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Showing 1 - 200 of 3034 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 81, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 322, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 337, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 309, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 393, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
  [SJR: 1.132]   [H-I: 42]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0898-8838
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3034 journals]
  • O–O Bond Activation in Cu- and Fe-Based Coordination Complexes: Breaking
           It Makes the Difference
    • Authors: Joan Serrano-Plana; Anna Company; Miquel Costas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): Joan Serrano-Plana, Anna Company, Miquel Costas
      Oxygenase enzymes catalyze the oxidation of hydrocarbons in a regio- and stereoselective manner using O2 as a sacrificial oxidant. These enzymes, which often contain iron and/or copper in their active site, are the source of inspiration for the development of novel methodologies to perform oxidative transformations in a more environmentally friendly way, using benign oxidants such as O2 and H2O2. The ability of such metals to attain different oxidation states is the key to facilitate the redox processes associated with the formation and cleavage of the O–O bond. With the aim of gaining insight into both the structure and reactivity of enzymes, bioinorganic chemists have devoted efforts to learn the intimate details of the processes associated with these reactions. This is mostly carried out through the use of low molecular weight coordination compounds. One of the key issues to develop further more effective bioinspired catalysts is to understand the basis of their performance. In this vein, herein, we aim to depict several examples for which the formation and cleavage of the oxygen–oxygen bond, as well as the reactivity of the resulting species, have been studied through model systems.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T03:33:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2017.04.001
  • Diarylplatinum(II) Scaffolds for Kinetic and Mechanistic Studies on the
           Formation of Platinacycles via an Oxidative Addition/Reductive
           Elimination/Oxidative Addition Sequence
    • Authors: Gabriel Aullón; Margarita Crespo; Jesús Jover; Manuel Martínez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): Gabriel Aullón, Margarita Crespo, Jesús Jover, Manuel Martínez
      Oxidative addition and reductive elimination reactions are fundamental steps in processes related to synthetic chemistry involving organometallic compounds. In these reactions a metal in two available oxidation states (generally differing in two units) is needed, platinum centers being a very good example. The relative inertness of diamagnetic PtII and PtIV organometallic species (having, respectively, d8 square-planar or d6 octahedral arrangements), enables an easy monitoring of time-resolved reactivity, including its posterior kinetic analysis. Specifically, imine ligands containing C–X bonds have been observed to oxidatively add to {PtII(Aryl)2} moieties, which sequentially undergo C–C reductive elimination and C–H bond activation on the new ligand formed. These new species have been found to contain mostly seven-membered metallacycles, despite the obvious thermodynamic preference for five-membered cycles, which are found only in some rather specific instances. The kinetic preference of the complexes obtained has been studied from a kinetico-mechanistic perspective, that included obtaining thermal- and pressure-derived activation parameters, and a dramatic influence on the spectator halido ligands, and the substituents on the aryl groups has been established. To complete this kinetic and mechanism (kinetico-mechanistic) study, theoretical calculations have also been conducted to model the data collected and propose both the elementary steps and the factors determining the specificity of the full process.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T01:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2017.01.001
  • Reactive Oxygen Species in Photodynamic Therapy: Mechanisms of Their
           Generation and Potentiation
    • Authors: Janusz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): Janusz M. Dąbrowski
      Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles in cell signaling systems and homeostasis, and they are also fundamental to photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT efficacy can be affected by the nature and persistence of ROS. A comprehensive understanding of ROS generation pathways greatly facilitates the analysis of photodynamic mechanisms and enables potentiation of PDT efficacy. Diverse methods exist to distinguish between Type I and Type II mechanisms of ROS generation. The direct monitoring of 1O2 formation involves the detection of its phosphorescence at 1270nm. Electron spin resonance is also used in conjunction with appropriate spin traps for detection of oxygen-centered radical species. Moreover, a variety of more or less specific fluorescent probes are frequently used to detect both singlet oxygen and free radicals. This chapter summarizes our recent efforts in the design and characterization of new ROS-generating systems for PDT. Special attention is given to bacteriochlorins because they absorb in the NIR, generate ROS via both Type I and Type II mechanisms, and are very efficient in the PDT treatment of several types of tumors including pigmented melanoma. The current status and possible opportunities of ROS generation and potentiation in PDT are highlighted. Particular emphasis is placed on the elucidation of the ROS-mediated photochemical and molecular mechanisms that give rise to the establishment of PDT as a first-line systemic treatment of highly resistant diseases, especially invasive and metastatic tumors.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T01:55:16Z
  • Formic Acid as a Hydrogen Carrier for Fuel Cells Toward a Sustainable
           Energy System
    • Authors: Hajime Kawanami; Yuichi Himeda; Gábor Laurenczy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): Hajime Kawanami, Yuichi Himeda, Gábor Laurenczy
      Formic acid is considered as one of the promising organic liquid hydrogen carriers for the next generation; it can offer a viable method for safe hydrogen transport. In this chapter, we introduce the potential of formic acid in terms of thermodynamics and mechanism as described in earlier work in this area, as well as homogeneous catalysts providing a viable method for the production of molecular hydrogen as a sustainable fuel source through dehydrogenation. In addition, pentamethylcyclopentadienyl iridium (Cp*Ir) catalysts are also focused upon for this reaction and shown as a strategy to improve catalyst activity by introducing hydroxyl groups to increase turnover numbers. One of the major advantages of using formic acid as a hydrogen source is the regeneration of formic acid through the interaction with carbon dioxide, thus maintaining a continuous cycle, and offers a possibility for high energy output applications. The developed catalyst, Cp*Ir has potential to produce hydrogen gas with very high pressure, 120MPa, without facing the problem of decomposition. The generated gas pressure is sufficient for feeding a fuel cell vehicle, which requires 75MPa, according to the present standard of a hydrogen gas station. Furthermore, even though the generated gas consists of hydrogen and carbon dioxide with the ratio of 1:1, hydrogen can be separated easily and purified from the generated gas under supercritical conditions, by simply cooling to change the gas–liquid state of the system while maintaining the pressure. Finally, we introduce some applications of this gas generation system in fuel cells, and also for the production of electric power. It is worth mentioning that commercialization of the developed process for hydrogen generation via transformation of formic acid may be achievable in the near future.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T00:07:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2017.04.002
  • Controlling the Lability of Square-Planar Pt(II) Complexes Through
           Electronic and π-Conjugation: Correlation Between Kinetics and
           Theoretical Parameters
    • Authors: Allen Mambanda; Deogratius Jaganyi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): Allen Mambanda, Deogratius Jaganyi
      In this chapter, we report on some of the highlights of the research work which has been carried out in our laboratories on the role and influence of nitrogen-/carbon-donor tridentate ligands (NˆC/NˆN/C) on the rate of substitution of labile ligands from model square-planar Pt(II) complexes. This work was founded on the hypothesis that tailored kinetic control of substitution reactions through changing the electronic properties of the spectator ligand backbone of Pt(II) complexes can be an insightful avenue toward the optimization of the efficacy of future antitumor Pt(II) drugs. Focusing on the nitrogen-/carbon-donor tridentates (NˆC/NˆN/C), several Pt(II) complexes were synthesized and used to study systematically the mechanisms and rates of substituting the labile coligand from the complexes using biorelevant nucleophiles. The trends in reactivity as the nonleaving ligands in the complexes were systematically changed were used to understand the electronic and steric roles of the coordinated tridentate/bidentates on the lability of their complexes. Our kinetic data source can be used for the tailor-designing of future metal-based drugs with rigid nonleaving ligands, given that the lability of such complexes in biological systems plays a role on their ultimate in vivo pharmacokinetics (i.e., toxicity, deactivation and development of resistance, and cytotoxicity).

