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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3043 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 83, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 331, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
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Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
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Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
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Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
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Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
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Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 343, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
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Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
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Journal Cover Advances in Genome Biology
  [11 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1067-5701
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • List of contributors
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • DNA: Structure and function
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter discusses the structure and function of DNA. DNA occupies a critical role in cells, because it is the source of all intrinsic genetic information. Chemically, DNA is a very stable molecule, a characteristic important for a macromolecule that may have to persist in an intact form for a long period of time before its information is accessed by the cell. Although DNA plays a critical role as an informational storage molecule, it is by no means as unexciting as a computer tape or disk drive. The structure of the DNA described by Watson and Crick in 1953 is a right handed helix of two individual antiparallel DNA strands. Hydrogen bonds provide specificity that allows pairing between the complementary bases (A.T and G.C) in opposite strands. Base stacking occurs near the center of the DNA helix and provides a great deal of stability to the helix (in addition to hydrogen bonding). The sugar and phosphate groups form a “backbone” on the outside of the helix. There are about 10 base pairs (bp) per turn of the double helix.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Intron-exon structures From molecular to population biology
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter discusses the intron–exon structures. In principle, any intervening sequence spliced out at the RNA level can be classified as an intron. In the past decade, it became clear that introns fall into several groups. The structural as well as functional features can be used to classify an intron into a specific group. On the basis of functional features, it is possible to make a distinction between self-splicing and spliceosomal introns. The chapter gives a brief description of each major group of introns, their structures, and the way they are excised from RNA to produce a mature message. Spliceosomal introns have been characterized in almost all eukaryotes, with the exception of a few early protists. A major feature is their dependence for splicing on a ribonucleoprotein complex called the “spliceosome.” Spliceosome structure seems to be much conserved in eukaryotes but very well described in fungi and humans.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Genome architecture
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter describes the genome architecture. There is no doubt that spatial order exists within the cell nucleus, and genome architecture is a prominent constituent within this order. An extreme example is metaphase chromosomes, which reappear during each cell division in a reliable, recognizable, and reproducible pattern. A much more meaningful example is the chromosome structure in the nucleus during the interphase, during which DNA expresses and multiplies. Interphase nuclei are arranged so that replication, transcription, repair, and RNA processing can occur at restricted sites. These events are accompanied (and may be regulated) by dynamic changes in genome architecture at levels well above an individual gene and even chromatin structure. The current study of genome architecture is a very dynamic and active field of research relevant to such topics as cell differentiation, carcinogenesis, development, and others; yet after more than a century, this field is still in its adolescence. Collectively, genome architecture refers to the spatial arrangement of chromosomes within the nuclear volume. (The same term is used in a different context to describe the relative linear organization of DNA sequences of different types (e.g. unique, repetitive, etc.).

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • The mitotic chromosome
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter describes the mitotic chromosome. Chromosomes were recognized as important components of cells in the latter half of the nineteenth century; and by 1903, only a few years after the rediscovery of Mendel's classic work, it was realized that the behavior of chromosomes was exactly that required to explain the behavior of genes, the Mendelian factors. Chromosomes, thus, determine the behavior of genes, and their position in genetics is, therefore, central. The chapter describes the organization of the chromosome as a whole. The behavior of genes is then simply an inevitable consequence of the way chromosomes are organized and the way they behave; and therefore, genetics cannot be understood without a proper knowledge of chromosomes. It is now generally accepted that there is only a single DNA molecule running throughout the length of a chromatid—that is, the undivided chromosome is unineme.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • List of contributors
