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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3185 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3185 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 100, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 427, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 292, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 413, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 363, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 468, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 233, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Microbial Physiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.158
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0065-2911
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3185 journals]
  • The function, biogenesis and regulation of the electron transport chains
           in Campylobacter jejuni: new insights into the bioenergetics of a major
           food-borne pathogen
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: Advances in Microbial PhysiologyAuthor(s): Aidan J. Taylor, David J. Kelly Campylobacter jejuni is a zoonotic Epsilonproteobacterium that grows in the gastrointestinal tract of birds and mammals, and is the most frequent cause of food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. As an oxygen-sensitive microaerophile, C. jejuni has to survive high environmental oxygen tensions, adapt to oxygen limitation in the host intestine and resist host oxidative attack. Despite its small genome size, C. jejuni is a versatile and metabolically active pathogen, with a complex and highly branched set of respiratory chains allowing the use of a wide range of electron donors and alternative electron acceptors in addition to oxygen, including fumarate, nitrate, nitrite, tetrathionate and N- or S-oxides. Several novel enzymes participate in these electron transport chains, including a tungsten containing formate dehydrogenase, a Complex I that uses flavodoxin and not NADH, a periplasmic facing fumarate reductase and a cytochrome c tetrathionate reductase. This review presents an updated description of the composition and bioenergetics of these various respiratory chains as they are currently understood, including recent work that gives new insights into energy conservation during electron transport to various alternative electron acceptors. The regulation of synthesis and assembly of the electron transport chains is also discussed. A deeper appreciation of the unique features of the respiratory systems of C. jejuni may be helpful in informing strategies to control this important pathogen.
       
  • Regulation of organohalide respiration
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: Advances in Microbial PhysiologyAuthor(s): Julien Maillard, Mathilde Stéphanie Willemin Organohalide respiration (OHR) is an anaerobic metabolism by which bacteria conserve energy with the use of halogenated compounds as terminal electron acceptors. Genes involved in OHR are organized in reductive dehalogenase (rdh) gene clusters and can be found in relatively high copy numbers in the genomes of organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB). The minimal rdh gene set is composed by rdhA and rdhB, encoding the catalytic enzyme involved in reductive dehalogenation and its putative membrane anchor, respectively. In this chapter, we present the major findings concerning the regulatory strategies developed by OHRB to control the expression of the rdh gene clusters. The first section focuses on the description of regulation patterns obtained from targeted transcriptional analyses, and from transcriptomic and proteomic studies, while the second section offers a detailed overview of the biochemically characterized OHR regulatory proteins identified so far. Depending on OHRB, transcriptional regulators belonging to three different protein families are found in the direct vicinity of rdh gene clusters, suggesting that they activate the transcription of their cognate gene cluster. In this chapter, strong emphasis was laid on the family of CRP/FNR-type RdhK regulators which belong to members of the genera Dehalobacter and Desulfitobacterium. Whereas only chlorophenols have been identified as effectors for RdhK regulators, the protein sequence diversity suggests a broader organohalide spectrum. Thus, effector identification of new regulators offers a promising alternative to elucidate the substrates of yet uncharacterized reductive dehalogenases. Future work investigating the possible cross-talk between OHR regulators and their possible use as biosensors is discussed.
       
  • Stress-induced adaptive morphogenesis in bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: Advances in Microbial PhysiologyAuthor(s): Eveline Ultee, Karina Ramijan, Remus T. Dame, Ariane Briegel, Dennis Claessen Bacteria thrive in virtually all environments. Like all other living organisms, bacteria may encounter various types of stresses, to which cells need to adapt. In this chapter, we describe how cells cope with stressful conditions and how this may lead to dramatic morphological changes. These changes may not only allow harmless cells to withstand environmental insults but can also benefit pathogenic bacteria by enabling them to escape from the immune system and the activity of antibiotics. A better understanding of stress-induced morphogenesis will help us to develop new approaches to combat such harmful pathogens.
       
