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Showing 1 - 200 of 3177 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 87, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 387, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 243, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 386, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 336, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 439, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 197, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 171, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in Pharmacology
  [SJR: 1.718]   [H-I: 58]   [15 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1054-3589
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • The Pharmacogenetics of Immune-Modulating Therapy
    • Authors: Ingolf Cascorbi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2018
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Ingolf Cascorbi
      Immunosuppressive drugs are a prerequisite in organ transplantation to prevent rejection and are also widely used in inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or also in some hematologic malignancies—depending on the mode of action. For thiopurine analogs the polymorphic thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) was early detected to be associated with thiopurine-induced leukopenia; recent studies identified also NUDT15 to be related to this severe side effect. For drugs like methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil a number of ADME genes like UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and ABC efflux transporters were investigated, however, with partly contradicting results. For calcineurin inhibitors like cyclosporine and in particular tacrolimus however, cytochrome P450 3A4 and 3A5 variants were found to significantly affect the pharmacokinetics. Genetic variants in genes encoding relevant pharmacodynamic proteins, however, lacked compelling evidence to affect the clinical outcome. This chapter reviews the current evidence on the association of pharmacogenetic traits to dose finding and clinical outcome of small-molecule immunosuppressants. Moreover this chapter critically summarizes suitability to apply pharmacogenetics in clinical practice in order to optimize immunosuppressant therapy.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T20:38:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2018.02.004
  • Imaging in Pharmacogenetics
    • Authors: Mikkel H. Vendelbo; Lars C. Gormsen; Niels Jessen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2018
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Mikkel H. Vendelbo, Lars C. Gormsen, Niels Jessen
      An increasing collection of imaging technologies makes it possible to differentiate treatment responders from nonresponders based on genetic variation. This chapter will review some of the imaging technologies currently available in nuclear medicine to visualize drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. Some of the commonly used techniques to detect radiation-emitting compounds are the two-dimensional scintigraphy and the three-dimensional single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) which both detect photons using a gamma camera, and the three-dimensional positron emission tomography (PET), which detect the decay of positron-emitting radionuclides. Current examples include visualization of functional effects of genetic variants, and these provide proof of concept for imaging in pharmacogenetics as a tool to improve efficacy and safety of drugs.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T20:38:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2018.02.002
  • Population Diversity in Pharmacogenetics: A Latin American Perspective
    • Authors: Guilherme Suarez-Kurtz; Esteban J. Parra
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2018
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Guilherme Suarez-Kurtz, Esteban J. Parra
      Pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics (PGx) relies on human genetic diversity. In this review we initially examine the PGx implications of human demographic history and genetic diversity, and highlight results from recent studies on the worldwide distribution of common and rare variants in pharmacogenes. The abundance of rare variants implies that a substantial effort will be required to identify their putative functional effects and to develop reliable algorithms for PGx-guided prescription. Furthermore, variants in all pharmacogenes relevant to a drug treatment must be considered. This implies a shift of the current paradigm of PGx-informed prescription based on genotyping a few common variants in selected genes toward comprehensive sequencing approaches. The following sections deal with the impact of population admixture on PGx diversity focusing on Latin America, where a kaleidoscopic combination of individual proportions of Native American, European, and sub-Saharan African ancestries prevails. We illustrate this diversity by contrasting Brazil and Mexico, the two most populous countries in Latin America, and show that population average admixture proportions are not predictive of the corresponding proportions at the individual level. As a consequence of admixture, the genetic differentiation of common pharmacogenetic variants in Latin Americans is much attenuated in comparison to their most relevant ancestral populations. Finally, we review data for tacrolimus and warfarin to illustrate the opportunities and challenges presented by Latin American populations for PGx studies and clinical implementation.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T20:38:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2018.02.001
  • Foreword
    • Authors: Les Iversen
      Abstract: Publication date: 2018
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology, Volume 82
      Author(s): Les Iversen

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T01:30:44Z
  • The Role of Serine Racemase in the Pathophysiology of Brain Disorders
    • Authors: Joseph T. Coyle; Darrick T. Balu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Joseph T. Coyle, Darrick T. Balu
      The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is unique in requiring two agonists to bind simultaneously to open its cation channel: the neurotransmitter, glutamate, and the coagonists, glycine, or d-serine. The Snyder laboratory was the first to clone serine racemase (SR), the enzyme that synthesizes d-serine, and to localize it immunocytochemically. Our laboratory has focused on the role of d-serine in brain disorders. Silencing the expression of SR, a risk gene for schizophrenia (SCZ), in mice (SR−/−), results in a phenotype that closely resembles SCZ including: cortical atrophy, reduced dendritic spine density and complexity, downregulation of parvalbumin-positive cortical GABAergic neurons, and cognitive impairments. This pathology can be reversed by treatment of SR−/− mice with d-serine in adulthood. SR−/− mice also exhibit abnormal response toward abusable substances, such as stimulants. They show reduced behavioral sensitization to d-amphetamine, but fail to extinguish it. Place preference to cocaine is altered, and the hedonic response to it is profoundly impaired as assessed by intracranial self-stimulation. d-cycloserine, a partial agonist at the NMDAR glycine modulatory site, shows therapeutic benefit for treating pathologic anxiety in combination with behavioral therapies. Studies in vitro with cortical culture and in vivo with middle cerebral artery occlusion show that silencing SR provides substantial protection against ischemic neuronal death. Finally, the switch of SR expression from neurons to reactive astrocytes after closed head trauma accounts for the reduced in vivo neuroplasticity, electroencephalogram abnormalities, and cognitive impairments.

      PubDate: 2018-01-22T22:13:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.10.002
  • Mu Opioid Pharmacology: 40 Years to the Promised Land
    • Authors: Gavril W. Pasternak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Gavril W. Pasternak
      Opioids continue to play a major role in medicine, but not without problems. Side effects limit their utility medically, while the potential of addiction has had a major societal impact. Pharmacologists have been trying to develop opioids lacking side effects since the first derivative, heroin, was synthesized in the 1870s. The identification of opioid receptors about 40 years ago opened up new insights into our understanding of opioid action, fueled by the molecular biology revolution of the 1980s and 1990s. A major result of these studies was the discovery that the mu opioid receptor gene, Oprm1, undergoes extensive alternative splicing in mice, rats, and humans. This single gene generates three sets of proteins, each containing many variants. The object of this review is to describe these variants and how they can be targeted to generate safer, effective analgesic drugs. Mu opioid receptor multiplicity was first suggested over 35 years ago based upon a series of selective antagonists and detailed binding assays. The identification of the different classes of mu opioid receptor splice variants enabled us to target one of the classes of splice variants to obtain potent analgesics lacking respiratory depression, physical dependence, and reward behavior. They also displayed no cross tolerance to morphine analgesia and had diminished effects on gastrointestinal transit. Forty years after the identification of opioid-binding sites in brain the promised land of safer, nonaddictive analgesics is in sight.

