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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3043 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 83, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 333, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 345, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 310, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 408, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in Veterinary Medicine
  [16 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1093-975X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Vaccination: A philosophical view
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Grease, anthraxgate, and kennel cough: A revisionist history of early
           veterinary vaccines
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      In conclusion, it is remarkable just how farsighted many of the early vaccine investigators were. Jenner was apparently very comfortable with contagion and even recognized that infectious agents could gradually change and adapt to a new species. Pasteur, long before his fowl cholera experiment, dreamed that attenuation could yield safe vaccines and it took him no time at all therefore to recognize the significance of that serendipitous experiment. The fact that two other investigators were also developing anthrax vaccines simultaneously is yet another example of how the times favor certain discoveries. Finally Ferry, while constrained by the fact that he had no idea that distemper was caused by a virus, recognized well the concept of secondary infection and rationalized, not unreasonably, that his vaccine might assist in controlling this. It is also clear that we must look skeptically at the accepted historical record. Thus, it is clear that Jenner used horse-derived material as a source of vaccine material and that vaccinia may in fact be the long-lost agent of horsepox. Certainly this would not be news to many nineteenth-century investigators and veterinarians. Individuals planning to use live vaccinia in recombinant vaccines may wish to keep this in mind. Who discovered anthrax vaccine' Burdon-Sanderson clearly recognized that he could attenuate the organism. Greenfield showed that this could protect against disease although he was far from developing an effective vaccine. Poor Henri Toussaint was probably the first to develop an effective product but did not publicize his results widely. It was left to Louis Pasteur to take the risks inherent in a high-profile public experiment and win. I believe that he richly deserves the prize. Finally, who deserves the credit for distemper vaccine' First, Carré deserves much more credit than hitherto for discovering that distemper was caused by a virus. Second, Ferry, although misled by his identification of B. bronchiseptica deserves credit for realizing that his vaccine could play a role in controlling secondary infections. The true discoverer of an effective distemper vaccine was the Italian, Puntoni, but once again the publicity went to others, Laidlaw and Dunkin. Thus a pattern emerges that prior discovery matters little in the face of aggressive publicity. If nobody knows you did the experiment you might as well have never done it in the first place. Publish or perish is by no means a new phenomenon.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Diagnostic Medicine: The challenge of differentiating infection from
           disease and making sense for the veterinary clinician
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Genetic effects on vaccination
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Nutritional effects on vaccination
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      Immune-induced cachetic response is an example of a biological opportunity to develop technologies that ensure imporved performance in animal agriculture. We have estimated that reduced performance of immune stimulated animals, whether by exposure to conventional environments or through vaccination, results in more than U.S. $500 million in reduced productivity. Nontraditional methods to alleviate the adverse effects of the immune response provide an opportunity for those skilled in the art of vaccinology and immunology to develop new technologies and feeding practices. Too often, biologists are blinded by the limits of their disciplines and rarely venture to the fringe of their field to engage in collaborations that at first glance do not seem logical. The examples of CLA and antigastrointestinal peptides suggest that new opportunities await in ensuring that the cost of the immune response is minimized and that new approaches to animal agriculture await discovery.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Effects of stress on leukocyte trafficking and immune responses:
           Implications for vaccination
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      Increased susceptibility of animals to infectious disease during the periparturient period results in suffering and economic losses. Stress appears to delay inflammation by reducing efficiency of CD62L-mediated immune surveillance by phagocytes. It is important to note that the effects of stress are not limited to alteration of leukocyte trafficking patterns since various stressors (e.g., transport, parturition, and castration) also decrease IFN-γ secretion by lymphocytes, and may decrease antigen presentation efficiency by down-regulating class II molecule expression on antigen presenting cells, and delay or impair immune responses to vaccination. Documented immunosuppression in periparturient animals, particularly the bias toward Th2 immune responses, and also changes in general leukocyte trafficking patterns suggest that vaccination intending to elicit cell-mediated immunity may not be efficacious at this point of the production cycle. Based on findings of numerous periparturient studies on immunosuppression in cattle, waiting at least 30 days after parturition before administering routine vaccinations is recommended.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Role of macrophage cytokines in mucosal adjuvanticity
