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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3030 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3030 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 79, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 304, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 390, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in International Accounting
  [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 0897-3660
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3030 journals]
  • List of Contributors
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 20



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Reviewer Acknowledgment
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 20



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • The Effect of Volume of Intrafirm Transfers on Market Metrics
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 20

      In this paper, we examine the relationship between international intrafirm area transfers and market metrics as measured by market-to-book value and systematic risk. Intrafirm transfers – the amount that multinational corporations charge one another for the transfer of goods, intellectual property, and services – have become an increasingly important issue for policymaking, managerial, financial, and tax purposes. This paper also examines whether international intrafirm intergeographic area transfers are attributed to corporate tax. We find that firms with a sizable volume of international intrafirm transfers have higher systematic risk than comparable firms without these transfers. We show cross-sectionally that firms engage in international transfers have a higher market-to-book ratio, suggesting that transfers add value through their effect on earnings and taxes. Consistent with Mills and Newberry (2003) and Collins, Kemsley, and Lang (1998), we document that U.S. (global) income tax is positively (negatively) related to intrafirm transfers, implying that U.S. multinational firms shifted taxable income to the United States from 1995 to 1999.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • International Accounting Standards and Financial Reporting Uniformity: The
           Case of Trinidad and Tobago
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 20

      The paper has two purposes. First, it describes the financial reporting environment of Trinidad and Tobago before and after the adoption of International Accounting Standards (IAS) (currently called International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)) as the national standards of Trinidad and Tobago. Second, it examines the association between the adoption of IAS as the national standards of Trinidad and Tobago and the degree of uniformity of financial reporting among public companies. This study is useful because of the dearth of research on financial reporting in the English-speaking Caribbean and the effect of IAS on the degree of financial reporting uniformity within a country. Using an ex post facto research design, the financial statements of 18 publicly traded firms for the year immediately prior to the adoption of IAS (1987) and four years during the period following the adoption of IAS (1995, 1999, 2002 and 2003) were subjected to content analysis. Overall, the uniformity of financial reporting practices among publicly traded firms in Trinidad and Tobago increased following the adoption of IAS. This finding was fairly uniform across all the financial statement items examined though the magnitude of the change varied. It was directly attributed to the adoption of IAS for only three financial statement elements.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • An Empirical Investigation into the Importance, Use, and Technicality of
           Saudi Annual Corporate Information
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 20

      This study examines the perceptions of the users of annual corporate reports in Saudi Arabia. The focus is on the use, importance, and technicality of the different sources of corporate information contained in Saudi annual reports. Our sample comprises five major user groups, namely individual investors, institutional investors, creditors, government officials, and financial analysts. In comparison with previous research efforts elsewhere around the world, this study found that the balance sheet and the income statement are the most important sections of the annual report to most of the Saudi users’ groups. The board of directors’ report was found to be the least popular. Individual investors were found to place much less importance on the cash flow statement, a finding that is similar to what has been reported in previous literature. Concerning the technicality of the language of Saudi annual corporate information, individual investors indicated that the language of most of the sections of the annual reports is fairly complicated. Although our findings do not indicate a serious problem with the technicality of the language of the report's sections for most of the user groups, a more simplified report would be beneficial to the individual investors.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Measuring Accounting Disclosure in a Period of Complex Changes: The Case
           of Egypt
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 20

      Significant changes in accounting disclosure are observed in periods of economic change such as those relating to emerging capital markets and programs of privatization. Measurement of the level of accounting disclosure should ideally be designed to capture the complexity of change in order to give insight and explanation to match the causes and consequences of change. This paper shows the added interpretive value in subdividing the disclosure checklist to reflect the requirements of national accounting regulations, the location of disclosure items in the annual report, and limitations on the availability of regulations in official translation to the local language. Defining targeted disclosure categories leads to significance testing of specific aspects of changes in accounting disclosure in the Egyptian capital market in the 1990s. Strong correlation of disclosure with the presence of majority government ownership of the company and the relative activity of share trading supports the applicability of political costs and capital need theories, respectively. The relation between International Accounting Standards (IASs) disclosure and the type of audit firm points to additional theoretical explanations, including relative familiarity with the legislation and compliance features identifiable with the emerging capital market. The approach described in this paper has the potential for enhancing understanding of the complexity of accounting change in other emerging capital markets and developing economies.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Critically Appreciating Social Accounting and Reporting in the Arab
           MiddleEast: A Postcolonial Perspective
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 20

