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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3181 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3181 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 105, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 441, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 318, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 424, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 388, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 481, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 265, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 227, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Pharmacology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.536
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 17  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1054-3589
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3181 journals]
  • Toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine herbal and mineral products
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): Runping Liu, Xiaojiaoyang Li, Nana Huang, Mengyue Fan, Rong Sun Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used to treat numerous kinds of diseases for more than 2000 years in eastern Asian countries. A portion of the TCM herbal and mineral products are believed to be toxic according to modern standards, and are still widely prescribed in the clinic. However, some TCM products considered to be non-toxic or low-toxic have been reported to possess significant toxicological effects on different organs in both animal and human models. In this review, we define the term “toxic” in TCM, and then we summarize the advances in pharmacology and toxicology research of Toxic Traditional Chinese Medicine (TTCM), including Chinese aconite (Fu Zi), Arsenic Trioxide, Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. (Thunder God Vine), herbal drugs derived from plants in the Aristolochiaceae Juss. family (Ma Dou Ling), and other TCM products. Finally, the compatibility art of TCM and modern pharmaceutical approaches to manage undesired toxicity of TTCM is discussed. Promoting pharmacology and toxicology studies of TTCM and non-toxic TCM is critical for the further development and safety of TCM in clinical practice.
       
  • Fungal polysaccharides
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): Zhiyong Xiao, Wenxia Zhou, Yongxiang Zhang Fungal bioactive polysaccharides are well known and have been widely used in Asia as a part of the traditional diet and medicine. In fact, some biopolymers (mainly β-glucans or glycoconjugate) have already made their way to the market as antitumor or immunostimulating drugs. In the last decades, the relationship between structure and activity of polysaccharides and their detailed mode of action have been the core of intense research to understand and utilize their medicinal properties. Most of the antitumor polysaccharides belong to conserved β-glucans, with a linear β-(1 → 3)-glucan backbone and attached β-(1 → 6) branch. Structurally different β-glucans appear to have different affinities toward their receptors and thus generate markedly different host responses. However, their antitumor activities are mainly influenced by molecular mass, degree of branching, conformation, and structure modification of the polysaccharides. β-Glucans act on several immune receptors including Dectin-1, complement receptor (CR3) and TLR-2/6, then trigger both innate and adaptive response and enhance opsonic and nonopsonic phagocytosis. Various receptor interactions explain the possible mode of actions of polysaccharides.
       
  • Modern traditional Chinese medicine: Identifying, defining and usage of
           TCM components
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): David J. Newman TCM-based medications have been used for millennia in China and have always been “different” from current Western-based medicines in that they frequently are still mixtures of predominately plant products. From the early 20th Century, there has been a move to identify both the actual compounds in these mixes, and then over the past approximately 50 years, to utilize early information for current diseases, with an example being artemisinin for treatment of malaria. Since that discovery, Western scientists, together with their Chinese counterparts, have begun to investigate how TCM compositions can be utilized to discover new agents, sometimes the actual TCM-based compound(s) but also by utilizing the pharmacophores from such preparations that have utility in human diseases. The examples in this review include artemisinin derivatives and their manifold bioactivities, indirubins and derivatives as antitumor agents, arsenicals predominately as treatment for leukemia, though extending into other cancer types. Finally, there are sections discussing the use of current computerized techniques that combine metabolomics, mass spectroscopy/HPLC, and network pharmacology with the aim of identifying the “active principles” in relevant TCM preparations and finally how high content screening can be utilized in conjunction with the other analytical techniques.
       
  • Selective allosteric modulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors for
           the treatment of schizophrenia and substance use disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): Laura B. Teal, Robert W. Gould, Andrew S. Felts, Carrie K. Jones Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChRs) subtypes represent exciting new targets for the treatment of schizophrenia and substance use disorder (SUD). Recent advances in the development of subtype-selective allosteric modulators have revealed promising effects in preclinical models targeting the different symptoms observed in schizophrenia and SUD. M1 PAMs display potential for addressing the negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia, while M4 PAMs exhibit promise in treating preclinical models predictive of antipsychotic-like activity. In SUD, there is increasing support for modulation of mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic circuitry involved in SUD with selective M4 mAChR PAMs or M5 mAChR NAMs. Allosteric modulators of these mAChR subtypes have demonstrated efficacy in rodent models of cocaine and ethanol seeking, with indications that these ligand may also be useful for other substances of abuse, as well as in various stages in the cycle of addiction. Importantly, allosteric modulators of the different mAChR subtypes may provide viable treatment options, while conferring greater subtype specificity and corresponding enhanced therapeutic index than orthosteric muscarinic ligands and maintaining endogenous temporo-spatial ACh signaling. Overall, subtype specific mAChR allosteric modulators represent important novel therapeutic mechanisms for schizophrenia and SUD.
       
