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Showing 1 - 200 of 3175 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 380, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 239, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
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Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
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Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 380, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 335, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 430, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Aeolian Research
  [SJR: 0.973]   [H-I: 22]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1875-9637
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Field testing, comparison, and discussion of five aeolian sand transport
           measuring devices operating on different measuring principles
    • Authors: Dirk Goossens; Corjan Nolet; Vicken Etyemezian; Leonardo Duarte-Campos; Gerben Bakker; Michel Riksen
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 32
      Author(s): Dirk Goossens, Corjan Nolet, Vicken Etyemezian, Leonardo Duarte-Campos, Gerben Bakker, Michel Riksen
      Five types of sediment samplers designed to measure aeolian sand transport were tested during a wind erosion event on the Sand Motor, an area on the west coast of the Netherlands prone to severe wind erosion. Each of the samplers operates on a different principle. The MWAC (Modified Wilson And Cooke) is a passive segmented trap. The modified Leatherman sampler is a passive vertically integrating trap. The Saltiphone is an acoustic sampler that registers grain impacts on a microphone. The Wenglor sampler is an optical sensor that detects particles as they pass through a laser beam. The SANTRI (Standalone AeoliaN Transport Real-time Instrument) detects particles travelling through an infrared beam, but in different channels each associated with a particular grain size spectrum. A procedure is presented to transform the data output, which is different for each sampler, to a common standard so that the samplers can be objectively compared and their relative efficiency calculated. Results show that the efficiency of the samplers is comparable despite the differences in operating principle and the instrumental and environmental uncertainties associated to working with particle samplers in field conditions. The ability of the samplers to register the temporal evolution of a wind erosion event is investigated. The strengths and weaknesses of the samplers are discussed. Some problems inherent to optical sensors are looked at in more detail. Finally, suggestions are made for further improvement of the samplers.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T05:02:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 32 (2018)
  • Application of fuzzy logic approach for wind erosion hazard mapping in
           Laghouat region (Algeria) using remote sensing and GIS
    • Authors: Djouher Saadoud; Mohamed Hassani; Francisco José Martin Peinado; Mohamed Saïd Guettouche
      Pages: 24 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 32
      Author(s): Djouher Saadoud, Mohamed Hassani, Francisco José Martin Peinado, Mohamed Saïd Guettouche
      Wind erosion is one of the most serious environmental problems in Algeria that threatens human activities and socio-economic development. The main goal of this study is to apply a fuzzy logic approach to wind erosion sensitivity mapping in the Laghouat region, Algeria. Six causative factors, obtained by applying fuzzy membership functions to each used parameter, are considered: soil, vegetation cover, wind factor, soil dryness, land topography and land cover sensitivity. Different fuzzy operators (AND, OR, SUM, PRODUCT, and GAMMA) are applied to generate wind-erosion hazard map. Success rate curves reveal that the fuzzy gamma (γ) operator, with γ equal to 0.9, gives the best prediction accuracy with an area under curve of 85.2%. The resulting wind-erosion sensitivity map delineates the area into different zones of five relative sensitivity classes: very high, high, moderate, low and very low. The estimated result was verified by field measurements and the high statistically significant value of a chi-square test.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T05:02:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 32 (2018)
  • Using rare earth elements to trace wind-driven dispersion of sediments
           from a point source
    • Authors: R. Scott Van Pelt; Melanie C.W. Barnes; John E. Strack
      Pages: 35 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 32
      Author(s): R. Scott Van Pelt, Melanie C.W. Barnes, John E. Strack
      The entrainment and movement of aeolian sediments is determined by the direction and intensity of erosive winds. Although erosive winds may blow from all directions, in most regions there is a predominant direction. Dust emission causes the removal preferentially of soil nutrients and contaminants which may be transported tens to even thousands of kilometers from the source and deposited into other ecosystems. It would be beneficial to understand spatially and temporally how the soil source may be degraded and depositional zones enriched. A stable chemical tracer not found in the soil but applied to the surface of all particles in the surface soil would facilitate this endeavor. This study examined whether solution-applied rare earth elements (REEs) could be used to trace aeolian sediment movement from a point source through space and time at the field scale. We applied erbium nitrate solution to a 5 m2 area in the center of a 100 m diameter field 7854 m2 on the Southern High Plains of Texas. The solution application resulted in a soil-borne concentration three orders of magnitude greater than natively found in the field soil. We installed BSNE sampler masts in circular configurations and collected the trapped sediment weekly. We found that REE-tagged sediment was blown into every sampler mast during the course of the study but that there was a predominant direction of transport during the spring. This preliminary investigation suggests that the REEs provide a viable and incisive technique to study spatial and temporal variation of aeolian sediment movement from specific sources to identifiable locations of deposition or locations through which the sediments were transported as horizontal mass flux and the relative contribution of the specific source to the total mass flux.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T05:02:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 32 (2018)
  • Field and laboratory comparison of PM10 instruments in high winds
    • Authors: Brenton Sharratt; Huawei Pi
      Pages: 42 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 32
      Author(s): Brenton Sharratt, Huawei Pi
      Instruments capable of measuring PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 µm in aerodynamic diameter) concentrations may vary in performance as a result of different technologies utilized in measuring PM10. Therefore, the performance of five instruments capable of measuring PM10 concentrations above eroding soil surfaces was tested during high wind events at field sites in the Columbia Plateau and inside a wind tunnel. Comparisons among the Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) sampler, DustTrak monitor, E-sampler, High-Volume sampler, and Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) monitor were made at field sites during nine wind erosion events and inside a wind tunnel at two wind speeds (7 and 12 m s−1) and two ambient PM10 concentrations (2 and 50 mg m−3). PM10 concentrations were similar for the High-Volume sampler and TEOM monitor as well as for the BSNE samplers and DustTrak monitors but higher for the High-Volume sampler and TEOM monitor than the E-sampler during field erosion events. Based upon wind tunnel experiments, the TEOM monitor measured the highest PM10 concentration while the DustTrak monitor typically measured the lowest PM10 concentration as compared with other instruments. In addition, PM10 concentration appeared to lower for all instruments at a wind speed of 12 as compared with 7 m s−1 inside the wind tunnel. Differences in the performance of instruments in measuring PM10 concentration poses risks in comparing PM10 concentration among different instrument types or using multiple instrument types to jointly measure concentrations in the field or laboratory or even the same instrument type subject to different wind speeds.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T05:02:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 32 (2018)
  • Geochemical evidence for the provenance of aeolian deposits in the Qaidam
           Basin, Tibetan Plateau
    • Authors: Shisong Du; Yongqiu Wu; Lihua Tan
      Pages: 60 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 32
      Author(s): Shisong Du, Yongqiu Wu, Lihua Tan
      The main purpose of this study is to analyse the material source of different grain-size components of dune sand in the Qaidam Basin. We determined the trace and rare earth element (REE) compositions and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of the coarse (75–500 μm) and fine (<75 μm) fractions of surface sediment samples. The comparison of the immobile trace element and REE compositions, Sr-Nd isotopic compositions and multidimensional scaling (MDS) results of the dune sands with those of different types of sediments in potential source areas revealed the following information. (1) The fine- and coarse-grained fractions of dune sands in the Qaidam Basin exhibit distinctly different elemental concentrations, elemental patterns and characteristic parameters of REE. Moreover, Sr-Nd isotopic differences also exist between different grain-size fractions of aeolian sand, which means that different grain-size fractions of these dune sands have different source areas. (2) The geochemical characteristics of the coarse particles of dune sand exhibit obvious regional heterogeneity and generally record a local origin derived from local fluvial sediments and alluvial/proluvial sediments. The coarse- and fine-grained dune sand in the southern Qaidam Basin mainly came from Kunlun Mountains, whereas the coarse- and fine-grained dune sand in the northeastern Qaidam Basin mainly came from Qilian Mountains. (3) The fine-grained fractions of sediments throughout the entire Qaidam Basin may have been affected by the input of foreign materials from the Tarim Basin.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T05:02:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 32 (2018)
