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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3034 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3034 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 81, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 322, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 337, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 309, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 393, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in Insect Physiology
  [SJR: 1.274]   [H-I: 27]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2806
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3034 journals]
  • Epigenetics: A Hidden Target of Insecticides
    • Authors: Ann-Marie Oppold; Ruth Müller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): Ann-Marie Oppold, Ruth Müller
      Epigenetic mechanisms are a responsive element at the genotype-to-phenotype interface, since they are involved in the regulation of developmental processes, mediation of homeostasis, induction of responses to the external environment, and even in transgenerational inheritance of gene expression patterns. The scenario of insecticidal exposure sets a strong pressure on insect species, and without any means of resistance mechanisms they will not survive—what is the purpose of insecticide applications. For reasons of public health and industrial agriculture, the use of insecticides in vector and pest control programmes is inevitable. However, there is no insecticide class left without a documented resistance response in insect species. Evidence suggests that among the known resistance mechanisms, epigenetic mechanisms may also play an important role in their development. Expression control via DNA methylation patterns and, by implication, the control of DNA methylation patterns might create a sensitive and reactive mode of action to enhance early on adaptation. Our understanding of how exactly insecticide resistance mechanisms involve the epigenetic system is still scarce and in-depth investigations are needed. Moreover, the epigenetic system contains promising targets that could be used in vector genetics and biochemistry to design novel insecticidal chemicals for a more sustainable vector and pest management in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-05-29T12:02:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.04.002
       
  • Epigenetic Influences on Diapause
    • Authors: Julie A. Reynolds
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): Julie A. Reynolds
      Diapause is an endogenously regulated dormant state that allows insects and other animals to survive seasons of inimical conditions. Diapause is characterized by altered gene expression profiles, which mediate developmental arrest, metabolic depression, increased stress resistance, and other physiological and biochemical changes associated with this dormant state. In this chapter, I explore epigenetic processes that may regulate gene expression and contribute to the diapause phenotype. Only a few studies have explored the influence of DNA methylation, histone modification, and small RNA silencing on diapause. However, there is evidence that histone methylation and histone acetylation influence diapause in a wide range of species. In addition, microRNAs, siRNAs, and piRNAs appear to regulate gene expression before, during, and after diapause. Together, the accumulating evidence supports the inclusion of multiple epigenetic pathways in the “toolbox” of processes that regulate dormant states in insects and other animals.

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T11:04:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.03.003
       
  • Epigenetics in Insects: Mechanisms, Phenotypes and Ecological and
           Evolutionary Implications
    • Authors: Warren W. Burggren
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): Warren W. Burggren
      Insects are being extensively investigated in the context of both intra- and transgenerational epigenetic phenomena and mechanisms. DNA methylation, histone modification and noncoding RNAs are all involved in phenotypic modification in insects. Changes in patterns of these epigenetic markers may arise from stressors, including physicochemical factors, nutrition, predation and crowding. Special cases of metamorphosis, social societies, solitarious to gregarious phase changes, diapause and insect–microbe interactions are all being actively explored in the context of the insect epigenome. Epigenetic inheritance emerges as a rapid way of modifying phenotype in large proportions of a population to bridge across an environmental stressor for a few generations, and can be both widespread in a population and capable of being rapidly “sunsetted”, both advantages over genetic inheritance. Finally, much emphasis has been placed on epigenetic mechanisms, perhaps at the expensive of fully understanding the role of epigenetics in altering phenotype. Correlations are abundant, while demonstration of cause and effect relationships between epigenetic markers and insect phenotype remains elusive.

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T11:04:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.04.001
       
  • Immunology of Insect Vectors: Midgut Interactions of Sandflies and Tsetse
           With Kinetoplastid Parasites as a Paradigm for Establishing Infection
    • Authors: Megan A. Sloan; Petros Ligoxygakis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): Megan A. Sloan, Petros Ligoxygakis
      For the vast majority of vector borne parasites the ability to overcome the insect midgut defences is central to transmission. However, for many such diseases we know virtually nothing about the molecular mechanisms involved. For vectors such as tsetse flies and sandflies the prospects for rapidly improving our understanding of key interactions occurring in the midgut when challenged by parasites are difficult. This is because the ‘tool box’ required untangling the interactions is very unlikely to be rapidly developed. For example, there is no realistic prospect of producing transgenic technology for tsetse flies because eggs are inaccessible due to intrauterine development of larvae; maintenance of multiple lines of either sand or tsetse flies permitting genetic studies is impossible because of the cost and complexity of culturing colonies; bioinformatics resources are still in their infancy. Nevertheless, through a combination of genomics, transcriptomics, RNAi experiments and work on endosymbionts, researchers in these difficult systems have placed the general framework of parasite establishment in the midgut. Here, we will review the major immune pathways by which tsetse and sandflies respond to kinetoplastid challenge in the midgut and the role of endosymbionts as well as the gut microflora in determining vectorial capacity.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T08:27:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.04.003
       
