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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3031 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3031 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 79, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 389, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in Immunology
  [SJR: 4.152]   [H-I: 85]   [33 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2776
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Immunology, Volume 134


      PubDate: 2017-04-14T04:09:22Z
       
  • Chapter Five Humanized Immunoglobulin Mice
    • Authors: Laurent Verkoczy
      Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Immunology, Volume 134
      Author(s): Laurent Verkoczy
      A vaccine that can effectively prevent HIV-1 transmission remains paramount to ending the HIV pandemic, but to do so, will likely need to induce broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) responses. A major technical hurdle toward achieving this goal has been a shortage of animal models with the ability to systematically pinpoint roadblocks to bnAb induction and to rank vaccine strategies based on their ability to stimulate bnAb development. Over the past 6 years, immunoglobulin (Ig) knock-in (KI) technology has been leveraged to express bnAbs in mice, an approach that has enabled elucidation of various B-cell tolerance mechanisms limiting bnAb production and evaluation of strategies to circumvent such processes. From these studies, in conjunction with the wealth of information recently obtained regarding the evolutionary pathways and paratopes/epitopes of multiple bnAbs, it has become clear that the very features of bnAbs desired for their function will be problematic to elicit by traditional vaccine paradigms, necessitating more iterative testing of new vaccine concepts. To meet this need, novel bnAb KI models have now been engineered to express either inferred prerearranged V(D)J exons (or unrearranged germline V, D, or J segments that can be assembled into functional rearranged V(D)J exons) encoding predecessors of mature bnAbs. One encouraging approach that has materialized from studies using such newer models is sequential administration of immunogens designed to bind progressively more mature bnAb predecessors. In this review, insights into the regulation and induction of bnAbs based on the use of KI models will be discussed, as will new Ig KI approaches for higher-throughput production and/or altering expression of bnAbs in vivo, so as to further enable vaccine-guided bnAb induction studies.

      PubDate: 2017-04-14T04:09:22Z
       
  • Tissue-Specific Diversity and Functions of Conventional Dendritic Cells
    • Authors: Dalia Pakalniškytė; Barbara U. Schraml
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Immunology
      Author(s): Dalia Pakalniškytė, Barbara U. Schraml
      Dendritic cells (DCs) are versatile controllers of immunity, which sense infection or tissue damage and, accordingly, initiate innate and adaptive effector responses. In recent years, it has become evident that DCs exist as an independent hematopoietic lineage comprising several developmentally distinct and functionally specialized subsets that are strategically located in all organs to defend the organism against invading pathogens. Here, we review the diversity of DC subtypes found across tissues and discuss our current understanding of the tissue-specific functions of these cell types.

      PubDate: 2017-03-30T18:45:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2017.01.003
       
  • A Mechanistic Understanding of Pyroptosis: The Fiery Death Triggered by
           Invasive Infection
    • Authors: Xing Liu; Judy Lieberman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Immunology
      Author(s): Xing Liu, Judy Lieberman
      Immune cells and skin and mucosal epithelial cells recognize invasive microbes and other signs of danger to sound alarms that recruit responder cells and initiate an immediate “innate” immune response. An especially powerful alarm is triggered by cytosolic sensors of invasive infection that assemble into multimolecular complexes, called inflammasomes, that activate the inflammatory caspases, leading to maturation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and pyroptosis, an inflammatory death of the infected cell. Work in the past year has defined the molecular basis of pyroptosis. Activated inflammatory caspases cleave Gasdermin D (GSDMD), a cytosolic protein in immune antigen-presenting cells and epithelia. Cleavage separates the autoinhibitory C-terminal fragment from the active N-terminal fragment, which moves to the cell membrane, binds to lipids on the inside of the cell membrane, and oligomerizes to form membrane pores that disrupt cell membrane integrity, causing death and leakage of small molecules, including the proinflammatory cytokines and GSDMD itself. GSDMD also binds to cardiolipin on bacterial membranes and kills the very bacteria that activate the inflammasome. GSDMD belongs to a family of poorly studied gasdermins, expressed in the skin and mucosa, which can also form membrane pores. Spontaneous mutations that disrupt the binding of the N- and C-terminal domains of other gasdermins are associated with alopecia and asthma. Here, we review recent studies that identified the roles of the inflammasome, inflammatory caspases, and GSDMD in pyroptosis and highlight some of the outstanding questions about their roles in innate immunity, control of infection, and sepsis.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T18:25:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2017.02.002
       
