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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3042 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3042 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 82, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 327, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 127, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 339, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 308, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 402, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in Insect Physiology
  [SJR: 1.274]   [H-I: 27]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2806
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Chapter Five Intestinal Stem Cells
    • Authors: Yiorgos Apidianakis; Vasilia Tamamouna; Savvas Teloni; Chrysoula Pitsouli
      Pages: 139 - 178
      Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 52
      Author(s): Yiorgos Apidianakis, Vasilia Tamamouna, Savvas Teloni, Chrysoula Pitsouli
      Since the molecular characterization of Drosophila midgut progenitors in 2006, a few hundred articles studying fly intestinal stem cells have already been published. There was a relative lag phase in creating new knowledge until 2009, when at least 20 papers per year started being published on the subject and at least 40 per year since 2013. Here, we ponder on the substantial literature prior to intestinal stem cell molecular identification, including intestinal stem cell development and evolutionary origin, and describe the milestones achieved since then with an emphasis on their impact on biomedical research. The existing literature illuminates aspects of intestinal stem cell function in terms of homeostasis and disease. We discuss key findings on (a) the genetic markers of stem cells, their asymmetric or symmetric divisions and their progeny, (b) signalling pathways or networks and organ communication, (c) bacterial infections and microbiota, (d) dietary factors and drugs and (e) ageing. The accumulated knowledge provides lessons relevant to intestinal hyperplasia, dysplasia and intestinal cell metastasis, signalling pathway integration, the role of regenerative inflammation in host defence and tumorigenesis, the role of diet and the potential for translational therapeutics through drugs against intestinal inflammation, tumours and ageing.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 52 (2017)
       
