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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3159 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3159 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 408, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 245, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 395, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 337, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 442, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 202, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Advanced Powder Technology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.694
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0921-8831 - ISSN (Online) 1568-5527
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3159 journals]
  • Silo quake response spectrum of iron ore train load out bin
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Phung Tu, Vanissorn Vimonsatit, Jun LiSilo quaking is a very complex industrial phenomenon and is often occurred in silo structures during discharge. There are three variants of the silo quaking phenomenon such as silo honking, silo shock and silo pulsation. Accelerometers are often used in practice to measure the responses of the structure. The accelerations generated by the silo structure during discharge are of non-linear and non-stationary nature. Therefore traditional algorithm, such as Fast Fourier Transform, which was designed to analyse linear and stationary signals and often used to analyse the collected acceleration data, is not suitable for signals generated by the silo structure during discharge. In the present research, Hilbert-Huang Transform and Hilbert Marginal Spectrum created by Norden Huang, a mathematician at NASA to analyse non-linear and non-stationary signals, were used to analyse the accelerograms collected from the experimental silo. The results revealed the existence of a silo quake spectrum which lays a solid foundation for further research into the silo quaking phenomenon and especially structural design methods to mitigate the effects of silo quaking on the silo structure.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Controlled construction of uniform pompon-like Pb-ICP microarchitectures
           as a precursor for PbO semiconductor nanoflakes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Maryam Mohammadikish, Kosar ZamaniThree-dimensional hierarchical Pb-infinite coordination polymer (Pb-ICP) pompon-like microstructures with high degree of uniformity were prepared from Pb2+ ions and bi-carboxylic acid organic linker by precipitation and hydrothermal methods. Our bottom-up process revealed the direct assembly of nanosheets with 70 nm thickness to give pompon-like structure without the addition of any surfactants. Reaction parameters are critical to size and shape control and structural uniformity of the Pb-ICP nanostructures. The morphology could be tuned by adjusting the time and the reaction procedures. Based on the result of a series of comparative experiments, it was concluded that the possible formation mechanism of the pompon-like microspheres is through the intertwined nanosheets self-assembly. Photoluminescence spectroscopy shows the quenching of emission peaks of the bi-carboxylic acid linker after coordination to Pb2+ ion. Ligand-free PbO nanoflakes with a mean diameter of 40 nm were simply obtained by calcination of pompon-like Pb-ICP at 500 °C for 2 h under static air. The well crystallized PbO nanoflakes exhibit large band gap due to quantum confinement effect.Graphical abstractLead based infinite coordination polymer, Pb-ICP, with pompon-like, cauliflower and intertwined rods was readily prepared by precipitation and hydrothermal methods. Ligand-free PbO nanoflakes with a high bandgap were simply obtained by calcination of pompon-like Pb-ICP.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Studies on structural, magnetic, and DC electrical resistivity properties
           of Co0.5M0.37Cu0.13Fe2O4 (M = Ni, Zn and Mg) ferrite nanoparticle
           systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): A. Ramakrishna, N. Murali, S.J. Margarette, Tulu Wegayehu Mammo, N. Krishna Joythi, B. Sailaja, Ch.C. Sailaja Kumari, K. Samatha, V. VeeraiahFerrite nanoparticles of the composition Co0.5M0.37Cu0.13Fe2O4 (M = Ni, Zn, and Mg) have been synthesized using sol-gel auto combustion method. Structural properties are investigated using powder X-ray diffraction technique and the results showed a pure spinel crystal structures of the synthesized materials with lattice parameters in the range of 8.3331–8.4793 Å. Crystallite sizes are calculated using the Scherrer’s formula and the results are found to be in the range of 62.22–82.41 nm. The surface texture and morphological nature of the samples are studied by scanning electron microscopy which depicted clear crystalline nature of the materials. Characteristic vibrational states prevailing in the samples are studied using room temperature Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A two-probe DC electrical resistivity measurement of the samples showed a high resistive nature. Room temperature vibrating sample magnetometer measurements revealed the magnetic properties of the samples.Graphical abstractPowder X-ray diffraction patterns of Co0.5M0.37Cu0.13Fe2O4 (M = Ni, Zn, and Mg) ferrite nanoparticles.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Numerical and experimental studies on nozzle two-phase flow
           characteristics of nanometer-scale iron powder metal fuel motor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Jin-yun Wang, Zai-lin Yang, Meng-jun WangMetal iron powder is a promising new type of energy source that is of enormous practical and research interest for future automotive power systems. To better optimize engine design, this study was devoted to the characteristic investigation of a two-phase flow. Experimental studies involving nanometer iron powder particle combustion and engine thrust measurement were conducted to confirm the results obtained from numerical calculations that were performed using a fourth-order Runge–Kutta–Gill method. Governing equations for nozzle two-phase flow were established to perform a theoretical study to analyze the combustion properties of iron oxide particles and flow in the nozzle. The results indicate that variations in the size and coagulation content of particles play a significant role in the loss of two-phase flow. Significant emphasis was placed on the effect of particle size (0.4–1.0 μm) and condensate content (10–40%) of ultrafine particles on the specific impulse. To further validate the theoretical results, the burning rates of particles of three different sizes were experimentally measured. In addition, the motor thrust and the specific impulse with the particle size of 50 nm were tested through combustion experiment, and the results show excellent agreement.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Structural and mechanical characterization of lithium-ion battery
           electrodes via DEM simulations
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 10Author(s): Clara Sangrós Giménez, Benedikt Finke, Christine Nowak, Carsten Schilde, Arno KwadeElectrode structural stability and mechanical integrity is of major importance regarding not only lithium-ion battery performance but also safety aspects. The goal of this study is to design a simulation procedure to reproduce the microstructural and mechanical properties of such lithium-ion battery electrodes. Taking into consideration the particulate state of these electrodes, a discrete element method (DEM) approach is proposed, which comprises a procedure to reproduce real electrode structures and the application of a proper contact model to capture the bulk mechanics. This is accomplished by considering particle interactions as well as the performance of the binder. Three different electrodes are manufactured with the aim of calibrating and validating the Hertzian-bond contact model. Experimental nanoindentation measurements prove to be in good agreement with the simulation outcome, concluding that the method constitutes a valuable physical and mechanical basis for further applications.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Titanium glycolate-derived TiO2 nanomaterials: Synthesis and
           applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 10Author(s): Yi Wei, Jiaxin Zhu, Yixin Gan, Gang ChengTitanium oxide (TiO2) is one of the most widely studied materials due to its fascinating properties and versatile applications in environmental and energy fields ranging from photocatalysis to solar cells and lithium ion batteries. The significance and variety of these applications have attracted great attention and spurred substantial progress in the synthesis and fundamental understanding of TiO2-based nanomaterials, nanocomposites, and nanoderivatives. This review summarizes the recent advances in the design and preparation of TiO2-based nanomaterials, nanocomposites, and nanoderivatives obtained from titanium glycolate precursor. Utilizing different fabrication strategies, titanium glycolate precursor with controllable morphology and size has been successfully produced, and it can be directly transformed into crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials through diverse post-treatments, including calcination thermal-decomposition, and refluxing, hydrothermal, and microwave treatment-assisted hydrolysis. Furthermore, doped TiO2, TiO2-composites, and other derivatives could be simply achieved by adding additional chemicals during transformation. The favorable properties of the resulting TiO2-based materials are also discussed, which are relevant to energy and environmental applications in the areas of dye-sensitized solar cells, lithium ion batteries, photocatalytic hydrogen evolution, photocatalytic CO2 reduction, photocatalytic degradation, and adsorption removal of pollutants.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Full title (Editorial Board Members)
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 10Author(s):
       
  • Inside Front Cover (Aims & Scope, Editors)
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 10Author(s):
       
  • La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.79M0.01O3−δ (M = Ni, Pd) perovskites synthesized
           by Citrate-EDTA method: Oxygen vacancies effect on electrochemical
           properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Shaoli Guo, Fabrizio Puleo, Liuding Wang, Hongjing Wu, Leonarda F. LiottaLa0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ (LSCF08), La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.79Ni0.01O3−δ (LSCF08-Ni) and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.79Pd0.01O3−δ (LSCF08-Pd) perovskites were synthesized by Citrate-EDTA method, by using NiCl2 or PdCl2 as metal precursors, and their physicochemical properties were characterized by XRD, TGA, TPD and TPR. XRD data evidenced an expansion of the lattice parameters of LSCF08-Pd, while a contraction of the lattice occurred for LSCF08-Ni, with respect to the undoped LSCF, suggesting different oxygen vacancies content in the perovskite (confirmed by TGA) likely due to a different oxidation state of Ni and Pd species stabilized in the structure.TEM analyses performed over LSCF08-Pd revealed the presence of metallic Pd nanoparticles well dispersed in the matrix that accounts for the increased reducibility of the Co and Fe species with respect to LSCF08-Ni and undoped perovskite. AC impedance measurements that were carried out on symmetric cells consisting of LSCF-based materials deposited onto Ce0.8Gd0.2O2−δ (GDC) electrolyte proved the enhanced electrochemical performances of Ni/Pd doped LSCF.The electrochemical characterization of LSCF08, LSCF08-Ni and LSCF08-Pd electrodes was completed by performing cyclic voltammetry experiments in the range of temperature 600–800 °C, varying the potential (U) between 0.3 V and −1 V, at scan rates in the range 1–50 mV s−1 and working under flow of 0.7 vol% O2 in He (30 ml/min).Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Preparation of plant derived carbon and its application for inclusion
           pigments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Ting Chen, Xiaojun Zhang, Weihui Jiang, Jianmin Liu, Zhixiang Xie, Wan JiangPlant derived carbon was utilized as a new financial and environmental friendly colorant in the synthesis of zircon encapsulated carbon pigment (C@ZrSiO4) via non-hydrolytic sol-gel method. After calcining, nature plants, i.e. sisal and bamboo leaves, were carbonized and occluded in ZrSiO4 matrix. The FT-IR and XRD results demonstrated that the plants were not affect the non-hydrolytic sol-gel polycondensation reaction, resulting in the pure ZrSiO4 formation. Both inclusion pigments presented deep black hue, i.e. L∗ = 34.93 and 33.02 for sisal and bamboo leaves, respectively, which was contributed to the homogeneous pore-size distribution and high carbon yield of the plants. These pigments have many distinguished advantages including low cost, high chromatic performance and excellent thermal stability, making them promising candidates for ceramic decoration.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Facile and green synthesis of highly dispersed cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nano
           powder: Characterization and screening of its eco-toxicity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Shikha Dubey, Jay Kumar, Ashok Kumar, Yogesh Chandra SharmaA novel green synthesis of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanoparticles using latex of Calotropis procera via simple precipitation method at room temperature was investigated. An extensive characterization of the product was carried out using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV–Visible spectroscopy. The results of the characterization confirmed that the synthesized nanomaterial is highly dispersed. TEM analysis revealed that the nano particles are having an average size around 10 nm. The eco-toxic investigation suggested that the particles are non-toxic and safe towards the environment. This green strategy proves to be an effective, fast, simple and cost-effective approach for the synthesis of Co3O4 nanoparticles for various applications.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Numerical study of nanofluid thermo-bioconvection containing gravitactic
           microorganisms in porous media: Effect of vertical throughflow
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Shivani Saini, Y.D. SharmaAn analytical investigation of the onset of nanofluid thermo-bioconvection in a fluid saturated by porous media containing gravitactic and nanoparticles microorganisms subjected to a vertical throughflow is presented. The heat conservation equation is formulated by introducing the convective term of nanoparticle flux. The fluid is stimulated with modified Brinkman model, normal mode analysis and six-term Galerkin methods are used to solve the governing equations. The combined effects of vertical throughflow, nanoparticles, gravitactic microorganisms, and porosity have been taken into account. The effects of bioconvection Rayleigh number, bioconvection Péclet number, nanoparticle Rayleigh number, Péclet number, bioconvection Lewis number, and porosity on critical thermal Rayleigh number have been examined. The analysis leads that critical wave number is the function of bioconvection parameters, nanofluid parameters and throughflow parameters. It is also found that vertical throughflow disturbs the formation of bioconvection pattern which are necessary for the development of bioconvection.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A template-free method to synthesize porous G-C3N4 with efficient visible
           light photodegradation of organic pollutants in water