  • A Chemoattractant-Guided Walk Through Lymphopoiesis: From Hematopoietic
           Stem Cells to Mature B Lymphocytes
    • Authors: Vivian Y. Lim; Sandra Zehentmeier; Chris Fistonich; João P. Pereira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Immunology
      Author(s): Vivian Y. Lim, Sandra Zehentmeier, Chris Fistonich, João P. Pereira
      B lymphocytes develop from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in specialized bone marrow niches composed of rare mesenchymal lineage stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs) and sinusoidal endothelial cells. These niches are defined by function and location: MSPCs are mostly perisinusoidal cells that together with a small subset of sinusoidal endothelial cells express stem cell factor, interleukin-7 (IL-7), IL-15, and the highest amounts of CXCL12 in bone marrow. Though rare, MSPCs are morphologically heterogeneous, highly reticular, and form a vast cellular network in the bone marrow parenchyma capable of interacting with large numbers of hematopoietic cells. HSCs, downstream multipotent progenitor cells, and common lymphoid progenitor cells utilize CXCR4 to fine-tune access to critical short-range growth factors provided by MSPCs for their long-term maintenance and/or multilineage differentiation. In later stages, developing B lymphocytes use CXCR4 to navigate the bone marrow parenchyma, and predominantly cannabinoid receptor-2 for positioning within bone marrow sinusoids, prior to being released into peripheral blood circulation. In the final stages of differentiation, transitional B cells migrate to the spleen where they preferentially undergo further rounds of differentiation until selection into the mature B cell pool occurs. This bottleneck purges up to 97% of all developing B cells in a peripheral selection process that is heavily controlled not only by the intensity of BCR signaling and access to BAFF but also by the proper functioning of the B cell motility machinery.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T18:25:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2017.02.001
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Immunology, Volume 133


      PubDate: 2017-02-21T13:28:16Z
       
  • Contents of Recent Volumes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Immunology, Volume 133


      PubDate: 2017-02-21T13:28:16Z
       
  • γδ T Cells and B Cells
    • Authors: Willi K. Born; Yafei Huang; R. Lee Reinhardt; Hua Huang; Deming Sun; Rebecca L. O’Brien
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Immunology
      Author(s): Willi K. Born, Yafei Huang, R. Lee Reinhardt, Hua Huang, Deming Sun, Rebecca L. O’Brien
      γδ T cells constitute the third arm of a tripartite adaptive immune system in jawed vertebrates, besides αβ T cells and B cells. Like the other two lymphocyte-types, they express diverse antigen receptors, capable of specific ligand recognition. Functionally, γδ T cells represent a system of differentiated subsets, sometimes engaged in cross-regulation, which ultimately determines their effect on other components of the immune system, including B cells and antibodies. γδ T cells are capable of providing help to B cells in antibody production. More recently it became clear that γδ T cells influence B cell differentiation during the peripheral stages of B cell development, control levels of circulating immunoglobulin (all subclasses), and affect production of autoantibodies. Because of this relationship between γδ T cells and B cells, the extensive variation of γδ T cells among human individuals might be expected to modulate their humoral responsiveness.

      PubDate: 2017-02-14T21:03:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2017.01.002
       
  • Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity by TGFβ
    • Authors: Aoife Kelly; Stephanie A. Houston; Eleanor Sherwood; Joshua Casulli; Mark A. Travis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Immunology
      Author(s): Aoife Kelly, Stephanie A. Houston, Eleanor Sherwood, Joshua Casulli, Mark A. Travis
      Immune regulation by cytokines is crucial in maintaining immune homeostasis, promoting responses to infection, resolving inflammation, and promoting immunological memory. Additionally, cytokine responses drive pathology in immune-mediated disease. A crucial cytokine in the regulation of all aspects of an immune response is transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ). Although best known as a crucial regulator of T cell responses, TGFβ plays a vital role in regulating responses mediated by virtually every innate and adaptive immune cell, including dendritic cells, B cells, NK cells, innate lymphoid cells, and granulocytes. Here, we review our current knowledge of how TGFβ regulates the immune system, highlighting the multifunctional nature of TGFβ and how its function can change depending on location and context of action.

      PubDate: 2017-02-14T21:03:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2017.01.001
       
  • Macrophages and Mitochondria: A Critical Interplay Between Metabolism,
           Signaling, and the Functional Activity
    • Authors: J. Tur; T. Vico; J. Lloberas; A. Zorzano; A. Celada
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Immunology
      Author(s): J. Tur, T. Vico, J. Lloberas, A. Zorzano, A. Celada
      Macrophages are phagocytic cells that participate in a broad range of cellular functions and they are key regulators of innate immune responses and inflammation. Mitochondria are highly dynamic endosymbiotic organelles that play key roles in cellular metabolism and apoptosis. Mounting evidence suggests that mitochondria are involved in the interplay between metabolism and innate immune responses. The ability of these organelles to alter the metabolic profile of a cell, thereby allowing an appropriate response to each situation, is crucial for the correct establishment of immune responses. Furthermore, mitochondria act as scaffolds for many proteins involved in immune signaling pathways and as such they are able to modulate the function of these proteins. Finally, mitochondria release molecules, such as reactive oxygen species, which directly regulate the immune response. In summary, mitochondria can be considered as core components in the regulation of innate immune signaling. Here we discuss the intricate relationship between mitochondria, metabolism, intracellular signaling, and innate immune responses in macrophages.

