportation, while less stable organic compounds will be part of the suspension losses, which are known to affect some processes at regional- or global scale.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:44:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
  • Chronological reconstruction of eolianites and transversal mobile dunes of
           northwest coast of Ceará State – Brazil, in the last 3000calyrsBP
    • Authors: João Wagner Alencar Castro; Julia Varella Malta; Lucas Lavo Antonio Jimo Miguel; Caique Lima Cabral; Alvaro Balmant Passemilio
      Pages: 51 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 28
      Author(s): João Wagner Alencar Castro, Julia Varella Malta, Lucas Lavo Antonio Jimo Miguel, Caique Lima Cabral, Alvaro Balmant Passemilio
      Dunefields are very common in the northern coastal zone of northeast Brazil. They have the potential to yield important information about paleoclimate, paleo-winds and regional winds and their response to sea-level fluctuations during the Holocene. We reconstructed the coastal dunes geochronological evolution of northwest Ceará State – Brazil, in the last 3000calyrsBP, using detailed analyses of lithostratigraphy, microfossil (foraminifera), wind regime, dune monitoring and 8 radiocarbon dates. The chronology was based on 14C dating in eolianites and monitoring transversal mobile dunes movement processes. Radiocarbon date results indicated that the dunes corresponding to eolianites revealed ages between 2760–2480 and 980–750calyrsBP, suggesting that the vast transversal mobile dunefields were formed after this period in similar condition to the current sea-level. We considered that the material transportation by the prevailing east winds towards the transversal dunes is estimated in the order of 11.0m/year, thus the current aeolian system is less than 1000yrsBP.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:44:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
  • Geomorphology context and characterization of dunefields developed by the
           southern westerlies at drying Colhué Huapi shallow lake, Patagonia
    • Authors: Alejandro Montes; Silvana Soledad Rodríguez; Carlos Eduardo Domínguez
      Pages: 58 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 28
      Author(s): Alejandro Montes, Silvana Soledad Rodríguez, Carlos Eduardo Domínguez
      Patagonia is the only continental territory exposed to the southern westerlies. The speed and frequency of these westerly winds generate a landscape strongly influenced by aeolian processes. This research shows a characterization of depositional and erosive aeolian landforms developed in dunefields associated to Lake Colhué Huapi, in the Extra-Andean Patagonia. Dunefields are located at 45°–46°S and moved in west-east direction due to the southern westerlies. We identified two big groups of active dunefields, one migrating through the dry lakebed of Colhué Huapi and the other migrating eastwards from the lakeshore. The dunefields mainly consist of transverse dunes, barchans, sand shadows and sand sheets. Yardangs, desert pavements, exhumed roots and decapitated soils were recognized in interdune areas. Longitudinal sand ridges, parallel to the prevailing wind direction, often remain preserved after the dunefields have passed. This allows to recognize the path of the dunes in the past. Sand ridges are recognized up to 28km east from the present coast of the lake and evidenced former dunefields development. We describe the geomorphology context, landforms and sediments supply of dunefields related to the lake dynamics subject to clear tendency to desiccation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T00:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
  • Crop production and economic loss due to wind erosion in hot arid
           ecosystem of India
    • Authors: Priyabrata Santra; P.C. Moharana; Mahesh Kumar; M.L. Soni; C.B. Pandey; S.K. Chaudhari; A.K. Sikka
      Pages: 71 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 28
      Author(s): Priyabrata Santra, P.C. Moharana, Mahesh Kumar, M.L. Soni, C.B. Pandey, S.K. Chaudhari, A.K. Sikka
      Wind erosion is a severe land degradation process in hot arid western India and affects the agricultural production system. It affects crop yield directly by damaging the crops through abrasion, burial, dust deposition etc. and indirectly by reducing soil fertility. In this study, an attempt was made to quantify the indirect impact of wind erosion process on crop production loss and associated economic loss in hot arid ecosystem of India. It has been observed that soil loss due to wind erosion varies from minimum 1.3tha−1 to maximum 83.3tha−1 as per the severity. Yield loss due to wind erosion was found maximum for groundnut (Arachis hypogea) (5–331kgha−1 yr−1), whereas minimum for moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) (1–93kgha−1 yr−1). For pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), which covers a major portion of arable lands in western Rajasthan, the yield loss was found 3–195kgha−1 yr−1. Economic loss was found higher for groundnut and clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) than rest crops, which are about 191–12465ha−1 depending on the severity of wind erosion. For mustard (Brassica spp.) and wheat (Triticum spp.) the economic loss was about 47–3181ha−1, whereas for pearl millet the economic loss was lowest ( 36–2294ha−1). In this calculation only indirect impact of wind erosion in terms of reduction in soil fertility was considered. There is need of future research work for assessing the direct damage on crops by wind erosion process, addition of which may lead to higher magnitude of losses.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T00:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.07.009
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
  • Field sampling of loose erodible material: A new system to consider the
           full particle-size spectrum
    • Authors: Martina Klose; Thomas E. Gill; Nicholas P. Webb; Justin W. Van Zee
      Pages: 83 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 28
      Author(s): Martina Klose, Thomas E. Gill, Nicholas P. Webb, Justin W. Van Zee
      A new system is presented to sample and enable the characterization of loose erodible material (LEM) present on a soil surface, which may be susceptible for entrainment by wind. The system uses a modified MWAC (Modified Wilson and Cooke) sediment sampler connected to a corded hand-held vacuum cleaner. Performance and accuracy of the system was tested in the laboratory using five reference soil samples with different textures. Sampling was most effective for sandy soils, while effectiveness decreases were found for soils with high silt and clay contents in dry dispersion. This effectiveness decrease can be attributed to loose silt and clay-sized particles and particle aggregates adhering to and clogging a filter attached to the MWAC outlet. Overall, the system was found to be effective in collecting sediment for most soil textures and theoretical interpretation of the measured flow speeds suggests that LEM can be sampled for a wide range of particle sizes, including dust particles. Particle-size analysis revealed that the new system is able to accurately capture the particle-size distribution (PSD) of a given sample. Only small discrepancies (maximum cumulative difference <10% at 63μm) were found between the PSDs before and after vacuuming for all test soils. Despite limitations of the system, it is an advance toward sampling the full particle-size spectrum of loose sediment available for entrainment with the overall goal to better understand the mechanisms of dust emission and their variability.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T00:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