      PubDate: 2018-01-22T22:13:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.09.006
  • Regulation of Mitochondrial, Cellular, and Organismal Functions by TSPO
    • Authors: Moshe Gavish; Leo Veenman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Moshe Gavish, Leo Veenman
      In 1999, the enigma of the 18kDa mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO), also known as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, was the seeming disparity of the many functions attributed to TSPO, ranging from the potential of TSPO acting as a housekeeping gene at molecular biological levels to adaptations to stress, and even involvement in higher emotional and cognitive functioning, such as anxiety and depression. In the years since then, knowledge regarding the many functions modulated by TSPO has expanded, and understanding has deepened. In addition, new functions could be firmly associated with TSPO, such as regulation of programmed cell death and modulation of gene expression. Interestingly, control by the mitochondrial TSPO over both of these life and death functions appears to include Ca++ homeostasis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and ATP production. Other mitochondrial functions under TSPO control are considered to be steroidogenesis and tetrapyrrole metabolism. As TSPO effects on gene expression and on programmed cell death can be related to the wide range of functions that can be associated with TSPO, several of these five elements of Ca++, ROS, ATP, steroids, and tetrapyrroles may indeed form the basis of TSPO's capability to operate as a multifunctional housekeeping gene to maintain homeostasis of the cell and of the whole multicellular organism.

      PubDate: 2018-01-22T22:13:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.09.004
  • Imaging Translocator Protein as a Biomarker of Neuroinflammation in
    • Authors: William C. Kreisl; Ioline D. Henter; Robert B. Innis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): William C. Kreisl, Ioline D. Henter, Robert B. Innis
      Neuroinflammation has long been considered a potential contributor to neurodegenerative disorders that result in dementia. Accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates in Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies is associated with the activation of microglia and astrocytes into proinflammatory states, and chronic low-level activation of glial cells likely contributes to the pathological changes observed in these and other neurodegenerative diseases. The 18kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is a key biomarker for measuring inflammation in the brain via positron emission tomography (PET). Increased TSPO density has been observed in brain tissue from patients with neurodegenerative diseases and colocalizes to activated microglia and reactive astrocytes. Several radioligands have been developed to measure TSPO density in vivo with PET, and these have been used in clinical studies of different dementia syndromes. However, TSPO radioligands have limitations, including low specific-to-nonspecific signal and differential affinity to a polymorphism on the TSPO gene, which must be taken into consideration in designing and interpreting human PET studies. Nonetheless, most PET studies have shown that increased TSPO binding is associated with various dementias, suggesting that TSPO has potential as a biomarker to further explore the role of neuroinflammation in dementia pathogenesis and may prove useful in monitoring disease progression.

      PubDate: 2018-01-22T22:13:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.08.004
  • The Neurobiology of d-Serine Signaling
    • Authors: Herman Wolosker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Herman Wolosker
      d-Serine is a physiological coagonist of NMDA receptors involved in synaptic plasticity, neurodevelopment, and neurodegeneration. d-Serine is synthesized by the enzyme serine racemase, which converts l- to d-serine. Recent studies indicate that the supply of l-serine by astroglia fuels the neuronal synthesis of d-serine. This pathway, named the serine shuttle, highlights the importance of the glia–neuron metabolic crosstalk for regulating NMDA receptor activity. Dysfunction of different components of the serine shuttle pathway leads to neurodevelopmental defects, neurodegeneration, and may be involved in psychiatric diseases. Serine racemase and other components of the serine shuttle are therefore promising targets for neuroprotective drugs. Here we review several aspects of the neurobiology of d-serine focusing on mechanisms regulating d-serine signaling in health and disease.

      PubDate: 2018-01-22T22:13:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.08.010
  • Carboxypeptidase E and the Identification of Novel Neuropeptides as
           Potential Therapeutic Targets
    • Authors: Lloyd D. Fricker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Lloyd D. Fricker
      Peptides and small molecules that bind to peptide receptors are important classes of drugs that are used for a wide variety of different applications. The search for novel neuropeptides traditionally involved a time-consuming approach to purify each peptide to homogeneity and determine its amino acid sequence. The discovery in the 1980s of enkephalin convertase/carboxypeptidase E (CPE), and the observation that this enzyme was involved in the production of nearly every known neuropeptide led to the idea for a one-step affinity purification of CPE substrates. This approach was successfully used to isolate hundreds of known neuropeptides in mouse brain, as well as over a dozen novel peptides. Some of the novel peptides found using this approach are among the most abundant peptides present in brain, but had not been previously identified by traditional approaches. Recently, receptors for two of the novel peptides have been identified, confirming their role as neuropeptides that function in cell–cell signaling. Small molecules that bind to one of these receptors have been developed and found to significantly reduce food intake and anxiety-like behavior in an animal model. This review describes the entire project, from discovery of CPE to the novel peptides and their receptors.

      PubDate: 2018-01-22T22:13:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.09.001
  • Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis: Clinical Features and Basic Mechanisms
    • Authors: David R. Lynch; Amy Rattelle; Yi Na Dong; Kylie Roslin; Amy J. Gleichman; Jessica A. Panzer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): David R. Lynch, Amy Rattelle, Yi Na Dong, Kylie Roslin, Amy J. Gleichman, Jessica A. Panzer
      In slightly more than 10 years, anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis has changed from a rare paraneoplastic syndrome to the most common cause of nonviral encephalitis. It presents fulminantly with progressive psychosis, seizures, and autonomic dysfunction, leading to death if untreated. However, rapid recognition and treatment can lead to survival and a return to baseline levels of functioning in many patients. While initially associated with ovarian teratomas, it is now associated with other tumors and can reflect a postviral event. The antibodies to the NMDAR made in this syndrome are pathogenic and are directed at the extracellular domain of the GluN1 subunit. Such antibodies lead to internalization of NMDARs in model systems, leading to a physiological state characterized by NMDAR hypofunction. Analogous disorders, characterized by antibodies to other synaptic receptors, present with neurological and psychiatric dysfunction and also appear to reflect antibody-induced internalization of receptors. However, this simple pathophysiology may be too simplistic to reflect the complexity of events in anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Future scientific investigations may allow a more complete understanding of this disorder and improve treatment of anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