  • Spatial variation in the flux of atmospheric deposition and its ecological
           effects in arid Asia
    • Authors: Linlin Jiao; Xunming Wang; Danfeng Li
      Pages: 71 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 32
      Author(s): Linlin Jiao, Xunming Wang, Danfeng Li
      Atmospheric deposition is one of the key land surface processes, and plays important roles in regional ecosystems and global climate change. Previous studies have focused on the magnitude of and the temporal and spatial variations in the flux of atmospheric deposition, and the composition of atmospheric deposition on a local scale. However, there have been no comprehensive studies of atmospheric deposition on a regional scale and its ecological effects in arid Asia. The temporal and spatial patterns, composition of atmospheric deposition, and its potential effects on regional ecosystems in arid Asia are investigated in this study. The results show that the annual deposition flux is high on the Turan Plain, Aral Sea Desert, and Tarim Basin. The seasonal deposition flux also varies remarkably among different regions. The Tarim Basin shows higher deposition flux in both spring and summer, southern Mongolian Plateau has a higher deposition flux in spring, and the deposition flux of Iran Plateau is higher in summer. Multiple sources of elements in deposited particles are identified. Calcium, iron, aluminum, and magnesium are mainly derived from remote regions, while zinc, copper and lead have predominantly anthropogenic sources. Atmospheric deposition can provide abundant nutrients to vegetation and consequently play a role in the succession of regional ecosystems by affecting the structure, function, diversity, and primary production of the vegetation, especially the exotic or short-lived opportunistic species in arid Asia. Nevertheless, there is not much evidence of the ecological effects of atmospheric deposition on the regional and local scale. The present results may help in further understanding the mechanism of atmospheric deposition as well as providing a motivation for the protection of the ecological environment in arid Asia.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T05:02:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 32 (2018)
  • Provenance of aeolian sands in the Hetao Plain, northwestern China
    • Authors: Xingchen Yang; Maotang Cai; Peisheng Ye; Mengni Ye; Chenglu Li; Hang Wu; Jing Lu; Tao Wang; Zhirong Zhao; Yangfan Luzhou; Chao Liu
      Pages: 92 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 32
      Author(s): Xingchen Yang, Maotang Cai, Peisheng Ye, Mengni Ye, Chenglu Li, Hang Wu, Jing Lu, Tao Wang, Zhirong Zhao, Yangfan Luzhou, Chao Liu
      Patches of aeolian sand are distributed throughout the Hetao Plain, which pose threats to farming and agriculture. Identification of the provenance of the aeolian sands may help with efforts to alleviate ecological stress in Inner Mongolia and in the paleoenvironmental interpretation of sandy sequences. This study uses geochemical data to determine the provenance of aeolian sands from the Hetao Plain. Provenance discrimination diagrams revealed that the aeolian sands were mainly derived from mixed source felsic granites and granodiorites, which have undergone weak sedimentary recycling. The chemical index of alteration and A–CN–K data indicated that the aeolian sediments were transported over a short distance. Comparison of trace element and rare earth element (REE) ratios of the aeolian sands with rock samples from potential source areas has revealed that aeolian sand deposits in the Hetao Plain were mainly derived from Sertengshan and Yellow River sediments. The Langshan and Ordos Plateau may represent additional sand sources for the Hetao Plain.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T05:02:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 32 (2018)
  • PM10 emission efficiency for agricultural soils: Comparing a wind tunnel,
           a dust generator, and the open-air plot
    • Authors: Fernando Avecilla; Juan E. Panebianco; Mariano J. Mendez; Daniel E. Buschiazzo
      Pages: 116 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 32
      Author(s): Fernando Avecilla, Juan E. Panebianco, Mariano J. Mendez, Daniel E. Buschiazzo
      The PM10 emission efficiency of soils has been determined through different methods. Although these methods imply important physical differences, their outputs have never been compared. In the present study the PM10 emission efficiency was determined for soils through a wide range of textures, using three typical methodologies: a rotary-chamber dust generator (EDG), a laboratory wind tunnel on a prepared soil bed, and field measurements on an experimental plot. Statistically significant linear correlation was found (p < 0.05) between the PM10 emission efficiency obtained from the EDG and wind tunnel experiments. A significant linear correlation (p < 0.05) was also found between the PM10 emission efficiency determined both with the wind tunnel and the EDG, and a soil texture index (%sand + %silt)/(%clay + %organic matter) that reflects the effect of texture on the cohesion of the aggregates. Soils with higher sand content showed proportionally less emission efficiency than fine-textured, aggregated soils. This indicated that both methodologies were able to detect similar trends regarding the correlation between the soil texture and the PM10 emission. The trends attributed to soil texture were also verified for two contrasting soils under field conditions. However, differing conditions during the laboratory-scale and the field-scale experiments produced significant differences in the magnitude of the emission efficiency values. The causes of these differences are discussed within the paper. Despite these differences, the results suggest that standardized laboratory and wind tunnel procedures are promissory methods, which could be calibrated in the future to obtain results comparable to field values, essentially through adjusting the simulation time. However, more studies are needed to extrapolate correctly these values to field-scale conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T05:02:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 32 (2018)
  • Interaction of petroleum mulching, vegetation restoration and dust fallout
           on the conditions of sand dunes in southwest of Iran
    • Authors: Liela Azoogh; Bijan Khalili moghadam; Siroos Jafari
      Pages: 124 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 32
      Author(s): Liela Azoogh, Bijan Khalili moghadam, Siroos Jafari
      In the past half-century, petroleum mulching-biological fixation (PM-BF) practices have been employed to stabilize sand dunes in Iran. However, the effects of PM-BF practices on the attributes of sand dunes and the dispersion of heavy metals of mulch have been poorly understood. To this end, three regions treated with PM-BF for 5, 20, and 40 years and a control region with no PM-BF were studied. Samples of soil properties were taken at the depths of 0–10 cm and 10–50 cm, with three replications, in Khuzestan Province. The results showed that PM-BF practices promoted the restoration of vegetation cover in the sand dunes. In addition, these practices increased the deposition of dust particles, gradually increasing the magnitudes of palygorskite and smectite clays over time. The interactions between dust deposition and PM-BF practices significantly altered the chemical and physical properties of the dunes. PM-BF practices increased soil organic matter (184–287%), cation exchangeable capacity (142–209%), electrical conductivity (144–493%), clay content (134–196%), and penetration resistance (107–170%) compared to the region with no PM-BF practices. Furthermore, petroleum mulching significantly increased the amount of Ni (1.19%), Cd (1.55%), Pb (1.08%), Cu (1.34%), Zn (1.38%), Mn (1.66%), and Fe (1.15%). However, in the long term, these elements will probably leach linearly as a consequence of an increase in organic matter and soil salinity in the light texture of sand dunes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T05:02:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 32 (2018)
  • Heterogeneity and loss of soil nutrient elements under aeolian processes
           in the Otindag Desert, China
    • Authors: Danfeng Li; Xunming Wang; Junpeng Lou; Wenbin Liu; Hui Li; Wenyong Ma; Linlin Jiao
      Pages: 48 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 30
      Author(s): Danfeng Li, Xunming Wang, Junpeng Lou, Wenbin Liu, Hui Li, Wenyong Ma, Linlin Jiao
      The heterogeneity of the composition of surface soils that are affected by aeolian processes plays important roles in ecological evolution and the occurrence of aeolian desertification in fragile ecological zones, but the associated mechanisms are poorly understood. Using field investigation, wind tunnel experiments, and particle size and element analyses, we discuss the variation in the nutrient elements of surface soils that forms in the presence of aeolian processes of four vegetation species (Caragana microphylla Lam, Artemisia frigida Willd. Sp. Pl., Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. and Stipa grandis P. Smirn) growing in the Otindag Desert, China. These four vegetation communities correspond to increasing degrees of degradation. A total of 40 macro elements, trace elements, and oxides were measured in the surface soil and in wind-transported samples. The results showed that under the different degradation stages, the compositions and concentrations of nutrients in surface soils differed for the four vegetation species. Aeolian processes may cause higher heterogeneity and higher loss of soil nutrient elements for the communities of Artemisia frigida Willd. Sp. Pl., Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel, and Stipa grandis P. Smirn than for the Caragana microphylla Lam community. There was remarkable variation in the loss of nutrients under different aeolian transportation processes. Over the past several decades, the highest loss of soil elements occurred in the 1970s, whereas the loss from 2011 to the present was generally 4.0% of that in the 1970s. These results indicate that the evident decrease in nutrient loss has played an important role in the rehabilitation that has occurred in the region recently.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T05:02:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Determining mineralogical variations of aeolian deposits using thermal
