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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3042 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3042 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 81, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 325, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 123, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 338, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 422, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in Parasitology
  [SJR: 2.37]   [H-I: 73]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-308X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Chapter Six Global Distribution of Alveolar and Cystic Echinococcosis
    • Authors: P. Deplazes; L. Rinaldi; C.A. Alvarez Rojas; P.R. Torgerson; M.F. Harandi; T. Romig; D. Antolova; J.M. Schurer; S. Lahmar; G. Cringoli; J. Magambo; R.C.A. Thompson; E.J. Jenkins
      Pages: 315 - 493
      Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology, Volume 95
      Author(s): P. Deplazes, L. Rinaldi, C.A. Alvarez Rojas, P.R. Torgerson, M.F. Harandi, T. Romig, D. Antolova, J.M. Schurer, S. Lahmar, G. Cringoli, J. Magambo, R.C.A. Thompson, E.J. Jenkins
      Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE) are severe helminthic zoonoses. Echinococcus multilocularis (causative agent of AE) is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere where it is typically maintained in a wild animal cycle including canids as definitive hosts and rodents as intermediate hosts. The species Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus ortleppi, Echinococcus canadensis and Echinococcus intermedius are the causative agents of CE with a worldwide distribution and a highly variable human disease burden in the different endemic areas depending upon human behavioural risk factors, the diversity and ecology of animal host assemblages and the genetic diversity within Echinococcus species which differ in their zoonotic potential and pathogenicity. Both AE and CE are regarded as neglected zoonoses, with a higher overall burden of disease for CE due to its global distribution and high regional prevalence, but a higher pathogenicity and case fatality rate for AE, especially in Asia. Over the past two decades, numerous studies have addressed the epidemiology and distribution of these Echinococcus species worldwide, resulting in better-defined boundaries of the endemic areas. This chapter presents the global distribution of Echinococcus species and human AE and CE in maps and summarizes the global data on host assemblages, transmission, prevalence in animal definitive hosts, incidence in people and molecular epidemiology.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T13:56:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 95 (2017)
       
  • Life History, Systematics and Evolution of the Diplostomoidea Poirier,
           1886: Progress, Promises and Challenges Emerging From Molecular Studies
    • Authors: Isabel Blasco-Costa; Sean A. Locke
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): Isabel Blasco-Costa, Sean A. Locke
      Members of the Diplostomoidea mature in amniotes and employ vertebrates, annelids and molluscs as second intermediate hosts. Diplostomoid life cycles generally follow a three-host pattern typical of digeneans, but novelties have arisen in some species, including obligate four-host life cycles, vertical transmission, and intracellular parasitism. In this review, we summarize the basic biology of diplostomoids with reference to molecular studies, and present challenges, gaps and areas where molecular data could address long-standing questions. Our analysis of published studies revealed that most molecular surveys find more diplostomoid species than expected, but this tendency is influenced by how much effort goes into examining specimens morphologically and the number of sequenced worms. To date, molecular work has concentrated disproportionately on intraspecific or species-level diversity of larval stages in the Diplostomidae in temperate northern regions. Although the higher taxonomy of the superfamily is recognized to be in need of revision, little molecular work has been conducted at this level. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates several families and subfamilies require reconsideration, and that larval morphotypes are more reflective of evolutionary relationships than definitive hosts. The host associations of adult diplostomoids result from host-switching processes, whereas molecular surveys indicate that larval diplostomoid metacercariae have narrow ranges of second intermediate hosts, consistent with coevolution. Molecular data are often used to link diplostomoid developmental stages, and we provide data from adult Neodiplostomum and Mesoophorodiplostomum that correct earlier misidentifications of their larval stages and propose alternatives to collecting definitive hosts.