  • Positive allosteric modulators of the dopamine D1 receptor: A new
           mechanism for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): Kjell A. Svensson, Junliang Hao, Robert F. Bruns The dopamine D1 receptor plays an important role in motor activity, reward, and cognition. Efforts to develop D1 agonists have been mixed due to poor drug-like properties, tachyphylaxis, and inverted U-shaped dose-response curves. Recently, positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) for the dopamine D1 receptor were discovered and initial pharmacological profiling has suggested that several of the above issues could be addressed with this mechanism. This paper presents an overview of key findings for DETQ (2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-1-((1S,3R)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-5-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-1-methyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)ethan-1-one), which is currently the only D1 PAM for which published in vivo data is available. In vitro studies showed selective potentiation of the human D1 receptor without significant allosteric agonist effects. Due to a species difference in affinity for DETQ, transgenic mice expressing the human D1 receptor (hD1 mice) were used in vivo. In contrast to D1 agonists, DETQ increased locomotor activity over a wide dose-range without inverted U-shaped dose response or tachyphylaxis. DETQ also reversed hypo-activity in mice with dopamine depletion due to reserpine pretreatment, suggesting potential for treatment of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Potential pro-cognitive effects were supported by improved performance in the novel object recognition task, enhanced release of cortical acetylcholine and histamine, and increased phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor (GluR1) and the transcription factor CREB. In addition, DETQ enhanced wakefulness in EEG studies and decreased immobility in the forced-swim test. Together, these results provide support for potential utility of D1 PAMs in the treatment of several neuropsychiatric disorders. LY3154207, a close analog of DETQ, is currently in phase 2 clinical trials.
       
  • Chapter One - Primary hepatocytes and their cultures for the testing of
           drug-induced liver injury
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Pharmacology, Volume 85Author(s): Vânia Vilas-Boas, Axelle Cooreman, Eva Gijbels, Raf Van Campenhout, Emma Gustafson, Steven Ballet, Pieter Annaert, Bruno Cogliati, Mathieu Vinken Drug-induced liver injury is a major reason for discontinuation of drug development and withdrawal of drugs from the market. Intensive efforts in the last decades have focused on the establishment and finetuning of liver-based in vitro models for reliable prediction of hepatotoxicity triggered by drug candidates. Of those, primary hepatocytes and their cultures still are considered the gold standard, as they provide an acceptable reflection of the hepatic in vivo situation. Nevertheless, these in vitro systems cope with gradual deterioration of the differentiated morphological and functional phenotype. The present paper gives an overview of traditional and more recently introduced strategies to counteract this dedifferentiation process in an attempt to set up culture models that can be used for long-term testing purposes. The relevance and applicability of such optimized cultures of primary hepatocytes for the testing of drug-induced cholestatic liver injury is demonstrated.
       
  • Medications development for food-based and drug use disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): Fernando B. de Moura, Stephen J. Kohut, Jack Bergman Despite decades of research, few medications have gained Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the management of substance abuse disorder. The paucity of successful medications can be attributed, in part, to the lack of clearly identified neurobiological targets for addressing the core pathology of addictive behavior. Commonalities in the behavioral and brain processes involved in the rewarding effects of drugs and foods has prompted the evaluation of candidate medications that target neural pathways involved in both drug and eating disorders. Here, pharmacological strategies for the development of novel medications for drug addiction are presented in the context of potential overlapping neurobiological targets identified for eating disorders (e.g., obesity, overeating, binge-eating) and substance abuse. Mechanisms discussed in this chapter include modulators of the gut-brain axis (e.g., leptin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and pancreatic peptides) and neurotransmitter systems (e.g., opioids, cannabinoids, dopamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine).
       