      There has been no comprehensive or detailed study in respect of social accounting and reporting practices in the Arab countries of the Middle East. Indeed, very little is known about accounting practices and accounting regulations in the Arab Middle East (AME hereafter), with most studies available in the English-speaking world being concerned mainly with the larger and more economically significant countries of the AME, such as Egypt and Saudi Arabia. This study attempts to fill this gap in the literature by exploring and bringing insights into social accounting and reporting practices in a selection of AME countries, namely: SaudiArabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Syria, Jordan and Egypt. The concern of this study is to explore the actuality and potentiality of social accounting manifestations in the AME from a critical and postcolonial perspective. Pursuing a critical and postcolonial perspective that is sensitive to the context of the AME, it is concluded that social accounting manifestations in the AME are largely orientated towards ‘repressive/counter radical’ positions of accounting. The study, in addition, considers the potentiality of more radical positions of social accounting in the AME inspired by a critical approach and the particular history and culture of the AME.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • “Big Bang” Accounting Reforms in Japan: Financial Analyst Earnings
           Forecast Accuracy Declines as the Japanese Government Mandates Japanese
           Corporations to Adopt International Accounting Standards
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 20

      The mandated adoption of International Accounting Standards (IAS) for Japanese corporations did not result in improved earnings that forecast predictability. These findings contradict the research findings of Ashbaugh and Pincus (2001). Herrmann, Inoue, and Thomas’ (2003) research findings support the need for mandating the adoption of IAS. They found that Japanese managers were “manipulating” reported earnings by managing the sale of fixed assets and marketable securities. Adoption of IAS decreases the availability of this practice and it was and is expected to increase disclosure and transparency. Increased disclosure and transparency are expected to decrease financial analyst forecast errors, which did not decrease for 139 firms examined in this study for the timeframe of 1999–2002. This research finding does not support the idea that adoption of IAS improves financial information used in decision making relative to forecasting earnings. Assuming that increased predictability indicates higher quality reported earnings and enhanced usefulness of financial information, the mandated adoption of IAS did not result in these. Assuming that adoption of IAS in Japan increased the level of transparency and disclosure by Japanese firms, which made it harder for Japanese firms to manage their earnings in order to meet the managerial earnings forecasts that these firms must make. Thus, after the adoption of IAS in Japan, forecast errors for managerial forecasts of earnings increased. This evidence is new to the literature.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Convergence with International Financial Reporting Standards: The Case of
           Indonesia
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 20

      Accounting professional bodies and governments in over 70 countries have supported the efforts made through the Indian Accounting Standards Board (IASB) in setting global accounting standards by adopting International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) for local financial reporting purposes. However, this has not happened in over 30 other countries due to various reasons. The US standard setters, for example, have decided to eliminate the differences between IFRSs and US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP) first as part of their convergence project with the IASB. Also, some emerging nations have not supported IFRSs due to other reasons. In Indonesia, for example, IFRSs are not permitted for domestic listed companies. The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the possible reasons for non-adoption of IFRSs in Indonesia by highlighting some of the important factors that are likely to influence the accounting environment in that country, taking an ecological perspective.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Latin American Banking Institutions Trading on NewYork Stock Exchange:
           Convergence–Divergence of Latin American Accounting Standards and US
           GAAP
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 20

      The objective of this study is to analyze the degree of de facto harmonization and convergence between the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) of Latin American banking institutions and US banking institutions. We examine 20-F reports of all Latin American credit institutions which quoted shares on the New York Stock Exchange during the period 1998–2003. We also examine the bank financial reporting regulatory environment for three countries. The results show an emerging harmonization between many areas of financial reporting. However, for some areas, there has been little convergence. Also, movement toward harmonizing bank reporting standards has been slow. Thus, there is a need to continue efforts at harmonization in order to reduce the degree of discretion in financial reporting.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • German Reporting Practices: An Analysis of Reconciliations from German
           Commercial Code to IFRS or US GAAP
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 20

      This paper presents the results of research analyzing reconciliations of net income and stockholders’ equity from reports prepared according to Germany's Commercial Code (HGB) to either International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) or US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP). We describe the distribution of the reconciling items and assess their value relevance to firm market values 3 months after the financial statement date. The work helps to identify many issues not apparent from research that focuses only on promulgated accounting standards. Among other things, the research presented in this paper demonstrates that, when reconciling to IFRS or US GAAP, German companies must reverse significant software and film licensing revenue. Other areas of significant difference, not surprisingly, show greater conservatism in reporting under HGB than IFRS or US GAAP, particularly in asset capitalizations and write-offs as well as in accruals of provisions and reserves. The latter category is value relevant to the firms’ market values after controlling for all other categories of reconciling items from HGB to either IFRS or US GAAP, indicating that German markets value these companies’ provisions and accruals under the German reporting system.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • List of Contributors
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 19