           infrared emissivity and linear deconvolution methods
    • Authors: Bernard E. Hubbard; Donald M. Hooper; Federico Solano; John C. Mars
      Pages: 54 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 30
      Author(s): Bernard E. Hubbard, Donald M. Hooper, Federico Solano, John C. Mars
      We apply linear deconvolution methods to derive mineral and glass proportions for eight field sample training sites at seven dune fields: (1) Algodones, California; (2) Big Dune, Nevada; (3) Bruneau, Idaho; (4) Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, Alaska; (5) Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado; (6) Sunset Crater, Arizona; and (7) White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. These dune fields were chosen because they represent a wide range of mineral grain mixtures and allow us to gauge a better understanding of both compositional and sorting effects within terrestrial and extraterrestrial dune systems. We also use actual ASTER TIR emissivity imagery to map the spatial distribution of these minerals throughout the seven dune fields and evaluate the effects of degraded spectral resolution on the accuracy of mineral abundances retrieved. Our results show that hyperspectral data convolutions of our laboratory emissivity spectra outperformed multispectral data convolutions of the same data with respect to the mineral, glass and lithic abundances derived. Both the number and wavelength position of spectral bands greatly impacts the accuracy of linear deconvolution retrieval of feldspar proportions (e.g. K-feldspar vs. plagioclase) especially, as well as the detection of certain mafic and carbonate minerals. In particular, ASTER mapping results show that several of the dune sites display patterns such that less dense minerals typically have higher abundances near the center of the active and most evolved dunes in the field, while more dense minerals and glasses appear to be more abundant along the margins of the active dune fields.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T05:02:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • High-frequency measurements of aeolian saltation flux: Field-based
           methodology and applications
    • Authors: Raleigh L. Martin; Jasper F. Kok; Chris H. Hugenholtz; Thomas E. Barchyn; Marcelo Chamecki; Jean T. Ellis
      Pages: 97 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 30
      Author(s): Raleigh L. Martin, Jasper F. Kok, Chris H. Hugenholtz, Thomas E. Barchyn, Marcelo Chamecki, Jean T. Ellis
      Aeolian transport of sand and dust is driven by turbulent winds that fluctuate over a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. However, commonly used aeolian transport models do not explicitly account for such fluctuations, likely contributing to substantial discrepancies between models and measurements. Underlying this problem is the absence of accurate sand flux measurements at the short time scales at which wind speed fluctuates. Here, we draw on extensive field measurements of aeolian saltation to develop a methodology for generating high-frequency (up to 25 Hz) time series of total (vertically-integrated) saltation flux, namely by calibrating high-frequency (HF) particle counts to low-frequency (LF) flux measurements. The methodology follows four steps: (1) fit exponential curves to vertical profiles of saltation flux from LF saltation traps, (2) determine empirical calibration factors through comparison of LF exponential fits to HF number counts over concurrent time intervals, (3) apply these calibration factors to subsamples of the saltation count time series to obtain HF height-specific saltation fluxes, and (4) aggregate the calibrated HF height-specific saltation fluxes into estimates of total saltation fluxes. When coupled to high-frequency measurements of wind velocity, this methodology offers new opportunities for understanding how aeolian saltation dynamics respond to variability in driving winds over time scales from tens of milliseconds to days.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T05:02:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Characteristics of mineral dust impacting the Persian Gulf
    • Authors: Hesam Ahmady-Birgani; Kenneth G. McQueen; Hassan Mirnejad
      Pages: 11 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 30
      Author(s): Hesam Ahmady-Birgani, Kenneth G. McQueen, Hassan Mirnejad
      It is generally assumed that severe dust events in western Iran could be responsible for elevated levels of toxic and radioactive elements in the region. Over a period of 5 months, from January 2012 to May 2012, dust particles in the size range PM10 (i.e. <10 µm) were collected at Abadan, a site beside the Persian Gulf. The research aim was to compare chemical compositions of dust and aerosol samples collected during the non-dusty periods and during two severe dust events. Results of ICP-MS analysis of components indicate that during dust events the concentrations of major elements such as Ca, Mg, Al and K increase relative to ambient conditions when Fe and trace elements such as Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn are in higher proportions. Toxic trace elements that are generally ascribed to human activities, including industrial and urban pollution, are thus proportionately more abundant in the dust under calm conditions than during dust events, when their concentration is diluted by more abundant mineral particles of quartz, calcite and clay. The variability of chemical species during two dust events, noted by tracking the dust plumes in satellite images, was also assessed and the results relate to two different source areas, namely northern Iraq and northwestern Syria.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:36:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2017)
  • A conceptual magnetic fabric development model for the Paks loess in
    • Authors: B. Bradák; G. Újvári; Y. Seto; M. Hyodo; T. Végh
      Pages: 20 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 30
      Author(s): B. Bradák, G. Újvári, Y. Seto, M. Hyodo, T. Végh
      We describe magnetic fabric and depositional environments of aeolian (loess) deposits from Paks, Hungary, and develop a novel, complex conceptual sedimentation model based on grain size and low-field magnetic susceptibility anisotropy data. A plot of shape factor (magnetic fabric parameter) and dry deposition velocity estimated from grain-size reveals primary and secondary depositional processes during the sedimentation of loess. Primary ones are driven by gravity, with poorly oriented MF for fine grain materials, and by tangential stress, with flow-aligned or flow-transverse fabric for coarser grain sediments. The fabric developed by a primary process is called depositional magnetic fabric. Secondary processes develop in unconsolidated sediments, beginning right after deposition and terminating before the start of diagenesis. Under slow sedimentation conditions, deposited materials are likely to be exposed near the surface for longer periods. Therefore, relatively strong winds with a stable direction can alter the fabric of non-buried surficial sediments. As a result, grain orientations may change from scattered, non-flow oriented fabric to flow-oriented fabric. This type of fabric, developed by a secondary process, is called transformed magnetic fabric, and is characterized by relatively well-defined grain orientation, which allows us to estimate a dominant wind direction.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:36:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2017)
  • Shelter effect efficacy of sand fences: A comparison of systems in a wind
    • Authors: Tao Wang; Jianjun Qu; Yuquan Ling; Benli Liu; Jianhua Xiao
      Pages: 32 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 30
      Author(s): Tao Wang, Jianjun Qu, Yuquan Ling, Benli Liu, Jianhua Xiao
      The Lanzhou-Xinjiang High-speed Railway runs through an expansive wind area in the Gobi Desert and blown-sand disasters are a critical issue affecting its operation. To strengthen the blown-sand disaster shelter systems along the railway, the shelter effects of punching plate and wire mesh fences with approximately equal porosity (48%) were simulated in a wind tunnel. The experimental results showed that the wind velocity was reduced to a higher extent by the punching plate fence than by the wire mesh fence. When a single row of sand fencing was used, the wind velocity reduction coefficient (Rcz) values downwind of the punching plate fence and wire mesh fence reached 71.77% and 39.37%, respectively. When double rows of sand fencing were used, the Rcz values downwind of the punching plate and wire mesh fences were approximately 87.48% and 60.81%, respectively. For the flow field structure on the leeward side of the fencing, the deceleration zone behind the punching plate fence was more pronounced than that behind the wire mesh fence. The vortex zone was not obvious and the reverse flow disappeared for both types of fences, which indicates that the turbulent intensity was small. The sand-trapping efficiency of the wire mesh fence was close to that of punching plate fence. When a single row of sand fencing was set up, the total mass flux density decreased, on average, by 65.85% downwind of the wire mesh fence, and 75.06% downwind of the punching plate fence; when double rows of sand fencing were present, the total mass flux density decreased, on average, by 84.53% downwind of the wire mesh fence and 84.51% downwind of the punching plate fence. In addition, the wind-proof efficiency and the sand-proof efficiency of the punching plate fence and the wire mesh fence decreased with increasing wind velocities. Consequently, punching plate and wire mesh fences may effectively control the sand hazard in the expansive wind area of the Gobi Desert.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:36:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2017)
  • Differential erosion and the formation of layered yardangs in the Loulan
           region (Lop Nur), eastern Tarim Basin
    • Authors: Yongchong Lin; Lishuai Xu; Guijin Mu
      Pages: 41 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 30