  • Chapter One Progress in Gene Editing Transgenesis Genome Manipulation in
           Mosquitoes
    • Authors: J. Overcash; Z.N. Adelman
      Pages: 1 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 51
      Author(s): J. Overcash, Z.N. Adelman
      Recent advances in site-specific gene editing technologies, split genetic systems, recombinases and transposon remobilization have been applied to disease vector mosquitoes with great success. These in turn now enable a suite of hypothesis-driven questions concerning the physiology and behaviour of important mosquito species, guided by previous advances in genome sequencing and transcriptomics. In this chapter, we will review progress in CRISPR/Cas9-based gene disruption, including target selection, mutation identification, tracking homology-dependent gene insertion, CRISPR-mediated gene drive mechanisms and CRISPR/Cas9 variants. We will also review progress in using split genetic systems such as Gal4/UAS, recombinase-mediated cassette exchange using ΦC31, as well as piggyBac-mediated forward genetic screens using transgene remobilization.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • Chapter Two Sex Determination in Mosquitoes
    • Authors: J.K. Biedler Z. Tu
      Pages: 37 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 51
      Author(s): J.K. Biedler, Z. Tu
      Sexual reproduction is critical to the survival and evolution of many organisms including mosquitoes. Sex determination in insects is often initiated by a fast-evolving primary signal(s) that switches on or off a cascade of molecular events that lead to sex-specific splicing of the transcripts of doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru), two genes that encode highly conserved transcription factors. The sex-specific isoforms of the DSX and FRU proteins programme sexual dimorphism in Drosophila melanogaster and other insects, and sex-specific splicing of dsx and fru is the molecular output of the process of sex determination. Sex-biassed splice isoforms of dsx and fru have been identified in mosquitoes although what regulates their splicing is unknown. Previous genetic evidence suggests, depending on the mosquito species, that a dominant male-determining factor (M-factor) from either the Y chromosome or a male-determining locus (M-locus) is the primary signal that initiates male development and controls sex determination. In this chapter, we focus on recent progress in deciphering the molecular mechanisms of sex determination in mosquitoes, including the discovery of complex and distinct dsx splicing patterns in three mosquito genera, and the discovery and characterization of the first M-factor in Aedes aegypti and additional M-factor candidates in divergent mosquito species. We discuss recent discoveries of the genetic content and rapid remodelling of the Y chromosomes in the Anopheles gambiae species complex and the molecular consequence of Y chromosomal decay. We end by discussing the remaining challenges in illustrating the entire sex determination pathway in mosquitoes, and in developing novel mosquito control strategies based on reducing the number of blood-sucking females or converting them into harmless males.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • Chapter Three Sexual Selection and the Evolution of Mating Systems in
           Mosquitoes
    • Authors: A. South; F. Catteruccia
      Pages: 67 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 51
      Author(s): A. South, F. Catteruccia
      While Darwin first conceptualized the connection between morphological trait variation across related taxa and mating system evolution nearly 150 years ago, a mechanistic understanding of the relationship between genes, physiology and behaviour across species has only recently become possible through remarkable progress in genetics and molecular biology. With their extensive diversification, ecological variation and burgeoning genomic resources, mosquitoes are an ideal group to identify patterns of trait variation and suggest causal evolutionary mechanisms. Here we discuss the mating systems of Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, vectors of major infectious diseases that afflict humanity. In this review, our emphasis is on interspecific comparisons of traits relevant to mechanisms of pre- and postcopulatory selection, including mating behaviour, molecular pathways of reproduction, postmating physiology and morphological traits. Based on a wealth of recent studies in mosquito genomics and phylogenetics, we provide an evolutionary context to examine adaptive changes in mosquito reproduction, their possible impact on pathogen transmission and their potential consequences for disease control.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • Chapter Four The Role of Juvenile Hormone in Mosquito Development and
           Reproduction
    • Authors: J. Zhu; F.G. Noriega
      Pages: 93 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 51
      Author(s): J. Zhu, F.G. Noriega
      Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key regulator of development and reproduction in mosquitoes. JH delays metamorphosis until larvae have attained an appropriate stage and size. At that point, a drop in JH titre permits a metamorphic moult. As the antimetamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the late pupa becomes again “competent” to synthesize JH, which plays an essential role orchestrating reproductive maturation. JH synthesis is controlled by the rate of flux of isoprenoid precursors, with a complex interplay of changes in precursor pools, enzyme levels and nutritional and developmental modulators, such as 20-hydroxyecdysone, ecdysis-triggering hormone, insulin and allatostatin-C. JH uses multiple molecular mechanisms to exert its pleiotropic functions at different stages of the mosquito life cycle. JH acts via an unidentified membrane receptor and an intracellular receptor, methoprene-tolerant protein. The latter functions as a transcription factor and directly regulates the expression of JH target genes.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • Chapter Five Regulation of Reproductive Processes in Female Mosquitoes
    • Authors: S. Roy; V. Smykal; L. Johnson; T.T. Saha; Z. Zou; A.S. Raikhel
      Pages: 115 - 144
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 51
      Author(s): S. Roy, V. Smykal, L. Johnson, T.T. Saha, Z. Zou, A.S. Raikhel
      Females of the vector mosquito species require vertebrate blood for egg development and consequently transmit numerous disease pathogens of humans and animals. Previous studies have determined that a steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), is the major hormone regulating egg maturation in female mosquitoes. Its action has been particularly well studied in the fat body, a metabolic tissue functionally analogous to the vertebrate liver. This chapter discusses the regulation of ecdysteroid synthesis and the molecular basis of 20E action in reproducing female mosquitoes. Research has also revealed that in addition to 20E, a number of other regulators, such as insulin-like peptides and amino acids, are involved in directing sequential gene expression and the progression of a reproductive cycle. The role of these factors has been reviewed in detail. The concluding section describes recent studies related to differential expression of genes and their temporal regulation, which have been possible due to the availability of mosquito genomes and new and improved molecular techniques.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • Chapter Six Mosquito Peptide Hormones
    • Authors: M.R. Strand; M.R. Brown; K.J. Vogel
      Pages: 145 - 188
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 51
      Author(s): M.R. Strand, M.R. Brown, K.J. Vogel
      Mosquitoes, like other insects, produce a diversity of peptide hormones that are processed from different precursor proteins and have a range of activities. Early studies relied on purification of bioactive peptides for hormone identification, but more recently genomic data have provided the information needed to more comprehensively identify peptide hormone genes and associated receptors. The first part of this chapter summarizes the known or predicted peptide hormones that are produced by mosquitoes. The second part of this chapter discusses the sources of these molecules and their functions.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • Chapter Seven Functions of Small RNAs in Mosquitoes
    • Authors: M. Hussain; K. Etebari; S. Asgari
      Pages: 189 - 222
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 51
      Author(s): M. Hussain, K. Etebari, S. Asgari
      The role of small noncoding RNAs in regulating gene expression and as a consequence their connection with most cellular pathways is becoming increasingly recognized. In insects, the three major small noncoding RNAs, microRNAs, PIWI-interacting RNAs and short interfering RNAs, are involved in a range of biological processes such as development, behaviour, dimorphism, immunity, host–pathogen interaction, antiviral responses and genome protection. In this chapter, we will review and discuss the latest findings pertaining the functions of these small RNAs in mosquito biology.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • Chapter Eight The Complement System of Malaria Vector Mosquitoes
    • Authors: M. Povelones; M.A. Osta; G.K. Christophides
      Pages: 223 - 242
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 51
      Author(s): M. Povelones, M.A. Osta, G.K. Christophides
      Mosquitoes are vectors for numerous human and animal diseases, including malaria that is caused by protozoan Plasmodium parasites and is responsible for over half a million deaths annually. The immune system of the major African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae provides a robust barrier to infection by Plasmodium. A system analogous to vertebrate complement is responsible for the majority of parasite losses. Work over the past decade has characterized several components of the mosquito complement pathway, provided a tentative scheme of the hierarchical events leading to its activation and identified multiple effector mechanisms that are differentially activated depending on the pathogen type. Although most parasites are killed by complement reactions, some escape and continue transmission. In this review, we synthesize these discoveries and examine parasite evasion tactics in an evolutionary context. The impact of the complement pathway in shaping the global malaria transmission is discussed together with future research challenges and opportunities for disease control.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • Chapter Nine Influences of the Mosquito Microbiota on Vector Competence
    • Authors: S. van Tol; G. Dimopoulos
      Pages: 243 - 291
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 51
      Author(s): S. van Tol, G. Dimopoulos
      Mosquitoes have a diverse intestinal microbiota which plays essential roles in a variety of the insect's physiological functions. This microbiota can also influence vector competence for human pathogens in multiple ways, including immune system activation or suppression, the regulation of other physiological processes, direct inhibition of the pathogen, and competition with the pathogen for limited resources. The mosquito's intestinal microbiome is responsible for eliciting basal immune activity, which in addition to preventing overproliferation of bacteria, also acts against exogenous bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. Some endogenous microorganisms directly impair pathogen infectivity or viability, independent of the mosquito, through mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species and other more stable bacteria-/fungi-produced metabolites. Other microorganisms, particularly those with entomopathogenic activity, can influence pathogen transmission by shaping mosquito population dynamics. Exploration of the mosquito gut microbiome's antipathogen and entomopathogenic activities can provide essential knowledge for the development of novel disease-control approaches based on blocking pathogen infection in the mosquito and vertebrate host and/or shortening the mosquito's lifespan.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • Chapter Ten Mosquito Sensory Systems
    • Authors: C. Montell; L.J. Zwiebel
      Pages: 293 - 328
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 51
      Author(s): C. Montell, L.J. Zwiebel
      In this chapter, we will highlight recent progress in describing the current state of our understanding of the diverse array of sensory pathways across the family Culicidae. These will include both contact (gustatory) and volatile (olfactory)-based chemosensory systems as well as auditory, mechanosensory, thermosensory and visual modalities. We will discuss both the cellular and the molecular basis underlying these senses as well as how they control the lifecycle, behaviour and vectorial capacity of mosquitoes. We will discuss the impact of recent data derived from next-generation sequencing to our understanding of the evolution and function of these diverse sensory systems.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • Chapter Eleven Molecular Physiology of Mosquito Diapause
    • Authors: D.L. Denlinger; P.A. Armbruster
      Pages: 329 - 361
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 51
      Author(s): D.L. Denlinger, P.A. Armbruster
      The dormant state of diapause is exploited by numerous mosquito species to survive seasonal periods of environmental stress. We discuss embryonic, larval and adult diapauses in mosquitoes and probe the molecular and physiological distinctions that comprise the diapause phenotype. Diapause evokes diverse and unique attributes including behavioural changes, arrested development, enhanced stress tolerance, fat accumulation and suppressed metabolic rates. Like most insects, mosquitoes in temperate latitudes precisely monitor daylength as a cue for diapause initiation. We examine the role of circadian clock genes in this response and trace downstream hormonal pathways involved in the diapause response. Insulin and the FOXO transcription factor signalling pathways appear to be keys for generating the diapause phenotype in adult females of Culex pipiens and perhaps other species. Elucidating the molecular regulation of diapause-associated physiology may provide a basis to identify novel targets for the control of mosquito vectors.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • Chapter Twelve Nitrogen Metabolism in Mosquitoes
    • Authors: N. Petchampai; P.Y. Scaraffia
      Pages: 363 - 391
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 51
      Author(s): N. Petchampai, P.Y. Scaraffia
      Female mosquitoes metabolize nitrogen compounds by exploiting metabolic pathways that were unpredicted based on our current knowledge of mammalian nitrogen metabolism. Within the last decade, researchers have begun to study mosquito metabolism with isotopically labelled compounds, mass spectrometry and RNA interference. The application of classical and cutting-edge techniques to discover cross-talk signalling mechanisms between metabolic pathways has added layers of complexity, as well as fascinating insight, into our understanding of nitrogen metabolism. This chapter provides an overview of the most recent findings reported in mosquitoes with the emphasis on Aedes aegypti females. The implementation of integrated approaches to elucidate the multiplicity of factors that govern nitrogen metabolism, which could be useful for uncovering potential metabolic targets for mosquito control, is also discussed in this chapter.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • Chapter Thirteen Renal Excretory Processes in Mosquitoes
    • Authors: P.M. Piermarini
      Pages: 393 - 433
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 51
      Author(s): P.M. Piermarini
      During their complex life cycle, which includes aquatic larvae, terrestrial adults, and hematophagous females, mosquitoes face diverse osmoregulatory challenges. To counter these challenges mosquitoes utilize a dynamic renal excretory system, consisting of the Malpighian tubules and hindgut. The goal of this chapter is to review the contributions that the renal excretory system makes to the osmoregulatory physiology of mosquitoes, with a focus on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of ion and water transport in the Malpighian tubules. Recent advances made with molecular, reverse genetic, and pharmacological approaches are highlighted, and the potential of targeting the renal excretory system as a novel approach for the control of mosquito vectors is discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 51 (2017)
       