  • Evolution and diagnostic utility of aeolian rat-tails: A new type of
           abrasion feature on Earth and Mars
    • Authors: Elena A. Favaro; Christopher H. Hugenholtz; Thomas E. Barchyn
      Pages: 91 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 28
      Author(s): Elena A. Favaro, Christopher H. Hugenholtz, Thomas E. Barchyn
      Aeolian rat-tails (ARTs) are a previously undocumented, regionally-ubiquitous aeolian abrasion feature observed on matrix-supported ignimbrite surfaces in the Puna Plateau of Northwest Argentina. ARTs consist of an abrasion-resistant lithic clast projecting above the surface with a lee tail or ‘keel’ in the more erodible matrix. Size is controlled by the dimensions of the windward lithic clast, ranging from centimetre to meter scale; spatial density varies with clast content, which may reflect variations in ignimbrite facies. Field observations suggest ARTs follow a definable evolutionary sequence. First, an abrasion-resistant lithic clast contained within the ignimbrite is exposed to abrasion at the surface. Impacts from abrading particles erode the softer ignimbrite matrix adjacent to the clast. The clast shelters the leeward surface under a unimodal abrasion direction, creating a tail that tapers downwind and elongates as the clast emerges. Clasts become dislodged from the matrix as the surrounding surface erodes, ultimately destroying the feature if the clast is small enough to be mobilized directly by wind or impacting particles. This evolutionary sequence explains the morphology of ARTs and the presence of loose clasts on the ignimbrite surface, which contributes to the development of other landforms in the region, such as periodic bedrock ridges, yardangs, and megaripples. Satellite and rover images suggest similar features also exist on Mars. Because the formation and preservation of ARTs is contingent on unimodal abrasion direction, their orientation can be used as an indicator of long-term aeolian sediment transport direction.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T00:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
  • Ground robotic measurement of aeolian processes
    • Authors: Feifei Qian; Douglas Jerolmack; Nicholas Lancaster; George Nikolich; Paul Reverdy; Sonia Roberts; Thomas Shipley; R. Scott Van Pelt; Ted M. Zobeck; Daniel E. Koditschek
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 27
      Author(s): Feifei Qian, Douglas Jerolmack, Nicholas Lancaster, George Nikolich, Paul Reverdy, Sonia Roberts, Thomas Shipley, R. Scott Van Pelt, Ted M. Zobeck, Daniel E. Koditschek
      Models of aeolian processes rely on accurate measurements of the rates of sediment transport by wind, and careful evaluation of the environmental controls of these processes. Existing field approaches typically require intensive, event-based experiments involving dense arrays of instruments. These devices are often cumbersome and logistically difficult to set up and maintain, especially near steep or vegetated dune surfaces. Significant advances in instrumentation are needed to provide the datasets that are required to validate and improve mechanistic models of aeolian sediment transport. Recent advances in robotics show great promise for assisting and amplifying scientists’ efforts to increase the spatial and temporal resolution of many environmental measurements governing sediment transport. The emergence of cheap, agile, human-scale robotic platforms endowed with increasingly sophisticated sensor and motor suites opens up the prospect of deploying programmable, reactive sensor payloads across complex terrain in the service of aeolian science. This paper surveys the need and assesses the opportunities and challenges for amassing novel, highly resolved spatiotemporal datasets for aeolian research using partially-automated ground mobility. We review the limitations of existing measurement approaches for aeolian processes, and discuss how they may be transformed by ground-based robotic platforms, using examples from our initial field experiments. We then review how the need to traverse challenging aeolian terrains and simultaneously make high-resolution measurements of critical variables requires enhanced robotic capability. Finally, we conclude with a look to the future, in which robotic platforms may operate with increasing autonomy in harsh conditions. Besides expanding the completeness of terrestrial datasets, bringing ground-based robots to the aeolian research community may lead to unexpected discoveries that generate new hypotheses to expand the science itself.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T12:15:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of agricultural mulches for reducing
           post-wildfire wind erosion
    • Authors: P.R. Robichaud; J. Jennewein; B.S. Sharratt; S.A. Lewis; R.E. Brown
      Pages: 13 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 27
      Author(s): P.R. Robichaud, J. Jennewein, B.S. Sharratt, S.A. Lewis, R.E. Brown
      Post-wildfire soil erosion can be caused by water or aeolian processes, yet most erosion research has focused on predominantly water-driven erosion. This study investigates the effectiveness of three agricultural mulches, with and without a tackifier, on aeolian sediment transport processes. A wind tunnel was used to simulate post-wildfire wind erosion at three wind speeds (6, 11 and 18ms−1). Shallow trays containing soil collected after a wildfire were treated with chopped rice, wheat or chopped wheat mulch; mulch treatments were also compounded with liquid treatments, tackifier to water ratios of 1:6, 1:3 and water. The mulch treatments were generally easily moved at all wind speeds with cover reductions greater than 90% at the highest wind speed. As expected, sediment loss was greatest for the bare soil treatment, ranging from 6.5gm−2 at the lowest wind speed which increases to 6258gm−2 at the highest wind speed. Adding wheat or chopped wheat mulch significantly reduced sediment loss by an order or magnitude (698 and 298gm−2, respectively) at the highest wind speed. Adding chopped rice straw reduced sediment loss by a half to 3573gm−2 at the highest wind speed, but the effect was not significant due to mobilization of the mulch. The most effective sediment loss mitigation was achieved with liquid tackifier treatments when applied to bare soil and when compounded with various mulch treatments, particularly at the highest wind speed. These results may aid management decisions when mitigating aeolian sediment transport after wildfires.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T12:30:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