      Author(s): Yongchong Lin, Lishuai Xu, Guijin Mu
      Yardangs are a type of wind-sculpted landform which generally form in hyper-arid regions. Several factors affect the development of yardangs, and the relative importance of these factors likely varies with differences in regional environmental factors. In the Loulan region of Lop Nur, wind dynamics are the principal factor affecting the development of yardangs. However, layered yardangs, which have undergone a unique form of differential erosion, are common in the region. These erosional landforms differ from typical yardangs which are eroded solely by abrasion and deflation. We conducted field and laboratory investigations of layered yardangs to determine their origin. The results indicate that there are two types of strata comprising the yardangs: uncompacted sand-silt layers, with a lower carbonate content; and compacted clay-silt layers, with a higher carbonate content. Both types of strata are horizontal and occur in alternating layers. This type of structure enables the wind to more easily erode the less resistant sand-silt layers at different heights, leaving the more resistant compacted clay-silt layers relatively intact. Eventually the undercut remnant clay-silt layers collapse once the weight of the suspended strata exceeds their elastic resistance (more than 90% of the fallen blocks have length/thickness ratios between 1.2 and 2.5). Therefore, in addition to wind dynamics, the lithology and structure of the strata are important factors affecting the development of the layered yardangs. This type of differential erosion accelerates the development of the yardangs in the Loulan region.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:36:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2017)
  • Martian sand sheet characterization and implications for formation: A case
    • Authors: Kirby D. Runyon; Nathan T. Bridges; Claire E. Newman
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 29
      Author(s): Kirby D. Runyon, Nathan T. Bridges, Claire E. Newman
      Windblown sand and dust dominate surface geologic processes in Mars’ current environment. Besides sand dune fields, areally extensive sand sheets are common across Mars, blanketing the underlying topography with several meters of rippled sand. Earth’s sand sheets commonly form upwind or cross-wind to dunes and both partially trap and source sediment to downwind dunes. In contrast, Mars’ sheets are frequently located downwind of active barchan and dome sand dunes, suggesting they cannot be a sediment source for the dunes as on Earth. Here, we characterize a Martian sand sheet and its geologic context, model the regional atmospheric circulation, and more broadly consider the implications for sand sheet formation on Mars. Our case study sand sheet in central Herschel Crater is<5m thick, with an upwind margin forming in the lee of topographic obstacles such as dunes, crater rims, and small hills. The sheet has actively migrating superposing ripples with estimated total sand fluxes comparable to total fluxes measured from slip faces on local, regional, and global dunes, some of which have eroded away. A smooth geologic unit interpreted as outcrops of paleo-sand sheets is adjacent to the active sheets. Our observations and atmospheric modeling—which predict wind shear stresses above the sand suspension threshold—indicate that the upwind dunes may be eroding and their sand deposited downwind in sheets in what may be a cyclical process, possibly related to Mars’ axial obliquity cycles.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T11:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
  • Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) contents in the
           respirable dust emitted by an agricultural soil of the central semiarid
           region of Argentina
    • Authors: Mariano J. Mendez; Silvia B. Aimar; Virginia C. Aparicio; Nancy B. Ramirez Haberkon; Daniel E. Buschiazzo; Eduardo De Gerónimo; José L. Costa
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 29
      Author(s): Mariano J. Mendez, Silvia B. Aimar, Virginia C. Aparicio, Nancy B. Ramirez Haberkon, Daniel E. Buschiazzo, Eduardo De Gerónimo, José L. Costa
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T12:15:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
  • Measurements of windblown dust characteristics and ocean fertilization
           potential: The ephemeral river valleys of Namibia
    • Authors: A.P. Dansie; G.F.S. Wiggs; D.S.G Thomas; R. Washington
      Pages: 30 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 29
      Author(s): A.P. Dansie, G.F.S. Wiggs, D.S.G Thomas, R. Washington
      Delivery of nutrients to the ocean by mineral aerosol deposition involves complex biogeochemical interactions that include atmospheric processing, dissolution and biotic uptake of available nutrients in the surface waters. Research into the fertilization potential of aeolian dust is currently constrained by a lack of understanding of the nutrient composition and bioavailability in dust source areas. Further, research into hot-spots of dust emission has largely focused on paleo-lacustrine sources and pans, to the detriment of other potential sources such as ephemeral river valleys in desert regions. Here, we investigate the sediment characteristics and nutrient content of windblown and surface sediments of a largely overlooked southern African dust source, Namibia’s ephemeral river valleys. We deployed monitoring equipment in three river valleys to capture deflated sediments and monitor airborne dust concentration and meteorological conditions throughout an annual dust season. Our results show that windblown dust within the river valleys is easily transportable offshore from Namibia over the Benguela Upwelling System, an intensely productive region of the South Atlantic Ocean. We demonstrate that the windblown dust contains iron, phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients, each of which may positively impact primary production rates when deposited in the complex upwelling system. The river valley dust has a significantly higher content of nutrients than either of southern Africa’s major dry lake bed dust sources, Etosha and Makgadikgadi Pans. This aeolian work builds on previous source sediment findings proposing the ephemeral river valleys of Namibia as regionally important sources of dust with enhanced ocean fertilisation potential.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T08:16:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
  • Sand-grain micromorphology used as a sediment-source indicator for Kharga
           Depression dunes (Western Desert, S Egypt)
    • Authors: B. Woronko; M. Dłużewski; D. Woronko
      Pages: 42 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 29
      Author(s): B. Woronko, M. Dłużewski, D. Woronko
      Roundness and surface-feature characteristics of sand grains collected from two dune ridges in Kharga Depression (southern Egypt) were tested for potential use as source-to-sink indicators of dunes movement. Grain examination was accommodated through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. Five grain types were distinguished: A) fresh; B) sheet precipitated with “raindrop” structures; C) platy precipitated; D) broken; and E) with chemically etched surfaces—each type diagnostic of a specific geomorphic inheritance. Regarding the level of sphericity, these grains were subdivided into nine roundness classes (0.1–0.9), where angular grains are marked by 0.1 and very well-rounded grains by 0.9. Significant roundness and grain-type surface variations are observed both along dune ridges and between them. Poorly and medium-rounded grain populations dominate, along with sheet-precipitated grains. The contribution of well- and very well-rounded grains is low. The northern part of both eastern and western dune ridges is characterized by grains that represent high-energy aqueous environments with well-rounded grains, whereas platy precipitated grains with a lower level of roundness are concentrated in the middle part of the dune ridges. The southern part of the Kharga Depression is again characterized by sheet-precipitated grains. Our results indicate that the northern part of dune ridges in the Kharga Depression is mainly built of sands that originate from beyond the depression (e.g., Ghard Abu-Maharik) and the weathered deposits of the Nubian and Moghra Sandstones. The dunes in central and southern part of the Kharga Depression also derive sand from a local depression bottom comprised of playa and fluvial deposits. The growing importance of the local sand source may be explained by the lowering of the local groundwater table, which resulted in playa drying. This groundwater loss resulted in the degradation of the vegetation cover, facilitating an increase in wind entrainment of playa sediments.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T08:16:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
  • Origins of late- Pleistocene coastal dune sheets, Magdalena and Guerrero
           Negro, from continental shelf low-stand supply (70–20ka), under
           conditions of southeast littoral- and eolian-sand transport, in Baja
           California Sur, Mexico
    • Authors: Curt D. Peterson; Janette M. Murillo-Jiménez; Errol Stock; David M. Price; Steve W. Hostetler; David Percy
      Pages: 13 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 28
      Author(s): Curt D. Peterson, Janette M. Murillo-Jiménez, Errol Stock, David M. Price, Steve W. Hostetler, David Percy