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Elham Boorboor Azimi, Alireza Badiei, Moayad Hossaini Sadr, Ahmad AmiriPorous graphitic carbon nitride with a high surface area was successfully synthesized without using any template or other substances like metals, just by placing melamine powder into a muffle furnace which was heated to 550 °C in advance. To evaluate the structure, morphology, and optical properties, the high performance g-C3N4 (HPCN) was analyzed by XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM, N2 physisorption, FT-IR analysis, UV–Vis DRS, PL, and Zeta potential. HPCN was able to completely degrade rhodamine B under visible light with the rate constant of 0.086 min−1, which is 3.5 times higher than the traditional g-C3N4. The possible mechanism of RhB photodegradation was discussed in detail, which illustrated the reaction is performed in acidic media much better than neutral and basic solutions, and O2− and h+ are the key reactive species during the reaction. Moreover, the stability of the photocatalyst was investigated and turned out its photocatalytic activity has not considerably changed after 6 cycles, so it was a highly stable photocatalyst.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Verification of optimal models for 2D-full loop simulation of circulating
           fluidized bed
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Yujian Lu, Yefeng Zhou, Lei Yang, Xiayi Hu, Xiao Luo, Hongbo ChenTo verify the optimal models for a two-dimensional (2D) full loop simulation of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB), different turbulent models and drag models are studied according to relevant pressure profile, voidage distribution and particle collision energy. With regard to a laminar model and turbulent models including Standard k-ε, RNG k-ε and Realizable k-ε, the experimental data reveals that the RNG k-ε model is the best at predicting pressure, voidage, axial solid velocity and granular temperature. Besides, through the comparison of four drag models, it is found that the Gidaspow model can achieve a higher accuracy of prediction. Therefore, it can be concluded that the combination of the RNG and Gidaspaw models is suitable for the 2D full loop simulation of a CFB, and therefore potential models for the prediction of flow characteristics.Graphical abstractIn this work, different turbulent models and drag models were compared in order to obtain the optimal simulation models. In addition, experimental data, obtained by measurement of pressure transducer and acoustic emission, were used to validate the accuracy of the models.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Preparation and characterization of carbon molecular sieves from chestnut
           shell by chemical vapor deposition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Hakan Demiral, İlknur DemiralIn this study, carbon molecular sieves (CMS) were produced from chestnut shell by chemical activation process followed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of methane. The influences of deposition temperature (800–900 °C), time (15–60 min) and flow rate of CH4 (100–300 mL/min) on pore development of carbon molecular sieve were investigated. The produced CMSs were characterized by several techniques such as N2 adsorption, CO2 adsorption, CH4 adsorption, elemental analysis, FTIR analysis and SEM analysis. The textural analysis of the CMS samples showed the successful deposition of methane on pores of the produced activated carbon derived from chestnut shell to yield a microporous CMS with a narrow pore size distribution. The deposition temperature, time and flow rate of CH4 were shown to strongly affect the pore structure of the CMS. The maximum CO2 adsorption capacity (525.7 mg/g) was obtained at a deposition temperature of 850 °C, time of 30 min, and CH4 flow rate of 100 mL/min.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Flow of granular materials in a bladed mixer: Effect of particle
           properties and process parameters on impeller torque and power consumption
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Veerakiet Boonkanokwong, Rohan P. Frank, Pavithra Valliappan, Brenda Remy, Johannes G. Khinast, Benjamin J. GlasserThe torque and power needed to drive an impeller are important quantities that can indicate flow behavior and can be used to control processes, especially mixing and granulation in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, experiments were conducted on monodisperse spherical glass beads flowing in a cylindrical bladed mixer agitated by an impeller. The impeller torque was measured using a rotating platform and a data recording device, and the power draw for the motor driving the impeller was measured using a power meter. The effect of various impeller blade designs and material properties on the torque and power were investigated as a function of the impeller blade rotation rate. It was found that the torque exerted on a granular bed and the power consumption were a strong function of the impeller blade configuration, the position of the blades in a deep granular bed, the fill height of the glass beads, and the size and friction coefficient of the particles. It was observed that the time-averaged torque and power consumption for different particle sizes qualitatively scaled with particle diameter. A scale-up relationship for a deep granular bed was developed: the time-averaged torque and average adjusted power consumption scaled with square of the material fill height.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Iron-based magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Hira Fatima, Kyo-Seon KimMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been an extensive area of research owing to its depth of penetration for clinical diagnosis. Signal intensity under MRI is related to both T1, spin-lattice relaxation, and T2, spin-spin relaxation. To increase the contrast variability under MRI, several contrast agents are being used, i.e. T1 contrast agents (e.g. gadolinium) and T2 contrast agents (e.g. iron-based magnetic nanoparticles). These contrast agents are administered prior to scanning to increase contrast visibility. They reduce the T1 and T2 relaxation times to produce hyperintense and hypointense signals, respectively. Tunable properties of iron-based magnetic nanoparticles and several coating materials provide a platform to get superb MRI contrast in T2 weighted images. It has been found that contrast enhancement by iron-based magnetic nanoparticles is dependent on the size, shape, composition, surface, and magnetic properties which can be tuned with the synthesis method and coating material. Therefore, understanding the synthesis method and properties of magnetic nanoparticles is vital to contribute to MR signal enhancement which is directing the scientist to design engineered iron-based magnetic nanoparticles. This paper introduces the concept of MRI contrast enhancement. We mainly discuss the synthesis of T2 contrast agents, i.e. iron-based magnetic nanoparticles and the modification of these T2 contrast agents by coating followed by their biomedical applications.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Mixing assessment of non-cohesive particles in a paddle mixer through
           experiments and discrete element method (DEM)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Amirsalar Yaraghi, Mohammadreza Ebrahimi, Farhad Ein-Mozaffari, Ali LohiIn this study the mixing kinetics and flow patterns of non-cohesive, monodisperse, spherical particles in a horizontal paddle blender were investigated using experiments, statistical analysis and discrete element method (DEM). EDEM 2.7 commercial software was used as the DEM solver. The experiment and simulation results were found to be in a good agreement. The calibrated DEM model was then utilized to examine the effects of the impeller rotational speed, vessel fill level and particle loading arrangement on the overall mixing quality quantified by the relative standard deviation (RSD) mixing index. The simulation results revealed as the impeller rotational speed was increased from 10 RPM to 40 RPM, generally a better degree of mixing was reached for all particle loading arrangements and vessel fill levels. As the impeller rotational speed was increased further from 40 RPM to 70 RPM the mixing quality was affected, for a vessel fill level of 60% and irrespective of the particle loading arrangement. Increasing the vessel fill level from 40% to 60% enhanced the mixing performance when impeller rotational speed of 40 RPM and 70 RPM were used. However, the mixing quality was independent of vessel fill level for almost all simulation cases when 10 RPM was applied, regardless of the particle loading arrangement. Furthermore, it was concluded that the particle loading arrangement did not have a considerable effect on the mixing index. ANOVA showed that impeller rotational speed had the strongest influence on the mixing quality, followed by the quadratic effect of impeller rotational speed, and lastly the vessel fill level. The granular temperature data indicated that increasing the impeller rotational speed from 10 RPM to 70 RPM resulted in higher granular temperature values. By evaluating the diffusivity coefficient and Peclet number, it was concluded that the dominant mixing mechanism in the current mixing system was diffusion.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Two-phase lattice Boltzmann simulation of natural convection in a Cu-water
           nanofluid-filled porous cavity: Effects of thermal boundary conditions on
           heat transfer and entropy generation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Dhrubajyoti Kashyap, Anoop K. DassThe present work investigates the effect of four different thermal boundary conditions on natural convection in a fluid-saturated square porous cavity to make a judicious choice of optimal boundary condition on the basis of entropy generation, heat transfer and degree of temperature uniformity. Four different heating conditions- uniform, sinusoidal and two different linear temperature distributions are applied on the left vertical wall of the cavity respectively while maintaining the right vertical wall uniformly cooled and the horizontal walls thermally insulated. The two-phase thermal lattice Boltzmann (TLBM) model for nanofluid is extended to simulate nanofluid flow through a porous medium by incorporating the Brinkman–Forchheimer-extended Darcy model. The close agreement between present LBM solutions with the existing published results lends validity to the present findings. The current results indicate that the uniform and bottom to top linear heating are found to be efficient heating strategies depending on Rayleigh number (103 ≤ Ra ≤ 105) and Darcy number (10−1 ≤ Da ≤ 10−6). It is observed that the nanofluid improves the energy efficiency by reducing the total entropy generation and enhancing the heat transfer rate although its augmentation depends on the optimal volume fraction of nanoparticles.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Evaluation of single-phase, discrete, mixture and combined model of
           discrete and mixture phases in predicting nanofluid heat transfer
           characteristics for laminar and turbulent flow regimes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): E.J. Onyiriuka, A.I. Obanor, M. Mahdavi, D.R.E. EwimIt is essential to investigate the appropriate model for simulating nanofluid flow for different flow regimes because, at present, most previous studies do not agree with each other. It was, therefore, the purpose of this study to present a Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD) investigation of heat transfer coefficients of internal forced convective flow of nanofluids in a circular tube subject to constant wall heat flux boundary conditions. A complete three-dimensional (3D) cylindrical geometry was used. Laminar and turbulent flow regimes were considered. Three two-phase models (mixture model, discrete phase model (DPM) and the combined model of discrete and mixture phases) and the single-phase homogeneous model (SPM) were considered with both constant and variable properties. For the turbulent flow regime, it was found that the DPM with variable properties closely predicted the local heat transfer coefficients with an average deviation of 9%, and the SPM deviated from the DPM model by 2%. It was also found that the mixture and the combined discrete and the mixture phase model gave unrealistic results. For laminar flow, the DPM model with variable properties predicted the heat transfer coefficients with an average deviation of 9%.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Preparation of silver coated nickel particles by thermal plasma with
           pre-treatment using ball milling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Dong-Wook Kim, Tae-Hee Kim, Dong-Wha ParkRecently, reducing noble metals in electric devices has been identified as a key factor to lower product cost. Among these, noble metal coated particles are considered an alternative with the potential to dramatically reduce the usage of noble metals. A dense coating of noble metals over all surfaces is desirable for maintaining the properties of noble metal. However, our previous research showed that coated surfaces onto which the nanoparticles were attached were non-uniform because of evaporation of the raw materials. Therefore, in this study, we improved the coverage ratio of silver coated nickel particles using thermal plasma processing followed by ball mill pre-treatment. Silver and nickel particles were mixed using a ball mill, then injected into the thermal plasma jet. The silver particles were subsequently attached onto the surface of the nickel particles through ball mill processing, after which the silver attached nickel particles were melted through thermal plasma processing to produce silver coated nickel spherical particles. The cross section of the as-prepared particles showed a dense silver shell and nickel core, while the sintered body of the as-prepared particles showed the net-like silver covering over the nickel cores. These findings suggest that attachment of silver on nickel could lead to complete silver coatings by limiting the formation of nanoparticles.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • One-pot green synthesis of magnesium oxide nanoparticles using Penicillium
           chrysogenum melanin pigment and gamma rays with antimicrobial activity
           against multidrug-resistant microbes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Gharieb S. El-Sayyad, Farag M. Mosallam, Ahmed I. El-BatalMelanin pigment is well-known as a common photo-protective polymer, insoluble in water. It drew a considerable attention for many applications in nanotechnology, and medical field. Penicillium chrysogenum was employed for the green synthesis of melanin after optimizing the media compositions. We designed a method that included one-step synthesis of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) by fungal melanin under the influence of different doses of gamma rays. Antimicrobial activity of MgO NPs was examined against some selected highly pathogenic microbes. Fungal melanin was acts simultaneously as a photo-protector of the Mg atom, and at the same time as a stabilizer towards the uncontrolled free radical attack resulting from gamma rays. Afterwards, gamma rays forced condensation reaction to occur at room temperature. A proposed reaction mechanism for MgO NPs synthesis was discussed. MgO NPs were characterized and structurally identified by UV–Vis., XRD, DLS, TEM and FTIR. Results obtained from DLS and XRD with TEM images determined the mean diameter at 10.28 nm, in addition, MgO NPs were found to represent promising antimicrobial agents towards Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, and Klebsiella pneumoniae having activity of 22.0, 20.0, and 20.0 mm ZOI, respectively. Based on the capability of MgO NPs as effective antimicrobial agents, it possessed a potential purpose – in different applications such as biomedicine, food control, pharmaceutics, and cosmetics.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Numerical investigation of influence of treatment of the coke component on