  • Intensity and degree of segregation in bimodal and multimodal grain size
    • Authors: Itzhak Katra; Hezi Yizhaq
      Pages: 23 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 27
      Author(s): Itzhak Katra, Hezi Yizhaq
      The commonly used grain size analysis technique which applies moments (sorting, skewness and kurtosis) is less useful in the case of sediments with bimodal size distributions. Herein we suggest a new simple method for analyzing the degree of grain size segregation in sand-sized sediment that has clear bimodal size distributions. Two main features are used to characterize the bimodal distribution: grain diameter segregation, which is the normalized difference between coarse and fine grain diameters, and the frequency segregation which is the normalized difference in frequencies between two modes. The new defined indices can be calculated from frequency plot curves and can be graphically represented on a two dimensional coordinate system showing the dynamical aspects of the size distribution. The results enable comparison between granular samples from different locations and/or times to shed new light on the dynamic processes involved in grain size segregation of sediments. We demonstrate here the use of this method to analyze bimodal distributions of aeolian granular samples mostly from aeolian megaripples. Six different aeolian cases were analyzed to highlight the method’s applicability, which is relevant to wide research themes in the Earth and environmental sciences, and can furthermore be easily adapted to analyze polymodal grain size distributions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T12:34:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
  • Investigating water adsorption onto natural mineral dust particles:
           Linking DRIFTS experiments and BET theory
    • Authors: Nitesh Joshi; Manolis N. Romanias; Veronique Riffault; Frederic Thevenet
      Pages: 35 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 27
      Author(s): Nitesh Joshi, Manolis N. Romanias, Veronique Riffault, Frederic Thevenet
      The adsorption of water molecules on natural mineral dusts was investigated employing in situ Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The natural dust samples originated from North and West Africa, Saudi Arabia and Gobi desert regions. Furthermore, the hygroscopicity of commercially available Arizona Test Dusts (ATDs) and Icelandic volcanic ash were examined. N2 sorption measurements, X-ray fluorescence and diffraction (XRF and XRD), as well as Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses were performed to determine the physicochemical properties of the particles. The water adsorption experiments were conducted in an optical cell, at room temperature under the relative humidity (RH) range of 1.9–95%. Results were simulated using a modified three-parameter Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equation. Water monolayer (ML) was formed in the RH range of 15–25%, while additional water layers were formed at higher RH. Besides, the standard adsorption enthalpies of water onto natural mineral dust samples were determined. A thorough comparison of two commercially available ATD samples indicated that size distribution and/or porosity should play a key role in particle hygroscopicity. Regarding the natural mineral particles, Ca/Si ratios, and to a lesser extent Al/Si, Na/Si, Mg/Si ratios, were found to impact the minimum RH level required for water monolayer formation. These results suggest that the hygroscopic properties of investigated African dusts are quite similar over the whole investigated RH range. Furthermore, one of the major conclusions is that under most atmospheric relative humidity conditions, natural mineral samples are always covered with at least one layer of adsorbed water.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T04:39:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
  • Connecting geomorphology to dust emission through high-resolution mapping
           of global land cover and sediment supply
    • Authors: Sagar Prasad Parajuli; Charles S. Zender
      Pages: 47 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 27
      Author(s): Sagar Prasad Parajuli, Charles S. Zender
      A key challenge in modeling dust emissions is to represent the location and strength of dust sources. One critical aspect of dust sources that is not well understood and thus not represented in dust models is their geomorphology. In this work, we investigate the geomorphology of global dust sources by developing two high-resolution (∼500m), seamless, global maps. First is a land surface map in which landforms are classified into different categories based on geomorphology using an image classification technique. The land surface map shows the distribution of landforms in dust source regions and is useful in defining the boundaries of different dust sources in dust models. Second is the sediment supply map developed by combining the upstream drainage area with the visible reflectance retrieved by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This map, due to the inclusion of surface reflectance, highlights dust sources such as playa/sabkha and sand dunes and anthropogenic dust sources such as agricultural areas, that may not be captured by the commonly used elevation-based erodibility maps. We establish the connection between geomorphology and dust emission by comparing the sediment supply map with the land surface map and dust frequency map, qualitatively and quantitatively. We show that the sediment supply is linked to the land surface type and that playa/sabkha corresponds to the greatest inferred sediment supply. The sediment supply map is largely consistent with the land surface map and correlates well with the frequency of occurrence map derived from high-resolution MODIS level-2 aerosol optical depth (AOD) data.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T04:39:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
  • Sedimentary rhythms in coastal dunes as a record of intra-annual changes
           in wind climate (Łeba, Poland)
    • Authors: J. Ludwig; S. Lindhorst; C. Betzler; S.E. Bierstedt; R.K. Borówka
      Pages: 67 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 27
      Author(s): J. Ludwig, S. Lindhorst, C. Betzler, S.E. Bierstedt, R.K. Borówka