      Shallow morpho-stratigraphic sections (n=11) in each of two large coastal dune sheets including the Magdalena (7000km2) and Guerrero Negro (8000km2) dune sheets, from the Pacific Ocean side of Baja California Sur, Mexico, have been analyzed for dune deposit age. The shallow morpho-stratigraphic sections (∼2–10m depth) include 11 new TL and 14C ages, and paleosol chronosequences, that differentiate cemented late Pleistocene dune deposits (20.7±2.1 to 99.8±9.4ka) from uncemented Holocene dune deposits (0.7±0.05 to at least 3.2±0.3ka). Large linear dune ridges (5–10m in height) in the dune sheet interiors trend southeast and are generally of late Pleistocene age (∼70–20ka). The late Pleistocene dune deposits reflect eolian transport of marine sand across the emerged continental shelf (30–50km southeast distance) from low-stand paleo-shorelines (−100±25m elevation), which were locally oriented nearly orthogonal to modeled deep-water wave directions (∼300° TN). During the Holocene marine transgression, onshore and alongshore wave transport delivered remobilized shelf-sand deposits to the nearshore areas of the large dune sheets, building extensive barrier islands and sand spits. Submerged back-barrier lagoons generally precluded marine sand supply to dune sheet interiors in middle to late Holocene time, though exceptions occur along some ocean and lagoon shorelines. Reactivation of the late Pleistocene dune deposits in the dune sheet interiors lead to generally thin (1–3m thickness), but widespread, covers of Holocene dune deposits (0.41±0.05 to 10.5±1.6ka). Mechanical drilling will be required to penetrate indurated subsoil caliche layers to reach basal Pleistocene dune deposits.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T02:36:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
  • Characterization of dustfall in rural and urban sites during three dust
           storms in northern China, 2010
    • Authors: Yanli Lyu; Zhiqiang Qu; Lianyou Liu; Lanlan Guo; Yanyan Yang; Xia Hu; Yiying Xiong; Guoming Zhang; Mengdi Zhao; Bo Liang; Jiadong Dai; Xiyang Zuo; Qingpan Jia; Hao Zheng; Xujiao Han; Shoudong Zhao; Qi Liu
      Pages: 29 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 28
      Author(s): Yanli Lyu, Zhiqiang Qu, Lianyou Liu, Lanlan Guo, Yanyan Yang, Xia Hu, Yiying Xiong, Guoming Zhang, Mengdi Zhao, Bo Liang, Jiadong Dai, Xiyang Zuo, Qingpan Jia, Hao Zheng, Xujiao Han, Shoudong Zhao, Qi Liu
      Dust transport and deposition processes are important for understanding the environmental risk of dust storms. This study investigated characteristics of dustfall at two rural sites and four urban sites from dust sources to downwind regions during three dust storms (DS1: March 19–22, DS2: April 24–26, DS3: May 7–10, 2010). Analysis of near-surface instantaneous maximum wind speed and prevailing wind direction revealed the dust storms bursted out from northwestern arid and semiarid regions to eastern China. Microaggregates, angular, subangular, columnar, subrounded, and spherical particles were identified by scanning electron microscope. Dust deposition flux (DDF) during the dust storms was significantly high at sites near sand deserts and sandy land. During DS2, DDF was 25.1, 9.9, 2.3, and 1.5gm−2 in Jingbian, Shapotou, Lanzhou, and Beijing, respectively. The three dust storms contributed 7.3% of Beijing’s annual dustfall in 2010, which suggests anthropogenic dust might contribute the majority of annual dustfall in urban areas. The mass medium diameter of dustfall during DS2 in Shapotou, Jingbian, Lanzhou, and Beijing was 26.1, 9.0, 16.4, and 15.5μm, respectively. Urban dustfall contained more heavy metals, sulfur and arsenic than rural dustfall. Cadmium contamination was identified in all urban dust particles. Anthropogenic pollutants in combination with mineral dust might lead to complex environmental risk on local, regional, and global scales. China’s environmental pollution control should integrate reductions in land desertification and multisource anthropogenic emissions within the context of climate change mitigation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T02:36:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
  • Wind sorting affects differently the organo-mineral composition of
           saltating and particulate materials in contrasting texture agricultural
    • Authors: Laura Antonela Iturri; Roger Funk; Martin Leue; Michael Sommer; Daniel Eduardo Buschiazzo
      Pages: 39 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 28
      Author(s): Laura Antonela Iturri, Roger Funk, Martin Leue, Michael Sommer, Daniel Eduardo Buschiazzo
      There is little information about the mineral and organic composition of sediments eroded by wind at different heights. Because of that, wind tunnel simulations were performed on four agricultural loess soils of different granulometry and their saltating materials collected at different heights. The particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter mainly smaller than 10µm (PM10) of these soils was obtained separately by a laboratory method. Results indicated that the granulometric composition of sediments collected at different heights was more homogeneous in fine- than in sandy-textured soils, which were more affected by sorting effects during wind erosion. This agrees with the preferential transport of quartz at low heights and of clay minerals at greater heights. SOC contents increased with height, but the composition of the organic materials was different: stable carboxylic acids, aldehydes, amides and aromatics were preferentially transported close to the ground because their were found in larger aggregates, while plant debris and polysaccharides, carbohydrates and derivatives of microbial origin from organic matter dominated at greater heights for all soil types. The amount of SOC in the PM10 fraction was higher when it was emitted from sandy than from fine textured soils. Because of the sorting process produced by wind erosion, the stable organic matter compounds will be transported at low heights and local scales, modifying soil fertility due to nutrient exportation, while less stable organic compounds will be part of the suspension losses, which are known to affect some processes at regional- or global scale.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:44:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
  • Chronological reconstruction of eolianites and transversal mobile dunes of
           northwest coast of Ceará State – Brazil, in the last 3000calyrsBP
    • Authors: João Wagner Alencar Castro; Julia Varella Malta; Lucas Lavo Antonio Jimo Miguel; Caique Lima Cabral; Alvaro Balmant Passemilio
      Pages: 51 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 28
      Author(s): João Wagner Alencar Castro, Julia Varella Malta, Lucas Lavo Antonio Jimo Miguel, Caique Lima Cabral, Alvaro Balmant Passemilio
      Dunefields are very common in the northern coastal zone of northeast Brazil. They have the potential to yield important information about paleoclimate, paleo-winds and regional winds and their response to sea-level fluctuations during the Holocene. We reconstructed the coastal dunes geochronological evolution of northwest Ceará State – Brazil, in the last 3000calyrsBP, using detailed analyses of lithostratigraphy, microfossil (foraminifera), wind regime, dune monitoring and 8 radiocarbon dates. The chronology was based on 14C dating in eolianites and monitoring transversal mobile dunes movement processes. Radiocarbon date results indicated that the dunes corresponding to eolianites revealed ages between 2760–2480 and 980–750calyrsBP, suggesting that the vast transversal mobile dunefields were formed after this period in similar condition to the current sea-level. We considered that the material transportation by the prevailing east winds towards the transversal dunes is estimated in the order of 11.0m/year, thus the current aeolian system is less than 1000yrsBP.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T02:44:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
  • Geomorphology context and characterization of dunefields developed by the
           southern westerlies at drying Colhué Huapi shallow lake, Patagonia
    • Authors: Alejandro Montes; Silvana Soledad Rodríguez; Carlos Eduardo Domínguez
      Pages: 58 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 28
      Author(s): Alejandro Montes, Silvana Soledad Rodríguez, Carlos Eduardo Domínguez
      Patagonia is the only continental territory exposed to the southern westerlies. The speed and frequency of these westerly winds generate a landscape strongly influenced by aeolian processes. This research shows a characterization of depositional and erosive aeolian landforms developed in dunefields associated to Lake Colhué Huapi, in the Extra-Andean Patagonia. Dunefields are located at 45°–46°S and moved in west-east direction due to the southern westerlies. We identified two big groups of active dunefields, one migrating through the dry lakebed of Colhué Huapi and the other migrating eastwards from the lakeshore. The dunefields mainly consist of transverse dunes, barchans, sand shadows and sand sheets. Yardangs, desert pavements, exhumed roots and decapitated soils were recognized in interdune areas. Longitudinal sand ridges, parallel to the prevailing wind direction, often remain preserved after the dunefields have passed. This allows to recognize the path of the dunes in the past. Sand ridges are recognized up to 28km east from the present coast of the lake and evidenced former dunefields development. We describe the geomorphology context, landforms and sediments supply of dunefields related to the lake dynamics subject to clear tendency to desiccation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T00:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
  • Crop production and economic loss due to wind erosion in hot arid
           ecosystem of India
    • Authors: Priyabrata Santra; P.C. Moharana; Mahesh Kumar; M.L. Soni; C.B. Pandey; S.K. Chaudhari; A.K. Sikka
      Pages: 71 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 28
      Author(s): Priyabrata Santra, P.C. Moharana, Mahesh Kumar, M.L. Soni, C.B. Pandey, S.K. Chaudhari, A.K. Sikka
      Wind erosion is a severe land degradation process in hot arid western India and affects the agricultural production system. It affects crop yield directly by damaging the crops through abrasion, burial, dust deposition etc. and indirectly by reducing soil fertility. In this study, an attempt was made to quantify the indirect impact of wind erosion process on crop production loss and associated economic loss in hot arid ecosystem of India. It has been observed that soil loss due to wind erosion varies from minimum 1.3tha−1 to maximum 83.3tha−1 as per the severity. Yield loss due to wind erosion was found maximum for groundnut (Arachis hypogea) (5–331kgha−1 yr−1), whereas minimum for moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) (1–93kgha−1 yr−1). For pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), which covers a major portion of arable lands in western Rajasthan, the yield loss was found 3–195kgha−1 yr−1. Economic loss was found higher for groundnut and clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) than rest crops, which are about 191–12465ha−1 depending on the severity of wind erosion. For mustard (Brassica spp.) and wheat (Triticum spp.) the economic loss was about 47–3181ha−1, whereas for pearl millet the economic loss was lowest ( 36–2294ha−1). In this calculation only indirect impact of wind erosion in terms of reduction in soil fertility was considered. There is need of future research work for assessing the direct damage on crops by wind erosion process, addition of which may lead to higher magnitude of losses.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T00:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.07.009
