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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3184 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3184 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 100, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 436, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 421, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 383, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 475, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 218, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advanced Powder Technology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.694
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 17  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0921-8831 - ISSN (Online) 1568-5527
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3184 journals]
  • Synthesis of porous Mg-doped CeO2 powders via self-propagating
           high-temperature synthesis route
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Zahra Hashemzaei, Mahmood Sharifitabar, Hamideh Saravani, Meissam Noroozifar The aim of this study was synthesis of Mg-doped porous cerium oxide powder by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis reaction of Mg-xCeO2-O2 system. Results indicated that doping Mg in the CeO2 crystal structure increased its lattice parameter slightly, and shifted the Ce-O band in the FTIR spectra from 490 to 574 cm−1. Moreover, the EDS results revealed the distribution of Mg in the CeO2 microstructure. There were a high volume fraction of interconnected macro-pores in the microstructure of cerium oxide after the synthesis process. Increase in the x-value from 0.05 to 0.25 mol decreased the mean size and volume fraction of pores from 2.4 to 1 µm and 50 to 30 vol%, respectively. In addition, the BET surface area of porous CeO2 varied between 0.3 and 1.57 m2/g. Finally, it was inferred that the SHS technique can be introduced as a rapid and novel method for synthesis of Mg-doped porous CeO2 powders.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Three-dimensional periodic structures of gold nanoclusters in the
           interstices of sub-100 nm polymer particles toward surface-enhanced
           Raman scattering
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Ayumi Yahata, Haruyuki Ishii, Kosuke Nakamura, Kanako Watanabe, Daisuke Nagao Regularly ordered polymer nanoparticle (PNP) assemblies incorporating gold nanoparticle (Au NP) clusters into the PNP interstices were fabricated by a simultaneous deposition of PNPs and Au NPs on a glass substrate. Monodisperse PNPs with an average size of 66 nm were employed as a template in the co-assembly to create the sub-100 nm periodic Au nanostructures on the substrate. First, mono-layering of PNP array with incorporation of 14 nm Au NPs was performed by a drop-casting to examine the number ratio of Au NPs to PNPs for multi-layering. Absorption spectra of the mono-layered co-assemblies of PNPs and Au NPs were employed to characterize the clustered state of Au NPs in the interstices of mono-layered PNPs. The number ratio suitable for homogeneous incorporation of Au NPs clustered in the interstice was found to be ranged from 6 to 8 in the characterization. Then, multi-layered co-assemblies of PNPs and clustered Au NPs were fabricated by a vertical deposition method with the Au NP number ratio of 8 to PNPs. Lifting rate of the substrate on which the PNPs were deposited was varied in the vertical deposition method to tune the film thickness of NP co-assembly. A decrease in the lifting rate to 1 μm/s could thicken the film to 0.71 μm corresponding to 13 layers of PNPs, resulting in the fabrication of periodic structures of Au NP clusters with a high packing density. Signal-to-noise ratio in the Raman measurement using p-mercaptobenzoic acid as a target molecule was successfully enhanced by multi-layering of the co-assembly, indicating that Au NP clusters were homogeneously incorporated into the interstices of PNPs in the co-assemblies.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Cold-pressing and vacuum arc melting of γ-TiAl based alloys
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): M.N. Mathabathe, A.S. Bolokang, G. Govender, C.W. Siyasiya, R.J. Mostert Beta (β) solidifying γ-TiAl intermetallic alloys of nominal composition Ti-48Al, Ti-48Al-2Nb, Ti-48Al-2Nb-0.7Cr alloys have been cold pressed and vacuum arc melted. The Al loss was due to compaction method used prior to the melting technique, since it was evident after compaction that Al particles migrated to the surface in contact with the die facets after cold pressing. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)-orientation mapping demonstrated that the α-precipitation from the parent β-phase follows the Blackburn orientation relationship (BOR). Microstructural characterization of the alloys was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) for micro-analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was used to detect phase compositions.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Recent advances in earth-abundant photocatalyst materials for solar
           H2 production
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Soojin Kahng, Harin Yoo, Jung Hyeun Kim Harvesting solar energy attracts great attention due to its abundant, clean, and permanent characteristics. Thus, photocatalysts have emerged as promising candidates for converting the solar energy to practically useful hydrogen molecules. Tremendous efforts have been devoted in developments of efficient photocatalysts for water splitting, but most of photocatalysts utilize noble metals to improve photocatalytic performance. Progress in photocatalyst materials for the hydrogen production coupled with a better understanding of the basic catalytic mechanisms has enabled better selection of catalytic nanomaterials with improved performance. In this review, we analyze the current state of the art in photocatalyst materials for photochemical hydrogen production through water splitting using earth-abundant materials. We also explore two main factors involved in both material morphology and sacrificial agent to further improve the activity, efficiency and stability of photocatalysts.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Catalytic peroxygen activation by biosynthesized iron nanoparticles for
           enhanced degradation of Congo red dye
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Gautham B. Jegadeesan, S. Amirthavarshini, J. Divya, G.I. Gunarani In this study, biogenic iron (Fe) NPs (B-Fe) were synthesized using Terminalia Bellirica plant extracts and used to activate persulfate (PS) and peroxymonosulfate (PMS) oxidants for degradation of Congo red (CR) dye. Chemogenic Fe-NPs (C-Fe) were also synthesized using borohydride reduction method for comparison. The synthesized Fe NPs were characterized for their surface morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS)-based particle size analysis. Biogenic B-Fe NPs were more uniform in size and smaller (67–125 nm), compared to chemogenic C-Fe (59–277 nm), due to the capping effect of the biomolecules in plant extracts. Degradation efficiencies using the nanoparticle – oxidant system followed the order: C-Fe-PMS (86%) ∼ B-Fe-PMS (83%) > C-Fe-PS (75%) > B-Fe-PS (63%). Post-degradation UV–Vis absorbance spectra indicated the absence of intermediates in the PS/PMS systems, suggesting complete mineralization of the dye. The kinetics of the process is best described by shifting order rate kinetics. Alkaline pH conditions, low oxidant loading and high initial dye concentration hindered degradation kinetics, while catalyst loading had minimal impact on the oxidation process. The data strongly suggested that biogenic Fe NPs activated oxidant system is an effective alternative to existing hydroxyl – radical based advanced oxidation processes.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Enhanced ferromagnetic and photocatalytic properties in Mn or Fe doped
           p-CuO/n-ZnO nanocomposites
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): S.M. Yakout, A.M. El-Sayed Mn doped CuO/ZnO heterostructure exhibited significant room temperature ferromagnetism and visible light photocatalytic properties. Phase analysis for the pure, Mn and Fe doped CuO/ZnO nanocomposites evidently confirmed the formation of CuO and ZnO phases in each composite without any impurities. Based on Rietveld refinement analysis, the inclusion of Mn ions into CuO/ZnO nanocomposite decreased the unit cell volume of both oxides while Fe ions lead to lattice expansion. Mn ions induced the formation of ZnO hexagonal nanorods in CuO/ZnO nanocomposite. Nano-flakes and spherical nanoparticles shapes were seen for Fe doped CuO/ZnO nanocomposites. The characteristics IR absorption bands of CuO and ZnO overlapped together in their nanocomposites structure. From Kubelka-Munk plots, the incorporation of Mn ions enabled the ZnO band gap to absorb in the visible light region. Pure CuO/ZnO nanocomposite exhibited room temperature ferromagnetism with saturation magnetization (Ms) of 0.042 emu/g and coercivity (Hc) of 547 Oe. The ferromagnetic properties of the pure CuO/ZnO nanocomposite were greatly improved by Mn and Fe doping and the saturation magnetization extremely jumped to 0.86 and 0.85 emu/g, respectively. High photocatalytic activity, 98%, with good reusability for methyl orange (MO) degradation under visible light irradiation was achieved by 4 wt% Mn doped CuO/ZnO nanocomposite. A relation between the crystallinity, band gap and photocatalytic activity with dopant type (Mn or Fe) incorporated into CuO/ZnO nanocomposites was noticed. In contrary to Fe dopant, Mn as dopant played successful roles in improving the crystallinity, band gap and photocatalytic properties of CuO/ZnO nanocomposite. Multifunctional properties can be realized by combining different oxides in heterostructure form and using doping technique.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A facile preparation of pomegranate-like porous carbon by carbonization
           and activation of phenolic resin prepared via hydrothermal synthesis in
           KOH solution for high performance supercapacitor electrodes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Jianbing Zang, Pengfei Tian, Guoping Yang, Shaopei Jia, Shuyu Zhou, Hanqing Xu, Yanhui Wang High electrochemical performance pomegranate-like porous carbon was synthesized by the carbonization and activation of phenolic resin which was prepared by adding phenolic resin monomer mixture into KOH aqueous solution and hydrothermal treatment. In the process of hydrothermal, KOH solution could hinder the polymerization of phenolic resin monomer to form big phenolic resin particles. During the carbonization, phenolic resin plays the role of forming small particles and binder during carbonization, which can simultaneously achieve high specific surface area and form three dimensional structures to improve the conductivity. The results showed that pomegranate-like porous carbon composed of small nanometer-scale particles was observed. The obtained porous carbon electrode materials had a high content of micropores with specific surface area as high as 2199.9 m2 g−1. The porous carbon exhibited a high specific capacitance of 341.3 F g−1 at 0.1 A g−1, good rate capability with 71.0% retention from 0.1 to 5 A g−1. Moreover, it showed high capacitance retention of 96.1% after 5000 cycles at a scan rate of 50 mV s−1, indicating excellent cycling stability. The assembled symmetrical supercapacitor showed high energy densities of 17.0 Wh kg−1 and 8.5 Wh kg−1 with the corresponding power densities of 49.6 W kg−1 and 1.8 kW kg−1, respectively. The facile method could be a promising candidate for preparing porous carbon electrode materials with excellent electrochemical performance in the fields of supercapacitors.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Scalable classification of nanoparticles: A proof of principle for process
           design
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Christina Menter, Doris Segets Nanoparticles like quantum confined ZnS semiconductor nanocrystals, exhibit unique structure-property relationships. Narrow particle size distributions (PSDs) become one of the most important factors to tailor product performance. Size selective precipitation has already been proven to be an effective post processing strategy for ZnS nanoparticles. It is based on the titration of a poor liquid into a stable dispersion, which leads to the preferred flocculation of larger particles. Afterwards, these flocks must be separated from the continuous phase. While on lab scale the formed flocks can be easily separated by centrifugation from the fine fraction, for larger scale production using continuous processes, new concepts are urgently needed. Herein we developed a filtration process for flock removal that allows the handling of larger quantities. For process design, we first investigated the flock properties in order to know how stable the generated flocks are and how the flock properties can be controlled. Then, we replaced the classical flock separation by centrifugation through separation by surface filtration under the constraint that the underlying separation efficiency was not affected. By the future use of properly controlled, alternating filtration modules, our work opens the door for establishing an urgently needed, scalable post-processing for sub-10 nm nanoparticles.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Estimation of uncertainty of percentile values in particle size
           distribution analysis as a function of number of particles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Tatsushi Matsuyama In the analysis of particle size distribution (PSD), evaluation of the uncertainty of the percentile values is often required. Both theoretical and data processing methods are applicable to estimate standard deviations of percentile values. In this paper, a theory, applicable both in paramedic and non-parametric ways, is introduced. As a practical example, theoretical results based on a lognormal distribution are compared to those obtained by bootstrap method. Excellent agreement is demonstrated between the theory and the direct data processing method.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Characterization and photocatalytic activity of Y-doped BiFeO3 ceramics
           prepared by solid-state reaction method
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Hamed Maleki Singe phase bismuth ferrite doped by yttrium (Bi1−xYxFeO3, x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25) was synthesized by solid-state reaction followed by sintering. Their structural, morphological, ferroelectric, magnetic and optical properties were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and UV–visible spectrophotometry. Rhombohedally-distorted perovskite structure of bismuth ferrite was confirmed by XRD analysis and Rietveld refinement. Microstrain and crystallite size were analyzed using Williamson-Hall model. SEM micrographs showed agglomerated particles. The doping of yttrium into the BiFeO3 (BFO) lattice enhanced the ferroelectric and magnetic properties and the leakage current density was reduced. The energy band gap was also decreased by increasing yttrium content, leading to an enhancement of light absorption capability. The photocatalytic activity of all samples has been evaluated by the decolorization of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. The results indicated that increasing the concentration of yttrium into the BiFeO3 (BFO) structure improved the photodegradation up to 71%.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Dry powder formulation combining bedaquiline with pyrazinamide for latent
           and drug-resistant tuberculosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Mohammad A.M. Momin, Bhamini Rangnekar, Ian Larson, Shubhra Sinha, Shyamal C. Das The purpose of this study was to develop an inhalable combination dry powder formulation of bedaquiline and pyrazinamide and study their physicochemical properties and safety since this combination acts synergistically against Mycobacterium tuberculosis while pyrazinamide alone is active against latent TB and bedaquiline alone is active against drug-resistant TB. The cospray-dried powder of bedaquiline and pyrazinamide with 20% w/w of L-leucine consisted of spherical, porous particles of inhalable size with a diameter ≤3.2 µm. The aerosolization efficiency of the combination powder (FPF:>66%) evaluated using a next generation impactor was higher than bedaquiline-only (FPF: 31.3%) and pyrazinamide-only (FPF: 5.1%) powders, which could be due to the differences in the morphology of the powders. The combination powder was stable during storage for one month in a desiccator and 75% RH and also safe to both Calu-3 and A549 cells up to 100 µg/ml. This is the first report on the development of an inhalable combination dry powder formulation of bedaquiline and pyrazinamide with high aerosolization efficiency. This formulation has the potential to improve the treatment of both latent and drug-resistant TB.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effect of Re on microstructural evolution and densification kinetics
           during spark plasma sintering of nanocrystalline W
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Sudipta Pramanik, Ajeet K. Srivastav, Bobu Manuel Jolly, Niraj Chawake, B.S. Murty In the present investigation, nanocrystalline W and W-xRe (x = 3, 5 wt.%) alloy powders were produced by mechanical milling/alloying using high energy ball milling. The nanocrystalline nature (∼50 nm) of these powders was validated by the Rietveld refinement of their respective X-Ray diffraction patterns. Subsequently, spark plasma sintering of the ball milled powders was carried out. It was observed that pure W was not able to densify completely (relative density of 93%) at a temperature of 1500 °C. However, the addition of 5 wt.% Re resulted in near complete densification (relative density of 97%) at the same sintering temperature. The enhanced densification of W-Re powders is mainly attributed to the ductilising effect of Re assisted by the nanocrystallinity of powders, and the application of pressure during sintering.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effect of Y(NO3)3 additive on morphologies and size of metallic W