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • The centromere Structural and functional aspects
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter describes the point and regional centromeres so as to integrate data at the structural level with particular reference to their sequence, composition, and organization. This structural description has to be viewed, however, as the basis for the functional organization of the centromere. Eukaryotic cells have developed complex mechanisms to ensure proper chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. An essential element in this process is the centromere, which in higher eukaryotes corresponds to a structurally well defined chromosome feature called the “primary constriction.” Centromeres appear to have multiple roles during mitosis and meiosis, and their non-random localization at other cell cycle stages suggests possible functions also during interphase. During mitosis, the centromere is now known to be required for a number of processes. First, it is the chromosomal site of attachment to spindle microtubules. Second, it constitutes the last point of contact between sister chromatids, before the initiation of poleward movement in anaphase. Third, recent data have shown that there is an important control mechanism at the kinetochore that ensures proper bipolar chromosomal orientation before sister chromatid separation can take place.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Telomeres
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter describes telomeres. Telomeres are DNA–protein complexes that form the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomeric DNA is complexed with specific proteins that are essential for telomere functioning. In some organisms, the telomeric DNA–protein complex drives the formation of inactive chromatin, which suppresses gene expression. Although much of the molecular nature of the inactive telomeric chromatin has been elucidated, especially in yeast, its biological role is still to be clarified. Telomere replication is carried out by the specialized enzyme telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein. When telomerase activity is absent, telomeres shorten because of the inability of DNA polymerase to replicate the 3' end of a linear DNA molecule. In the absence of telomerase, alternative mechanisms for the maintenance of telomeres can be switched on. Telomere length is variable among different organisms and among different chromosomes of the same cell. Maintaining telomeres in a certain range of length is essential for cellular viability. However, the regulation of telomere length is a poorly understood complex phenomenon involving many factors.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Chromatin structure
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter discusses the structural features of DNA and histones, the way they assemble into nucleosomes and nucleosome arrays, and the way nucleosomal arrays fold into chromatin fibers. The chapter also describes the way the chromatin fiber is organized into a chromosome and the various ways in which this can be modified. The most striking property of a eukaryotic chromosome is the length of each molecule of DNA incorporated and folded into it. The fundamental proteins whose properties mediate the folding of DNA into chromatin are the histones. Aside from the compaction of DNA, the histone proteins undertake protein–protein interactions between themselves and other distinct chromosomal proteins. These interactions lead to several constraints on the properties of histones contributing toward maintaining their high degree of evolutionary conservation. All core histones are remarkably conserved in length and amino acid sequence through evolution. Histones H3 and H4 are the most highly conserved—for example, calf and pea histone H4 differ at only two sites in 102 residues.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Mitochondrial genomes A paradigm of organizational diversity
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter presents a survey of mitochondrial genome organization in animals, fungi, protists, and plants. It highlights recent advances in understanding of the structural and genetic diversity displayed by mitochondria from different eukaryotes. It also outlines some of the more unusual aspects of mitochondrial gene expression—such as altered genetic codes, aberrant tRNAs, RNA editing, mobile introns, and scrambled genes—features that further illustrate the multiplicity of evolutionary pathways taken by mitochondrial genomes. It is well established that mitochondria are the site of energy production in eukaryotic cells, long before it is appreciated that they contain their own distinct genetic information and protein-synthesizing systems, without which respiration would not be possible. The combination of genetic, biochemical, and, more recently, powerful molecular approaches has led to significant advances in understanding of these small but essential genetic systems. One of the first surprises to come from the molecular analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was that even though all mitochondria share the same fundamental function in respiration, they display a great diversity in genome size, gene organization, mode of expression, and the rate/mode of evolution among various eukaryotic lineages.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Topoisomerases