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
  • Field sampling of loose erodible material: A new system to consider the
           full particle-size spectrum
    • Authors: Martina Klose; Thomas E. Gill; Nicholas P. Webb; Justin W. Van Zee
      Pages: 83 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 28
      Author(s): Martina Klose, Thomas E. Gill, Nicholas P. Webb, Justin W. Van Zee
      A new system is presented to sample and enable the characterization of loose erodible material (LEM) present on a soil surface, which may be susceptible for entrainment by wind. The system uses a modified MWAC (Modified Wilson and Cooke) sediment sampler connected to a corded hand-held vacuum cleaner. Performance and accuracy of the system was tested in the laboratory using five reference soil samples with different textures. Sampling was most effective for sandy soils, while effectiveness decreases were found for soils with high silt and clay contents in dry dispersion. This effectiveness decrease can be attributed to loose silt and clay-sized particles and particle aggregates adhering to and clogging a filter attached to the MWAC outlet. Overall, the system was found to be effective in collecting sediment for most soil textures and theoretical interpretation of the measured flow speeds suggests that LEM can be sampled for a wide range of particle sizes, including dust particles. Particle-size analysis revealed that the new system is able to accurately capture the particle-size distribution (PSD) of a given sample. Only small discrepancies (maximum cumulative difference <10% at 63μm) were found between the PSDs before and after vacuuming for all test soils. Despite limitations of the system, it is an advance toward sampling the full particle-size spectrum of loose sediment available for entrainment with the overall goal to better understand the mechanisms of dust emission and their variability.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T00:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
  • Evolution and diagnostic utility of aeolian rat-tails: A new type of
           abrasion feature on Earth and Mars
    • Authors: Elena A. Favaro; Christopher H. Hugenholtz; Thomas E. Barchyn
      Pages: 91 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 28
      Author(s): Elena A. Favaro, Christopher H. Hugenholtz, Thomas E. Barchyn
      Aeolian rat-tails (ARTs) are a previously undocumented, regionally-ubiquitous aeolian abrasion feature observed on matrix-supported ignimbrite surfaces in the Puna Plateau of Northwest Argentina. ARTs consist of an abrasion-resistant lithic clast projecting above the surface with a lee tail or ‘keel’ in the more erodible matrix. Size is controlled by the dimensions of the windward lithic clast, ranging from centimetre to meter scale; spatial density varies with clast content, which may reflect variations in ignimbrite facies. Field observations suggest ARTs follow a definable evolutionary sequence. First, an abrasion-resistant lithic clast contained within the ignimbrite is exposed to abrasion at the surface. Impacts from abrading particles erode the softer ignimbrite matrix adjacent to the clast. The clast shelters the leeward surface under a unimodal abrasion direction, creating a tail that tapers downwind and elongates as the clast emerges. Clasts become dislodged from the matrix as the surrounding surface erodes, ultimately destroying the feature if the clast is small enough to be mobilized directly by wind or impacting particles. This evolutionary sequence explains the morphology of ARTs and the presence of loose clasts on the ignimbrite surface, which contributes to the development of other landforms in the region, such as periodic bedrock ridges, yardangs, and megaripples. Satellite and rover images suggest similar features also exist on Mars. Because the formation and preservation of ARTs is contingent on unimodal abrasion direction, their orientation can be used as an indicator of long-term aeolian sediment transport direction.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T00:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
  • Ground robotic measurement of aeolian processes
    • Authors: Feifei Qian; Douglas Jerolmack; Nicholas Lancaster; George Nikolich; Paul Reverdy; Sonia Roberts; Thomas Shipley; R. Scott Van Pelt; Ted M. Zobeck; Daniel E. Koditschek
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 27
      Author(s): Feifei Qian, Douglas Jerolmack, Nicholas Lancaster, George Nikolich, Paul Reverdy, Sonia Roberts, Thomas Shipley, R. Scott Van Pelt, Ted M. Zobeck, Daniel E. Koditschek
      Models of aeolian processes rely on accurate measurements of the rates of sediment transport by wind, and careful evaluation of the environmental controls of these processes. Existing field approaches typically require intensive, event-based experiments involving dense arrays of instruments. These devices are often cumbersome and logistically difficult to set up and maintain, especially near steep or vegetated dune surfaces. Significant advances in instrumentation are needed to provide the datasets that are required to validate and improve mechanistic models of aeolian sediment transport. Recent advances in robotics show great promise for assisting and amplifying scientists’ efforts to increase the spatial and temporal resolution of many environmental measurements governing sediment transport. The emergence of cheap, agile, human-scale robotic platforms endowed with increasingly sophisticated sensor and motor suites opens up the prospect of deploying programmable, reactive sensor payloads across complex terrain in the service of aeolian science. This paper surveys the need and assesses the opportunities and challenges for amassing novel, highly resolved spatiotemporal datasets for aeolian research using partially-automated ground mobility. We review the limitations of existing measurement approaches for aeolian processes, and discuss how they may be transformed by ground-based robotic platforms, using examples from our initial field experiments. We then review how the need to traverse challenging aeolian terrains and simultaneously make high-resolution measurements of critical variables requires enhanced robotic capability. Finally, we conclude with a look to the future, in which robotic platforms may operate with increasing autonomy in harsh conditions. Besides expanding the completeness of terrestrial datasets, bringing ground-based robots to the aeolian research community may lead to unexpected discoveries that generate new hypotheses to expand the science itself.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T12:15:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of agricultural mulches for reducing
           post-wildfire wind erosion
    • Authors: P.R. Robichaud; J. Jennewein; B.S. Sharratt; S.A. Lewis; R.E. Brown
      Pages: 13 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 27
      Author(s): P.R. Robichaud, J. Jennewein, B.S. Sharratt, S.A. Lewis, R.E. Brown
      Post-wildfire soil erosion can be caused by water or aeolian processes, yet most erosion research has focused on predominantly water-driven erosion. This study investigates the effectiveness of three agricultural mulches, with and without a tackifier, on aeolian sediment transport processes. A wind tunnel was used to simulate post-wildfire wind erosion at three wind speeds (6, 11 and 18ms−1). Shallow trays containing soil collected after a wildfire were treated with chopped rice, wheat or chopped wheat mulch; mulch treatments were also compounded with liquid treatments, tackifier to water ratios of 1:6, 1:3 and water. The mulch treatments were generally easily moved at all wind speeds with cover reductions greater than 90% at the highest wind speed. As expected, sediment loss was greatest for the bare soil treatment, ranging from 6.5gm−2 at the lowest wind speed which increases to 6258gm−2 at the highest wind speed. Adding wheat or chopped wheat mulch significantly reduced sediment loss by an order or magnitude (698 and 298gm−2, respectively) at the highest wind speed. Adding chopped rice straw reduced sediment loss by a half to 3573gm−2 at the highest wind speed, but the effect was not significant due to mobilization of the mulch. The most effective sediment loss mitigation was achieved with liquid tackifier treatments when applied to bare soil and when compounded with various mulch treatments, particularly at the highest wind speed. These results may aid management decisions when mitigating aeolian sediment transport after wildfires.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T12:30:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
  • Intensity and degree of segregation in bimodal and multimodal grain size
    • Authors: Itzhak Katra; Hezi Yizhaq
      Pages: 23 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 27
      Author(s): Itzhak Katra, Hezi Yizhaq
      The commonly used grain size analysis technique which applies moments (sorting, skewness and kurtosis) is less useful in the case of sediments with bimodal size distributions. Herein we suggest a new simple method for analyzing the degree of grain size segregation in sand-sized sediment that has clear bimodal size distributions. Two main features are used to characterize the bimodal distribution: grain diameter segregation, which is the normalized difference between coarse and fine grain diameters, and the frequency segregation which is the normalized difference in frequencies between two modes. The new defined indices can be calculated from frequency plot curves and can be graphically represented on a two dimensional coordinate system showing the dynamical aspects of the size distribution. The results enable comparison between granular samples from different locations and/or times to shed new light on the dynamic processes involved in grain size segregation of sediments. We demonstrate here the use of this method to analyze bimodal distributions of aeolian granular samples mostly from aeolian megaripples. Six different aeolian cases were analyzed to highlight the method’s applicability, which is relevant to wide research themes in the Earth and environmental sciences, and can furthermore be easily adapted to analyze polymodal grain size distributions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T12:34:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