      PubDate: 2017-05-27T22:55:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2017.03.001
  • μ-Nitrido Diiron Phthalocyanine and Porphyrin Complexes: Unusual
           Structures With Interesting Catalytic Properties
    • Authors: Alexander B. Sorokin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): Alexander B. Sorokin
      A novel bioinspired approach to the development of powerful catalysts for oxidation is based on the N-bridged diiron phthalocyanine and porphyrin complexes. This scaffold is particularly suited for the stabilization of FeIVFeIV entities and can therefore be useful for the preparation of oxidizing active species. The possibility of the charge delocalization on two iron sites, two macrocyclic ligands, and the nitrogen bridge makes possible the activation of peroxides including H2O2. The ultra high-valent diiron-oxo species (L)FeIV–N–FeIV(L+ )O (L=phthalocyanine, porphyrin) have been detected at low temperatures and characterized by cryospray MS, UV–vis, EPR, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Mössbauer techniques. These highly electrophilic (L)FeIV–N–FeIV(L+ )O species show outstanding reactivity. The catalytic applications of μ-nitrido diiron complexes include oxidation of methane and benzene, transformation of aromatic C–F bonds in oxidative conditions, oxidative dechlorination, and formation of C–C bonds. Importantly, all these reactions can be carried out under clean and mild conditions with high conversions and turnover numbers. μ-Nitrido diiron species demonstrate similar mechanistic features (18O labeling, formation of benzene epoxide, and NIH shift in the aromatic oxidation) (see Section 4.4 and Kudrik and Sorokin, 2008 for the explanation) as enzymes operating via high-valent iron-oxo species. μ-Nitrido diiron complexes transform perfluorinated aromatic compounds in oxidative conditions, while the strongest oxidizing enzymes do not. Advanced spectroscopic and reactivity studies confirm the participation of high-valent diiron-oxo species in these catalytic reactions.