           particles produced by hydrogen reduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Zepeng Lv, Dong Liu, Yijie Wu, Run Zhang, Haibo Sun, Jie Dang, Liwen Hu Tungsten, one of the refractory metals, has lots of excellent properties, making tungsten powders become a choice of raw material for many applications. This work reported a simple method (the salt-assisted hydrogen reduction of WO3 powders) for preparing tungsten powders with desired morphologies and size. By adjusting the amount of additive (Y(NO3)3) and reduction temperature, metallic tungsten particles with different morphologies and size were obtained. It was found that both temperature and additive had apparent effects on the morphology and size of metallic W particles, and the large parallelepiped-shaped powders disappeared and large irregular blocky-shaped powders were degraded under the influence of additive. With the increase of temperature and amount of salt, particles became more dispersed and the size increased at higher temperatures, and the shape of particles was changed from spherical to polyhedral as well. On the contrary, the size of sub-particles became smaller as increasing amount of Y(NO3)3 at lower temperatures. Based on the results, the reaction and refining mechanisms for preparing tungsten were proposed as well.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Al 2 O 3 - Cu /water+hybrid+nanoliquid:+Model+prediction+and+stability+analysis&rft.title=Advanced+Powder+Technology&rft.issn=0921-8831&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Critical values in transport phenomena for curved power-law sheet
           utilizing Al 2 O 3 - Cu /water hybrid nanoliquid: Model
           prediction and stability analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Sanjay Kumar, Pramod Kumar Sharma, Puneet Rana The present investigation reveals the impact of mixture of nanoparticles (Al2O3 and Cu) in basefluid and convective heating on the power-law shrinking curved surface with radius of curvature (K). The homogeneous hybrid nanoliquid (0.1% of Al2O3-Cu/water) model with theoretical and fitted (predicted) experimental correlations is transformed into coupled system of non-linear ordinary differential equations for finding possible branches of solution. The critical values (cc,βc and χc) have been evaluated for some cases, beyond these values there is either no solution or multiple solutions exist. Two different nanofluid models (Model I and II) are compared and found to be contradictory for skin friction and Nusselt number in current physical model. Linear stability analysis for finding stable branch, is also performed through construction of eigenvalue (EV) problem. The MATLAB built-in package LinearFit.model is used for multiple regression estimation (MRE) in case of stable branch which shows that nanoparticle concentration has maximum contribution towards the heat transfer. Moreover, the wall skin friction has strong dependence on curvature parameter. As Prandtl number increases, the linearly fitted model is found to be more suitable for convective boundary case (γ = 0.5).Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • NiAl-B composites with nanocrystalline intermetallic matrix produced by
           mechanical alloying and consolidation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Marek Krasnowski, Stanislaw Gierlotka, Tadeusz Kulik Powder mixtures with equiatomic Ni–Al stoichiometry and with the addition of 5, 10, 20 and 30 vol% of boron were mechanically alloyed in a high-energy SPEX mill. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used for examination of the thermal behaviour of the milled powders. The mechanically alloyed powders and powders after DSC examinations were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). For all the powder mixtures, a nanocrystalline NiAl intermetallic phase was formed during milling. With the increase of boron concentration in the mixtures, more intense refinement of the NiAl grain size during mechanical alloying was observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) examinations showed that the produced powders have composite structure, with boron particles uniformly distributed in the nanocrystalline NiAl intermetallic matrix. The density of the composite powders decreases with the increase of boron content, following the rule of mixture.The produced powders were subjected to consolidation by hot-pressing at 800 °C under the pressure of 7.7 GPa for 180 s. The produced bulk materials were investigated by XRD, SEM and EDS as well as characterised by hardness, density and open porosity measurements. It was found that during applied consolidation process the nanocrystalline structure of the NiAl matrix was maintained. The average hardness of the bulk composite samples is in the range of 10.58–12.6 GPa, depending on boron content, increases with the increase of boron content, and is higher than that of the NiAl intermetallic reference sample (9.53 GPa). The density of the bulk composite samples is the same as that of the corresponding powders after milling, decreases with the increase of boron content and is lower than that of the NiAl reference sample. To the best of our knowledge, the NiAl-B composites with nanocrystalline intermetallic matrix have been produced for the first time.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The effect of support on the structure and photocatalytic activity of
           ternary ZnO-ZnFe2O4/palygorskite composite photocatalysts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Meng Kuang, Jinjun Zhang, Wenjun Wang, Jihao Chen, Yanxin Cao, Ruirui Liu, Jing Wang, Zhijiang Ji The ternary ZnO-ZnFe2O4/palygorskite composite photocatalysts were fabricated via a solvothermal method followed by thermal treatment. The structure, morphology and photoelectric performances of samples were characterized, and the results indicated that ZnO/ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles with size of 25–30 nm were adequately anchored on the palygorskite fibers surface. Compared with ZnO, ZnFe2O4, ZnO/ZnFe2O4 and ZnO/palygorskite, the ZnO-ZnFe2O4/palygorskite composite photocatalysts exhibited significantly improved photocatalytic activity in degradation of methylene blue (MB). Especially, the optimal photocatalyst (ZF1.5) displayed the highest photocatalytic activity, achieving 99.68% and 99.48% degradation efficiency after 90 min of UV–vis (350 ≤ λ ≤ 780 nm) and 100 min of visible-light (λ ≥ 420 nm) irradiation, respectively. The photocatalysis degradation process matched well with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. The obtained improvement of photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the synergetic effect of superior visible-light utilization; effective charge carrier separation and palygorskite support effect (optimize nanoparticles dispersibility, developed mesoporous structure, enlarge specific surface area and increase adsorption capacity).Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Experimental investigation of fluidized bed dynamics under resonant
           frequency of sound waves
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Ebrahim H. Al-Ghurabi, Syed Sadiq Ali, Sulaiman M. Alfadul, Mohammed Shahabuddin, Mohammad Asif Sound-assisted fluidization has of late gained a significant research focus as a potential assisted fluidization technique for improving the hydrodynamics of solids that exhibit cohesive and non-homogeneous fluidization behavior. This study investigated the dynamics of a bed subjected to acoustic perturbations at different frequencies during the sound-assisted fluidization of a hydrophilic nanopowder with strong agglomeration behavior. The bed pressure transients were carefully monitored using sensitive pressure transducers in different sections of the bed over a wide range of velocities using ambient air as the fluidizing gas. Both fluidization and defluidization dynamics were investigated by varying the velocity in small steps using electronic mass flow controllers connected to a data acquisition system. In addition to the resonance frequency of 220 Hz, acoustic vibrations of 200 and 150 Hz frequency were also investigated to clearly delineate the effect of resonant frequency on the bed response. Our results clearly suggest that operation of sound-assisted fluidization at the resonant frequency greatly enhances its effectiveness.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Facile electroless copper plating on diamond particles without
           conventional sensitization and activation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Chenlong Wei, Jigui Cheng, Pengqi Chen, Bangzheng Wei, Dalu Gao, Dang Xu Conventional electroless plating of copper on diamond particles needs SnCl2 sensitization and PdCl2 activation pretreatments, which needs noble metal and consumes a large amount of reducing agent. In this paper, metallic tungsten coatings were first plated onto diamond particles by microwave-heating salt-bath plating (MHSBP) method, and then copper layer was directly plated onto the out surface of the tungsten layer by an electroless plating method with no need of SnCl2 sensitization and PdCl2 activation pretreatments. Composition and morphology of the coatings was analyzed by XRD, SEM, and EDS. The results show that the copper coating on the diamond surfaces can be adjusted by control the concentration of CuSO4·5H2O and plating temperature, and a full copper coating is achieved with content of CuSO4·5H2O of 19.6 g/L in the plating solution at 60 °C. The bending strength of the coated diamond/Cu composites is as high as 630 MPa, which increases 93.3% than the uncoated composites. This work presents an electroless plating of copper can directly on the surfaces of diamond particles with no need of conventional sensitization and activation, and a strong interface combination between coated diamond and copper.Graphical abstractThe surfaces of the tungsten-coated diamonds have a lot of defects and can be successfully coated by Cu particles by using eletroless plating without sensitization and activation. This process is not only simple, but also obtains a strong interface force between diamond and copper.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Microstructural and morphological changes during ball milling of
           Copper-Silver-Graphite flake mixtures
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): A. Pragatheeswaran, Rahul Ravi, Srinivasa Rao Bakshi The present study reports the microstructural and morphological changes during high energy ball milling of Cu with Ag and Graphite flakes. XRD patterns of ball milled Cu-Ag showed a reduction in the intensity of Ag peaks (1 1 1) and an increase in the lattice parameter of Cu. With an increase in milling time, the formation of metastable Cu-Ag solid solution was observed. Lattice parameter values for 40 h milled Cu (3.6169 Å) and Cu-GF composites (3.6166 Å) indicated that C does not dissolve in Cu. The lattice parameter of Cu in milled Cu-Ag-graphite flake was lower compared to milled Cu-Ag mixture indicating that graphite flakes inhibit solid solution formation. Raman spectra revealed that graphite flakes were converted into multilayer graphene after 10 h of milling. The crystallite size of Cu in the milled powders decreased with increase in milling time and reached a value of ∼25 nm after 35 h of milling. The lattice strain also increased with milling time. The D10, D50 and D90 size reduced appreciably after 5 h of milling.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Optimization of aqueous microgrinding processes for fibrous plant
           materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Frederik Flach, Lennart Fries, Jana Kammerhofer, Jutta Hesselbach, Benedikt Finke, Carsten Schilde, Gerhard Niederreiter, Stefan Palzer, Stefan Heinrich, Arno Kwade Fibrous plant-based materials are characterized by inhomogeneous structure and composition, which further evolve during wet grinding processes and affect the surface functionality of micronized particles. Therefore, the performance of aqueous microgrinding operations in stirred media mills can be optimized by investigating the interaction between process conditions and material properties of heterogeneous fibrous plant materials.In this experimental study it is shown how particle size reduction, tendency of re-agglomeration and stability of the suspension of micronized particles are driven by the specific energy input, residence time, temperature and presence of surfactants during the milling process. A structured experimental approach is described to optimize the achievable particle size reduction, expressed by the top cut diameter d90,3. It was found that the applied wet milling process determines the stability of particle suspensions throughout further downstream processing, making the grinding process the core unit operation with respect to the performance and formulation of food products containing micronized particles.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Synthesis and humidity control performances of natural opoka based porous
           calcium silicate hydrate
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Yangyu Liu, Hongwei Jia, Guangxin Zhang, Zhiming Sun, Yongtai Pan, Shuilin Zheng In this work, a porous calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) humidity control material was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis with opoka (ROP) and slaked lime. The microstructures and humidity control properties of the prepared sample were characterized and analyzed in detail. Results show that CSH possesses plenty of mesoporous structures with the pore size range of 3–20 nm, which are superior to ROP. The maximum moisture adsorption capacity of CSH is about 2–3 times of ROP. The superior humidity control performance of CSH can be attributed to the increase of specific surface area and pore volume and the more reasonable and uniform pore size distribution. Moreover, CSH also exhibits good reusability within three cycles of adsorption/desorption. Furthermore, the synthesized CSH was added to an interior wall coating to test its humidity control performance in practical building materials. The result indicated that the moisture adsorption capacity of the coating with CSH in 24 h at high humidity can reach 110 g/m2, and the moisture desorption capacity can also reach 70 g/m2. The as received CSH shows excellent humidity control performance and can be used as a smart indoor humidity control material for various construction applications.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Tensile strength of cohesive powders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Pablo García-Triñanes, Stefan Luding, Hao Shi Measurement and prediction of cohesive powder behaviour related to flowability, flooding or arching in silos is found to be very challenging. Previous round robin attempts with ring shear testers did not furnish reliable data and have shown considerable degrees of scatter and uncertainty in key measurements. Thus studies to build a reliable experimental database using reference materials, are needed in order to evaluate the repeatability and effectiveness of shear testers and the adopted methodologies. In this paper, first we study the effect of particle size on the yield locus for different grades of limestone (calcium carbonate). We use the nonlinear Warren Spring equation to obtain the values of cohesion C, tensile strength T, and the shear index n. We recover linear (n = 1) yield loci for d50>70 μm with respectively small C. For smaller fractions (d50=2.2μm), the powder is strongly cohesive with considerable non-linearity (1
       
  • Differences in dry and wet grinding with a high solid concentration of
           coking coal using a laboratory conical ball mill: Breakage rate,
           morphological characterization, and induction time
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Xiangning Bu, Yuran Chen, Guangxi Ma, Yujin Sun, Chao Ni, Guangyuan Xie This study explored the influence of wet and dry grinding conditions on breakage rate, shape factor and surface roughness of ground particles, induction time (the threshold for particle–bubble attachment to occur), and flotation recovery. The experimental results indicated that the dry grinding breakage rate was much higher than the wet grinding one. The first-order region was limited to a relatively short grinding time, where it was considered that little or no secondary breakage occurred. With the increasing time, the dry grinding breakage rate increased, while it decreased for wet grinding (solid concentration of 70 vol.%). The differences in shape factor and surface roughness of the wet- and dry-ground samples were attributed to different breakage mechanisms and grinding energy amounts generated by those two types of procedures. The wet-ground particles were characterized by more irregular shape factors and smoother surfaces, and thus presented shorter induction times and higher floatation recoveries compared to the dry-ground ones.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Numerical simulation of high-pressure gas atomization of two-phase flow:
           Effect of gas pressure on droplet size distribution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Kalpana Hanthanan Arachchilage, Majid Haghshenas, Sharon Park, Le Zhou, Yongho Sohn, Brandon McWilliams, Kyu Cho, Ranganathan Kumar This paper deals with the physics of high-pressure gas atomization in metal powder production. To gain understanding of the effect of gas pressure on droplet size distribution, a numerical two-phase flow study is performed using Eulerian-Eulerian Volume of Fluid (VOF) interface tracking method. Annular-slit close-coupled gas atomizer is considered to atomize molten aluminum using nitrogen as the atomizing gas. Four cases with different gas pressures are considered, while geometry and other operational parameters are fixed. Characteristics of several interfacial instabilities have been identified at different stages of the atomization process. Despite the increment in the rate of the atomization with the increasing gas pressure, deformation characteristics and the breakup mechanisms remain unchanged. Droplet size and the cumulative volume distributions indicate that the effectiveness of the atomization process increases with the elevating gas pressure. Cumulative volume obtained from the numerical simulations at low gas pressures display similar trends to the experimental results.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Mixed convection of non-Newtonian nanofluid in an H-shaped cavity with
