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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3031 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3031 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 79, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 389, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in Microbial Physiology
  [SJR: 1.44]   [H-I: 51]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2911
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Metal Resistance and Its Association With Antibiotic Resistance
    • Authors: Chandan Pal; Karishma Asiani; Sankalp Arya; Christopher Rensing; Dov J. Stekel; D.G. Joakim Larsson; Jon L. Hobman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Chandan Pal, Karishma Asiani, Sankalp Arya, Christopher Rensing, Dov J. Stekel, D.G. Joakim Larsson, Jon L. Hobman
      Antibiotic resistance is recognised as a major global threat to public health by the World Health Organization. Currently, several hundred thousand deaths yearly can be attributed to infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The major driver for the development of antibiotic resistance is considered to be the use, misuse and overuse of antibiotics in humans and animals. Nonantibiotic compounds, such as antibacterial biocides and metals, may also contribute to the promotion of antibiotic resistance through co-selection. This may occur when resistance genes to both antibiotics and metals/biocides are co-located together in the same cell (co-resistance), or a single resistance mechanism (e.g. an efflux pump) confers resistance to both antibiotics and biocides/metals (cross-resistance), leading to co-selection of bacterial strains, or mobile genetic elements that they carry. Here, we review antimicrobial metal resistance in the context of the antibiotic resistance problem, discuss co-selection, and highlight critical knowledge gaps in our understanding.

      PubDate: 2017-04-06T12:00:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.02.001
       
  • Copper and Antibiotics: Discovery, Modes of Action, and Opportunities for
           Medicinal Applications
    • Authors: Alex G. Dalecki; Cameron L. Crawford; Frank Wolschendorf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Alex G. Dalecki, Cameron L. Crawford, Frank Wolschendorf
      Copper is a ubiquitous element in the environment as well as living organisms, with its redox capabilities and complexation potential making it indispensable for many cellular functions. However, these same properties can be highly detrimental to prokaryotes and eukaryotes when not properly controlled, damaging many biomolecules including DNA, lipids, and proteins. To restrict free copper concentrations, all bacteria have developed mechanisms of resistance, sequestering and effluxing labile copper to minimize its deleterious effects. This weakness is actively exploited by phagocytes, which utilize a copper burst to destroy pathogens. Though administration of free copper is an unreasonable therapeutic antimicrobial itself, due to insufficient selectivity between host and pathogen, small-molecule ligands may provide an opportunity for therapeutic mimicry of the immune system. By modulating cellular entry, complex stability, resistance evasion, and target selectivity, ligand/metal coordination complexes can synergistically result in high levels of antibacterial activity. Several established therapeutic drugs, such as disulfiram and pyrithione, display remarkable copper-dependent inhibitory activity. These findings have led to development of new drug discovery techniques, using copper ions as the focal point. High-throughput screens for copper-dependent inhibitors against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus uncovered several new compounds, including a new class of inhibitors, the NNSNs. In this review, we highlight the microbial biology of copper, its antibacterial activities, and mechanisms to discover new inhibitors that synergize with copper.

      PubDate: 2017-03-19T10:11:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.007
       
  • Bacterial Haemoprotein Sensors of NO: H-NOX and NosP
    • Authors: Bezalel Bacon; Lisa-Marie Nisbett; Elizabeth Boon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Bezalel Bacon, Lisa-Marie Nisbett, Elizabeth Boon
      Low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) modulate varied behaviours in bacteria including biofilm dispersal and quorum sensing-dependent light production. H-NOX (haem-nitric oxide/oxygen binding) is a haem-bound protein domain that has been shown to be involved in mediating these bacterial responses to NO in several organisms. However, many bacteria that respond to nanomolar concentrations of NO do not contain an annotated H-NOX domain. Nitric oxide sensing protein (NosP), a newly discovered bacterial NO-sensing haemoprotein, may fill this role. The focus of this review is to discuss structure, ligand binding, and activation of H-NOX proteins, as well as to discuss the early evidence for NO sensing and regulation by NosP domains. Further, these findings are connected to the regulation of bacterial biofilm phenotypes and symbiotic relationships.