           hydrodynamic and catalytic cracking reactions in an industrial riser
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): D.C. Pelissari, H.C. Alvares-Castro, J.L.G. Vergel, M. MoriA three dimensional gas-solid reactive flow model based on the Eulerian-Eulerian approach was used to simulate the hydrodynamic, heat transfer and catalytic cracking reaction within in a conventional Fluid Catalytic cracking (FCC) riser. A 12-lump kinetic model was used to represent the catalytic cracking reaction network. It was proposed a catalyst deactivation model as a function of the weight percentage of coke amount on the catalyst to replace the deactivation model dependent of the residence time. It was compared the effects of novel treatment for coke component (coke produced in the solid phase) with common treatment (coke produced in the gas phase) on the fluid dynamic and catalytic cracking. The results showed that the treatment for coke component affects radial distribution of coke mass flow. It also showed that the treatment for coke plays an important role in simulation with catalyst deactivation as a function of coke amount on catalyst.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Hydrothermal synthesis of nanoplates assembled hierarchical h-WO3
           microspheres and phase evolution in preparing cubic Zr(Y)O2-doped tungsten
           powders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Fangnao Xiao, Qiang Miao, Shizhong Wei, Wenping Liang, Xiaoman Fan, Kunming Pan, Liujie XuThree-dimensional hierarchical h-WO3 and doping tungsten powders have recently attracted considerable attention because of their superior sensing properties and refined grains, respectively. In this article, we report a facile hydrothermal hydrogen reduction process for preparing hierarchical h-WO3 microspheres that self-assemble with nanoplates. Meanwhile, the phase evolution process and evolution mechanisms during the conversion of h-WO3 to W are systemically investigated. Results indicate that the highly homogeneous h-WO3 microspheres are uniformly covered with ultrafine ZrY2(OH)10 micelles, which fully transform into m-WO3 and cubic Zr(Y)O2 after calcination at 600 °C. Microspheres possessing different pore diameters and containing nanosized particles can be obtained by adjusting the hydrogen reduction process. These phase evolution process can provide reasonable guidance for preparing tungsten oxide with high electrochemical properties and ultrafine tungsten powders. The h-WO3 microspheres with an average size of 3 μm consist of nanoplates and the tungsten powders doped with 1.0 wt% Zr(Y)O2 have a mean particle size of approximately 1.4 μm. Comparative test results indicate that the addition of 1.0 wt% Zr(Y)O2 can promote the formation of low-degree particle agglomerates.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Facile synthesis of Ag/AgX (X = Cl, Br) with enhanced
           visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity by ultrasonic spray
           pyrolysis method
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Shuai Mao, Rui Bao, Dong Fang, Jianhong YiAg/AgX (X = Cl, Br) plasmonic photocatalysts were synthesized via a facile one-pot ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method, wherein no additional issues such as high pressure, surfactants and reducing agents were required. The structure, morphology, and optical property of the as-prepared photocatalysts was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ultraviolet–visible light absorption spectra and total organic carbon (TOC). The results showed that Ag/AgX photocatalysts have excellent photocatalytic performance for the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) pollutants under visible light illumination, and the photocatalytic activity maintains a high level after seven cycles. Metallic Ag0 particles nucleate on the surface of AgX uniformly through the thermal decomposition of residual AgNO3 solution, which enhanced the interaction between Ag0 and AgX. The outstanding photocatalytic activity benefits from the small size and high dispersion of Ag0 nanoparticles and the enhanced interaction between Ag0 and AgX.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Characterization of temporal and spatial distribution of bed density in
           vibrated gas-solid fluidized bed
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Yadong Zhang, Yanjiao Li, Liang Dong, Yuemin Zhao, Zhonglin Gao, Chenlong Duan, Qingxia Liu, Xuliang YangThis study uses a Φ 200 mm × 900 mm vibrated gas-solid fluidized bed (VGFB) with −0.3 + 0.074 mm magnetite powder was utilized to characterize the temporal and spatial distribution of bed density in VGFB and the influence of bubble movement on fluctuations in bed density. The results indicate that the bed density decreases with an increase in gas velocity (U) and the frequency (f) and amplitude (A) of vibration and that the bed density spatial distribution is lower in the central region but higher in the border regions. The standard deviation of the density first increases then decreases and finally tends to stabilize with an increase in apparent gas velocity. Moreover, when A = 2 mm, f = 25 Hz and U = 14 cm/s, the density distribution is 1.82–1.88 g/cm3 and the fluidization state is improved. The energy of the pressure signal increases with an increase in gas velocity and vibration amplitude. In particular, the low-frequency band of the pressure signal exhibits the highest amplitude and energy, which reveals that bubbles are the main cause of pressure fluctuation. Furthermore, the bed density decreases with an increase in bubble generation frequency, and the relationship between these follows the ExpDec 2 mathematical equation.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Hydrothermal synthesis of NH2-UiO-66 and its application for
           adsorptive removal of dye
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Sneha N. Tambat, Priyanka K. Sane, Srinidhi Suresh, O. Nilesh Varadan, Aniruddha B. Pandit, Sharad M. SontakkeIn this research paper we report hydrothermal synthesis of NH2-UiO-66, a metal organic framework (MOF) with zirconium as metal and amino terephthalic acid as a linker. The synthesized MOF was characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM and BET surface area. As a potential application in water treatment, an adsorptive removal of safranin dye was studied using the synthesized material. The effect of initial concentration and pH of the dye solution was studied on the dye adsorption capacity of the material. An optimum set of conditions resulting into maximum dye adsorption was found out. The maximum adsorption capacity of the MOF was observed to be 390 mg/g at neutral pH of the solution and at room temperature. The experimental data was fitted with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherm models. The kinetics of adsorption was studied using pseudo first order and pseudo second order model. The dye adsorption mechanism was also attempted.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The impact of vertical internals array on the key hydrodynamic parameters
           in a gas-solid fluidized bed using an advance optical fiber probe
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Haidar Taofeeq, Muthanna Al-DahhanThe effect of a circular configuration of intense vertical immersed tubes on the hydrodynamic parameters has been investigated in a gas-solid fluidized bed of 0.14 m inside diameter. The experiments were performed using glass beads solid particles of 365 μm average particle size, with a solid density of 2500 kg/m3 (Geldart B). An advanced optical fiber probe technique was used to study the behavior of six essential local hydrodynamic parameters (i.e., local solids holdup, particles velocity, bubble rise velocity, bubble frequency, and bubble mean chord length) in the presence of vertical immersed tubes. The experimental measurements were carried out at six radial positions and three axial heights, which represent the three key zones of the bed: near the distributor plate, the middle of the fluidizing bed, and near the freeboard of the column. Furthermore, four superficial gas velocities (u/umf = 1.6, 1.76, 1.96, and 2.14) were employed to study the effect of operating conditions. The experimental results demonstrated that the vertical internals had a significant effect on all the studied local hydrodynamic characteristics such that when using internals, both the solids holdup and bubble mean chord length decreased, while the particles velocity, bubble rise velocity, and bubble frequency increased. The measured values of averaged bubble rise velocities and averaged bubble chord lengths at different axial heights and superficial gas velocities have been compared with most used correlations available in the literature. It was found that the measured values are in good agreement with values calculated using predicted correlation for the case without vertical internals. While, the absolute percentage relative error between the measured and calculated values of these two hydrodynamic parameters indicate large differences for the case of vertical internals.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effect of Ag loading on activated carbon doped ZnO for bisphenol A
           degradation under visible light
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Khanitta Intarasuwan, Pongsaton Amornpitoksuk, Sumetha Suwanboon, Potchanapond Graidist, Saowanee Maungchanburi, Chamnan RandornSilver modified activated carbon doped zinc oxide (Ag/AC-ZnO) was synthesized via a calcination-electroless deposition route. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the Ag/AC-ZnO was evaluated for bisphenol A degradation in the presence of H2O2 under visible light irradiation. The archived results showed that the photocatalytic activity of the Ag/AC-ZnO was higher than that of AC-ZnO and pure ZnO. The cytotoxicity of the bisphenol A after photocatalysis under visible light irradiation was tested using L929 mouse fibroblast cells and the obtained results indicated that the treated bisphenol A solution exhibited no cytotoxicity against normal cells.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Optimum milling parameters for production of highly uniform metal-matrix
           nanocomposites with improved mechanical properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): A. Wagih, A. Fathy, A.M. KabeelIn the present paper, a system dynamic model is presented to predict the final particle size of milled powder during ball milling process. The presented model is used to obtain the optimum ball size, milling speed and milling time that achieve the best particle size reduction of metal-matrix nanocomposites. Parametric study is performed using the presented analytical model to study the influence of ball size and milling speed on the milling efficiency. The predictions of the presented model are validated with experimental results done during this work for Cu-5%ZrO2 nanocomposite and others available in the literature. The results show that the milling time required to achieve the steady state condition for Cu-5%ZrO2 nanocomposite is 15 h. At 15 h of milling, ZrO2 particles are highly uniform distributed in Cu matrix and the microhardness is increased from 75.4 HV for Cu to 197.6 HV for Cu-5%ZrO2 nanocomposite. After 15 h, the particle size reduction rate is too low and the hardness improvement rate is too low as well (204.1 HV after 20 h milling) which make the milling process after 15 h is not appreciable.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The synthesis of a porous-type of TiO2 with rutile structure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Yukiya Yamashita, Kei Ishiguro, Daisuke Nakai, Masayoshi FujiThe synthesis of a porous-type of TiO2 with rutile structure was studied. The focuses were on the thermal treatment temperature and time. AEROXIDE® TiO2 P 25, as a fumed TiO2, was thermally treated in a vertical-type tubular furnace by the natural dropping method. Even though the thermal treatment time was less than 1 s, a drastic increase of polymorphism from anatase structure to rutile structure was observed. The relationships between the rutile structure transformation ratio and surface area of obtained porous type of TiO2 were investigated depending on the thermal treatment temperature. The porous-type of fumed TiO2 showed high dispersibility in the sedimentation test although is showed large particle size.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Synthesis of highly crystalline hexagonal cesium tungsten bronze
           nanoparticles by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Tomoyuki Hirano, Shuhei Nakakura, Febrigia Ghana Rinaldi, Eishi Tanabe, Wei-Ning Wang, Takashi OgiHighly crystalline and hexagonal single-phase cesium tungsten bronze (Cs0.32WO3) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a flame-assisted spray pyrolysis followed by annealing under a reducing gas atmosphere. The resulting Cs0.32WO3 nanoparticles featured a pure hexagonal Cs0.32WO3 phase with a high crystallinity and homogeneous chemical composition. Unlike conventional methods, the proposed process in this paper has several advantages, including a short reaction time and the ability to yield products with high purity and good energy efficiency. Furthermore, the Cs0.32WO3 nanoparticles produced in this research showed a remarkable near-infrared shielding ability with a 97.7% cut-off at 1500 nm.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Superior capacitive behavior of porous activated carbon tubes derived from
           biomass waste-cotonier strobili fibers
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Xiao-Li Su, Shuai-Hui Li, Shuai Jiang, Zhi-Kun Peng, Xin-Xin Guan, Xiu-Cheng ZhengAs supercapacitor electrode materials, the sustainable biomass-derived activated carbons have attracted a great deal of attentions due to their low-cost, abundant, and unwanted natural wastes. In this work, a facile KOH activation method is adopted to prepare activated carbon tubes from the biomass waste-cotonier strobili fibers for the first time. The resultant PTAC-x materials possess highly accessible surface areas and abundant micro-mesopores, which benefit large ion storage and high-rate ion transfer. The optimized material denoted as PTAC-6 demonstrates a high specific capacity (346.1 F g−1 at 1 A g−1) and a superior rate performance (214.5 F g−1 at 50 A g−1) in the three-electrode supercapacitors. In addition, the symmetric supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycling stability with a capacitance retention of 84.21% and a columbic efficiency of nearly 100% after 10,000 cycles. Furthermore, the PTAC-6-based symmetric supercapacitor gives a remarkable specific energy of 33.04 Wh kg−1 at 160 W kg−1. Meanwhile, our proposed porous activated carbon tubes provide a green and low-cost electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Novel powder packing theory with bimodal particle size
           distribution-application in superalloy