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Reviewer Acknowledgment
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 19



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Determinants of Corporate Social Disclosure in Developing Countries: The
           Case of Qatar
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 19

      In this study, an attempt is made to test the validity of theories employed in the literature to explain variation in the extent of corporate voluntary disclosure within the corporate social disclosure context. The annual reports of 21 out of the 22 companies listed on the Doha Stock Exchange in Qatar were used as a basis for the study. Variations in corporate social disclosure by the sampled Qatari companies are found to be associated with firm size measured by the firm's market capitalisation, business risk measured by leverage and corporate growth. The outcome of the study lends partial support to agency theory, political economy theory, legitimacy theory, stakeholder theory as well as the accountability approach.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Harmonization of Accounting Measurement Practices in South Asia
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 19

      This study examines the extent of harmonization of selected accounting measurement practices in three South Asian countries, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The study is based on a sample of 566 non-financial companies for the financial year 1997–1998. The degree of harmonization is measured using Van der Tas's (1988) I index and Archer, Delvaille, and McLeay's (1995) modified C index. The values of the I index and the C index show a relatively higher degree of harmonization in the areas of property, plant and equipment, foreign currency translation and long-term investment, and a lower level of harmonization in the areas of inventory, amortization of goodwill and leases. The results suggest that low harmonization levels are both due to the degree of flexibility available in selecting benchmark treatments in some International Accounting Standards (IAS) and also to non-compliance by companies with IAS-mandated requirements. Significant further work is required by South Asian Federation of Accountants and the other regional accounting bodies if the goals of regional and international accounting harmonization are to be achieved.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • The Role of Earnings and Book Values in Pricing Stocks: Evidence from
           Turkey
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 19

      In this study, we examine factors associated with equity valuation in a newly emerging market, Turkey. In the United States and other developed countries, research indicates that both earnings and book value are important predictors of equity valuation. In Turkey, earnings appears to have information content but earnings, by itself, appears to be declining in importance over time. Book value adjusted for inflation has a stronger association with equity values. In the inflationary and risky environment of Turkey, where future value of earnings is quite uncertain, investors may be paying less attention to earnings and more attention to book values. With respect to the role of book value there are competing explanations. While some researchers conclude that it is only important because it is a control for scale differences, (Barth & Kallapur 1996) others conclude that it is relevant as a proxy for normal earnings (Ohlson, 1995). Still others conclude that it is only relevant in the valuation of loss making and generally unsuccessful firms (Berger, Ofek & Swary 1996; urgstahler & Dichev, 1997). The additional contribution of this study is to show that book value is also important as a value proxy for firms operating in environments where there is rampant inflation. Our study also indicates that, overall, earnings and inflation-adjusted book values combined virtually explain almost 75% of the variation in equity prices in Turkey.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Disclosures of Codes of Ethics on Corporate Websites: A Pre- and
           Post-Sarbanes-Oxley Longitudinal Study
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 19

      Until recently, corporate ethics was not a topic of major concern. In the United States, it changed with the WorldCom scandal and Enron catastrophe. The effects of unethical decision-making took its toll on consumers’ confidence and portfolios, resulting in a desire for more transparency and increased ethical conduct. The study uses the top 100 US-based and top 100 Internationally based corporations from the 2001 Fortune Global 500. We examined whether companies had a published corporate code of ethics on their websites in July 2002, January 2003, March 2003, and July 2003. We found that there was not a significant difference between the number of US-based and Internationally based corporations for the first two observation dates. However, there was a significant difference between the number of US-based and Internationally based corporations for the March 2003 observation date that coincided with the implementation date of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Finally, while the rate of change dramatically decreased for Internationally based corporations after the implementation date of the Sarbanes-Oxley, US-based corporations continued to make their codes of ethics more accessible at a higher rate.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Estimating Impact of Formula Apportionment on Allocation of Worldwide
           Income and the Potential for Double Taxation
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 19

      The issue of international transfer pricing and the allocation of worldwide income has become increasingly important as the number of multinational corporations (MNCs) has increased. An arm's-length transaction method of transfer pricing is currently the method required to assign worldwide income; however, evidence suggests that MNCs use the transfer-price mechanism to shift income between tax jurisdictions. As a result, a formulary apportionment method, similar to that used by the states, has been suggested as a preferred alternative. This paper develops a simulation model to investigate the impact on U.S. taxable income of MNCs if a formula apportionment model were adopted. Alternative simulation models explore the magnitude of potential for double taxation when two taxing jurisdictions use different formulary models. The results indicate that, in the aggregate, a decrease in U.S. taxable income could be expected. A relatively modest amount of formulary income is likely to be subject to double taxation when foreign jurisdictions weight the sales factor more heavily and income escapes taxation when the U.S. weights the sales factor more heavily. However, the impact for any single MNC could be significant.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • An Analysis of U.S. and Latin American Financial Accounting Ratios
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 19