  • Chapter One Host Selection by Bark Beetles
    • Authors: K.F. Raffa; M.N. Andersson; F. Schlyter
      Pages: 1 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 50
      Author(s): K.F. Raffa, M.N. Andersson, F. Schlyter
      Bark beetles face challenges and trade-offs during host selection, imposed by lethal tree defences, lower nutrition and higher competition in less well-defended trees, scarcity and ephemeral distribution of susceptible hosts, limitation of suitable hosts to one beetle generation, and relatively short lifespan and vulnerability of adults during host searching. Beetles contend with these challenges by using multiple, integrated sensory modalities, and sequential decision making. They incorporate both negative and positive information at multiple scales to locate susceptible hosts across large and heterogeneous landscapes. Some of the olfactory sensory neurons that convey non-host signals are relatively broadly tuned, whereas those that underlie intraspecific communication and host quality assessment are more specific, an arrangement that maximizes the use of antennal space while retaining high fidelity of detection channels strongly linked to survival and reproduction. The pertinent co-localization of neurons within sensilla provides the means for odour mixture processing in the periphery and enhances odour source discrimination and evaluation of chemical ratios in host tissue. Bark beetles show high behavioural plasticity in their orientation sequences, which allows them to adjust to environmental variability. This plasticity is modulated by environmental, genetic, and gene×environment drivers. Behavioural plasticity allows individuals to best realize the benefits that can be derived from pheromone-mediated cooperative attacks when populations are high. Cross-scale linkages among neurons, sensilla, orientation sequences, populations, and habitat structure underlie the landscape-scale environmental and socioeconomic impacts bark beetles exert. They also underlie rapid outbreaks in response to human-induced environmental alterations, such as climate change, habitat manipulation, and global transport.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2017)
       