  • Nitric oxide: Antidepressant mechanisms and inflammation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): Mehdi Ghasemi Millions of individuals worldwide suffers from mood disorders, especially major depressive disorder (MDD), which has a high rate of disease burden in society. Although targeting the biogenic amines including serotonin, and norepinephrine have provided invaluable links with the pharmacological treatment of MDD over the last four decades, a growing body of evidence suggest that other biologic systems could contribute to the pathophysiology and treatment of MDD. In this chapter, we highlight the potential role of nitric oxide (NO) signaling in the pathophysiology and thereby treatment of MDD. This has been investigated over the last four decades by showing that (i) levels of NO are altered in patients with major depression; (ii) modulators of NO signaling exert antidepressant effects in patients with MDD or in the animal studies; (iii) NO signaling could be targeted by a variety of antidepressants in animal models of depression; and (iv) NO signaling can potentially modulate the inflammatory pathways that underlie the pathophysiology of MDD. These findings, which hypothesize an NO involvement in MDD, can provide a new insight into novel therapeutic approaches for patients with MDD in the future.
       
  • GPCR drug discovery-moving beyond the orthosteric to the allosteric domain
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 May 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): Christian C. Felder Allosteric modulation of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is rapidly becoming a standard option for development of therapeutics headed to the clinic. Although GPCRs represent about 35% of marketed drugs, to date only two allosteric modulators have been approved for human use. However, many are now in early clinical development are can provide unique regulation of GPCRs including high selectivity along with physiologic temporal and spatial signaling. These molecules bind to a site that is distinct from the site where the endogenous agonist binds yet can provide robust modulation effects that span from the positive to the negative. Along with classical chemogenomic techniques, newer technology is being directly applied to their development including three dimensional biophysical structure-function analysis and in silico molecular dynamic simulations. The goal is to provide rationally designed molecules from well informed physical and in silico data to speed the discovery and development of the next generation therapeutics. In this chapter an example of the evolution of allosteric drug discovery targeting the muscarinic receptor family should serve to inform of progress in this exciting area of research and early drug development.
       
  • Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD): Current treatments and a framework
           for neurotherapeutic research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): Erik Z. Woody, Kurt Leroy Hoffman, Henry Szechtman We briefly review current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of OCD, noting their lack of a strong theoretical foundation. In keeping with the Research Domain Criteria project (RDoC) calls for reconceptualizing psychopathology in ways that better link up with normal brain systems, we advance an adaptationist, brain-network perspective on OCD and propose that OCD represents a dysfunction in the stopping dynamics of a normal brain network that evolved to handle potential danger. We then illustrate how this theoretical perspective can be used to organize possibilities for research on neurotherapeutics for OCD and suggest novel directions for future work.
       
  • Lipid rafts in psychiatry
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): Nathan H. Wray, Mark M. Rasenick Lipid microenvironments in the plasma membrane are known to influence many signal transduction pathways. Several of those pathways are critical for both the etiology and treatment of depression. Further, several signaling proteins are modified, covalently, by lipids, a process that alters their interface with the microenvironments mentioned above. This review presents a brief discussion of the interface of the above elements as well as a discussion about the participation of lipids and lipid moieties in the action of antidepressants.
       
  • Idiosyncratic Drug-Induced Liver Injury in Patients: Detection, Severity
           Assessment, and Regulatory Implications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): Paul B. Watkins Idiosyncratic Drug-Induced Liver Injury (IDILI) is a rare but potentially life-threatening event that is caused by drugs that, at usual therapeutic doses, do not cause any biochemical or clinical evidence of liver injury in the majority of treated patients. The most common clinical phenotypes of IDILI are “acute hepatitis,” “mixed hepatocellular-cholestatic hepatitis,” and “cholestatic hepatitis” and these are distinguished by clinical, biochemical and histologic characteristics. Anti-microbials, herbals and dietary supplements are now the agents most often implicated in the US Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network registry. There are several scales that have been used to characterize the severity of IDILI events. There are no reliable means to accurately predict the course of an IDILI event at presentation. In clinical trials, the “gold standard” liver safety signal is the occurrence of “Hy's Law Cases.” Making the diagnosis of IDILI, and when a patient is taking multiple drugs, identifying the most likely culprit can be challenging, but many drugs cause IDILI with characteristic clinical and biochemical presentations, or “signatures.” In a clinical trial, it is sometimes possible to identify an overlooked “signature” of IDILI by characterizing more minor, asymptomatic, and transient elevations in liver chemistries. This observation can be helpful in assessing causation in rare serious liver events occurring in the clinical trial, or first recognized post-marketing.
       
