Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3200 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3200 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 107, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 469, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 351, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Clinical Radiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Cosmetic Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Family Practice Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Ophthalmology and Optometry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 447, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 413, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 485, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 284, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 234, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1873-0140
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3200 journals]
  • Abbreviations
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 6



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 1 The utility of zebrafish as a model for toxicological research
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 6



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 2 Use of fish cell lines in the toxicology and ecotoxicology of
           fish. Piscine cell lines in environmental toxicology
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 6



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 3 Approaches in proteomics and genomics for eco-toxicology
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 6



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 4 Interactions between lipids and persistent organic pollutants in
           fish
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 6



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 5 Metabolic fate of nonylphenols and related phenolic compounds in
           fish
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 6



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 6 Pesticide biotransformation in fish
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 6



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 7 Xenobiotic receptors in fish: Structural and functional
           diversity and evolutionary insights
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 6



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 8 Impacts of environmental toxicants and natural variables on the
           immune system of fishes
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 6



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 9 Fish models of carcinogenesis
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 6

      We have reviewed a number of interesting examples of carcinogenesis among the fishes. Such models hold the promise to reveal unique mechanism of carcinogenesis among all species as well as focus studies on other piscine models.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 10 Metallothionein: Structure and regulation
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 6

      Although ample data suggests that MT is involved in the regulation and interactions with metals and oxidants, its physiological role remains elusive. MT knockout models reveal little about the physiological significance of MT, since the animals develop and appear normal. However, it has been observed that MT knockout mice are obese10 This suggests a link between MT and energy balance. The animals are hyperphagic and deposit lipids at a high rate. Thus MT may prevent accumulation of those energy stores. Recently it was suggested that MT could inhibit the respiratory chain by donating Zn89, resulting in lowered ATP and free radical production. This mechanism may explain how MT prevents obesity, while at the same time being able to regulate the levels of free radicals. Interestingly, defects in energy metabolism have been correlated to longevity in yeast, C. elegans and Drosophila81 and also to high MT expression in C. elegans8 . Since aging is correlated to an increased amount of free radicals11, a possible role for MT is to function as a regulator of energy balance, thereby prolonging life. The correlation between age, energy expenditure, Zn status, free radical production and MT expression are fascinating future prospects.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 11 Cell death: Investigation and application in fish toxicology
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 6



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 12 Adrenal toxicology: Environmental pollutants and the HPI axis
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 6



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 13 Xenobiotic impact on corticosteroid signaling
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 6



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 14 Thyroid hormones
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 6



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 15 The biology and toxicology of retinoids in fish
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 6



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 16 Vitellogenesis and endocrine disruption
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 6

      Over the last decade, much progress has been made with regard to identification of EDCs and evaluation of their estrogenic potency. These developments have included establishment of accurate and reliable assay systems for measuring circulating Vgs and Chgs, as well as identification of other new biomarkers with the potential to detect and evaluate the potency of estrogenic EDCs. Future investigations need to focus on development of specific and sensitive immunoassays for individual Vg and Chg molecules and, in general, far more consideration needs to be given to the constitutive multiplicity of teleost Vgs and Chgs. On the other hand, substantial knowledge of the extent of estrogenic endocrine disruption in fish has accumulated from field surveys. It is becoming apparent that exposure of fishes to these compounds is widespread in marine, brackish, and flesh waters around the world. Combined with results from several laboratory studies of fishes, these observations send the obvious warning that many contemporary aquatic environments possess an estrogenic potency and have the potential to disrupt reproduction of fishes, or even wildlife and humans consuming water or aquatic species from these areas. The extent of estrogenic EDC impact on reproduction of wild fishes, and the proximal causes of such effects, have been and remain largely unknown. Basic research on reproductive processes in fish will reveal critical mechanisms subject to impairment by EDCs. Especially important in this regard will be complete elucidation of the roles of dual or multiple Vgs, cathepsins, and Chgs in ovarian follicle growth and maturation, egg quality, and embryonic and larval development. Such basic studies of the functional mechanisms of oogenesis and embryogenesis will, in turn, provide the next generation of biomarkers for assessing the potential impacts of aquatic EDCs on fishes, wildlife, and human beings.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 17 Pharmaceuticals in the environment: Drugged fish'
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 6