      PubDate: 2017-01-12T16:34:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2016.12.001
       
  • Emerging Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I-Related Functions of
           NLRC5
    • Authors: S.T. Chelbi; A.T. Dang; G. Guarda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Immunology
      Author(s): S.T. Chelbi, A.T. Dang, G. Guarda
      Recent evidence demonstrates a key role for the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family member NLRC5 (NLR family, CARD domain containing protein 5) in the transcriptional regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and related genes. Detailed information on NLRC5 target genes in various cell types and conditions is emerging. Thanks to its analogy to CIITA (class II major MHC transactivator), a NLR family member known for over 20 years to be the master regulator of MHC class II gene transcription, also the molecular mechanisms underlying NLRC5 function are being rapidly unraveled. MHC class I molecules are crucial in regulating innate and adaptive cytotoxic responses. Whereas CD8+ T cells detect antigens presented on MHC class I molecules by infected or transformed cells, natural killer (NK) lymphocytes eliminate target cells with downregulated MHC class I expression. Data uncovering the relevance of NLRC5 in homeostasis and activity of these two lymphocyte subsets have been recently reported. Given the importance of CD8+ T and NK cells in controlling infection and cancer, it is not surprising that NLRC5 is also starting to emerge as a central player in these diseases. This chapter summarizes and discusses novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying NLRC5 activity and its relevance to pathological conditions. A thorough understanding of both aspects is essential to evaluate the clinical significance and therapeutic potential of NLRC5.

      PubDate: 2017-01-12T16:34:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2016.11.003
       
  • Chapter One Mouse Models of Tumor Immunotherapy
    • Authors: Shin Foong Ngiow; Sherene Loi; David Thomas; Mark J. Smyth
      Pages: 1 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology, Volume 130
      Author(s): Shin Foong Ngiow, Sherene Loi, David Thomas, Mark J. Smyth
      Immunotherapy is now evolving into a major therapeutic option for cancer patients. Such clinical advances also promote massive interest in the search for novel immunotherapy targets, and to understand the mechanism of action of current drugs. It is projected that a series of novel immunotherapy agents will be developed and assessed for their therapeutic activity. In light of this, in vivo experimental mouse models that recapitulate human malignancies serve as valuable tools to validate the efficacy and safety profile of immunotherapy agents, before their transition into clinical trials. In this review, we will discuss the major classes of experimental mouse models of cancer commonly used for immunotherapy assessment and provide examples to guide the selection of appropriate models. We present some new data concerning the utility of a carcinogen-induced tumor model for comparing immunotherapies and combining immunotherapy with chemotherapy. We will also highlight some recent advances in experimental modeling of human malignancies in mice that are leading towards personalized therapy in patients.

      PubDate: 2016-02-27T15:55:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2015.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2016)
       
  • Chapter Two The Role of Neoantigens in Naturally Occurring and
           Therapeutically Induced Immune Responses to Cancer
    • Authors: Jeffrey P. Ward; Matthew M. Gubin; Robert D. Schreiber
      Pages: 25 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology, Volume 130
      Author(s): Jeffrey P. Ward, Matthew M. Gubin, Robert D. Schreiber
      Definitive experimental evidence from mouse cancer models and strong correlative clinical data gave rise to the Cancer Immunoediting concept that explains the dual host-protective and tumor-promoting actions of immunity on developing cancers. Tumor-specific neoantigens can serve as targets of spontaneously arising adaptive immunity to cancer and thereby determine the ultimate fate of developing tumors. Tumor-specific neoantigens can also function as optimal targets of cancer immunotherapy against established tumors. These antigens are derived from nonsynonymous mutations that occur during cellular transformation and, because they are foreign to the host genome, are not subject to central tolerance. In this review, we summarize the experimental evidence indicating that cancer neoantigens are the source of both spontaneously occurring and therapeutically induced immune responses against cancer. We also review the advances in genomics, bioinformatics, and cancer immunotherapy that have facilitated identification of neoantigens and have moved personalized cancer immunotherapies into clinical trials, with the promise of providing more specific, safer, more effective, and perhaps even more generalizable treatments to cancer patients than current immunotherapies.