  • Intestinal Stem Cells: A Decade of Intensive Research in Drosophila and
           the Road Ahead
    • Authors: Yiorgos Apidianakis; Vasilia Tamamouna; Savvas Teloni; Chrysoula Pitsouli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): Yiorgos Apidianakis, Vasilia Tamamouna, Savvas Teloni, Chrysoula Pitsouli
      Since the molecular characterization of Drosophila midgut progenitors in 2006, a few hundred articles studying fly intestinal stem cells have already been published. There was a relative lag phase in creating new knowledge until 2009, when at least 20 papers per year started being published on the subject and at least 40 per year since 2013. Here, we ponder on the substantial literature prior to intestinal stem cell molecular identification, including intestinal stem cell development and evolutionary origin, and describe the milestones achieved since then with an emphasis on their impact on biomedical research. The existing literature illuminates aspects of intestinal stem cell function in terms of homeostasis and disease. We discuss key findings on (a) the genetic markers of stem cells, their asymmetric or symmetric divisions and their progeny, (b) signalling pathways or networks and organ communication, (c) bacterial infections and microbiota, (d) dietary factors and drugs and (e) ageing. The accumulated knowledge provides lessons relevant to intestinal hyperplasia, dysplasia and intestinal cell metastasis, signalling pathway integration, the role of regenerative inflammation in host defence and tumorigenesis, the role of diet and the potential for translational therapeutics through drugs against intestinal inflammation, tumours and ageing.

      PubDate: 2017-05-10T07:05:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.03.002
       
  • Epigenetic Regulation of Longevity in Insects
    • Authors: Irina A. Kozeretska; Svitlana V. Serga; Alexander K. Koliada; Alexander M. Vaiserman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): Irina A. Kozeretska, Svitlana V. Serga, Alexander K. Koliada, Alexander M. Vaiserman
      When studying aging, an important issue is that it is a complex process influenced by a large number of environmental and genetic factors. The effects of these factors are difficult to investigate because they influence and modify each other. Therefore, it is difficult to examine these factors using complex mammalian models like rodents. Thereby, a large body of biogerontological research is based on simple model organisms such as insects. Such models are particularly useful in an exceedingly complex field such as epigenetics of aging. A high degree of conservation exists between insect and mammalian genomes in terms of both epigenetic mechanisms and signalling pathways associated with aging processes. Insect models proved to be very valuable for the study of epigenetic mechanisms mediating the influence of environmental factors on development, aging, neurodegeneration, cancer and infectious disorders. Therefore, the identification of epigenetic processes underlying aging and aging-related pathological conditions in insect models would be an important step towards the further development of treatment strategies to promote human health span and longevity.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T06:17:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.03.001
       
  • Insect Antimicrobial Defences: A Brief History, Recent Findings, Biases,
           and a Way Forward in Evolutionary Studies
    • Authors: Naomi L.P. Keehnen; Jens Rolff; Ulrich Theopold; Christopher W. Wheat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): Naomi L.P. Keehnen, Jens Rolff, Ulrich Theopold, Christopher W. Wheat
      We propose that an evolutionary and phenotype-driven approach, harnessing current technological developments, has much to offer for our understanding of insect immunity. After briefly reviewing the history of the discovery of canonical immune system, the current understanding of its components is reviewed and then we argue that the current paradigm of research may be biassed due to (a) its limited taxonomic perspective, (b) the evolutionary time scale being studied, and (c) a focus primarily if not exclusively, upon the canonical, humoural gene set. For the rest of the review, we then discuss the importance of a phenotype down approach as an understudied perspective, exemplified by the need for understanding the basis of cellular responses and wounding as a source of selection on immunity in the wild. We propose that research on those topics almost certainly will provide new insights into the evolution of the insect immune system.

      PubDate: 2017-03-31T12:11:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.02.003
       
  • The Role of MicroRNAs in Drosophila Regulation of Insulin-Like Peptides
           and Ecdysteroid Signalling: Where Are We Now'
    • Authors: Jian Q. Cao; Wai S. Tong; Hiu Y. Yu; Stephen S. Tobe; William G. Bendena; Jerome H.L. Hui
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): Jian Q. Cao, Wai S. Tong, Hiu Y. Yu, Stephen S. Tobe, William G. Bendena, Jerome H.L. Hui
      Arthropods are the most successful group of terrestrial animals in terms of their diverse habitats and species numbers. Understanding their evolution has conventionally been linked to comparison of their developmental modes and morphologies. Within the field of evolutionary developmental biology, the actions of hormones are usually ignored as hormones are thought to function more as regulators of metabolic activity associated with late developmental stages, such as ecdysis and metamorphosis. In recent years, the field of evolutionary endocrinology has emerged with the advances in sequencing techniques. Here, we consolidate the current findings of microRNA actions on insulin-like peptides and ecdysteroids in the major insect genetic model, Drosophila melanogaster. MicroRNA regulation of hormone activity remains a neglected area that needs to be developed using other insect and arthropod models to understand the diverse adaptations exhibited by this most successful group of animals.