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 18 P-glycoproteins and xenobiotic efflux transport in fish
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 6



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Species index
    • Abstract: 2005
      Publication year: 2005
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 6



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Abbreviations
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 5



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 1 Oxygen availability: sensory systems
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 5

      To maintain oxidative metabolism active animals must be able to sense and respond to changes in environmental O2 availability and metabolic O2 demand. This is especially true for aquatic animals such as fish because they are subject to extreme spatial and temporal changes in ambient or environmental O2 tensions. In addition, energetic activities (i.e., migration, pursuing prey, and fleeing predators) require that fishes regulate the delivery of O2 internally to metabolically active tissues. This chapter focuses on chemoreceptors that are sensitive to O2 and alter the performance of fish's cardiovascular and ventilatory systems to maintain oxidative metabolism in the face of decreasing environmental O2 availability, compromised O2 uptake ability and/or increased metabolic demand. Most experimental evidence indicates that cardiovascular and ventilatory functions are predominately driven by O2 in aquatic animals. Carbon dioxide (CO2) also appears to have direct effects on cardioventilatory reflexes in teleost fishes and elasmobranchs but these effects are more variable and less intense than the responses to O2.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 2 Oxygen availability: Brain defence mechanisms
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 5

      Like most vertebrates, the majority of fishes cannot tolerate anoxia. However, unlike terrestrial vertebrates, there are among the fishes a few species that deviate from the general rule and show an extraordinary ability to survive prolonged anoxia. Clearly, the selection pressure for anoxia-tolerance in fish is to be found in the fact that aquatic environments include habitats that more or less regularly become hypoxic or anoxic. By contrast, O2 availability is rather stable in terrestrial environments. Indeed, the only tetrapod animals showing a high tolerance to anoxia are some species of freshwater turtles, and their reason for possessing anoxia tolerance seems to be related to underwater hibernation. The champions among anoxia-tolerant fishes are two closely related species in the Palaearctic cyprinid genus Carassius, the Crucian carp (C. carassius L.) and the goldfish (C. auratus L.). Both species have the capacity to survive days of anoxia at room temperature, and at temperatures close to 0 ºC, the Crucian carp can survive without O2 for several months. The unsurpassed anoxia tolerance of the Crucian carp allows it to be the sole piscine inhabitant of many small lakes and ponds of northern Europe. Energetic adaptations to anoxia on a systemic level have been studied in Carassius for more than three decades, revealing, among other things, their unique ability to produce ethanol as the major anaerobic end product.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 3 Air-breathing fishes: Metabolic biochemistry of the first diving
           vertebrates
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 5

      Two main legacies of air breathing in mammals and birds are endothermy and high-energy flux life styles, the latter of course allowing the former. While these two characteristics are also achievable in some water breathers (tuna, swordfishes, some sharks), they are generally absent in other fishes. As in the vertebrate lineage, air breathing was first invented by fishes, it is appropriate at the outset to emphasize that endothermy and high-energy flux life styles are not key outcomes of air breathing in fishes. In contrast, air-breathing fishes typically display low energy fluxes and are relatively sluggish animals. To appreciate why this is so, it is important to recall the kinds of selective forces that led to the evolution of air breathing in fishes in the first place. The chapter discusses that air breathing is an ancient development in many tropical fishes; as its acquisition appears to be less a matter of sustaining high-energy fluxes than a matter of simply surviving in poor oxygen conditions, one may appropriately look for a metabolic biochemistry that evolved accordingly.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 4 Temperature: Enzyme and organelle
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 5

      Fishes as a group have been very successful in exploiting habitats with a wide range of temperatures. Representative teleostean species, for example, inhabit waters ranging from the hot springs of the equatorial region (35 ºC and above) to the polar oceans (–1.86 ºC). In addition, the life histories of many fish species encompass very considerable seasonal changes in temperature. The obvious success of this group of animals in exploiting such a wide range of thermal habitats should perhaps be puzzling, for the following reasons: First, all chemicophysical processes, including the biochemical reactions of living systems, are sensitive to acute changes in temperature. This sensitivity is often expressed as Q10, the ratio of rates at temperatures 10 ºC apart, and typical values of this parameter for enzyme-catalyzed reactions range between 2 and 3. Second, most fish cannot maintain a significant thermal disequilibrium with their environment, because the same design features that permit the gills of fish to function effectively in respiratory gas exchange also greatly facilitate thermal exchange with the surrounding water. Although not considered further here, some notable exceptions to this generalization exist. Certain lamnid sharks and large tuna possess vascular retia that function as countercurrent heat exchangers to conserve metabolic heat in the deep musculature, and thermogenic “heater” tissues of billfish serve to maintain cranial temperatures significantly above the ambient level. Apart from these exceptions, however, it generally can be assumed that the mean body temperature of fish is well within one degree of the ambient water temperature.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 5 Influence of temperature on muscle properties in relation to
           swimming performance
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 5