      PubDate: 2017-06-24T11:07:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2017.05.001
       
  • Measuring the Effect of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections on Cognitive
           Function in Children: Systematic Review and Critical Appraisal of Evidence
           
    • Authors: Kei Owada; Mark Nielsen; Colleen L. Lau; Archie C.A. Clements; Laith Yakob; Ricardo J. Soares Magalhães
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): Kei Owada, Mark Nielsen, Colleen L. Lau, Archie C.A. Clements, Laith Yakob, Ricardo J. Soares Magalhães
      Recently the role of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in children's cognitive developmental impairment has been under scrutiny. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence for associations between STH infections and cognitive function of children using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol. We aimed to identify the domains of cognitive function in three age strata (<24months, 24–59months and ≥60months) and critically appraise the general design protocol of the studies, with a focus on the cognitive function measurement tools used. A total of 42 papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria, including 10 studies from a recent Cochrane review. Our findings demonstrate variation in tested domains, lack of consistency in the use of measurement tools and analysis of results. Cognitive function measures in children aged under 59months have been mainly limited to domains of gross motor, fine motor and language skills, whereas in children aged 60months and above most studies tested domains such as memory and processing speed. Even within the same age group the results on the association between STH infections and measures of cognitive development were often conflicting. The current study highlights the need for methodological consensus in the use of measurement tools and data analysis protocols if the effect of STH infections on cognitive function domains in children is to be correctly established. This will be an imperative next step to generate conclusive evidence of the role of STH infections in cognitive development in children.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T00:42:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2017.05.002
       
  • Advances in Spermatological Characters in the Digenea: Review and Proposal
           of Spermatozoa Models and Their Phylogenetic Importancea
    • Authors: Abdoulaye J.S. Bakhoum; Jordi Miquel; Papa I. Ndiaye; Jean-Lou Justine; Alessandra Falchi; Cheikh T. Bâ; Bernard Marchand; Yann Quilichini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): Abdoulaye J.S. Bakhoum, Jordi Miquel, Papa I. Ndiaye, Jean-Lou Justine, Alessandra Falchi, Cheikh T. Bâ, Bernard Marchand, Yann Quilichini
      The wide biodiversity and economic importance of digeneans have motivated a great deal of research in the last decade, focussing on their phylogenetic positions. Molecular research was instrumental for our understanding of phylogeny in the Digenea, but spermatological studies have also provided many results, which are potentially useful for phylogeny; however, the complete spermatological data set has never been reviewed in a whole phylogenetic perspective. Spermatological data are now available for more than 100 species, belonging to 15 superfamilies and 46 families. In this paper, we try to summarize the current knowledge about sperm structure in the digeneans and propose a classification of digenean spermatozoa into five basic models. The main ultrastructural characters used are (1) the type of axoneme, (2) the lateral expansion, (3) the association ‘external ornamentation of the plasma membrane + cortical microtubules’, (4) the field of cortical microtubules and its number, (5) the location of the external ornamentation, (6) the location of the maximum number of cortical microtubules and (7) the number of mitochondria. We also outline the most interesting features for phylogenetic inference and their possible value in the context of digenean systematics, phylogeny and evolution. Associations between sperm models and superfamilies were found as follows: Type 1 in the Schistosomatoidea; Type 2 in the Hemiuroidea; Type 3 in the Opecoeloidea, Lepocreadioidea, Haploporoidea and Opisthorchioidea; Type 4 in the Gorgoderoidea, Microphalloidea, Plagiorchioidea and Gymnophalloidea; Type 5 in the Echinostomatoidea, Microscaphidioidea, Paramphistomoidea, Pronocephaloidea and Brachylaimoidea.