      PubDate: 2016-02-27T15:55:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2016.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2016)
       
  • Chapter Three Tumor and Host Factors Controlling Antitumor Immunity and
           Efficacy of Cancer Immunotherapy
    • Authors: Stefani Spranger; Ayelet Sivan; Leticia Corrales; Thomas F. Gajewski
      Pages: 75 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology, Volume 130
      Author(s): Stefani Spranger, Ayelet Sivan, Leticia Corrales, Thomas F. Gajewski
      Despite recent clinical advances in immunotherapy, a fraction of cancer patients fails to respond to these interventions. Evidence from preclinical mouse models as well as clinical samples has provided evidence that the extent of activated T cell infiltration within the tumor microenvironment is associated with clinical response to immunotherapies including checkpoint blockade. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms mediating the lack of T cell infiltration into the tumor microenvironment will be instrumental for the development of new therapeutic strategies to render those patients immunotherapy responsive. Recent data have suggested that major sources of intersubject heterogeneity include differences in somatic mutations in specific oncogene pathways between cancers of individual subjects and also environmental factors including commensal microbial composition. Successful identification of such causal factors should lead to new therapeutic approaches that may facilitate T cell entry into noninflamed tumors and expand the fraction of patients capable of responding to novel immunotherapies.

      PubDate: 2016-02-27T15:55:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2015.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2016)
       
  • Chapter Four Immune Contexture, Immunoscore, and Malignant Cell Molecular
           Subgroups for Prognostic and Theranostic Classifications of Cancers
    • Authors: Etienne Becht; Nicolas A. Giraldo; Claire Germain; Aurélien de Reyniès; Pierre Laurent-Puig; Jessica Zucman-Rossi; Marie-Caroline Dieu-Nosjean; Catherine Sautès-Fridman; Wolf H. Fridman
      Pages: 95 - 190
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology, Volume 130
      Author(s): Etienne Becht, Nicolas A. Giraldo, Claire Germain, Aurélien de Reyniès, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Jessica Zucman-Rossi, Marie-Caroline Dieu-Nosjean, Catherine Sautès-Fridman, Wolf H. Fridman
      The outcome of tumors results from genetic and epigenetic modifications of the transformed cells and also from the interactions of the malignant cells with their tumor microenvironment (TME), which includes immune and inflammatory cells. For a given cancer type, the composition of the immunological TME is not homogeneous. Heterogeneity is found between different cancer types and also between tumors from patients with the same type of cancer. Some tumors exhibit a poor infiltration by immune cells, and others are highly infiltrated by lymphocytes. Among the latter, the architecture of the TME, with the localization of immune cells in the invasive front and the center of the tumor, the presence of tumor-adjacent organized lymphoid aggregates, and the type of inflammatory context, determines the prognostic impact of the infiltrating cells. The description and the understanding of the immune and inflammatory landscape in human tumors are of paramount importance at different levels of patient's care. It completes the mutational, transcriptional, and epigenetic patterns of the malignant cells and open paths to understand how tumor cells shape their immune microenvironment and are shaped by the immune reaction. It provides prognostic and theranostic markers, as well as novel targets for immunotherapies.

      PubDate: 2016-02-27T15:55:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2015.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2016)
       
  • Chapter Five Advances in Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines
    • Authors: Karrie K. Wong; WeiWei Aileen Li; David J. Mooney; Glenn Dranoff
      Pages: 191 - 249
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology, Volume 130
      Author(s): Karrie K. Wong, WeiWei Aileen Li, David J. Mooney, Glenn Dranoff
      Therapeutic cancer vaccines aim to induce durable antitumor immunity that is capable of systemic protection against tumor recurrence or metastatic disease. Many approaches to therapeutic cancer vaccines have been explored, with varying levels of success. However, with the exception of Sipuleucel T, an ex vivo dendritic cell vaccine for prostate cancer, no therapeutic cancer vaccine has yet shown clinical efficacy in phase 3 randomized trials. Though disappointing, lessons learned from these studies have suggested new strategies to improve cancer vaccines. The clinical success of checkpoint blockade has underscored the role of peripheral tolerance mechanisms in limiting vaccine responses and highlighted the potential for combination therapies. Recent advances in transcriptome sequencing, computational modeling, and material engineering further suggest new opportunities to intensify cancer vaccines. This review will discuss the major approaches to therapeutic cancer vaccination and explore recent advances that inform the design of the next generation of cancer vaccines.

      PubDate: 2016-02-27T15:55:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2015.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2016)
       
  • Chapter Six Combinatorial Cancer Immunotherapies
    • Authors: Matthew D. Hellmann; Claire F. Friedman; Jedd D. Wolchok
      Pages: 251 - 277
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology, Volume 130
      Author(s): Matthew D. Hellmann, Claire F. Friedman, Jedd D. Wolchok
      T cell checkpoint blockade therapies are revolutionizing the treatment of patients with cancer. Highlighted by the recent success of PD-1 plus CTLA-4 blockade in patients with melanomas, synergistic immunotherapy combinations of modalities represent an important opportunity to improve responses and outcomes for patients. We review the rationale and experience with T cell checkpoint blockade in combination with targeting of other coinhibitory or costimulatory checkpoints, immunomodulatory molecules in the tumor microenvironment, and other anticancer modalities such as vaccines, chemotherapy, and radiation.