      Financial accounting ratios of non-U.S. companies are subject to misinterpretation by U.S. investors due to differences in accounting principles, institutional practices, and economic environments. The purpose of this study is to compare selected financial accounting ratios of companies from seven Latin American countries with those of a matched sample of U.S. companies, and explain any observed differences in the ratios based on the above three factors. In general, the results indicated that the liquidity, activity, and coverage ratios of the Latin American companies were lower than those of the U.S. companies. The profitability ratios varied, however, with the profit margin on sales generally higher for the Latin American companies, the return on assets mixed, and the return on equity ratios not significantly different between the Latin American and U.S. companies.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Perceptions of Earnings Management: The Effects of National Culture
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 19

      Manipulating, or “managing,” reported earnings is a temptation faced by every accountant and corporation around the world. This study investigates whether national culture influences perceptions of the acceptability of earnings management. Participants from eight countries evaluated 13 vignettes describing various earnings management practices (Merchant & Rockness, 1994). Our results demonstrate considerable variation in perceptions across nations to the earnings management scenarios, providing strong evidence that the practice of earnings management was not perceived similarly in all countries. Using Hofstede's (1991) cultural indices, we find that the differences in aggregate perceptions across countries were not closely associated with any of the cultural dimensions examined. We do, however, find that perceptions of earnings manipulations involving the timing of operating decisions were associated with both the Power Distance Index and the Masculinity Index.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • The Degree of Internationalization and the Stock Market Valuation of
           Earnings
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 19

      In this paper, we examine the impact of the degree of internationalization on a firm's ability to reduce risk and increase profits. Our study seeks to overcome three limitations of many previous studies on the value of internationalization: use of a single measure of internationalization, accrual-basis accounting measures of firm performance, and a small sample size. We use a multi-measure index, stock market assessment, and a large sample size of various firms. Our findings indicate that (1) a firm's degree of internationalization has a positive impact on the investor response to the earnings changes and (2) the market's positive response to the value of internationalization is confined to a high level of internationalization. Our results do not support the argument that, at high levels of internationalization, the costs of internationalization exceed the benefits.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Europe and America – Together or Apart: An Empirical Test of Differences
           in Actual Reported Results
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 19

      The accounting convergence debate has assumed an Anglo-American vs. Continental European dichotomy. Alexander and Archer (2000) using logical analysis and d’Arcy (2001) using regulations suggest a different truth, an EU group including the U.K. vs. an American-led group. This view has been debated without result in Nobes (2003, 2004), Alexander and Archer (2003), and d’Arcy (2004). This study brings some closure by using actual reported results from recent 20-F filings. It finds the Anglo-American accounting model vs. Continental European dichotomy unsustainable.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Dividend Imputation Systems in Industrialized Countries: An Examination of
           Relative Tax Burdens
    • Abstract: 2006
      Publication year: 2006
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 19

      Dividend taxation has been a controversial issue especially since the enactment of the 2003 U.S. legislation entitled “Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act” (JGTRRA). This paper presents taxonomy of dividend tax systems and illustrates dividend relief practices in the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. None of the OECD countries follow the conduit (i.e., full imputation) system, and the classical system (where double taxation of dividends occurs) prevailed only in one country (Ireland) other than U.S. in 2003. Dividend imputation in most of the OECD countries is only partial and takes place at the shareholder level in the form of tax credit or split rate. The paper also demonstrates a method to compute the effective tax rates (corporate plus individual taxes) on dividends, and presents such rates for the OECD countries. In comparison with the average dividends tax rate of 39.6% in other OECD countries, the U.S. had a rate of 60.7%, which JGTRRA has brought down to 44.8%.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • List of Contributors
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 18



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Reviewer Acknowledgment
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 18



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Corporate Governance and Investor Reaction to Reported Earnings: An
           Exploratory Study of Listed Chinese Companies
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 18

      This study explores the determinants of listed Chinese companies’ governance practices. It also examines how these companies’ governance practices affect domestic investors’ reaction to their earnings reports. Using publicly disclosed financial information and data directly collected from 148 domestically listed Chinese companies, the findings are consistent with investors in these companies basing their valuation decisions, at least in part, on these companies’ earnings reports. This is indicated by the significant relationship between “unexpected” earnings and cumulative abnormal returns. However, the hypothesized effects of governance practice/choice are, on the whole, not supported. There also is no systematic relation between governance choice and ownership structure. We interpret these findings to imply that in the Chinese securities market, the institutional factors and infrastructure (e.g., legal liability, information intermediation, market for managers, and takeovers) are not yet sufficiently developed to permit individual domestic investors to exert significant influence via their actions in the capital markets.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Cultural Influences on Indigenous Users’ Perceptions of the Importance
           of Disclosure Items: Empirical Evidence from Papua New Guinea
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 18