           cooler and heater cylinders filled by a porous material: Two phase
           approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Zhixiong Li, Pouya Barnoon, Davood Toghraie, Reza Balali Dehkordi, Masoud Afrand In the present problem, two-phase mixed convection of a non-Newtonian nanofluid in a porous H-shaped cavity is studied. Inside the enclosure there are four rotating cylinders, using the Boussinesq approximation, mixed convection is created. Nanofluid includes H2O + 0.5% CMC and copper oxide nanoparticles. The mixture model was used to model physical phenomena. Different aspect ratios were used in order to achieve the best heat transfer rate. The Darcy and Richardson numbers ranges are 10−4 ≤ Da ≤ 10−2 and 1 ≤ Ri ≤ 100 respectively. Also, the aspect ratio and dimensionless angular velocities of cylinders ranges are 1.4 ≤ AR ≤ 1.6 and −10 ≤ Ω ≤ 10 respectively. Streamlines and isotherm-lines contours have been obtained for the variation of Darcy and Richardson numbers, aspect ratio and angular velocity. The heat transfer rates have been obtained for various aspect ratios, Darcy and Richardson numbers, and the direction of the cylinder's rotation, and are compared with each other. The results show that the direction of cylinders rotation influences the strength and extent of the generation vortices. Also, the use of porous material in high permeability can be a good alternative to lowering the angular velocity of the cylinders and ultimately reducing the need for less energy.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • CFD-DEM simulation and optimization of gas-cyclone performance with
           realistic macroscopic particulate matter
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Mahmoud A. El-Emam, Shi W. Dong, Ling Zhou Most of research concerns have been focused on developing new methods and parameters to make the cyclone separator performance better. In this work, the inverse-flow cyclone type geometry was performed and optimized through the modulation of changing the position and dimensions of the involute inlet portion and cyclone barrel section length at a fixed inlet air velocity of 30 ms−1. Cyclones of different inlet sizes and portions were computationally modeled which named as cyclones I, II, III, IV, and V. The study was successfully accomplished for two heterogeneous groups of particulate matter mixed with air flow for applications pertinent to agricultural engineering. To capture the phenomena of constitutive air-granular materials behavior in the optimized separator, numerical simulations were generated using one-way coupling of commercial ANSYS-Fluent® 18.0 (CFD) and Rocky® 4.13 (DEM) software, which is considered as the first head start research approach in the cyclonic separation and purification field. Discrete Element Method (DEM) which was represented by Rocky® package simulates the movement of each particle individually, taking into consideration the interaction and collision of the particles. Whereas, the highly curved streamlines and the chaotic turbulence of the continuum air flow in the cyclone separator were modeled through the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-Fluent®) technique using advanced turbulence model RNG k-ε. The numerical results successfully captured the effects of new geometrical modifications done on the original cyclone separator. Numerically, the cyclone inlet height significantly improved the cyclone performance by increasing the separation efficiency, cleaning efficiency, and cyclone effectiveness, while other parameters had a negative effect. These data were useful for considering cyclone (III) as the most suitable modification and optimization design geometry for harvesting jojoba seeds with the lowest operation cost and highest performance.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • CPFD simulation on effects of louver baffles in a two-dimensional
           fluidized bed of Geldart A particles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Zhijun Yang, Yongmin Zhang, Hongna Zhang Numerical simulation based on computational particle fluid dynamics (CPFD) model was carried out in a two-dimensional fluidized bed of Geldart A particles which was previously used by Zhang et al. (2009) to study the effects of louver baffles on bed hydrodynamics and gas mixing. With the help of bubble-based energy-minimization multi-scale (EMMS) drag model, the simulation successfully predicted most of the hydrodynamic results which were highly agreeable with experimental results. However, gas tracing simulation was found to depart far from experimental results due to lack of modeling of porous structure of FCC particles. A direct method to characterize solids back-mixing strength based on the simulated internal circulation fluxes was established. The results not only proved the strong suppression of solids back-mixing by louver baffles, but also validated the feasibility of the two indirect measures used in the previous experiment to characterize solids back-mixing strength. Louver baffles’ ability to break up bubbles was also proved. Under low superficial gas velocities, their vanes can split bubbles directly. However, it acts as a distributor under high superficial gas velocities.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Inside Front Cover (Aims & Scope, Editors)
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s):
       
  • Nanoscale zero-valent iron modified with carboxymethyl cellulose in an
           impinging stream-rotating packed bed for the removal of lead(II)
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): Weizhou Jiao, Yao Song, Dongsheng Zhang, Guozhang Chang, Honglei Fan, Youzhi Liu A novel impinging stream-rotating packed bed (IS-RPB) was proposed to continuous, macro and industrialized prepare nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) with simultaneously modified with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) for the removal of Pb2+. The obtained CMC-nZVI particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The components on the surface of CMC-nZVI after react with Pb2+ were also analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The IS-RPB makes it possible for the continuous, macro and industrialized preparing of CMC-nZVI particles, and CMC can significantly improve the dispersion and reduce aggregation of nZVI particles. The effects of solution pH, initial Pb2+ concentration and reaction time on the removal efficiency of Pb2+ by nZVI and CMC-nZVI particles were also investigated. The results show that CMC-nZVI particles outperform nZVI particles in removing Pb2+, and the removal efficacy reaches a maximum of 838.84 mg·g−1 for nZVI particles and 1237.32 mg·g−1 for CMC-nZVI particles at pH = 6.0. The adsorption of Pb2+ by nZVI and CMC-nZVI particles can be described by the Langmuir isotherm adsorption model with a R2 of 0.999, and the calculated maximum adsorption capacity is 900.90 and 1376.07 mg·g−1 for nZVI and CMC-nZVI particles. The adsorption of Pb2+ follows the pseudo second-order kinetics with a linear correlation coefficient R2 of 0.999. In addition, the effect of co-existing cations such as Na+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ on Pb2+ removal efficiency was also investigated. The results showed that Na+ had no effect on Pb2+ removal efficiency and Cu2+ and Ni2+ had inhibited Pb2+ removal efficiency. Cd2+ had an inhibitory effect on Pb2+ removal efficiency when the concentration was 50 mg·L−1 and 100 mg·L−1, Cd2+ enhanced Pb2+ removal efficiency while the concentration of Cd2+ was 200 mg·L−1.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Numerical simulation of a centrifugal slurry pump handling solid-liquid
           mixture: Effect of solids on flow field and performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): Rahul Tarodiya, Bhupendra K. Gandhi The effect of solids on a centrifugal slurry pump performance is a major concern to the design of slurry transportation system. In the present study, the multiphase modeling of centrifugal slurry pump is performed using two models, Mixture and Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase. Sliding mesh approach is employed for unsteady simulation of the pump. The accuracy of the simulations is ascertained by comparing the performance characteristics of the pump obtained numerically and experimentally. Experimental results are obtained by measurements in a pilot plant test rig with three different mean size sand particulate slurries. The Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase model predicted the effect of the solids on pump performance close to the experimental results as compared to Mixture model. The obtained accuracy with Eulerian-Eulerian model for predicting the effect of solids on head and efficiency is around ±2% and ±3%, respectively. The predicted results using Eulerian-Eulerian model confirm that the head and efficiency of the pump decrease with the increase in particle size and concentration. The particles of high specific gravity show less reduction in head and efficiency of the pump. Further, the effect of variation in particle size and concentration on the flow field in the impeller and casing has also been analyzed at best efficiency point operation. Non-homogeneous suspension of particles inside the blade channels and casing passages is examined. The particulate concentration is observed higher near the impeller back shroud, pressure side of the blades, and non-suction side of the casing as compared to other locations.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Retained fluorescence of aggregation-caused quenched Rhodamine grafted in
           the hierarchical mesopores of silica MCM-41 at solid-state
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): Weili Li, Jun Wang, Mike Tebyetekerwa, Yexing Ding, Zhenyu Qiu, Chao Yan, Feng Liu, Jide Zhang Traditional organic compounds in dilute solutions exhibit different photophysical properties in comparison to their concentrated solutions. For example, organic materials which obey the aggregation-caused quench (ACQ) effect phenomena are known to have weak luminescence at solid-state (or in high concentration solutions) as compared to their dilute counterparts. This effect limits the application of ACQ compounds at solid-state. Herein, we report a way to overcome this phenomenon in Rhodamine B (RhB) by anchoring it to mesoporous silica having a hierarchical structure (referred to as MCM-41) with the help of 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Neat solid-state RhB suffers dynamic intramolecular rotations which results in non-radiative annihilation of its excited states and thus luminescence quenching. The strategy explored herein of employing APTES-MCM-41 exposes the cylindrical one-dimensional mesopores of silica for possible selective anchoring of RhB dyes, which helps to overcome the stacking interactions of the fluorophores-thus fluorescent retention. Finally, we went on to show the capabilities of the modified reserved-fluorescent ACQ RhB-grafted mesoporous silica as a possible concentration indicator for liquids and vapors.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Dissolution-assistant all-in-one synthesis of N and S dual-doped porous
           carbon for high-performance supercapacitors
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): Peng Song, Xiaomei He, Xiaoping Shen, Yiming Sun, Zhiwen Li, Aihua Yuan, Linzhi Zhai, Dongyang Zhang The rational design and synthesis of porous carbons as supercapacitor electrodes have received tremendous attentions. In this study, a facile all-in-one pyrolysis strategy was developed for producing N and S co-doped porous carbon (NSC), by utilizing cellulose, the most abundant natural reproducible carbohydrate, as precursors. A binary aqueous solution consisting of 9.5% NaOH and 4.5% thiourea served as solvent, porogen and doping reagent, simultaneously. The dissolution and lyophilization procedures allowed a homogeneous mixture, thus achieving a superb activation and doping effects after the pyrolysis. The resultant NSC demonstrated a highly-developed porous texture with a specific surface area of 1588 m2 g−1 and appropriate heteroatom functionalities with N and S contents of 3.82% and 1.94%, respectively. For three-electrode system, NSC had a high specific capacitance of 288 F g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte, which was comparable to or even better than many reported cellulose and cellulose derivatives based porous carbon electrodes. The as-assembled NSC//NSC symmetrical cell displayed excellent rate capability and durability, depicting a hopeful candidate for supercapacitors.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Sintering behaviour of Copper/carbon nanotube composites and their
           characterization
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): R. Vignesh Babu, S. Kanagaraj The potential usage of Copper (Cu) is very limited, where combined mechanical and thermal properties are desirable, which can be overcome by using carbon nanotube (CNT) as a reinforcement. An attempt was made to synthesize Cu/CNT composites by varying CNT diameter and its concentration through a molecular level mixing technique followed by uniaxial compaction and conventional sintering. The sintering behaviour of Cu and Cu/CNT composites was studied to understand the influence of different parameters. The sintering duration of Copper was decreased with an increase of CNT diameter. The maximum enhancement of properties was achieved at 0.25 wt.% CNT irrespective of its diameter, where the thermal conductivity and hardness were obtained as 328 W/mK at 20–40 nm diameter CNT composites and 81.2 ± 2.9 VHN at 40–60 nm diameter CNT composites, respectively. The conventional method of synthesize can generate the desired characteristics of composites at par with high end techniques, such as SPS.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Eggshell nano-particle potential for methyl violet and mercury ion
           removal: Surface study and field application
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): Rauf Foroutan, Reza Mohammadi, Sima Farjadfard, Hossein Esmaeili, Bahman Ramavandi, George A. Sorial A nano-scale sorbent was produced from eggshell wastes for sorption of Hg(II) and methyl violet (MV) from aqueous solutions and real wastewaters. The properties of the nano-particles were fully determined using SEM, DLS, FTIR, XRD, BET, TGA, AFM, EDAX, mapping, and TEM analyses. The adsorbent structure mainly contained carbonate and silica. The effects of influential parameters including temperature, contact time, initial contaminants concentration, sorbent dose, and initial pH on the removal efficiency were investigated. The maximum sorption efficiency of Hg(II) and MV occurred at pH of 6 and 9 and temperatures of 25 °C and 55 °C, respectively. Freundlich model could be interpreted the equilibrium data of the sorption process of both contaminants. The maximum sorption capacity of Hg(II) and MV using eggshell nano-particles was obtained as 116.27 mg/g and 123.45 mg/g, respectively. The dynamic behavior of the process was studied using two kinetic models. The sorption system performance was also examined and t1/2 were determined as 4.34 min for Hg(II) and 4.97 min for MV. The sorption process of Hg(II) and MV was exothermic and endothermic, respectively. Effective sorption after seven cycles and successful treatment of landfill leachate and textile wastewater with eggshell nano-particles confirms its adequacy.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Experimental investigation on hydrodynamic behavior in a spouted bed with
           longitudinal vortex generators
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): Feng Wu, Zeyu Yu, Lingyi Shang, Xiaoxun Ma, Wenjing Zhou A spouted bed with longitudinal vortex generator (LVG) of sphere was built to enhance radial movement of particles. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was applied to explore effects of longitudinal vortex flow and physical properties of particles on their radial velocity in a 152-mm-diametered spouted bed. The results show that, Compared with the conventional spouted bed, the existence of longitudinal vortex generator gives rise to a large amount of secondary fine vortex flow in the cross section of spouted bed. The enhancement factors of particles movement η with different particle densities are all greater than 1. The smaller the particle density, the more significant the effect of the longitudinal vortex on the radial velocity of the particles. The single-row LVGs can produce a good radial enhancement effect of particle movement when the particle handling capacity is small (H0 = 165 mm). With the increase of the height of the static bed (H0), the enhancement of the radial velocity of particles in the spouted bed by multi-row LVGs (three rows) increases gradually, which indicates that the multi-row LVGs have a better overall effect on the enhancement of particle motion in the spouted bed with more particle handling capacity (H0 = 195 mm, 225 mm).Graphical abstractVariations of enhancement factor with varying particle density.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Controllable fabrication of hollow TiO2 spheres as sustained
           release drug carrier