  • Investigating water adsorption onto natural mineral dust particles:
           Linking DRIFTS experiments and BET theory
    • Authors: Nitesh Joshi; Manolis N. Romanias; Veronique Riffault; Frederic Thevenet
      Pages: 35 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 27
      Author(s): Nitesh Joshi, Manolis N. Romanias, Veronique Riffault, Frederic Thevenet
      The adsorption of water molecules on natural mineral dusts was investigated employing in situ Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The natural dust samples originated from North and West Africa, Saudi Arabia and Gobi desert regions. Furthermore, the hygroscopicity of commercially available Arizona Test Dusts (ATDs) and Icelandic volcanic ash were examined. N2 sorption measurements, X-ray fluorescence and diffraction (XRF and XRD), as well as Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses were performed to determine the physicochemical properties of the particles. The water adsorption experiments were conducted in an optical cell, at room temperature under the relative humidity (RH) range of 1.9–95%. Results were simulated using a modified three-parameter Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equation. Water monolayer (ML) was formed in the RH range of 15–25%, while additional water layers were formed at higher RH. Besides, the standard adsorption enthalpies of water onto natural mineral dust samples were determined. A thorough comparison of two commercially available ATD samples indicated that size distribution and/or porosity should play a key role in particle hygroscopicity. Regarding the natural mineral particles, Ca/Si ratios, and to a lesser extent Al/Si, Na/Si, Mg/Si ratios, were found to impact the minimum RH level required for water monolayer formation. These results suggest that the hygroscopic properties of investigated African dusts are quite similar over the whole investigated RH range. Furthermore, one of the major conclusions is that under most atmospheric relative humidity conditions, natural mineral samples are always covered with at least one layer of adsorbed water.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T04:39:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
  • Connecting geomorphology to dust emission through high-resolution mapping
           of global land cover and sediment supply
    • Authors: Sagar Prasad Parajuli; Charles S. Zender
      Pages: 47 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 27
      Author(s): Sagar Prasad Parajuli, Charles S. Zender
      A key challenge in modeling dust emissions is to represent the location and strength of dust sources. One critical aspect of dust sources that is not well understood and thus not represented in dust models is their geomorphology. In this work, we investigate the geomorphology of global dust sources by developing two high-resolution (∼500m), seamless, global maps. First is a land surface map in which landforms are classified into different categories based on geomorphology using an image classification technique. The land surface map shows the distribution of landforms in dust source regions and is useful in defining the boundaries of different dust sources in dust models. Second is the sediment supply map developed by combining the upstream drainage area with the visible reflectance retrieved by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This map, due to the inclusion of surface reflectance, highlights dust sources such as playa/sabkha and sand dunes and anthropogenic dust sources such as agricultural areas, that may not be captured by the commonly used elevation-based erodibility maps. We establish the connection between geomorphology and dust emission by comparing the sediment supply map with the land surface map and dust frequency map, qualitatively and quantitatively. We show that the sediment supply is linked to the land surface type and that playa/sabkha corresponds to the greatest inferred sediment supply. The sediment supply map is largely consistent with the land surface map and correlates well with the frequency of occurrence map derived from high-resolution MODIS level-2 aerosol optical depth (AOD) data.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T04:39:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
  • Sedimentary rhythms in coastal dunes as a record of intra-annual changes
           in wind climate (Łeba, Poland)
    • Authors: J. Ludwig; S. Lindhorst; C. Betzler; S.E. Bierstedt; R.K. Borówka
      Pages: 67 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 27
      Author(s): J. Ludwig, S. Lindhorst, C. Betzler, S.E. Bierstedt, R.K. Borówka
      It is shown that coastal dunes bear a so far unread archive of annual wind intensity. Active dunes at the Polish coast near Łeba consist of two genetic units: primary dunes with up to 18m high eastward-dipping foresets, temporarily superimposed by smaller secondary dunes. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data reveal that the foresets of the primary dunes are bundled into alternating packages imaged as either low- or high-amplitude reflections. High-amplitude packages are composed of quartz sand with intercalated heavy-minerals layers. Low-amplitude packages lack these heavy-mineral concentrations. Dune net-progradation is towards the east, reflecting the prevalence of westerly winds. Winds blowing parallel to the dune crest winnow the lee slope, leaving layers enriched in heavy minerals. Sediment transport to the slip face of the dunes is enhanced during the winter months, whereas winnowing predominantly takes place during the spring to autumn months, when the wind field is bi-directional. As a consequence of this seasonal shift, the sedimentary record of one year comprises one low- and one high-amplitude GPR reflection interval. This sedimentary pattern is a persistent feature of the Łeba dunes and recognized to resemble a sedimentary “bar code”. To overcome hiatuses in the bar code of individual dunes and dune-to-dune variations in bar-code quality, dendrochronological methods were adopted to compile a composite bar code from several dunes. The resulting data series shows annual variations in west-wind intensity at the southern Baltic coast for the time period 1987 to 2012. Proxy-based wind data are validated against instrumental based weather observations.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T01:45:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
  • Application of Database Approaches to the Study of Earth’s Aeolian
           Environments: Community Needs and Goals
    • Authors: Louis A. Scuderi; Gary S. Weissmann; Adrian J. Hartley; Xiaoping Yang; Nicholas Lancaster
      Pages: 79 - 109
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research, Volume 27
      Author(s): Louis A. Scuderi, Gary S. Weissmann, Adrian J. Hartley, Xiaoping Yang, Nicholas Lancaster
      Aeolian science is faced with significant challenges that impact its ability to benefit from recent advances in information technology. The discipline deals with high-end systems in the form of ground and satellite based sensors, computer modeling and simulation, and wind tunnel experiments. Aeolian scientists also collect field data manually with observational methods that may differ significantly between studies with little agreement on even basic morphometric parameters and terminology. Data produced from these studies, while forming the core of research papers and reports, is rarely available to the community at large. Recent advances are also superimposed on an underlying semantic structure that dates to the 1800’s or earlier that is confusing, with ambiguously defined, and at times even contradictory, meanings. The aeolian “world-view” does not always fit within neat increments nor is defined by crisp objects. Instead change is continuous and features are fuzzy. Development of an ontological framework to guide spatiotemporal research is the fundamental starting point for organizing data in aeolian science. This requires a “rethinking” of how we define, collect, process, store and share data along with the development of a community-wide collaborative approach designed to bring the discipline into a data rich future. There is also a pressing need to develop efficient methods to integrate, analyze and manage spatial and temporal data and to promote data produced by aeolian scientists so it is available for preparing diagnostic studies, as input into a range of environmental models, and for advising national and international bodies that drive research agendas. This requires the establishment of working groups within the discipline to deal with content, format, processing pipelines, knowledge discovery tools and database access issues unique to aeolian science. Achieving this goal requires the development of comprehensive and highly-organized databases, tools that allow aeolian scientists as well as those in related disciplines to access and analyze the wealth of data available, and a supporting infrastructure and community-wide effort that allows aeolian scientists to communicate their results in replicable ways to scientists and decision and policy makers. Fortunately, much of the groundwork required to move aeolian science into a data rich future has been developed in other data rich physical science fields, and within the computer science and information technology disciplines.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T01:45:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
  • Measuring high spatiotemporal variability in saltation intensity using a
           low-cost Saltation Detection System: Wind tunnel and field experiments
    • Authors: W. de Winter; D.B. van Dam; N. Delbecque; A. Verdoodt; B.G. Ruessink; G. Sterk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research
      Author(s): W. de Winter, D.B. van Dam, N. Delbecque, A. Verdoodt, B.G. Ruessink, G. Sterk