  • Bioenergetic aspects of archaeal and bacterial hydrogen metabolism
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Advances in Microbial PhysiologyAuthor(s): Constanze Pinske Hydrogenases are metal-containing biocatalysts that reversibly convert protons and electrons to hydrogen gas. This reaction can contribute in different ways to the generation of the proton motive force (PMF) of a cell. One means of PMF generation involves reduction of protons on the inside of the cytoplasmic membrane, releasing H2 gas, which being without charge is freely diffusible across the cytoplasmic membrane, where it can be re-oxidized to release protons. A second route of PMF generation couples transfer of electrons derived from H2 oxidation to quinone reduction and concomitant proton uptake at the membrane-bound heme cofactor. This redox-loop mechanism, as originally formulated by Mitchell, requires a second, catalytically distinct, enzyme complex to re-oxidize quinol and release the protons outside the cell. A third way of generating PMF is also by electron transfer to quinones but on the outside of the membrane while directly drawing protons through the entire membrane. The cofactor-less membrane subunits involved are proposed to operate by a conformational mechanism (redox-linked proton pump). Finally, PMF can be generated through an electron bifurcation mechanism, whereby an exergonic reaction is tightly coupled with an endergonic reaction. In all cases the protons can be channelled back inside through a F1F0-ATPase to convert the ‘energy’ stored in the PMF into the universal cellular energy currency, ATP. New and exciting discoveries employing these mechanisms have recently been made on the bioenergetics of hydrogenases, which will be discussed here and placed in the context of their contribution to energy conservation.
       
  • Formate hydrogenlyase: a group 4 [NiFe]-hydrogenase in tandem with a
           formate dehydrogenase
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Advances in Microbial PhysiologyAuthor(s): Alexander J. Finney, Frank Sargent Hydrogenase enzymes are currently under the international research spotlight due to emphasis on biologically produced hydrogen as one potential energy carrier to relinquish the requirement for ‘fossil fuel’ derived energy. Three major classes of hydrogenase exist in microbes all able to catalyze the reversible oxidation of dihydrogen to protons and electrons. These classes are defined by their active site metal content: [NiFe]-; [FeFe]- and [Fe]-hydrogenases. Of these the [NiFe]-hydrogenases have links to ancient forms of metabolism, utilizing hydrogen as the original source of reductant on Earth. This review progresses to highlight the Group 4 [NiFe]-hydrogenase enzymes that preferentially generate hydrogen exploiting various partner enzymes or ferredoxin, while in some cases translocating ions across biological membranes. Specific focus is paid to Group 4A, the Formate hydrogenlyase complexes. These are the combination of a six or nine subunit [NiFe]-hydrogenase with a soluble formate dehydrogenase to derived electrons from formate oxidation for proton reduction. The incidence, physiology, structure and biotechnological application of these complexes will be explored with attention on Escherichia coli Formate Hydrogenlyase-1 (FHL-1).
       
  • Chapter Six - Anaerobic Bacterial Response to Nitrosative Stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Microbial Physiology, Volume 72Author(s): Jeffrey A. Cole This chapter provides an overview of current knowledge of how anaerobic bacteria protect themselves against nitrosative stress. Nitric oxide (NO) is the primary source of this stress. Aerobically its removal is an oxidative process, whereas reduction is required anaerobically. Mechanisms required to protect aerobic and anaerobic bacteria are therefore different. Several themes recur in the review. First, how gene expression is regulated often provides clues to the physiological function of the gene products. Second, the physiological significance of reports based upon experiments under extreme conditions that bacteria do not encounter in their natural environment requires reassessment. Third, responses to the primary source of stress need to be distinguished from secondary consequences of chemical damage due to failure of repair mechanisms to cope with extreme conditions. NO is generated by many mechanisms, some of which remain undefined. An example is the recent demonstration that the hybrid cluster protein combines with YtfE (or RIC protein, for repair of iron centres damaged by nitrosative stress) in a new pathway to repair key iron–sulphur proteins damaged by nitrosative stress. The functions of many genes expressed in response to nitrosative stress remain either controversial or are completely unknown. The concentration of NO that accumulates in the bacterial cytoplasm is essentially unknown, so dogmatic statements cannot be made that damage to transcription factors (Fur, FNR, SoxRS, MelR, OxyR) occurs naturally as part of a physiologically relevant signalling mechanism. Such doubts can be resolved by simple experiments to meet six proposed criteria.
       