      This study investigates the cultural determinism hypothesis that financial statement users from different cultural groups will have different perceptions regarding the importance of accounting information disclosure. Examination of the perceptual differences of three cultural groups from: (1) Papua New Guinea, (2) other developing countries, and (3) developed western countries, shows that while significant differences exist in accounting information perception between financial statement users from the developed western countries and developing countries (including Papua New Guinea), there appears to be no significant difference in the perceptions of users in the developing countries. In general, the results support the cultural determinism thesis in accounting. This has implications for the designing of appropriate accounting and reporting systems for use in the developing countries. It also raises questions about some of the country classifications traditionally reported in the international accounting literature. An important implication is the warning it sends to the International Accounting Standards Board and any other aspiring global standard setters about their penchant for selling Anglo-American standards, packaged as ‘international’ or ‘global’ standards, to the developing countries.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Firm-Specific Determinants of Income Smoothing in Bangladesh: An Empirical
           Evaluation
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 18

      The purpose of this chapter is to empirically examine the existence of income smoothing and determinants of smoothing behavior in Bangladesh. Using Eckel's (1981), Abacus (June), 28–40, “comparison of the variance of sales and profit” method, this study finds that a fair number of Bangladeshi firms engage in income smoothing. Particularly, 46 firms out of a sample of 107 firms with available data, engage in at least one type of income-smoothing behavior. Further, a logistic regression result indicates that firms characterized by sponsors having the largest ownership stake among all the equity holders and smaller firms engage more in income smoothing. Also, firms that have high debt to equity ratio engage more in smoothing behavior.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Bank Earnings Management in Emerging Market Economies: The Case of Mexico
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 18

      In the mid-late 1990s, developing countries in several parts of the world experienced severe currency devaluations that were accompanied by deep economic downturns. For some regions, international financial organizations have documented that deficient financial reporting standards and practices contributed to the onset and magnitude of the crises by understating banks’ problem loans and capital adequacy problems. However, little research has been conducted concerning the role of financial reporting in the post-devaluation reconstruction of financial systems. As such, this paper examines the role of financial reporting in the post-1994 devaluation restructuring of the Mexican banking system. Emphasis is placed on examining whether the country's three largest banks delayed the recognition of loan losses in the late 1990s. The results provide evidence that banks took advantage of weaknesses in financial reporting standards to delay the recognition of loan losses.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Adoption and Benefits of Management Accounting Systems: Evidence from
           Finland and Australia
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 18

      This study provides empirical evidence on management accounting practices in Finnish manufacturing companies. It identifies the adoption of the management accounting practices, received benefits from the adoption and intentions to emphasize the practices in the future. The results indicate that financial measures like product profitability analysis and budgeting for controlling costs is likely to be important in the future, but it is also clear that greater emphasis will be placed on newer practices like customer satisfaction surveys and employee attitudes. The results of the management accounting practices are compared to the findings of a similar study based on Australian data.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Investments in Human Capital in Different Institutional Environments
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 18

      This chapter investigates the proportion of labor costs that represents investments in human capital, and the rate of amortization of this asset in all six countries for which the required data are available in the Compustat Global Vantage database. The sample includes countries with different financial and legal systems, which enables us to investigate how the growth and depreciation rates of human capital and the resulting human capital asset ratio differ in different institutional environments. The results indicate that the estimated proportion of labor expenses that represents investments in human capital is large in the so-called common-law countries with a market-based financial system. On the other hand, the depreciation rate of the estimated human capital assets is lower in these countries. The results, therefore, indicate that the human capital assets are high in equity-oriented financial reporting environments. The results also indicate that the estimated ratios of the human capital asset to market value of equity are reasonably related to firm characteristics that are hypothesized to be determinants of the human capital asset ratios. Finally, these results remain the same in different industries.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Risk in Audit Pricing: The Role of Firm-Specific Dimensions of Risk
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 18

      This chapter investigates the impact of the firm-specific dimensions of risk suggested in the finance literature, the financial risk, operating leverage and business risk on audit fees. It is hypothesized that audit fees are related to these three dimensions of risk, size, audit complexity and a set of the agency theory based control variables. The hypothesis is empirically tested using a sample from the U.K. audit market. The results of the study show that audit fees as hypothesized are positively related to financial leverage, operating leverage and business risk of a firm and that the control variables behave according to expectations. This implies that the three dimensions of the firm-specific risk are taken into account in audit pricing decisions and should therefore be incorporated into models when investigating the audit pricing issues.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • IAS Versus U.S. GAAP: Assessing the Quality of Financial Reporting in
           South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 18