  • Chapter Two The Role of Population Genetic Structure in Understanding and
           Managing Pine Beetles
    • Authors: J.K. Janes; P.D. Batista
      Pages: 75 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 50
      Author(s): J.K. Janes, P.D. Batista
      Population genetic structure is the study of genetic variation in time and space. Traditionally, population genetic structure assessments provide information on the dispersal of species, mating behaviours and the delimitation of species and population boundaries. As such, the study of population genetic structure in bark beetles has become an important step in the ongoing management of outbreak populations. In this chapter, we review the current state of population genetic structure studies as they relate to bark beetles, with a particular emphasis on pine beetles. Furthermore, we show how pine beetle research may lead the way in promoting a more comprehensive and methodologically inclusive approach to explaining population genetic structure patterns, how they arise and what they might mean in a broader evolutionary context.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2017)
       
  • Chapter Three The Proteomics and Transcriptomics of Early Host
           Colonization and Overwintering Physiology in the Mountain Pine Beetle,
           Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
    • Authors: D.P.W. Huber; J.A. Robert
      Pages: 101 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 50
      Author(s): D.P.W. Huber, J.A. Robert
      Two important phases in the life of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), are the periods of host colonization, where they must overcome host defences to successfully reproduce, and larval overwintering, during which time the insects under the bark of the tree must endure extended periods of deep cold. Proteomic and transcriptomic research into these portions of the mountain pine beetle life cycle have shed light on physiological processes that were already known to play important roles (detoxification of host secondary metabolites, reproductive physiology, and biosynthesis of cryoprotectants) and have revealed new territory for research (immune response, stress physiology). We discuss our overall findings in the context of an insect that is spreading to a new geographic range and encountering new hosts and a changing climate.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2015.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2017)
       
  • Chapter Four Semiochemicals in the Natural History of Southern Pine Beetle
           Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann and Their Role in Pest Management
    • Authors: B.T. Sullivan
      Pages: 129 - 193
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 50
      Author(s): B.T. Sullivan
      The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann is generally considered to be one of the most significant biotic mortality agents of pines within North America, with a range stretching from New England to eastern Texas and from Arizona south to Nicaragua. As with other aggressive pine beetles, it relies on semiochemicals for coordinating the mass attacks necessary for colonization of healthy pines. Over the past 50 years its chemical ecology has received extensive study aimed at development of effective and practical semiochemical-based management strategies which might replace the destructive and costly techniques in practice. I review the literature on the chemical ecology of this insect with particular attention to the functional categorizations assigned to different semiochemicals and the data underlying these assignments. Additionally, I attempt to identify conflicts and knowledge gaps within current understanding of the chemical ecology of this insect that might represent a significant hindrance to progress in development of effective semiochemical-based management strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2015.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2017)
       
  • Chapter Five The Evolution of Aggregation Pheromone Diversity in Bark
           Beetles
    • Authors: M.R.E. Symonds; C.W. Gitau-Clarke
      Pages: 195 - 234
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 50
      Author(s): M.R.E. Symonds, C.W. Gitau-Clarke
      Bark beetles of the subfamily Scolytinae employ aggregation pheromones to attract conspecifics to their host trees (predominantly conifers) for the purposes of mating and resource exploitation. These aggregation pheromones consist of blends of chemical components whose composition is typically species specific. Across tribes and genera within the Scolytinae there are clear phylogenetic patterns in these compounds. However, within these clades differences in pheromone composition may be as great between closely related species as between more distantly related species. Here we review our understanding of the evolution of aggregation pheromone diversity in this group including discussion of the mode of evolution, and the ecological, genetic and biosynthetic mechanisms that may explain this diversity. We also collate information from the literature on the aggregation pheromone composition for 65 species of bark beetles across 17 genera, including intraspecific variation. We relate this information to evolutionary relationships to ascertain the extent to which pheromone composition reflects phylogeny. As with previous studies, we show that the mode of pheromone evolution can be characterised by substantial saltational changes in chemical composition at speciation events. We also demonstrate that some individual components are strongly phylogenetically conserved within clades, while others are phylogenetically labile. This suggests that differences in aggregation pheromone composition may arise through a combination of relatively rapid ‘switching on and switching off’ of certain compounds (eg, ipsdienol and ipsenol in the Ipini), while other compounds remain more stable once their use has evolved. We discuss these findings in the context of recent theory on the evolution of species-specific attractive pheromones.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2015.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2017)
       