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Xianjue Ye, Yunping Li, Yanling Ai, Yan NiePowder packing behavior plays an important role in determining sintering ability of powder and the resultant performance of materials. In this study, a novel powder packing theory with bimodal particle size distribution is proposed by considering the loosening effect, wall effect and wedging effect. This theory is applied in PM nickel base superalloy by using mixture of coarse particles and fine particles. Microstructures of alloy sintered by vacuum hot pressing (HP) are observed by optical microscope (OM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The prediction result by this theory is in good agreement with the experimental results. The enhanced sintering ability of powder containing appropriate fractions of coarse particle and fine particle is ascribed to the filling of fine particles to the voids between coarse particles, which enhanced the density of sample after sintering. Tensile behavior and the fracture morphology of alloys with various particle distributions are analyzed in details, suggesting the higher reliability of the present theory.Graphical abstractSchematic illustration of powder packing of powder with a bi-model particle size distribution and the resultant sintered microstructureGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Convection of heat and thermodynamic irreversibilities in two-phase,
           turbulent nanofluid flows in solar heaters by corrugated absorber plates
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): M. Akbarzadeh, S. Rashidi, N. Karimi, R. EllahiThe effects of simultaneous implementation of corrugated walls and nanoparticles upon the performance of solar heaters are investigated. Triangular and sinusoidal wall profiles along with varying concentration of nanoparticles are analyzed. The multi-phase mixture and the SST κ-ω models are used to simulate turbulent nanofluid flows inside the corrugated channels. The staggered computational grid is employed for storing the velocity and pressure terms at cell faces and cell center, respectively. The governing equations are first discretized by employing a second-order upwind differencing technique and are then solved by means of pressure-based finite volume approach. The convergence criterion is also presented for the validation of obtained results. The effects of wall profiles and nanoparticle concentration on the pertinent parameters including Nusselt number, pressure drop, performance evaluation criterion (PEC), and thermal and frictional irreversibilities are studied. This reveals that, in general, the triangular duct features superior heat transfer and inferior hydraulic characteristics in comparison with the sinusoidal duct. It is demonstrated that as long as the base fluid (water) is used the highest value of PEC corresponds to the straight duct. Yet, by introducing nanofluids the PEC values of the corrugated ducts exceed those of the straight duct. The analysis further shows that on the basis of the performance evaluation criterion, the sinusoidal duct appears to be a better choice in comparison with the triangular duct. However, the situation is reversed when thermodynamic irreversibilities are considered. It is argued that vortex formation in the two investigated wavy walls and shear layer developed in the triangular case are the essential physical reasons for the observed thermal, hydraulic and entropic behaviors.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Efficient photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) under solar radiation by
           ZrC nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Amit Singh Vig, Aayush Gupta, O.P. PandeyDue to increase in water pollution, there is a need to dwindle this problem for a clean and green future. Photocatalysts like ZnO, CaO and TiO2 have proved to be triumphant in removal of environmental contaminants. In this present work, ZrC nanopowder has been synthesized using a single-step reduction technique by heating zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and hexane (C6H14) in metallic Mg powder and is used as a photocatalyst for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under solar radiation. Optimization of synthesis parameters (temperature, holding time and carbon content) has been done to obtain single phase ZrC. Various characterization techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry/thermal gravimetric analysis (DSC/TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were studied for various structural, thermal and surface characteristics of as-synthesized samples. The effect of synthesis parameters on crystal distortion of ZrC particles was studied with the help of Double Voigt analysis. Further, the comparative catalytic activity as photodegradation of MB dye with the help of optimized sample was studied under UV and solar radiations. As an effect of illumination source with the same concentration of catalyst and dye, 80% degradation was observed under solar radiations which is quite higher than that observed under UV in 5 h.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Alloying behaviour, thermal stability and phase evolution in quinary
           AlCoCrFeNi high entropy alloy
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Vikas Shivam, Joysurya Basu, Vivek Kumar Pandey, Yagnesh Shadangi, N.K. MukhopadhyayAn equiatomic quinary AlCoCrFeNi high entropy alloy (HEA) has been synthesized by mechanical alloying. Milled powder after 30 h shows good chemical homogeneity and refined morphology with a mean particle size of ∼4 μm. Solid solution phase with BCC crystal structure (a = 2.89 ± 0.02 Å) has been confirmed from XRD and transmission electron microscopy in the as-synthesized high entropy alloy. The milled alloy powder is not thermally stable. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) thermogram of 30 h milled powder exhibits the presence of a small peak at ∼600 °C (873 K) with a thermal shift near the peak. This thermal shift indicates the diffusive type of phase transformation in this alloy while heating. The analysis of the in-situ heating X-ray diffraction patterns at various temperatures extends support to the diffusive nature of the phase transformation. Upon heat treatment, the disordered BCC solid solution phase partially transforms to Ni3Al prototype L12 phase which precipitates at a lower temperature (350 °C (623 K)) as observed by in-situ XRD experiments. However, at high temperature annealing (575–800 °C (848–1073 K)) the evolution of a partially ordered BCC phase (B2) with lattice parameter (a = 2.87 ± 0.02 Å), and L12 phase (a = 3.58 ± 0.05 Å), along with tetragonal σ phase (a = 8.8 Å and c = 4.53 Å) are observed. Similar types of phases have also been identified after annealing and microwave sintering at 800 °C (1073 K) & 900 °C (1173 K) respectively. The transformation of ordered BCC phases along with two intermetallics such as L12 phase and σ phase suggests that the evolution of the high entropy phase in the milled condition leads to a combination of high entropy and medium entropy phases in the annealed condition.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Variability in rheology of cemented paste backfill with hydration age,
           binder and superplasticizer dosages
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Sandeep Panchal, Debasis Deb, T. SreenivasThe use of (CPB) material to ameliorate geotechnical stability of underground mine is in nascent stage in India. Rheological properties of CPB change with travelling time as it is transported to underground mine stope through pipeline reticulation. In this paper, rheological properties of CPB based on mill tailings of a carbonate rich mineral processing waste are evaluated for different dosages of polycarboxylate (PC) based (SP). Each CPB sample having 78 wt% solids is mixed separately with 4%, 6% or 8% of binder dosages (ratio of the weight of dry binder to the weight of dry tailings) and, 0%, 0.5%, or 1.0% of SP dosages as weight of dry binder. The paper presents a methodology for determining yield stress, plastic viscosity and thixotropic behaviour of CPB mixture as a function of hydration age, binder and SP dosages. Results from the experimental campaigns indicate that SP content has significant influence on rheological behaviour of CPB and can be suitably exploited to enhance the flow characteristics of the carbonate rich process tailings. The study also develops multivariate linear regression models of yield stress, plastic viscosity and thixotropy of CPB depending on the hydration age, binder and SP dosages.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Control of colloidal behavior of polystyrene latex nanoparticles and their
           cytotoxicity toward yeast cells using water-soluble polymers
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Shohei Yumiyama, Eri Fujisawa, Yasuhiro Konishi, Toshiyuki NomuraPositively charged polystyrene latex (PSL) nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed in physiological saline (154 mM NaCl solution) are taken up by yeast cells. However, in low ionic strength solutions, the yeast cells are covered with the NPs, leading to cell death. The environmental conditions under which NPs are taken up are therefore limited. In this study, we attempted to control the uptake of positively charged PSL NPs by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in 5 mM NaCl solution using a water-soluble polymer. Addition of a small amount of anionic sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), which has a carboxyl group, to 5 mM NaCl solution allowed the uptake of PSL NPs by living yeast cells. In contrast, non-ionic methylcellulose did not affect the NP behavior. This is because the negatively charged CMC adhered to the positively charged PSL NP surfaces and the surface charge changed from positive to negative. Atomic force microscopy using a single-NP probe consisting of one NP immobilized on the flattened end of the silicon nitride tip showed that CMC significantly reduced the interaction force between a negatively charged living yeast cell and a positively charged PSL NP.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • High-purity disperse α-Al2O3 nanoparticles synthesized by high-energy
           ball milling
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Lu Li, Sanxu Pu, Yuhang Liu, Libin Zhao, Ji Ma, Jiangong LiThe preparation of disperse fine equiaxed α-Al2O3 nanoparticles with narrow size distribution, high purity, and high yield is essential for producing Al2O3 nanocrystalline ceramic of fine grains which may exhibit a good toughness. In this work, micron-sized α-Al2O3 particles were directly ball-milled and subsequently washed with hydrochloric acid at room temperature. Fracture of large α-Al2O3 particles and cold welding of fine α-Al2O3 nanoparticles occur simultaneously during ball milling. It leads to the reduction of particle size with increasing milling duration below 80 h and reaches to a dynamic equilibrium with a minimal average particle size of 6.4 nm for milling durations over 80 h. Using the optimized high-energy ball milling parameters, we prepared high-purity disperse equiaxed α-Al2O3 nanoparticles with an average particle size of 8 nm and a purity of 99.96% (mass percent) in a high yield. After fractionated coagulation separations, disperse fine equiaxed α-Al2O3 nanoparticles with narrow size distribution were obtained. Finally, Al2O3 nanocrystalline ceramic with a relative density of 99.8% and an average grain size of 34 nm was sintered from the disperse fine equiaxed α-Al2O3 nanoparticles with an average particle size of 4.8 nm and a size distribution of 2–10 nm by pressureless two-step sintering.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Steady-shear magnetorheological response of fluids containing
           solution-combustion-synthesized Ni-Zn ferrite powder
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): A.V. Anupama, V. Kumaran, B. SahooMagnetically soft nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) powder with high saturation magnetization was synthesized by solution combustion route using metal nitrates as precursors and glycine as fuel. The particles were found to have irregular morphology. Three different concentrations of magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) were prepared by dispersing 10, 20 and 40 wt% of these particles in thin silicone oil. The behaviours of the MRFs were studied under steady shear conditions at different applied magnetic field strengths (B). The yield strength (τY) and viscosity (η) of all the MRFs were found to increase with B and particle fill fraction ϕ, while the response of the MRFs was strongly influenced by the morphology, microstructure and saturation magnetization of the particles. Owing to the low density of the particles, the observed off-state viscosity is high. However, the excellent thermo-oxidative and chemical stabilities of these magnetic oxide particles than metallic magnetic particles make these MRFs dependable for applications in harsh working environments. In addition, the low cost and feasibility of large scale preparation of these magnetic oxides make these MRFs further attractive for industrial applications.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Catalytic cracking of light naphtha over hierarchical ZSM-5 using rice
           husk ash as silica source in presence of ultrasound energy: Effect of
           carbon nanotube content
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Reza Khoshbin, Shima Oruji, Ramin KarimzadehHierarchical structured ZSM-5 was prepared by sonochemical assisted carbon nanotube templated method and their catalytic activity was examined in catalytic cracking of light naphtha. Different amounts of carbon nanotubes (5, 15, 30 wt%) was introduced into the synthesis gel, as a hard template, for mesopore creation. The rice husk ash was used as a silica source. In order to analyse physicochemical properties of synthesized catalysts, multi-techniques such as XRF, XRD, BET, FE-SEM, NH3-TPD and TGA were used. The obtained results revealed that by adjusting the amount of carbon nanotube, catalyst properties can be favorably tuned. The XRD analysis confirmed successful synthesis of high crystalline ZSM-5 zeolite. According to the FE-SEM analysis, small rough spheres of ZSM-5 were synthesized in all samples. The use of carbon nanotube led to creating new mesopores in the ZSM-5 structure. However, increase in carbon nanotube content led to destruction of micropores of ZSM-5. The acidity of ZSM-5 slightly changed. Results from catalytic activity test showed that high catalyst stability can be achieved in presence of mesopores along with the micropores. The highest olefin yield (54 wt%) and the best catalytic stability were obtained over the synthesized ZSM-5 with 15 wt% carbon nanotube.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Forced convection of a temperature-sensitive ferrofluid in presence of
           magnetic field of electrical current-carrying wire: A two-phase approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Morteza Hangi, Mehdi Bahiraei, Alireza RahbariThis research examines laminar forced convection of a temperature-sensitive magnetic nanofluid flowing within a horizontal tube through the two-phase mixture model. The ferrofluid flowing in the tube is exposed to the magnetic field generated by electrical current-carrying wire(s) along the tube, and the effect of such magnetic field is studied on heat and mass transfer phenomena. It is observed that due to the dependency of magnetization on temperature, the cold fluid flowing at the central regions of the tube is attracted more significantly towards the source of the magnetic field, which results in creation of secondary flow. Such mixing in the flow, subsequently, disturbs the thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layers, especially at the vicinity of the magnetic field source, leading to better heat transfer rate and also higher pressure drop. Furthermore, increasing the strength of the magnetic field leads to greater enhancement in heat transfer, while increasing the Reynolds number decreases the effectiveness of the magnetic field on the ferrofluid flow and heat transfer. Moreover, placing two wires above and under the tube can enhance the heat transfer even more significantly, such that the average convective heat transfer coefficient in this case is about 34.5% higher than that of the case without magnetic field.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Template- and surfactant-free synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 spheres with