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): Di Liu, Yong-guang Bi TiO2 hollow spheres with controllable size were successfully synthesized through a hydrothermal silica etching method; SiO2 cores were easily removed without the use of a toxic reagent. The parameters for the synthesis of SiO2 cores and TiO2 hollow spheres, including stirring time, ammonia concentration, tetrabutyl titanate content, hydrothermal time, and reflux time, were systematically investigated. SiO2 cores and TiO2 hollow structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The results revealed that the mean diameter of SiO2 was ∼280 nm when the concentration of ammonia was 4.8 M and the stirring time was 0.5 h. For hollow TiO2, when the operation process was optimized (ammonia volume 0.35 mL, TBOT addition 1.5 mL, hydrothermal time 3 h, and reflux time 3 h), the average size and the shell thickness were 270 and 100 nm, respectively. The process exhibited a high drug loading capacity (33.12 ± 0.01%) and encapsulation rate (99.03 ± 0.24%) due to its high specific surface area of 121.62 m2·g−1. In addition, TiO2 hollow spheres displayed pH-responsive sustained-controlled drug release behavior in vitro which released 80% of doxorubicin at 5.0 pH within 120 h, its release kinetic showed that it fits well with Zero-order kinetic equation, demonstrating that DOX·HCl/hollow TiO2 maintains constant release rate, and the investigation of blood compatibility showed that the hemolysis rate of hollow TiO2 did not exceed 3% in the concentration range of 100 and 4000 μg/mL, further confirming that prepared hollow TiO2 is a relatively safe medical inorganic material.Graphical abstractIn this paper, hollow TiO2 sphere was synthesized by hydrothermal assisted alkaline corrosion of silica templates. This technique combined the advantages of hydrothermal and hard template method, without high temperature for air calcination and the use of surfactant, provided a simple, energy efficient, time saving and environmentally friendly synthetic strategy. The parameters for synthesis of SiO2 cores and TiO2 hollow spheres, including stirring time, ammonia concentration, TBOT content, hydrothermal time and reflux time were systematically optimized. In general, TiO2 hollow sphere with good dispersion and uniform size was obtained under optimum conditions (ammonia volume 0.35 mL, TBOT addition 1.5 mL, 3 h hydrothermal time and 3 h reflux time), showed a high drug loading capacity (33.12 ± 0.01%) and encapsulation rate (99.03 ± 80.24%), the drug release experiments in vitro indicated that hollow TiO2 sphere exhibited outstanding pH responsive property which released 80% of doxorubicin at pH5.0 within 120 h. Zero-order kinetic, First-order kinetic and Higuichi kinetic models were employed to explain the drug release mechanism and the investigation of blood compatibility showed that hemolysis rate of hollow TiO2 did not exceed 3% in the concentration range of 100–4000 μg/mL, further confirmed that prepared hollow TiO2 is a safe medical inorganic material.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Fabrication and interaction mechanism of Ni-encapsulated ZrO2-toughened
           Al2O3 powders reinforced high manganese steel composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): Juanjian Ru, Han He, Yehua Jiang, Rong Zhou, Yixin Hua In order to solve the cast-infiltration difficulty and low interface bonding strength of ZrO2-toughened Al2O3 (ZTA) powders reinforced high manganese steel (HMS) matrix composite, uniform and continuous Ni-encapsulated ZTA powders (ZTAp@Ni) as reinforced phase are fabricated by electroless deposition assisted with ionic liquid additive. The effects of Ethaline concentration, temperature, ZTA concentration and deposition times on the morphology of ZTAp@Ni have been investigated. Experimental results show that the thickness of Ni coating is about 7–10 μm, and there is no casting crack or shrink on the composite, so compact bonding between ceramic and matrix is obtained. In addition, the impact abrasive wear resistance testing demonstrates that the performance of ZTAp@Ni reinforced HMS composite is superior to that of matrix. On the basis of experimental analysis, a schematic illustration of the cast-infiltration process is put forward. It implies that Ni-encapsulated ZTA can be wetted with molten HMS matrix to form a ZTA/Al2NiO4-Al2MnO4/Fe interface layer through Ni diffusion and reactive wetting. The interdiffusion of Ni and other elements at ZTA interface layer can reinforce the interfacial bonding strength to form an interface layer between metal and hard phases.Graphic abstractInteraction mechanism of Ni-encapsulated ZTA and molten HMS during the cast-infiltration process.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • A method to evaluate the overall breakage degree of pre-weakening
           processing and its applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): Weiran Zuo, Zeming He, Fengnian Shi, Xinfeng Li, Jiangang Ku The product fineness indicator t10 and the pre-weakening degree indicator percentage change of A * b value (CAb) were used to described the two aspects of the breakage result of processing with pre-weakening effect. However, there lacks a method to evaluate the ‘overall’ breakage degree with a single index. It was observed that when the high voltage pulse breakage (HVP breakage or HVPB) induced cracks inside pre-weakened particles were consumed during impact breakage, the breakage characteristics of the progeny particles are the same to raw ore particles. Based on this phenomenon, the concepts of equivalent size Sie and equivalent size reduction t10e are proposed. Raw ore particles of size Sie is ‘equivalent’ to pre-weakened particles of size Si in terms of their impact breakage product size distribution. Therefore the value of Si and the consequently derived t10e can be used to evaluate the overall breakage degree of pre-weakened particles. The calculation procedure of Sie and t10e is demonstrated in the context of HVP breakage. It is found that the impact breakage product of pre-weakened particles can be well predicted from Sie. In addition to the evaluation of overall breakage degree of pre-weakening processing, this method also has potential to apply in the simulation of comminution circuits with pre-weakening processing and the development of breakage model for processing with pre-weakening effect.Graphical abstractRaw ore particles of size Sie is ‘equivalent’ to pre-weakened particles of size Si in terms of their impact breakage product size distribution. Therefore the value of Si and the consequently derived t10e can be used to evaluate the overall breakage degree of pre-weakened particles.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Large eddy simulation of the interactions between gas and particles in a
           turbulent corner-injected flow
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): Wenjing Sun, Wenqi Zhong, Tarek Echekki A numerical and experimental investigation is performed to s the turbulent gas-particle corner-injected flow in a simplified tangentially-fired furnace. The LES coupled with discrete phase model (DPM) is employed for the turbulent gas flow and particle tracking respectively to investigate the influences of turbulence on particle dispersal and that of particle presence on turbulent flow behavior. A new Stokes number definition, st=0.077μ-1ε1/3ρp1/3cp2/3dp4/3, is proposed for this impinging configuration. The Stokes number for small particles (dp = 5 μm) is much less than 1 in whole chamber, hence, they are tightly influenced by the turbulent flow and exhibit a uniform distribution in entire chamber. For the medium particles (dp = 20 μm), the Stokes number is approach to 1 in most areas, so that they present a string-like distribution in the impinging area. The Stokes number for the large particles (dp = 80 μm) is greater than 1, hence, they penetrate the turbulent flow and show strong rigidity when encountering the impingement. The momentum transfer between gas and particles is getting more intensive with the increasing particle size. The above observations reproduce those made from experiments on the same geometry and flow conditions and provide further insight into the coupling of particles and gas in this corner-injected configuration.Graphic abstractThe instantaneous gas vorticity distribution on cross-section (top) and the iso-surface of vorticity (ϖ = 850) (bottom) for the three particle sizes: dp = 85 μm, dp = 20 μm and dp = 80 μm.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Numerical simulation of solid-liquid mixing characteristics in a stirred
           tank with fractal impellers
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): Deyin Gu, Chao Cheng, Zuohua Liu, Yundong Wang The hydrodynamics of solid-liquid mixing process in a stirred tank with four pitched-blade impellers, fractal 1 impellers, and fractal 2 impellers were investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. An Eulerian-Eulerian approach, standard k-ε turbulence model, and multiple reference frames (MRF) technique were employed to simulate the solid-liquid two-phase flow, turbulent flow, and impeller rotation, respectively. The effects of impeller speed, impeller type, impeller spacing, impeller blade tilt angle, impeller blade shape, solid particle size and initial solid particle loading on the solid particle suspension quality were investigated. Results showed that the homogenous degree of solid-liquid system increased with the increase of impeller speed. The impeller spacing of T5/6 and T and impeller blade tilt angle of 60° and 45° were appropriate for the solid-liquid suspension process. Fractal shape impeller was more efficient than jagged shape impeller in solid-liquid mixing process. Larger particle diameter and higher initial solid particle loading resulted in less homogenous distribution of solid particles. It was found that fractal impeller could improve the solid particle suspension quality compared with four pitched-blade impeller under the same power consumption, increasingly so with the fractal iteration number of fractal impeller. Moreover, fractal impeller reduced the size of impeller trailing vortex and consumed less power consumption compared with four pitched-blade impeller at the same impeller speed, and the more the number of fractal iteration, the higher the impeller energy utilization rate of fractal impeller.Graphical abstractThe fractal impeller has fractal structure and self-similarity property. A series of high-speed jet flows can be generated in the flow field due to the existence of the gaps around the fractal impeller blade perimeter, which can break up the trailing vortex into small ones and improve the energy utilization rate. The more the number of fractal iteration, the lower the power consumption of fractal impeller. These conditions are beneficial to improve the solid particles suspension quality in the solid-liquid mixing process.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Surface analyses of calcite particles reactivity in the presence of
           phosphoric acid
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): L.O. Filippov, O.B. Kaba, I.V. Filippova The reactivity of calcite in phosphoric acid solutions of concentrations between 0 and 0.5 M was monitored during 15 min with complementary in-situ and ex-situ analytical techniques such as Raman and infrared spectroscopies, XRD and SEM analysis. The Raman and infrared spectra show the characteristic carbonate peaks of calcite and phosphate peaks attributed to a new phosphate phase which intensity decreases and increases, respectively with increasing phosphoric acid concentration and reaction time. A similar trend was observed with increasing acid concentration in the XRD analysis of calcite which also revealed that this new phosphate phase is dicalcium phosphate dihydrate or brushite. Fine sheets of calcium phosphate particles were observed by SEM analysis covering the calcite particles at a high phosphoric acid concentration. These changes on the calcite surface were compared to the consumption of protons by the calcite particle suspension with increasing phosphoric acid concentration. The formation and stability of passivating calcium phosphate phases on the calcite surface was evidenced. The obtained results allow to define the contact time and phosphoric acid concentration intervals where the surface of calcite is not passivated by the brushite formed or adsorbed on the mineral surface.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A revised methodology for the determination of bulk material cohesion and
           adhesion
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): Michael J. Carr, Alan W. Roberts, Craig A. Wheeler The determination of the wall liner properties and more importantly the flow properties of a bulk material is critical for the design of any bulk materials handling system. The design of such materials handling systems will be most effective when handling bulk materials at the physical properties they were designed to handle. Due to the fast-paced nature of expansion in the mining industry and demand of mineral resources, it is quite common for materials handling systems to handle bulk materials that were not intended for the system. Wet and Sticky Materials (WSM) within the materials handling stream can cause significant downtime, due to events such as blockages of bins, hoppers and transfer chutes, remains left in train wagons and dump trucks as well as conveyor belt carry back (Roberts, 2005; Connelly, 2011 [2]).WSM are problematic within the materials handling stream due to the inter-particle and boundary cohesion and adhesion forces. The current measurement techniques for WSM have limitations and new methods must be considered. The development of new testers that can measure the wall adhesion and inter-particle adhesion of a bulk material can give a quantitative value for the adhesion present in a bulk material sample. The following paper will present a revised methodology for the estimation of the adhesion of bulk materials determined from the extrapolation of the Instantaneous Yield Locus (IYL). The predicted adhesion values from this methodology will be compared to experimental measurements using an inter-particle adhesion tester.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Synthesis and structural control of Fe-based porous layer on Fe substrate
           for joining with resin parts using combustion reaction
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): Asuka Suzuki, Kazuki Noritake, Naoki Takata, Makoto Kobashi A porous Fe/TiB2 composite layer was synthesized on an Fe substrate by a powder metallurgy process using combustion reactions among Fe, Ti, and B to achieve Fe/resin joints through interpenetrating phase layers. The effects of Fe particle size and the blending ratio of the raw powder mixture on the porous structure, roughness of the top surface of the porous layer, and adhesiveness between the porous layer and Fe substrate were investigated. The peak temperature measured with a thermocouple increased with increasing Fe particle size and blending ratio of Ti and B. An increase in the peak temperature does not affect the porosity of the porous layer. Higher peak temperatures increase the pore size and change the pore morphology from open to semi-closed (although pores are not completely isolated). The change in pore morphology prevents the exposure of pores on the top surface of the porous layer, resulting in decreasing surface roughness. Moreover, an increase in the maximum temperature promotes bonding between the Fe substrate and porous layer. These results are discussed in view of the thermodynamic assessment using the calculated equilibrium phase diagram.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The control of particle size distribution for fabricated alumina
           nanoparticles using a thermophoretic separator
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): Byungkwon Kim, Jungho Song, Jeong-Yeol Kim, Jungho Hwang, Dongho Park Control of the particle size distribution of fabricated alumina nanoparticles from general alumina powder with a large geometric standard deviation (GSD) was studied. A thermophoretic separator was used to control the GSD of the nanoparticles, and unevaporated and primary particles were separated to yield a small GSD. The fabricated nanoparticles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). We confirmed that the GSD of the nanoparticles was controlled by the thermophoretic separator. A temperature difference between 79 K and 151 K was applied to the thermophoretic separator for control of the nanoparticle GSD. The GSD of the fabricated alumina nanoparticles was improved from 1.74 to 1.44.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effect of pressure on transport velocity in gas fluidized-beds
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): Daewook Kim, Yooseob Won, Jeong-Hoo Choi, Ji Bong Joo, Ho-Jung Ryu The effect of pressure (100–700 kPa in absolute pressure) on the transport velocity in gas fluidized-beds was investigated with changing particle properties in diameter (0.067–0.637 mm) and apparent density (1647–4175 kg/m3) at atmospheric temperature. The emptying time method was used to determine the transport velocity. The transport velocity decreased as the pressure increased. The correlation of Kim et al. that incorporated the correlation of the particle entrainment rate with the absolute value of local slope as the criterion for locating the transport velocity in the relationship between dimensionless velocity (U/Ut) and the reciprocal of the entrainment rate (1/Ki*+) agreed best to measured transport velocities. The correlation of Perales et al. was useful in reasonable accuracy for estimation of transport velocity among the simple relationships between Retr and Ar.Graphical abstractTransport velocity with variation of pressure and particle density.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • A study on the dust control effect of the dust extraction system in TBM
           construction tunnels based on CFD computer simulation technology
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): Qiang Liu, Wen Nie, Yun Hua, Lebin Jia, Chongshan Li, He Ma, Cunhou Wei, Changqi Liu, Wenjie Zhou, Huitian Peng In order to control dust in a tunnel boring machine (TBM) construction tunnels, this paper, in combination with field measurements, applies CFD computer simulation technology to study the dust control effect of TBM construction tunnels under different dust extraction flow rates. Firstly, the dust extraction system is closed, and the result of the simulation show that the dust diffuses to the entire TBM working area within 181 s, indicating the necessity of having a dust extraction system in the tunnel. Secondly, the dust extraction system is open and under the original dust extraction flow rate of Qe = 8 m3/s, the overall dust diffuses to the entire working area Lo = 130 m, and the full-face dust diffusion distance is Lf = 47.54 m. Then the study was carried out with the setting of 2 m3/s ≤ Qe ≤ 14 m3/s. The results show that: when Qe ≤ 8 m3/s, the full-face dust diffuses to 47.54–71.84 m; when Qe > 8 m3/s, the full-face dust can be controlled at 42.81–46.34 m; and when Qe = 8 m3/s, the full-face dust control effect is better, and the average dust concentration in the tunnel is as low as 12.25 mg/m3, indicating that the original dust extraction system has a better design. The field measurement results verify that the CFD computer simulation results are accurate.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Quantitative analysis of agglomerates levitated from particle layers in a
           strong electric field