      PubDate: 2017-05-17T20:10:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2017.02.003
  • The Kinetics and Mechanism of Complex Redox Reactions in Aqueous Solution:
           The Tools of the Trade
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): Mária Szabó, Gábor Bellér, József Kalmár, István Fábián
      Redox reactions of simple inorganic species exhibit an amazingly rich variety of complex kinetic phenomena. Typically, these reactions are interpreted on the basis of multistep kinetic models which postulate the formation and subsequent fast reactions of reactive intermediates. The main purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate the challenges associated with mechanistic studies on complex redox reactions, and to offer selected examples how the complexities can be handled with currently available experimental and computational methods. Clear arguments are presented to demonstrate that the stoichiometries of these reactions are kinetically controlled. It is shown that in order to understand the intimate details of these systems, the stoichiometry as a function of reaction time, the final stoichiometry and the kinetic properties need to be studied under as broad experimental conditions as possible. Furthermore, thorough characterization of the reactive intermediates is the key to in-depth understanding of the mechanism. The importance of photoinitiation and kinetic coupling between photochemical and thermally activated reaction steps is also demonstrated in several systems. The survey of the literature results confirms that simultaneous and critical evaluation of all available experimental results is essential to validate the mechanistic conclusions. Finally, it is shown that adapting the methodology of homogeneous reaction kinetics for studying nonhomogeneous physicochemical processes leads to unique kinetic information regarding the kinetics of adsorption and desorption processes.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T18:55:17Z
  • The Role of Nonheme Transition Metal-Oxo, -Peroxo, and -Superoxo
           Intermediates in Enzyme Catalysis and Reactions of Bioinspired Complexes
    • Authors: Abayomi S. Faponle; Sam P. de Visser
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): Abayomi S. Faponle, Sam P. de Visser
      Transition metals are common cofactors in enzymes and enable catalysis to take place via reaction barriers that are accessible at room temperature. Oxygen-activating metalloenzymes are versatile species in Nature involved in vital processes ranging from biodegradation to biosynthesis. Since oxygen-activating intermediates are not readily amenable to experimental study, research has started to focus on biomimetic model systems that have the active site coordination sphere and structural features, but react in solution. In our research group, we have been involved in computational modeling of heme and nonheme iron dioxygenases as well as biomimetic models of these complexes. In this contribution, an overview is given on recent results of the characterization and reactivity patterns of metal-oxo, metal-peroxo, and metal-superoxo complexes. In particular, in recent studies attempts were made to trap and characterize the short-lived oxygen-bound intermediate in the catalytic cycle of cysteine dioxygenase. Many suggested structures could be ruled out by theoretical considerations, yet these also provided suggestions of possible candidates for the experimentally observed spectra. In addition, we review recent studies on the nonheme iron(III)-hydroperoxo species and how its reactivity patterns with arenes are dramatically different from those found for heme iron(III)-hydroperoxo species. In the final two sections there is a description, with illustrations, of a series of computational studies on manganese(V)-oxo and side-on manganese(III)-peroxo moieties that identify a unique spin-state reactivity pattern with a surprising product distribution.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T18:55:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2017.01.002
  • Thionitrous Acid/Thionitrite and Perthionitrite Intermediates in the
           “Crosstalk” of NO and H2S
    • Authors: Juan P. Marcolongo; Ari Zeida; Leonardo D. Slep; José A. Olabe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): Juan P. Marcolongo, Ari Zeida, Leonardo D. Slep, José A. Olabe
      The chemistry of aqueous NO and H2S as redox regulators of cellular and physiological responses in cardiovascular, immune or neurological tissues has raised the question of the overlapping pathophysiological functions often involving similar molecular targets. The interactions of NO with H2S may functionally influence each other and focus has been directed to new N/S hybrid species eventually determining signaling capabilities. Besides the well-studied nitrosothiols, RSNOs, the eruption of H2S in the mechanistic scene has stimulated increased interest in thionitrous acid, HSNO, and thionitrite, NOS−, as well as in perthionitrite (nitrosopersulfide), S2NO−. We discuss the elusive chemistry of the latter molecules as intermediates in selected reactions in aqueous solution, either as free species or as bound to iron metal centers. The coordination chemistry involves mainly an updating on the “Gmelin” reaction proceeding upon mixing nitroprusside [Fe(CN)5(NO)]2− and H2S, with controversial and still unsolved mechanistic issues related to the onset of NO, HNO/N2O, polysulfides H S n − (n =2–7), together with bound thionitrous acid/thionitrite/perthionitrite and other intermediates and products.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T16:37:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2017.02.002
  • Computational Insights Into the Reactivity at the Sulfur Atoms of M3S4
           (M=Mo, W) Clusters: The Mechanism of [3+2] Cycloaddition With Alkynes
    • Authors: Andrés G. Algarra; Manuel G. Basallote
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): Andrés G. Algarra, Manuel G. Basallote
      Whereas the mechanistic aspects of the reactions at the metal sites of M3S4 (M=Mo, W) clusters are relatively well understood, much less is known about those occurring at the sulfur atoms. In this chapter, we describe our recent results on the mechanism of the [3+2] cycloaddition reaction between these clusters and alkynes. In all cases, the process involves the concerted formation of two C–S bonds in a single kinetic step, as a result of the interaction between an M(μ-S)2 moiety of the cluster and the sp C atoms of the alkyne. The effects associated with the nature of the alkyne, the metal centers, the ligands bound to them, and the solvent have been analyzed by using a methodology consisting of two main steps: (a) the study of the kinetics of the reactions by using global analysis of the UV–Vis spectral changes, and the characterization of the resulting products by means of X-ray, ESI-MS, UV–Vis, or NMR spectroscopy; (b) the computational analysis of the processes by using density functional theory methods, in some cases complemented with the use of the activation strain model and energy decomposition analysis approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T16:37:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2017.01.003
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 69

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T06:31:50Z
  • Errata: Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide to Formic Acid
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 69