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      Delivery of protein antigens to the GALT can result in immunity or oral tolerance depending on the circumstances of the encounter. One mechanism by which mucosal adjuvants can affect these circumstances is by the induction of macrophage cytokines, including IL-1 and IL-12. These cytokines can directly affect the immune response by their effects on antigen-specific T cells and by the induction of IFN-γ by T cells or NK cells. This IFN-γ also activates macrophages to up-regulate MHC or costimulatory molecules and by further inducing IL-1 and IL-12. In effect, mucosal adjuvants function both directly and indirectly as activators of antigen presenting cells, resulting in stimulation of the immune response to coincidental antigens. Our studies in swine have shown CT is a potent mucosal adjuvant for CT-B. CT also increased IL-1 and IL-12 mRNA in cultured macrophages, especially after activation with IFN-γ. The effect of CT on the secretion of bioactive IL-12 protein is currently being investigated. While the mucosal adjuvanticity of CT involves a variety of mechanisms, these findings suggest a role for the induction of the macrophage cytokines IL-1 and IL-12.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Cholera toxin B subunit as an immunomodulator for mucosal vaccine delivery
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Deceptive imprinting: Insights into mechanisms of immune evasion and
           vaccine development
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Vaccination against tuberculosis: Recent progress
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Viral vectors for veterinary vaccines
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      Whatever strategy is adopted for the development of viral vectors for delivery of veterinary vaccines there are several key points to consider: (1) Will the vectored vaccine give a delivery advantage compared to what's already available' (2) Will the vectored vaccine give a manufacturing advantage compared to what's already available' (3) Will the vectored vaccine provide improved safety compared to what's already available' (5) Will the vectored vaccine increase the duration of immunity compared to what's already available' (6) Will the vectored vaccine be more convenient to store compared to what's already available' (7) Is the vectored vaccine compatible with other vaccines' If there is no other alternative available then the answer to these questions is easy. However, if there are alternative vaccines available then the answers to these questions become veryimportant because the answers will determine whether a vectored vaccine is merely a good laboratory idea or a successful vaccine.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • DNA immunization: Present and future
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Contribution of advances in immunology to vaccine development
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      During the last 10 years, investigation of the bovine immune system has generated knowledge and reagents that can now be applied to study the mechanisms of immunity to disease and the identity of antigens recognized by protective immune responses. Such studies can indicate which antigens are likely to be effective in subunit vaccines and also highlight the type of antigen delivery system that will be required for a vaccine to induce a protective immune response. In the case of bovine RSV, studies of immune responses in the target host have demonstrated that both antibody and CTL responses play an important role in immunity. Both the F and G glycoproteins have been identified as targets of protective antibodies, and systems have been established that will allow the identification of the viral antigens recognized by CTL. Further studies of CD4+ T-cell responses to the virus are required to determine whether or not components of the response have the potential to enhance disease and, therefore, need to be avoided in vaccination strategies.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Bovine viral vaccines, diagnostics, and eradication: Past, present, and
           future
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Immunization and diagnosis in bovine reproductive tract infections
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Progress and expectations for helminth vaccines
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      The large amount of scientific progress made in the last 5 years has allowed a more rational approach to the design of nematode vaccines to develop. Successful experimental trials have been published using two different approaches, one aiming to boost acquired host immunity through vaccination with natural immunogens, the other affecting parasite viability by targeting parasite molecules crucial for nutrition or survival in the host. The individual or combined action of these two vaccination procedures will need to be evaluated with respect to their potential effects on animal health and productivity in the field. To this effect, more data are required concerning the level and duration of immunity of the vaccine-induced protection using acceptable adjuvant systems. In addition, the age at which vaccination is effective and the effect of vaccination on highly susceptible or temporarily immunosupressed individuals will need to be considered. In the case of gastrointestinal nematodes, the level of pasture contamination with infective larvae is dependent on the worm burdens in the host animal and, in turn, affects the buildup of natural resistance in the host. An appreciation of these complex interactive factors is best achieved through computer simulation models using the powerful simulation software that has recently become available. Further animal trials will need to be performed to establish the necessary data to incorporate into the models and to adapt the model outcomes to the trial results. These epidemiologic and simulation studies should be pursued in parallel with vaccine development so that a better appreciation is gained of the requirements of a successful commercial vaccine.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Vaccines and diagnostic methods for bovine mastitis: Fact and fiction