      PubDate: 2016-02-27T15:55:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2015.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 130 (2016)
       
  • Molecular Mechanisms of Somatic Hypermutation and Class Switch
           Recombination
    • Authors: S.P. Methot; J.M. Di Noia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology
      Author(s): S.P. Methot, J.M. Di Noia
      In order to promote an efficient humoral immune response, germinal center B cells modify both the antigen recognition and effector domains by programmed genetic alterations of their antibody genes. To do so, B cells use the enzyme activation-induced deaminase (AID), which transforms deoxycytidine into deoxyuridine at the immunoglobulin genes, triggering mutagenic DNA repair. Data accumulated during the past decade have significantly advanced our understanding of how AID activity is regulated and preferentially targeted to the immunoglobulin genes. There is also a better understanding of the ways by which AID-catalyzed uracil is recognized and the ensuing downstream processing underpinning the mechanisms of somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination. Here, we critically review these advances in the context of their relevance for the humoral immune response. A detailed understanding of these molecular mechanisms is paramount to uncover the basis of B cell intrinsic immunodeficiency, as well as to suggest tools and strategies that might allow boosting antibody gene diversification in the context of immunizations or infections that require the elicitation of rare or highly mutated antibody variants.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T11:42:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2016.11.002
       
  • Nucleic Acid Immunity
    • Authors: Hartmann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology
      Author(s): G. Hartmann
      Organisms throughout biology need to maintain the integrity of their genome. From bacteria to vertebrates, life has established sophisticated mechanisms to detect and eliminate foreign genetic material or to restrict its function and replication. Tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of these mechanisms which keep foreign or unwanted nucleic acids from viruses or phages in check. Mechanisms reach from restriction-modification systems and CRISPR/Cas in bacteria and archaea to RNA interference and immune sensing of nucleic acids, altogether integral parts of a system which is now appreciated as nucleic acid immunity. With inherited receptors and acquired sequence information, nucleic acid immunity comprises innate and adaptive components. Effector functions include diverse nuclease systems, intrinsic activities to directly restrict the function of foreign nucleic acids (e.g., PKR, ADAR1, IFIT1), and extrinsic pathways to alert the immune system and to elicit cytotoxic immune responses. These effects act in concert to restrict viral replication and to eliminate virus-infected cells. The principles of nucleic acid immunity are highly relevant for human disease. Besides its essential contribution to antiviral defense and restriction of endogenous retroelements, dysregulation of nucleic acid immunity can also lead to erroneous detection and response to self nucleic acids then causing sterile inflammation and autoimmunity. Even mechanisms of nucleic acid immunity which are not established in vertebrates are relevant for human disease when they are present in pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, or helminths or in pathogen-transmitting organisms such as insects. This review aims to provide an overview of the diverse mechanisms of nucleic acid immunity which mostly have been looked at separately in the past and to integrate them under the framework nucleic acid immunity as a basic principle of life, the understanding of which has great potential to advance medicine.

      PubDate: 2016-12-20T11:14:36Z
       
  • About Training and Memory: NK-Cell Adaptation to Viral Infections
    • Authors: Q. Hammer; C. Romagnani
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology
      Author(s): Q. Hammer, C. Romagnani
      Viral infections continuously challenge and shape our immune system. Due to their fine antigen recognition ability, adaptive lymphocytes protect against pathogen reencounter by generating specific immunological memory. Innate cells such as macrophages also adapt to pathogen challenge and mount resistance to reinfection, a phenomenon termed trained immunity. As part of the innate immunity, natural killer (NK) cells can display rapid effector functions and play a crucial role in the control of viral infections, especially by the β-herpesvirus cytomegalovirus (CMV). CMV activates the NK-cell pool by inducing proinflammatory signals, which prime NK cells, paralleling macrophage training. In addition, CMV dramatically shapes the NK-cell repertoire due to its ability to trigger specific NK cell-activating receptors, and enables the expansion and persistence of a specific NK-cell subset displaying adaptive and memory features. In this chapter, we will discuss how different signals during CMV infection contribute to NK-cell training and acquisition of classical memory properties and how these events can impact on reinfection and cross-resistance.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T10:43:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2016.10.001
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology, Volume 132


      PubDate: 2016-10-31T03:21:32Z
       
  • Contents of Recent Volumes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology, Volume 132