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T06:31:50Z
  • Oxygen–Isotope Exchange and Metastable Dissociation in Oxides
    • Authors: W.H. Casey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): W.H. Casey
      To understand the corrosion of bulk oxide materials at the molecular scale, oxygen–isotope exchanges were examined in two classes of nanometer-sized ions, one cation and one anion, and subsets that differ by targeted single-atom substitutions. In niobate anions, the different oxygen sites within each molecule differ by ∼103–104 in overall rates of isotopic exchange, yet all structural oxygens exhibit similar pH dependencies that relate to the dissociation pathways. In aluminate cations of the ɛ-Keggin structure, single-atom substitutions cause a 107–1010 variation of rates of oxygen–isotopic exchange into two sets of μ2-OH. Molecular-dynamic simulations indicate that metastable forms of these structures exist as loose, long-lived intermediates. A series of common steps is observed to access the intermediate structures, and these are best resolved in the symmetric ɛ-Keggin aluminate ions. In the first step, solvation forces, or a nucleophile, cause a near-surface metal to partly detach from a deeper overbonded oxygen via concerted motions of many atoms. Isotopically distinct oxygens then add to the newly undercoordinated metal in the partly detached metastable state. Protons transfer to more basic oxygens and oxygens shuffle. Finally, the metastable structure collapses and dehydrates. The number of such metastable states depends on the symmetry and composition of the starting structure and access to the metastable state controls the overall rates. Surprisingly, polyoxometalate ions with only 40–100 atoms already seem to capture much of the macroscopic chemistry observed for dissolving minerals and glasses.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T03:55:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2016.12.007
  • Polyoxometalate Multielectron Catalysts in Solar Fuel Production
    • Authors: S.M. Lauinger; Q. Yin; Y.V. Geletii; C.L. Hill
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): S.M. Lauinger, Q. Yin, Y.V. Geletii, C.L. Hill
      Catalysts in solar fuel research have greatly increased in the last few years. Significantly, the development of molecular, selective, and faster catalysts for both water oxidation or water reduction based on polyoxometalates has lead to advances in the understanding of water splitting systems. Recent studies have combined molecular catalysts with substrates or electrode surfaces in order to evaluate these catalysts when immobilized. Quantitative and qualitative investigations of molecular speciation and the catalytic mechanism during water oxidation with polyoxometalates are not simple, but recent reports have provided multiple complementary physicochemical, spectroscopic, and other techniques for the comprehension of catalyst stability. This review provides an up-to-date assessment of polyoxometalate-based water oxidation/reduction catalysts as well as immobilized species for the production of solar fuel.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T00:52:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2016.12.002
  • Perspectives for Polyoxometalates in Single-Molecule Electronics and
    • Authors: K.Y. Monakhov; M. Moors; P. Kögerler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): K.Y. Monakhov, M. Moors, P. Kögerler
      Breakthroughs in future information technology mandate new materials. For the most pressing challenges in current information technology—i.e., a drastic decrease in energy dissipation and augmented device functionality beyond classical von Neumann computation architectures—several pathways have been proposed. A particularly promising direction is that of spintronics, where electronic spin state control complements electronic charge-state control (1) . More recently, neuromorphic computing gained significant interest, characterized by a focus on synaptic functionality to realize neural networks and associative memory concepts. In the context of these developments, polyoxometalates, characterized by their unique structural versatility, their potential for functionalization and a highly versatile redox chemistry, provide several key advantages that motivate their exploration and use as single-molecule components of novel electronic and spintronic devices. As will be exemplified in this chapter, polyoxometalates provide near-perfect model systems to study the basic phenomena associated with single-molecule electronics and spintronics. Given the infancy of this field, this chapter thus is intended not a classical review, but as a map of potential departure points for avenues to polyoxometalate-based single-molecule devices.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T00:52:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2016.12.009
  • [Co9(H2O)6(OH)3(HPO4)2(PW9O34)3]16−: A Highly Efficient Catalyst for
           Water Oxidation
    • Authors: J. Soriano-López; S. Goberna-Ferrón; J.J. Carbó; J.M. Poblet; J.R. Galán-Mascarós
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): J. Soriano-López, S. Goberna-Ferrón, J.J. Carbó, J.M. Poblet, J.R. Galán-Mascarós
      Water oxidation catalysis is generally considered one of the major hurdles in the development of an efficient water splitting process. Most available catalysts are either too expensive, too unstable, or too slow for real technological applications. In this chapter we illustrate the major features of an interesting candidate, the nonanuclear polyoxometalate [Co 9 (H2O)6(OH)3(HPO4)2(PW9O34)3]16− (Co9 ). This POM, as others of its kind, has demonstrated to be a robust and fast catalyst promoting oxygen evolution in homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. In addition to its excellent performance, and prospects, we are including many experimental data that confirm its genuine catalytic activity. This is a key issue since the harsh conditions of oxygen evolution are prone to provoke a major evolution in the catalyst or precatalyst. Being all inorganic and obtained from earth-abundant metals, Co9 matches most of the requirements to be successfully implemented in an overall water splitting process.

      PubDate: 2017-02-04T22:31:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2016.12.008
  • Supramolecular Structures Formation of Polyoxometalates in Solution Driven
           by Counterion–Macroion Interaction
    • Authors: Y. Gao; S.A. Eghtesadi; T. Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): Y. Gao, S.A. Eghtesadi, T. Liu
      Hydrophilic macroions, represented by polyoxometalate (POM) clusters, demonstrate unique solution behaviors that are clearly different from simple ions or colloids. Almost all their special features are related to the interaction between the macroions and their counterions, such as their self-assembly into single-layered, hollow, spherical “blackberry” structures in solution due to the counterion-mediated attraction based upon the moderate counterion association around the POM macroions. The delicate macroion–counterion interaction, including the related partial or complete breakage of the water ligands around both parties, enables the macroions to accurately distinguish different types of counterions based on their valence and hydrated size. POM macroions show many amazing properties shared with biological macromolecules, such as ion selectivity, similar kinetic features with the virus capsid formation and the strict self-recognition phenomenon. Understanding and controlling the POM–counterion interactions, such as the distribution of the counterions around and inside the POMs, the counterion exchange near the POMs, as well as the POM–POM interaction in the presence of counterions, is the key to understand the POM solutions and consequently to rationally design functional systems.

      PubDate: 2017-02-04T22:31:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2016.12.006
  • Nonaqueous Polyoxometalate Synthesis for Systematic Studies of Hydrolysis,
           Protonation, and Reduction
    • Authors: R.J. Errington
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): R.J. Errington
      Dynamic aspects of polyoxometalate chemistry are often overlooked because of difficulties in monitoring subtle structural and/or speciation changes in solution. This chapter features the nonaqueous approaches to polyoxometalate synthesis being developed in our laboratory as a platform for detailed and systematic reactivity studies. Methods based on metal alkoxide hydrolysis are described that provide access to a range of substituted {M2W4} and {MW5} Lindqvist-type polyoxometalates containing reactive {MX} n+ heterometal sites, and examples are given that highlight the importance of 17O NMR as a tool for monitoring solution reactivity. Lindqvist-type {XTiW5} and {XSnW5} and related Keggin-type {XMPW11} anions are compared, and significant differences in their hydrolysis and condensation behaviors are discussed in relation to DFT studies. The solution reactivity observed upon halide abstraction from {ClTiW5} or protonation of {(RO)TiW5} species is rationalized in terms of a common difunctional reactive intermediate [TiW5O18]2−, which has been characterized in its dimeric form. Following the identification of diprotonated [(μ-O)(TiW5O18H)2]4− a new type of polyoxometalate ligand behavior is proposed, based on the characterization of [(μ-O)(TiW5O18)2(SnMe2)]4−, 17O NMR studies of reactions with electrophiles, and DFT studies of [(μ-O)(TiW5O18)2(AuCl)]4−. The final section describes nonaqueous reductive aggregation reactions of (TBA)3[PMo12O40] that have produced a family of electron-rich anions of the type α-[PMo12O40(ML n ) z ] x−, and the reductive degradation of (TBA)2[Mo6O19] to give the tetra-capped ɛ-[Mo13O40H4{Mg(DMSO)3}4]2+.