  • Rapid-acting antidepressants
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): Jeffrey M. Witkin, Anna E. Martin, Lalit K. Golani, Nina Z. Xu, Jodi L. Smith Conventional antidepressants (biogenic amine mechanisms) are not fully efficacious (e.g., symptoms remain after treatment, not all patients respond), produce effects only after weeks of daily dosing, and do not impact all disease symptoms. In contrast, a new class of antidepressants has been emerging since 2006 that has demonstrated rapid onset, large effect size, activity after only a single or few dose applications, and positive impact in treatment refractory patients and against some treatment-resistant symptoms (e.g., anhedonia). Rapid-acting antidepressant drug action has been demonstrated in controlled clinical studies for ketamine, a few other NMDA receptor antagonists, and scopolamine. Less clinical data are currently available for psychedelic drugs such as psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide, and ayahuasca. The mechanisms of action of rapid-acting antidepressants are not fully understood. However, a general triggering mechanism appears to involve the potentiation of AMPA receptor function. Although the durability of antidepressant effects of ketamine and scopolamine is limited, psychedelic drugs have been reported to produce effects for many months. The primary impediment to generating a medicine of this type for depressed patients is side effects and the lack of methods to ensure enduring antidepressant effects. Thus, further exploration of drug possibilities continues. Esketamine ((S)-ketamine) was recently FDA approved. Compounds currently in clinical development include the NMDA receptor antagonist (R)-ketamine, the NMDA receptor modulator, GLYX-13 (Rapastinel), and the AMPA receptor potentiator TAK-653. Additional pharmacological classes have produced effects in the preclinical laboratory to suggest their potential as rapid-acting agents. These include mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists, AMPA receptor potentiators, and negative allosteric modulators of GABAA(α5) receptors. In all cases, molecules exist that could be used to provide clinical proof of concept testing.
       
  • mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): Shigeyuki Chaki Abnormalities of glutamatergic transmission are implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. Among the glutamate receptors, metabotropic (mGlu) 2/3 receptors have recently gained much attention as molecular targets for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric disorders including depression and anxiety. Both orthosteric and allosteric antagonists of mGlu2/3 receptors have been synthesized, and their therapeutic potential has been examined. These research activities have demonstrated the promise of mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists as potential treatment agents for the above-mentioned neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, it has been considered that the antidepressant effects of mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists are worthy of pursuing, since the antidepressant profiles as well as synaptic/neural mechanisms involved in the actions of mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists are similar to those of ketamine, which has been demonstrated to show potent, rapid and sustained efficacy in patients with depression, even those resistant to the conventionally prescribed antidepressants. In this chapter, the general pharmacology of mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists and their therapeutic potential are reviewed. In particular, I focus on the usefulness of mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists as novel antidepressants, in comparison with ketamine.
       
  • Mechanisms and Biomarkers of Liver Regeneration After Drug-Induced Liver
           Injury
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): Melissa M. Clemens, Mitchell R. McGill, Udayan Apte Liver, the major metabolic organ in the body, is known for its remarkable capacity to regenerate. Whereas partial hepatectomy (PHx) is a popular model for the study of liver regeneration, the liver also regenerates after acute injury, but less is known about the mechanisms that drive it.Recent studies have shown that liver regeneration is critical for survival in acute liver failure (ALF), which is usually due to drug-induced liver injury (DILI). It is sometimes assumed that the signaling pathways involved are similar to those that regulate regeneration after PHx, but there are likely to be critical differences. A better understanding of regeneration mechanisms after DILI and hepatotoxicity in general could lead to development of new therapies for ALF patients and new biomarkers to predict patient outcome. Here, we summarize what is known about the mechanisms of liver regeneration and repair after hepatotoxicity. We also review the literature in the emerging field of liver regeneration biomarkers.
       