      It is shown that coastal dunes bear a so far unread archive of annual wind intensity. Active dunes at the Polish coast near Łeba consist of two genetic units: primary dunes with up to 18m high eastward-dipping foresets, temporarily superimposed by smaller secondary dunes. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data reveal that the foresets of the primary dunes are bundled into alternating packages imaged as either low- or high-amplitude reflections. High-amplitude packages are composed of quartz sand with intercalated heavy-minerals layers. Low-amplitude packages lack these heavy-mineral concentrations. Dune net-progradation is towards the east, reflecting the prevalence of westerly winds. Winds blowing parallel to the dune crest winnow the lee slope, leaving layers enriched in heavy minerals. Sediment transport to the slip face of the dunes is enhanced during the winter months, whereas winnowing predominantly takes place during the spring to autumn months, when the wind field is bi-directional. As a consequence of this seasonal shift, the sedimentary record of one year comprises one low- and one high-amplitude GPR reflection interval. This sedimentary pattern is a persistent feature of the Łeba dunes and recognized to resemble a sedimentary “bar code”. To overcome hiatuses in the bar code of individual dunes and dune-to-dune variations in bar-code quality, dendrochronological methods were adopted to compile a composite bar code from several dunes. The resulting data series shows annual variations in west-wind intensity at the southern Baltic coast for the time period 1987 to 2012. Proxy-based wind data are validated against instrumental based weather observations.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T01:45:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
  • Application of Database Approaches to the Study of Earth’s Aeolian
           Environments: Community Needs and Goals
    • Authors: Louis A. Scuderi; Gary S. Weissmann; Adrian J. Hartley; Xiaoping Yang; Nicholas Lancaster
      Pages: 79 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 27
      Author(s): Louis A. Scuderi, Gary S. Weissmann, Adrian J. Hartley, Xiaoping Yang, Nicholas Lancaster
      Aeolian science is faced with significant challenges that impact its ability to benefit from recent advances in information technology. The discipline deals with high-end systems in the form of ground and satellite based sensors, computer modeling and simulation, and wind tunnel experiments. Aeolian scientists also collect field data manually with observational methods that may differ significantly between studies with little agreement on even basic morphometric parameters and terminology. Data produced from these studies, while forming the core of research papers and reports, is rarely available to the community at large. Recent advances are also superimposed on an underlying semantic structure that dates to the 1800’s or earlier that is confusing, with ambiguously defined, and at times even contradictory, meanings. The aeolian “world-view” does not always fit within neat increments nor is defined by crisp objects. Instead change is continuous and features are fuzzy. Development of an ontological framework to guide spatiotemporal research is the fundamental starting point for organizing data in aeolian science. This requires a “rethinking” of how we define, collect, process, store and share data along with the development of a community-wide collaborative approach designed to bring the discipline into a data rich future. There is also a pressing need to develop efficient methods to integrate, analyze and manage spatial and temporal data and to promote data produced by aeolian scientists so it is available for preparing diagnostic studies, as input into a range of environmental models, and for advising national and international bodies that drive research agendas. This requires the establishment of working groups within the discipline to deal with content, format, processing pipelines, knowledge discovery tools and database access issues unique to aeolian science. Achieving this goal requires the development of comprehensive and highly-organized databases, tools that allow aeolian scientists as well as those in related disciplines to access and analyze the wealth of data available, and a supporting infrastructure and community-wide effort that allows aeolian scientists to communicate their results in replicable ways to scientists and decision and policy makers. Fortunately, much of the groundwork required to move aeolian science into a data rich future has been developed in other data rich physical science fields, and within the computer science and information technology disciplines.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T01:45:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
  • Editorial Introduction: Fourth Planetary Dunes Workshop Special Issue
    • Authors: Matthew Chojnacki; Matt W. Telfer
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 26
      Author(s): Matthew Chojnacki, Matt W. Telfer

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T03:25:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
  • Aeolian sand transport and aeolian deposits on Venus: A review
    • Authors: Mikhail A. Kreslavsly; Nataliya V. Bondarenko
      Pages: 29 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 26
      Author(s): Mikhail A. Kreslavsly, Nataliya V. Bondarenko
      We review the current state of knowledge about aeolian sand transport and aeolian bedforms on planet Venus. This knowledge is limited by lack of observational data. Among the four planetary bodies of the Solar System with sufficient atmospheres in contact with solid surfaces, Venus has the densest atmosphere; the conditions there are transitional between those for terrestrial subaerial and subaqueous transport. The dense atmosphere causes low saltation threshold and short characteristic saltation length, and short scale length of the incipient dunes. A few lines of evidence indicate that the typical wind speeds exceed the saltation threshold; therefore, sand transport would be pervasive, if sand capable of saltation is available. Sand production on Venus is probably much slower than on the Earth; the major terrestrial sand sinks are also absent, however, lithification of sand through sintering is expected to be effective under Venus’ conditions. Active transport is not detectable with the data available. Aeolian bedforms (transverse dunes) resolved in the currently available radar images occupy a tiny area on the planet; however, indirect observations suggest that small-scale unresolved aeolian bedforms are ubiquitous. Aeolian transport is probably limited by sand lithification causing shortage of saltation-capable material. Large impact events likely cause regional short-term spikes in aeolian transport by supplying a large amount of sand-size particles, as well as disintegration and activation of older indurated sand deposits. The data available are insufficient to understand whether the global aeolian sand transport occurs or not. More robust knowledge about aeolian transport on Venus is essential for future scientific exploration of the planet, in particular, for implementation and interpretation of geochemical studies of surface materials. High-resolution orbital radar imaging with local to regional coverage and desirable interferometric capabilities is the most effective way to obtain essential new knowledge about aeolian transport on Venus.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T03:25:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2016.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
  • Surface slope effects for ripple orientation on sand dunes in López
           crater, Terra Tyrrhena region of Mars