  • Chapter Six Pheromone Production in Pine Bark Beetles
    • Authors: C. Tittiger; G.J. Blomquist
      Pages: 235 - 263
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 50
      Author(s): C. Tittiger, G.J. Blomquist
      The first aggregation pheromone components from a pine bark beetle were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol from Ips paraconfus. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with only a simple hydroxylation to produce the pheromone. In the 1990s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most, but not necessarily all, pine bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are primarily biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevicomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomic studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone, presumably to help achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone-producing male I. pini exhibit much higher basal levels than in females, and feeding induces their expression. In I. duplicatus and I. pini, juvenile hormone III (JH III) induces pheromone production in the absence of feeding, whereas in I. paraconfusus and I. confusus, topically applied JH III does not induce pheromone production. In all four species, feeding induces pheromone production. Many of the details of pheromone production, including the site of synthesis, pathways and knowledge of the enzymes involved, are known for Ips, and recent work has done much to unravel the processes of pheromone production in Dendroctonus. Recent genomic studies in D. ponderosae are rapidly increasing our understanding of pheromone production in this genus. This chapter presents a historical development of what is known about pheromone production in bark beetles, emphasizes the genomic and postgenomic work in I. pini and D. ponderosae and points out areas where research is needed to obtain a more complete understanding of pheromone production.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2017)
       
  • Chapter Seven Bark Beetle Research in the Postgenomic Era
    • Authors: C.I. Keeling
      Pages: 265 - 293
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 50
      Author(s): C.I. Keeling
      Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are pests of many forests around the world. The rapid development of molecular tools and high-throughput sequencing has permitted the examination of the biological processes of pheromone biosynthesis and host colonization at the genomic and molecular levels. I briefly review the available information on host defence toxicity and then review the currently available transcriptome and genome data available in bark beetles. Using the cytochrome P450 gene family as an example, I show how new sequence information and functional genomics can bring insights into how bark beetles have adapted to their highly defended host tissue where they spend most of their life. Some of the remaining questions to be answered in bark beetle research are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2015.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 50 (2017)
       
  • Chapter One Evolution of the Mechanisms Underlying Insect Respiratory Gas
           Exchange
    • Authors: Philip G.D. Matthews; John S. Terblanche
      Pages: 1 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 49
      Author(s): Philip G.D. Matthews, John S. Terblanche
      Many factors influence gas exchange patterns in insects and are generally treated in isolation from one another. Here, we provide a review of the current state of knowledge on the physics of gas exchange, insect respiratory chemoreceptors, the diversity and the methods typically used in the characterisation of respiratory pattern types, briefly covering some of the new tools and techniques that are being incorporated into this field. We then discuss the functional significance of insect gas exchange pattern variation, and possible evolutionary explanations of discontinuous gas exchange as a derived control mechanism for effecting physiological change in the context of (a) adaptive hypotheses, (b) non-adaptive hypotheses and (c) mathematical modelling of gas exchange. The lack of consensus in the literature for all proposed adaptive or mechanistic hypotheses suggests that multiple factors influence which gas exchange pattern is displayed by any particular insect during a given experiment. Thus, while the primary function of a breathing pattern is to meet an animal's gas exchange requirements, it is an interacting hierarchy of constraints that most likely determines how this demand may be met. We conclude the review with a brief discussion of future directions for the field.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2015.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 49 (2017)
       
  • Nutrition and Epigenetic Change in Insects: Evidence and Implications
    • Authors: Andrew Cridge; Tom Harrop; Mackenzie Lovegrove; Emily Remnant; Peter Dearden
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): Andrew Cridge, Tom Harrop, Mackenzie Lovegrove, Emily Remnant, Peter Dearden
      Insects provide valuable model systems to help us understand the effects of nutrition on body form and life history traits. Insects often show very pronounced, extreme differences in phenotype in response to nutritional cues, and in recent years epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed as key to these responses. Here we review the links between nutrition, epigenetic change, and phenotype in a range of insects, focusing on evidence for epigenetic change linking nutrition and phenotype. While evidence exists that epigenetics plays a key role in responding to nutrition, we suggest that investigating the chain of causality from nutritional change to epigenetic change to phenotype is required before we can understand the role of epigenetics in insect nutrition.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T10:46:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.06.001
       
  • The Future of Environmental Epigenetics: Insights Using the Clonal Water
           Flea Model
    • Authors: Marcin W. Wojewodzic; Margaret J. Beaton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): Marcin W. Wojewodzic, Margaret J. Beaton
      Here, we review the fast-changing state-of-the-art and future perspectives for environmental epigenetics where the model organism for environment, Daphnia, is in focus. First, we describe why we believe the genus Daphnia possesses such remarkable characteristics for usage in epigenetic studies and especially in environmental epigenetics. Further, we consider current epigenetic research that employ these animals, followed by a discourse on the methods used and hint at other methods available. As part of this exercise, we identify the gaps in current knowledge and offer some questions that require attention. Finally, we offer our perspective on how, we think, this particular model organism could be exploited in the future in the field of environmental epigenetics.