  • Biomarkers of Drug-Induced Liver Injury
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): Mitchell R. McGill, Hartmut Jaeschke Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major clinical and regulatory challenge. As a result, interest in DILI biomarkers is growing. So far, considerable progress has been made in identification of biomarkers for diagnosis (acetaminophen-cysteine protein adducts), prediction (genetic biomarkers), and prognosis (microRNA-122, high mobility group box 1 protein, keratin-18, glutamate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial DNA). Many of those biomarkers also provide mechanistic insight. The purpose of this chapter is to review major advances in DILI biomarker research over the last decade, and to highlight some of the challenges involved in implementation. Although much work has been done, more liver-specific biomarkers, more DILI-specific biomarkers, and better prognostic biomarkers for survival are all still needed. Furthermore, more work is needed to define reference intervals and medical decision limits.
       
  • Role and Mechanisms of Autophagy in Alcohol-induced Liver Injury
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): Xiaojuan Chao, Wen-Xing Ding Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is one of the major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Currently, no successful treatments are available for ALD. The pathogenesis of ALD is characterized as simple steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis (AH), and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular catabolic process, which aims at recycling cellular components and removing damaged organelles in response to starvation and stresses. Therefore, autophagy is considered as an important cellular adaptive and survival mechanism under various pathophysiological conditions. Recent studies from our lab and others suggest that chronic alcohol consumption may impair autophagy and contribute to the pathogenesis of ALD. In this chapter, we summarize recent progress on the role and mechanisms of autophagy in the development of ALD. Understanding the roles of autophagy in ALD may offer novel therapeutic avenues against ALD by targeting these pathways.
       
  • Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity: A mitochondrial perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): Anup Ramachandran, Hartmut Jaeschke Acetaminophen (APAP) is a highly effective analgesic, which is safe at therapeutic doses. However, an overdose can cause hepatotoxicity and even liver failure. APAP toxicity is currently the most common cause of acute liver failure in the United States. Decades of research on mechanisms of liver injury have established the role of mitochondria as central players in APAP-induced hepatocyte necrosis and this chapter examines the various facets of the organelle's involvement in the process of injury as well as in resolution of damage. The injury process is initiated by formation of a reactive metabolite, which binds to sulfhydryl groups of cellular proteins including mitochondrial proteins. This inhibits the electron transport chain and leads to formation of reactive oxygen species, which induce the activation of redox-sensitive members of the MAP kinase family ultimately causing activation of c-Jun N terminal kinase, JNK. Translocation of JNK to the mitochondria then amplifies mitochondrial dysfunction, ultimately resulting in mitochondrial permeability transition and release of mitochondrial intermembrane proteins, which trigger nuclear DNA fragmentation. Together, these events result in hepatocyte necrosis, while adaptive mechanisms such as mitophagy remove damaged mitochondria and minimize the extent of the injury. This oscillation between recovery and necrosis is predominant in cells at the edge of the necrotic area in the liver, where induction of mitochondrial biogenesis is important for liver regeneration. All these aspects of mitochondria in APAP hepatotoxicity, as well as their relevance to humans with APAP overdose and development of therapeutic approaches will be examined in detail in this chapter.
       
  • Cell Death in Drug-Induced Liver Injury
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): Andrea Iorga, Lily Dara Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of liver toxicity which can have varying clinical presentations, the most severe of which being acute liver failure. Hepatocyte death as a cause of drug toxicity is a feature of DILI. There are multiple cell death subroutines; some, like apoptosis, necroptosis, autophagy, and necrosis have been extensively studied, while others such as pyroptosis and ferroptosis have been more recently described. The mode of cell death in DILI depends on the culprit drug, as it largely dictates the mechanism and extent of injury. The main cell death subroutines in DILI are apoptosis and necrosis, with mitochondrial involvement being pivotal for the execution of both. A few drugs such as acetaminophen (APAP) can cause direct, dose-dependent toxicity, while the majority of drugs cause idiosyncratic DILI (IDILI). IDILI is an unpredictable form of liver injury that is not dose dependent, occurs in individuals with a genetic predisposition, and presents with variable latency. APAP-induced programmed necrosis has been extensively studied. However, the mechanisms and pathogenesis of cell death from drugs causing IDILI are harder to elucidate due to the complex and multifactorial nature of the disease. Cell death in IDILI is likely death receptor-mediated apoptosis and the result of an activated innate and adaptive immune system, compounded by other host factors such as genetics, gender, age, and capacity for immune tolerance. This chapter will review the different modes of cell death, namely apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis, autophagy, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis and their pertinence to DILI.
       