      PubDate: 2017-03-19T10:11:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.004
       
  • Manganese in Marine Microbiology
    • Authors: Colleen M. Hansel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Colleen M. Hansel
      The importance of manganese in the physiology of marine microbes, the biogeochemistry of the ocean and the health of microbial communities of past and present is emerging. Manganese is distributed widely throughout the global ocean, taking the form of an essential antioxidant (Mn2+), a potent oxidant (Mn3+) and strong adsorbent (Mn oxides) sequestering disproportionately high levels of trace metals and nutrients in comparison to the surrounding seawater. Manganese is, in fact, linked to nearly all other elemental cycles and intricately involved in the health, metabolism and function of the ocean's microbiome. Here, we briefly review the diversity of microbes and pathways responsible for the transformation of Mn within the three Mn pools and their distribution within the marine environment. Despite decades of interrogation, we still have much to learn about the players, mechanisms and consequences of the Mn cycle, and new and exciting discoveries are being made at a rapid rate. What is clear is the dynamic and ever-inspiring complexity of reactions involving Mn, and the acknowledgement that microorganisms are the catalytic engine driving the Mn cycle.

      PubDate: 2017-03-19T10:11:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.005
       
  • Transition Metal Homeostasis in Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus
           pneumoniae
    • Authors: Andrew G. Turner; Cheryl-lynn Y. Ong; Mark J. Walker; Karrera Y. Djoko; Alastair G. McEwan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Andrew G. Turner, Cheryl-lynn Y. Ong, Mark J. Walker, Karrera Y. Djoko, Alastair G. McEwan
      Trace metals such as Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu are essential for various biological functions including proper innate immune function. The host immune system has complicated and coordinated mechanisms in place to either starve and/or overload invading pathogens with various metals to combat the infection. Here, we discuss the roles of Fe, Mn and Zn in terms of nutritional immunity, and also the roles of Cu and Zn in metal overload in relation to the physiology and pathogenesis of two human streptococcal species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. S. pneumoniae is a major human pathogen that is carried asymptomatically in the nasopharynx by up to 70% of the population; however, transition to internal sites can cause a range of diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis and bacteraemia. S. pyogenes is a human pathogen responsible for diseases ranging from pharyngitis and impetigo, to severe invasive infections. Both species have overlapping capacity with respect to metal acquisition, export and regulation and how metal homeostasis relates to their virulence and ability to invade and survive within the host. It is becoming more apparent that metals have an important role to play in the control of infection, and with further investigations, it could lead to the potential use of metals in novel antimicrobial therapies.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T07:30:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.002
       
  • Nutritional Immunity and Fungal Pathogenesis: The Struggle for
           Micronutrients at the Host–Pathogen Interface
    • Authors: Dhara Malavia; Aaron Crawford; Duncan Wilson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Dhara Malavia, Aaron Crawford, Duncan Wilson
      All living organisms require certain micronutrients such as iron, zinc, manganese and copper for cellular function and growth. For human pathogens however, the maintenance of metal ion homeostasis is particularly challenging. This is because the mammalian host actively enforces extremes of micronutrient availability on potential microbial invaders—processes collectively termed nutritional immunity. The role of iron sequestration in controlling microbial infections is well established and, more recently, the importance of other metals including zinc, manganese and copper has been recognised. In this chapter, we explore the nutritional immune mechanisms that defend the human body against fungal infections and the strategies that these important pathogens exploit to counteract nutritional immunity and thrive in the infected host.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T07:30:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.006
       