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      A number of problems are uniquely associated with vaccination of dairy cows for mastitis. One of these is that the number of mastitis pathogens is numerous and heterogeneous. Vaccine efforts have concentrated mainly on the major mastitis pathogens. While at least one S. aureus bacterin has been commercially available for a number of years, no large-scale, independent field trials have been published in refereed journals which support the efficacy of this vaccine. Experimental vaccines for S. aureus composed of pseudocapsule-enriched bacterins supplemented with α- and/or β-toxoids appear promising, but none of these has been commercialized. With S. uberis, some protection against homologous strain challenges was reported recently with a live strain and a bacterin, but other data from the same laboratory showed this vaccine would not protect against heterologous challenge strains. At this time there is only one highly effective vaccine for mastitis, the core-antigen vaccine for coliform mastitis. All of the commercially available vaccines for this indication are bacterins of rough mutants of E. coli strain J5 or Salmonella spp. Preliminary success with an experimental vaccine based on the plasminogen activator of S. uberis is a very different approach for a mastitis vaccine. Little success has been reported with vaccination against other mastitis pathogens. For diagnostic methods, the high somatic cell count, as measured by direct count or indirect assays, remains the cornerstone of mastitis diagnosis. However, for subclinical mastitis, bacterial cell culture is a reliable diagnostic method. Pathogen identification may rely on older biochemical testing methods or newer commercial identification systems, depending on the laboratory budget. ELISA assays also have been used to assess herd infection status. Epidemiologic studies have used DNA fingerprinting and ribotyping, but none of these methods has yet produced an easily utilized commercial format. Within the next decade, additional efficacious vaccines for several of the most common agents for bovine mastitis are likely. A review written at that time then can be more fact than fiction.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • T-cell responses and the influence of dendritic cells in cattle
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Canine viral vaccines at a turning point—A personal perspective
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      The most important canine viral infections are distemper and CPV-2. Problems of variable CD vaccine safety and efficacy persist, but CD vaccines have greatly reduced the prevalence of disease and cases in vaccinated dogs are now rare. Canine hepatitis (ICH, CAV-1 infection) also has been controlled well by vaccines for more than 35 years and it is now rare; the sporadic cases seen in the 1990s have usually occurred in unvaccinated dogs. CAV-2 vaccines should, therefore, continue to be given since they have proved to be safe and effective, and prevent hepatitis as well as adenoviral tracheobronchitis. Failure to vaccinate would likely result in increase in cases of ICH, a serious disease, but never as significant as distemper and CPV infection. “Are we vaccinating too often'” The question is complex, but the dominant opinion is “yes” (Smith, 1995). The question cannot be responded to unequivocally, however, since manufacturers employ different strains that vary in their immunizing capacity and, probably, duration of immunity. This question was frequent with distemper in the 1960s. At that time, many veterinarians tested batches of the vaccine they used by providing pre- and postvaccinal sera to competent diagnostic laboratories. That practice appeared to benefit veterinarians and dogs, as well as the quality of vaccines. Unfortunately, many owners and some veterinarians seem to hold the view that infectious diseases such as parvovirus infection can be controlled by frequent vaccination alone. The common practice of dog breeders of vaccinating their animals several times each year is senseless. Revaccination for distemper and parvovirus infection is suggested at 1 year of age, but recommendations regarding the frequency of most vaccinations given after that time are unclear. Since most distemper and CPV-2 vaccines probably provide immunity that endures several years, vaccination at 3- to 5-year intervals, after the first year, seems a reasonable practice until more data on duration of immunity become available. “Are too many kinds of vaccines being promoted for dogs'” Distemper and parvovirus vaccines are essential; canine adenovirus vaccines are recommended since the few cases brought to our attention in recent years have been in unvaccinated dogs. Vaccination against respiratory infections is recommended for most dogs, especially those in kennels, or if they are to be boarded. Need has not been clearly established for coronavirus vaccines; Lyme disease vaccines (see below) are useful in preventing illness in areas where the disease exists, but are unnecessary elsewhere since dogs respond rapidly to appropriate antibiotics; current