  • Chapter Five - Emerging Roles of Nitric Oxide Synthase in Bacterial
           Physiology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Microbial Physiology, Volume 72Author(s): Elizabeth H. Hutfless, Sujata S. Chaudhari, Vinai C. Thomas Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent inhibitor of diverse cellular processes in bacteria. Therefore, it was surprising to discover that several bacterial species, primarily Gram-positive organisms, harboured a gene encoding nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Recent attempts to characterize bacterial NOS (bNOS) have resulted in the discovery of structural features that may allow it to function as a NO dioxygenase and produce nitrate in addition to NO. Consistent with this characterization, investigations into the biological function of bNOS have also emphasized a role for NOS-dependent nitrate and nitrite production in aerobic and microaerobic respiration. In this review, we aim to compare, contrast, and summarize the structure, biochemistry, and biological role of bNOS with mammalian NOS and discuss how recent advances in our understanding of bNOS have enabled efforts at designing inhibitors against it.
       
  • Chapter Four - Nitric Oxide, an Old Molecule With Noble Functions in
           Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Microbial Physiology, Volume 72Author(s): Masanori Toyofuku, Sang-Sun Yoon Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium, is characterized by its versatility that enables persistent survival under adverse conditions. It can grow on diverse energy sources and readily acquire resistance to antimicrobial agents. As an opportunistic human pathogen, it also causes chronic infections inside the anaerobic mucus airways of cystic fibrosis patients. As a strict respirer, P. aeruginosa can grow by anaerobic nitrate (NO3−) respiration. Nitric oxide (NO) produced as an intermediate during anaerobic respiration exerts many important effects on the biological characteristics of P. aeruginosa. This review provides information regarding (i) how P. aeruginosa grows by anaerobic respiration, (ii) mechanisms by which NO is produced under such growth, and (iii) bacterial adaptation to NO. We also review the clinical relevance of NO in the fitness of P. aeruginosa and the use of NO as a potential therapeutic for treating P. aeruginosa infection.
       
  • Chapter Four - Novel Antibacterials: Alternatives to Traditional
           Antibiotics
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Microbial Physiology, Volume 73Author(s): Jonathan W. Betts, Michael Hornsey, Roberto M. La Ragione With the advent of the global antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis, our arsenal of effective antibiotics is diminishing. The widespread use and misuse of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine, compounded by the lack of novel classes of antibiotic in the pharmaceutical pipeline, has left a hole in our antibiotic armamentarium. Thus, alternatives to traditional antibiotics are being investigated, including two major groups of antibacterial agents, which have been extensively studied, phytochemicals and metals. Within these groups, there are several subclasses of compound/elements, including polyphenols and metal nanoparticles, which could be used to complement traditional antibiotics, either to increase their potency or extend their spectrum of activity. Alone or in combination, these antibacterial agents have been shown to be effective against a vast array of human and animal bacterial pathogens, including those resistant to licensed antibacterials. These alternative antibacterial agents could be a key element in our fight against AMR and provide desperately needed options, to veterinary and medical clinicians alike.
       
  • Chapter Two - Nitric Oxide Signalling in Yeast
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Microbial Physiology, Volume 72Author(s): Rika I. Astuti, Ryo Nasuno, Hiroshi Takagi Nitric oxide (NO) is a cellular signalling molecule widely conserved among organisms, including microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and fungi, and higher eukaryotes such as plants and mammals. NO is mainly produced by the activities of NO synthase (NOS) or nitrite reductase (NIR). There are several NO detoxification systems, including NO dioxygenase (NOD) and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). NO homeostasis, based on the balance between NO synthesis and degradation, is important for regulating its physiological functions, since an excess of NO causes nitrosative stress due to the high reactivity of NO and NO-derived compounds. In yeast, NO may be involved in stress responses, but the role of NO and the mechanism underlying NO signalling are poorly understood due to the lack of mammalian NOS orthologs in the yeast genome. NOS and NIR activities have been observed in yeast cells, but the gene-encoding NOS and the mechanism by which NO production is catalysed by NIR remain unclear. On the other hand, yeast cells employ NOD and GSNOR to maintain intracellular redox balance following endogenous NO production, treatment with exogenous NO, or exposure to environmental stresses. This article reviews NO metabolism (synthesis, degradation) and its regulation in yeast. The physiological roles of NO in yeast, including the oxidative stress response, are also discussed. Such investigations into NO signalling are essential for understanding how NO modulates the genetics and physiology of yeast. In addition to being responsible for the pathology and pharmacology of various degenerative diseases, NO signalling may be a potential target for the construction and engineering of industrial yeast strains.
       