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): Mizuki Shoyama, Shuhei Nishida, Shuji Matsusaka The electrification, agglomeration, and levitation of particles in a strong electric field were analyzed experimentally and theoretically. Particle layers of glass, alumina, and ferrite were formed on a plate electrode and an external voltage was applied. Microscopic observations of the agglomerates levitated from the particle layers revealed that the number of primary particles constituting an agglomerate is affected by particle diameter and electrical resistance, but not by the applied electric field. The electric field distributions in the system were calculated by considering the charges and geometries of the agglomerates formed on the particle layers. The charges of the agglomerates were obtained experimentally. All forces acting on the agglomerates (i.e., gravitational forces, Coulomb forces, interaction forces between polarized particles, image forces, and gradient forces) were analyzed under different conditions, including various electric field distributions and charges of agglomerates. Furthermore, the critical conditions for the levitation of the agglomerates were evaluated using a force balance.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Assessing the dependency of selection function parameters with batch mill
           design
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): François K. Mulenga, Hojjat H. Gharehgheshlagh, Sajjad Chehreghani The scale-up of laboratory grinding data to industrial milling operations generally relies on tests carried out in cylindrical ball mills run in batch mode. This approach imposes no restriction on the diameter and length of the laboratory mill.In this work, the breakage characteristics of a copper ore were measured using two batch mills of different designs. For each mill, a number of feed samples of similar size distributions were prepared for testing under various conditions. Product size distributions were then measured after predefined milling time intervals. Finally, the selection function and breakage function parameters of the copper ore were back-calculated from the milling data.Results showed that the breakage function parameters from the two mills are statistically similar indicative of a normalisable copper ore. It was also found that the scale-up equations for batch grinding data described well the effect of mill diameter on the selection function parameters.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The preparation of surfactant-free highly dispersed ethylene glycol-based
           aluminum nitride-carbon nanofluids for heat transfer application
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): Elaheh Esmaeili, Seyyed Amin Rounaghi, Wolfgang Gruner, Jürgen Eckert In the present study, aluminum nitride-carbon (AlN-C) nanocomposites are synthesized through a green, facile and inexpensive mechanochemical route. Well-dispersed nanofluids are prepared by milling of nanocomposite in ethylene glycol (EG) without using any surfactants/ dispersants. The resulting nanofluids have an excellent stability with no obvious sedimentation for at least three months. The results confirm the in-situ polymerization of EG on AlN surface and the formation of hyperbranched glycerol upon milling which in turn stabilizes the particles through a steric effect. The working nanofluids with very low loadings of up to 0.22 vol% of powder exhibit an enhanced heat transfer coefficient (h) of about 24% compared to that of the base fluid in a laminar flow regime (Re = 160). Brownian motion and boundary layer thinning are known as the main mechanisms, causing for this enhancement.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Particle dynamics in a multi-staged fluidized bed: Particle transport
           behavior on micro-scale by discrete particle modelling
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): E. Diez, P. Kieckhefen, K. Meyer, A. Bück, E. Tsotsas, S. Heinrich This work studies the particle exchange rates in horizontal fluidized beds equipped with different weir designs between compartments. These particle exchange rates provide information on the axial dispersion of the solid material within the process. For this purpose discrete particle modelling (DPM) was used to determine the particle exchange on microscopic level. This method uses a coupled CFD-DEM approach to observe particle dynamics in a fluid field. The model was validated against exchange rates in a lab-scale setup as determined by Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) with very good quantitative agreement, showing the suitability of the method for the evaluation of weir designs. Simulations were performed for different weir designs and under variation of the hold-up mass, the feed rate and gas velocity to predict their transport behavior in a pilot-scale 3D horizontal fluidized bed. The results indicate that the solids transport behavior is strongly dependent on the used weir design and the main driving force for the particle transport that can be influenced by the process conditions. The installation of weirs between two compartments induces a transport resistance, while the base type without the installation of a weir between the two chambers represents the fastest possibility for mixing the particles of a two-compartment system. It has been observed that the general trend shows higher particle recirculation rates for the overflow weir and base configuration (no weir), whereas the underflow and sideflow weir applications improve the solids transport through the horizontal fluidized bed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Unique crystal structures and their applications as materials for
           Li1+ x - y M1- x -3 y Ti x +4 y O3 (M = Nb or Ta,
           0.07 ≤ x ≤ 0.33, 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.175)
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s): Hiromi Nakano In the Li2O–M2O5–TiO2 (M = Nb or Ta) system, Li1+x-yM1-x-3yTix+4yO3 (LMT) forms with a superstructure known as the M-phase, in which the periodical intergrowth layers are inserted in a matrix having a trigonal structure of LiMO3. We have been investigating this unique material focusing on its crystal structure, photoluminescence, and electrical properties.First, the formation area of the superstructure was compared between Nb- and Ta- systems and the difference was accurately analyzed.Second, to apply this unique material as a host material of phosphor, we synthesized new phosphors with various emission colors. Red phosphor, having a high PL intensity with an internal quantum efficiency of 98%, was successfully synthesized and used as a host material of the solid solution for the Ta system. Its high value was the result of the large centroid-to-cation distance of the Eu3+ position in the [(Li, Eu)O12] polyhedral.Further still, toward application of the unique qualities of an electro-ceramic, we successfully fabricated oriented balk ceramics for the Nb system by slip casting in a strong magnetic field of 12 T. As a result, anisotropic electric properties were found along the c-axis, which were caused by the superstructure. We first clarified the mechanism showing that the anisotropic Qf value was due to anisotropic electron conductivity and anisotropic bonding strength within the superstructure.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Full title (Editorial Board Members)
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 10Author(s):
       
  • High shear-granulated hierarchically porous spheres nanostructure-designed
           for high-performance supercapacitors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Ju Xu, Yuanyuan Liu, Meiri Wang, Jing Li, Hongtao Cui In this work, the nanosheets-composed porous spheres with a narrow pore size distribution are designed as a rational microstructure configuration of electrode materials for Faraday supercapacitors (FSs). The design of this structure is based on the electrochemical mechanism of FSs, which is beneficial to the redox reactions of electrode materials and the transfer of electrolyte ions to the greatest extent. This structure is built by the interlocking of nanosheets under the high shear mixer-exerted shear force using Zn2+ doped Ni(OH)2 nanosheets as building blocks. It is found that the strong shear force is the driving force for the interlocking of nanosheets. The layer-by-layer growth through the nanosheets interlocking results in the formation of nanostructured spheres designed by us. Due to the appropriate pore structure and the two-dimensional morphology of building blocks, the porous spheres of Zn2+ doped Ni(OH)2 present high electrochemical performance.Graphical abstractZn2+ doped Ni(OH)2 nanosheets-composed porous spheres with the designed structure configuration, having high electrochemical performance, are prepared under the strong shear force applied by high shear mixer.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Experimental study on fluidization characteristics of different-sized
           particles in a U-type reduction chamber
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Zhidong Tang, Peng Gao, Yongsheng Sun, Yuexin Han A novel fluidized bed reactor, which is an improvement of the loop seal, was applied successfully to iron ore reduction roasting. For this U-type reduction chamber, the fluid dynamic behaviors of different-sized particles were investigated via a cold experimental apparatus using the pressure measurement method in this study. The results showed that the measured Umf of 71, 101 and 147 μm-sized particles were 0.033, 0.040 and 0.059 m/s, while the Uc were 0.167, 0.190 and 0.223 m/s, respectively, demonstrating that the decrease of particle size caused a rapid transition from both the fixed to bubbling regime, and the bubbling to turbulent flow regime. Under stable operation, the pressure drop, average solids holdup and axial nonuniformity index across the FC increased when particle size increased, along with the solids height and pressure drop gradient in the SC, though the differential pressure fluctuation decreased. These consequences indicated that larger particle size promotes the opportunity for particle mixing and contacting, accordingly increasing the preferential formation of the particle aggregation and deteriorating the reduction performance. These can provide guidelines for the regulation and control of industrial iron ore fluidized bed roasting.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The influence of graphene on the dynamic mechanical behaviour of shear
           thickening fluids
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Zhuhua Tan, Haoqin Ma, Hao Zhou, Xu Han, Chongdu Cho The viscosity and shear thickening efficiency of the nanoparticle-based shear thickening fluids (STFs) were influenced by hydrodynamic lubrication force between nanoparticles. To enhance such an influence and improve the performance of STF, graphene was adopted to reinforce SiO2 nanoparticle-based STF in this paper. The viscosity of the reinforced STF was improved obviously by graphene, which makes an increase of 30% compared to the pure STF. In order to characterize the influence of graphene on the flow stress of STF at high strain rates, a split Hopkinson pressure bar was implemented to test the dynamic compressive mechanical properties at strain rates in the range from 3 × 103 to 104/s. The results showed that graphene has a significant influence on the flow stress of reinforced STF at different strain rates compared to the pure STF, and the effects of the strain rate and graphene volume fraction on the flow stress were analyzed. Based on the hydrodynamic lubrication force theory, the attribution done by grahpene to the hydrodynamic lubrication force in STF was discussed. The results of the paper provide an efficient way to develop a novel STF with high shear thickening efficiency.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Investigation of the molecular state of 4-aminosalicylic acid in matrix
           formulations for dry powder inhalers using solid-state fluorescence
           spectroscopy of 4-dimethylaminobenzonitrile
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Jun Yee Tse, Kazunori Kadota, Zhijun Yang, Hiromasa Uchiyama, Yuichi Tozuka Carrier-free method is an alternative approach for dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations, which overcome poor drug mobility and distribution. Here we investigated the properties of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) within composite particles. We used highly-branched cyclic dextrin (HBCD) as the excipient matrix that was prepared using a spray-drying technique. 4-Aminosalicylic acid (4-ASA) and 4-dimethylaminobenzonitrile (DMABN) were selected as a hydrophilic second-line antitubercular agent and a surrogate for 4-ASA as a model compound, respectively. The spray-dried particles (SDPs) containing 4-ASA or DMABN with HBCD had geometric median diameters (D50) of 2.34 ± 0.07 μm and 2.26 ± 0.10 μm, respectively. Further, the in vitro aerodynamic properties were similar for SDPs containing 4-ASA and DMABN with HBCD. To determine the properties of APIs within composite particles, we performed solid-state fluorescence spectroscopy of DMABN. As a candidate excipient, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was compared to HBCD. We determined the intensity ratio of twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) emission to locally excited emission within the excipient matrix environment. The HBCD matrix environment was better than HPMC to trigger a more robust TICT reaction of DMABN. A potent state-changing interaction of APIs occurred in the HBCD matrix environment versus another excipient environment.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Application of response surface methodology with a Box–Behnken design
           for struvite precipitation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Sevgi Polat, Perviz Sayan Struvite crystals were precipitated by the reaction of magnesium chloride hexahydrate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate using different concentrations of citric acid as the additive (100, 300, and 500 ppm). The structure, morphology, functional groups and particle size of the crystals were evaluated experimentally by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and particle size analysis. The experimental results demonstrated that citric acid exerted a significant influence on the struvite precipitation and the crystal morphology changed from rod-like to tubular shaped with a larger size and hollow bodies. The average particle size changed from 17.60 to 33.60 μm with increasing citric acid concentration. The results of FTIR suggested that the citric acid adsorbed on the crystal surface. Following the characterization of the crystals prepared using different concentrations of citric acid, the response surface methodology coupled with Box-Behnken design were applied as a statistical tool to determine the effects of the key parameters affecting the precipitation process (temperature, pH and additive concentration) on the responses (namely, particle size and specific cake resistance of struvite). Second-order polynomial equations for both responses were improved to correlate the parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant quadratic regression model with high coefficients of the determination values. The optimum conditions for particle size were found to be 60 °C, pH 8 and 500 ppm additive concentration.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Cu7.2S4 nanosheets decorated on the {3 3 2} high index facets of Cu2O
           with controllable oxygen defects and enhanced photocatalytic activity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Yaoyao Li, Renchun Yang, Xingyang Li, Rongli Zhang, Long Kuai, Xueling Wei, Sen Yang The heterostructure of Cu7.2S4 nanosheets/trisoctahedron Cu2O were successfully constructed on the {3 3 2} high-index facets of Cu2O. The results show that oxygen defects amount of the Cu7.2S4/Cu2O samples are closely related to the thickness of Cu7.2S4 nanosheets. Compared with the unmodified cuprous oxide and the Cu7.2S4/Cu2O modified with thick Cu7.2S4 nanosheets, the Cu7.2S4/Cu2O grafted with 10 nm thickness of Cu7.2S4 show higher oxygen defects content and photocatalytic performance for MO decoloration. UV–VIS DRS and PL detection show that the Cu7.2S4 nanosheets grafting on Cu2O with high-index facets accelerates the charge carrier separation, which results in an elevated degradation properties for MO.Graphical abstractThe heterostructure of Cu7.2S4 nanosheets/trisoctahedron Cu2O are successfully fabricated via a simple Na2S etching on the {3 3 2} high-index facets of Cu2O. The Cu7.2S4/Cu2O grafted with 10 nm thickness of Cu7.2S4 show higher oxygen defects content and photocatalytic performance for MO decoloration.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Non-aqueous preparation of anatase TiO2 hollow microspheres for efficient
           dye-sensitized solar cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Xin-Yu Ye, Ya-Hong Gu, Hong Chen, Yu-Feng Cao, Yi-Yi Liu, Bing-Xin Lei, Wei Sun, Zhen-Fan Sun TiO2 hollow spheres are fabricated by a facile and template-free approach, which is efficient, cost-saving and favorable for large scale production. The as-prepared TiO2 hollow spheres with diameters ranging from 1 to 1.5 μm and a shell thickness of 150 nm are formed by the self-assembly of nanoparticles with a size of about 12 nm. The mesoporous TiO2 hollow spheres possess a high specific surface area up to 166.2 m2 g−1. TiO2 hollow spheres show superior light trapping characteristics and significantly improve the light scattering ability. The formation of hollow structure is interpreted by the Ostwald ripening mechanism. By employing a double-layered photoanode made of the as-prepared TiO2 hollow spheres as the overlayer and P25 as the bottom layer, the dye-sensitized solar cell achieved a higher power conversion efficiency of 7.90%, which is ascribed to the enhanced dye loading and light scattering ability of TiO2 hollow spheres.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Study on decolorization of Rhodamine B by raw coal fly ash catalyzed