Leptospira bacterins are without benefit since they contain serovars that fail to protect in most areas (noted below). Lyme disease (LD) was not considered here, but newer recombinant (OspA) vaccines are now available that appear to be safe and effective for at least 1 year and they have not caused vaccine-induced postvaccinal lameness, which has been documented with certain whole-cell Lyme disease bacterins. Lyme disease vaccines should be restricted to dogs in, or entering, endemic areas where infested ticks reside. More than 85% of LD cases occur in the mid-Atlantic and Northeastern States, about 10% in six Midwestern states (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin), and a smaller percentage in restricted areas of northern California and the Pacific Northwest. Leptospirosis also was not discussed here, but vaccines are commonly reported as a cause of anaphylaxis and current vaccines do not contain the serovars prevalent in most regions. The vast majority of cases diagnosed at the New York State Diagnostic Lab at Cornell are grippotyphosa and pomona serovars and there have been no recent cases caused by canicola or icterohemorrhagiae serovars. Because leptospirosis is an important disease of dogs, there is an urgent need for more research and the development of safer vaccines that contain the prevalent serovars. In Mexico, dogs may be infected with several serovars and some canine vaccines contain 8–10 serovars. The conditio sine qua non is the availability of consistently good vaccines. Without standardization of vaccines, it seems difficult to formulate general vaccine recommendations. Effort should be directed to improving and standardizing the important vaccines in current use, not the development of new products, unless need is demonstrated. The public is becoming increasingly aware of vaccine problems, perhaps even more so than the benefits of vaccination. The reality that all vaccines carry some risk is not fully perceived by many owners and veterinarians. Alternative veterinary medicine is now a growing reality; such practices are being taught in some veterinary colleges and questions pertaining to vaccine safety and efficacy will continue to vex veterinarians, vaccinologists, and vaccine producers. They will have to be addressed. There is a need for better appreciation of the risk of adverse reactions (Duval and Giger, 1996). Finally, the is...
      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Forty years of canine vaccination
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      During the last 40 years vaccines have been developed that have greatly reduced the incidence of infectious diseases of dogs. In general, modified live products have been superior to inactivated vaccines for dogs. It can be expected that recombinant and/or DNA vaccines may dominate the market in the future. Although most vaccines on the market are safe and efficacious, there have been exceptions where disease was induced by vaccination or dogs were not protected. The failure of protection may in part be due to variations in individual vaccine batches. Only potency tests but not efficacy tests are required, which may not be sufficient. For example, a virus titer in a vaccine may be meaningless if the minimum protective dose is not known. Overattenuated virus (e.g., CDV-Ond or parvovirus in cat cells) may have a high titer in tissue culture but is not immunogenic. The question of frequency of vaccination of dogs should be addressed. Annual revaccinations for CDV, CPV, and CAV are probably not needed. However, it would be desirable to collect more data to support less frequent vaccinations. Annual immunization for bacterial diseases such as kennel cough, Lyme disease, and leptospirosis should continue. It also would be desirable to develop more oro/nasal vaccines, perhaps combined with newly developed vectors that are less likely to induce undesirable side effects that may be seen after parenteral vaccination. Finally a word of warning against homeopathic “nosodes” to replace tested canine vaccines. They will appear highly effective as long as the majority of dogs remain vaccinated. As soon as a nonvaccinated dog population is large enough to allow virulent agents to spread, disease outbreaks will occur and we will be back where we began 40 years ago.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Analysis of the protective immunity induced by feline immunodeficiency
           virus vaccination
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Vaccination of cats against emerging and reemerging zoonotic pathogens
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      Many of the emerging infectious agents that threaten the human population are either directly zoonotic or involve animals, rather than humans, as their primary reservoir in nature. Vaccination of animals may be an important consideration for control of some of these diseases, and this review has specifically focused on the concept of vaccinating cats in the prevention of infection with T. gondii, B. henselae, and H. pylori. If we return to the considerations that were presented in Table III, T. gondii is really the only one of these three agents for which each of these “criteria” for vaccination is fulfilled at the present time. However, cats clearly play an important role in the epidemiology of infection with B. henselae and this is an organism for which we probably will and should see a vaccine for widespread and routine use in cats.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Evaluation of risks and benefits associated with vaccination against
           coronavirus infections in cats
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Diagnosis and prevention of equine infectious diseases: Present status,
           potential, and challenges for the future