      PubDate: 2018-01-22T22:13:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.08.005
  • Phosphorylation of the Amino Terminus of the Dopamine Transporter:
           Regulatory Mechanisms and Implications for Amphetamine Action
    • Authors: Caline S. Karam; Jonathan A. Javitch
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Caline S. Karam, Jonathan A. Javitch
      Amphetamines (AMPHs) are potent psychostimulants that are widely used and abused, with profound medical and societal impact. Their actions at dopaminergic neurons are thought to mediate their therapeutic efficacy as well as their liability for abuse and dependence. AMPHs target the dopamine transporter (DAT), the plasmalemmal membrane protein that mediates the inactivation of released dopamine (DA) through its reuptake. AMPHs act as substrates for DAT and are known to cause mobilization of dopamine (DA) to the cell exterior via DAT-mediated reverse transport (efflux). It has become increasingly evident that the mechanisms that regulate AMPH-induced DA efflux are distinct from those that regulate DA uptake. Central to these mechanisms is the phosphorylation of the DAT amino (N)-terminus, which has been repeatedly demonstrated to facilitate DAT-mediated DA efflux, without impacting other aspects of DAT physiology. This review aims to summarize the current status of knowledge regarding DAT N-terminal phosphorylation and its regulation by protein modulators and the membrane microenvironment. A better understanding of these mechanisms may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic approaches that interfere selectively with the pharmacological effects of AMPHs without altering the physiological function of DAT.

      PubDate: 2018-01-22T22:13:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.09.002
  • Nitric Oxide Signaling in Neurodegeneration and Cell Death
    • Authors: Ted M. Dawson; Valina L. Dawson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Ted M. Dawson, Valina L. Dawson
      In this tribute to Solomon H. Snyder (Sol) we discuss the mechanisms by which nitric oxide (NO) kills neurons. We provide a historical perspective regarding the discovery that glutamate excitotoxicity is mediated by NO. It also contains a discussion of the discovery that neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) catalytic activity accounts for NADPH diaphorase activity and its localization in the central nervous system. NADPH diaphorase/nNOS neurons are unique in that they are resistant to toxic effects of excess glutamate and that they are resistant to neurodegeneration in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. NADPH diaphorase/nNOS neurons are resistant to neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration through the overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase. The review also delves into the mechanisms by which NO kills neurons including NO's activation of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-dependent cell pathway. In addition, there is a review of parthanatos in which NO combines with the superoxide anion ( O 2 ⋅ − ) to form peroxynitrite (ONOO−) that damages DNA and activates poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase (PARP). This ultimately leads to activation of the PARP-dependent apoptosis-inducing factor-associated nuclease, the final executioner in NO-dependent cell death. Finally, there is a discussion of potential targets that are under development that target the mechanisms by which NO kills neurons.

      PubDate: 2018-01-22T22:13:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.09.003
  • Synaptotoxic Signaling by Amyloid Beta Oligomers in Alzheimer's Disease
           Through Prion Protein and mGluR5
    • Authors: A. Harrison Brody; Stephen M. Strittmatter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): A. Harrison Brody, Stephen M. Strittmatter
      Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents an impending global health crisis, yet the complexity of AD pathophysiology has so far precluded the development of any interventions to successfully slow or halt AD progression. It is clear that accumulation of Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide triggers progressive synapse loss to cause AD symptoms. Once initiated by Aβ, disease progression is complicated and accelerated by inflammation and by tau pathology. The recognition that Aβ peptide assumes multiple distinct states and that soluble oligomeric species (Aβo) are critical for synaptic damage is central to molecular understanding of AD. This knowledge has led to the identification of specific Aβo receptors, such as cellular prion protein (PrPC), mediating synaptic toxicity and neuronal dysfunction. The identification of PrPC as an Aβo receptor has illuminated an Aβo-induced signaling cascade involving mGluR5, Fyn, and Pyk2 that links Aβ and tau pathologies. This pathway provides novel potential therapeutic targets for disease-modifying AD therapy. Here, we discuss the methods by which several putative Aβo receptors were identified. We also offer an in-depth examination of the known molecular mechanisms believed to mediate Aβo-induced synaptic dysfunction, toxicity, and memory dysfunction.

      PubDate: 2018-01-22T22:13:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.09.007
  • RNA-Based Fluorescent Biosensors for Detecting Metabolites in vitro and in
           Living Cells
    • Authors: Samie R. Jaffrey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Samie R. Jaffrey
      Genetically encoded sensors are important tools for measuring metabolites and other small molecules in vitro and in live cells. Until recently, genetically encoded sensors exclusively comprised fluorescent proteins that undergo changes in Förster resonance energy transfer upon binding a target analyte. However, recently a new class of fluorescent sensor has been developed composed of RNA. These RNA-based sensors rely on Spinach and other RNA mimics of green fluorescent protein. In each case, the RNA-based sensors contain an analyte-binding aptamer domain which transduces binding of the analyte into a conformational change in Spinach. Two types of sensors have been developed: allosteric Spinach sensors and Spinach riboswitches. Allosteric Spinach sensors exhibit metabolite-induced folding and subsequent fluorescence. Spinach riboswitches are naturally occurring riboswitches that have been modified to contain the Spinach aptamer. The resulting RNA is a fluorogenic riboswitch, and produces fluorescence upon binding its cognate analyte. We describe the development of this new technology, its uses, and future directions to facilitate the use of this assay technology in mammalian cells and in high-throughput applications.

      PubDate: 2018-01-22T22:13:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.09.005
  • Receptor Binding Assays and Drug Discovery
    • Authors: David B. Bylund; S.J. Enna
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): David B. Bylund, S.J. Enna
      Although Solomon Snyder authored hundreds of research reports and several books covering a broad range of topics in the neurosciences, he is best known by many as the person who developed neurotransmitter receptor radioligand binding assays. By demonstrating the utility of this approach for studying transmitter receptors in brain, Dr. Snyder provided the scientific community with a powerful new tool for identifying and characterizing these sites, for defining their relationship to neurological and psychiatric disorders, and their involvement in mediating the actions of psychotherapeutics. Although it was hoped the receptor binding technique could also be used as a primary screen to speed and simplify the identification of novel drug candidates, experience has taught that ligand binding is most useful for drug discovery when it is used in conjunction with functional, phenotypic assays. The incorporation of ligand binding assays into the drug discovery process played a significant role in altering the search for new therapeutics from solely an empirical undertaking to a mechanistic and hypothesis-driven enterprise. This illustrates the impact of Dr. Snyder's work, not only on neuroscience research but on the discovery, development, and characterization of drugs for treating a variety of medical conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-01-22T22:13:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.08.007
  • Multiple Pathways Mediate MicroRNA Degradation: Focus on the Translin/Trax
           RNase Complex
    • Authors: Jay M. Baraban; Aparna Shah; Xiuping Fu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Jay M. Baraban, Aparna Shah, Xiuping Fu
      The discovery of the microRNA system has revolutionized our understanding of translational control. Furthermore, growing appreciation of the pivotal role that de novo translation plays in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity has fueled interest among neuroscientists in deciphering how the microRNA system impacts neuronal signaling and the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Although we have a general understanding of how the microRNA system operates, many key questions remain. In particular, the biosynthesis of microRNAs and their role in translational silencing are fairly well understood. However, much less is known about how microRNAs are degraded and silencing is reversed, crucial aspects of microRNA signaling. In contrast to microRNA synthesis which is mediated almost exclusively by a single pathway that culminates in Dicer, recent studies indicate that there are multiple pathways of microRNA degradation that target different subpopulations of microRNAs. While the Lin-28 pathway of microRNA degradation has been investigated extensively, the translin/trax RNase complex has emerged recently as another pathway mediating microRNA degradation. Accordingly, we summarize herein key features of the translin/trax RNase complex as well as important gaps in our understanding of its regulation and function that are the focus of ongoing studies.