  • Chapter One - Reactive Cysteine Persulphides: Occurrence, Biosynthesis,
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Microbial Physiology, Volume 72Author(s): Tomohiro Sawa, Katsuhiko Ono, Hiroyasu Tsutsuki, Tianli Zhang, Tomoaki Ida, Motohiro Nishida, Takaaki Akaike Cysteine hydropersulphide (CysSSH) is a cysteine derivative having one additional sulphur atom bound to a cysteinyl thiol group. Recent advances in the development of analytical methods for detection and quantification of persulphides and polysulphides have revealed the biological presence, in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, of hydropersulphides in diverse forms such as CysSSH, homocysteine hydropersulphide, glutathione hydropersulphide, bacillithiol hydropersulphide, coenzyme A hydropersulphide, and protein hydropersulphides. Owing to the chemical reactivity of the persulphide moiety, biological systems utilize persulphides as important intermediates in the synthesis of various sulphur-containing biomolecules. Accumulating evidence has revealed another important feature of persulphides: their potent reducing activity, which implies that they are implicated in the regulation of redox signalling and antioxidant functions. In this chapter, we discuss the biological occurrence and possible biosynthetic mechanisms of CysSSH and related persulphides, and we include descriptions of recent advances in the analytical methods that have been used to detect and quantitate persulphide species. We also discuss the antioxidant activity of persulphide species that contributes to protecting cells from reactive oxygen species-associated damage, and we examine the signalling roles of CysSSH in bacteria.
       
  • Chapter Five - Biotechnological Applications of Bioactive Peptides From
           Marine Sources
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Microbial Physiology, Volume 73Author(s): Daniela Giordano, Maria Costantini, Daniela Coppola, Chiara Lauritano, Laura Núñez Pons, Nadia Ruocco, Guido di Prisco, Adrianna Ianora, Cinzia Verde This review is an overview on marine bioactive peptides with promising activities for the development of alternative drugs to fight human pathologies. In particular, we focus on potentially prolific producers of peptides in microorganisms, including sponge-associated bacteria and marine photoautotrophs such as microalgae and cyanobacteria. Microorganisms are still poorly explored for drug discovery, even if they are highly metabolically plastic and potentially amenable to culturing. This offers the possibility of obtaining a continuous source of bioactive compounds to satisfy the challenging demands of pharmaceutical industries. This review targets peptides because of the variety of potent biological activities demonstrated by these molecules, including antiviral, antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, anticoagulant, antihypertensive, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiobesity, and calcium-binding bioactivities. Several of these peptides have already gained recognition as effective drug agents in recent years. We also focus on cutting-edge omic approaches for the discovery of novel compounds for pharmacological applications. With rapid depletion of natural resources, omic technologies may be the solution to efficiently produce a vast variety of novel peptides with unique pharmacological potential.
       
  • Chapter Three - Antibiotic Lethality and Membrane Bioenergetics
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Microbial Physiology, Volume 73Author(s): Martin I. Voskuil, Christopher R. Covey, Nicholas D. Walter A growing body of research suggests bacterial metabolism and membrane bioenergetics affect the lethality of a broad spectrum of antibiotics. Electrochemical gradients spanning energy-transducing membranes are the foundation of the chemiosmotic hypothesis and are essential for life; accordingly, their dysfunction appears to be a critical factor in bacterial death. Proton flux across energy-transducing membranes is central for cellular homeostasis as vectorial proton translocation generates a proton motive force used for ATP synthesis, pH homeostasis, and maintenance of solute gradients. Our recent investigations indicate that maintenance of pH homeostasis is a critical factor in antibiotic killing and suggest an imbalance in proton flux initiates disruptions in chemiosmotic gradients that lead to cell death. The complex and interconnected relationships between electron transport systems, central carbon metabolism, oxidative stress generation, pH homeostasis, and electrochemical gradients provide challenging obstacles to deciphering the roles for each of these processes in antibiotic lethality. In this chapter, we will present evidence for the pH homeostasis hypothesis of antibiotic lethality that bactericidal activity flows from disruption of cellular energetics and loss of chemiosmotic homeostasis. A holistic understanding of the interconnection of energetic processes and antibiotic activity may direct future research toward the development of more effective therapeutic interventions.
       