      PubDate: 2017-07-04T04:44:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.05.002
       
  • The Impact of Parasites on Host Insect Epigenetics
    • Authors: Andreas Vilcinskas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): Andreas Vilcinskas
      The epigenetic regulation of gene expression has been recognized as an alternative to genetic mutation for the conversion of environmental stressors, such as the presence of parasites, into heritable phenotypic changes. The activation of immune responses in insects involves the orchestrated expression of genes that mediate pathogen recognition and immunity-related signalling, which in turn induces the synthesis of effector molecules such as antimicrobial peptides. This transcriptional reprogramming is regulated by DNA methylation and the acetylation and deacetylation of histones, which operate before transcription begins, and by microRNAs, which control protein synthesis posttranscriptionally. Therefore, research on epigenetic regulation at the molecular, cellular, tissue, organ and organism levels in insects represents an emerging field to understand the regulation of complex parameters such as longevity, fecundity and reproduction. Microbial parasites and parasitic wasps have evolved strategies to interfere with the epigenetic mechanisms of their host insects to favour their own development. The impact of parasites on host insect epigenetics is a growing area of research because it influences phenomena such as host–parasite coevolution, the transmission of diseases by vector insects, and the control of endogenous symbionts. This research field could also pave the way for the development of novel strategies to control pest and vector insects.

      PubDate: 2017-06-23T21:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.05.001
       
  • Epigenetics: A Hidden Target of Insecticides
    • Authors: Ann-Marie Oppold; Ruth Müller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): Ann-Marie Oppold, Ruth Müller
      Epigenetic mechanisms are a responsive element at the genotype-to-phenotype interface, since they are involved in the regulation of developmental processes, mediation of homeostasis, induction of responses to the external environment, and even in transgenerational inheritance of gene expression patterns. The scenario of insecticidal exposure sets a strong pressure on insect species, and without any means of resistance mechanisms they will not survive—what is the purpose of insecticide applications. For reasons of public health and industrial agriculture, the use of insecticides in vector and pest control programmes is inevitable. However, there is no insecticide class left without a documented resistance response in insect species. Evidence suggests that among the known resistance mechanisms, epigenetic mechanisms may also play an important role in their development. Expression control via DNA methylation patterns and, by implication, the control of DNA methylation patterns might create a sensitive and reactive mode of action to enhance early on adaptation. Our understanding of how exactly insecticide resistance mechanisms involve the epigenetic system is still scarce and in-depth investigations are needed. Moreover, the epigenetic system contains promising targets that could be used in vector genetics and biochemistry to design novel insecticidal chemicals for a more sustainable vector and pest management in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-05-29T12:02:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.04.002
       
  • Epigenetic Influences on Diapause
    • Authors: Julie A. Reynolds
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): Julie A. Reynolds
      Diapause is an endogenously regulated dormant state that allows insects and other animals to survive seasons of inimical conditions. Diapause is characterized by altered gene expression profiles, which mediate developmental arrest, metabolic depression, increased stress resistance, and other physiological and biochemical changes associated with this dormant state. In this chapter, I explore epigenetic processes that may regulate gene expression and contribute to the diapause phenotype. Only a few studies have explored the influence of DNA methylation, histone modification, and small RNA silencing on diapause. However, there is evidence that histone methylation and histone acetylation influence diapause in a wide range of species. In addition, microRNAs, siRNAs, and piRNAs appear to regulate gene expression before, during, and after diapause. Together, the accumulating evidence supports the inclusion of multiple epigenetic pathways in the “toolbox” of processes that regulate dormant states in insects and other animals.

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T11:04:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.03.003
       
  • Epigenetics in Insects: Mechanisms, Phenotypes and Ecological and
           Evolutionary Implications
    • Authors: Warren W. Burggren
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): Warren W. Burggren
      Insects are being extensively investigated in the context of both intra- and transgenerational epigenetic phenomena and mechanisms. DNA methylation, histone modification and noncoding RNAs are all involved in phenotypic modification in insects. Changes in patterns of these epigenetic markers may arise from stressors, including physicochemical factors, nutrition, predation and crowding. Special cases of metamorphosis, social societies, solitarious to gregarious phase changes, diapause and insect–microbe interactions are all being actively explored in the context of the insect epigenome. Epigenetic inheritance emerges as a rapid way of modifying phenotype in large proportions of a population to bridge across an environmental stressor for a few generations, and can be both widespread in a population and capable of being rapidly “sunsetted”, both advantages over genetic inheritance. Finally, much emphasis has been placed on epigenetic mechanisms, perhaps at the expensive of fully understanding the role of epigenetics in altering phenotype. Correlations are abundant, while demonstration of cause and effect relationships between epigenetic markers and insect phenotype remains elusive.