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter describes topoisomerases. Much progress has been made in structural and functional studies on DNA topoisomerases. New enzymes of the topoisomerase family are still being discovered, and the biological implications of these enzymes stands under open discussion. The potential of DNA topoisomerases as drug targets has expanded this research field into the realm of pharmacology and clinical medicine. Some topics like the viral and mithocondrial topoisomerases remain largely unexplored. The chapter presents the current understanding on the structure and mechanism of these enzymes, and the biological roles of DNA topoisomerases in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. All known DNA topoisomerases share two characteristics. One is their ability to cleave and reseal the phosphodiester backbone of DNA in two successive transesterification reactions. The second characteristic is that once a topoisomerase-cleaved DNA intermediate is formed, the enzyme allows the severed DNA ends to come apart, opening a gate for the passage of another single- or double-stranded DNA segment.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Trinucleotide repeats and human diseases
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter describes trinucleotide repeats and human diseases. Simple repeats involving micro-and mini-satellites occur frequently and are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. In recent years, it has become quite apparent that these are an entirely new class of genomic mutations that do not adhere strictly to the laws of Mendelian inheritance. Several diseases have been identified whereby the repeat length expands remarkably and can lead to non-Mendelian inheritance because of incomplete penetrance and/or variable expressivity. The molecular explanation for some unusual inheritance patterns is described in the chapter. Diseases that share common features of trinucleotide repeats can be classified into two groups. The type 1 includes the five neurodegerative disorders: spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), Huntington's disease (HD); spinocerebellar ataxia type I (SCA 1), dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA), and Machado–Joseph disease (MDJ). The type 2 includes: myotonic dystrophy (DM), Fragile-X syndrome with XA locus (FRAXA), and Fragile-X mental retardation (FRAXE). They contain much larger expansions and unlike previous ones fall outside the protein coding region.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Heterochromatin Evolutionary aspects
    • Abstract: 1998
      Publication year: 1998
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 5

      This chapter discusses the evolutionary aspects of heterochromatin. Heterochromatin was first defined as chromatin that remains condensed during interphase and suggested that it is genetically inactive. A criteria used to identify the two subsets of heterochromatin are based on condensation properties. Later interest in heterochromatin extended from cytological to biochemical. Heterochromatin that is located at the same position of homologous chromosomes in all cells as a permanent structural entity is considered “constitutive heterochromatin,” whereas heterochromatin that varies in its state of condensation in different cell types and developmental stages is regarded as “facultative heterochromatin.” The structural organization of heterochromatin has been subject of scrutiny and debate owing to its obscurity. The pericentromeric heterochromatin is associated with DNA sequences that are highly repeated in long tandem arrays and are generally known as “satellite DNA.” Centromeres are composed of very large repeated sequences whose structure is highly complex. The tandemly repeated satellite DNA sequences have been subject of great investigation. The centromeric regions contain highly specific code domains that are highly conserved. The amplification, insertion, and deletion of different sequences of repetitive code domain create a variety of variations, which are highly conserved.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • List of contributors
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Genetics of sex determination: An overview
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • The testis determining gene, Sry
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Sex reversal in mammals
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Molecular genetics of X-chromosome inactivation
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Sex chromosome aberrations and genetic consequences
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Genetics of male pseudohermaphroditism and true hermaphroditism
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Pseudoautosomal regions at the tip of the short and long arms of the human
           sex chromosomes
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Temperature dependent sex determination: Evaluation and hypotheses
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Mammalian Spermatogenesis
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Mechanism of sex determination in mammals
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Commentary: Genes, chromosomes, and sex
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 4

      The origin of differential tissues from pluripotent cells in the embryo during the developmental process has intrigued geneticists, biologists, and evolutionists alike. The testis and the ovary both develop from the gonodal ridge resulting in two sexual forms with a few exceptions. Sex determination leading to sex differentiation depends upon a number of factors, such as the X:autosome ratio, temperature, hormones, and dominant male or female genes. The fundamental theory behind dimorphisms is that the Y chromosome acts in some way as a dominant male-determining factors while the presence of two X chromosomes leads to normal development of a female. Cloning of a gene on the Y chromosome has been carried out. A number of views regarding mammalian chromosome inactivation are reviewed here. The evolutionary concept concerning pseudoautosomal regions and pairing or mispairing of them has dire consequences. The diversity of sex-determination systems in various taxa is quite intriguing while similarities must have arisen through a convergent path. The most recent investigations using molecular techniques in mapping sex-linked genes have been reviewed and the sex reversal phenomenon in mammals have opened new vistas concerning SRY variant, but other various mutated genes which affect the sex phenotypes remain to be explored.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • List of contributors