           Fenton-like process under microwave irradiation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Nannan Wang, Qi Hu, Xinyuan Du, Han Xu, Linlin Hao Coal fly ash (CFA) catalyzed Fenton-like process was studied under microwave (MW) irradiation for the decolorization of Rhodamine B (RhB) wastewater. The physical-chemical properties of CFA were characterized, including the specific surface area, micromorphology, chemical and crystal components, and the distribution and chemical valence of metallic elements. The metallic oxidants in the CFA indicate CFA can work as Fenton-like catalyst and MW-absorbent simultaneously. The results reveal OH is more significant in the decolorization of RhB than HO2 and O2−. The generation of more OH in the MW-Fenton-like process (293–326 K) than that in the conventional heated Fenton-like process (326 K) reflects the function of hot spot effect and possible non-thermal effect of MW. Under the optimum condition ([H2O2] 2 mmol L−1, [CFA] 15 g L−1, pH 3, PMW 0.1 kW), the decolorization rate reaches 91.6% after 20 min. The intrinsic kinetic model of RhB decolorization is -dCRhBdt=1.76×10-4·CRhB·CH2O21.89·CCFA1.97-dCRhodamineB/dt=1.76×10-4·CRhodamineB·CH2O21.89·Ccoalflyash1.97. The loss of catalytic metallic elements causes the decline of catalytic capacity of CFA. The energy consumption (4313.3 kW·h kg−1 RhB) is a limitation for the MW-Fenton-like process, which can be overcame by the safe application of nuclear energy. The intermediates and the path of RhB decolorization were detected and proposed, respectively.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Elimination of hazardous methylene blue from contaminated solutions by
           electrochemically magnetized graphene oxide as a recyclable adsorbent
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Kamran Jalali, Elmira Pajootan, Hajir Bahrami In this study, magnetic graphene oxide (MGO) was used as an adsorbent for effective removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were synthesized using improved hummer method and magnetized electrochemically using iron electrodes by applying different currents (0.2 to 0.5 A) for different duration. The synthesized MGO was characterized using FTIR, XRD, FESEM, EDS, and BET analysis. It was confirmed that Fe3O4 nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into the structure of GO. MGO was evaluated for the adsorption of MB from simulated colored wastewater by studying the effect of electrochemical synthesis conditions (time and current), adsorbent dosage, pH of the solution, initial MB concentration and the presence of salt in wastewater. The results indicated that 0.16 g/L of MGO synthesized by applying 0.4 A for 10 min can remove 93% of MB (10 mg/L) from alkali solution through monolayer adsorption followed by Langmuir isotherm with the maximum adsorption capacity of 78.13 mg/g. This study introduces MGO as a recyclable and reusable adsorbent with the removal efficiency above 90% that can be potentially used in wastewater treatment.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Numerical study of particle mixing in a tilted three-dimensional tumbler
           and a new particle-size mixing index
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Ziwei Zhang, Nan Gui, Liang Ge, Zhenlin Li A new mixing index is proposed, which is an improved Lacey index based on coordination number fraction. The differences and similarities among many mixing indices are compared, including the new mixing index, the information entropy based on coordination number fraction, the Lacey index based on local concentration, and the information entropy based on local concentration. The first two indices are microscopic since the coordination number fraction is on particle-scale, whereas the latter two are mesoscopic as the local concentration is mesoscopic scale. The newly proposed mixing evaluation indices does not include inauthentic temporal oscillations. Moreover, using mixing index, the mixing characteristics of particles in a tilted tumbler are studied by discrete element method (DEM). The tumbler’s angle of tilt α = 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, 50°, 60° and 70°, at five rotating velocities ω = 0.175, 0.35, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 1.4 rad/s corresponding to Froude number Fr = 0.0025, 0.001, 0.002, 0.003, 0.004, 0.016 respectively are simulated. It is found that both increasing the tilt angle and the rotating speed have negative effects on the particle mixing within the scope of this study.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Optimisation of high energy ball milling parameters to synthesize oxide
           dispersion strengthened Alloy 617 powder and its characterization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): M. Sivakumar, Arup Dasgupta, Chanchal Ghosh, D. Sornadurai, S. Saroja In the present work, ultra-fine powder of oxide dispersion strengthened Alloy 617 was synthesized by high energy ball milling. Milling parameters such as rpm and milling time were varied in the range of 500–2000 and 5–360 min, respectively. Energy applied to the powder in the milling process (Energy per unit mass per hit, Ec) was estimated using the collision model. Effect of milling parameters on the microstructure of powder and refinement of oxides was investigated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron Microscopy (SEM), conventional Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and High resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Desired convoluted lamellar structure with average particle size ∼33 μm was observed during milling at 1000 rpm (Ec ∼ 0.4 kJ/g.hit) for 6 h. TEM analysis of the powder showed the presence of fine oxide dispersoids in the size range 4–16 nm. HRTEM analysis substantiated the presence of fine dispersoids of size ∼4 nm and showed the presence of deformation twins in the matrix. The fine dispersoids in a nanocrystalline matrix is expected to provide superior creep strength to the material at high temperatures.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Characteristics and atomization behavior of Ti-6Al-4V powder produced by
           plasma rotating electrode process
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Junjie Tang, Yan Nie, Qian Lei, Yunping Li In the present research, the characteristics and atomization behavior of Ti-6Al-4V powders produced by plasma rotating electrode process (PREP) with different rotation speeds were investigated. Three kinds of particles in the as-PREPed powders are observed: spherical particles, satellite particles and irregular particles. The mean particle size of the PREP powder decreases and its distribution becomes narrower gradually with increasing rotation speed. PREP powder at higher rotation speed demonstrates lower fractions of both satellite particles and irregular particles. By observing the residual electrode tip, it is considered that the irregular particles with corner or flat shape are possibly caused by the tearing of liquid film under the action of centrifugal force and shear force during the atomization process.Graphical abstractThe schematic diagram of the proportion of satellite particles and irregular particles in the asatomized powder.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Investigation on flow characteristics of ice slurry in horizontal 90°
           elbow pipe by a CFD-PBM coupled model
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Lingling Cai, Zhiqiang Liu, Sha Mi, Chun Luo, Kebo Ma, Aixiang Xu, Sheng Yang Elbow pipes are important components for ice slurry pipeline transport. However, the flow characteristics of ice slurry in elbow are far from fully being understood, especially the influence of ice particle kinetics on ice particle size distribution (PSD). This study is intended to provide a better understanding of the behavior of ice slurry flow in elbow pipe. A CFD-PBM coupled model is employed to investigate the flow characteristics of ice slurry in horizontal 90° elbow pipe. The quadrature method of moments is utilized to solve the population balance equations. Based on the revised model, the flow characteristics of ice slurry in the horizontal 90° elbow pipe are investigated. The simulation results show that in the range of calculations, the pressure drop of elbow pipe is increased with the increase of velocity and ice packing fraction (IPF). An adverse pressure gradient is formed due to the change in flow direction. The emergence of secondary flow is caused by the centrifugal force. It makes the ice particles gather on the outer wall of the elbow section. The ice diameter increases along the flow direction due to the aggregation. The evolution of particle size distribution (PSD) is not significant. However, aggregation and stratification cannot be ignored in the process of long distance transport of ice slurry. The results are of significance for guiding the safety design and operation of ice slurry transportation.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Preparation of Co-plated WC powders by a non-precious-Co-activation
           triggered electroless plating strategy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Jing Tong, Jianfeng Zhang, Yue Wang, Fanlu Min, Xiaoying Wang, Hailong Zhang, Jichang Ma In this study, Co nanoparticles were mixed with WC powders by electroless plating with a new non-precious-Co-activation strategy. By soaking WC powders in a mixed solution of cobalt sulfate heptahydrate and sodium hypophosphite and then heat treated at 220 °C, Co active sites were seeded on WC powders to activate the following electroless plating of Co. The effects of reaction conditions on the weight gain and plating rate during electroless plating process were systematically investigated. As is evidenced by results, when the temperature, concentration of CoSO4 and NaH2PO2·H2O, and pH were 80 °C, 50 g/L, 45 g/L and 11 respectively, WC was evenly coated with Co. Notably, the XPS characterization indicated the content of zero-valence Co was elevated obviously after the plating process due to the effective reduction from two-valence Co.Graphical abstractSchematic mechanism of Co-plated WC under different pH conditions.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Experimental and CFD study on a cyclonic classifier with new flow pattern
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Zhanpeng Sun, Qinggang Liu, Xinqi Yu Physical principle of conventional top-inlet classifier (CTC) with reverse-flow pattern leads to the heavily fine particles entrainment in coarse fraction. Present work concentrates on the flow-field design for less downward airflow at near-wall region of the classifier. A new middle-inlet classifier (NMC) is proposed and analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method and powder classification experiments. The results showed that new flow pattern characterized by a pair of vortexes was created in the new classifier. The upper vortex with 80% of the total air volume moves upward and forms the washing effect at near-wall region, which effectively reduces the fine particles entrainment in coarse fraction. The downer vortex with reverse-flow pattern discharges the coarse particles timely. The radial centrifugal sedimentation combined with the axial counter-current washing effect dominates the particle classification in the NMC. Compared to the CTC, classification accuracy index of the NMC with double-vortex averagely increases by 27% with a pressure drop reduction of more than 38%. This work offers a new principle for high-efficiency particle classification and new strategy for improving the classification performance of turbo air classifiers and hydrocyclones.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Aerosol route synthesis of Ni-CeO2-Al2O3 hybrid nanoparticle cluster for
           catalysis of reductive amination of polypropylene glycol
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Hung-Yen Chang, Guan-Hung Lai, De-Hao Tsai We demonstrated an aerosol-based approach to synthesize Ni-CeO2-Al2O3 hybrid nanostructure as a potent nanopowder catalyst for the production of polyetheramine via reductive amination of polypropylene glycol. The method combines a gas-phase evaporation-induced self-assembly with two-stage thermal treatments of the aerosol particles. The hybrid Ni-CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) composed of ultrafine, homogeneously-distributed nanocrystallites of metallic Ni and ceria were shown to uniformly decorate on the surface of Al2O3 nanoparticle cluster (NPC). The composition, physical size and surface state of the hybrid nanostructure were tunable by design. It was found that hybridization with Al2O3 or CeO2 enhanced catalytic activity of the Ni catalyst. A high yield of ≈77% of the desired PEA and a high selectivity to primary amine (≈100%) achieved simultaneously. The surface nitridation of Ni catalyst was effectively suppressed via the incorporation with CeO2 NPs. An enhanced operation stability was observed by using the Ni-CeO2-Al2O3 hybrid nanostructure as catalyst in comparison to the Ni-only NP. The work demonstrated a facile route for controlled gas-phase synthesis of hybrid nanopowder catalysts using Al2O3 NPC as the support matrix and CeO2 NP as the promoter to further enhance the performance of Ni catalyst toward reductive amination.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A facile synthesis of α-Ni(OH)2-CNT composite films for
           supercapacitor application
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): S.B. Abitkar, P.R. Jadhav, N.L. Tarwal, A.V. Moholkar, C.E. Patil The α-Ni(OH)2-CNT composite films have been successfully synthesized by a simple chemical method and their supercapacitive properties were investigated by variation of CNT. The structural, compositional, morphological, wettability and electrochemical properties of the composite films were studied by using various characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the synthesized composite films are polycrystalline in nature. FT-Raman spectroscopy result showed the characteristic Raman band of CNT and α-Ni(OH)2 which confirmed the formation of α-Ni(OH)2-CNT composite. SEM micrographs showed porous microstructure of the synthesized films and hydrophilic nature of the films was confirmed from wettability studies. Furthermore, the effect of the variation of CNT on the electrochemical properties of the synthesized composite films was discussed. The electrochemical performance of the composite films was studied by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD) techniques. The α-Ni(OH)2-CNT composite showed highest specific capacitance of 544 F g−1 with high retention capability of 85% after 1500th cycle and excellent cycling stability.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Identification and characterization of solids in sand-water two-phase
           flows via vibration multi-sensor approaches
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Kai Wang, Gang Liu, Yichen Li, Jinbang Wang, Gang Wang The monitoring of tiny particles in multiphase pipe flow is widely encountered in industry. In this paper, the identification and characterization of solid particles suspended in sand-water flow were developed based on vibration multi-sensor approaches. Verification experiments were conducted, and good agreement was found between the concentrations (0–0.1 wt% with an interval of 0.02 wt%) of varisized sands (from 86 to 180 μm) and the monitored vibration signal characteristics by multi-sensor approaches. A quadratic relationship between the particle concentration and vibration energy was obtained. In sand-carrying flow measurement experiments, the sand’s characteristic frequency bands were found at 22–23.6 kHz and 24.8–26.6 kHz. Additionally, the sand particle identification effect was evaluated from two positions at bends, that is, the outer wall of the 45-degree bend on the elbow and the exit of the 90-degree bend. Compared with these two monitor positions, the sand vibration energy from the outlet of the elbow had a higher signal-to-noise ratio with obvious energy variations. In addition, the accuracies of the detected sand vibration features were mutual confirmation. Consequently, the above methods are applicable for little solid detection in sand-water flow, which lays the foundation for particles monitoring in the complexed multiphase flow.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • An experimental investigation of thermal-hydraulic performance of silica
           nanofluid in corrugated channels
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Raheem K. Ajeel, W.S.-I.W. Salim, Khalid Hasnan Corrugated channels are the main sections involved in the thermal system of many applications and they are responsible for a significant enhancement of their efficiency. Herein two types of corrugated channel, namely semicircle-corrugated channel (SCC) and the new form of a trapezoidal-corrugated channel (TCC) in addition to the straight channel (SC) were investigated experimentally using silicon dioxide (SiO2)-water nanofluid as working fluid. The study covers Reynolds numbers from 10,000 to 30,000 and nanofluid with SiO2 volume fractions (ϕ) of 0.0%, 1.0%, and 2.0%. The experimental results indicate that the nanofluid shows better performances in comparison with the base fluid where heat transfer and pressure drop are increased with increasing volume fractions of SiO2. Using the tested channels and SiO2-water nanofluid at 2.0% volume fraction results in improvement in heat transfer ratio around 9.6–10.15% compared to the use of same channels with base fluid. It is also found that the use of corrugated channel (TCC) enhances heat transfer rates up to 63.59%, pressure drop by 1.37 times and thermal performance up to 2.22 times as compared to those of straight channel. Finally, the maximum thermal-hydraulic performance achieved by using TCC form with SiO2-water nanofluid at ϕ = 0.02 and Re = 10,000 is 1.94.Graphical abstractPhysical domain of the present study (a) semicircle corrugated channel, (b) trapezoidal corrugated channel, and (c) straight channel.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Full title (Editorial Board Members)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 9Author(s):
       
  • Inside Front Cover (Aims & Scope, Editors)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2019Source: Advanced Powder Technology, Volume 30, Issue 9Author(s):
       