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      The frequent transfers of horses, whether on a permanent or temporary basis, make strict control of infectious diseases essential. Such control needs a reliable and rapid means to accurately diagnose the relevant diseases. Indirect diagnosis based on antibody detection remains certainly the best method to secure the epidemiologic surveillance of the diseases at regional, national, or even world level, while direct diagnosis is the only way to diagnose a new outbreak. New diagnostic methods resulting from advances in biochemistry, molecular biology, and immunology are now available. As far as antibody detection is concerned, the new methods are mainly based on immunoassays, especially ELISAs. Regarding the identification of the pathogens, while isolation is still of importance, much progress has been made with immunocapture tests including capture ELISA based on monoclonal antibodies. DNA probes and amplification tests such as PCR or RT-PCR are representing a real breakthrough. Factors common to all of these tests are specificity, sensitivity, rapid implementation, and quick results. Such tests are, however, often still at the development stage. They absolutely need to be validated under multicentric evaluations prior to being used on a larger scale. At the same time there is an obvious need for the standardization of the reagents used. The technical and economic impact of a false (either positive or negative) diagnosis justifies such an harmonization which could effectively be achieved worldwide under the aegis of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), which is itself the primary source of disease information. Vaccines are also essential for the control of equine infectious diseases. Most vaccines used in the prevention of viral or bacterial diseases are inactivated adjuvanted vaccines, which may cause unacceptable side effects. Also, their efficacy can sometimes be questioned. Subunit vaccines, when available, represent significant advances especially with regards to safety. Greater progress is expected from the use of new technologies taking advantage of recent developments in molecular biology (recombinant DNA technology) and in immunology (immunomodulators). Significant results have been obtained with subunit vaccines or with live vectored vaccines using recombinant DNA technology. Good results are on the way to be achieved with genetic (or naked-DNA) vaccines. It is therefore possible to expect the availability of a new generation of vaccines in the rather short term. Such vaccines will not only be safer and more efficacious, but they will also make it possible to differentiate vaccinated from infected animals, which will contribute to better control of the infection. Whatever the quality of the vaccines of the future may be, vaccination alone will never be sufficient to control infectious diseases. It is therefore essential to keep on making the animal owners and their veterinarians aware of the importance of the management and the hygiene in the diseases control and to organize them under “Common Codes of Practice”.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • The equine influenza surveillance program
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Vaccination against Strongylus vulgaris in ponies: Comparison of the
           humoral and cytokine responses of vaccinates and nonvaccinates
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • ISCOM: A delivery system for neonates and for mucosal administration
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • An epidemiologic approach to evaluating the importance of
           immunoprophylaxis
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Present uses of and experiences with swine vaccines
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Enteric viral infections of pigs and strategies for induction of mucosal
           immunity
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Use of interleukin 12 to enhance the cellular immune response of swine to
           an inactivated herpesvirus vaccine
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Swinepox virus as a vaccine vector for swine pathogens
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      Several small and large viruses (e.g., adenovirus, poxvirus, and herpesviruses) have been investigated as vaccine vectors. Each viral system has its advantages and disadvantages. One major advantage for viral vector vaccines is their ability to elicit a protective cell-mediated immunity as well as a humoral response to the antigen delivered by the vector. One major problem to using recombinant viruses as vaccines is the pathogenic potential of the parent virus. Therefore, it is important that along with the optimal expression of the foreign genes and ability to provide protection, the pathogenicity of the vector virus must be reduced during genetic manipulation without affecting its multiplication. The requirements to develop a viral vector, for example, swinepox virus, are a cell culture system that will support the growth of the virus, a suitable nonessential region(s) in the virus genome for insertion of foreign DNA so that virus replication is not affected, a foreign gene(s) that encodes for an immunogenic protein of a swine pathogen, strong transcriptional regulatory elements (promoters) necessary for optimal expression of the foreign genes, a procedure for delivering the foreign gene(s) into the nonessential locus, and a convenient method of distinguishing the recombinant viruses from the parent wild-type virus. Using this methodology, recombinant swinepox virus vaccines expressing pseudorabies virus antigens have been developed and shown to provide protection against challenge. These studies and evidence of local infection of the oral tract by swinepox virus indicate its potential as a recombinant vector for providing immunity against various swine pathogens including those that infect the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Introduction to poultry vaccines and immunity