      The commonly observed over prediction of aeolian saltation transport on sandy beaches is, at least in part, caused by saltation intermittency. To study small-scale saltation processes, high frequency saltation sensors are required on a high spatial resolution. Therefore, we developed a low-cost Saltation Detection System (SalDecS) with the aim to measure saltation intensity at a frequency of 10 Hz and with a spatial resolution of 0.10 m in wind-normal direction. Linearity and equal sensitivity of the saltation sensors were investigated during wind tunnel and field experiments. Wind tunnel experiments with a set of 7 SalDec sensors revealed that the variability of sensor sensitivity is at maximum 9% during relatively low saltation intensities. During more intense saltation the variability of sensor sensitivity decreases. A sigmoidal fit describes the relation between mass flux and sensor output measured during 5 different wind conditions. This indicates an increasing importance of sensor saturation with increasing mass flux. We developed a theoretical model to simulate and describe the effect of grain size, grain velocity and saltation intensity on sensor saturation. Time-averaged field measurements revealed sensitivity equality for 85 out of a set of 89 horizontally deployed SalDec sensors. On these larger timescales (hours) saltation variability imposed by morphological features, such as sand strips, can be recognized. We conclude that the SalDecS can be used to measure small-scale spatiotemporal variabilities of saltation intensity to investigate saltation characteristics related to wind turbulence.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:36:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.11.003
  • An experimental study of the dynamics of saltation within a
           three-dimensional framework
    • Authors: Patrick O'Brien; Cheryl McKenna Neuman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research
      Author(s): Patrick O'Brien, Cheryl McKenna Neuman
      Our understanding of aeolian sand transport via saltation lacks an experimental determination of the particle borne kinetic energy partitioned into 3 dimensions relative to the mean flow direction. This in turn creates a disconnect between global wind erosion estimates and particle scale processes. The present study seeks to address this deficiency through an extended analysis of data obtained from a series of particle tracking velocimetry experiments conducted in a boundary layer wind tunnel under transport limited conditions. Particle image diameter, as it appeared within each camera frame, was extensively calibrated against that obtained by sieving, and the ballistic trajectories detected were disassembled into discrete particle image pairs whose distribution and dynamics were then examined in vertical profile with sub-millimeter resolution. The vertical profile of the wind aligned particle transport rate was found to follow a power relation within 10mm of the bed surface. The exponent of this power function changes with increasing spanwise angle (θ) to produce a family of curves representing particle diffusion in 3 dimensions. Particle mass was found to increase with θ, and the distribution of the total particle kinetic energy was found to be very similar to that for the particle concentration. The spanwise component of the kinetic energy of a saltating particle peaks at θ =45°, with the stream-aligned component an order of magnitude higher in value. Low energy, splashed particles near the bed account for a majority of the kinetic energy distributed throughout the particle cloud, regardless of their orientation.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:33:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.09.003
  • Are fixed grain size ratios useful proxies for loess sedimentation
           dynamics' Experiences from Remizovka, Kazakhstan
    • Authors: Philipp Schulte; Tobias Sprafke; Leonor Rodrigues; Kathryn E. Fitzsimmons
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research
      Author(s): Philipp Schulte, Tobias Sprafke, Leonor Rodrigues, Kathryn E. Fitzsimmons
      Loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) are sensitive terrestrial archives of past aeolian dynamics and paleoclimatic changes within the Quaternary. Grain size (GS) analysis is commonly used to interpret aeolian dynamics and climate influences on LPS, based on granulometric parameters such as specific GS classes, ratios of GS classes and statistical manipulation of GS data. However, the GS distribution of a loess sample is not solely a function of aeolian dynamics; rather complex polygenetic depositional and post-depositional processes must be taken into account. This study assesses the reliability of fixed GS ratios as proxies for past sedimentation dynamics using the case study of Remizovka in southeast Kazakhstan. Continuous sampling of the upper 8m of the profile, which shows extremely weak pedogenic alteration and is therefore dominated by primary aeolian activity, indicates that fixed GS ratios do not adequately serve as proxies for loess sedimentation dynamics. We find through the calculation of single value parameters, that “true” variations within sensitive GS classes are masked by relative changes of the more frequent classes. Heatmap signatures provide the visualization of GS variability within LPS without significant data loss within the measured classes of a sample, or across all measured samples. We also examine the effect of two different commonly used laser diffraction devices on GS ratio calculation by duplicate measurements, the Beckman Coulter (LS13320) and a Malvern Mastersizer Hydro (MM2000), as well as the applicability and significance of the so-called “twin peak ratio” previously developed on samples from the same section. The LS13320 provides higher resolution results than the MM2000, nevertheless the GS ratios related to variations in the silt-sized fraction were comparable. However, we could not detect a twin peak within the coarse silt as detected in the original study using the same device. Our GS measurements differ from previous works at Remizovka in several instances, calling into question the interpretation of paleoclimatic implications using GS data alone.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T11:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.09.002
  • An integrated OSL chronology, sedimentology and geochemical approach to
           loess deposits from Tuoji Island, Shandong Province: Implications for the
           late quaternary paleoenvironment in East China
    • Authors: Shujian Xu; Fanbiao Kong; Guangju Jia; Xiaodong Miao; Xinchao Ding
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research
      Author(s): Shujian Xu, Fanbiao Kong, Guangju Jia, Xiaodong Miao, Xinchao Ding
      The Tuoji II (TJII) section on the Miaodao Islands in the Bohai Sea is a representative aeolian section off China’s east coast. This study applied optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, conducted grain size analysis, and examined major and trace element compositions, to investigate the loess–paleosol sequences. The OSL ages at depths of 0.6, 1.8, 2.8, 3.8, and 4.8m were determined as 14.4±0.4, 16.7±1.3, 20.8±1.0, 40.9±1.5, and 47.9±3.7ka, respectively. It was projected that the loess started to accumulate at ca. 62.6ka, according to presumed depositional rates. In this study, typical aeolian deposits elsewhere including the Luochuan (LC), Xiashu (XS), Wushan (WS), and Xifeng (XF) sections were compared with TJII section here. The results showed similarity in the geochemical characteristics of the deposits from the different areas of China and normalized upper continental crust, indicating aeolian origin of this island loess. In comparison with the LC, XS, WS, and XF samples, the aeolian deposits of the TJII section have higher concentrations of TiO2 and Zr and lower concentrations of Al2O3, Rb, and Ni, and they have higher SiO2/Al2O3 and TiO2/Al2O3 ratios and lower Al2O3/Na2O and Ba/Sr ratios. These features indicate the dust materials of the TJII section were derived from local sources of well-mixed sedimentary protoliths. Our results support the suggestion that paleoclimatic change and the evolution of aeolian sediments were controlled primarily by variation of the East Asian summer monsoon and sea level change.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T00:20:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.07.007
  • Measuring spatial and temporal variation in surface moisture on a coastal
           beach with a near-infrared terrestrial laser scanner
    • Authors: Yvonne Smit; Gerben Ruessink; Laura B. Brakenhoff; Jasper J.A. Donker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2017
      Source:Aeolian Research
      Author(s): Yvonne Smit, Gerben Ruessink, Laura B. Brakenhoff, Jasper J.A. Donker
      Wind-alone predictions of aeolian sand deposition on the most seaward coastal dune ridge often exceed measured deposition substantially. Surface moisture is a major factor limiting aeolian transport on sandy beaches, but existing measurement techniques cannot adequately characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of surface moisture content. Here, we present a new method for detecting surface moisture at high temporal and spatial resolution using a near-infrared terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), the RIEGL VZ-400. Because this TLS operates at a wavelength (1550nm) near a water absorption band, TLS reflectance is an accurate parameter to measure surface moisture over its full range. Five days of intensive laser scanning were performed on a Dutch beach to illustrate the applicability of the TLS. Gravimetric surface moisture samples were used to calibrate the relation between reflectance and surface moisture. Results reveal a robust negative relation for the full range of possible surface moisture contents (0%–25%), with a correlation-coefficient squared of 0.85 and a root-mean-square error of 2.7%. This relation holds between 20 and 60m from the TLS. Within this distance the TLS typically produces O ( 10 6 – 10 7 ) data points, which we averaged into surface moisture maps with a 1×1m resolution. This grid size largely removes small reflectance disturbances induced by, for example, footprints or tire tracks, while retaining larger scale moisture trends.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T02:36:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.aeolia.2017.07.004
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