      PubDate: 2016-10-31T03:21:32Z
       
  • Pleiotropic Roles of Type 1 Interferons in Antiviral Immune Responses
    • Authors: J.R. Teijaro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology
      Author(s): J.R. Teijaro
      Since Isaac's and Lindenmann's seminal experiments over 50 years ago demonstrating a soluble factor generated from heat killed virus-stimulated chicken embryos could inhibit live influenza virus replication, the term interferon has been synonymous with inhibition of virus replication. While the antiviral properties of type 1 interferon (IFN-I) are undeniable, recent studies have reported expanding and somewhat unexpected roles of IFN-I signaling during both acute and persistent viral infections. IFN-I signaling can promote morbidity and mortality through induction of aberrant inflammatory responses and recruitment of inflammatory innate immune cell populations during acute respiratory viral infections. During persistent viral infection, IFN-I signaling promotes containment of early viral replication/dissemination, however, also initiates and maintains immune suppression, lymphoid tissue disorganization, and CD4 T cell dysfunction through modulation of multiple immune cell populations. Finally, new data are emerging illuminating how specific IFN-I species regulate immune pathology and suppression during acute and persistent viral infections, respectively. Systematic characterization of the cellular populations that produce IFN-I, how the timing of IFN-I induction and intricacies of subtype specific IFN-I signaling promote pathology or immune suppression during acute and persistent viral infections should inform the development of treatments and modalities to control viral associated pathologies.

      PubDate: 2016-09-22T10:42:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2016.08.001
       
  • Context- and Tissue-Specific Regulation of Immunity and Tolerance by
           Regulatory T Cells
    • Authors: A. Ulges; E. Schmitt; C. Becker; T. Bopp
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology
      Author(s): A. Ulges, E. Schmitt, C. Becker, T. Bopp
      The immune system has evolved to defend the organism against an almost infinite number of pathogens in a locally confined and antigen-specific manner while at the same time preserving tolerance to harmless antigens and self. Regulatory T (Treg) cells essentially contribute to an immunoregulatory network preventing excessive immune responses and immunopathology. There is emerging evidence that Treg cells not only operate in secondary lymphoid tissue but also regulate immune responses directly at the site of inflammation. Hence, the classification of Treg cells might need to be further extended by Treg cell subsets that are functionally and phenotypically polarized by their residency. In this review, we discuss recent findings on these tissue-resident Treg cell subsets and how these cells may operate in a tissue- and context-dependent manner.

      PubDate: 2016-09-16T10:37:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2016.08.002
       
  • Endogenous Retroelements and the Host Innate Immune Sensors
    • Authors: X. Mu; S. Ahmad; S. Hur
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology
      Author(s): X. Mu, S. Ahmad, S. Hur
      The ability to distinguish between self and nonself is the fundamental basis of the immune system in all organisms. The conceptual distinction between self and nonself, however, breaks down when it comes to endogenous retroviruses and other retroelements. While some retroelements retain the virus-like features including the capacity to replicate and reinvade the host genome, most have become inactive through mutations or host epigenetic silencing. And yet, accumulating evidence suggests that endogenous retroelements, both active and inactive, play important roles not only in pathogenesis of immune disorders, but also in proper functioning of the immune system. This review discusses the recent development in our understanding of the interaction between retroelements and the host innate immune system. In particular, it focuses on the impact of retroelement transcripts on the viral RNA sensors such as Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, protein kinase R, and the inflammasomes.

      PubDate: 2016-08-26T09:56:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2016.07.001
       
  • B-Lymphopoiesis in Fetal Liver, Guided by Chemokines
    • Authors: K. Kajikhina; M. Tsuneto; F. Melchers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology
      Author(s): K. Kajikhina, M. Tsuneto, F. Melchers
      Early in embryonic development of mice, from day 12.5 after conception, myeloid–lymphoid bipotent progenitors, expressing receptors both for IL7 and CSF-1, migrate from embryonic blood into developing fetal liver. These progenitors also express multiple chemokine receptors, i.e., CCR7, CXCR3, CXCR4, and CXCR5, all on one cell. Their migration through LYVE-1+ vascular endothelium is guided by CCR7, recognizing the chemokine CCL19, and by CXCR3, recognizing CXCL10/11, chemokines which are both produced by the endothelium. Once inside fetal liver, the progenitors are attracted by the chemokine CXCL12 to ALCAM+ liver mesenchyme, which produces not only this chemokine, but also the myeloid differentiation-inducing cytokine CSF-1 and the lymphoid differentiation-inducing cytokine IL7. In this mesenchymal environment B-lymphocyte lineage progenitors are then induced by IL7 to enter differentiation and Ig gene rearrangements. Within 3–4 days surface IgM+ immature B-cells develop, which are destined to enter the B1-cell compartments in the peripheral lymphoid organs.