      PubDate: 2018-01-22T22:13:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.08.003
  • Unique Effects of Clozapine: A Pharmacological Perspective
    • Authors: Jibran Y. Khokhar; Angela M. Henricks; Emily D.K. Sullivan; Alan I. Green
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Jibran Y. Khokhar, Angela M. Henricks, Emily D.K. Sullivan, Alan I. Green
      Schizophrenia is a heterogenous and severe neuropsychiatric disorder that affects nearly 1% of the population worldwide. Antipsychotic drugs are the mainstay of treatment, but not all patients with schizophrenia respond to treatment with these agents. Clozapine, the first atypical antipsychotic, is a highly effective medication for patients with schizophrenia who do not respond to other antipsychotics. Although clozapine tends not to produce extrapyramidal symptoms, other side effects of the drug (e.g., agranulocytosis, myocarditis, seizures) limit its widespread use. This chapter reviews clozapine's unique clinical effects and unusual pharmacological profile. In addition to its effects in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, clozapine has been shown to decrease suicidality, which occurs at an increased rate in patients with schizophrenia. Still preliminary, but consistent data, also suggest that clozapine limits substance use in these patients, an important effect since substance use disorders are common in patients with schizophrenia and are associated with a poor outcome, including an increased risk for suicide and poor response to treatment. We have suggested, from animal studies, that clozapine's apparent ability to limit substance use may occur through its actions as a weak dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, a potent norepinephrine α-2 receptor antagonist and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Using animal models, we have built combinations of agents toward creation of safer clozapine-like drugs to reduce substance use in these patients. Future research into the mechanisms of action of clozapine toward the development of safe clozapine-like agents is of great public health importance.

      PubDate: 2018-01-13T19:10:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.09.009
  • Mechanisms of I/R-Induced Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilator Dysfunction
    • Authors: Ronald J. Korthuis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Ronald J. Korthuis
      Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induces leukocyte/endothelial cell adhesive interactions (LECA) in postcapillary venules and impaired endothelium-dependent, NO-mediated dilatory responses (EDD) in upstream arterioles. A large body of evidence has implicated reactive oxygen species, adherent leukocytes, and proteases in postischemic EDD dysfunction in conduit arteries. However, arterioles represent the major site for the regulation of vascular resistance but have received less attention with regard to the mechanisms underlying their reduced responsiveness to EDD stimuli in I/R. Even though leukocytes do not roll along, adhere to, or emigrate across arteriolar endothelium in postischemic intestine, recent work indicates that I/R-induced venular LECA is causally linked to EDD in arterioles. An emerging body of evidence suggests that I/R-induced EDD in arterioles occurs by a mechanism that is triggered by LECA in postcapillary venules and involves the formation of signals in the interstitium elicited by the proteolytic activity of emigrated leukocytes. This activity releases matricryptins from or exposes matricryptic sites in the extracellular matrix that interact with the integrin αvβ3 to induce mast cell chymase-dependent formation of angiotensin II (Ang II). Subsequent activation of NAD(P)H oxidase by Ang II leads to the formation of oxidants which inactivate NO and leads to eNOS uncoupling, resulting in arteriolar EDD dysfunction. This work establishes new links between LECA in postcapillary venules, signals generated in the interstitium by emigrated leukocytes, mast cell degranulation, and impaired EDD in upstream arterioles. These fundamentally important findings have enormous implications for our understanding of blood flow dysregulation in conditions characterized by I/R.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T04:24:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.08.001
  • Smoothelins and the Control of Muscle Contractility
    • Authors: Megha Murali; Justin A. MacDonald
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Megha Murali, Justin A. MacDonald
      Smooth muscle cells display distinctive expression and organization of contractile filament proteins, which reflect a unique method of contractile regulation. As the focus of this review, the smoothelin and smoothelin-like family members represent a family of poorly understood muscle proteins that appear to act as structural components of the contractile apparatus. The protein family is characterized by the presence a single C-terminal type-2 calponin homology (CH) domain. Often used as the preferred marker of differentiated contractile smooth muscle cells, smoothelin A and B (SMTN-A and SMTN-B) may influence the contractile potential of smooth muscle cells. The more recently identified smoothelin-like proteins (SMTNL1 and SMTNL2) have more diverse functional implications. SMTNL1 is linked to the regulation of smooth muscle contractility and adaptations of both smooth and skeletal muscle to hypertension, pregnancy, and exercise training. The SMTNL1 protein is suggested to play multiple roles in muscle through functional interactions with contractile regulators (e.g., calmodulin, tropomyosin, and myosin phosphatase) as well as transcriptional control of the contractile phenotype and Ca2+-sensitizing capacity. These effects are associated with acute, reversible changes to the contractile state or long-term adaptations mediated by transcriptional changes in expression of contractile proteins. SMTNL2 remains essentially uncharacterized; however, its expression is high in skeletal muscle and could be associated with differentiating myocytes. Finally, emerging opportunities exist to understand the significance of smoothelins as disease-associated markers and in some cases as specific modulators of pathophysiology.