      PubDate: 2017-05-24T21:37:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2017.04.001
       
  • Trypanosoma congolense: Molecular Toolkit and Resources for Studying a
           Major Livestock Pathogen and Model Trypanosome
    • Authors: Wendy Gibson; Christopher Kay; Lori Peacock
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): Wendy Gibson, Christopher Kay, Lori Peacock
      The African trypanosomiases are diseases of humans and their livestock caused by trypanosomes carried by bloodsucking tsetse flies. Although the human pathogen Trypanosoma brucei is the best known, other trypanosome species are of greater concern for animal health in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, T rypanosoma congolense is a major cattle pathogen, which is as amenable to laboratory culture as T. brucei, with the advantage that its whole life cycle can be recapitulated in vitro. Thus, besides being worthy of study in its own right, T. congolense could be useful as a model of trypanosome development. Here we review the biology of T. congolense, highlighting significant and intriguing differences from its sister, T. brucei. An up-to-date compilation of methods for cultivating and genetically manipulating T. congolense in the laboratory is provided, based on published work and current development of methods in our lab, as well as a description of available molecular resources.

      PubDate: 2017-05-09T15:16:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2017.03.002
       
  • The Battle Against Flystrike – Past Research and New Prospects
           Through Genomics
    • Authors: Clare A. Anstead; Trent Perry; Stephen Richards; Pasi K. Korhonen; Neil D. Young; Vernon M. Bowles; Philip Batterham; Robin B. Gasser
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): Clare A. Anstead, Trent Perry, Stephen Richards, Pasi K. Korhonen, Neil D. Young, Vernon M. Bowles, Philip Batterham, Robin B. Gasser
      Flystrike, or cutaneous myiasis, is caused by blow fly larvae of the genus Lucilia. This disease is a major problem in countries with large sheep populations. In Australia, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830) is the principal fly involved in flystrike. While much research has been conducted on L. cuprina, including physical, chemical, immunological, genetic and biological investigations, the molecular biology of this fly is still poorly understood. The recent sequencing, assembly and annotation of the draft genome and analyses of selected transcriptomes of L. cuprina have given a first global glimpse of its molecular biology and insights into host–fly interactions, insecticide resistance genes and intervention targets. The present article introduces L. cuprina, flystrike and associated issues, details past control efforts and research foci, reviews salient aspects of the L. cuprina genome project and discusses how the new genomic and transcriptomic resources for this fly might accelerate fundamental molecular research of L. cuprina towards developing new methods for the treatment and control of flystrike.

      PubDate: 2017-05-09T15:16:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2017.03.001
       
  • Advances in Parasitology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology, Volume 97


      PubDate: 2017-03-19T15:01:17Z
       
  • Series Editor
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology, Volume 97


      PubDate: 2017-03-19T15:01:17Z
       
  • The Role of Spatial Statistics in the Control and Elimination of Neglected
           Tropical Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Focus on Human African
           Trypanosomiasis, Schistosomiasis and Lymphatic Filariasis
    • Authors: M.C. Stanton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): M.C. Stanton
      Disease control and elimination programmes can benefit greatly from accurate information on the spatial variability of disease risk, particularly when risk is highly spatially heterogeneous. Due to advances in statistical methodology, coupled with the increased availability of geospatial technology, this information is becoming increasingly accessible. In this chapter we describe recent advancements in spatial methods associated with the analysis of disease data measured at the point-level and demonstrate their application to the control and elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). We further provide information on spatially referenced data sources and software that can be used to create NTD risk maps, concentrating on those that can be freely obtained. Examples relating to three NTDs affecting populations in sub-Saharan Africa are presented throughout the chapter, i.e., human African trypanosomiasis, schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis. These three diseases, with differing routes of transmission, control methods and level of spatial heterogeneity, demonstrate the flexibility and applicability of the methods described.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T13:12:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2017.01.001
       
  • Advances in Parasitology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology, Volume 96


      PubDate: 2017-02-21T01:34:34Z
       
  • Series Editor
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology, Volume 96


      PubDate: 2017-02-21T01:34:34Z
       
  • Contents of Volumes in This Series
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology, Volume 96