      In this study, we investigate whether financial reporting, using International Accounting Standards (IAS) results in quality disclosures, given differences in institutional and market forces across legal jurisdictions. This study contributes to the global accounting debate by utilizing U.S.-based companies complying with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (U.S. GAAP) as a benchmark for measuring the quality of IAS as applied by South Africa (S.A.) and United Kingdom (U.K.) companies. Although South Africa, United Kingdom, and the United States are common law countries with strong investor protection, South Africa's institutional factors and market forces vary from that of the U.K. and the U.S. South Africa's financial market is less developed than that of the U.K. and the U.S. We compare the discretionary accruals of firms complying with U.S. GAAP to the discretionary accruals of U.K. and S.A. firms complying with IAS. This allows a comparison between companies (S.A. and U.K.) operating under different institutional factors and market forces that have adopted IAS versus U.S. companies that report under U.S. GAAP. Our sample, consisting of U.S., S.A., and U.K. listed firms, contains 3,166 firm-year observations relating to the period 1999–2001. The results of our study indicate that S.A firms utilizing IAS report absolute values of discretionary accruals that are significantly greater than absolute values of discretionary accruals of U.S. firms utilizing U.S. GAAP. In contrast, U.K. firms utilizing IAS report discretionary accruals that are significantly less than the discretionary accruals of companies in the United States reporting under U.S. GAAP. This study contributes to the literature by providing evidence of the quality of financial information prepared under IAS and its dependency on the institutional factors and market forces of a country.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Using “Statement of Intermediate Balances” As Tool for International
           Financial Statement Analysis in Airline Industry
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 18

      Since September 11, 2001 and during the ensuing economic slowdown, a number of airline companies have experienced significant financial difficulties, including bankruptcies and near bankruptcies. In an economic setting where many airlines are struggling to achieve or maintain profitability, it is important for accountants, auditors, and financial analysts to be able to analyze the relative performance of such companies. In this industry, income statements are normally prepared “by nature” rather than “by function.” This differs from the usual presentation found in the income statements of many companies around the world, in particular most American companies. This paper demonstrates how to perform a comparative financial statement analysis when an income statement is prepared “by nature,” through application of a tool called the “Statement of Intermediate Balances.” This tool is illustrated using three companies chosen from different continents: Southwest Airlines, a low cost U.S. air carrier, Air France, the leader in Europe, and China Eastern Airlines, one of the biggest Chinese air carriers.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Transfer Pricing Practices and Regulatory Actions in the U.S. and U.K.: A
           Cross-Country Comparison and Analysis
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 18

      With the continued globalization of world markets, transfer pricing has become one of the dominant sources of controversy in international taxation. Cross-country differences in transfer pricing practices and regulations present challenges to taxing authorities and multinational enterprises (MEs). In the last two decades, tax authorities in the United States (U.S.) and other countries have brought major court cases against MEs accused of underpayment of taxes through transfer pricing practices. This paper discusses transfer pricing practices, regulatory agencies, penalties related to violations, and proper documentation required in the U.S. and one of its major trading partners, the United Kingdom (U.K.). The paper also examines the acceptable valuation methods allowed as a surrogate for arm's-length transactions as established by the country's regulatory agency. Finally, the paper discusses the similarities and differences between the major court cases related to transfer pricing in the two countries.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • The Impact of Social and Economic Development on Corporate Social and
           Environmental Disclosure in Hong Kong and the U.K.
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 18

      This study compares corporate social and environmental disclosure (CSED) in Hong Kong (HK) and the U.K. through a content analysis of 334 annual reports prepared by 69 listed companies over the period of 1993–1997. We find that U.K. and HK companies differed in the amount, theme and location of CSED, and that there was an upward trend in the amount of CSED in both U.K. and HK firms during the five-year period, although U.K. firms increased more than HK firms. We argue that HK and U.K.'s different stages of social and economic development, by creating differential pressures and demand for CSED and exposing companies to differential political costs and legitimacy threats, contributed towards these differences in CSED.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • Compliance with Mandatory Disclosure Requirements by New Zealand Listed
           Companies
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 18