  • Chapter Two - Nitric Oxide Stress as a Metabolic Flux
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Microbial Physiology, Volume 73Author(s): Mark P. Brynildsen Nitric oxide (NO) is an antimicrobial metabolite produced by immune cells to prohibit infection. Due to its reactivity, NO has numerous reaction routes available to it in biological systems with some leading to cellular damage and others producing innocuous compounds. Pathogens have evolved resistance mechanisms toward NO, and many of these take the form of enzymes that chemically passivate the molecule. In essence, bacteria have channeled NO flux toward useful or harmless compounds, and away from pathways that damage cellular components. Pathogens devoid of detoxification enzymes have been found to have compromised survival in different infection models, which suggests that diverting flux away from NO defenses could be a viable antiinfective strategy. From this perspective, potentiation of NO stress mirrors challenges in metabolic engineering where researchers endeavor to divert flux away from endogenous pathways and toward those that produce desirable biomolecules. In this review, we cast NO stress as a metabolic flux and discuss how the tools and methodologies of metabolic engineering are well suited for analysis of this bacterial stress response. We provide examples of such interdisciplinary applications, discuss the benefits of considering NO stress from a flux perspective, as well as the pitfalls, and offer a vision for how metabolic engineering analyses can assist in deciphering the economics underlying bacterial responses to multistress conditions that are characteristic of the phagosomes of immune cells.
       
  • Chapter One - Host-Derived Nitric Oxide and Its Antibacterial Effects in
           the Urinary Tract
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Microbial Physiology, Volume 73Author(s): Lovisa Svensson, Mirjana Poljakovic, Isak Demirel, Charlotte Sahlberg, Katarina Persson Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans, and the majority are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). The rising antibiotic resistance among UPEC and the frequent failure of antibiotics to effectively treat recurrent UTI and catheter-associated UTI motivate research on alternative ways of managing UTI. Abundant evidence indicates that the toxic radical nitric oxide (NO), formed by activation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase, plays an important role in host defence to bacterial infections, including UTI. The major source of NO production during UTI is from inflammatory cells, especially neutrophils, and from the uroepithelial cells that are known to orchestrate the innate immune response during UTI. NO and reactive nitrogen species have a wide range of antibacterial targets, including DNA, heme proteins, iron–sulfur clusters, and protein thiol groups. However, UPEC have acquired a variety of defence mechanisms for protection against NO, such as the NO-detoxifying enzyme flavohemoglobin and the NO-tolerant cytochrome bd-I respiratory oxidase. The cytotoxicity of NO-derived intermediates is nonspecific and may be detrimental to host cells, and a balanced NO production is crucial to maintain the tissue integrity of the urinary tract. In this review, we will give an overview of how NO production from host cells in the urinary tract is activated and regulated, the effect of NO on UPEC growth and colonization, and the ability of UPEC to protect themselves against NO. We also discuss the attempts that have been made to develop NO-based therapeutics for UTI treatment.
       
  • Chapter Three - The Inflammasome: Regulation of Nitric Oxide and
           Antimicrobial Host Defence
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Microbial Physiology, Volume 72Author(s): Rajalaksmy A. Ramachandran, Christopher Lupfer, Hasan Zaki Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signalling molecule that plays diverse physiological functions including antimicrobial host defence. During microbial infection, NO is synthesized by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), which is expressed by host immune cells through the recognition of microbial pattern molecules. Therefore, sensing pathogens or their pattern molecules by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are located at the cell surface, endosomal and phagosomal compartment, or in the cytosol, is key in inducing iNOS and eliciting antimicrobial host defence. A group of cytosolic PRRs is involved in inducing NO and other antimicrobial molecules by forming a molecular complex called the inflammasome. Assembled inflammasomes activate inflammatory caspases, such as caspase-1 and caspase-11, which in turn process proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 into their mature forms and induce pyroptotic cell death. IL-1β and IL-18 play a central role in immunity against microbial infection through activation and recruitment of immune cells, induction of inflammatory molecules, and regulation of antimicrobial mediators including NO. Interestingly, NO can also regulate inflammasome activity in an autocrine and paracrine manner. Here, we discuss molecular mechanisms of inflammasome formation and the inflammasome-mediated regulation of host defence responses during microbial infections.
       
 
 
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