      In this chapter, an integrative approach is used to examine temperature effects on muscle function. This is necessary because unlike many organ systems, in the muscular system there is no direct and simple relationship between whole animal performance and its underlying molecular mechanisms. The principal reason is that muscle function not only depends on which proteins are present, but on exactly how those proteins are used In particular, muscle performance depends as much on the velocity (V) at which fibers are shortening as it does on the molecular make-up of the muscle. How the V over which fibers are used varies with temperature cannot be predicted from molecular measurements. Rather, it depends on how the animal swims. In addition, the performance of the fishes' musculature in a particular situation depends on which fibers are recruited and the exact pattern with which they are stimulated. Therefore, to understand the functional significance of temperature effects on molecular properties of muscle, it is necessary to use an integrative approach, which not only is concerned with temperature effects on molecular properties, but also is concerned with the kinematics of muscle movement and recruitment pattern of the muscles during swimming. The chapter examines the influence of temperature on the underlying molecular mechanism of muscle contraction and how they contribute to the overall temperature effect on muscle contraction. It also describes how temperature influences swimming performance, and then, an attempt to explain the thermal limitations on swimming performance in terms of molecular mechanisms. Finally, the mechanisms fish uses to compensate for thermal limitations both acutely and during thermal acclimation are assessed in the chapter.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 6 Effects of temperature on cellular ion regulation and membrane
           transport systems
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 5

      The preservation of ionic balance, despite the direct effects of temperature upon metabolism, is of critical importance to the cells of poikilothermic animals. Because temperature differentially affects the transport mechanisms involved in ion balance, changes in the body temperature of poikilothermic animals, such as fish, may disturb the normal cellular steady state. Cells can respond adaptively to this thermal disturbance by adjustments to the transporting apparatus but these responses may be complex and do not necessarily lead to the maintenance of the status quo ante in respect of cell volume, ion balance or the associated energetic costs. From the animals point of view the most appropriate result is one that takes account of the adaptive needs of the animal in relation to the provision of a positive energy balance as well as of maintained physiological performance. When energy intake is limited, during the winter or during periods of enforced inactivity, then cellular pump activity may be reduced thereby lowering transmembrane ion gradients. This chapter discusses the strategies that animal cells might follow and the circumstances under which they would be adaptive. It then discusses the potential mechanisms by which the individual transport systems are adjusted and the evidence in favor of them.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 7 Burnt tuna: A problem of heat inside and out'
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 5

      ‘Burnt tuna’ is a particular form of postmortem muscle deterioration which occurs commonly in yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, as well as other members of the tuna family. Because yellowfin tunas are tropical and are capable of maintaining body temperatures above that of ambient water temperature there has been a presumption that burnt tuna is caused by heat. This paper reviews research which approached burnt tuna as the end product of high temperature or lactic acidosis as well as more recent work that proposes a specific proteolytic pathway as the cause. The example of burnt tuna will also demonstrate the importance of considering the specific ecology of the animal when investigating cellular mechanisms. Comparative cell physiology's strength lies in its description of the variations in cell regulatory mechanisms which produce many of the familiar species differences. Subtle cellular changes in enzyme kinetics or metabolic end products are amplified at the whole animal level into major physiological adaptations. However, variations in the environment of some members of the species must be considered when studying individual cell mechanisms in order to distinguish between species differences and environmental ones. Using this approach, comparative cell physiology can provide powerful model systems for understanding cell regulation in general.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 8 The effects of pressure on G protein-coupled signal transduction
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 5