      Annual reports are a primary medium in which listed companies communicate with the public. In New Zealand, legislation, along with other reinforcing features, regulates the information disclosures found in companies’ annual report. However, the existence of a regulatory framework does not guarantee its compliance. This paper reports a descriptive study of the compliance behaviour of New Zealand registered companies listed on the New Zealand Stock Exchange (NZX) with regard to required disclosures in their annual reports over a 3-year period, 1996–1998. Compliance with reporting requirement is measured by using a researcher-created disclosure index consisting of 495 mandated information items. The sample consists of 49 companies spanning the 1996–1998 period. The overall results show a high degree of corporate compliance with the financial reporting requirements. However, the compliance rate is higher with respect to the Statements of Standard Accounting Practices (SSAPs) than to both the Financial Reporting Standards (FRSs), and listing rules of the stock market. This is a cause for concern, as the SSAPs will eventually be replaced by FRSs.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • LARGE ACCOUNTING FIRMS’ SURVEY REVEALS EMERGENCE OF “TWO STANDARD”
           SYSTEM IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
    • Abstract: 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 17

      Convergence with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as promulgated by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) is receiving great attention. In 2005, all listed companies domiciled in the European Union (EU) will be required to prepare consolidated accounts based on IFRS. Individual EU member states are, however, permitted to decide whether IFRS will be required or allowed for non-listed companies or for listed companies’ individual accounts. Based primarily on data collected by the six largest international accounting firms during their most recent convergence survey, this paper examines each of the 15 EU member states’ convergence plans and their perceived barriers to convergence. The findings indicate that most EU members do not plan to converge national GAAP with IFRS, thereby highlighting the great significance of the large firms’ concerns regarding emergence of a “two-standard” system in the EU. The survey indicates the majority of EU countries will continue to require or allow national GAAP for individual accounts. While Belgium is considering requiring IFRS for all consolidated accounts, other EU countries have decided to allow or are considering allowing non-listed companies to prepare IFRS consolidated accounts. In most EU countries, the link between financial accounting and tax accounting represents a major barrier to convergence. Other frequently cited barriers include disagreement with certain IFRS and the complicated nature of certain IFRS. International requirements for financial instruments are viewed as particularly problematic.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • EXPERIMENTAL JUDGMENTS ABOUT RELATED-PARTY DISCLOSURES IN CHINA
    • Abstract: 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 17

      Over the past quarter century China has moved from a state-controlled economy to one that relies increasingly on market-based financing. The development of accounting principles and regulation has escalated since the trading of shares began in 1990 (Lin & Feng, 2001). Some descriptive studies portray the extent to which published financial statements comply with readily observable disclosure requirements (Xiao, 1999). However, there is little evidence about how disclosure judgments are made. Some observers indicate that experimental evidence may be most appropriate in determining how accounting standards are applied, particularly in different cultures and with different incentives (Nelson, 2003; Pownall & Schipper, 1999). The current study gathers judgments from over 200 experienced accountants facing mixed incentives for reporting required related party disclosures. The incentives are derived from conditions distilled from China’s environment to develop two realistic cases. To set expectations about disclosure judgment, theoretical arguments are provided about China’s setting relative to settings in countries that have considerable history with market-based financing. Internal accountants (chief accounting officers – CAOs) and external auditors (CPAs) provide their judgments about the same cases to study how the incentives within their roles affect their judgments. One case portrays a CAO and one a CPA to allow for detection of how the participating practitioners perceive the different roles affecting expected disclosure behavior. Irrespective of respondent status, results show that conflict-laden incentives are likely to result in less than full disclosure of required related party information. Practicing auditors report that the CPA auditor portrayed in the cases will more likely insist on disclosure than the CAO portrayed in the cases. This finding is driven by the participating CPAs reporting a higher probability that the CPA portrayed in the cases would insist on disclosure to a greater extent than the CAO portrayed in the cases. This finding suggests that auditors are likely to improve the quality of financial reporting in China.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • INTERNATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT REPORTING PRACTICES:
           A FRENCH AND CANADIAN COMPARISON
    • Abstract: 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 17

      This paper compares the research and development (R&D) disclosure practices in France and Canada, as evidenced in the annual reports of 76 French and 110 Canadian listed companies. It finds that Canadian high-tech companies (hardware, software, and biotechnology) disclose significantly more information on their R&D activities than their French counterparts. It also finds a strong link between R&D intensity and R&D disclosure among Canadian high-tech companies. Canadian companies overall are also found to be more likely to use non-financial disclosure as a means to resolve any R&D information asymmetry, while French firms disclose more traditional financial and accounting information. Canadian companies are also more willing than French firms to provide information concerning their future R&D expenditures. These results are consistent with inherent cultural and capital market differences between France and Canada. In contrast, the study does not find any significant difference in R&D expenditure capitalization policies between French and Canadian firms.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • EFFECTS OF CORRUPTION ON EARNINGS OPACITY INTERNATIONALLY
    • Abstract: 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 17