    • Authors: James R. Zimbelman; Molly B. Johnson
      Pages: 57 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 26
      Author(s): James R. Zimbelman, Molly B. Johnson
      Ripple orientations on small sand dunes (dunes lacking substantial slip faces) at widely distributed sites across Mars have been documented using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images, in an effort to determine the last formative aeolian sediment transport direction experienced at these locations. Howard (1977) used field measurements and first principles to derive an expression for determining how much the surface slope on a sand dune deflects the orientation of sand ripples with respect to the formative wind direction. A Digital Terrain Model derived from stereo HiRISE images was used to assess the potential deflection of ripples on sand dunes on the floor of López crater on Mars. Three-quarters of the area covered by sand dunes within the DTM has a surface slope <10°, where deflection angles are expected to be <17° (a value that should not pose a major issue for comparison to model-derived winds); such surface slopes are typical of small sand dunes on Mars that lack large slip faces. Sand ripples therefore should be good indicators of the most recent sand-transporting winds that have blown across sand dunes on Mars, as long as areas on or very near to slip faces are avoided.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T03:25:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2016.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
  • Migrating meter-scale bedforms on Martian dark dunes: Are terrestrial
           aeolian ripples good analogues'
    • Authors: David A. Vaz; S. Silvestro; Pedro T.K. Sarmento; M. Cardinale
      Pages: 101 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 26
      Author(s): David A. Vaz, S. Silvestro, Pedro T.K. Sarmento, M. Cardinale
      Using automatic bedform mapping, principal component analysis and clustering we present a multiscale morphodynamic survey of dunes and meter-scale ripples on Herschel crater, Mars. The main purpose of this study is to assess if the morphology and temporal evolution of Martian meter-scale ripples is comparable to the morphodynamic characteristics of terrestrial aeolian impact ripples. We demonstrate that the spatial variations of the mapped dune patterns are correlated with substrate topography, which also influences the spatial distribution of the height and celerity of dunes’ slipfaces. This topographic forcing is also patent on the spatial distribution of the ripples, thus proving that a multiscale coupling of active bedforms exists on Herschel under the present surface conditions. We found that Martian meter-scale ripples are morphologically distinct from terrestrial aeolian ripples, presenting a lower degree of straightness. Only ∼3% of the mapped ripples can be considered sinuous or straight bedforms. Moreover, we conclude that this two-dimensional sub-population is restricted to well define dune settings, where factors that promote the elongation of the meter-scale ripples were identified: gravity transport on higher slopes, bedform obliquity and flow convergence on the leeward side of dunes. We also report that the different sets of ripples that were mapped and segmented do not present a transverse migration. Therefore we conclude that terrestrial aeolian ripples are not good analogues for Martian meter-scale bedforms, either in terms of morphology or dynamic evolution.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T03:25:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2016.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
  • Sedimentary differentiation of aeolian grains at the White Sands National
           Monument, New Mexico, USA
    • Authors: Lori K. Fenton; Janice L. Bishop; Sara King; Barbara Lafuente; Briony Horgan; David Bustos; Philippe Sarrazin
      Pages: 117 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 26
      Author(s): Lori K. Fenton, Janice L. Bishop, Sara King, Barbara Lafuente, Briony Horgan, David Bustos, Philippe Sarrazin
      Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) has been identified as a major component of part of Olympia Undae in the northern polar region of Mars, along with the mafic minerals more typical of Martian dune fields. The source and age of the gypsum is disputed, with the proposed explanations having vastly different implications for Mars’ geological history. Furthermore, the transport of low density gypsum grains relative to and concurrently with denser grains has yet to be investigated in an aeolian setting. To address this knowledge gap, we performed a field study at White Sands National Monument (WSNM) in New Mexico, USA. Although gypsum dominates the bulk of the dune field, a dolomite-rich [CaMg(CO3)2] transport pathway along the northern border of WSNM provides a suitable analog site to study the transport of gypsum grains relative to the somewhat harder and denser carbonate grains. We collected samples along the stoss slope of a dune and on two coarse-grained ripples at the upwind margin of the dune field where minerals other than gypsum were most common. For comparison, additional samples were taken along the stoss slope of a dune outside the dolomite transport pathway, in the center of the dune field. Visible and near-infrared (VNIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Raman analyses of different sample size fractions reveal that dolomite is only prevalent in grains larger than ∼1mm. Other minerals, most notably calcite, are also present in smaller quantities among the coarse grains. The abundance of these coarse grains, relative to gypsum grains of the same size, drops off sharply at the upwind margin of the dune field. In contrast, gypsum dominated the finer fraction (<∼1 mm) at all sample sites, displaying no spatial variation. Estimates of sediment fluxes indicate that, although mineralogical differentiation of wind-transported grains occurs gradually in creep, the process is much more rapid when winds are strong enough to saltate the ⩾1mm grains. The observed grain segregation is consistent with the WSNM dune field formative friction velocity (0.39m/s) proposed by Jerolmack et al. (2011): winds significantly weaker than this value would not lift the large grains into differentiation-inducing saltation, whereas the observed differentiated trend would be obliterated by significantly stronger winds. When applied to Olympia Undae, a similar sediment flux analysis suggests that the strongest winds modeled by the Mars Climate Database (MCD) are consistent with the observed concentration of gypsum at dune crests. Density-driven differentiation in transport should not influence sediment fluxes of finer grains (<1mm) as strongly on Earth, suggesting that the high ratio of fine gypsum grains to other minerals at WSNM is caused by a relatively high production and/or abrasion rate of gypsum sand. The observed preferential transport of coarse-grained gypsum in the dune field conceals a broader range of coarse-grained minerals present on Alkali Flat, contributing to the problem that mineralogy determined through both remote sensing of dune fields and analysis of dune foresets does not fully represent that of the source regions. Unlike quartz, the concentration of gypsum in WSNM occurs not because it is more resistant to weathering and erosion than other minerals, but rather because it is more readily produced (in the case of finer grains) and transported (in the case of coarser grains) than other minerals present in the region.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T03:25:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2016.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