      PubDate: 2017-12-07T11:17:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.10.001
  • Mechanotransduction in Blood and Lymphatic Vascular Development and
    • Authors: Sofia Urner; Molly Kelly-Goss; Shayn M. Peirce; Eckhard Lammert
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Sofia Urner, Molly Kelly-Goss, Shayn M. Peirce, Eckhard Lammert
      The blood and lymphatic vasculatures are hierarchical networks of vessels, which constantly transport fluids and, therefore, are exposed to a variety of mechanical forces. Considering the role of mechanotransduction is key for fully understanding how these vascular systems develop, function, and how vascular pathologies evolve. During embryonic development, for example, initiation of blood flow is essential for early vascular remodeling, and increased interstitial fluid pressure as well as initiation of lymph flow is needed for proper development and maturation of the lymphatic vasculature. In this review, we introduce specific mechanical forces that affect both the blood and lymphatic vasculatures, including longitudinal and circumferential stretch, as well as shear stress. In addition, we provide an overview of the role of mechanotransduction during atherosclerosis and secondary lymphedema, which both trigger tissue fibrosis.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T04:01:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.08.009
  • The Cytoskeletal Network Regulates Expression of the Profibrotic Genes
           PAI-1 and CTGF in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
    • Authors: Rohan Samarakoon; Paul J. Higgins
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Rohan Samarakoon, Paul J. Higgins
      Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are subject to changing hemodynamic stimuli that alter cytoskeletal dynamics, cellular architecture, and structure-associated signal transduction. Tensional stress, force application, and structural perturbations are sensed by VSMCs and impact the physiological as well as pathophysiological responses of the vasculature. Microtubule-targeting drugs provide useful tools to analyze cytoskeletal-associated signaling pathways and their linkages to pathological outcomes. Architecture-based controls on a subset of profibrotic genes commonly expressed in vascular disease are highlighted by their frequent induction in mechanically manipulated cells and with associated changes in cytoskeletal dynamics. VSMCs respond to biomechanical cues by activating several kinase cascades, leading to gene reprogramming. It is apparent that a significant fraction of the vast repertoire of signaling intermediates, moreover, are sequestered on the cytoskeletal framework in an “inactive state.” Reorganization within these networks due to fluctuating mechanical forces could release these effectors from their cytoskeletal anchors, thus alleviating the “repressive state” resulting in downstream signaling. Indeed, recent findings indicate that microtubule disruption in VSMCs rapidly stimulates pp60c-src kinase activation and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transphosphorylation at Y845, a src kinase target residue. EGFR genetic deficiency, pharmacological inhibition of EGFR signaling, or adenoviral delivery of the kinase-deficient EGFRK721A construct effectively blocked colchicine-stimulated expression of two prominent vascular profibrotic genes, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1; SERPINE1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; CCN2). Signaling intermediates involved in microtubule collapse-initiated PAI-1/CTGF induction in VSMCs include the MEK/ERK, Rho/ROCK, and SMAD2/3 pathways. This review highlights commonalities and differences in signaling events that facilitate expression of vascular disease-relevant genes initiated as a consequence of loss of microtubular integrity.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T20:40:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.08.006
  • Extracellular Matrix Macromolecules as Potential Targets of Cardiovascular
    • Authors: Annele Sainio; Hannu Järveläinen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Annele Sainio, Hannu Järveläinen
      The extracellular matrix (ECM) forms the structural basis for the functional properties of different organs and tissues including the vasculature. Consequently, any alteration in the ECM may significantly influence the function of organs and tissues in question. This is also true for the cardiovascular system and its pathologies. Thus, therapies specifically targeting the ECM are likely very potent in the treatment of various diseases. Unfortunately, so far there are no therapies in clinical use primarily targeting the ECM. Nevertheless, most cardiovascular drugs are known to modulate the ECM and its macromolecules. However, their effects on the cardiovascular ECM are neither potent nor specific enough. Therefore, novel ECM targeting pharmacotherapies are desired. Here, the ECM of the cardiovascular tissue in health and disease as well as the effect of current cardiovascular drugs on the ECM are discussed in more detail. Furthermore, potential future pharmacotherapies targeting the ECM of the vasculature in various pathologies are presented.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T20:40:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.09.008
  • Integrins in Vascular Development and Pathology
    • Authors: Paola A. Guerrero; Joseph H. McCarty
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Paola A. Guerrero, Joseph H. McCarty
      During vascular development, endothelial cells (ECs) and neighboring stromal cells interact and communicate through autocrine and paracrine signaling mechanisms involving extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and their cell surface integrin adhesion receptors. Integrin-mediated adhesion and signaling pathways are crucial for normal vascular development and physiology, and alterations in integrin expression and/or function drive several vascular-related pathologies including thrombosis, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss integrin adhesion and signaling pathways important for EC growth, survival, and migration. Integrin-mediated paracrine links between ECs and surrounding stromal cells in the organ microenvironment will also be discussed. Lastly, we will review roles for integrins in vascular pathologies and discuss possible targets for therapeutic intervention.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T20:40:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.08.011
  • Basic Components of Vascular Connective Tissue and Extracellular Matrix
    • Authors: Jaroslava Halper
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Jaroslava Halper
      Though the composition of the three layers constituting the blood vessel wall varies among the different types of blood vessels, and some layers may even be missing in capillaries, certain basic components, and properties are shared by all blood vessels, though each histologically distinct layer contains a unique complement of extracellular components, growth factors and cytokines, and cell types as well. The structure and composition of vessel layers informs and is informed by the function of the particular blood vessel. The adaptation of the composition and the resulting function of the extracellular matrix (ECM) to changes in circulation/blood flow and a variety of other extravascular stimuli can be characterized as remodeling spearheaded by vascular cells. There is a surprising amount of cell traffic among the three layers. It starts with endothelial cell mediated transmigration of inflammatory cells from the bloodstream into the subendothelium, and then into tissue adjoining the blood vessel. Smooth muscle cells and a variety of adventitial cells reside in tunica media and tunica externa, respectively. The latter cells are a mixture of progenitor/stem cells, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, pericytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells and respond to endothelial injury by transdifferentiation as they travel into the two inner layers, intima and media for corrective mission in the ECM composition. This chapter addresses the role of various vascular cell types and ECM components synthesized by them in maintenance of normal structure and in their contribution to major pathological processes, such as atherosclerosis, organ fibrosis, and diabetic retinopathy.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T20:40:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.08.012
  • The Role of Age-Related Intimal Remodeling and Stiffening in
    • Authors: Jacob A. VanderBurgh; Cynthia A. Reinhart-King
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Jacob A. VanderBurgh, Cynthia A. Reinhart-King
      Age-related vascular stiffening is closely associated with cardiovascular risk. The clinical measure of arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity, reflects bulk structural changes in the media observed with age, but does not reflect intimal remodeling that also drives atherosclerosis. Endothelial barrier integrity is disrupted during early atherogenesis and is regulated by the mechanics and composition of the underlying intima, which undergoes significant atherogenic remodeling in response to age and hemodynamics. Here, we first review the best characterized of these changes, including physiological intimal thickening throughout the arterial tree, fibronectin and collagen deposition, and collagen cross-linking. We then address the most common in vivo and in vitro models used to gain mechanistic insight into the consequences of intimal remodeling. Finally, we consider the impacts of intimal stiffening upon endothelial cell mechanotransduction with emphasis on the emerging impact of increased complexity in cellular traction forces and substrate rigidity upon endothelial barrier integrity.