      PubDate: 2017-03-31T12:11:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.02.002
       
  • Exploiting Innate Immunity for Biological Pest Control
    • Authors: F. Liu; W. Huang; K. Wu; Z. Qiu; Y. Huang; E. Ling
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): F. Liu, W. Huang, K. Wu, Z. Qiu, Y. Huang, E. Ling
      Insects are the most abundant animals on earth, and many are agriculture pests. Currently, we have to resort to chemical pesticides for suppressing pest populations, which lead to environmental pollution, health risk and ecological imbalance. The living environments of most insects are full of various species of pathogens that can enter insects via the mouths, tracheae and wounds. In this review, we summarize on the insect immune responses against pathogens and correspondingly the pathogenic suppression on the host innate immunity. Many individuals with mutations in important immune-related genes are genetically manipulated in laboratories to show low rates of survival even when kept in conventionally reared environment, which indicates that inhibition on the innate immunity could be a potential mode of biological pest control. With the knowledge accumulated on insect immunity, it is time for us to consider developing novel methods for biological pest control by suppressing immune activity.

      PubDate: 2017-03-11T18:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.02.001
       
  • Phagocytosis in Insect Immunity
    • Authors: A.E. Nazario-Toole; L.P. Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): A.E. Nazario-Toole, L.P. Wu
      The cellular immune response of insects is mediated by specialized blood cells that employ germline encoded receptors to recognize, engulf, and eliminate microbes through the process of phagocytosis. Phagocytosis is a vital component of innate immunity and research over the past 3 decades in model systems, such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and mosquitoes, has led to the identification of an array of processes that invertebrates rely on to respond to invading microorganisms. Valuable insights have been gleaned from studies of insect phagocytes and, in this review, we highlight research related to the roles of receptors and intracellular signalling molecules involved in phagocytosis of bacterial and parasitic microbes.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T00:35:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.12.001
       
  • Insect Symbiosis and Immunity: The Bean Bug–Burkholderia Interaction
           as a Case Study
    • Authors: J.K. Kim; B.L. Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): J.K. Kim, B.L. Lee
      Most insects are symbiotically associated with bacteria. In an insect–bacteria symbiosis, understanding the mechanisms of bacterial persistence in the presence of host immunity is an important question to answer. Recently, bean bugs possessing Burkholderia symbiont in their midgut region have been recognized as a useful insect model to study symbiosis mechanisms at the molecular level. In the bean bug symbiosis, the Burkholderia symbionts positively affect the immunity of bean bugs, and the immunity of bean bugs regulates the population of the symbionts. The symbiotic association with the host induces drastic changes in the cell envelope of the Burkholderia symbionts, which make the Burkholderia symbionts become highly susceptible to the host's immunity. However, the bean bug suppresses the immune responses of the symbiotic midgut region to support the survival of the immune-susceptible Burkholderia symbionts. The bean bug–Burkholderia studies demonstrate the intricate interplay between symbiosis and immunity.

      PubDate: 2017-01-20T23:21:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.11.003
       
  • The Melanization Response in Insect Immunity
    • Authors: J. Nakhleh; L. El Moussawi; M.A. Osta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): J. Nakhleh, L. El Moussawi, M.A. Osta
      Melanization plays important roles in diverse physiological processes in insects including wound healing, tanning of the cuticle and immunity. Upon infection, pattern recognition receptors activate downstream serine protease cascades that culminate in the activation of prophenoloxidase (PPO), the rate-limiting enzyme in the process of melanogenesis. During the last two decades, diverse genetic and biochemical approaches have been adopted to characterize this process, and a wealth of information has been generated concerning the molecular events that control PPO activation. Importantly, the melanization reaction was shown to be toxic to parasites, bacteria, fungi and recently viruses. Several studies pointed also to the existence of significant crosstalk between melanization and other immune responses possibly to coordinate immune attack against invaders. Here, we provide a critical review of the role of melanization in insect immunity, highlighting the important discoveries but also the gaps that remain to be explored in future studies.

      PubDate: 2017-01-12T22:39:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.11.002
       
  • Microbiota, Gut Physiology, and Insect Immunity
    • Authors: J.-H. Lee; K.-A. Lee; W.-J. Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): J.-H. Lee, K.-A. Lee, W.-J. Lee
      This chapter aims to visualize insect gut as a life-sustaining organ that is resilient yet interactive with the changing environment to maintain its immunological and physiological homeostasis. As in all metazoans, insect gut is where the organism interacts most actively with the external ecosystem. A healthy gut epithelium properly controls incoming foodborne microbes as well as microbiota while maintaining its structural and functional integrity. Novel insights into gut immunity and physiology have been made using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Here, we begin our discussion with the gut architecture and the microbial environment the gut faces. Then, we review the current understanding of the immune responses of the gut epithelium involving the immune deficiency and dual oxidase pathways to restrict unwanted microbial colonization. We also discuss how the gut epithelium maintains its functionality by utilizing controlled proliferation and differentiation of intestinal stem cells despite damage-causing gut environment.

      PubDate: 2017-01-12T22:39:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.11.001
       
 
 
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