      PubDate: 2017-02-04T22:31:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2016.12.010
  • Electron Transfer–Oxygen Transfer Reactions and Beyond With
    • Authors: Neumann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): R. Neumann
      The unique ability of H5PV2Mo10O40 to catalyze electron transfer–oxygen transfer oxidations via activation of sulfides, and carbon–hydrogen, carbon–carbon, and carbon metal bonds, is discussed in the context of sustainable transformations of arenes, the deconstruction of carbohydrates to synthesis gas as a liquid fuel precursor and the prospects for hydroxylation of alkanes. Emphasis is placed on the mechanistic aspects of these reactions including isolation and or observation of intermediates, and the importance of solvents on the oxidation potential of H5PV2Mo10O40. Descriptions possible structures of reactive intermediates as deduced from EPR spectroscopy and DFT calculations are also included.

      PubDate: 2017-02-04T22:31:35Z
  • Design of Magnetic Polyoxometalates for Molecular Spintronics and as Spin
    • Authors: J.J. Baldoví; S. Cardona-Serra; A. Gaita-Ariño; E. Coronado
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): J.J. Baldoví, S. Cardona-Serra, A. Gaita-Ariño, E. Coronado
      In the past decades, POMs have been used as minimal models in Molecular Magnetism, since they are a convenient playing ground to study fundamental phenomena such as anisotropic magnetic exchange and electron transfer. Now they have jumped to the stage of the rational design of single-ion magnets and are being considered as test subjects for simple experiments in Single-Molecule Spintronics and Molecular Quantum Computing. This chapter contains an overview of recent results that demonstrate the potential of POMs in these emerging fields.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T18:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2016.12.003
  • Polyoxometalate-Functionalized Nanocarbon Materials for Energy Conversion,
           Energy Storage, and Sensor Systems
    • Authors: C.-G. Lin; J. Hu; Y.-F. Song
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): C.-G. Lin, J. Hu, Y.-F. Song
      The development of advanced composite materials based on polyoxometalates (POMs) and nanostructured carbons has attracted significant attention as they combine the unique chemical reactivity of POMs and the unparalleled electronic properties of nanocarbons. The exceptional properties of the resultant composites have been widely employed in catalysis, energy conversion and storage, molecular sensors and electronics. In this chapter, we report the latest progress on POM/CNT (CNT=carbon nanotubes) and POM/graphene nanocomposites with a focus on energy materials for water splitting and fuel cells, electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors, as well as functional materials for environmental pollutant sensing. Current applications are critically assessed and promising future target systems are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T18:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2016.12.004
  • Exploring Self-Assembly and the Self-Organization of Nanoscale Inorganic
           Polyoxometalate Clusters
    • Authors: H.N. Miras; D.-L. Long; L. Cronin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): H.N. Miras, D.-L. Long, L. Cronin
      Polyoxometalates (POMs) are a family of self-assembled molecular clusters with an unmatched range of physical properties, structural features, and sizes. The development of appropriate synthetic methodologies, analytical techniques, and approaches which allow the constructive exploration of the vast parameter space of POM chemistry is crucial for the understanding and control of the underlying complex reactions masked by the self-assembly. This chapter discusses the main aspects of the self-assembly that govern the POM-based chemical systems and the methodologies used for the generation of libraries of molecular synthons that can be used for the construction of large molecular moieties. We will illustrate how the effective combination of synthetic approaches in this area contributed to our deeper understanding of the self-assembly by revealing important mechanistic information. The final sections are devoted to discussing the self-organization of the preassembled molecular components into complex functional macrostructures.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T18:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2016.12.001
  • Chapter Six Development of Trackable Anticancer Agents Based on Metal
    • Authors: Ewen Bodio; Pierre Le Gendre; Franck Denat; Christine Goze
      Pages: 253 - 299
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 68
      Author(s): Ewen Bodio, Pierre Le Gendre, Franck Denat, Christine Goze
      The design of trackable anticancer agents is of major interest for the future development of therapeutics based on nonplatinum metal complexes such as Ru(II), Os(II), or Au(I) derivatives, and more particularly for the understanding of the mechanism of action of these metal-based drugs. This review reports the synthesis and the first biological studies of original trackable complexes, in which the metal complex was coupled to an imaging probe, such as a fluorophore (coumarin, borodipyrromethene derivative (BODIPY), porphyrin), or a chelating agent (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)) for radioisotopic imaging PET (positron emission tomography) or SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography). In the case of fluorescent theranostics, the photophysical properties of the different compounds were studied and the cell uptake could be evaluated on different cell lines, by microscopy imaging. A fluorescent smart probe based on coumarin-phosphine, whose fluorescence strongly depends on the coordination of the metal was also studied, revealing a nonusual cellular target with respect to the classical gold therapeutic systems. In the last section, the synthesis of new potential fluorescent trackable-radiotherapeutics is also presented.