           hollow core-shell structure for dye-sensitized solar cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Zheng-Yi Li, Xiao-Dong Qiao, Yi-Yi Liu, Xin-Yu Ye, Yu-Feng Cao, Hong Chen, Bing-Xin Lei, Wei Sun, Zhen-Fan SunWe have demonstrated a simple and effective hydrothermal route to synthesize titania mesoporous spheres with hollow core-shell structure. The synthesis is free of any surfactants or templates. The formation mechanism is investigated on the basis of the results of time-dependent experiments. The as-obtained mesoporous titania spheres with a specific surface area of 21.5 m2 g−1 and diameters of 1.2–2.3 μm are composed of anatase titania nanocrystals. The excellent light scattering property of mesoporous titania spheres with hollow core-shell structure is proved. A higher cell efficiency of 8.27% is achieved with mesoporous titania spheres with hollow core-shell structure as a light scattering layer, compared with a cell efficiency of 6.63% for the P25 film electrode with the similar thickness. The higher cell efficiency is attributed to the hollow core-shell structure scattering layer, resulting in excellent pore fitting for electrolyte diffusion, enhanced light scattering ability, and reduced charge recombination.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Predicting breakage behavior and particle size of bronze and cast iron
           machining chips pulverized by jet milling
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Elham Afshari, Mohammad GhambariIt has been proposed that the breakage behavior of particulate materials can be described by two material parameters fmat and Wmin. fmat describes the resistance of the material to fracture in impact pulverization and Wmin characterizes the specific energy which a particle can absorb without fracture. It is shown in this study that this concept can be used to quantify breakage behavior of bronze and cast iron chips in jet milling process and also to predict particle size of the jet milled product. Different tin bronze and cast iron chips with varying initial size were pulverized in a target plate jet mill with different velocity. fmat was found to be in the range of 0.06–0.09 and 0.18–0.25 for bronze and cast iron alloys, respectively. For the cast iron alloys fmat increased with increasing content of carbon and silicon. Similarly, for the bronze alloys, fmat increased with increasing tin content. An equation was developed to predict mean particle size of the jet milled chips as a function of the kinetic energy, initial chip size and material parameters. The experimental results of various alloys confirmed that the mean particle size after single and multiple impacts were accurately predicted.Graphical abstractPrediction of pulverisation behaviour of tin bronze and grey cast iron machining chips.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Potassium chloride caking tendency: A parametric study of cake break
           energy
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Emmanuel Vachon Lachance, Nicolas Abatzoglou, Ryan Gosselin, Carl Duchesne, Antoine CournoyerUndesired particulate agglomeration can create powder flow issues during manufacturing. Potassium chloride (KCl), a commercial product used in powder form as a potassium source, is known to agglomerate. The main objective is to develop a method to assess KCl agglomeration, then use it to understand its driving forces and the phenomena taking place. Based on industrial data in pharmaceutical manufacturing, the following 5 parameters are considered as critical in terms of agglomeration: conditioning humidity, conditioning time, drying, applied pressure and particle size. Beakers containing 40 g of original or ground KCl powder are compacted under specific humidity conditions in a bell jar. Once the beakers are conditioned, agglomerate hardness tests evaluate agglomeration extent by correlating it with the energy required for powder penetration. This energy is calculated from force-distance curves. The results show that the Area Under the force vs distance Curve (AUC) is a good indicator of agglomeration extent. Thus, the AUC is a scalar and has units of work. Based on AUC analysis, the highest agglomeration is found in conditioning humidity of 85% relative humidity (RH), original particle size, drying and conditioning time of 16 h. The agglomeration of original versus ground particle size powders is further investigated over time in a conditioning test. Preliminary tests validate our method and indicate that KCl premixing with other materials can solve agglomeration problems encountered during manufacturing processes as KCl-particle-particle interactions per unit volume are reduced.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Optimization of a nanoparticle ball milling process parameters using the
           response surface method
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Srdjan Petrović, Ljiljana Rožić, Vesna Jović, Stevan Stojadinović, Boško Grbić, Nenad Radić, Jelena Lamovec, Rastko VasilićNanocrystalline TiO2-CeO2 powders were synthesized from their TiO2 and CeO2 oxides using mechanical ball milling process. The response surface method is applied to identify optimal parameters for the synthesis of TiO2-CeO2 photocatalyst. Analysis of variance and main effect plot are used to determine the significant parameters and set the optimal level for each parameter. Regression analysis showed good agreement of experimental data with the second-order polynomial model with a coefficients of determination: R2 = 0.991, R2Adj. = 0.940 and R2Pred. = 0.983. Under optimal experimental conditions of TiO2:CeO2 weight percentage ratio 71:29, milling speed 200 rpm, and milling time 115 min the highest photodegradation efficiency was achieved. On the basis of the above statistical analysis, it was found that the band gap energy of TiO2-CeO2 nanoparticles decreases with the increase of the milling speed and milling time with constant TiO2:CeO2 weight percentage ratio. Obtained results suggest that mechanical ball milling process is a rapid, efficient and low energy consumption method to synthesize TiO2-CeO2 photocatalyst.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Photodeposition of Ag and Cu binary co-catalyst onto TiO2 for improved
           optical and photocatalytic degradation properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Sakshi Bhardwaj, Bonamali PalThis paper deals with the influence of binary co-deposition of Ag and Cu metals on TiO2 photocatalyst to investigate its adsorption, optical and photocatalytic properties relative to monometallic (Ag/Cu) deposition. Hence, different proportion of Ag and Cu has been simultaneously deposited on TiO2 in an inert (argon) atmosphere under UV irradiations. It was found that the plasmonic absorption bands appeared in the visible region (480 and 640 nm for Ag and Cu, respectively) due to the binary deposition of Ag-Cu nanoparticles (∼9–20 nm) onto TiO2 surface as revealed by TEM size analysis and EDS/elemental mapping. The fluorescence spectrum of Ag-Cu-TiO2 showed higher quenching of emission peak intensities at λ > 450 nm in a different extent due to efficient charge separation as compared to respective monometallic (Ag/Cu)-TiO2 nanocomposites. The photocatalytic activities of binary Ag-Cu-TiO2 for the degradation of methylene blue and salicylic acid under UV and visible irradiations were found to be notably higher than monometallic deposited TiO2. The reaction rates and CO2 formation exhibited due to binary deposition always gives enhanced photoactivity which could be useful for removal of toxic environmental pollutants under solar radiations.Graphical abstractEnhanced co-catalytic degradation exhibited by binary mixture deposited TiO2 photocatalyst under visible irradiations compared to single metal depositions.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Role of optimization parameters in the production of nanoporous carbon
           from mandarin shells by microwave-assisted chemical activation and
           utilization as dye adsorbent
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Filiz Koyuncu, Fuat Güzel, Hasan SayğılıIn this study, mandarin (Citrus reticulata) shells (MS) were used as a new precursor material for preparation of nanoporous carbon by chemical activation method with H3PO4 in the presence of microwave radiation. The obtained nanoporous carbon (MNC) was characterized using nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Boehm titration analysis. When using impregnation ratio of 2.0 at 500 °C for 1 h, specific surface area of prepared MNC reached the maximum value, which is 1021 m2/g. Pore properties of MNC were strongly influenced by impregnation ratio, activation temperature and activation time. For industrial and environmental applications, MNC was tested towards the removal of basic blue 9 (BB9) and acid yellow 36 (AY36) dyes in aqueous media and compared with other carbon adsorbents. The high sorption capacities were 294 mg/g for BB9 and 417 mg/g for AY36. The results indicate that MNC could be regard as a valuable adsorbent to treatment dye pollutants.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effect of a draft tube on oil shale particle drying process of a spouted
           bed: CPFD simulation studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Lidong Zhang, Zijia Wang, Shaohua Li, Hong QinMaterial drying pretreatment plays an important role in the oil shale retorting process. In this study, the drying process of particulate oil shale in a spouted bed was simulated using computational particle fluid dynamics numerical schemes. This study analyzes the effect of the draft tube and inlet air temperature on the drying rate and drying uniformity, and establishes a new insight into the drying process and multiphase flow characteristics inside the spouted bed. The results indicate that using an ordinary cylindrical spouted bed results in a poor drying uniformity, which causing by a large number of the annulus-region particles fall into the spout region from the height of approximately 150 mm and resulting in a stirless area usually observed at the height of 50–150 mm near the wall. Inserting the draft tube and reducing the drying temperature can improve the uniformity of the drying process, and the former is more efficient than the latter.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effect of silane modification on CNTs/silica composites fabricated by a
           non-firing process to enhance interfacial property and dispersibility
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Bo Peng, Chika Takai, Hadi Razavi-khosroshahi, Masayoshi FujiCarbon nanotube/ceramic composites have been in the spotlight thanks to their excellent properties. Sintering is the vital part of ceramics fabrication in terms of reliability, however sintering the carbon nanotube (CNT) based ceramic composites is a challenging task. In this study, interfacial bonding of silane functionalized CNT with silica ceramic is investigated by a non-firing sintering process. CNTs are first treated by a mixed acid with the aid of a silane 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES), which improves the chemical bonding and dispersibility of CNT in ceramic bodies. The extent of APTES chemical functionalization and mechanical property of CNT/silica ceramic composites are characterized using Raman spectrometer, FT-IR analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and three-point bending strength measurement. Results show that composites are successfully prepared without sintering with stable CNT-silica interface, superior dispersibility, and good mechanical properties.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Enhanced antibacterial activity and mechanism studies of Ag/Bi2O3
           nanocomposites
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Qiong Liu, Ju Li, Xin Zhong, Zan Dai, Zhong Lu, Hao Yang, Rong ChenIn this work, sphere-like Ag/Bi2O3 nanocomposites with the average size of ca. 170 nm were successfully synthesized by simple deposition-precipitation method. The antibacterial activities of as-prepared Ag/Bi2O3 nanocomposites were evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and colony counting methods. It was found that Ag/Bi2O3 nanocomposites displayed greatly improved antibacterial ability against common pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in comparison with single-component Bi2O3 nanospheres. More importantly, Ag/Bi2O3 nanocomposites exhibited remarkably outstanding antibacterial activities against clinical drug-resistant bacteria. The antibacterial activity of Ag/Bi2O3 nanocomposite increased with the increase of Ag content and 15 wt% Ag/Bi2O3 nanocomposites showed the highest antibacterial activity. Furthermore, a plausible antibacterial mechanism of Ag/Bi2O3 nanocomposite was proposed. It was believed that the enhanced generation of H2O2 could lead to the membrane leakage of cytosol and the inactivation of respiratory chain dehydrogenaes, which was possibly responsible for the enhanced antibacterial activities of nanocomposites.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Microstructural characterizations and mechanical properties of NbB2 and VB
           particulate-reinforced eutectic Al-12.6 wt% Si composites via powder
           metallurgy method
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Emre Tekoğlu, Duygu Ağaoğulları, Sıddıka Mertdinç, A. Hilmi Paksoy, M. Lütfi ÖveçoğluMechanical alloying of elemental Al, Si, NbB2 and VB powder mixtures constituting the matrix alloy composition of Al-12.6 wt% Si and particulate-reinforced compositions of Al-12.6 wt% Si-x NbB2 and Al-12.6 wt% Si-x VB (x = 1, 2 and 5 wt%) were carried out for 2, 4 and 8 h in a high-energy ball mill. Mechanically alloyed (MA’d) powders were subjected to cold pressing (450 MPa), cold isostatic pressing (400 MPa) and pressureless sintering (570 °C/2 h) processes. Powder particle morphologies changed from flaky to equiaxed shape after the optimum MA duration of 4 h. 1 wt% NbB2 and 1 wt% VB particulate-reinforced Al-12.6 wt% Si based composites exhibited better mechanical properties than the Al-12.6 wt% Si matrix alloy and Al-12.6 wt% Si-x NbB2 and Al-12.6 wt% Si-x VB (x = 2 and 5 wt%) composite samples. In particular, Al-12.6 wt% Si-1 wt% NbB2 had the highest yield strength (378 MPa), compressive strength (491 MPa) and hardness (1.86 GPa) values. Investigations on the wear behaviors of the composites revealed that significant amount of wear loss occurred as a result of debris formation due to pull-outs of reinforcing boride (NbB2 and VB) and oxidized Al (Al2O3) particles.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Study the effect of dip in reaction temperature on thermal and electrical
           properties of ZnO nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Vaibhav Koutu, Oroosa Subohi, Lokesh Shastri, M.M. MalikThe present study reports thermal and electrical properties of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles prepared using co-precipitation route. Sudden dip in reaction temperature observed during the synthesis process created defects in the crystal lattice of ZnO which leads to reduction in crystallite size from 33 nm to 28 nm with increase in reaction temperature. This is confirmed by the X-ray diffraction studies. Thermal analysis of the samples shows better thermal stability for smaller nanoparticles. Temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics of the ZnO samples show reduction in the conductivity and increase in dielectric constant with respect to rise in reaction temperature. Increase in dielectric constant with decrease in size of nanoparticles may be useful in the field of nanoelectronics like memory-storage devices, etc.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Numerical investigation of effects of particle shape on dispersion in an
           isotropic turbulent flow