  • Eolianite and coquinite as evidence of MIS 6 and 5, NW Black Sea coast,
    • Authors: Ahmet Evren Erginal; Nafiye Güneç Kıyak; Hamit Haluk Selim; Mustafa Bozcu; Muhammed Zeynel Öztürk; Yunus Levent Ekinci; Alper Demirci; Elmas Kırcı Elmas; Tuğba Öztürk; Çağlar Çakır; Mustafa Karabıyıkoğlu
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 25
      Author(s): Ahmet Evren Erginal, Nafiye Güneç Kıyak, Hamit Haluk Selim, Mustafa Bozcu, Muhammed Zeynel Öztürk, Yunus Levent Ekinci, Alper Demirci, Elmas Kırcı Elmas, Tuğba Öztürk, Çağlar Çakır, Mustafa Karabıyıkoğlu
      This paper discusses the implications of a lowstand carbonate eolianite and overlying transgressive sequence of coquinite at Şile on the Turkish Black Sea coast based on composition, depositional characteristics and optical age estimations. The cross-bedded eolianite is a mixed ooid quartz grainstone in composition, yielding a depositional age matching MIS 6. It formed at the backshore of the paleobeach with the supply of sediment the from the beach face and offering insights into the drift of mixed shallow marine carbonates and siliciclastics together with radial ooids by onshore winds from a subaerially exposed high- to low-energy ooid shoals and oolitic sand complexes which developed parallel to the shoreline on the shallow shelf margin. During this lowstand, a low-relief dune retaining a record of opposing paleowind directions than that of prevalent northeasterly winds of today appears to have been lithified to form dune rock (aeolinite) under drier conditions compared to the present. Coinciding with MIS 5e, shallow marine coquina beds resting unconformably on the eolianite indicate the occurrence of the Mediterranean transgression during the last interglacial, as confirmed by benthic foraminifera within the high-salinity tolerant coquina shells.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T10:08:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
  • A wind tunnel study of the aerodynamic and sand trapping properties of
           porous mesh 3-dimensional roughness elements
    • Authors: J.A. Gillies; W.G. Nickling; G. Nikolich; V. Etyemezian
      Pages: 23 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 25
      Author(s): J.A. Gillies, W.G. Nickling, G. Nikolich, V. Etyemezian
      The aerodynamic drag properties and sand trapping effectiveness of porous roughness elements constructed of wire mesh with two geometries, cube/rectangular cylinder and round cylinder were evaluated in a wind tunnel study. Porosity of the mesh was 0.525. Volumetric porosity and permeability were systematically changed by nesting similar shaped but smaller sized forms within the largest forms for both shapes. Drag curves for both forms show dependence on Reynolds number to 70,000, due to the creation of complex transitional flow conditions in different zones within the forms. Length of sand deposits in the lee of the elements scale with permeability of the form and the trapping efficiency for particles within the forms scales with the cumulative area of the surfaces perpendicular to the directions of air flow. The cube/rectangular cylinder form was more effective at trapping sand than the round cylinder forms for the same saltation flux. The demonstrated effect of porosity and cumulative mesh area on aerodynamic drag and sand trapping effectiveness argues convincingly that porous elements have a greater potential than solid elements for modulating the sand flux to a higher degree than solid elements when used in large spatial arrays to control wind erosion.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T10:08:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
  • Measuring high spatiotemporal variability in saltation intensity using a
           low-cost Saltation Detection System: Wind tunnel and field experiments
    • Authors: W. de Winter; D.B. van Dam; N. Delbecque; A. Verdoodt; B.G. Ruessink; G. Sterk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research
      Author(s): W. de Winter, D.B. van Dam, N. Delbecque, A. Verdoodt, B.G. Ruessink, G. Sterk
      The commonly observed over prediction of aeolian saltation transport on sandy beaches is, at least in part, caused by saltation intermittency. To study small-scale saltation processes, high frequency saltation sensors are required on a high spatial resolution. Therefore, we developed a low-cost Saltation Detection System (SalDecS) with the aim to measure saltation intensity at a frequency of 10 Hz and with a spatial resolution of 0.10 m in wind-normal direction. Linearity and equal sensitivity of the saltation sensors were investigated during wind tunnel and field experiments. Wind tunnel experiments with a set of 7 SalDec sensors revealed that the variability of sensor sensitivity is at maximum 9% during relatively low saltation intensities. During more intense saltation the variability of sensor sensitivity decreases. A sigmoidal fit describes the relation between mass flux and sensor output measured during 5 different wind conditions. This indicates an increasing importance of sensor saturation with increasing mass flux. We developed a theoretical model to simulate and describe the effect of grain size, grain velocity and saltation intensity on sensor saturation. Time-averaged field measurements revealed sensitivity equality for 85 out of a set of 89 horizontally deployed SalDec sensors. On these larger timescales (hours) saltation variability imposed by morphological features, such as sand strips, can be recognized. We conclude that the SalDecS can be used to measure small-scale spatiotemporal variabilities of saltation intensity to investigate saltation characteristics related to wind turbulence.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:36:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.11.003
  • An experimental study of the dynamics of saltation within a
           three-dimensional framework
    • Authors: Patrick O'Brien; Cheryl McKenna Neuman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research
      Author(s): Patrick O'Brien, Cheryl McKenna Neuman