      PubDate: 2016-02-12T23:17:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2015.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2016)
  • Chapter Seven Advanced Chelator Design for Metal Complexes in Imaging
    • Authors: Benjamin P. Burke; Johanna Seemann; Stephen J. Archibald
      Pages: 301 - 339
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 68
      Author(s): Benjamin P. Burke, Johanna Seemann, Stephen J. Archibald
      Chelating ligands can be designed to control the interactions of metal complexes with biological systems with specific relevance to molecular imaging techniques. Properties of interest include the stability of the complex under physiological conditions and how the complex will interact with biological macromolecules including proteins, genetic material, and polysaccharides. In medical imaging applications, targeting specific organs or disease sites, the metal complex will most commonly have the requirement of it being delivered to the site of interest, cleared from the other organs (followed by imaging), and then ultimately excreted remaining intact throughout. Design features such as rigidity, donor atom type and arrangement, and cavity size can be tuned to optimize the specificity, stability, and kinetics of binding. Examples are presented on chelator design for radiopharmaceuticals, how targeting for imaging can be achieved utilizing metal complexes that bind to specific proteins and how chelators can be modified for attachment (bioconjugation) to antibodies and peptides as bifunctional chelators.

      PubDate: 2016-02-12T23:17:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2015.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2016)
  • Chapter Eight Radiometallo-Labeled Peptides in Tumor Diagnosis and
           Targeted Radionuclide Therapy
    • Authors: Subhani M. Okarvi; Helmut R. Maecke
      Pages: 341 - 396
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 68
      Author(s): Subhani M. Okarvi, Helmut R. Maecke
      Radiometal-labeled peptides are promising biologic tools for a new generation of radiopharmaceuticals, because their receptors frequently are overexpressed in many human tumors that can be targeted efficiently with suitably designed tumor receptor-binding peptide radiopharmaceuticals. The main focus of molecular imaging is to study the biochemical processes at cellular and subcellular levels in order to detect abnormalities associated with various diseases. For that purpose, biomolecules that selectively accumulate in the organ or tissue of interest by a specific mechanism such as receptor binding or interaction with biomolecules are radiolabeled with 99mTc, 68Ga, 111In, 64Cu, 177Lu, 90Y, among others and used as radiopharmaceuticals. However, significant effort is still necessary to combine these medically useful radionuclides with clinically important biomolecules relevant to different pathological conditions. Extensive research on the coordination chemistry of these metals has led to new radiolabeling methods that yield stable compounds which retained the original biological activity of the ligand. Each metal is unique and is defined by its oxidation state, coordination number, hard–soft characteristics, kinetic inertness or lability, and redox stability. In addition to complexing the radiometal in a kinetically inert environment, the chelate often has the dual function of also covalently bonding to the tumor-targeting peptide for directing the radiopharmaceutical to its in vivo target site, such as tumors. Here, some characteristics of radiometallo-labeled peptides in tumor diagnosis and therapy are presented with particular emphasis on somatostatin peptides. Some special peptides targeting bombesin and chemokine receptor 4 that have been preclinically or clinically investigated are briefly described. Additionally, promising bifunctional chelators and radioisotopes for radiometal labeling are reviewed.

      PubDate: 2016-02-12T23:17:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2015.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2016)
  • Chapter Nine Labeling of Graphene, Graphene Oxides, and of Their Congeners
    • Authors: James A. Tyson; David G. Calatayud; Vincenzo Mirabello; Boyang Mao; Sofia I. Pascu
      Pages: 397 - 440
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 68
      Author(s): James A. Tyson, David G. Calatayud, Vincenzo Mirabello, Boyang Mao, Sofia I. Pascu
      The area of biomedical imaging is fast becoming an active focus for the utilization of graphene within a variety of imaging modalities. Graphene can be oxidized to produce a material with a high degree of functionality and has led to its expansion as a platform for the immobilization of fluorescent and radiolabeled molecules. Its large surface area has allowed graphene and its oxides to be modified with a variety of molecules that enhance biocompatibility, selectivity, and therapeutic potential. This chapter highlights recent developments in the use of targeted fluorogenic or radiolabeled graphene materials that can be used to image cancers via fluorescence, positron emission tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography modalities. Key emphasis is placed on the nanocomposites that are designed to provide additional therapeutic effects. The capacity of these composites to be internalized by cells and tumors is discussed to appreciate the future perspective of graphene and its congeners as therapeutic multimodal imaging agents.

      PubDate: 2016-02-12T23:17:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2015.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2016)
  • Chapter Ten The Chemistry of Monovalent Copper in Solutions of Pure and
           Mixed Nonaqueous Solvents
    • Authors: Dip Gill; Vivek Pathania
      Pages: 441 - 481
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 68
      Author(s): Dip Gill, Vivek Pathania
      This review presents some important and recent research especially 63Cu/65Cu NMR studies and compressibility studies of monovalent copper (Cu(I)) in mixtures of AN or BN with a large number of nonaqueous solvents including some other nitriles. Syntheses of some rare and novel Cu(I) salts [CuX∙4AN] (where X = C l O 4 − , NO 3 − , B F 4 − , P F 6 − , H S O 4 − , SO 4 2 − , and C F 3 C O O − ) and their corresponding derivatives such as CuX∙2DMPhen with organic ligands, for example, DMPhen, have also been reported. Physicochemical techniques such as molar conductance, viscosity, compressibility, and 63Cu/65Cu NMR have been used to investigate the solvation behavior of Cu(I). Two derived parameters, i.e., the solvated radii (r i) and Cu quadrupole coupling constant (e 2 Qq/h) were used to obtain quantitative information on the solvation behavior of Cu(I). The variation of r i and (e 2 Qq/h) with mol% cosolvent in AN+cosolvent mixtures has been used to highlight the extent of preferential solvation behavior of Cu(I) and the formation, nature, and symmetry of solvated mixed complexes of Cu(I) such as [Cu(AN)4(S)4− x ]+ (x =0–4). In several cases of mixed solvents, AN exhibits preferential solvation. Py, TRP, and BN, however, showed preferential solvation in AN+Py, AN+TRP, and AN+BN mixtures. TRP, even at a very low concentration (0.001M), demonstrated a strong interaction with Cu(I) resulting in the splitting of the Cu signal into five peaks by coupling of the Cu signal with 31P from four molecules of TRP.