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Wei Zhang, Hiroaki Watanabe, Toshiaki KitagawaTo investigate the effects of particle shape on the dispersion in an isotropic turbulent flow, herein two direct numerical simulations are performed. The six degrees of freedom motion of spherical and spheroidal particles in a vertical uniform flow and a gas-particle two-way isotropic turbulent flow. The former, which is investigated using a numerical simulation with the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Euler (ALE) method, shows that a spheroidal particle travels with rotating and oscillating motions, which significantly affect the pressure and the friction force on the particle’s surface. The trend of the fluid force acting on the spheroidal particle’s surface also oscillates and differs from that on a spherical particle. The time variation of the fluid force on the spheroidal particle is modeled in the CD equation, which has a sine curve’s PDF relation with Rep and the particle’s maximum and minimum CD values. The latter simulation examines the effects of the particle shape on the dispersion with the motion model developed above. The particle’s dispersion behavior, which is analyzed by the statistical variable D and the Radial Distribution Function (RDF), shows that the dispersion motion is markedly affected by particle’s sphericity, especially for particles with a relatively small sphericity. The results suggest that this difference can influence ignitability, flammability, and the concentration of combustible gases released by particles, and requires further study.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Understanding production of fines in batch ball milling for mill scale-up
           design using the population balance model
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): V.K. GuptaThe rate of production of fine material in the batch mode of grinding operation forms the basis for determination of the grindability parameter of the Bond approach and the breakage distribution function of the population balance model (PBM) approach to the mill scale-up design. For a given set of mill operating conditions, the rate of production of fines is determined by the breakage characteristics and production history of the material being ground. Another important aspect is the variation in the rate of production of fines with grinding time. With a view to developing a clear understanding of these aspects, a detailed analysis of variations in the rate of production of fines was carried out using the PBM framework and two well-known functional forms for the specific breakage rate and breakage distribution parameters. In this paper, it has been shown how the results of this analysis can be used for: (i) obtaining more accurate estimates of the breakage distribution parameters by performing just one short-duration batch grinding experiment, and (ii) explaining variation in the Bond Work index with the product size in terms of the exponent of particle size in the expression for the specific breakage rate function: kj=A∗xjα.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A facile synthesis of CNTs/Cu2O-CuO heterostructure composites by spray
           pyrolysis and its visible light responding photocatalytic properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Peng Liu, Rui Bao, Dong Fang, Jianhong Yi, Lanbo LiCarbon nanotubes (CNTs)/Cu2O-CuO composite powder was fabricated by a spray pyrolysis (SP) method. The copper acetate monohydrate (Cu(CH3COO)2·H2O) solution within CNTs dispersion was used as a precursor. The influences of decomposition temperatures, concentration of Cu(CH3COO)2 solutions and CNTs mass fractions on the constituent phases and microstructures of the composite powder were investigated by XRD, FESEM, TEM, UV–Vis analysis methods. The results show that the composite powder prepared at 500 °C, with the concentration of 1.0 g/l Cu(CH3COO)2·H2O and 30.0 wt.% CNTs mass fraction, has the best photocatalytic performance due to the numerous particles precipitated on the CNTs surface and lower recombination rate of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, tentative mechanisms of the nucleation-growth and photodegradation properties were explored based on the microstructure and photocatalytic analysis.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Double layer microwave absorber based on Cu dispersed SiC composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Samarjit Singh, Ankur Sinha, Raj Hemant Zunke, Abhishek Kumar, Dharmendra SinghThe present work has been focused on designing an efficient and cost-effective double layer microwave absorber in 8.2–12.4 GHz frequency range. For the same, Cu particles were dispersed in SiC to achieve enhanced microwave absorption by combining the excellent dielectric characteristics of SiC with highly conductive Cu. Cu dispersed SiC composites were prepared by dispersing various weight fractions of Cu particles in the SiC matrix using planetary ball mill. The Cu dispersion in SiC yielded excellent relative complex permittivity values translating into a decrease in the reflection loss (RL) values of dispersed composites as compared to the pristine counterpart. The minimum RL of −17.18 dB has been observed for 2 wt% Cu dispersed SiC composite at 11.81 GHz with a thickness of 1.3 mm and bandwidth corresponding to −10 dB is 1.77 GHz. Genetic algorithm approach has been implemented to design double layer microwave absorber to further enhance the microwave absorption of the prepared composites for realizing a cost-effective solution. The optimum double layer results show the RL of −32.16 dB at 11.05 GHz with 1.67 mm total thickness and bandwidth corresponding to −10 dB is 2.35 GHz.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Numerical investigation of dilute aerosol particle transport and
           deposition in oscillating multi-cylinder obstructions
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Shi Tao, Haolong Zhang, Zhaoli Guo, Lian-Ping WangThe transport and deposition of aerosol particles through a fibrous filter is encountered in many natural and industrial processes. As the filtration performance for a stationary filter has been extensively studied in the literature, the present work focuses on the effect of fiber oscillation in a filter where the fibers are allowed to vibrate periodically. The transport and deposition of dilute aerosol particles in such a system is simulated using an efficient numerical model, where an iterative immersed-boundary lattice Boltzmann method is applied to solve the background flow with finite-size moving fibers, and the motion of aerosol particles is then tracked by a one-way coupling Lagrangian approach. In the present scheme, the no-slip boundary condition at the fiber surface can be exactly enforced with an iterative approach and the numerical stability is improved by adopting the MRT collision model. After the model validation in the two special cases of flow over an oscillating fiber in a quiescent fluid and particle capture by a stationary fiber, the filtration performance of an oscillating multi-fiber filter is investigated to study the effects of fiber number, arrangement and vibration mode. It is found that the oscillating motion of fiber has significant influence on the filtration performance. For a single fiber, with larger oscillation amplitude, the distribution ranges of the release position and impact angle of captured particles both increase. On the other hand, a larger fiber oscillation frequency tends to reduce the width of release position but increase the width of impact angle of deposited particles. Furthermore, the collection efficiency is found to be linearly related to the oscillation amplitude or frequency. For multiple fibers, the collection efficiency always increases with larger fiber number, but it is a non-monotonic function of the arrangement parameters, i.e., the longitudinal and transverse spacings, and the vibration parameters such as the amplitude, frequency and vibration mode. It is interesting to find that the in-phase mode can usually lead to excellent collection efficiency.Graphical abstractDispersion of particles at St = 0.2 for the oscillating multi-fiber filter.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Design of Bi-functional composite core–shell SiO2@ZnAl2O4:Eu3+ array as
           a fluorescent sensors for selective and sensitive latent fingerprints
           visualization protocol
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): F. Femila Komahal, H. Nagabhushana, R.B. Basavaraj, G.P. Darshan, B. Daruka Prasad, S.C. Sharma, D. KavyashreeCore–shell SiO2@ZnAl2O4:Eu3+ (5 mol%) nanophosphor (NP) with coatings up to the level IV has been prepared by a facile solvothermal route, followed by heat treatment. Scanning electron microscopy studies of fabricated core–shell particles displays good spherical shape and non-agglomeration with a narrow size distribution. The thickness of the shell increased with increase in coating cycles. Photoluminescence (PL) studies exhibited strong red emission peaks at 612 nm corresponding to the 5Do → 7F2 transition of the Eu3+ ions. PL intensity increased with calcination temperature and coating cycles. The color coordinates of the coated NP were turned towards intense pure red emission with color purity ∼95%. Powder dusting method was used to visualize latent fingerprints (LFPs) by staining uncoated and coated NP on various porous and non-porous surfaces under UV light. It was clear that core–shell NP display high sensitivity, reproducibility, selectivity, reliability, and can obtain the complete three levels of fingerprint ridge details. Judd–Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters and radiative properties, namely transition probabilities, radiative lifetimes, branching ratios, and quantum efficiency were evaluated. The aforementioned results established that the SiO2@ZnAl2O4:Eu3+ (5 mol%) NP can be used as an ideal candidate for multifunctional applications such as WLEDs, LFPs, anticounterfeiting etc.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Non-linear radiation effects on magnetic/non-magnetic nanoparticles with
           different base fluids over a flat plate
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): S. Saranya, P. Ragupathi, B. Ganga, R.P. Sharma, A.K. Abdul HakeemThis work investigates the two-dimensional steady convective boundary layer flow and heat transfer of Newtonian/non-Newtonian base fluids with magnetic/non-magnetic nanoparticles over a flat plate which incorporates non-linear thermal radiation and slip effects. We considered magnetite and aluminium oxide as magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles suspending inside the two sorts of base fluids specifically Water and Sodium Alginate. For physical significance we analyzed the behavior on non-Newtonian profiles by employing Casson model individually. The particular intrigue lies in looking the impacts of non-linear thermal radiation on the behavior of the flow. The solution of wide class of boundary value problems are facilitated by the change of the partial differential equations administering the flow utilizing similarity transformations into ordinary differential equations. The ODE’s are numerically handled by applying fourth order Runge-Kutta integration scheme in association with shooting procedure. The novel results for the dimensionless velocity and temperature inside the boundary layer are exhibited graphically for various parameters that describe the flow. A graphical demonstration is given for the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number.Graphical abstractBehavior of θw on -knfkf1+Rdθw3θ′(0) for Fe3O4 and Al2O3 nanoparticles where ϕ = 0.1, M = 1, δ = 0.5, c = 10, Rd = 1.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • The characterization and polymorphism of α-Glycine in the presence of
           butyric acid
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Sevgi Polat, Perviz SayanThe present study aims to investigate the effect of butyric acid used as an additive and its concentration ranging between 50 ppm and 250 ppm during the polymorphic phase transformation of β-glycine to α-glycine. Analysis includes a continuous measurement of the ultrasonic velocity and periodically the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. Morphological characterization shows that the α-glycine crystals obtained in pure media are smooth, prismatic shapes, and that butyric acid plays a major role in crystal shape change. SEM imaging and morphology analysis indicates that the presence of butyric acid to media results in shorter, rounded and aggregated crystals. Further analyses of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), zeta potential measurements, and elemental analysis reveals that butyric acid adsorbs on the crystals’ surface and changes both the surface charge and the elemental composition of the crystals obtained. In addition, thermal decomposition behaviors of the crystals are investigated and the obtained data is modeled using the thermal decomposition kinetic models of FWO, KAS, and Tang. Based on the data of the FWO kinetic model, the average activation energy of the crystals obtained in butyric acid media is calculated as 118.8 ± 17.0 kJ/mol, which is higher than that of crystals obtained in pure media.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Particle electrification and levitation in a continuous particle feed and
           dispersion system with vibration and external electric fields
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Mizuki Shoyama, Takumu Kawata, Masatoshi Yasuda, Shuji MatsusakaElectrification and levitation of particles in a continuous particle feed and dispersion system have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. This system consisted of a vibrator and inclined parallel electrodes. A mesh and a vibrating plate were used for the upper and lower electrodes, respectively. A dc voltage was applied to one of the electrodes and the other electrode was grounded. Particles fed to the lower electrode were charged by induction and levitated upward by the Coulomb forces. When the applied voltage was high enough, the particles passed through the mesh electrode. The charge of the particles was measured with a Faraday cup, and the particle behavior was observed with a high-speed microscope camera. The particle charges were also analyzed from experimentally obtained particle trajectories and numerically calculated electric fields. Finally, the conditions for the effective levitation and dispersion of the charged particles and their mechanisms were studied and have been described in detail.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effect of chloride ion on crystalline phase transition of iron oxide
           produced by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Jingwu Zheng, Kaihua Liu, Wei Cai, Liang Qiao, Yao Ying, Wangchang Li, Jing Yu, Min Lin, Shenglei CheUltrafine spherical Fe2O3 powders with controllable morphology and crystal phase were synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. In this experiment, we chose three common ferric salts (Fe(NO3)3·9H2O, FeSO4·7H2O or FeCl2·4H2O) as precursor solution and regulated the concentration of chlorine ion (Cl−) in precursor solution to produce Fe2O3 particles. The morphology, crystal structure and magnetic property of prepared Fe2O3 particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The diameter of the obtained Fe2O3 products ranged from 0.2 to 2 μm. And the product obtained from FeCl2 precursor solution was magnetic, which was composed of hexagonal α-Fe2O3 and cubic γ-Fe2O3 from XRD results. We also calculated the weight percent of α-Fe2O3 and γ-Fe2O3 in the product through XRD quantitative analysis. However, with the addition of Cl− in Fe(NO3)3 or FeSO4 precursor solution, the products turned from non-magnetic to magnetic, whose pure α-Fe2O3 phase became to α-Fe2O3 and γ-Fe2O3 multi-phase. Besides, the weight percent of γ-Fe2O3 and the amount of Ms increased with the Cl− concentration in precursor solution improving. According to the research, it can be inferred that the presence of Cl− inhibits the phase transition of γ-Fe2O3 to α-Fe2O3 at high temperature.Graphical abstractIn the experiment, when the droplets were carried into the tube furnace, iron ion in the droplets would hydrolyze to form iron oxide hydroxide (FeOOH) and FeOOH undergoes the dehydroxylation and decomposition yielding γ-Fe2O3 in further heating. Then, γ-Fe2O3 will transform into α-Fe2O3 in the temperature range of 573—623 K. Because of the existence of Cl− in precursor solution, it will inhibit the phase transition from γ-Fe2O3 to α-Fe2O3.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Full title (Editorial Board Members)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s):
       