      PubDate: 2017-02-21T01:34:34Z
       
  • The Echinococcoses: Diagnosis, Clinical Management and Burden of Disease
    • Authors: P. Kern; A. Menezes da Silva; O. Akhan; B. Müllhaupt; K.A. Vizcaychipi; C. Budke; D.A. Vuitton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): P. Kern, A. Menezes da Silva, O. Akhan, B. Müllhaupt, K.A. Vizcaychipi, C. Budke, D.A. Vuitton
      The echinococcoses are chronic, parasitic diseases that are acquired after ingestion of infective taeniid tapeworm eggs from certain species of the genus Echinococcus. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) occurs worldwide, whereas, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is restricted to the northern hemisphere, and neotropical echinococcosis (NE) has only been identified in Central and South America. Clinical manifestations and disease courses vary profoundly for the different species of Echinococcus. CE presents as small to large cysts, and has commonly been referred to as ‘hydatid disease’, or ‘hydatidosis’. A structured stage-specific approach to CE management, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) ultrasound classification of liver cysts, is now recommended. Management options include percutaneous sterilization techniques, surgery, drug treatment, a ‘watch-and-wait’ approach or combinations thereof. In contrast, clinical manifestations associated with AE resemble those of a ‘malignant’, silently-progressing liver disease, with local tissue infiltration and metastases. Structured care is important for AE management and includes WHO staging, drug therapy and long-term follow-up for at least a decade. NE presents as polycystic or unicystic disease. Clinical characteristics resemble those of AE, and management needs to be structured accordingly. However, to date, only a few hundreds of cases have been reported in the literature. The echinococcoses are often expensive and complicated to treat, and prospective clinical studies are needed to better inform case management decisions.

      PubDate: 2017-02-14T21:46:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.09.006
       
  • Advances in Parasitology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology, Volume 95


      PubDate: 2017-01-28T13:56:01Z
       
  • Series Editor
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology, Volume 95


      PubDate: 2017-01-28T13:56:01Z
       
  • Contents of Volumes in This Series
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology, Volume 95


      PubDate: 2017-01-28T13:56:01Z
       
  • Laboratory Diagnosis of Echinococcus spp. in Human Patients and Infected
           Animals
    • Authors: M. Siles-Lucas; A. Casulli; F.J. Conraths; N. Müller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): M. Siles-Lucas, A. Casulli, F.J. Conraths, N. Müller
      Among the species composing the genus Echinococcus, four species are of human clinical interest. The most prevalent species are Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis, followed by Echinococcus vogeli and Echinococcus oligarthrus. The first two species cause cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) respectively. Both diseases have a complex clinical management, in which laboratory diagnosis could be an adjunctive to the imaging techniques. To date, several approaches have been described for the laboratory diagnosis and followup of CE and AE, including antibody, antigen and cytokine detection. All of these approaches are far from being optimal as adjunctive diagnosis particularly for CE, since they do not reach enough sensitivity and/or specificity. A combination of several methods (e.g., antibody and antigen detection) or of several (recombinant) antigens could improve the performance of the adjunctive laboratory methods, although the complexity of echinococcosis and heterogeneity of clinical cases make necessary a deep understanding of the host–parasite relationships and the parasite phenotype at different developmental stages to reach the best diagnostic tool and to make it accepted in clinical practice. Standardization approaches and a deep understanding of the performance of each of the available antigens in the diagnosis of echinococcosis for the different clinical pictures are also needed. The detection of the parasite in definitive hosts is also reviewed in this chapter. Finally, the different methods for the detection of parasite DNA in different analytes and matrices are also reviewed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-20T09:32:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.09.003
       