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T09:53:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2016.07.002
       
  • The Roles of the Secreted Phospholipase A2 Gene Family in Immunology
    • Authors: M. Murakami; K. Yamamoto; Y. Miki; R. Murase; H. Sato; Y. Taketomi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology
      Author(s): M. Murakami, K. Yamamoto, Y. Miki, R. Murase, H. Sato, Y. Taketomi
      Within the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family that hydrolyzes phospholipids to yield fatty acids and lysophospholipids, secreted PLA2 (sPLA2) enzymes comprise the largest group containing 11 isoforms in mammals. Individual sPLA2s exhibit unique tissue or cellular distributions and enzymatic properties, suggesting their distinct biological roles. Although PLA2 enzymes, particularly cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2α), have long been implicated in inflammation by driving arachidonic acid metabolism, the precise biological roles of sPLA2s have remained a mystery over the last few decades. Recent studies employing mice gene-manipulated for individual sPLA2s, in combination with mass spectrometric lipidomics to identify their target substrates and products in vivo, have revealed their roles in diverse biological events, including immunity and associated disorders, through lipid mediator-dependent or -independent processes in given microenvironments. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of the roles of sPLA2s in various immune responses and associated diseases.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:32:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2016.05.001
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology, Volume 131


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:32:13Z
       
  • Chapter Two Factors That Regulate the Generation of Antibody-Secreting
           Plasma Cells
    • Authors: Y.-H. K.-I.; Lin
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology, Volume 131
      Author(s): Y.-H. Yu, K.-I. Lin
      The generation of antigen-specific neutralizing antibodies and memory B cells is one of the most important immune protections of the host and is the basis for successful vaccination strategies. The protective antibodies, secreted by preexisting long-lived plasma cells and reactivated antigen-experienced memory B cells, constitute the main humoral immune defense. Distinct from the primary antibody response, the humoral memory response is generated much faster and with greater magnitude, and it produces antibodies with higher affinity and variable isotypes. Humoral immunity is critically dependent on the germinal center where high-affinity memory B cells and plasma cells are generated. In this chapter, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern fate decision for memory B cells and plasma cells and the mechanisms that maintain the long-lived plasma-cell pool, with emphasis on how the transcription factor Blimp-1 (B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1) helps regulate the above-mentioned immunoregulatory steps to ensure the production and maintenance of antibody-secreting plasma cells as well as how it directs memory cell vs plasma-cell fate. We also discuss the molecular basis of Blimp-1 action and how its expression is regulated.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:32:13Z
       
  • Contents of Recent Volumes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology, Volume 131


      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:32:13Z
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology, Volume 130


      PubDate: 2016-02-27T15:55:35Z
       
  • Chapter Seven Adoptive T-Cell Therapy for Cancer
    • Authors: James Yang; Steven Rosenberg
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology, Volume 130
      Author(s): James C. Yang, Steven A. Rosenberg
      Recent developments have demonstrated that immunotherapies are capable of achieving durable antitumor responses in patients with metastatic cancer. One modality that has been able to induce durable complete regressions in patients with melanoma has been adoptive cell therapy (ACT). This has slowly been expanded to other cancer types using new approaches such as genetically engineered T-cells and other methods of antigen targeting. It now appears that immune targeting of mutated “neoantigens” plays a major role in successful ACT, as well as in other immunotherapies such as checkpoint inhibitors. This realization presents not only new challenges to ACT but also new opportunities in that all tumors now may have potential antigens to attack that can be revealed by tumor genomic sequencing. There are a variety of exciting approaches to translate these new findings into clinical trials applying ACT to the majority of cancer types.

      PubDate: 2016-02-27T15:55:35Z
       
  • Malondialdehyde Epitopes as Targets of Immunity and the Implications for
           Atherosclerosis
    • Authors: N. Papac-Milicevic; C.J.-L. Busch; C.J. Binder
      Pages: 1 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology
      Author(s): N. Papac-Milicevic, C.J.-L. Busch, C.J. Binder
      Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidation-specific epitopes (OSEs) constitute a novel class of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) generated during high oxidative stress but also in the physiological process of apoptosis. To deal with the potentially harmful consequences of such epitopes, the immune system has developed several mechanisms to protect from OSEs and to orchestrate their clearance, including IgM natural antibodies and both cellular- and membrane-bound receptors. Here, we focus on malondialdehyde (MDA) epitopes as prominent examples of OSEs that trigger both innate and adaptive immune responses. First, we review the mechanisms of MDA generation, the different types of adducts on various biomolecules and provide relevant examples for physiological carriers of MDA such as apoptotic cells, microvesicles, or oxidized low-density lipoproteins. Based on recent insights, we argue that MDA epitopes contribute to the maintenance of homeostatic functions by acting as markers of elevated oxidative stress and tissue damage. We discuss multiple lines of evidence that MDA epitopes are proinflammatory and thus important targets of innate and adaptive immune responses. Finally, we illustrate the relevance of MDA epitopes in human pathologies by describing their capacity to drive inflammatory processes in atherosclerosis and highlighting protective mechanisms of immunity that could be exploited for therapeutic purposes.