  • Inside Front Cover (Aims & Scope, Editors)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s):
       
  • Heavy metal ions adsorption and photodegradation of remazol black XP by
           iron oxide/silica monoliths: Kinetic and equilibrium modelling
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 29, Issue 9Author(s): Jasminder Singh, Manisha Sharma, Soumen BasuThe adsorption of heavy metal ions (Cr3+, Pb2+ and Cd2+) by metal oxide monoliths (Fe2O3 and Fe2O3/SiO2) synthesized via nanocasting method using SiO2 monoliths as a template was studied. The adsorption experiments were performed in different batches by varying key parameters and the equilibrium between the adsorbents and metal ion solution was achieved in ∼120 min at pH 6. The maximum monolayer adsorption efficiency for Pb (II), Cr (III) and Cd (II) ions was 850, 770 and 690 mg/g, respectively, for the magnetic Fe2O3/SiO2 monoliths. The experimental data show best fit with the pseudo-second-order reaction type. The adsorption data found to be well fitted using Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous in nature, as confirmed by the thermodynamic parameters. Furthermore, the photocatalytic degradation of an industrial dye e.g., remazol black XP (RxP) by Fe2O3/SiO2 monoliths was done from wastewater and the photocatalytic efficiency of the monoliths (using different amount) has been evaluated under visible light source which gives the best results (97.8%) for the monolith concentration 0.10 g/L.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Heulandite/polyaniline hybrid composite for efficient removal of acidic
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Mostafa R. Abukhadra, Mohamed Rabia, Mohamed Shaban, Francis VerpoortHeulandite/polyaniline (HU/PANI) composite was prepared by mechanical mixing from natural heulandite and synthesized polyaniline. HU/PANI was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, and UV–Vis spectroscopy. The product is of polycrystalline nature with an average crystallite size of 25.7 nm and optical band gap of 1.69 eV. HU/PANI shows higher efficiency in the removal of light green SF dye than natural HU or PANI in the dark and under artificial illumination. The equilibrium time was attained after 360 and 480 min in the dark and under illumination, respectively. The results fitted well with pseudo second order and Elovich kinetic models. The adsorption isotherm in the dark fitted well with Langmuir isotherm model and the calculated qmax was 44.6 mg/g. Using illumination, the data fitted better with the Freundlich and Temkin model than with the Langmuir model. Based on response surface analysis, the predicted conditions for maximum removal of light green SF dye in the dark (70.9%) were 5.5 mg/L, 24 mg, 3, and 430 min for dye concentration, HU/PANI dose, pH, and contact time, respectively. Whereas, under light illumination (97%) at operating conditions of 15 mg/L, 15 mg, 3, and 589 min, respectively. The composite also shows high efficiencies in the removal of other types of acidic and basic dyes.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Large-scale GPU based DEM modeling of mixing using irregularly shaped
           particles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Nicolin Govender, Daniel N. Wilke, Chuan-Yu Wu, Raj Rajamani, Johannes Khinast, Benjamin J. GlasserMixing of particulate systems is an important process to achieve uniformity, in particular pharmaceutical processes that requires the same amount of active ingredient per tablet. Several mixing processes exist, this study is concerned with mechanical mixing of crystalline particles using a four-blade mixer. Although numerical investigations of mixing using four-blades have been conducted, the simplification of particle shape to spherical or rounded superquadric particle systems is universal across these studies. Consequently, we quantify the effect of particle shape, that include round shapes and sharp edged polyhedral shapes, on the mixing kinematics (Lacey Mixing Index bounded by 0 and 1) that include radial and axial mixing as well as the inter-particle force chain network in a numerical study. We consider six 100 000 particles systems that include spheres, cubes, scaled hexagonal prism, bilunabirotunda, truncated tetrahedra, and a mixed particle system. This is in addition to two six million particle systems consisting of sphere and truncated tetrahedra particles that we can simulate within a realistic time frame due to GPU computing. We found that spherical particles mixed the fastest with Lacey mixing indices of up to 0.9, while polyhedral shaped particle systems mixing indexes varied between 0.65 and 0.87, for the same mixing times. In general, to obtain a similar mixing index (of 0.7), polyhedral shaped particle systems needed to be mixed for 50% longer than a spherical particle system which is concerning given the predominant use of spherical particles in mixing studies.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A novel route to prepare the metastable vaterite phase of CaCO3 from CaCl2
           ethanol solution and Na2CO3 aqueous solution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Jiuxin Jiang, Yue Wu, Chuanjie Chen, Xuelian Wang, Huakang Zhao, Songsong Xu, CanCan Yang, Bowen XiaoVaterite, the least stable phase among three anhydrous polymorphs of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), was prepared via the reaction between the ethanol solution of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and the aqueous solution of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), which is named ethanol-calcium method. The effects of aging times and reaction temperatures on the formation of vaterite were investigated. The polymorphs and morphologies were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to verify the existence of vaterite. XRD results indicate that the amount of vaterite decreases from 90.4% to 81.4% as increasing in aging times from 0 min to 42 h and decreases from 85.8% to 70.2% as increasing in reaction temperatures from 0 °C to 60 °C. SEM results show that vaterite and calcite as-prepared are their typical morphologies of spherical and rhombohedral, respectively. This research extends the route to prepare the metastable vaterite and provides new insights into its controllable synthesis.Graphical abstractComplexation between CaCl2 and ethanol occurs when CaCl2 powder is added in anhydrous ethanol. The complex CaCl2·nC2H5OH (n = 4 or 6, taking n = 6 as an example) distributes homogeneously in anhydrous ethanol, forming a transparent solution. Based on the fact that the system becomes turbid as soon as the addition of transparent Na2CO3 aqueous solution, it can be concluded that the decomplexation of CaCl2·6C2H5OH, the ionization of CaCl2 in water and the combination of Ca2+ and CO32− occur instantaneously and in sequence. According to previous research, amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) nucleates firstly, followed by crystallization in different polymorphs, or crystallization as metastable vaterite phase and then transformation to the most stable calcite phase.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Highly efficient degradation of 2-chlorophenol and methylene blue with
           Rb0.27WO3/NiFe-CLDH composites under visible light irradiation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Guoqing Zhao, Dan Zhang, Yaliang Huang, Jingang Yu, Xinyu Jiang, Feipeng JiaoNovel magnetically composites photocatalyst Rb0.27WO3/NiFe-CLDH (RWCLDH) was fabricated via a simple method. The as-prepared catalysts were characterized using XRD, XPS, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, BET, UV–Vis DRS spectra and PL analysis. The RWCLDH-700 composites exhibit a two-fold enhancement in photocatalytic activity toward degradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) and Methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation compared to that of Rb0.27WO3 and NiFe-CLDH. The photocatalytic efficiency of the Rb0.27WO3 and NiFe-CLDH is 39%, 45% and 42%, 34%, respectively, whereas for RWCLDH-700 composites are 91% and 93%. This enhancement in photocatalytic activity is attributed to the effective separation of electron-hole pairs. Moreover, the catalyst exhibited higher photocatalytic stability and retained its degradation efficiency up to 81% after four cycles. Finally, a possible decomposition mechanism was also discussed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effects of specularity and particle-particle restitution coefficients on
           the recirculation characteristics of dispersed gas-particle flows through
           a sudden expansion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Subrat Kotoky, Amaresh Dalal, Ganesh NatarajanWe numerically investigate the effects of restitution and specularity coefficients on the characteristics of dispersed gas-particle flows through a sudden expansion. The studies are carried out using an indigenous finite volume flow solver in a collocated framework with two-fluid model. Parametric studies are performed to gain insights into the differences in recirculation patterns that arise due to variations in restitution and specularity coefficients. The simulations show that particle-particle interactions, quantified by restitution coefficient (e) have a greater impact on recirculation characteristics than particle-wall interactions, which are quantified by specularity coefficient (ϕ). Studies reveal that the recirculation lengths tend to decrease as particle collisions become more elastic (as e tends to unity) while they increase, as the value of ϕ increases. However, the changes in recirculation length is very gradual and less pronounced when only particle-wall interactions are considered as compared to particle-particle interactions. From the range of parametric variations studied in this work, the maximum recirculation length has been found when the value of ϕ is maximum and that of e is minimum.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Synthesis of metastable cubic tungsten carbides by electrical explosion of
           tungsten wire in liquid paraffin
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Shigeru Tanaka, Ivan Bataev, Hayato Oda, Kazuyuki HokamotoThis paper describes experiments addressing the synthesis of WC1−x (metastable cubic tungsten carbide). The experiments involved exploding tungsten wires of different diameters by passing high-current electric pulses through them. This was done while the wire was immersed in a liquid-paraffin media. The explosion was studied using a high-speed video camera and by analysis of the voltage and current signals. The different stages of the wire explosion were explained based on an analysis of the recorded signals and simple thermodynamic considerations. In most of the experiments, the wire was sublimated, and the formation of carbide particles occurred due to a chemical reaction between the explosion products and the paraffin, as well as the rapid condensation of the vapors. The synthesized powders were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). It was found that, regardless of the experimental conditions, the WC1−x phase contained approximately 42.5 at.% carbon. If the energy injected into the wire was not sufficient to completely evaporate the tungsten, large particles consisting of WC, W2C, and W phases were formed via the liquid-state diffusion mechanism.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Modeling and simulations of nanofluids using classical molecular dynamics:
           Particle size and temperature effects on thermal conductivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): El Mehdi Achhal, Hicham Jabraoui, Soukaina Zeroual, Hamid Loulijat, Abdellatif Hasnaoui, Said OuaskitWe use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the thermal conductivity of argon-based nanofluid with copper nanoparticles through the Green-Kubo formalism. To describe the interaction between argon-argon atoms, we used the well-known Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential, while the copper–copper interactions are modeled using the embedded atom method (EAM) potential that takes the metallic bonding into account. The thermal conductivity of the pure argon liquid obtained in the present simulation agreed with available experimental results. In the case of nanofluid, our simulation predicted thermal conductivity values larger than those found by the existing analytical models, but in a good accordance with experimental results. This implies that our simulation is more adequate, to describe the thermal conductivity of nanofluids than the previous analytical models. The efficiency of nanofluids is improved and the thermal conductivity enhancement is appeared when the particle size and temperature increase.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Investigating the fluidization of disk-like particles in a fluidized bed
           using CFD-DEM simulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Huaqing Ma, Yongzhi ZhaoFluidization of monodispersed disk-like particles with different aspect ratios in the fluidized bed is simulated by CFD-DEM, with disk-like particles being modeled by the super-ellipsoids. The relatively comprehensive investigations are performed in order to understand the fluidization behaviors of disk-like particles and to evaluate how the aspect ratio influences the fluidization. The results obtained demonstrate that disk-like particles with a larger aspect ratio possess stronger particle movement and more apparent fluidization. Comparisons between spherical particles and disk-like particles elucidate their differences in the fluidization behavior. Particle orientation is also investigated in this paper due to its important influence on the fluidization. Particles possess different preferred orientations in the static bed and in the fluidization state, and a reduced aspect ratio can drive particles to be in the preferred orientation. The existence of the walls will prompt particles to align their cross sections to be parallel to the plane of the walls.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Densification and microstructural evolution of spark plasma sintered NiTi
           shape memory alloy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): C. Velmurugan, V. Senthilkumar, Krishanu Biswas, Surekha YadavThe effect of particle size and sintering temperature on the densification and microstructural characteristics of nickel-titanium shape memory alloy (NiTi-SMA) has been investigated using spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. The Ni and Ti elements in different particle sizes were alloyed in the composition of Ni50.6Ti49.4. The milled NiTi powders were consolidated using SPS process in a temperature range of 700–900 °C. The densification was characterized by plotting temperature, current and relative displacement of punch as a function of holding time. The results showed that a maximum relative density of ∼98% can be achieved for NiTi-SMA with an average particle size of 10 µm at a sintering temperature of 900 °C. The microstructure of the sintered NiTi-SMA was examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and composition of NiTi alloy was analyzed using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The effect of sintering temperature on the microstructural evolution and transformation was also studied.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • High purity synthesis of ZrB2 by a combined ball milling and carbothermal