  • Ecology and Life Cycle Patterns of Echinococcus Species
    • Authors: T. Romig; P. Deplazes; D. Jenkins; P. Giraudoux; A. Massolo; P.S. Craig; M. Wassermann; K. Takahashi; M. de la Rue
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): T. Romig, P. Deplazes, D. Jenkins, P. Giraudoux, A. Massolo, P.S. Craig, M. Wassermann, K. Takahashi, M. de la Rue
      The genus Echinococcus is composed of eight generally recognized species and one genotypic cluster (Echinococcus canadensis cluster) that may in future be resolved into one to three species. For each species, we review existing information on transmission routes and life cycles in different geographical contexts and – where available – include basic biological information of parasites and hosts (e.g., susceptibility of host species). While some Echinococcus spp. are transmitted in life cycles that involve predominantly domestic animals (e.g., dog – livestock cycles), others are wildlife parasites that do or do not interact with domestic transmission. In many cases, life cycle patterns of the same parasite species differ according to geography. Simple life cycles contrast with transmission patterns that are highly complex, involving multihost systems that may include both domestic and wild mammals. Wildlife transmission may be primary or secondary, i.e., resulting from spillovers from domestic animals. For most of the species and regions, existing information does not yet permit a conclusive description of transmission systems. Such data, however, would be highly relevant, e.g., for anticipation of geographical changes of the presence and frequency of these parasites in a warming world, or for initiating evidence-based control strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-01-13T06:20:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.11.002
       
  • Echinococcosis: Control and Prevention
    • Authors: P.S. Craig; D. Hegglin; M.W. Lightowlers; P. Torgerson; Q. Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): P.S. Craig, D. Hegglin, M.W. Lightowlers, P. Torgerson, Q. Wang
      Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been eliminated or significantly reduced as a public health problem in several previously highly endemic regions. This has been achieved by the long-term application of prevention and control measures primarily targeted to deworming dogs, health education, meat inspection, and effective surveillance in livestock and human populations. Human CE, however, remains a serious neglected zoonotic disease in many resource-poor pastoral regions. The incidence of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) has increased in continental Europe and is a major public health problem in parts of Eurasia. Better understanding of wildlife ecology for fox and small mammal hosts has enabled targeted anthelmintic baiting of fox populations and development of spatially explicit models to predict population dynamics for key intermediate host species and human AE risk in endemic landscapes. Challenges that remain for echinococcosis control include effective intervention in resource-poor communities, better availability of surveillance tools, optimal application of livestock vaccination, and management and ecology of dog and wildlife host populations.

      PubDate: 2017-01-04T01:39:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.09.002
       
  • Echinococcus–Host Interactions at Cellular and Molecular Levels
    • Authors: K. Brehm; U. Koziol
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): K. Brehm, U. Koziol
      The potentially lethal zoonotic diseases alveolar and cystic echinococcosis are caused by the metacestode larval stages of the tapeworms Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus, respectively. In both cases, metacestode growth and proliferation occurs within the inner organs of mammalian hosts, which is associated with complex molecular host–parasite interactions that regulate nutrient uptake by the parasite as well as metacestode persistence and development. Using in vitro cultivation systems for parasite larvae, and informed by recently released, comprehensive genome and transcriptome data for both parasites, these molecular host–parasite interactions have been subject to significant research during recent years. In this review, we discuss progress in this field, with emphasis on parasite development and proliferation. We review host–parasite interaction mechanisms that occur early during an infection, when the invading oncosphere stage undergoes a metamorphosis towards the metacestode, and outline the decisive role of parasite stem cells during this process. We also discuss special features of metacestode morphology, and how this parasite stage takes up nutrients from the host, utilizing newly evolved or expanded gene families. We comprehensively review mechanisms of host–parasite cross-communication via evolutionarily conserved signalling systems and how the parasite signalling systems might be exploited for the development of novel chemotherapeutics. Finally, we point to an urgent need for the development of functional genomic techniques in this parasite, which will be imperative for hypothesis-driven analyses into Echinococcus stem cell biology, developmental mechanisms and immunomodulatory activities, which are all highly relevant for the development of anti-infective measures.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T02:01:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.09.001
       