      PubDate: 2017-11-01T20:40:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.08.008
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases, Vascular Remodeling, and Vascular Disease
    • Authors: Xi Wang; Raouf A. Khalil
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Xi Wang, Raouf A. Khalil
      Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that degrade various proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Typically, MMPs have a propeptide sequence, a catalytic metalloproteinase domain with catalytic zinc, a hinge region or linker peptide, and a hemopexin domain. MMPs are commonly classified on the basis of their substrates and the organization of their structural domains into collagenases, gelatinases, stromelysins, matrilysins, membrane-type (MT)-MMPs, and other MMPs. MMPs are secreted by many cells including fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle (VSM), and leukocytes. MMPs are regulated at the level of mRNA expression and by activation through removal of the propeptide domain from their latent zymogen form. MMPs are often secreted in an inactive proMMP form, which is cleaved to the active form by various proteinases including other MMPs. MMPs degrade various protein substrates in ECM including collagen and elastin. MMPs could also influence endothelial cell function as well as VSM cell migration, proliferation, Ca2+ signaling, and contraction. MMPs play a role in vascular tissue remodeling during various biological processes such as angiogenesis, embryogenesis, morphogenesis, and wound repair. Alterations in specific MMPs could influence arterial remodeling and lead to various pathological disorders such as hypertension, preeclampsia, atherosclerosis, aneurysm formation, as well as excessive venous dilation and lower extremity venous disease. MMPs are often regulated by endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and the MMP/TIMP ratio often determines the extent of ECM protein degradation and tissue remodeling. MMPs may serve as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for certain vascular disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-09-22T05:21:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.08.002
  • The Dynamic Actin Cytoskeleton in Smooth Muscle
    • Authors: Dale D. Tang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Dale D. Tang
      Smooth muscle contraction requires both myosin activation and actin cytoskeletal remodeling. Actin cytoskeletal reorganization facilitates smooth muscle contraction by promoting force transmission between the contractile unit and the extracellular matrix (ECM), and by enhancing intercellular mechanical transduction. Myosin may be viewed to serve as an “engine” for smooth muscle contraction whereas the actin cytoskeleton may function as a “transmission system” in smooth muscle. The actin cytoskeleton in smooth muscle also undergoes restructuring upon activation with growth factors or the ECM, which controls smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Abnormal smooth muscle contraction, cell proliferation, and motility contribute to the development of vascular and pulmonary diseases. A number of actin-regulatory proteins including protein kinases have been discovered to orchestrate actin dynamics in smooth muscle. In particular, Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) is an important molecule that controls actin dynamics, contraction, growth, and motility in smooth muscle. Moreover, c-Abl coordinates the regulation of blood pressure and contributes to the pathogenesis of airway hyperresponsiveness and vascular/airway remodeling in vivo. Thus, c-Abl may be a novel pharmacological target for the development of new therapy to treat smooth muscle diseases such as hypertension and asthma.

      PubDate: 2017-08-30T19:30:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.06.001
  • Cannabinoids in the Cardiovascular System
    • Authors: Wing S.V. Ho; Melanie E.M. Kelly
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Wing S.V. Ho, Melanie E.M. Kelly
      Cannabinoids are known to modulate cardiovascular functions including heart rate, vascular tone, and blood pressure in humans and animal models. Essential components of the endocannabinoid system, namely, the production, degradation, and signaling pathways of endocannabinoids have been described not only in the central and peripheral nervous system but also in myocardium, vasculature, platelets, and immune cells. The mechanisms of cardiovascular responses to endocannabinoids are often complex and may involve cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors or non-CB1/2 receptor targets. Preclinical and some clinical studies have suggested that targeting the endocannabinoid system can improve cardiovascular functions in a number of pathophysiological conditions, including hypertension, metabolic syndrome, sepsis, and atherosclerosis. In this chapter, we summarize the local and systemic cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids and highlight our current knowledge regarding the therapeutic potential of endocannabinoid signaling and modulation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-06T03:14:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.05.002
  • Endocannabinoid Analytical Methodologies: Techniques That Drive
           Discoveries That Drive Techniques
    • Authors: Fabiana Piscitelli; Heather B. Bradshaw
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Fabiana Piscitelli, Heather B. Bradshaw
      Identification of the two major endogenous cannabinoid ligands, known as endocannabinoids, N-arachidonoyl-ethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG), opened the way for the identification and isolation of other lipid congeners, all derivatives of fatty acids and related to the Endocannabinoid System. The nomenclature of this anandamide-type class of lipids is evolving as new species are discovered all the time. However, they each fall under the larger umbrella of lipids that are a conjugation of a fatty acid with an amine through and amide bond, which we will refer to as lipoamines. Specific subspecies of lipoamines that have been discovered are the N-acyl-ethanolamides (including AEA), N-acyl-dopamines, N-acyl-serotonins, N-acyl-GABA, N-acyl-taurines, and a growing number of N-acyl amino acids. Emerging data from multiple labs also show that monoacylglycerols (including 2-AG), COX-2 metabolites, and fatty acid esters of hydroxyl fatty acids are interconnected with these lipoamines at both the biosynthetic and metabolic levels. Understanding the molecular relatedness of these lipids is important for studying how they act as signaling molecules; however, a first step in this process hinges on advances in being able to accurately measure them.