      This paper explains the impact of corruption on the level of earnings opacity internationally. The results of a regression of measures of earnings opacity on corruption show a significant relationship between the level of corruption and the level of earnings opacity after controlling for economic development, human development, economic freedom, and size of government.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • DISTRIBUTIONAL PROPERTIES AND TRANSFORMATION OF FINANCIAL RATIOS: THE
           IMPACT OF THE ACCOUNTING ENVIRONMENT
    • Abstract: 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 17

      This study investigates the distributional properties of financial ratios and the usefulness of the Box and Cox (1964) power transformation in normalizing financial ratios in different kinds of accounting environments. The results indicate that the Box-Cox power transformation can substantially improve the normality of financial ratios. The transformation can completely remove the non-normality induced by skewness. However, some kurtosis remains after the transformation. The distributional properties and the usefulness of the transformation are not dependent on the accounting environment. Therefore, researchers can use same financial ratios in different accounting environments. However, some caution is needed in the case of profitability ratios that are substantially affected by the accounting practices and economic situation.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • VALUE RELEVANCE OF OPERATING INCOME VERSUS NON-OPERATING INCOME IN THE
           TAIWAN STOCK EXCHANGE
    • Abstract: 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 17

      Taiwanese firms generally have a higher proportion of non-operating income than U.S. and U.K. firms. Taiwan also has many investors who focus only on short-term returns and ignore risks. It therefore is possible that non-operating income is at least as value relevant as operating income in the Taiwan Stock Exchange. Results show that valuation models based on earnings components have a higher explanatory power than those based solely on earnings. The contribution of non-operating income is not significantly different from that of operating income.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • THE IMPACT OF U.S. REQUIREMENTS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES ON THE STRUCTURE AND
           MEMBERSHIP OF NON-U.S. AUDIT COMMITTEES
    • Abstract: 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 17

      Many non-U.S. national stock exchanges have amended their listing standards to require audit committees during the last two decades, while U.S. national stock exchanges have recently amended their listing standards in response to recommendations made by the Blue Ribbon Committee on Improving the Effectiveness of Corporate Audit Committees (BRC). These new listing requirements for U.S. registrants (SEC Form 10-K filers) provide an opportunity to contrast and examine requirements for audit committee structure and membership of non-U.S. registrants (SEC Form 20-F filers). Recognizing that the International Accounting Standards Board has identified a “core” set of basic accounting standards in international filings accentuates the need to have uniform requirements for audit committees. This paper argues that requirements for audit committees should be consistent to improve financial reporting in a global securities marketplace. Results suggest that boards of directors and their audit committees of non-U.S. sample firms before the enactment of the U.S. requirements will need to exhibit greater alignment of their audit committee’s structure and composition with the recent U.S. requirements for audit committees.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN MANAGERS’ PROPENSITY TO CREATE SLACK
    • Abstract: 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 17

      This study examines the impact of national culture on budgetary slack. Prior studies have suggested a significant three-way interaction among budgetary participation, performance evaluative style and information asymmetry affecting budgetary slack. As national culture may influence budgetary participation, this study hypothesizes that national culture may interact with performance evaluative style and information asymmetry to affect slack. The effects of the cultural dimensions of power distance and individualism provide the theoretical justification for hypothesizing a difference in the extent of budgetary participation between Australia and Singapore. The results support: (i) a significant relationship between national culture and budgetary participation; and (ii) a significant three-way interaction among national culture, performance evaluative style and information asymmetry affecting budgetary slack. These results may have important implications for multinational corporations in the management of budgetary slack across cultures.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
  • REGULATIONS ON IPO PRICING, EARNINGS MANAGEMENT AND EARNINGS FORECASTS
           DURING THE REFORM OF STATE ENTERPRISES IN CHINA
    • Abstract: 2004
      Publication year: 2004
      Source:Advances in International Accounting, Volume 17

      In China, there are strict regulations on Initial Public Offering (IPO) pricing. The IPO price is the product of earning per share (EPS) and a P/E ratio predetermined by the Chinese Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC). During the period of this study (1992–1998), the regulations on IPO pricing had been changed twice, from using the forecasted EPS to past three-year average EPS, and then changed back to the forecasted EPS. It is interesting to investigate the relationships among these changes, earnings management and earnings forecast disclosure. My findings show that using past three-year average EPS to set the IPO price may be an additional incentive for earnings management, but the evidence is not very strong. The research also investigates whether the forecasted EPS disclosed in the prospectus or public announcement can be realized under different regulations.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:52:52Z
       
 
 
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