  • Chagas Disease Diagnostic Applications: Present Knowledge and Future Steps
    • Authors: V. Balouz; F. Agüero; C.A. Buscaglia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): V. Balouz, F. Agüero, C.A. Buscaglia
      Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a lifelong and debilitating illness of major significance throughout Latin America and an emergent threat to global public health. Being a neglected disease, the vast majority of Chagasic patients have limited access to proper diagnosis and treatment, and there is only a marginal investment into R&D for drug and vaccine development. In this context, identification of novel biomarkers able to transcend the current limits of diagnostic methods surfaces as a main priority in Chagas disease applied research. The expectation is that these novel biomarkers will provide reliable, reproducible and accurate results irrespective of the genetic background, infecting parasite strain, stage of disease, and clinical-associated features of Chagasic populations. In addition, they should be able to address other still unmet diagnostic needs, including early detection of congenital T. cruzi transmission, rapid assessment of treatment efficiency or failure, indication/prediction of disease progression and direct parasite typification in clinical samples. The lack of access of poor and neglected populations to essential diagnostics also stresses the necessity of developing new methods operational in point-of-care settings. In summary, emergent diagnostic tests integrating these novel and tailored tools should provide a significant impact on the effectiveness of current intervention schemes and on the clinical management of Chagasic patients. In this chapter, we discuss the present knowledge and possible future steps in Chagas disease diagnostic applications, as well as the opportunity provided by recent advances in high-throughput methods for biomarker discovery.

      PubDate: 2016-11-20T21:53:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.10.001
       
  • Targeting the Parasite to Suppress Malaria Transmission
    • Authors: R.E. Sinden
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): R.E. Sinden
      This article attempts to draw together current knowledge on the biology of Plasmodium and experience gained from past control campaigns to interpret and guide current efforts to discover and develop exciting new strategies targeting the parasite with the objective of interrupting transmission. Particular note is made of the advantages of targeting often unappreciated small, yet vital, bottleneck populations to enhance both the impact and the useful lifetime of hard-won interventions. A case is made for the standardization of methods to measure transmission blockade to permit the rational comparison of how diverse interventions (drugs, vaccines, insecticides, Genetically Modified technologies) targeting disparate aspects of parasite biology may impact upon the commonly used parameter of parasite prevalence in the human population.

      PubDate: 2016-11-13T20:36:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.09.004
       
  • Immunology of Alveolar and Cystic Echinococcosis (AE and CE)
    • Authors: B. Gottstein; P. Soboslay; E. Ortona; J. Wang; A. Siracusano; D.Α. Vuitton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2016
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): B. Gottstein, P. Soboslay, E. Ortona, J. Wang, A. Siracusano, D.Α. Vuitton
      Cystic and alveolar echinococcosis are severe chronic helminthic diseases caused by the cystic growth or the intrahepatic tumour-like growth of the metacestode of Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively. Both parasites have evolved sophisticated strategies to escape host immune responses, mainly by manipulating and directing this immune response towards anergy and/or tolerance. Recent research studies have revealed a number of respective immunoregulatory mechanisms related to macrophages and dendritic cell as well as T cell activities (regulatory T cells, Tregs). A better understanding of this complex parasite–host relationship, and the elucidation of specific crucial events that lead to disease, represents targets towards the development of novel treatment strategies and options.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T11:36:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.09.005
       
  • Is Predominant Clonal Evolution a Common Evolutionary Adaptation to
           Parasitism in Pathogenic Parasitic Protozoa, Fungi, Bacteria, and Viruses?
           