      The low temperatures and high hydrostatic pressures of the deep ocean directly affect the structure and function of all the proteins and membranes of ectotherms. The environment is thus an important selective force shaping the evolution of organisms in this extensive habitat. This chapter examines the effects of hydrostatic pressure on one important membrane-associated function, the transduction of an extracellular message into an intracellular second message. A number of approaches have been employed to identify and define at the molecular level the effects of pressure on transmembrane signaling, both on the components in isolation and on the entire functional complex. The effects of pressure have been compared in three cold-adapted species, which are common at different depths and hence experience different pressure regimes. These teleost species have been useful models for studies of pressure adaptation. The membrane system studied, the A1 adenosine receptor was chosen as a representative G protein-coupled receptor and because of its occurrence in teleost brain and the range of pharmacological tools available for its study.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 9 metabolic potentials of deep-sea fishes: A comparative approach
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 5

      The deep-sea is an environment that has long been regarded with wonder. From the early belief that it was stagnant and without life, studies in the later half of the last century revealed that it contained an abundance of life, often of bizarre forms. The idea that deep-sea life was somehow different, being removed as it is from the turbulent surficial realms, fueled early speculation that evolutionary relics “living fossils” might persist there. The belief that the deep-sea is a mysterious realm, whose biota has been relatively untouched by time, has persisted up until the present and, as a result, many poorly documented assertions about deep-sea life have been kept alive far past the time when the data available no longer supported them. In light of this changed view of the deep-sea, this chapter examines the available data beating on the metabolic rates of deep-sea fish. It first describes the patterns of variation in these rates as functions of depth and other oceanographic parameters and then examines hypotheses that may explain these patterns. Description of the patterns and testing of hypotheses focuses on data available on large numbers of fishes from different depths and regions.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 10 Temperature, pressure and the sodium pump: The role of
           homeoviscous adaptation
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 5

      Cellular membrane processes are extremely sensitive to environmental perturbations. Thus, membrane function plays a critical role in determining the temperature and pressure tolerance limits of fishes and other animals. Adaptive and acclimatory changes in cellular membrane lipids and enzymes have received considerable attention from environmental physiologists. One of the most intensively studied membrane proteins is the sodium pump, sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+–K+ ATPase). The direct effects of temperature and pressure on Na+–K+ ATPase activity are relatively large compared to many other enzymes, making it a clear candidate for studies of biochemical adaptation. The aim of this chapter is to describe the biochemical mechanisms used by fishes to maintain Na+-K+ ATPase function in differing physical environments, particularly the role of changes in the membrane lipid environment (homeoviscous adaptation). The activity of Na+-K+ ATPase is strongly dependent upon the surrounding lipids, and numerous studies have used this enzyme to address the functional consequences of homeoviscous adaptation. Studies of temperature effects have primarily focused upon acclimatory responses, whereas pressure studies have been concerned more with interspecific comparisons.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 11 Adaptation to and effects of acid water on the fish gill
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 5

      In a recent review, Kelso and colleagues detailed the effects of atmospheric acidic deposition on fish and fishery resources of Canada. Evidence presented suggested that water system acidification resulted in the loss of fish species as early as the 1950 has and peaked in the early 1970's. The review further indicates that 38% of all of Canada's lakes are in regions susceptible to acidic atmospheric deposition. While the loss of fish species was of concern to governments and the scientific community, investigations into the biological implications and the potential restoration of fish stocks was driven by the economic importance of this resource; approximately 5 billion 1987 dollars or roughly 1% of Canada's gross national product. Therefore, it was not surprising that environmental acidification or “acid rain” became a major research theme of fish and fisheries researchers during the late 1970s and early 1980s. However, in recent years progress has been made in the understanding of this problem—namely, (1) the mechanism(s) by which environmental acidification impairs electrolyte homeostasis, (2) the morphological effects of chronic, sublethal low pH exposure, and (3) the ability/inability of fish to develop increased tolerance to such exposure. Therefore, this chapter addresses these issues while maintaining on overall focus on the gills, as this organ has clearly been established as the primary site of action of environmental acidification.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 12 Biochemical-physiological adaptations of teleosts to highly
           alkaline, saline lakes
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 5