  • The Role of Intermetal Competition and Mis-Metalation in Metal Toxicity
    • Authors: Anna Barwinska-Sendra; Kevin J. Waldron
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Anna Barwinska-Sendra, Kevin J. Waldron
      The metals manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc are essential for almost all bacteria, but their precise metal requirements vary by species, by ecological niche and by growth condition. Bacteria thus must acquire each of these essential elements in sufficient quantity to satisfy their cellular demand, but in excess these same elements are toxic. Metal toxicity has been exploited by humanity for centuries, and by the mammalian immune system for far longer, yet the mechanisms by which these elements cause toxicity to bacteria are not fully understood. There has been a resurgence of interest in metal toxicity in recent decades due to the problematic spread of antibiotic resistance amongst bacterial pathogens, which has led to an increased research effort to understand these toxicity mechanisms at the molecular level. A recurring theme from these studies is the role of intermetal competition in bacterial metal toxicity. In this review, we first survey biological metal usage and introduce some fundamental chemical concepts that are important for understanding bacterial metal usage and toxicity. Then we introduce a simple model by which to understand bacterial metal homeostasis in terms of the distribution of each essential metal ion within cellular ‘pools’, and dissect how these pools interact with each other and with key proteins of bacterial metal homeostasis. Finally, using a number of key examples from the recent literature, we look at specific metal toxicity mechanisms in model bacteria, demonstrating the role of metal–metal competition in the toxicity mechanisms of diverse essential metals.

      PubDate: 2017-02-14T07:25:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.003
       
  • Metal-Based Combinations That Target Protein Synthesis by Fungi
    • Authors: Cindy Vallières; Simon V. Avery
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): Cindy Vallières, Simon V. Avery
      A wide range of fungicides (or antifungals) are used in agriculture and medicine, with activities against a spectrum of fungal pathogens. Unfortunately, the evolution of fungicide resistance has become a major issue. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new antifungal treatments. Certain metals have been used for decades as efficient fungicides in agriculture. However, concerns over metal toxicity have escalated over this time. Recent studies have revealed that metals like copper and chromate can impair functions required for the fidelity of protein synthesis in fungi. This occurs through different mechanisms, based on targeting of iron–sulphur cluster integrity or competition for uptake with amino acid precursors. Moreover, chromate at least acts synergistically with other agents known to target translation fidelity, like aminoglycoside antibiotics, causing dramatic and selective growth inhibition of several fungal pathogens of humans and plants. As such synergy allows the application of decreased amounts of metals for effective inhibition, it lessens concerns about nonspecific toxicity and opens new possibilities for metal applications in combinatorial fungicides targeting protein synthesis.

      PubDate: 2017-02-14T07:25:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2017.01.001
       
  • The Making and Taking of Lipids: The Role of Bacterial Lipid Synthesis and
           the Harnessing of Host Lipids in Bacterial Pathogenesis
    • Authors: E.M. Fozo; E.A. Rucks
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): E.M. Fozo, E.A. Rucks
      In order to survive environmental stressors, including those induced by growth in the human host, bacterial pathogens will adjust their membrane physiology accordingly. These physiological changes also include the use of host-derived lipids to alter their own membranes and feed central metabolic pathways. Within the host, the pathogen is exposed to many stressful stimuli. A resulting adaptation is for pathogens to scavenge the host environment for readily available lipid sources. The pathogen takes advantage of these host-derived lipids to increase or decrease the rigidity of their own membranes, to provide themselves with valuable precursors to feed central metabolic pathways, or to impact host signalling and processes. Within, we review the diverse mechanisms that both extracellular and intracellular pathogens employ to alter their own membranes as well as their use of host-derived lipids in membrane synthesis and modification, in order to increase survival and perpetuate disease within the human host. Furthermore, we discuss how pathogen employed mechanistic utilization of host-derived lipids allows for their persistence, survival and potentiation of disease. A more thorough understanding of all of these mechanisms will have direct consequences for the development of new therapeutics, and specifically, therapeutics that target pathogens, while preserving normal flora.

      PubDate: 2016-09-06T03:28:49Z
       
  • The Journey of Lipoproteins Through the Cell: One Birthplace, Multiple
           Destinations
    • Authors: Szewczyk J.-F.; Collet
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): J. Szewczyk, J.-F. Collet
      Bacterial lipoproteins are a very diverse group of proteins characterized by the presence of an N-terminal lipid moiety that serves as a membrane anchor. Lipoproteins have a wide variety of crucial functions, ranging from envelope biogenesis to stress response. In Gram-negative bacteria, lipoproteins can be targeted to various destinations in the cell, including the periplasmic side of the cytoplasmic or outer membrane, the cell surface or the external milieu. The sorting mechanisms have been studied in detail in Escherichia coli, but exceptions to the rules established in this model bacterium exist in other bacteria. In this chapter, we will present the current knowledge on lipoprotein sorting in the cell. Our particular focus will be on the surface-exposed lipoproteins that appear to be much more common than previously assumed. We will discuss the different targeting strategies, provide numerous examples of surface-exposed lipoproteins and discuss the techniques used to assess their surface exposure.