    • Authors: M. Tibayrenc; F.J. Ayala
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2016
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): M. Tibayrenc, F.J. Ayala
      We propose that predominant clonal evolution (PCE) in microbial pathogens be defined as restrained recombination on an evolutionary scale, with genetic exchange scarce enough to not break the prevalent pattern of clonal population structure. The main features of PCE are (1) strong linkage disequilibrium, (2) the widespread occurrence of stable genetic clusters blurred by occasional bouts of genetic exchange (‘near-clades’), (3) the existence of a “clonality threshold”, beyond which recombination is efficiently countered by PCE, and near-clades irreversibly diverge. We hypothesize that the PCE features are not mainly due to natural selection but also chiefly originate from in-built genetic properties of pathogens. We show that the PCE model obtains even in microbes that have been considered as ‘highly recombining’, such as Neisseria meningitidis, and that some clonality features are observed even in Plasmodium, which has been long described as panmictic. Lastly, we provide evidence that PCE features are also observed in viruses, taking into account their extremely fast genetic turnover. The PCE model provides a convenient population genetic framework for any kind of micropathogen. It makes it possible to describe convenient units of analysis (clones and near-clades) for all applied studies. Due to PCE features, these units of analysis are stable in space and time, and clearly delimited. The PCE model opens up the possibility of revisiting the problem of species definition in these organisms. We hypothesize that PCE constitutes a major evolutionary strategy for protozoa, fungi, bacteria, and viruses to adapt to parasitism.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T11:36:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.08.007
       
  • Historical Aspects of Echinococcosis
    • Authors: J. Eckert; R.C.A. Thompson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): J. Eckert, R.C.A. Thompson
      Echinococcosis is a zoonosis whose history dates back to antiquity. This article provides an overview on the general history of echinococcosis, including the elucidation of Echinococcus life cycles and the long controversy on the aetiology of the cystic and alveolar forms of echinococcosis (CE and AE), lasting about 100years since the middle of the 19th century. Furthermore, selected historical aspects of some fields of echinococcosis research are discussed and compared with our current knowledge, such as geographic distribution and epidemiology of CE (Echinococcus granulosus) and AE (Echinococcus multilocularis), clinical aspects and pathology, diagnosis in humans and animals, treatment (with focus on chemotherapy), control and basic research. A short paragraph is devoted to the neotropical forms of echinococcosis, caused by Echinococcus vogeli and Echinococcus oligarthrus. In this context the achievements of some ancestral pioneers of echinococcosis research are particularly highlighted and appreciated. Finally, the role of associations, international organizations (World Health Organization and others) and international working groups in echinococcosis research and control is briefly outlined. The retrospective reveals both the admirable achievements of our ancestors and the scientific progress of more recent times. But, it also shows the gaps in our knowledge, skills and resources that we need to control or even eradicate echinococcosis.

      PubDate: 2016-10-03T10:06:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.07.003
       
  • The Compatibility Between Biomphalaria glabrata Snails and Schistosoma
           mansoni: An Increasingly Complex Puzzle
    • Authors: G. Mitta; B. Gourbal; C. Grunau; M. Knight; J.M. Bridger; A. Théron
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): G. Mitta, B. Gourbal, C. Grunau, M. Knight, J.M. Bridger, A. Théron
      This review reexamines the results obtained in recent decades regarding the compatibility polymorphism between the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the pathogen, Schistosoma mansoni, which is one of the agents responsible for human schistosomiasis. Some results point to the snail's resistance as explaining the incompatibility, while others support a “matching hypothesis” between the snail's immune receptors and the schistosome's antigens. We propose here that the two hypotheses are not exclusive, and that the compatible/incompatible status of a particular host/parasite couple probably reflects the balance of multiple molecular determinants that support one hypothesis or the other. Because these genes are involved in a coevolutionary arms race, we also propose that the underlying mechanisms can vary. Finally, some recent results show that environmental factors could influence compatibility. Together, these results make the compatibility between B. glabrata and S. mansoni an increasingly complex puzzle. We need to develop more integrative approaches in order to find targets that could potentially be manipulated to control the transmission of schistosomiasis.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T23:38:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.08.006
       