      PubDate: 2017-07-06T03:14:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.04.003
  • Spicing Up Pharmacology: A Review of Synthetic Cannabinoids From Structure
           to Adverse Events
    • Authors: Colin Davidson; Jolanta Opacka-Juffry; Angel Arevalo-Martin; Daniel Garcia-Ovejero; Eduardo Molina-Holgado; Francisco Molina-Holgado
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Colin Davidson, Jolanta Opacka-Juffry, Angel Arevalo-Martin, Daniel Garcia-Ovejero, Eduardo Molina-Holgado, Francisco Molina-Holgado
      Recreational use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCB), a class of novel psychoactive substances is an increasing public health problem specifically in Western societies, with teenagers, young adults, and the prison population being the most affected. Some of these SCB are analogs of tetrahydrocannabinol, aminoalkylindoles, and other phytocannabinoid analogs have been detected in herbal preparations generically called “Spice.” Spice, “K2” or “fake cannabis” is a general term used for variable herbal mixtures of unknown ingredients or chemical composition. SCB are highly potent CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonists falsely marketed and sold as safe and legal drugs. Here, we present an overview of the endocannabinoid system, CB, and SCB chemical structures and activity at CB receptors. Finally, we highlight the psychological effects of SCB, particularly on learning and memory, and adverse clinical effects including on the cardiovascular system, kidneys, and CNS, including psychosis. Taken together, it is clear that many SCB are extremely dangerous and a major public health problem.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T01:01:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.05.001
  • Cannabinoids and Pain: Sites and Mechanisms of Action
    • Authors: Katarzyna Starowicz; David P. Finn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Katarzyna Starowicz, David P. Finn
      The endocannabinoid system, consisting of the cannabinoid1 receptor (CB1R) and cannabinoid2 receptor (CB2R), endogenous cannabinoid ligands (endocannabinoids), and metabolizing enzymes, is present throughout the pain pathways. Endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists have antinociceptive effects in animal models of acute, inflammatory, and neuropathic pain. CB1R and CB2R located at peripheral, spinal, or supraspinal sites are important targets mediating these antinociceptive effects. The mechanisms underlying the analgesic effects of cannabinoids likely include inhibition of presynaptic neurotransmitter and neuropeptide release, modulation of postsynaptic neuronal excitability, activation of the descending inhibitory pain pathway, and reductions in neuroinflammatory signaling. Strategies to dissociate the psychoactive effects of cannabinoids from their analgesic effects have focused on peripherally restricted CB1R agonists, CB2R agonists, inhibitors of endocannabinoid catabolism or uptake, and modulation of other non-CB1R/non-CB2R targets of cannabinoids including TRPV1, GPR55, and PPARs. The large body of preclinical evidence in support of cannabinoids as potential analgesic agents is supported by clinical studies demonstrating their efficacy across a variety of pain disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T01:01:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.05.003
  • Cannabinoid Receptor-Related Orphan G Protein-Coupled Receptors
    • Authors: Andrew Irving; Ghayth Abdulrazzaq; Sue L.F. Chan; June Penman; Jenni Harvey; Stephen P.H. Alexander
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Andrew Irving, Ghayth Abdulrazzaq, Sue L.F. Chan, June Penman, Jenni Harvey, Stephen P.H. Alexander
      Of the druggable group of G protein-coupled receptors in the human genome, a number remain which have yet to be paired with an endogenous ligand—orphan GPCRs. Among these 100 or so entities, 3 have been linked to the cannabinoid system. GPR18, GPR55, and GPR119 exhibit limited sequence homology with the established CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. However, the pharmacology of these orphan receptors displays overlap with CB1 and CB2 receptors, particularly for GPR18 and GPR55. The linking of GPR119 to the cannabinoid receptors is less convincing and emanates from structural similarities of endogenous ligands active at these GPCRs, but which do not cross-react. This review describes the evidence for describing these orphan GPCRs as cannabinoid receptor-like receptors.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T21:32:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.04.004
  • Actions and Regulation of Ionotropic Cannabinoid Receptors
    • Authors: Luciano De Petrocellis; Massimo Nabissi; Giorgio Santoni; Alessia Ligresti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Luciano De Petrocellis, Massimo Nabissi, Giorgio Santoni, Alessia Ligresti
      Almost three decades have passed since the identification of the two specific metabotropic receptors mediating cannabinoid pharmacology. Thereafter, many cannabinoid effects, both at central and peripheral levels, have been well documented and characterized. However, numerous evidences demonstrated that these pharmacological actions could not be attributable solely to the activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors since several important cannabimimetic actions have been found in biological systems lacking CB1 or CB2 gene such as in specific cell lines or transgenic mice. It is now well accepted that, beyond their receptor-mediated effects, these molecules can act also via CB1/CB2-receptor-independent mechanism. Cannabinoids have been demonstrated to modulate several voltage-gated channels (including Ca2+, Na+, and various type of K+ channels), ligand-gated ion channels (i.e., GABA, glycine), and ion-transporting membranes proteins such as transient potential receptor class (TRP) channels. The first direct, cannabinoid receptor-independent interaction was reported on the function of serotonin 5-HT3 receptor-ion channel complex. Similar effects were reported also on the other above mentioned ion channels. In the early ninety, studies searching for endogenous modulators of L-type Ca2+ channels identified anandamide as ligand for L-type Ca2+ channel. Later investigations indicated that other types of Ca2+ currents are also affected by endocannabinoids, and, in the late ninety, it was discovered that endocannabinoids activate the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (TRPV1), and nowadays, it is known that (endo)cannabinoids gate at least five distinct TRP channels. This chapter focuses on cannabinoid regulation of ion channels and lays special emphasis on their action at transient receptor channels.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T21:32:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.04.001
  • CB1 and CB2 Receptor Pharmacology
    • Authors: Allyn C. Howlett; Mary E. Abood
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Allyn C. Howlett, Mary E. Abood
      The CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R, CB2R) are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family that were identified over 20 years ago. CB1Rs and CB2Rs mediate the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the principal psychoactive constituent of marijuana, and subsequently identified endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. CB1Rs and CB2Rs have both similarities and differences in their pharmacology. Both receptors recognize multiple classes of agonist and antagonist compounds and produce an array of distinct downstream effects. Natural polymorphisms and alternative splice variants may also contribute to their pharmacological diversity. As our knowledge of the distinct differences grows, we may be able to target select receptor conformations and their corresponding pharmacological responses. This chapter will discuss their pharmacological characterization, distribution, phylogeny, and signaling pathways. In addition, the effects of extended agonist exposure and how that affects signaling and expression patterns of the receptors are considered.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T21:32:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.03.007
  • Cannabinoids as Anticancer Drugs
    • Authors: Robert Ramer; Burkhard Hinz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Robert Ramer, Burkhard Hinz
      The endocannabinoid system encompassing cannabinoid receptors, endogenous receptor ligands (endocannabinoids), as well as enzymes conferring the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids has emerged as a considerable target for pharmacotherapeutical approaches of numerous diseases. Besides palliative effects of cannabinoids used in cancer treatment, phytocannabinoids, synthetic agonists, as well as substances that increase endogenous endocannabinoid levels have gained interest as potential agents for systemic cancer treatment. Accordingly, cannabinoid compounds have been reported to inhibit tumor growth and spreading in numerous rodent models. The underlying mechanisms include induction of apoptosis, autophagy, and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells as well as inhibition of tumor cell invasion and angiogenic features of endothelial cells. In addition, cannabinoids have been shown to suppress epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, to enhance tumor immune surveillance, and to support chemotherapeutics’ effects on drug-resistant cancer cells. However, unwanted side effects include psychoactivity and possibly pathogenic effects on liver health. Other cannabinoids such as the nonpsychoactive cannabidiol exert a comparatively good safety profile while exhibiting considerable anticancer properties. So far experience with anticarcinogenic effects of cannabinoids is confined to in vitro studies and animal models. Although a bench-to-bedside conversion remains to be established, the current knowledge suggests cannabinoid compounds to serve as a group of drugs that may offer significant advantages for patients suffering from cancer diseases. The present review summarizes the role of the endocannabinoid system and cannabinoid compounds in tumor progression.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T21:32:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.04.002
  • Is the Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor a Major Regulator of the Neuroinflammatory
           Axis of the Neurovascular Unit in Humans'
    • Authors: Dan T. Kho; Michelle Glass; Euan S. Graham
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Dan T. Kho, Michelle Glass, Euan S. Graham
      The central nervous system (CNS) is an immune privileged site where the neurovascular unit (NVU) and the blood–brain barrier (BBB) act as a selectively permeable interface to control the passage of nutrients and inflammatory cells into the brain parenchyma. However, in response to injury, infection, or disease, CNS cells become activated, and release inflammatory mediators to recruit immune cells to the site of inflammation. Increasing evidence suggests that cannabinoids may have a neuroprotective role in CNS inflammatory conditions. For many years, it was widely accepted that cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) modulates neurological function centrally, while peripheral cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) modulates immune function. As knowledge about the physiology and pharmacology of the endocannabinoid system advances, there is increasing interest in targeting CB2 as a potential treatment for inflammation-dependent CNS diseases (Ashton & Glass, 2007), where recent rodent and human studies have implicated intervention at the level of the NVU and BBB. These are incredibly important in brain health and disease. Therefore, this review begins by explaining the cellular and molecular components of these systems, highlighting important molecules potentially regulated by cannabinoid ligands and then takes an unbiased look at the evidence in support (or otherwise) of cannabinoid receptor expression and control of the NVU and BBB function in humans.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T21:32:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.03.009
  • Functional Selectivity at Cannabinoid Receptors
    • Authors: Richard Priestley; Michelle Glass; David Kendall
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Richard Priestley, Michelle Glass, David Kendall
      It is now clear that, in contrast to traditional descriptions of G protein-coupled receptor signaling, agonists can activate or inhibit characteristic patterns of downstream effector pathways depending on their structures and the conformational changes induced in the receptor. This is referred to as functional selectivity (also known as agonist-directed trafficking, ligand-induced differential signaling, or biased agonism). It is important because even small structural differences can result in significant variations in overall agonist effects (wanted and unwanted) depending on which postreceptor signaling systems are engaged by each agonist/receptor pairing. In addition to the canonical signaling pathways mediated by Gi/o proteins, CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists can have effects via differential activation not only of Gi subtypes but also of Gs and Gq/11 proteins. For example, the classical cannabinoid HU-210 produces maximal activation of both Gi and Go proteins, while the endocannabinoid anandamide and aminoalkylindole WIN 55,212 both produce maximal activation of Gi, but submaximal activation of Go. Cannabinoid agonists can also signal differentially via β-arrestins coupled to mitogen-activated protein kinases, subsequently promoting varying degrees of receptor internalization and agonist desensitization. A recent extensive characterization of the molecular pharmacology of CB2 agonists (Soethoudt et al., 2017) identified marked differences (bias) in the ability of certain agonists to activate distinct signaling pathways (cAMP accumulation, ERK phosphorylation, GIRK activation, GTPγS binding, and β-arrestin recruitment) and to cause off-target effects, exemplifying the need to evaluate functional selectivity in agonist drug development.