      PubDate: 2016-09-01T01:22:38Z
       
  • The Model [NiFe]-Hydrogenases of Escherichia coli
    • Authors: Sargent
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2016
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): F. Sargent
      In Escherichia coli, hydrogen metabolism plays a prominent role in anaerobic physiology. The genome contains the capability to produce and assemble up to four [NiFe]-hydrogenases, each of which are known, or predicted, to contribute to different aspects of cellular metabolism. In recent years, there have been major advances in the understanding of the structure, function, and roles of the E. coli [NiFe]-hydrogenases. The membrane-bound, periplasmically oriented, respiratory Hyd-1 isoenzyme has become one of the most important paradigm systems for understanding an important class of oxygen-tolerant enzymes, as well as providing key information on the mechanism of hydrogen activation per se. The membrane-bound, periplasmically oriented, Hyd-2 isoenzyme has emerged as an unusual, bidirectional redox valve able to link hydrogen oxidation to quinone reduction during anaerobic respiration, or to allow disposal of excess reducing equivalents as hydrogen gas. The membrane-bound, cytoplasmically oriented, Hyd-3 isoenzyme is part of the formate hydrogenlyase complex, which acts to detoxify excess formic acid under anaerobic fermentative conditions and is geared towards hydrogen production under those conditions. Sequence identity between some Hyd-3 subunits and those of the respiratory NADH dehydrogenases has led to hypotheses that the activity of this isoenzyme may be tightly coupled to the formation of transmembrane ion gradients. Finally, the E. coli genome encodes a homologue of Hyd-3, termed Hyd-4, however strong evidence for a physiological role for E. coli Hyd-4 remains elusive. In this review, the versatile hydrogen metabolism of E. coli will be discussed and the roles and potential applications of the spectrum of different types of [NiFe]-hydrogenases available will be explored.

      PubDate: 2016-04-10T20:04:32Z
       
  • Cooperation of Secondary Transporters and Sensor Kinases in Transmembrane
           Signalling: The DctA/DcuS and DcuB/DcuS Sensor Complexes of Escherichia
           coli
    • Authors: Unden Monzel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2016
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): G. Unden, S. Wörner, C. Monzel
      Many membrane-bound sensor kinases require accessory proteins for function. The review describes functional control of membrane-bound sensors by transporters. The C4-dicarboxylate sensor kinase DcuS requires the aerobic or anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate transporters DctA or DcuB, respectively, for function and forms DctA/DuS or DcuB/DcuS sensor complexes. Free DcuS is in the permanent (ligand independent) ON state. The DctA/DcuS and DcuB/DcuS complexes, on the other hand, control expression in response to C4-dicarboxylates. In DctA/DcuS, helix 8b of DctA and the PASC domain of DcuS are involved in interaction. The stimulus is perceived by the extracytoplasmic sensor domain (PASP) of DcuS. The signal is transmitted across the membrane by a piston-type movement of TM2 of DcuS which appears to be pulled (by analogy to the homologous citrate sensor CitA) by compaction of PASP after C4-dicarboxylate binding. In the cytoplasm, the signal is perceived by the PASC domain of DcuS. PASC inhibits together with DctA the kinase domain of DcuS which is released after C4-dicarboxylate binding. DcuS exhibits two modes for regulating expression of target genes. At higher C4-dicarboxylate levels, DcuS is part of the DctA/DcuS complex and in the C4-dicarboxylate-responsive form which stimulates expression of target genes in response to the concentration of the C4-dicarboxylates (catabolic use of C4-dicarboxylates, mode I regulation). At limiting C4-dicarboxylate concentrations (≤0.05mM), expression of DctA drops and free DcuS appears. Free DcuS is in the permanent ON state (mode II regulation) and stimulates low level (C4-dicarboxylate independent) DctA synthesis for DctA/DcuS complex formation and anabolic C4-dicarboxylate uptake.