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Genetics of human cancer An overview
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      This chapter discusses the genetics of human cancer. It has been a long-held belief that cancer arises from a single cell involving multiple genetic events. In other terms, neoplasia is a genetic disease at the cellular level. The recent advances in molecular techniques have implicated the role of single genes in proliferation and growth control. Of course, tumorigenesis proceeds in a multistep order requiring both the activation of transforming genes and inactivation of recessive tumor suppressor genes. The detection of genetic changes at the DNA level has added a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The expression of genes in specialized organs reflects the unique production of proteins that govern signals of the cell cycle. The recognition of Mendelian inheritance in families with cancer and the identification of genetic markers in families that are predisposed to certain cancers has opened new avenues for investigation through the so-called “predisposing genes.” The majority of cancers do not show definite inheritance patterns. However, a two-to-three fold increased risk of some cancers among first-degree relatives has been reported, suggesting a multifactorial mode of inheritance.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Oncogenes in tumor progression
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      This chapter discusses oncogenes in tumor progression. Protooncogenes are normal components of the genome that are involved in cell growth and differentiation. Oncogenes are the activated homologues of protooncogenes. More liberally defined, any gene that is significantly associated with a tumor may be thought of as an oncogene. Oncogenes may be activated by a number of mechanisms. Retroviruses may transduce a neighboring protooncogene and carry it to other cells as an oncogenic virus. Transcriptional activation can also occur as a result of the insertion of viral enhancer or promoter sequences near growth-related genes; in fact, there is some evidence to suggest that an enhanced expression of normal, unmutated protooncogenes may be sufficient for oncogenic function. Tumor cells have a growth advantage when compared to normal cells. The focus of research in this area has been on the ability of transforming or activating oncogenes to stimulate tumor cell proliferation. For example, the overexpression of c-myc or of c-myb plays a central role in the deregulation of the cell cycle.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • The p53 tumor suppressor gene
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      This chapter describes the p53 tumor suppressor gene. The discovery that certain viruses are able to transform cells in vitro and induce tumors in rodents has led to extensive efforts to identify the gene(s) involved in the transforming process. In contrast to the majority of oncogenic RNA retroviruses, which carry modified cellular genes, DNA tumor viruses (papovaviruses, papillomaviruses, adenoviruses, herpes viruses, and hepadnaviruses) carry their own specific genetic information that is responsible for their ability to transform cells. As the history of p53 is closely linked with that of small DNA tumor viruses, a brief description of several viruses is necessary to fully appreciate its behavior in normal and transformed cells. Undifferentiated F9 embryonal carcinoma cells and murine erythroleukemia cells have a more unusual behavior than SV40-transformed cells. F9 cells contain high levels of p53 protein, but when they are induced toward differentiation by treatment with retinoic acid, there is a marked decrease in the p53 protein.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Genetic aspects of tumor suppressor genes
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      In this chapter, we will review the history of genetic studies of the control of tumorigenicity, metastasis, genetic instability, and cellular senescence focusing mainly on somatic cell genetic studies of human tumor cells. After a brief consideration of the development of somatic cell fusion techniques, we will examine the experimental evidence supporting the concept of the recessive genetic nature of tumorigenic potential. We will also synopsize the literature showing the existence of multiple tumor suppressor genes. After the examination of the suppression of in vivo tumor growth, we will consider the genetics of other transformed cell phenotypes. We will then attempt to correlate features of known tumor suppressor genes such as rb and p53 with the data from the functional cell fusion experiments. Finally, we will explore some of the mechanisms by which tumor suppressor genes might function to control the in vitro and in vivo growth of human tumor cells.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • p21ras From oncoprotein to signal transducer