      PubDate: 2016-02-12T23:17:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adioch.2015.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2016)
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 68

      PubDate: 2016-02-12T23:17:14Z
  • Chapter One Opportunities and Challenges for Metal Chemistry in Molecular
    • Authors: Richard Southworth; Rafael Torres Martin Rosales Levente Meszaros Michelle Gregory
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 68
      Author(s): Richard Southworth, Rafael Torres Martin de Rosales, Levente K. Meszaros, Michelle T. Ma, Gregory E.D. Mullen, Gilbert Fruhwirth, Jennifer D. Young, Cinzia Imberti, Julia Bagunya-Torres, Erica Andreozzi, Philip J. Blower
      The development of medical imaging is a highly multidisciplinary endeavor requiring the close cooperation of clinicians, physicists, engineers, biologists, and chemists to identify capabilities, conceive challenges and solutions and apply them in the clinic. The chemistry described in this chapter illustrates how synergistic advances in these areas drive the technology and its applications forward, with each discipline producing innovations that in turn drive innovations in the others. The main thread running through the chapter is the shift from single photon radionuclide imaging toward PET, and in turn the emerging shift from PET/CT toward PET/MRI and further, combination of these with optical imaging. Chemistry to support these transitions is exemplified by building on a summary of the status quo, and recent developments, in technetium-99m chemistry for SPECT imaging, followed by a report of recent developments to support clinical application of short-lived (Ga-68) and long-lived (Zr-89) positron-emitting isotopes, copper isotopes for PET imaging, and combined modality imaging agents based on radiolabeled iron oxide-based nanoparticles.

      PubDate: 2016-02-12T23:17:14Z
  • Chapter Two Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging Probes Based on Ln3+
    • Authors: Bonnet
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 68
      Author(s): Célia S. Bonnet, Éva Tóth
      For almost three decades, the application of Gd3+ complexes as contrast-enhancing agents has largely contributed to the successful use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) both in the clinics and in biomedical research. More recently, the emergence of paramagnetic Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (ParaCEST) agents, most often based on lanthanide chelates, opened new possibilities to create MRI contrast. Via a judicious ligand design, the efficacy of Gd3+ complexes or the CEST effect of ParaCEST agents can be modulated by a variety of physical–chemical parameters (pH, temperature, ion concentration, etc.) or by interaction with biomarkers. This allows developing responsive probes, capable of reporting on different properties of the surrounding tissue. We survey recent contributions in the field of responsive probes for detection of enzymes, biologically important cations, or neurotransmitters. The specificity of a molecular probe can be improved by selectively delivering it to a specific target. Discrete MR probes can be adapted to visualize abundant targets. An important challenge is to retain the affinity of the vector for its target upon conjugation to paramagnetic chelates. These issues are discussed in the context of imaging of amyloid aggregates by Gd3+ complexes. To ascertain MRI findings, the possible detection of the probe in optical imaging is often explored. For this, imaging agents need to combine features required by MRI and optical imaging. We review approaches including both small molecular probes and nanoparticles. Finally, different nonconventional systems such as metal-organic frameworks, rotaxanes, or zeolites are discussed as potential MRI probes.

      PubDate: 2016-02-12T23:17:14Z
  • Chapter Three Luminescent Iridium(III) and Rhenium(I) Complexes as
           Biomolecular Probes and Imaging Reagents
    • Authors: Kenneth Kam-Wing
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 68
      Author(s): Kenneth Kam-Wing Lo
      There is an emerging interest in the applications of luminescent transition metal complexes as biological probes and imaging reagents due to their interesting photophysical properties, which include high photostability, long emission lifetimes, large Stokes’ shifts, and highly environment-sensitive emission. The involvement of heavy metal implies that the quantitation of cellular uptake can be conveniently performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For more than a decade, we have developed a number of luminescent transition metal complexes that carry a reactive functional group for bioconjugation. Additionally, we have incorporated different biological substrates within transition metal complexes that show highly environment-sensitive emission and exploited them as noncovalent probes for biomolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins. In the past several years, we have also developed an interest in the cellular studies of related complexes. Different functional moieties have been appended to luminescent transition metal complexes with a variety of spacer-arms to afford new cellular reagents. The functional moieties include biotin, indole, estradiol, alkyl and fluorous chains, intercalating units, dendritic skeleton, reactive functional groups such as isothiocyanate and aldehyde, ion and molecule sensing units, polymeric chains such as poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(ethyleneimine), carbohydrates, and chemical probes for bioorthogonal labeling. In this chapter, we have summarized the molecular design and photophysical properties of a selection of these metal complexes developed in our laboratory. The cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, intracellular trafficking and localization, and the potential biological applications (such as sensing, bioimaging, and photoinduced cytotoxicity) of these complexes have been described.

      PubDate: 2016-02-12T23:17:14Z
  • Chapter Four Metalloporphyrins for Medical Imaging Applications
    • Authors: Francesca Bryden; Ross Boyle
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 68
      Author(s): Francesca Bryden, Ross W. Boyle
      In this account, the synthesis and biological evaluation of metalloporphyrins and related structures for use in biomedical imaging applications are outlined. The structural design of these tetrapyrrolic metal chelators is discussed, with evaluation of strategies designed to facilitate more rapid chelation under milder conditions, improve water solubility, and allow for conjugation to targeting groups and macromolecular structures. Particular emphasis is given to the application of these metalloporphyrin structures to clinically relevant imaging techniques including magnetic resonance imaging, fluorescence imaging, radio-imaging, and Raman and photo-acoustic imaging, with a broad overview of the progress made in these areas. The future of research in this area is also examined, with the emerging research interest in more modern multimodal imaging set to dominate the future of biomedical imaging.