      Our understanding of aeolian sand transport via saltation lacks an experimental determination of the particle borne kinetic energy partitioned into 3 dimensions relative to the mean flow direction. This in turn creates a disconnect between global wind erosion estimates and particle scale processes. The present study seeks to address this deficiency through an extended analysis of data obtained from a series of particle tracking velocimetry experiments conducted in a boundary layer wind tunnel under transport limited conditions. Particle image diameter, as it appeared within each camera frame, was extensively calibrated against that obtained by sieving, and the ballistic trajectories detected were disassembled into discrete particle image pairs whose distribution and dynamics were then examined in vertical profile with sub-millimeter resolution. The vertical profile of the wind aligned particle transport rate was found to follow a power relation within 10mm of the bed surface. The exponent of this power function changes with increasing spanwise angle (θ) to produce a family of curves representing particle diffusion in 3 dimensions. Particle mass was found to increase with θ, and the distribution of the total particle kinetic energy was found to be very similar to that for the particle concentration. The spanwise component of the kinetic energy of a saltating particle peaks at θ =45°, with the stream-aligned component an order of magnitude higher in value. Low energy, splashed particles near the bed account for a majority of the kinetic energy distributed throughout the particle cloud, regardless of their orientation.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:33:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.09.003
  • Are fixed grain size ratios useful proxies for loess sedimentation
           dynamics' Experiences from Remizovka, Kazakhstan
    • Authors: Philipp Schulte; Tobias Sprafke; Leonor Rodrigues; Kathryn E. Fitzsimmons
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research
      Author(s): Philipp Schulte, Tobias Sprafke, Leonor Rodrigues, Kathryn E. Fitzsimmons
      Loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) are sensitive terrestrial archives of past aeolian dynamics and paleoclimatic changes within the Quaternary. Grain size (GS) analysis is commonly used to interpret aeolian dynamics and climate influences on LPS, based on granulometric parameters such as specific GS classes, ratios of GS classes and statistical manipulation of GS data. However, the GS distribution of a loess sample is not solely a function of aeolian dynamics; rather complex polygenetic depositional and post-depositional processes must be taken into account. This study assesses the reliability of fixed GS ratios as proxies for past sedimentation dynamics using the case study of Remizovka in southeast Kazakhstan. Continuous sampling of the upper 8m of the profile, which shows extremely weak pedogenic alteration and is therefore dominated by primary aeolian activity, indicates that fixed GS ratios do not adequately serve as proxies for loess sedimentation dynamics. We find through the calculation of single value parameters, that “true” variations within sensitive GS classes are masked by relative changes of the more frequent classes. Heatmap signatures provide the visualization of GS variability within LPS without significant data loss within the measured classes of a sample, or across all measured samples. We also examine the effect of two different commonly used laser diffraction devices on GS ratio calculation by duplicate measurements, the Beckman Coulter (LS13320) and a Malvern Mastersizer Hydro (MM2000), as well as the applicability and significance of the so-called “twin peak ratio” previously developed on samples from the same section. The LS13320 provides higher resolution results than the MM2000, nevertheless the GS ratios related to variations in the silt-sized fraction were comparable. However, we could not detect a twin peak within the coarse silt as detected in the original study using the same device. Our GS measurements differ from previous works at Remizovka in several instances, calling into question the interpretation of paleoclimatic implications using GS data alone.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T11:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.09.002
  • An integrated OSL chronology, sedimentology and geochemical approach to
           loess deposits from Tuoji Island, Shandong Province: Implications for the
           late quaternary paleoenvironment in East China
    • Authors: Shujian Xu; Fanbiao Kong; Guangju Jia; Xiaodong Miao; Xinchao Ding
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research
      Author(s): Shujian Xu, Fanbiao Kong, Guangju Jia, Xiaodong Miao, Xinchao Ding
      The Tuoji II (TJII) section on the Miaodao Islands in the Bohai Sea is a representative aeolian section off China’s east coast. This study applied optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, conducted grain size analysis, and examined major and trace element compositions, to investigate the loess–paleosol sequences. The OSL ages at depths of 0.6, 1.8, 2.8, 3.8, and 4.8m were determined as 14.4±0.4, 16.7±1.3, 20.8±1.0, 40.9±1.5, and 47.9±3.7ka, respectively. It was projected that the loess started to accumulate at ca. 62.6ka, according to presumed depositional rates. In this study, typical aeolian deposits elsewhere including the Luochuan (LC), Xiashu (XS), Wushan (WS), and Xifeng (XF) sections were compared with TJII section here. The results showed similarity in the geochemical characteristics of the deposits from the different areas of China and normalized upper continental crust, indicating aeolian origin of this island loess. In comparison with the LC, XS, WS, and XF samples, the aeolian deposits of the TJII section have higher concentrations of TiO2 and Zr and lower concentrations of Al2O3, Rb, and Ni, and they have higher SiO2/Al2O3 and TiO2/Al2O3 ratios and lower Al2O3/Na2O and Ba/Sr ratios. These features indicate the dust materials of the TJII section were derived from local sources of well-mixed sedimentary protoliths. Our results support the suggestion that paleoclimatic change and the evolution of aeolian sediments were controlled primarily by variation of the East Asian summer monsoon and sea level change.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T00:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.07.007
  • Measuring spatial and temporal variation in surface moisture on a coastal
           beach with a near-infrared terrestrial laser scanner
    • Authors: Yvonne Smit; Gerben Ruessink; Laura B. Brakenhoff; Jasper J.A. Donker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research
      Author(s): Yvonne Smit, Gerben Ruessink, Laura B. Brakenhoff, Jasper J.A. Donker