  • Phylogenetic Pattern, Evolutionary Processes and Species Delimitation in
           the Genus Echinococcus
    • Authors: A.J. Lymbery
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): A.J. Lymbery
      An accurate and stable alpha taxonomy requires a clear conception of what constitutes a species and agreed criteria for delimiting different species. An evolutionary or general lineage concept defines a species as a single lineage of organisms with a common evolutionary trajectory, distinguishable from other such lineages. Delimiting evolutionary species is a two-step process. In the first step, phylogenetic reconstruction identifies putative species as groups of organisms that are monophyletic (share a common ancestor) and exclusive (more closely related to each other than to organisms outside the group). The second step is to assess whether members of the group possess genetic exchangeability (where cohesion is maintained by gene flow among populations) or ecological exchangeability (where cohesion is maintained because populations occupy the same ecological niche). Recent taxonomic reviews have recognized nine species within the genus Echinococcus. Phylogenetic reconstructions of the relationships between these putative species using mtDNA and nuclear gene sequences show that for the most part these nine species are monophyletic, although there are important incongruences that need to be resolved. Applying the criteria of genetic and ecological exchangeability suggests that seven of the currently recognized species represent evolutionarily distinct lineages. The species status of Echinococcus canadensis and Echinococcus ortleppi could not be confirmed. Coalescent-based analyses represent a promising approach to species delimitation in these closely related taxa. It seems likely, from a comparison of sister species groups, that speciation in the genus has been driven by geographic isolation, but biogeographic scenarios are largely speculative and require further testing.

      PubDate: 2016-08-16T20:20:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.07.002
       
  • Biology and Systematics of Echinococcus
    • Authors: R.C.A. Thompson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): R.C.A. Thompson
      The biology of Echinococcus, the causative agent of echinococcosis (hydatid disease) is reviewed with emphasis on the developmental biology of the adult and metacestode stages of the parasite. Major advances include determining the origin, structure and functional activities of the laminated layer and its relationship with the germinal layer; and the isolation, in vitro establishment and characterization of the multipotential germinal cells. Future challenges are to identify the mechanisms that provide Echinococcus with its unique developmental plasticity and the nature of activities at the parasite-host interface, particularly in the definitive host. The revised taxonomy of Echinococcus is presented and the solid nomenclature it provides will be essential in understanding the epidemiology of echinococcosis.

      PubDate: 2016-08-06T15:29:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.07.001
       
  • Host–Parasite Relationships and Life Histories of Trypanosomes in
           Australia
    • Authors: C. Cooper; P.L. Clode; C. Peacock; R.C.A. Thompson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2016
      Source:Advances in Parasitology
      Author(s): C. Cooper, P.L. Clode, C. Peacock, R.C.A. Thompson
      Trypanosomes constitute a group of flagellate protozoan parasites responsible for a number of important, yet neglected, diseases in both humans and livestock. The most significantly studied include the causative agents of African sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma brucei) and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) in humans. Much of our knowledge about trypanosome host–parasite relationships and life histories has come from these two human pathogens. Recent investigations into the diversity and life histories of wildlife trypanosomes in Australia highlight that there exists a great degree of biological and behavioural variation within and between trypanosomes. In addition, the genetic relationships between some Australian trypanosomes show that they are unexpectedly more closely related to species outside Australia than within it. These findings have led to a growing focus on the importance of understanding parasites occurring naturally in wildlife to (1) better document parasite biodiversity, (2) determine evolutionary relationships and degree of host specificity, (3) understand host–parasite interactions and the role of parasites in the natural ecosystem and (4) identify biosecurity issues of emerging disease in both wildlife and human populations. Here we review what is known about the diversity, life histories, host–parasite interactions and evolutionary relationships of trypanosomes in Australian wildlife. In this context, we focus upon the genetic proximity of key Australian species to the pathogenic T. cruzi and discuss similarities in their biology and behaviour that present a potential risk of human disease transmission by Australian vectors and wildlife.

      PubDate: 2016-08-01T14:18:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.apar.2016.06.001
       
 
 
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