      PubDate: 2016-04-10T20:04:32Z
       
  • Oxygen and Nitrate Respiration in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)
    • Authors: R.G. Sawers; D. Falke; M. Fischer
      Pages: 1 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): R.G. Sawers, D. Falke, M. Fischer
      Streptomyces species belong to the phylum Actinobacteria and can only grow with oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor. Like other members of this phylum, such as corynebacteria and mycobacteria, the aerobic respiratory chain lacks a soluble cytochrome c. It is therefore implicit that direct electron transfer between the cytochrome bc 1 and the cytochrome aa 3 oxidase complexes occurs. The complex developmental cycle of streptomycetes manifests itself in the production of spores, which germinate in the presence of oxygen into a substrate mycelium that greatly facilitates acquisition of nutrients necessary to support their saprophytic lifestyle in soils. Due to the highly variable oxygen levels in soils, streptomycetes have developed means of surviving long periods of hypoxia or even anaerobiosis but they fail to grow under these conditions. Little to nothing is understood about how they maintain viability under conditions of oxygen limitation. It is assumed that they can utilise a number of different electron acceptors to help them maintain a membrane potential, one of which is nitrate. The model streptomycete remains Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), and it synthesises three nonredundant respiratory nitrate reductases (Nar). These Nar enzymes are synthesised during different phases of the developmental cycle and they are functional only under oxygen-limiting (<5% oxygen in air) conditions. Nevertheless, the regulation of their synthesis does not appear to be responsive to nitrate and in the case of Nar1, it appears to be developmentally regulated. This review highlights some of the novel aspects of our current, but somewhat limited, knowledge of respiration in these fascinating bacteria.

      PubDate: 2016-03-10T17:17:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2016.02.004
       
  • Anaerobic Metabolism in Haloferax Genus: Denitrification as Case of Study
    • Authors: J. Torregrosa-Crespo; R.M. Martínez-Espinosa; J. Esclapez; V. Bautista; C. Pire; M. Camacho; D.J. Richardson; M.J. Bonete
      Pages: 41 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2016
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): J. Torregrosa-Crespo, R.M. Martínez-Espinosa, J. Esclapez, V. Bautista, C. Pire, M. Camacho, D.J. Richardson, M.J. Bonete
      A number of species of Haloferax genus (halophilic archaea) are able to grow microaerobically or even anaerobically using different alternative electron acceptors such as fumarate, nitrate, chlorate, dimethyl sulphoxide, sulphide and/or trimethylamine. This metabolic capability is also shown by other species of the Halobacteriaceae and Haloferacaceae families (Archaea domain) and it has been mainly tested by physiological studies where cell growth is observed under anaerobic conditions in the presence of the mentioned compounds. This work summarises the main reported features on anaerobic metabolism in the Haloferax, one of the better described haloarchaeal genus with significant potential uses in biotechnology and bioremediation. Special attention has been paid to denitrification, also called nitrate respiration. This pathway has been studied so far from Haloferax mediterranei and Haloferax denitrificans mainly from biochemical point of view (purification and characterisation of the enzymes catalysing the two first reactions). However, gene expression and gene regulation is far from known at the time of writing this chapter.

      PubDate: 2016-04-10T20:04:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2016.02.001
       
  • Mechanisms of Bacterial Extracellular Electron Exchange
    • Authors: G.F. White; M.J. Edwards; L. Gomez-Perez; D.J. Richardson; J.N. Butt; T.A. Clarke
      Pages: 87 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): G.F. White, M.J. Edwards, L. Gomez-Perez, D.J. Richardson, J.N. Butt, T.A. Clarke
      The biochemical mechanisms by which microbes interact with extracellular soluble metal ions and insoluble redox-active minerals have been the focus of intense research over the last three decades. The process presents two challenges to the microorganism. Firstly, electrons have to be transported at the cell surface, which in Gram-negative bacteria presents an additional problem of electron transfer across the ~6nm of the outer membrane. Secondly, the electrons must be transferred to or from the terminal electron acceptors or donors. This review covers the known mechanisms that bacteria use to transport electrons across the cell envelope to external electron donors/acceptors. In Gram-negative bacteria, electron transfer across the outer membrane involves the use of an outer membrane β-barrel and cytochrome. These can be in the form of a porin–cytochrome protein, such as Cyc2 of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, or a multiprotein porin–cytochrome complex like MtrCAB of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. For mineral-respiring organisms, there is the additional challenge of transferring the electrons from the cell to mineral surface. For the strict anaerobe Geobacter sulfurreducens this requires electron transfer through conductive pili to associated cytochrome OmcS that directly reduces Fe(III)oxides, while the facultative anaerobe S. oneidensis MR-1 accomplishes mineral reduction through direct membrane contact, contact through filamentous extensions and soluble flavin shuttles, all of which require the outer membrane cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in addition to secreted flavin.