      PubDate: 2017-06-09T20:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.03.005
  • Cannabis Pharmacology: The Usual Suspects and a Few Promising Leads
    • Authors: Ethan B. Russo; Jahan Marcu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Ethan B. Russo, Jahan Marcu
      The golden age of cannabis pharmacology began in the 1960s as Raphael Mechoulam and his colleagues in Israel isolated and synthesized cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol, and other phytocannabinoids. Initially, THC garnered most research interest with sporadic attention to cannabidiol, which has only rekindled in the last 15 years through a demonstration of its remarkably versatile pharmacology and synergy with THC. Gradually a cognizance of the potential of other phytocannabinoids has developed. Contemporaneous assessment of cannabis pharmacology must be even far more inclusive. Medical and recreational consumers alike have long believed in unique attributes of certain cannabis chemovars despite their similarity in cannabinoid profiles. This has focused additional research on the pharmacological contributions of mono- and sesquiterpenoids to the effects of cannabis flower preparations. Investigation reveals these aromatic compounds to contribute modulatory and therapeutic roles in the cannabis entourage far beyond expectations considering their modest concentrations in the plant. Synergistic relationships of the terpenoids to cannabinoids will be highlighted and include many complementary roles to boost therapeutic efficacy in treatment of pain, psychiatric disorders, cancer, and numerous other areas. Additional parts of the cannabis plant provide a wide and distinct variety of other compounds of pharmacological interest, including the triterpenoid friedelin from the roots, canniprene from the fan leaves, cannabisin from seed coats, and cannflavin A from seed sprouts. This chapter will explore the unique attributes of these agents and demonstrate how cannabis may yet fulfil its potential as Mechoulam's professed “pharmacological treasure trove.”

      PubDate: 2017-06-09T20:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.03.004
  • The Role of Nuclear Hormone Receptors in Cannabinoid Function
    • Authors: Marco Pistis; Saoirse E. O'Sullivan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Marco Pistis, Saoirse E. O'Sullivan
      Since the early 2000s, evidence has been accumulating that most cannabinoid compounds interact with the nuclear hormone family peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). This can be through direct binding of these compounds to PPARs, metabolism of cannabinoid to other PPAR-activating chemicals, or indirect activation of PPAR through cell signaling pathways. Delivery of cannabinoids to the nucleus may be facilitated by fatty acid-binding proteins and carrier proteins. All PPAR isoforms appear to be activated by cannabinoids, but the majority of evidence is for PPARα and γ. To date, little is known about the potential interaction of cannabinoids with other nuclear hormones. At least some (but not all) of the well-known biological actions of cannabinoids including neuroprotection, antiinflammatory action, and analgesic effects are partly mediated by PPAR-activation, often in combination with activation of the more traditional target sites of action. This has been best investigated for the endocannabinoid-like compounds palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamine acting at PPARα, and for phytocannabinoids or their derivatives activation acting at PPARγ. However, there are still many aspects of cannabinoid activation of PPAR and the role it plays in the biological and therapeutic effects of cannabinoids that remain to be investigated.

      PubDate: 2017-05-30T18:00:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.03.008
  • Endocannabinoid Turnover
    • Authors: Christopher J. Fowler; Patrick Doherty; Stephen P.H. Alexander
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology
      Author(s): Christopher J. Fowler, Patrick Doherty, Stephen P.H. Alexander
      In this review, we consider the biosynthetic, hydrolytic, and oxidative metabolism of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. We describe the enzymes associated with these events and their characterization. We identify the inhibitor profile for these enzymes and the status of therapeutic exploitation, which to date has been limited to clinical trials for fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors. To bring the review to a close, we consider whether point block of a single enzyme is likely to be the most successful approach for therapeutic exploitation of the endocannabinoid system.

      PubDate: 2017-05-30T18:00:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apha.2017.03.006
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