      PubDate: 2016-02-12T23:17:14Z
  • Chapter Five Macrocyclic Bifunctional Chelators and Conjugation Strategies
           for Copper-64 Radiopharmaceuticals
    • Authors: Brett Paterson; Paul Donnelly
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 68
      Author(s): Brett M. Paterson, Paul S. Donnelly
      The positron-emitting radionuclide copper-64 is of interest in the development of new molecular imaging agents for use with positron emission tomography. This account highlights the development and application of macrocyclic chelators that have been designed to form complexes of copper-64 that are exceptionally stable in vivo and can be readily conjugated to biologically active molecules and nanoparticles. “Click chemistry” is discussed as a conjugation technique that is bioorthogonal with both pre- and postlabeling capabilities. Enzyme-mediated site-specific strategies are introduced as new conjugation techniques with the potential to improve homogeneity, reproducibility, and the likelihood for retention of full biological function of targeted tracers for noninvasive diagnostic imaging.

      PubDate: 2016-02-12T23:17:14Z
  • Contents of Previous Volumes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 68

      PubDate: 2016-02-12T23:17:14Z
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 67

      PubDate: 2015-01-26T13:14:07Z
  • Chapter 1 NOx Linkage Isomerization in Metal Complexes
    • Authors: Dennis Awasabisah; George Richter-Addo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2014
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): Dennis Awasabisah , George B. Richter-Addo
      The binding of small molecules to metals often imparts varied chemistry to the small molecules. Such chemistry is dependent on the coordination mode of the small molecule ligands, as the coordination mode affects the electronic distributions along the ligand atoms. In this review, we outline the current knowledge of the linkage isomerization of NO x ligands in their metal complexes for both non-porphyrin and porphyrin systems. We present their modes of preparation and detection and speculate on the consequences of such linkage isomerization on the resultant chemistry.

      PubDate: 2014-12-27T09:58:44Z
  • Chapter 6 Metal-Assisted Activation of Nitric Oxide—Mechanistic Aspects
           of Complex Nitrosylation Processes
    • Authors: Alicja Franke; Maria Oszajca Brindell Stochel Rudi van Eldik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2014
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): Alicja Franke , Maria Oszajca , Małgorzata Brindell , Grażyna Stochel , Rudi van Eldik
      In this account, important mechanistic aspects concerning nitric oxide activation by selected iron and ruthenium complexes of biological and environmental relevance are surveyed. Throughout the sampling of kinetic and mechanistic investigations, particular emphasis is given to the elucidation of elementary reaction steps determining the dynamics of NO–metal interactions as well as to the evaluation of the electronic nature and stability/reactivity of metal activated forms of nitric oxide in the resulting nitrosyl products. The broad chemical diversity of the reviewed systems including metal, ligand, and solvent effects enabled to draw informative conclusions regarding the mechanistic picture of metal-assisted activation of nitric oxide, which are essential not only to improve the understanding of even more sophisticated NO processes developed by nature in biologic systems but also to design and tune novel enzyme mimics and catalysts for medical and environmental applications.

      PubDate: 2014-12-21T09:19:03Z
  • Chapter 3 Recent Progress in Photoinduced NO Delivery With Designed
           Ruthenium Nitrosyl Complexes
    • Authors: Tara deBoer; Pradip Mascharak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2014
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): Tara R. deBoer , Pradip K. Mascharak
      This chapter focuses on our recent work in the area of designed ruthenium nitrosyl complexes and their potential as NO donors to biological targets. Special attention has been given to the design strategies that afford nitrosyls capable of releasing NO upon exposure to visible light of various wavelengths. Results of theoretical studies have been utilized to gain insight into their photophysical properties and mechanism(s) of NO photodissociation. Techniques of sensitizing the otherwise UV-sensitive ruthenium nitrosyls to visible light by attachment of light-harvesting dye molecules have also been discussed.

      PubDate: 2014-12-21T09:19:03Z
  • Three Redox States of Metallonitrosyls in Aqueous Solution
    • Authors: Sara Bari; Olabe Leonardo Slep
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2014
      Source:Advances in Inorganic Chemistry
      Author(s): Sara E. Bari , José A. Olabe , Leonardo D. Slep
      This contribution deals with the structure and reactivity of bound nitrosyl in transition-metal centers (group 8: Fe, Ru, Os). The focus is set on pseudooctahedral nitrosyl-complexes with coordination number 5 and 6, containing ancillary coligands of both heme- and nonheme type. The discussion is organized in terms of Enemark and Feltham's classification, selecting complexes within the {MNO} n framework (n =6, 7, and 8). The examples have been chosen for a best description of the electronic structures in terms of modern structural, spectroscopical, and computational methodologies. The selected {MNO}6,7,8 species reflect the occurrence of three redox states of bound nitrosyl, frequently (though not always) described as NO+, NO, and NO− for n =6, 7, and 8, respectively. The analysis is centered on the members of a series of complexes for which the three redox states have been observed on the same platform, viz., [Fe(CN)5(NO)]2,3,4− and [Ru(Me3[9]aneN3)(bpy)(NO)]3,2,1+, in aqueous solutions. The influence of the donor–acceptor character of the coligands is specifically addressed with emphasis on the ligand trans- to nitrosyl, showing that the latter group may exert a delabilizing influence (as NO+), as well as a labilizing one (NO− ≫NO) on the trans-ligand. On the other hand, typical electrophilic reactivity patterns (toward different nucleophiles) are analyzed for M–NO+, and nucleophilic reactivity (with O2) is described for the reduced species, M–NO and M–(NO−). In the latter case, protonation is described by characterizing the bound HNO species. Important differences are highlighted in the chemistry of bound NO− and HNO, revealing the strong and mild reductant abilities of these species, respectively. The chemistry is analyzed in terms of the biological relevance to the behavior of nitrite- and NO-reductases and other NO-related enzymes.

      PubDate: 2014-12-05T07:36:25Z
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