      PubDate: 2016-04-06T01:58:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2016.02.001
       
  • Deep Profiling Human T Cell Heterogeneity by Mass Cytometry
    • Authors: Y. Cheng; E.W. Newell
      Pages: 101 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology
      Author(s): Y. Cheng, E.W. Newell
      Advances of mass cytometry and high-dimensional single-cell data analysis have brought cellular immunological research into a new generation. By coupling these two powerful technology platforms, immunologists now have more tools to resolve the tremendous diversity of immune cell subsets, and their heterogeneous functionality. Since the first introduction of mass cytometry, many reports have been published using this novel technology to study a range of cell types. At the outset, studies of human hematopoietic stem cell and peripheral CD8+ T cells using mass cytometry have shad the light of future experimental approach in interrogating immune cell phenotypic and functional diversity. Here, we briefly revisit the past and present understanding of T cell heterogeneity, and the technologies that facilitate this knowledge. In addition, we review the current progress of mass cytometry and high-dimensional cytometric analysis, including the methodology, panel design, experimental procedure, and choice of computational algorithms with a special focus on their utility in exploration of human T cell immunology.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T03:03:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2016.02.002
       
  • Germinal Center B-Cell-Associated Nuclear Protein (GANP) Involved in RNA
           Metabolism for B Cell Maturation
    • Authors: N. Sakaguchi; K. Maeda
      Pages: 135 - 186
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology
      Author(s): N. Sakaguchi, K. Maeda
      Germinal center B-cell-associated nuclear protein (GANP) is upregulated in germinal center B cells against T-cell-dependent antigens in mice and humans. In mice, GANP depletion in B cells impairs antibody affinity maturation. Conversely, its transgenic overexpression augments the generation of high-affinity antigen-specific B cells. GANP associates with AID in the cytoplasm, shepherds AID into the nucleus, and augments its access to the rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) variable (V) region of the genome in B cells, thereby precipitating the somatic hypermutation of V region genes. GANP is also upregulated in human CD4+ T cells and is associated with APOBEC3G (A3G). GANP interacts with A3G and escorts it to the virion cores to potentiate its antiretroviral activity by inactivating HIV-1 genomic cDNA. Thus, GANP is characterized as a cofactor associated with AID/APOBEC cytidine deaminase family molecules in generating diversity of the IgV region of the genome and genetic alterations of exogenously introduced viral targets. GANP, encoded by human chromosome 21, as well as its mouse equivalent on chromosome 10, contains a region homologous to Saccharomyces Sac3 that was characterized as a component of the transcription/export 2 (TREX-2) complex and was predicted to be involved in RNA export and metabolism in mammalian cells. The metabolism of RNA during its maturation, from the transcription site at the chromosome within the nucleus to the cytoplasmic translation apparatus, needs to be elaborated with regard to acquired and innate immunity. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on GANP as a component of TREX-2 in mammalian cells.

      PubDate: 2016-04-01T00:42:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2016.02.003
       
  • Advances in PET Detection of the Antitumor T Cell Response
    • Authors: M.N. McCracken; R. Tavaré; O.N. Witte; A.M. Wu
      Pages: 187 - 231
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2016
      Source:Advances in Immunology
      Author(s): M.N. McCracken, R. Tavaré, O.N. Witte, A.M. Wu
      Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful noninvasive imaging technique able to measure distinct biological processes in vivo by administration of a radiolabeled probe. Whole-body measurements track the probe accumulation providing a means to measure biological changes such as metabolism, cell location, or tumor burden. PET can also be applied to both preclinical and clinical studies providing three-dimensional information. For immunotherapies (in particular understanding T cell responses), PET can be utilized for spatial and longitudinal tracking of T lymphocytes. Although PET has been utilized clinically for over 30 years, the recent development of additional PET radiotracers have dramatically expanded the use of PET to detect endogenous or adoptively transferred T cells in vivo. Novel probes have identified changes in T cell quantity, location, and function. This has enabled investigators to track T cells outside of the circulation and in hematopoietic organs such as spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow, or within tumors. In this review, we cover advances in PET detection of the antitumor T cell response and areas of focus for future studies.

      PubDate: 2016-04-06T01:58:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ai.2016.02.004
       
 
 
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