      This chapter discusses the present knowledge of biochemical-physiological adaptations in teleostean species that—permanently or temporarily—are able to cope with ambient pH values above 9, thus hydroxyl-ion concentrations in excess of 10 μ molar. In natural waters, such exceptionally high pH are measured in many of the saline lakes found worldwide, among them the so-called “soda lakes”. As a function of not only decreased proton concentration, but also characteristically high alkalinity and rather unusual ionic compositions, biological diversity in soda lakes is generally very poor. Survival of a particular species will depend on a whole set of factors, i.e. the specific physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the habitat must be perfectly matched by numerous adaptations at the biochemical, physiological, anatomical and behavioral levels. Temporarily, pH values above 9 may also be encountered in marine environments such as intertidal rockpools, as well as in freshwater lakes and streams. Overall, extremely alkaline conditions in natural waters are not as rare as one might first assume. In addition, fish in aquaculture may be accidentally exposed to high pH—for instance, when calcium carbonate is added to pond water for improved fish production or unusual phytoplankton blooms occur due to nutrient input in fishponds.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 13 Cellular mechanisms in calcium transport and homeostasis in
           fish
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 5

      This chapter focuses on regulated calcium transport in fish gills. The branchial epithelium serves a multitude of functions, and this is reflected by its complexity. In the ionocytes, found most abundantly in the interlamellar epithelium, inwardly directed, active calcium transport takes place. These cells are rich in mitochondria and show all other characteristics of ion transporting cells including specialized apical membrane and elaborated basolateral plasma membrane compartments. The net movement of calcium over the branchial epithelium is determined by the magnitudes of the transcellular influx and paracellular efflux that are under defined hormonal control. Hormonal control of calcium influx occurs at the apical membrane and the basolateral membrane of thecalcium transporting cell; control of calcium efflux occurs at the level of the junctional complexes of the epithelium. Fish gills provide a model for a tight epithelium in which stanniocalcin (STC) is a hormone that controls apical membrane calcium transport via second messenger mediated carriers or channels; prolactin (PRL) and/or cortisol determines the transport capacity of the calcium transporting cell by determining the number of calcium pumps in the basolateral plasma membrane; PRL further controls the epithelial permeability to water and ions, including Ca2+, and by doing so PRL controls the integumental Ca2+ efflux of the fish. There is a delicate interplay between PRL and ambient calcium levels in controlling the epithelial permeability to ions.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 14 Biochemistry of fish migration
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 5

      Migration phenomena of fish are fundamental for survival of migrating species, and each migratory behavior has important meanings for their specific life history. The occurrence of migratory behavior in fish goes fin in fin with changes in their specific physiological conditions. Various physiological and metabolic changes play leading roles in making fish successful migratory species. To date, several comprehensive reviews have been published on fish migrations from various aspects, including ecology, bioenergetics, physiology, endocrinology, and evolution. However, recent developments of new techniques, especially biochemical ones, have rapidly accumulated data on endocrinological changes in hormone profiles and metabolic changes in several organs of migratory fish, which were impossible earlier. This chapter focuses on the fish migration from biochemical as well as physiological points of views with special reference to developmental and reproductive migrations in fish, particularly in salmonids. Many salmonid species exhibit the most representative migration between the parental river and the sea, and the homing migration of salmon to the maternal stream is disputably one of the most interesting and challenging phenomenon in fish biology. Other migratory species that show different migratory behaviors from salmonids, such as the catadromous eels and long distance sea migratory species (tuna, anchovy, sardine, etc.) would help to understand the mechanisms of fish migration, but to date too few reports have covered biochemical aspects of migrations to allow generalizations.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 15 Xenobiotics
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 5

      Freshwater and marine systems are the ultimate sinks of both natural and anthropogenic inputs of contaminants into the environment. The sources of such compounds are diverse and many, however, the more important origins of anthropogenic contamination include atmospheric fallout, industrial effluents, runoff from urban, agricultural, and silvicultural operations, and accidental or intentional spills of chemicals. Natural sources of xenobiotics include algal blooms, demineralization, and solubilization of bottom substrates, volcanic eruptions, and seepage of hydrocarbons from submarine oil fields. The number of chemicals used in modern industrial society alone is believed to be over 100,000; therefore, considering the quantities of chemicals used and the novel aspects of many compounds, it is not surprising that they pose a threat to aquatic ecosystems. Fish are important natural resources as they are ecologically valuable, being essential components of healthy aquatic systems, and economically valuable, providing humans with recreation and food. Releases of toxic substances by either human activity or natural causes have resulted in dramatic fish kills, however, it should be noted that exposure to sublethal levels of toxicants may prove to be equally devastating to fish populations. This chapter discusses about the current knowledge regarding the biochemistry of xenobiotic absorption, metabolism, and excretion in fish and the known effects of environmental perturbations on these processes.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 16 Pesticide metabolism and the adverse effects of metabolites on
           fishes
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 5