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      The poultry industry constitutes a significant sector of world agriculture. In the United States, more than 8 billion birds are produced yearly with a value exceeding $20 billion. Broiler chickens are the largest segment of the industry. Birds raised under commercial conditions are vulnerable to environmental exposure to a number of pathogens. Therefore, disease prevention by vaccination is an integral part of flock health management protocols. Active immunization using live vaccines is the current industry standard. Routinely used vaccines in chickens include MDV, NDV, IBV, and IBDV, and in turkeys NDV and HEV. Newer vaccines, including molecular recombinants in which genes of immunogenic proteins from infectious agents are inserted into a live viral vector, are also being examined for commercial use. Efforts are under way to enhance vaccine efficacy by the use of adjuvants, particularly cytokines. The vaccine delivery systems include in ovo injection, aerosol, spray, drinking water, eye drop, and wing web injection. The in ovo vaccination procedure is relatively new and at the present time it is used primarily to vaccinate broiler chickens against MDV. Birds respond to vaccines by developing humoral and cellular immune responses. Bursa of Fabricius and the thymus serve as the primary lymphoid organs of the immune system. B cells use surface immunoglobulins as antigen receptors and differentiate into plasma cells to secrete antibodies. Three classes of antibodies are produced: IgM, IgG (also called IgY), and IgA. Successful vaccinal response in a flock is often monitored by demonstrating a rise in antibody titer within a few days of vaccination. ELISA is used most commonly for serologic monitoring. T cells are the principal effector cells of specific cellular immunity. T cells differentiate into αβ and γδ cells. In adult birds, γδ cells may constitute up to 50% of the circulating T cells. Functionally, CD4+ cells serve as helper cells and CD8+ cells as cytotoxic/suppressor cells.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • In ovo vaccination technology
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      More than 80% of the U.S. broiler industry has converted to the in ovo vaccination process for control of Marek's disease. Providing certain criteria are met, including timing and site of vaccine placement, vaccine mixing, machine sanitization, and hatchery management specifications, this has proven to be an efficacious and convenient method of vaccination. Efforts to extend the technology for other viral vaccines including Newcastle, bronchitis and bursal disease and bacterial and parasitic vaccines are in progress. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that in ovo vaccination technology using approved vaccine is a safe, efficacious, and convenient method for vaccination of poultry.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Current and future recombinant viral vaccines for poultry
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      The use of biotechnology to create recombinant viral vaccines holds many promises for the future. But, to be practical, new vaccines must have a selective advantage over traditional vaccines. A vaccine that is novel because it is a recombinant vaccine is not enough. Recombinant vaccines must be safer, or more efficacious, or less expensive to produce in order for them to gain a niche in the marketplace.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Development and use of modified live Edwardsiella ictaluri vaccine against
           enteric septicemia of catfish
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      The present study showed that E. ictaluri RE-33 vaccine does not cause ESC but does stimulate protective immunity. The RE-33 vaccinates were protected against ESC for at least 4 months following a single bath immersion in a low number of E. ictaluri RE-33 without booster vaccination. Antibody responses are weak after RE-33 vaccination. Edwardsiella ictaluri RE-33 vaccine presents no risk or hazard to catfish. RE-33 vaccine will prevent ESC caused by most isolates of E. ictaluri in catfish. We recently obtained from USDA, Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), and the state veterinariants of Alabama and Mississippi, approval to field test the RE-33 vaccine in young catfish. About 2–3 million 10− to 30-day-old channel catfish in Alabama and Mississippi have been vaccinated since June 1997 with no adverse effects of vaccination.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Fish vaccines
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      Fish vaccines can be delivered the same way we immunize warm-blooded animals. Fish can be immunized by immersion in vaccine for a short period of time—30 seconds to 2 minutes. They can be immunized by injection, intramuscularly or intraperitoneally, and orally by mixing vaccines with feed either by top dressing or by incorporating into feed as an ingredient. Fish also respond to vaccine the same way as other animals do, but since fish are cold-blooded animals, the response to vaccine depends largely on the water temperature. In general, the higher the water temperature, the faster the immune response of fish to the vaccine. During the past 20 years fish vccines have become an established, proven, and cost-effective method of controlling certain infectious diseases in aquaculture worldwide. Fish vaccines can significantly reduce specific disease-related losses resulting in a reduction of antibiotics use. The final result is the decrease of overall unit costs and more predictable production. Fish vaccines are advantageous over antibiotics because they are natural biological materials that leave no residue in the product or environment, and therefore will not induce a resistant strain of the disease organism. Fish vaccines are licensed by the federal government and closely regulated in the same manner as all other veterinary vaccines to ensure safety, potency, and efficacy. Even though commercial vaccines for aquaculture work really well in terms of protecting the fish against certain diseases, they should be used only as part of the overall fish health management program, because fish vaccines are not a cure-all. Animal husbandry is still the key to success in aquaculture.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Cross-species vaccination in wild and exotic animals