      PubDate: 2016-04-10T20:04:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2016.02.002
       
  • The Impact of Gene Silencing on Horizontal Gene Transfer and Bacterial
           Evolution
    • Authors: W.W. Navarre
      Pages: 157 - 186
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): W.W. Navarre
      The H-NS family of DNA-binding proteins is the subject of intense study due to its important roles in the regulation of horizontally acquired genes critical for virulence, antibiotic resistance, and metabolism. Xenogeneic silencing proteins, typified by the H-NS protein of Escherichia coli, specifically target and downregulate expression from AT-rich genes by selectively recognizing specific structural features unique to the AT-rich minor groove. In doing so, these proteins facilitate bacterial evolution; enabling these cells to engage in horizontal gene transfer while buffering potential any detrimental fitness consequences that may result from it. Xenogeneic silencing and counter-silencing explain how bacterial cells can evolve effective gene regulatory strategies in the face of rampant gene gain and loss and it has extended our understanding of bacterial gene regulation beyond the classic operon model. Here we review the structures and mechanisms of xenogeneic silencers as well as their impact on bacterial evolution. Several H-NS-like proteins appear to play a role in facilitating gene transfer by other mechanisms including by regulating transposition, conjugation, and participating in the activation of virulence loci like the locus of enterocyte effacement pathogenicity island of pathogenic strains of E. coli. Evidence suggests that the critical determinants that dictate whether an H-NS-like protein will be a silencer or will perform a different function do not lie in the DNA-binding domain but, rather, in the domains that control oligomerization. This suggests that H-NS-like proteins are transcription factors that both recognize and alter the shape of DNA to exert specific effects that include but are not limited to gene silencing.

      PubDate: 2016-09-22T08:17:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2016.07.004
       
  • Pivotal Role of Iron in the Regulation of Cyanobacterial Electron
           Transport
    • Authors: A. González; E. Sevilla; M.T. Bes; M.L. Peleato; M.F. Fillat
      Pages: 169 - 217
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2016
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): A. González, E. Sevilla, M.T. Bes, M.L. Peleato, M.F. Fillat
      Iron-containing metalloproteins are the main cornerstones for efficient electron transport in biological systems. The abundance and diversity of iron-dependent proteins in cyanobacteria makes those organisms highly dependent of this micronutrient. To cope with iron imbalance, cyanobacteria have developed a survey of adaptation strategies that are strongly related to the regulation of photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and other central electron transfer pathways. Furthermore, either in its ferrous form or as a component of the haem group, iron plays a crucial role as regulatory signalling molecule that directly or indirectly modulates the composition and efficiency of cyanobacterial redox reactions. We present here the major mechanism used by cyanobacteria to couple iron homeostasis to the regulation of electron transport, making special emphasis in processes specific in those organisms.

      PubDate: 2016-04-10T20:04:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2016.02.005
       