      Water pollution caused by chemical compounds occurs ever more frequently in the world. The main sources of pollution are agriculture, petroleum refining, domestic sewage, and chemical manufacturing. The adverse effects of such pollution on aquatic life falls into three categories: (1) the direct toxicity of the chemicals to aquatic organisms, (2) the lowering of dissolved oxygen in receiving waters, and (3) the introduction of poor taste and odor to edible flesh of fish. Using enzyme leakage and inhibition of AChE as useful diagnostic tools, this chapter presents a summary of the toxic effect of different types of pesticides and their metabolites on fishes. It specifically focuses on three common pesticides. (1) Paraquat (PQ, 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium-dichloride), a common herbicide; (2) Copper sulphate (CuSO4), which is used as a fungicide in agriculture; and (3) metidathion (MD, S-2,3-dihydro-5-methoxy-2-oxo-l,3,4-thioazol-3-ilmethyl-O,O-dimethyl-phosphodithionate), an organophosphoric ester, which has found application as an insecticide. In addition, it presents data from biochemical and morphological points of view on the effects of environmental factors (water temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen content of the water) on CuSO4 toxicity. It analyzes these interactions to predict damage in the field caused by this particular pesticide.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 17 Biochemical effects of stress
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 5

      The stress response consists of an integrated pattern of adjustments to the physiology and behavior of a fish that promotes the best chance of survival in the face of a noxious or threatening situation. The response is characterized by a switch from an anabolic to a catabolic state, thereby providing the fish with the necessary resources to avoid or overcome the immediate threat, and has evolved as an adaptive response to short-term or acute stresses. If the fish is faced with a continuous, or chronic, stress from which there is no escape (e.g., sublethal pollution, and suboptimal aquaculture conditions), the adaptive value of the response is compromised. The fish may acclimate to the new environmental conditions, albeit at a reduced level of performance, or prolonged activation of the stress response may lead to damaging side effects (e.g., growth suppression, reproductive dysfunction, and immunosuppression) that can ultimately result in mortality. This chapter describes some of the major biochemical changes that occur in stressed fish, because of effects mediated either by stress hormones or because of specific responses to particular types of stress. Because of the diversity of such changes, the information presented is, of necessity, selective, but covers the major areas of respiration, metabolism and growth, osmoregulation, defense (including detoxification) and reproduction. The chapter describes the hormonal changes occurring in stressed fish and concludes by summarizing the biochemical parameters that can be employed as indicators of stress in fish.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 18 Estivation: Mechanisms and control of metabolic suppression
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 5

      When avoidance is not an option, the common survival strategy is to enter a period of estivation. This is achieved through (1) behavioral adjustments aimed at creating a more stable environment, (2) physiological adjustments to reduce water loss and tolerate the accumulation of nitrogenous and respiratory wastes, and (3) molecular and biochemical adjustments aimed towards the suppression of metabolic rate. This final adaptation is perhaps the most important feature of estivation. By slowing energy demanding biochemical rate processes, tissues are capable of conserving metabolic fuel while at the same time reducing the rate of harmful metabolic end-product accumulation. Amongst all the adaptive strategies employed to survive periods of estivation, the suppression of metabolism is the one feature that can extend survival time of the estivator many times beyond that of the other two adjustments alone, and as such, somewhat negates the factor of time. This chapter discusses the physiologic, metabolic, and molecular barriers that fish estivators must surmount to successfully survive chronic periods of drought. In particular, it examines the importance of metabolic suppression and the possible mechanisms by which a reduction in metabolic rate can be achieved under these conditions. Because much of the current literature regarding fish estivation is either anecdotal or limited to a few species, this chapter aims to fill the gaps in knowledge by examining anoxic metabolic arrest in other phylogenetic orders.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Species index
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 5



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Abbreviations
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
  • Chapter 1 Design for a high speed path for oxygen: tuna red muscle
           ultrastructure and vascularization
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:28Z
       
 
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