  • Drug-induced liver injury in obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): Julien Allard, Dounia Le Guillou, Karima Begriche, Bernard Fromenty Obesity is commonly associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), a benign condition characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation. However, NAFL can progress in some patients to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and then to severe liver lesions including extensive fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The entire spectrum of these hepatic lesions is referred to as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The transition of simple fatty liver to NASH seems to be favored by several genetic and environmental factors. Different experimental and clinical investigations showed or suggested that obesity and NAFLD are able to increase the risk of hepatotoxicity of different drugs. Some of these drugs may cause more severe and/or more frequent acute liver injury in obese individuals whereas others may trigger the transition of simple fatty liver to NASH or may worsen hepatic lipid accumulation, necroinflammation and fibrosis. This review presents the available information regarding drugs that may cause a specific risk in the context of obesity and NAFLD. These drugs, which belong to different pharmacological classes, include acetaminophen, halothane, methotrexate, rosiglitazone and tamoxifen. For some of these drugs, experimental investigations confirmed the clinical observations and unveiled different pathophysiological mechanisms which may explain why these pharmaceuticals are particularly hepatotoxic in obesity and NAFLD. Because obese people often take several drugs for the treatment of different obesity-related diseases, there is an urgent need to identify the main pharmaceuticals that may cause acute liver injury on a fatty liver background or that may enhance the risk of severe chronic liver disease.
       
  • Evaluation and Treatment of Acetaminophen Toxicity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): Erik S. Fisher, Steven C. Curry A review of the typical clinical course, diagnosis and treatment of acetaminophen toxicity is provided. For an acute overdose, most adults must ingest about 12 g or more acetaminophen (APAP) before risk of serious hepatotoxicity is of concern. A nomogram of serum APAP concentration vs hours post-ingestion can assist in determining risk of liver injury and need for treatment. However, histories concerning the time of ingestion and the amount of drug ingested are usually unreliable. Peak serum transaminase activities usually occur 48–96 h after acute ingestion. It is possible for patients to present in liver failure days after ingestion with undetectable serum APAP concentrations. Patients who have chronically ingested excessive APAP doses and develop hepatotoxicity usually present with such, and renal failure is more common in this population. Current treatment centers on administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to prevent hepatotoxicity, though NAC also improves outcomes in patients who present with acute liver failure. When given early after APAP ingestion, NAC's main mechanism of action is to maintain intracellular glutathione stores so to detoxify the electrophilic APAP metabolite, NAPQI. NAC is generally well-tolerated when given intravenously, with the main concern being anaphylactoid reactions. These reactions usually occur during loading doses and are easily treated with discontinuation of the NAC infusion, administration of antihistamines, and then restarting the loading dose at a slower infusion rate. There is concern that current NAC dosing is not large enough to adequately treat large APAP ingestions. Patients with acute liver failure may be candidates for orthotopic liver transplantation.
       
  • Mechanisms of Idiosyncratic Drug-Induced Liver Injury
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: Advances in PharmacologyAuthor(s): Jack Uetrecht Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) is a significant problem. Little is known with certainty about the mechanisms of IDILI. However, there is growing evidence that most IDILI is immune mediated and caused by reactive metabolites. The two major and complementary hypotheses that link reactive metabolite formation with the induction of an immune response that can lead to IDILI are the hapten and danger hypotheses. Specifically, a reactive metabolite can bind to proteins and make them foreign; however, without activation of antigen presenting cells (APCs), the immune response will be immune tolerance. Not all reactive metabolites are associated with the same risk of causing IDILI. If the reactive metabolite can also cause some cell damage, this can lead to the release of danger-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) that activate APCs. Other hypotheses for the mechanism of IDILI include mitochondrial injury, inhibition of the bile salt export pump, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. These mechanisms may be complementary to the danger hypothesis in that they may cause the release of DAMPs. None of these hypotheses has been adequately tested. Previous animal models have had characteristics very different from IDILI in humans and are unlikely to involve the same mechanism. However, impairment of immune tolerance has led to a model with characteristics very similar to IDILI in humans. This will make it possible to rigorously test hypotheses. A better mechanistic understanding of IDILI should lead to better methods to screen drug candidates for IDILI risk and treat IDILI when it occurs.
       
 
 
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