  • Image analysis of liberation spectrum of coarse particles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Alireza Rezvani, Mohammad Reza Khalesi, Zeinab Sadat Mirzaei, Boris Albijanic Determination of liberation spectrums by using MLA and QEMSCAN techniques require polished sections and fine particles. These techniques cannot be performed in-situ and for coarse particles. Thus, the focus of this technical note is to investigate whether the image analysis method can be used for the determination of liberation spectrum for coarse particles. Two methods were used to determine the liberation spectrum. In the first method, the liberation spectrum was obtained using the small and large diameter of particles. In the second method, the liberation spectrum was determined using the small and large diameter of particles as well as the shape correction diameter. The results showed that the image analysis can be used to successfully determine the liberation spectrum. The composition of composite particles was significantly improved when the stereological correction was used i.e. the square root of the mean square error for the particle composition using the method 1 was 1.25% while that using the method 2 was 0.60%. The proposed method might be used for the determination of liberation spectrum of high-grade real coarse particles. However, this requires a significant amount of future work.Graphical abstractLiberation spectrum for different particle sizes obtained from (a) 2D data (b) 3D data and (c) experimental data.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Silica coated hard-magnetic strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Evgeny O. Anokhin, Lev A. Trusov, Daniil A. Kozlov, Ratibor G. Chumakov, Anastasia E. Sleptsova, Oleg V. Uvarov, Makarii I. Kozlov, Dmitrii I. Petukhov, Artem A. Eliseev, Pavel E. Kazin Stable colloids of hard magnetic particles are newly developed and very promising materials. Surface functionalization of these particles remains challenging because the particles tend to aggregate during reaction due to strong magnetic interactions. Herein we report on a synthesis of strontium hexaferrite hard magnetic nanoparticles coated with silica by hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. As a source of hexaferrite we used stable colloid of plate-like nanoparticles with mean diameter of 40 nm and thickness of 5 nm, which were prepared by a glass-ceramic process. We have shown that to successfully coat each hexaferrite particle individually the hydrolysis conditions should provide heterogeneous nucleation of silica with rate higher than the aggregation rate of the colloidal nanoparticles. The resulting materials represent single crystal hexaferrite cores wrapped in silica shell with mean thickness of 18 and 23 nm depending on synthesis conditions. The obtained core-shell particles can be easily dispersed as stable aqueous colloids. The materials can be used as magnetic sorbents or nanocontainers and, furthermore, they are very promising colloidal building blocks for various magnetically assembled nanostructures.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Biomineralization, antibacterial activity and mechanical properties of
           biowaste derived diopside nanopowders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Rajan Choudhary, Senthil Kumar Venkatraman, Ankita Chatterjee, Jana Vecstaudza, Maria Josefa Yáñez-Gascón, Horacio Pérez Sánchez, Janis Locs, Jayanthi Abraham, Sasikumar Swamiappan This work reports on the preparation and characterization of mesoporous nano diopside (CaMgSi2O6) using a simple and cost-effective sol-gel combustion route. Stoichiometric oxidant/fuel ratio was adopted for the combustion reaction. Eggshell was used as a calcium source, glycine (fuel) as reductant, magnesium nitrate and nitric acid as oxidant were used in the preparation. The thermal behavior of the precursor was studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and heating microscopy. The temperature required for the transformation of the precursor into pure diopside was optimized at 1100 °C. Rietveld refinement method was utilized to confirm the phase purity of diopside. The resultant powder contains 36 nm particle with a specific surface area of 51 m2/g. The appearance of Ca, Mg, Si, and O peaks in EDX pattern confirmed the existence of essential elements. The rapid consumption of calcium and phosphorus ions from the simulated body fluid during dissolution indicated their involvement in apatite deposition on the surface of the nano diopside. FT-IR spectra showed that the SiO and SiOSi groups were replaced by phosphate bands due to hydroxyapatite deposition. The mechanical stability of the diopside after bioactivity studies was found to be superior to the cancellous bone. The release of alkaline earth ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+) from the diopside sample into the bacterial culture medium increases the pH (7.4), which inhibits the bacterial growth. The surface properties, concentration, and type of bacteria are the other factors responsible for the antibacterial activity of the nano diopside.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Yolk-shell CdS@void@TiO2 composite particles with photocorrosion
           resistance for enhanced dye removal and hydrogen evolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Jian Zhao, Wenjing Li, Hailiang Liu, Haiting Shi, Changfa Xiao Yolk-shell CdS@void@TiO2 (cadmium sulfide@void@titanium dioxide) composite particles (CPs), consisting of three parts: core (CdS) synthesized by solvent thermal reaction, void generated by polypyrrole (PPy) sacrificed layers and porous shell (TiO2) by sol-gel method, were innovatively fabricated. The actual yolk-shell structure and chemical composition of the resultant CdS@void@TiO2 were verified by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction analyses (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). CdS@void@TiO2 CPs possessed enhanced visible light response due to its narrower energy gap (2.9 eV) than TiO2 (3.2 eV). With the support of photocatalytic performance test results, CdS@void@TiO2 exhibits much higher hydrogen evolution rate up to 1893.5 μmol h−1 g−1 as well as dye removal efficiency both under visible and UV light irradiation than pristine TiO2. The covering of TiO2 shell remarkably promotes the photocorrosion resistance of CdS. The unique yolk-shell structure promotes striking photocatalytic performance in dye removal and hydrogen evolution. A possible photocatalytic mechanism about enhanced photocatalytic activity and robust photostability is also proposed.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A new approach for the testing method of coal grindability
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Serdar Yilmaz In this study, a total of 26 hard coal sample (either clean or original) from Zonguldak Coal Basin (17 from Zonguldak, 9 from Amasra) and a total of 17 low grade Turkish coals from various locations in Turkey were collected. So, a total of 69 samples were analyzed initially with standard method of coal grindability, i.e. HGI values were determined. In addition, an alternative method (does not require a standard HGI mill) for grindability measurement was proposed in this study. The abovementioned alternative method includes a ring mill with specified conditions and Malvern Mastersizer. As regards to the procedure of the new proposed method for the determination of coal grindability, samples were prepared in the size range of −1.7 + 1.18 mm size group and they were ground in ring mill. Here, ring mill was chosen because of the fact that it is very widely used for sample preparation and it is very commonly available in every laboratory. Procedure proposed includes placing abovementioned specified samples in ring mill (See Material and Method) and having the samples ground in a previously determined time period. After this grinding process (with ring mill) they have rather different size distribution at the end depending on their nature of grindability. For better understanding, having the ground samples of (−1.7 + 1.18 size group for 20 s for 50 g samples) and analyzing their size distributions with Malvern Mastersizer, ground samples have different D10, D50, D90, D32 and D43 at the end. Comparing these size parameter results with previously determined HGI values, it can be claimed that coal grindability can be easily determined with this method, since evaluated HGI values with the method proposed are ±0.05% different than the determined HGI values.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Multiple heterojunction system of Bi2MoO6/WO3/Ag3PO4 with enhanced
           visible-light photocatalytic performance towards dye degradation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Haisheng Zhang, Dan Yu, Wei Wang, Pin Gao, Kaixuan Bu, Lishan Zhang, Shan Zhong, Baojiang Liu Multiple heterojunction system of Bi2MoO6/WO3/Ag3PO4 was designed via constructing binary heterojunction Bi2MoO6/WO3, followed by the deposition of nano-Ag3PO4 on the surface of Bi2MoO6/WO3. Various techniques were employed to characterize the properties of the as-prepared catalytic system. In this study, the decomposition efficiency of C.I. reactive blue 19 (RB-19) was used as a measure of photocatalytic activity and the Bi2MoO6/WO3/Ag3PO4 composite exceeded its stand-alone components (pristine Ag3PO4, WO3/Ag3PO4 and Bi2MoO6/Ag3PO4) by 3.16 times, 2.63 times and 1.75 times, respectively. The photocatalytic tests implied that the construction of multiple heterojunction could achieve efficient separation of photo-generated electrons and holes. A possible photocatalytic mechanism for Bi2MoO6/WO3/Ag3PO4 system was also proposed according to the results of trapping experiments.Graphical abstractThe process of synthesizing the Bi2MoO6/WO3/Ag3PO4, the degradation experiment and the possible mechanism of Bi2MoO6/WO3/Ag3PO4 in degradation of RB-19 under visible-light irradiation.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Preparation of flaky dihydrate zinc oxalate particles by controlled
           chelating double-jet precipitation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Chen Xing, Huang Kai, Wang Chengyan Well-dispersed flaky ZnC2O4·2H2O particles were synthesized via a controlled double-jet precipitation process from the relatively concentrated solutions of Zn(NO3)2 (0.05 mol/L) and Na2C2O4 (0.06 mol/L) in the presence of sodium citrate. The effects of concentration of the reactants, reaction time, pH values and feeding rates on the size and shape of the final particles are explored. It was found that as-prepared dihydrate zinc oxalate particles are formed by aggregation of tiny microsized subunits, and the feeding rate as well as the citrate concentration is quite key to the morphological evolution of the hydrate zinc oxalate particles. Based on experimental results and the thermodynamic equilibrium calculation, it is confirmed that the presence of citrate ligand plays essential roles to the whole precipitation process, which may play the multiple roles of the controllable release of zinc ions, crystal habit tunning agent, and dispersing surfactant. The controllable synthesis idea of well-dispersed particles in present research work has the potential of extensive application in the preparation of other similar particles.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Enhanced performance of TiO2/reduced graphene oxide doped by rare-earth
           ions for degrading phenol in seawater excited by weak visible light
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Ting Wang, Bing–rui Li, Li–guang Wu, Yu–bing Yin, Bo–qiong Jiang, Ju–qing Lou La3+- or Yb3+-doped TiO2 supported on the surface of reduced graphene oxide were fabricated by adsorbed-layer nanoreactor synthesis (ANS) coupling with a solvothermal treatment to extend photocatalysis application in the advanced treatment of simulated wastewater with high salt concentration. Results showed that La3+ or Yb3+ could distribute in the TiO2 lattice, only in ANS preparation with graphene oxide as the carrier, to replace Ti4+ during the solvothermal treatment, thus introducing TiO2 mixed-crystal and heterojunction structures in the catalysts. La3+ or Yb3+ caused lattice distortion structures and anionic vacancies in the TiO2 lattice. The anionic vacancies (oxygen vacancies) might generate Ti3+ in catalysts, thus enhancing visible-light response, due to impurity levels introduced by La3+ or Yb3+. As the strong adsorption capability of the catalyst for phenol was not interfered by salt ions in the simulated wastewater, the catalysts could efficiently degrade phenol. The highest removal rate of phenol was approximately 90%.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Particle migration of concentrated suspension flow in bifurcating channels
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Bhaskar Jyoti Medhi, Mallela Mallikarjuna Reddy, Anugrah Singh Flow of suspension in bifurcating channels has extensive applications in industrial and natural settings. A phenomenon of particular interest during the flow of concentrated suspension is shear-induced particle migration. Previous works on suspension transport in branched channels have been limited to dilute flow conditions. We have carried out experiments using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique to study concentrated suspension transport in asymmetric T- and symmetric Y-shape channels. Numerical simulations of fluid flow and particle transport equations were also carried out for the same geometry which was used in the experiments. The migration and transport of particles in the simulations were studied using the Diffusive Flux Model. We have observed in both experiments and numerical simulations that due to the shear-induced migration phenomena the particles move towards the center of the channel, and this gives rise to the blunting of velocity profile before the junction. After the bifurcation, the peak of velocity profile moves in the direction of the outer wall, whereas, the maxima in particle concentration was observed near the inner walls. This causes asymmetry in the velocity and concentration profiles in the daughter branches. As we move towards the downstream positions the maxima in velocity and concentration profiles again shifts toward the center of the channel. The results from the experiments and simulations are observed to be in good agreement.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Mechanochemical synthesis of BiSI and Bi19S27I3 semiconductor materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Zhao Li, Qiwu Zhang, Lei Wu, Weijian Gu, Yanchu Liu With regard to the intensive investigations of bismuth oxyhalides as promising photocatalysts, much expectation may be put on the corresponding chalcohalides but little is known due to difficulty in the synthesis. In this report, BiSI and Bi19S27I3 were synthesized by one-step mechanochemical method without heating and aqueous operations and the products were characterized by X-ray diffraction crystallography, Raman spectroscopic analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, photoluminescence spectra and UV–visible DRS. The new method allowed the simple syntheses of pure bismuth chalcohalides without observable existences of impurity phases. The crystal structures of BiSI and Bi19S27I3 were orthorhombic, with the absorption band gaps of 1.80 and 1.14 eV for BiSI and Bi19S27I3, respectively. Bi-rich compound is considered to be beneficial to the photochemical property of chalcohalides. After overcoming the difficulty in the synthesis, our research would offer new strategy to exploit the potentials of V-VI-VII compounds, particularly of sulfides, as promising semiconductors to compete the corresponding counterparts of oxides.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Investigation of the fabric evolution and the stress-transmission
           behaviour of sands based on X-ray μCT images
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Zhuang Cheng, Jianfeng Wang This paper presents the use of X-ray micro-tomography (X-ray μCT) and image processing and analysis techniques to investigate the stress transmission and buckling of inter-particle contacts within granular materials. A triaxial testing of a miniature Leighton Buzzard sand (LBS) sample was carried out with full-field in-situ X-ray μCT scanning. High-spatial-resolution CT images of the sample were acquired at several loading stages of the test. Image processing and analysis techniques were used to quantify the inter-particle contact evolution (contact gain, contact loss and contact movement), fabric, contact duration and buckling of stress-transmission contacts based on the CT images. The results indicated that contact gain and loss, and contact movement played two competing roles in determining the overall fabric evolution of the sample. Contacts with a longer duration were more likely to orient in the major principal stress direction and form a stress-transmission contact network. A gradual decrease in the buckling rate of the stress-transmission contacts was observed outside of the shear band, and a relatively stable buckling rate was observed within the shear band during the shear. The results suggested that jamming occurred outside of the shear band and that unjamming occurred within the shear band.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Enhanced photocatalytic degradation performance of organic contaminants by
           heterojunction photocatalyst BiVO4/TiO2/RGO and its compatibility on four
           different tetracycline antibiotics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Wei Wang, Qi Han, Zhijia Zhu, Lishan Zhang, Shan Zhong, Baojiang Liu Photocatalytic performance of four tetracycline antibiotics using BiVO4/TiO2/RGO composites was investigated. To make full use of catalysis, optimum preparation conditions involved RGO content, solution pH and hydrothermal temperature on the structure forming of BiVO4/TiO2/RGO were investigated. Subsequently, the obtained visible light-driven photocatalyst was used to degrade four kinds of tetracycline antibiotics involved tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC), oxytetracycline (OTC) and doxycycline (DXC) for wastewater treatment. Results showed that BiVO4/TiO2/RGO photocatalyst exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity and high compatibility due to the enhanced separation efficiency of photo-generated carriers with high reduction and oxidation capability. The degradation process of four kinds of tetracycline antibiotics was traced and detected through identifying intermediates produced in the reaction system. And a possible catalytic mechanism for BiVO4/TiO2/RGO photocatalyst was put forward based on band gap structure of BiVO4 and TiO2.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Numerical analysis of flow pattern transition in a conical silo with