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T11:04:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.04.001
       
  • Immunology of Insect Vectors: Midgut Interactions of Sandflies and Tsetse
           With Kinetoplastid Parasites as a Paradigm for Establishing Infection
    • Authors: Megan A. Sloan; Petros Ligoxygakis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): Megan A. Sloan, Petros Ligoxygakis
      For the vast majority of vector borne parasites the ability to overcome the insect midgut defences is central to transmission. However, for many such diseases we know virtually nothing about the molecular mechanisms involved. For vectors such as tsetse flies and sandflies the prospects for rapidly improving our understanding of key interactions occurring in the midgut when challenged by parasites are difficult. This is because the ‘tool box’ required untangling the interactions is very unlikely to be rapidly developed. For example, there is no realistic prospect of producing transgenic technology for tsetse flies because eggs are inaccessible due to intrauterine development of larvae; maintenance of multiple lines of either sand or tsetse flies permitting genetic studies is impossible because of the cost and complexity of culturing colonies; bioinformatics resources are still in their infancy. Nevertheless, through a combination of genomics, transcriptomics, RNAi experiments and work on endosymbionts, researchers in these difficult systems have placed the general framework of parasite establishment in the midgut. Here, we will review the major immune pathways by which tsetse and sandflies respond to kinetoplastid challenge in the midgut and the role of endosymbionts as well as the gut microflora in determining vectorial capacity.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T08:27:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.04.003
       
  • Epigenetic Regulation of Longevity in Insects
    • Authors: Irina A. Kozeretska; Svitlana V. Serga; Alexander K. Koliada; Alexander M. Vaiserman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): Irina A. Kozeretska, Svitlana V. Serga, Alexander K. Koliada, Alexander M. Vaiserman
      When studying aging, an important issue is that it is a complex process influenced by a large number of environmental and genetic factors. The effects of these factors are difficult to investigate because they influence and modify each other. Therefore, it is difficult to examine these factors using complex mammalian models like rodents. Thereby, a large body of biogerontological research is based on simple model organisms such as insects. Such models are particularly useful in an exceedingly complex field such as epigenetics of aging. A high degree of conservation exists between insect and mammalian genomes in terms of both epigenetic mechanisms and signalling pathways associated with aging processes. Insect models proved to be very valuable for the study of epigenetic mechanisms mediating the influence of environmental factors on development, aging, neurodegeneration, cancer and infectious disorders. Therefore, the identification of epigenetic processes underlying aging and aging-related pathological conditions in insect models would be an important step towards the further development of treatment strategies to promote human health span and longevity.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T06:17:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.03.001
       
  • Insect Antimicrobial Defences: A Brief History, Recent Findings, Biases,
           and a Way Forward in Evolutionary Studies
    • Authors: Naomi L.P. Keehnen; Jens Rolff; Ulrich Theopold; Christopher W. Wheat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): Naomi L.P. Keehnen, Jens Rolff, Ulrich Theopold, Christopher W. Wheat
      We propose that an evolutionary and phenotype-driven approach, harnessing current technological developments, has much to offer for our understanding of insect immunity. After briefly reviewing the history of the discovery of canonical immune system, the current understanding of its components is reviewed and then we argue that the current paradigm of research may be biassed due to (a) its limited taxonomic perspective, (b) the evolutionary time scale being studied, and (c) a focus primarily if not exclusively, upon the canonical, humoural gene set. For the rest of the review, we then discuss the importance of a phenotype down approach as an understudied perspective, exemplified by the need for understanding the basis of cellular responses and wounding as a source of selection on immunity in the wild. We propose that research on those topics almost certainly will provide new insights into the evolution of the insect immune system.

      PubDate: 2017-03-31T12:11:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.02.003
       
  • The Role of MicroRNAs in Drosophila Regulation of Insulin-Like Peptides
           and Ecdysteroid Signalling: Where Are We Now'
    • Authors: Jian Q. Cao; Wai S. Tong; Hiu Y. Yu; Stephen S. Tobe; William G. Bendena; Jerome H.L. Hui
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): Jian Q. Cao, Wai S. Tong, Hiu Y. Yu, Stephen S. Tobe, William G. Bendena, Jerome H.L. Hui
      Arthropods are the most successful group of terrestrial animals in terms of their diverse habitats and species numbers. Understanding their evolution has conventionally been linked to comparison of their developmental modes and morphologies. Within the field of evolutionary developmental biology, the actions of hormones are usually ignored as hormones are thought to function more as regulators of metabolic activity associated with late developmental stages, such as ecdysis and metamorphosis. In recent years, the field of evolutionary endocrinology has emerged with the advances in sequencing techniques. Here, we consolidate the current findings of microRNA actions on insulin-like peptides and ecdysteroids in the major insect genetic model, Drosophila melanogaster. MicroRNA regulation of hormone activity remains a neglected area that needs to be developed using other insect and arthropod models to understand the diverse adaptations exhibited by this most successful group of animals.