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      These are two examples of organisms which may cause morbidity and/or mortality among numerous unrelated species. Since it is cost prohibitive in most instances to have a biological licensed for wild or exotic species, it remains a challenge to the zoo or wildlife veterinarian to determine if a licensed vaccine for other species is safe and efficacious for a particular exotic species.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Some experiments and field observations of distemper in mink and ferrets
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Vaccination of wildlife against rabies: Successful use of a vectored
           vaccine obtained by recombinant technology
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      The impact of recombinant technology in veterinary and human medicine can only be hypothesized at this time. The development of vaccines and other biological products that go beyond the abilities of conventional products demonstrates the benefits of this new technology. Raboral V-RG was developed as an alternative rabies vaccine with the novel attribute of being effective by the oral route. Within 10 years after its first application as an experimental vaccine in European, red foxes it developed into a useful tool and is being used to curtail rabies epizootics in three wildlife species in the United States. The use of this vaccine can be considered as monumental in contributing to the control of rabies in species that were at one time considered to be incapable of vaccination in large-scale campaigns.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Authorities and procedures for licensing veterinary biological products in
           the United States
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      The licensing procedures reviewed above provide a framework for the production of pure, safe, potent, and efficacious veterinary biological products. The licensing, inspection, and testing activities of the Veterinary Biologics program provide the oversight necessary to ensure the continued availability of high-quality veterinary biological products in the United States.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Licensing procedures for immunological veterinary medicinal products in
           the European Union
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      With the adoption of the new authorization system, all regulatory needs for veterinary medicinal products have been fulfilled with the European Union. This system, indeed, provides access to a continent-wide market to innovative products, in particular vaccines, and facilitates access to the markets of the Member States for other products. This should have a clearly favorable impact on the veterinary vaccines industry.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • International Association of Biological Standardization and International
           Harmonization
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Technical requirements for the licensing of pseudorabies (Aujeszky's
           disease) vaccines in the European Union
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41

      Under the light of current scientific knowledge, particularly with the progress of molecular biology and of the definition of assays to be performed, it is possible to know, as accurately as possible, the biological properties of a vaccine. Most requirements of EP monographs and Directive 92/18 are founded on that concept. It is clear that there is a balance between safety and efficacy in the case of a live attenuated viral strain that means the more efficient a strain, the less safe it can be. Nevertheless, the problem is more complex; considerable progress has been done to set up new finished products and particularly with the adjuvants which are used now even in combination with live attenuated AD strains. The efficacy of a vaccine can be greatly enhanced, maintaining good local and general safety. But a debate always occurs when it is necessary to determine the acceptability threshold of a vaccine with regard to its safety and efficacy. The points of view are often very divergent. But, in any case, this threshold depends on the local conditions in the different countries. It is clear that objectives of a vaccination program and the requirements about a vaccine cannot be the same in heavily infected countries with a compulsory vaccination program as in countries or regions with a low prevalence of AD infection or with an absence of any infection. Moreover, it must also be considered that vaccines constitute only one element of a control or eradication program targeted against Aujeszky's disease virus.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
  • Specific licensing considerations for modified live pseudorabies vaccines
           in the United States
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Veterinary Medicine, Volume 41



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:14:12Z
       
 
 
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