      Wind-alone predictions of aeolian sand deposition on the most seaward coastal dune ridge often exceed measured deposition substantially. Surface moisture is a major factor limiting aeolian transport on sandy beaches, but existing measurement techniques cannot adequately characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of surface moisture content. Here, we present a new method for detecting surface moisture at high temporal and spatial resolution using a near-infrared terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), the RIEGL VZ-400. Because this TLS operates at a wavelength (1550nm) near a water absorption band, TLS reflectance is an accurate parameter to measure surface moisture over its full range. Five days of intensive laser scanning were performed on a Dutch beach to illustrate the applicability of the TLS. Gravimetric surface moisture samples were used to calibrate the relation between reflectance and surface moisture. Results reveal a robust negative relation for the full range of possible surface moisture contents (0%–25%), with a correlation-coefficient squared of 0.85 and a root-mean-square error of 2.7%. This relation holds between 20 and 60m from the TLS. Within this distance the TLS typically produces O ( 10 6 – 10 7 ) data points, which we averaged into surface moisture maps with a 1×1m resolution. This grid size largely removes small reflectance disturbances induced by, for example, footprints or tire tracks, while retaining larger scale moisture trends.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T02:36:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.07.004
  • A new depositional model for sand-rich loess on the Buckley Flats outwash
           plain, northwestern Lower Michigan
    • Authors: Kelsey E. Nyland; Randall J. Schaetzl; Anthony Ignatov; Bradley A. Miller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research
      Author(s): Kelsey E. Nyland, Randall J. Schaetzl, Anthony Ignatov, Bradley A. Miller
      Loess was first studied in Michigan on the Buckley Flats, where outwash, overlain by ≈70cm of loamy sediment, was originally interpreted as loess mixed with underlying sands. This paper re-evaluates this landscape through a spatial analysis of data from auger samples and soil pits. To better estimate the loamy sediment’s initial textures, we utilized “filtered” laser diffraction data, which remove much of the coarser sand data. Textures of filtered silt data for the loamy sediment are similar to loess. The siltiest soils are found in the low-relief, central part of the Flats. Spatial analyses revealed that many silt fractions are nearly uniformly distributed, suggesting that the loess was not derived from a single source. The previous depositional model for the loamy mantle relied on loessfall followed by pedoturbation, but does not explain (1) the variation in sand contents across the Flats, or (2) the abrupt contact below the loamy mantle. This contact suggests that the outwash was frozen when the sediments above were deposited. Deep gullies at the western margins of the Flats were likely cut as permafrost facilitated runoff. Our new model for the origin of the loamy mantle suggests that the sands on the uplands were generated from eroding gullies and saltated onto the uplands along with loess that fell more widely. Sands saltating to the west of the Flats may have entrained some silts, facilitating loessfall downwind. At most sites, the loamy mantle gets increasingly silty near the surface, suggesting that saltation ended before loess deposition.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T03:03:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.05.005
  • Terrestrial subaqueous seafloor dunes: Possible analogs for Venus
    • Authors: Lynn D.V. Neakrase; Martina Klose; Timothy N. Titus
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research
      Author(s): Lynn D.V. Neakrase, Martina Klose, Timothy N. Titus
      Dunes on Venus, first discovered with Magellan Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in the early 1990s, have fueled discussions about the viability of Venusian dunes and aeolian grain transport. Confined to two locations on Venus, the existence of the interpreted dunes provides evidence that there could be transportable material being mobilized into aeolian bedforms at the surface. However, because of the high-pressure high-temperature surface conditions, laboratory analog studies are difficult to conduct and results are difficult to extrapolate to full-sized, aeolian bedforms. Field sites of desert dunes, which are well-studied on Earth and Mars, are not analogous to what is observed on Venus because of the differences in the fluid environments. One potentially underexplored possibility in planetary science for Venus-analog dune fields could be subaqueous, seafloor dune fields on Earth. Known to the marine geology communities since the early 1960s, seafloor dunes are rarely cited in planetary aeolian bedform literature, but could provide a necessary thick-atmosphere extension to the classically studied aeolian dune environment literature for thinner atmospheres. Through discussion of the similarity of the two environments, and examples of dunes and ripples cited in marine literature, we provide evidence that subaqueous seafloor dunes could serve as analogs for dunes on Venus. Furthermore, the evidence presented here demonstrates the usefulness of the marine literature for thick-atmosphere planetary environments and potentially for upcoming habitable worlds and oceanic environment research program opportunities. Such useful cross-disciplinary discussion of dune environments is applicable to many planetary environments (Earth, Mars, Venus, Titan, etc.) and potential future missions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T11:50:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.03.002
  • Leonard Horner and an enthusiasm for Loess
    • Authors: Ian Smalley; Holger Kels
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research
      Author(s): Ian Smalley, Holger Kels
      Leonard Horner (1785–1864) made substantial contributions to the study of loess. He made field trips with J.J. Noeggerath and Charles Lyell and published useful material on the loess near Bonn. He was an unappreciated pioneer- he was the first person to direct attention to loess as a material. He pointed out that loess was intrinsically interesting. He studied the material transported by the Rhine, and the alluvial deposits in Egypt, looking for links to loess, and the problem of loess formation. He was born in Edinburgh in 1785 and directed the thoughts of young Charles Darwin towards science when he came to Edinburgh to study medicine. Circumstances placed him in Bonn in the critical years 1831–1833; in this time Charles Lyell married his eldest daughter Mary; and both Lyell and Horner encountered the loess. Lyell made it well known via vol.3 of the Principles of Geology, Horner became a loess enthusiast. In the summer of 1833 Horner & Lyell were in the crater of the Roderberg considering the more than 20m of loess deposited there. His major paper was published in 1836 (reporting the Roderberg excursion) and he joined Lyell’s list of loess investigators in the 5th edition of the Principles published in 1837. He was the last to join that select eleven: Bronn, Leonhard, Boue, Voltz, Steininger, Merian, Rozet, Hibbert, Noeggerath, von Meyer, Horner. Most of these were writing on the geology and landscapes of the Rhine valley, but Horner was drawing attention to the amazing nature of the loess itself, in particular the spectacular disaggregation on contact with water. He also published the first geological map of the Bonn region, including the Roderberg and the Siebengebirge, a region of loess and volcanoes.

      PubDate: 2017-04-11T11:50:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.03.004
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