           method: Structural and magnetic properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Mustafa Baris, Tuncay Simsek, Telem Simsek, Sadan Ozcan, Bora KalkanThe present work provides a new insight into the high purity synthesis of zirconium diboride (ZrB2) powders and a method of controlling impurity during the synthesis process. The single phase ZrB2 nano-powder was synthesized by a combined ball milling and carbothermal method using zirconium oxide (ZrO2), boron oxide (B2O3) and carbon (C) as starting materials. The reaction pathway, phase purity, and morphology of the ZrB2 produced are elucidated from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy studies. The details of the impure phases generated during synthesis were obtained from multi-phase Rietveld refinements of XRD data. Experiments revealed that the method of synthesis carried out at 1750 °C involving ZrB2:B2O3:C at a molar ratio of 1:4.5:7.5 could produce highly pure ZrB2 nano-powders of 67 nm average crystallite size. The magnetometry studies on such pure form of ZrB2 nano-powders indicated that both paramagnetic and diamagnetic characteristics coexisted in ZrB2, which could be attributed to its polycrystallinity.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Enhancement of methane production by Methanosarcina barkeri using Fe3O4
           nanoparticles as iron sustained release agent
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Rong Chen, Yasuhiro Konishi, Toshiyuki NomuraAnaerobic digestion has attracted attention because it does not require power for aeration, it reduces excess sludge and it generates methane gas. However, the growth rate of anaerobic microorganisms is slow, resulting in low treatment efficiency. In this study, the impact of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) on the growth of methanogens, which is the rate-determining step in anaerobic digestion, was investigated using a pure culture of Methanosarcina barkeri as the model methanogen. M. barkeri were cultivated in iron free medium, as well as in media amended with various concentrations of Fe3O4 NPs with a mean diameter of 8.1 ± 2.4 nm. The production of methane gas was greatly increased when organisms were cultured in media containing NPs. After the methane production was saturated, methanol was newly added to the culture, which resulted in additional methane generation at a higher production rate than occurred during the initial round of cultivation in media containing 20 ppm Fe3O4 NPs. In addition, no evidence of negative impacts of Fe3O4 NPs on the growth of M. barkeri was observed. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that adding Fe3O4 NPs into the fermenter as an agent of sustained iron release can enable sustainable methane fermentation.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Wavelet multi-resolution analysis on particle dynamics in a horizontal
           pneumatic conveying
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Yan Zheng, Akira RinoshikaThe particle velocities are measured by the high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the acceleration and fully developed regimes of a horizontal pneumatic conveying. Based on the measured particle fluctuation velocities, continuous wavelet transform and one-dimensional orthogonal wavelet decomposition were applied to reveal particle dynamics in terms of time frequency analysis, the contribution from wavelet level to the particle fluctuation energy, spatial correlation and probability distribution of wavelet levels. The time frequency characteristics of particle fluctuation velocity suggest that the small-scale particle motions are suppressed and tend to transfer into large scale particle motions from acceleration regime to fully developed regime. In the near bottom part of pipe, the fluctuation energy of axial particle motion is mainly contributed from the wavelet levels of relatively low frequency, however, in the near top part of pipe, wavelet levels of relatively high frequency make comparable contribution to the axial particle fluctuation energy in the suspension flow regime, and this contribution decreases as particles are accelerated along the pipe. The low frequency wavelet levels exhibit large spatial correlation, and this spatial correlation increases as the particles flow from acceleration regime to fully developed regime. The skewness factor and kurtosis factor of wavelet level suggest that the deviation of Gaussian probability distribution is associated with the central frequency of wavelet level, and the deviation from Gaussian distribution is more evident as increasing central frequency. The higher wavelet levels can be linked to small sale particle motions, which lead to irregular particle fluctuation velocity.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effect of Mn doping concentration on structural, vibrational and magnetic
           properties of NiO nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Kiran N. Patel, M.P. Deshpande, Krishna Chauhan, Piyush Rajput, Vivek P. Gujarati, Swati Pandya, Vasant Sathe, S.H. ChakiThe Ni1−xMnxO (x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06) nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical precipitation route followed by calcination at 500 °C for 4 h. The prepared samples were characterized by energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Rietveld refinement of XRD data confirms the structural phase purity and XRD patterns are well indexed to NaCl like rock salt fcc crystal structure with Fm-3m space group. The particle size of Mn doped samples is found to be less than that of pure NiO sample. However, the particle size increases slightly on increasing the Mn concentration due to surface/grain boundary diffusion. The vibrational properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated by Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. The results of room temperature magnetization (M-H) and temperature dependent magnetization (M-T) measurements are explained with a core-shell model. The synthesized nanoparticles show weak ferromagnetic and super-paramagnetic like behavior at room temperature.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Synthesis of Ni-doped LaSrMnO3 nanopowders by hydrothermal method for SOFC
           interconnect applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Sang Yun Lee, Juyeon Yun, Weon-Pil TaiNi-doped lanthanum strontium manganite (LSMN) nanopowders, La0.7Sr0.3Mn1−xNixO3 (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) were synthesized at 150 °C for 8 h by hydrothermal reaction as a function of Ni doping concentration. The SEM analyses suggested that the calcination treatment influenced the morphology of the nanopowders. The calcined nanopowders at 1300 °C had agglomerated spherical structure of 44–77 nm. Meanwhile, the XRD studies revealed that the nanopowders have single crystalline phase over the range x = 0.05–0.2. In addition, the LSMN nanopowders were sintered at elevated temperatures, 1250–1350 °C to examine their electrical conductivity for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect applications under actual SOFC working condition. Their electrical conductivity gradually increased to 90.05 S/cm with Ni doping concentration x = 0.2, which were sintered at 1300 °C. These results suggest La0.7Sr0.3Mn0.8Ni0.2O3 displays a good performance as an optimal composition of the LSMN.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Improved dust management at a longwall top coal caving (LTCC) face –
           A CFD modelling approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Ting Ren, Zhongwei Wang, Jian ZhangDust management at longwall faces has always been a concern for mine operators. Recent respirable dust monitoring at a longwall top coal caving (LTCC) face indicated that extremely high dust exposure levels have been experienced at the face. Dust contamination from intake ventilation and the incorrect use of ventilation arrangements (i.e. curtains) at maingate (MG) area were identified as the main cause of this issue. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling studies were therefore conducted to investigate the impact of different ventilation arrangements on the dispersion behaviour of respirable dust at the LTCC face, with a special focus on the airflow patterns and the aerodynamics of fugitive dust at the intersection of MG and face. Field investigation was first carried out to observe the dust issue and obtain essential data for the development and validation of base model. Then parametric studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of two different curtain configurations at MG considering the worst scenario of intake dust contamination to face (dust from travel road and beam stage loader (BSL) discharge point flows towards face) with the shearer cutting into the MG. Model results demonstrate that the occurrence of flow separation and incorrect use of curtains account for the main reasons of high dust exposure level at the intersection of MG and face, especially when the shearer is cutting into the MG. Ventilation arrangements at the MG and face entry are critical to minimise the impact of flow separation on the dust flow patterns at the intersection. Based on model results, new ventilation arrangements at the MG and face entry have been proposed and evaluated through which significant dust mitigation effect can be achieved at face entry, contributing to the overall reduction of dust exposure levels along the face.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • An investigation into the parameters affecting the breakdown voltage and
           inter-particle bonding in the electrical discharge compaction of metal
           powders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): A. Darvizeh, M. Alitavoli, N. NamaziThe aim of present investigation is to gain deeper understanding of breakdown behavior and inter-particle bonding by conducting experimental tests. This may lead to improve the state of compaction by relative arrangement of initial parameters to maintain uniform distribution of current density and producing compacts with sufficient mechanical strength. Experimental work was carried out using two different set-ups. The first arrangement was employed to provide steady-state alternating voltage. The effect of column geometry and particle size on breakdown voltage was investigated under this condition. The second set-up, capacitor discharge circuit, was used to provide impulse voltage. Under this condition, the influence of column geometry, particle size, application of axial pressure, evacuation of air, energy input, electrode material and configuration on breakdown voltage was studied. Also, scanning electron microscopy was employed to study the effect of different parameters on inter-particle bonding. The results of experiments conducted on the influence of each of the voltage and capacitance on the compaction properties are also discussed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Antibiofilm, anti cancer and ecotoxicity properties of collagen based ZnO
           nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Sekar Vijayakumar, Baskaralingam VaseeharanThe use of natural biopolymers in the synthesis of nanomaterials can have a low cost and eco-friendly approach. ZnO nanoparticles synthesized through biological method has been reported to have biomedical applications to control pathogenic microbes as it is cost effective compared to commonly used physical and chemical methods. In this work we would like to report the “bioinspired” synthesis of ZnO nanopowders (ZnO-NPs) using type 1 collagen. Collagen based ZnO NPs (Cl-ZnO NPs) were bio-physically characterized by UV–vis Spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, HR-TEM, EDX and Zeta potential analysis. HR-TEM recorded the presence of hexagonal wurtzite structure of Cl-ZnO NPs with particle size ranged between 20–50 nm. Further, Cl-ZnO NPs exhibited antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against Gram positive Streptococcus mutans, Gram negative Proteus vulgaris and fungi Candida albicans at 75 μg/ml. Moreover, the cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that the Cl-ZnO NPs was not toxic to murine (RAW 264.7) macrophage cells up to 75 μg/ml. However, it exhibited cytotoxicity against human liver cancer (HepG2) cells at 75 μg/ml. The HepG2 cell viability was significantly reduced at 75 μg/ml. In addition, the ecotoxicity of Cl-ZnO NPs on the freshwater micro crustacean Daphnia longicephala showed no mortality up to 250 μg/ml. The current study clearly demonstrated that the Cl-ZnO NPs had greater potential for antimicrobial and anticancer activities.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Tweaking the diameter and concentration of carbon nanotubes and sintering
           duration in Copper based composites for heat transfer applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): R. Vignesh Babu, Kunwar Avanish Verma, M. Charan, S. KanagarajCopper (Cu) gained its importance in several applications due to its attractive thermal characteristics. However, its applications are limited, wherever high strength and high thermal conductivity are desirable. Thus, an attempt was made to develop Cu/CNT composites having the improved mechanical and thermal properties. Initially, Cu/CNT composite powder was synthesized through molecular level mixing technique, where the functionalized 20–40 nm and 40–60 nm diameter CNT with varying concentrations from 0.25 to 1.0 wt.% with an increment of 0.25 wt.% were used. The powder was uniaxially compacted at 800 MPa and sintered in the range of 2–8 hr at 900 °C. The best characteristics of Cu/CNT composites obtained from the present study are as follows: Relative density (RD) – 89.1%, Hardness – 61.2 ± 0.58 VHN, Thermal conductivity – 343 W/mK and these characteristics obtained their maximum value at 0.25 wt.% CNT concentration and started to decrease irrespective of CNT diameter.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Experimental and numerical investigation of effects of particle shape and
           size distribution on particles’ dispersion in a coaxial jet flow
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2018Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Wei Zhang, Kazuki Tainaka, Seongyool Ahn, Hiroaki Watanabe, Toshiaki KitagawaIn this study, an experimental and a numerical investigations are performed to investigate the effect of particle’s shape and size distribution on its dispersion behavior. Firstly, particle dispersion of pulverized coal and spherical polymer particles is observed by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique in the experiment. Secondly, a simulation is performed to analyze the particle dispersion in detail. Spherical and spheroidal motion models are applied to particle’s movement to investigate the shape effect. Furthermore, monodisperse and polydisperse for particles are applied to investigate the size distribution effect on the dispersion. Experimental results show that in the jet turbulence flow, pulverized coal particles, which have complex shapes and various sizes, have quite different dispersion behavior compared to spherical particles. In terms of the results of the simulation, this difference is mainly caused by the size distribution effect. Although particle’s shape affects the dispersity, it is weakened by the size distribution effect.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
 
 
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