      PubDate: 2017-03-31T12:11:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.02.002
       
  • Exploiting Innate Immunity for Biological Pest Control
    • Authors: F. Liu; W. Huang; K. Wu; Z. Qiu; Y. Huang; E. Ling
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): F. Liu, W. Huang, K. Wu, Z. Qiu, Y. Huang, E. Ling
      Insects are the most abundant animals on earth, and many are agriculture pests. Currently, we have to resort to chemical pesticides for suppressing pest populations, which lead to environmental pollution, health risk and ecological imbalance. The living environments of most insects are full of various species of pathogens that can enter insects via the mouths, tracheae and wounds. In this review, we summarize on the insect immune responses against pathogens and correspondingly the pathogenic suppression on the host innate immunity. Many individuals with mutations in important immune-related genes are genetically manipulated in laboratories to show low rates of survival even when kept in conventionally reared environment, which indicates that inhibition on the innate immunity could be a potential mode of biological pest control. With the knowledge accumulated on insect immunity, it is time for us to consider developing novel methods for biological pest control by suppressing immune activity.

      PubDate: 2017-03-11T18:04:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2017.02.001
       
  • Phagocytosis in Insect Immunity
    • Authors: A.E. Nazario-Toole; L.P. Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): A.E. Nazario-Toole, L.P. Wu
      The cellular immune response of insects is mediated by specialized blood cells that employ germline encoded receptors to recognize, engulf, and eliminate microbes through the process of phagocytosis. Phagocytosis is a vital component of innate immunity and research over the past 3 decades in model systems, such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and mosquitoes, has led to the identification of an array of processes that invertebrates rely on to respond to invading microorganisms. Valuable insights have been gleaned from studies of insect phagocytes and, in this review, we highlight research related to the roles of receptors and intracellular signalling molecules involved in phagocytosis of bacterial and parasitic microbes.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T00:35:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.12.001
       
  • Insect Symbiosis and Immunity: The Bean Bug–Burkholderia Interaction
           as a Case Study
    • Authors: J.K. Kim; B.L. Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): J.K. Kim, B.L. Lee
      Most insects are symbiotically associated with bacteria. In an insect–bacteria symbiosis, understanding the mechanisms of bacterial persistence in the presence of host immunity is an important question to answer. Recently, bean bugs possessing Burkholderia symbiont in their midgut region have been recognized as a useful insect model to study symbiosis mechanisms at the molecular level. In the bean bug symbiosis, the Burkholderia symbionts positively affect the immunity of bean bugs, and the immunity of bean bugs regulates the population of the symbionts. The symbiotic association with the host induces drastic changes in the cell envelope of the Burkholderia symbionts, which make the Burkholderia symbionts become highly susceptible to the host's immunity. However, the bean bug suppresses the immune responses of the symbiotic midgut region to support the survival of the immune-susceptible Burkholderia symbionts. The bean bug–Burkholderia studies demonstrate the intricate interplay between symbiosis and immunity.

      PubDate: 2017-01-20T23:21:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.11.003
       
  • The Melanization Response in Insect Immunity
    • Authors: J. Nakhleh; L. El Moussawi; M.A. Osta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): J. Nakhleh, L. El Moussawi, M.A. Osta
      Melanization plays important roles in diverse physiological processes in insects including wound healing, tanning of the cuticle and immunity. Upon infection, pattern recognition receptors activate downstream serine protease cascades that culminate in the activation of prophenoloxidase (PPO), the rate-limiting enzyme in the process of melanogenesis. During the last two decades, diverse genetic and biochemical approaches have been adopted to characterize this process, and a wealth of information has been generated concerning the molecular events that control PPO activation. Importantly, the melanization reaction was shown to be toxic to parasites, bacteria, fungi and recently viruses. Several studies pointed also to the existence of significant crosstalk between melanization and other immune responses possibly to coordinate immune attack against invaders. Here, we provide a critical review of the role of melanization in insect immunity, highlighting the important discoveries but also the gaps that remain to be explored in future studies.

      PubDate: 2017-01-12T22:39:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.11.002
       
  • Microbiota, Gut Physiology, and Insect Immunity
    • Authors: J.-H. Lee; K.-A. Lee; W.-J. Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Insect Physiology
      Author(s): J.-H. Lee, K.-A. Lee, W.-J. Lee
      This chapter aims to visualize insect gut as a life-sustaining organ that is resilient yet interactive with the changing environment to maintain its immunological and physiological homeostasis. As in all metazoans, insect gut is where the organism interacts most actively with the external ecosystem. A healthy gut epithelium properly controls incoming foodborne microbes as well as microbiota while maintaining its structural and functional integrity. Novel insights into gut immunity and physiology have been made using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Here, we begin our discussion with the gut architecture and the microbial environment the gut faces. Then, we review the current understanding of the immune responses of the gut epithelium involving the immune deficiency and dual oxidase pathways to restrict unwanted microbial colonization. We also discuss how the gut epithelium maintains its functionality by utilizing controlled proliferation and differentiation of intestinal stem cells despite damage-causing gut environment.

      PubDate: 2017-01-12T22:39:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aiip.2016.11.001
       
 
 
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