  • Polar Marine Microorganisms and Climate Change
    • Authors: C. Verde; D. Giordano; C.M. Bellas; G. di Prisco; A.M. Anesio
      Pages: 187 - 215
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): C. Verde, D. Giordano, C.M. Bellas, G. di Prisco, A.M. Anesio
      The large diversity of marine microorganisms harboured by oceans plays an important role in planet sustainability by driving globally important biogeochemical cycles; all primary and most secondary production in the oceans is performed by microorganisms. The largest part of the planet is covered by cold environments; consequently, cold-adapted microorganisms have crucial functional roles in globally important environmental processes and biogeochemical cycles cold-adapted extremophiles are a remarkable model to shed light on the molecular basis of survival at low temperature. The indigenous populations of Antarctic and Arctic microorganisms are endowed with genetic and physiological traits that allow them to live and effectively compete at the temperatures prevailing in polar regions. Some genes, e.g. glycosyltransferases and glycosylsynthetases involved in the architecture of the cell wall, may have been acquired/retained during evolution of polar strains or lost in tropical strains. This present work focusses on temperature and its role in shaping microbial adaptations; however, in assessing the impacts of climate changes on microbial diversity and biogeochemical cycles in polar oceans, it should not be forgotten that physiological studies need to include the interaction of temperature with other abiotic and biotic factors.

      PubDate: 2016-09-01T01:22:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2016.07.002
       
  • Bacterial Electron Transfer Chains Primed by Proteomics
    • Authors: H.J.C.T. Wessels; N.M. de Almeida; B. Kartal; J.T. Keltjens
      Pages: 219 - 352
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2016
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): H.J.C.T. Wessels, N.M. de Almeida, B. Kartal, J.T. Keltjens
      Electron transport phosphorylation is the central mechanism for most prokaryotic species to harvest energy released in the respiration of their substrates as ATP. Microorganisms have evolved incredible variations on this principle, most of these we perhaps do not know, considering that only a fraction of the microbial richness is known. Besides these variations, microbial species may show substantial versatility in using respiratory systems. In connection herewith, regulatory mechanisms control the expression of these respiratory enzyme systems and their assembly at the translational and posttranslational levels, to optimally accommodate changes in the supply of their energy substrates. Here, we present an overview of methods and techniques from the field of proteomics to explore bacterial electron transfer chains and their regulation at levels ranging from the whole organism down to the Ångstrom scales of protein structures. From the survey of the literature on this subject, it is concluded that proteomics, indeed, has substantially contributed to our comprehending of bacterial respiratory mechanisms, often in elegant combinations with genetic and biochemical approaches. However, we also note that advanced proteomics offers a wealth of opportunities, which have not been exploited at all, or at best underexploited in hypothesis-driving and hypothesis-driven research on bacterial bioenergetics. Examples obtained from the related area of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation research, where the application of advanced proteomics is more common, may illustrate these opportunities.

      PubDate: 2016-04-10T20:04:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2016.02.006
       
  • Nitrous Oxide Metabolism in Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria: Physiology and
           Regulatory Mechanisms
    • Authors: M.J. Torres; J. Simon; G. Rowley; E.J. Bedmar; D.J. Richardson; A.J. Gates; M.J. Delgado
      Pages: 353 - 432
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2016
      Source:Advances in Microbial Physiology
      Author(s): M.J. Torres, J. Simon, G. Rowley, E.J. Bedmar, D.J. Richardson, A.J. Gates, M.J. Delgado
      Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) with substantial global warming potential and also contributes to ozone depletion through photochemical nitric oxide (NO) production in the stratosphere. The negative effects of N2O on climate and stratospheric ozone make N2O mitigation an international challenge. More than 60% of global N2O emissions are emitted from agricultural soils mainly due to the application of synthetic nitrogen-containing fertilizers. Thus, mitigation strategies must be developed which increase (or at least do not negatively impact) on agricultural efficiency whilst decrease the levels of N2O released. This aim is particularly important in the context of the ever expanding population and subsequent increased burden on the food chain. More than two-thirds of N2O emissions from soils can be attributed to bacterial and fungal denitrification and nitrification processes. In ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, N2O is formed through the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite. In denitrifiers, nitrate is reduced to N2 via nitrite, NO and N2O production. In addition to denitrification, respiratory nitrate ammonification (also termed dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium) is another important nitrate-reducing mechanism in soil, responsible for the loss of nitrate and production of N2O from reduction of NO that is formed as a by-product of the reduction process. This review will synthesize our current understanding of the environmental, regulatory and biochemical control of N2O emissions by nitrate-reducing bacteria and point to new solutions for agricultural GHG mitigation.

      PubDate: 2016-04-10T20:04:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ampbs.2016.02.007
       
 
 
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