           ellipsoid particles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Yanlong Han, Fuguo Jia, Gengrun Li, Hanru Liu, Jiming Li, Peiyu Chen Gravity-driven discharge flow in conical silos is ubiquitous in manufacturing processes for numerous industries such as food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries, wherein flow pattern is the key topic to be studied. In this work, discrete element method was used to study discharge flow behaviors in a special conical silo. This work aims to understand the dynamic evolution of discharge flow pattern and establish methods for regional determination of flow pattern transition. The results indicated that both mass flow and funnel flow patterns coexist in the silo at the initial stage of discharge, and there is a definite transition process from mass flow to funnel flow. Furthermore, the flow pattern transition is revealed by the change in discharge flow characteristics. Specifically, the change in force acting on particles leads to the change of particle orientation and particle velocity field, macroscopically resulting in the flow pattern transition. Finally, based on the kinetic stress field and shear rate, the height and radial region of flow pattern transition were determined, respectively. Understanding of the flow pattern transition is useful to the design, scale-up and optimization of silos and similar structural devices.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Preparation, characterization, in vitro bioactivity and protein
           loading/release property of mesoporous bioactive glass microspheres with
           different compositions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Guohou Miao, Zhengmao Li, Yongchun Meng, Jingwen Wu, Yuli Li, Qing Hu, Xiaofeng Chen, Xuechao Yang, Xiaoming Chen Mesoporous bioactive glass microspheres (MBGMs) with large mesopores have attracted considerable attention in the field of bone tissue regeneration and drug delivery systems due to their excellent bioactivity, biocompatibility and high specific area. In this study, a loose structure of MBGMs with adjustable chemical compositions was synthesized by the combination of sol-gel and water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion. All the prepared MBGMs possessed a large mesopore diameter that increased with CaO content, a high surface area and good apatite-inducing formation ability. In vitro protein absorption and release assays demonstrated that the MBGMs exhibited decreased loading efficiency and burst release behavior as the CaO content increased. Additionally, an enhanced BSA-loading amount and prolonged release curve were obtained after the surfaces of MBGMs were modified by amine groups. Furthermore, the preliminary in vitro cell experiments showed that MBGMs exhibited good biocompatibility. The results indicated that MBGMs could be a promising candidate as a drug/protein carrier for bone tissue regeneration.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Changes of tungsten oxide nanostructures in flame vapor deposition process
           depending on process variables
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Sang-Hyeok Yoon, Jin-Rui Ding, Kyo-Seon Kim Tungsten oxide thin film in 1-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures shows high photocatalytic activity and the flame vapor deposition (FVD) process is fast and economical method to prepare 1-D nanostructured tungsten oxide thin films of high purity and crystallinity. We investigated the morphology changes of tungsten oxide thin film prepared by FVD process for various process variables such as total gas flow rate, flame temperature and substrate temperature. For the experimental conditions in this study, we confirmed that the selection of suitable total flow rate is a key factor for 1-D nanostructure growth in fuel-rich condition. As we increase the flame and substrate temperatures, the longer and thinner 1-D nanotubes were obtained, which have the advantages of high surface area and shorter diffusion length of proton for the application to photoelectrochemical water splitting. This study would provide the basic information for the design of FVD process to prepare 1-D nanostructures in future.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effects of cleaning mode on the performances of pulse-jet cartridge filter
           under varying particle sizes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Shihang Li, Shuli Song, Fei Wang, Hao Jin, Shimeng Zhou, Biao Xie, Shuda Hu, Fubao Zhou, Chun Liu In order to solve the problem of pollution induced by particulate matters, bag filters and pleated cartridge filters have been widely applied to industries. However, the effects of cleaning mode on the performances of filters under varying particle sizes are rarely studied. In this paper, the influence of cleaning mode on the pressure drop and dust emission concentration under varying particle sizes were studied through experiments. The results show that the smaller the particle size is, the faster the pressure drop increases, and the higher the dust emission concentration becomes. In the cleaning process, the smaller the particle size, the greater the residual pressure drop, and the worse the cleaning effect. The cleaning frequency rises with the decrease of particle size under the clean-on-demand (C-D) mode, while the maximum pressure drop grows with the decrease of particle size under the clean-on-time (C-T) mode. For the medium and fine particulate matters, the average dust emission concentration and the average pressure drop under the C-D mode are both slightly larger than those under C-T mode. By comparing the quality indexes under different cleaning modes, it can be found that for medium and fine particulate matters, the use of the C-D mode can ensure more excellent filtration and cleaning performances, while for large particulate matters, the choice between the two modes has very limited influence on the filtration and cleaning performances of pulse-jet cartridge filters.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Functionalization of SBA-15 by dithiooxamide towards removal of Co (II)
           ions from real samples: Isotherm, thermodynamic and kinetic studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Mohammad Mehdi Sadeghi, Ali Shokuhi Rad, Mehdi Ardjmand, Ali Mirabi In this study, mesoporous SBA-15 was functionalized by dithiooxamide ligand through sodium dodecyl sulfate as intermediate. The obtained nanocomposite was considered as a strong adsorbent towards selective removal of the cobalt (II) ions from the industrial wastewater samples. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, elemental CHNS (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur) analysis, and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used for characterization, particle size determination, confirming the presence of the used ligand, and measuring the nanocomposite stability, respectively. Effective parameters on the removal of the cobalt (II) ions such as pH, adsorbent dosage, concentration, and contact time have been evaluated. Results showed that the Freundlich isotherm has a bit better correlation coefficient compared to Langmuir isotherm (0.96 versus 0.94, respectively). The maximum amount of Co (II) ions adsorption on 1 g of nanocomposite (qm) is calculated to be 2500 mg/g that points to the excellent adsorption. Kinetic analyses were conducted using pseudo-first and second-order models and the regression results showed that the pseudo-second-order model is more accurate for the study of the cobalt adsorption due to the higher correlation coefficient (0.99 versus 0.83) compared to the pseudo-first-order model. The result of the present study points that the suggested nanocomposite can be positively used in treating industrial effluents containing cobalt ions.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Continuous high-shear granulation: Mechanistic understanding of the
           influence of process parameters on critical quality attributes via
           elucidating the internal physical and chemical microstructure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Wei Meng, Jakub Dvořák, Ravish Kumar, Rudy Hofmeister, František Štěpánek, Rohit Ramachandran, Fernando J. Muzzio Over the past decade, continuous wet granulation has been emerging as a promising technology in drug product development. In this paper, the continuous high-shear mixer granulator, Lӧdige CoriMix® CM5, was investigated using a low-dose formulation with acetaminophen as the model drug. Design of experiments was deployed in conjunction with multivariate data analysis to explore the granulator design space and comprehensively understand the interrelation between process parameters and critical attributes of granules and tablets. Moreover, several complementary imaging techniques were implemented to unveil the underlying mechanisms of physical and chemical microstructure in affecting the tablet performance. The results indicated that L/S ratio and impeller speed outweighed materials feeding rate in modifying the granule and tablet properties. Increasing the degree of liquid saturation and mechanical shear input in the granulation system principally produced granules of larger size, smaller porosity, improved flowability and enhanced sphericity, which after compression generated tablets with slower disintegration process and drug release kinetics due to highly consolidated physical microstructure. Besides, in comparison to batch mixing, continuous mixing integrated with a conical mill enabled better powder de-agglomeration effect, thus accelerating the drug dissolution with increased surface area.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Upconversion nano-particles from synthesis to cancer treatment: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Mahshid Jafari, Alireza Rezvanpour Among many methods to fabricate drugs, Upconversion seems to be an appropriate approach in order to treat cancer with almost no side effects. Upconversion is able to effectively convert two or more low energy photons into the higher energy photons. Since the traditional process of the drug circulation in the biological environment leaves the individuals with many side effects, the translation of the drug to the tumor site is one of the imperative concerns. Because of the capability of the light source in the activation of the fabricated drug in the upconversion process, the photodynamic therapy has attracted a wide range of researchers.There are some approaches to overcome the side effects of cancer therapy. One of the most efficient approaches is the fabrication of biomaterials in the form of micro or nano-capsules. In the upconversion method, it is possible to fabricate a core-shell complex to achieve better yield. In this method, drug can be encapsulated into the core with the size of nano or micro. The structure of the shell in this complex is usually sensitive to the internal or external stimuli as pH or temperature difference. Subsequently, the shell structure would be damaged due to this sensitivity and finally the drug can be released from the core into the targeted site. Moreover, there is an immense interest to develop cancer therapy in the form of the combination therapy which is employing drugs with different working mechanisms and diminishing the probability that resistant cancer cells will grow. In summary, this review article firstly introduces the main methods of the fabrication of upconversion nanoparticles. Then, the application of these particles in different types of cancer therapy including combined therapy is discussed. Moreover, the main drugs applicable in the cancer therapy and their effects in the fabrication of upconversion nanoparticles and complexes are presented.Graphical abstractDifferent types of UCNP-based designs for various types of cancer therapies. (Adapted with permission, John Wiley and Sons, Confirmation No. 4540711292311.)Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Experimental study on heat transfer enhancement of nanofluid flow through
           helical tubes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): A. Mokhtari Ardekani, V. Kalantar, M.M. Heyhat Fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids flowing through helically coiled tubes under uniform heat flux condition are studied experimentally. The turbulent flow of two different kinds of nanofluids, i.e. Ag-water and SiO2-water, are examined. Three different helically coiled tubes along with straight ones are constructed to investigate the effects of geometrical parameters such as pitch circle diameter and helical pitch as well as nanoparticle volume concentration. The viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluids are determined experimentally in different volume fractions and temperatures. The range of Reynolds number is from 8900 to 11970. The experimental outcomes show that using nanoparticles in coiled tubes can be more effective in improving the heat transfer rate than the straight tube. Empirical correlations are extracted based on experimental data to predict the Nusselt number and friction factor of turbulent nanofluids flow through helically coiled tubes.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Calibration of the cloud and aerosol spectrometer for coal dust
           composition and morphology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): T.L. Barone, E. Hesse, C.E. Seaman, A.J. Baran, T.W. Beck, M.L. Harris, P.A. Jaques, T. Lee, S.E. Mischler The cloud and aerosol spectrometer (CAS) was calibrated to enable CAS sizing of coal dust for studies on flammable dust control. Coal dust sizes were determined by light-scattering theories for irregular particles that account for particle composition and morphology in computing coal dust diameters. Coal dust size computations were compared with test dust that was generated by cyclone separation and air-jet sieving and characterized by aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) measurements. For test dust in the range of 0.5–32 μm, coal dust size distributions were consistent with cyclone-separated and sieve-segregated sizes. For the 3–20 μm size range, the coal dust size distribution had a mass median diameter that was 14% larger than that of the APS. This difference was reasonable considering that the basic calibration for glass spheres had 13% uncertainty. For the 20–32 μm and 32–45 μm test dusts, mass median diameters differed from CCSEM measurements by only 4% and 5%, respectively. Overall, the results suggest agreement between test dust sizes and computations for coal dust. Alternatively, using conventional Mie theory computations for spheres, coal dust mass median diameters were 35% and 40% larger than APS and CCSEM measurements, respectively.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Study of high-pressure air curtain and combined dedusting of gas water
           spray in multilevel ore pass based on CFD-DEM
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Yapeng Wang, Zhongan Jiang, Jushi Chen, Jihe Chen, Ming Wang In order to solve the problem of dust pollution caused by ore unloading in ore pass, this paper, taking Li Lou Mining as a case study, conducted the wind speed variation law in the fluid domain and the impact of the collision between the ore in the unloading process on the fluid to determine the key dust control point based on the CFD-DEM coupling software. By Fluent software, the air curtain dust-proof efficiency under the action of unloading airflow is analyzed, and the relationship between the dust-control wind speed and the impinging airflow is known. And an experimental model of gas water spray is established to analyze the effect of spray dust removal. By analyzing the impact airflow and dust migration caused by ore unloading and the effect of air curtain dust control through numerical simulation, it can be seen that when the ore discharging quantity Mo = 4000 kg, the dust production is mainly concentrated in the fourth middle section. By high-pressure air shield assisting dust removal, dust diffusion can be better controlled when the ratio of impact wind speed of ore pass wellhead (denoted as λ) to high-pressure air curtain wind speed (denoted as ζ) is at least 1:8. When the dust removal effect is optimal, the ratio δ of the water supply amount ql and the gas supply amount Qg is determined by the gas water spray dust control experimental platform.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Simultaneous epoxy grafting on SiO2 nanoparticles during bead milling and
           their effects on the mechanical properties of epoxy-based composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Motoyuki Iijima, Takaya Tsutsumi, Marina Saito, Junichi Tatami, Toshimitsu Moriya, Tatsuya Kumada, Hiroyuki Izawa Epoxy resin-grafted SiO2 nanoparticles stabilized in toluene were successfully designed by the simultaneous surface modification of SiO2 nanoparticles during bead milling which involves the adsorption of polyethyleneimine-oleic acid complex (PEI-OA) and epoxy resin grafting to the free amine groups of PEI-OA (PEI-OA-Epoxy). The effectiveness of epoxy grafting on the properties of the SiO2/epoxy based nanocomposites were investigated using a bead-milled SiO2/toluene suspension stabilized with PEI-OA, PEI-OA-Epoxy, and a complex of PEI and an anionic surfactant comprising an epoxy-soluble polyethylene glycol-based chain (PEI-AS). While SiO2 nanoparticles were pulverized with similar sizes (c.a. 126–171 nm) and stabilized in toluene with any of the three surface modifications, PEI-OA-stabilized SiO2 nanoparticles aggregated during processing epoxy-based composites. PEI-AS- and PEI-OA-Epoxy-stabilized SiO2 nanoparticles maintained their dispersion stability, however, the epoxy composites with PEI-OA-Epoxy-stabilized SiO2 nanoparticles exhibited better material properties, such as increase in the strain at fracture and higher Tg.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • On the analysis of fracture mechanisms and mechanical behavior of
           AA5083-based tri-modal composites reinforced with 5 wt.%B4C and
           toughened by AA5083 and AA2024 coarse grain phases
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2019Source: Advanced Powder TechnologyAuthor(s): Matin Saessi, Ali Alizadeh, Alireza Abdollahi In this article, the influence of AA2024 and AA5083 coarse grains on mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of AA5083-5%B4C tri-modal composite has been discussed. AA2024 and AA5083 powders (
       
 
 
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