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      This chapter discusses the relevance of mutated ras genes for the development of tumors based on the stage in tumor development at which these mutations occurs and on the observation that mutated ras genes are frequently found in only a subfraction of tumor cells. The functions of the p21 ras gene products in signal transduction are discussed in the chapter. Alterations in genes involved in the regulation of growth and differentiation are considered to be the main cause of cancer. Molecular cancer research aims at identifying the genes that are altered in human tumors and elucidating the function. One of the paradigms of this research is the ras gene family. In the human genome, three different functional ras genes are present, the H-ras gene, the K-ras gene, and the N-ras gene, which is not found in viral genomes. Each of these genes has been isolated from human tumors as a “transforming gene.” Several analyses have revealed that transforming ras genes differed from non-transforming ras genes by the presence of a point mutation at one of a few restrictive positions within the gene.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Chromosomal basis of hematologic malignancies
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      This chapter discusses the chromosomal basis of hematologic malignancies. Major advances in cancer cytogenetics took place in the early 1970s with the introduction of both improved banding techniques and tissue culture methods. The surprising relationship of unique chromosomal abnormalities with specific neoplasia during neoplastic development has been a prime concern. Almost all human cancers have aberrant genomic constitution, whose significance has been explained using chromosome bands. A definite relationship between genetic anomalies and specific types of proliferative processes is described in the chapter. The gain of genetic material has been implicated with gene amplification, while complex chromosomal abnormalities suggest different mechanism of genetic changes, which may be responsible for the development of malignancies. Literature pertaining to chromosomal changes in neoplastic diseases has been quite extensive. The acute leukemias are a highly heterogeneous group of malignant proliferations and are generally classified as either acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL). Consistent chromosomal abnormalities in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) are described in the chapter and, more importantly, these nonrandom chromosomal abnormalities have been correlated with histological and immunological phenotype.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • The molecular genetics of chromosomal translocations in lymphoid
           malignancy
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      This chapter discusses the molecular genetics of chromosomal translocations in lymphoid malignancy. No approach to the understanding of the molecular basis of acute and chronic leukemias has been more productive than that of molecular cytogenetics. The approach of the utilization of the techniques of molecular cloning to isolate and characterize regions of various chromosomes involved in chromosome translocations, inversions, and deletions has been successfully employed to implicate known oncogenes in such rearrangements to identify new oncogenes and to demonstrate the involvement of genes previously not known for contributing to malignancy. The chromosome translocations involve genes generally involved in cellular growth control. Second, the translocation disrupts the normal control of expression or function of these genes. This may occur in several ways. The gene may be juxtaposed to control elements that result in its being expressed at inappropriate times or abnormal levels. The translocation may alter the gene's own control elements so that they no longer function correctly.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • List of contributors
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Transcription and cancer
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      This chapter describes transcription and cancer. Transcription is the process of copying small regions of the genomic DNA in the nucleus into mobile RNA species that, after processing, are translocated to the cytoplasm, where the information they carry is translated into a polypeptide chain by ribosomes. The regulation of transcription is central to the control of the vast majority of cellular functions and, in particular, differentiation and the response of cells to external signals. Cancers, or more generally neoplasms, are clones of cells that have the ability to grow and divide independent of external controls and that, on the whole, are less differentiated than the cells of the organ in which they arose. As transcriptional regulation is of such importance to both growth responses and differentiation, it is clear that the deregulation of transcription must play an important part in the development of neoplasms. Evidence is accumulating rapidly to support this notion from the study of the functions of viral oncogenes and their cellular counterparts and also from the genetic analysis of human tumors, most notably the leukemias.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Loss of constitutional heterozygosity in human cancer A practical approach
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      This chapter discusses a practical approach for the loss of constitutional heterozygosity in human cancer. First observed in rare heritable cancer syndromes and eliminating genes that exert cellular control functions, “genetic losses” have now also been found in frequent and noninherited cancers as the initial step of tumorigenesis and contributing to tumor progression. Screening for genetic losses is, therefore, a generally applied method for the characterization of cancer. Apart from methods related to classical cytogenetics, new molecular tools developed in the past decade have dramatically refined the resolution and facilitated the characterization of the tumor cell genotype. DNA markers have been developed that distinguish between the alleles of homologous chromosomes, enabling the investigator to monitor losses of single alleles and to determine their parental origin. Thus, the detection of “loss of heterozygosity” (LOH) has become a widespread method in cancer research and in the search for the specific genes involved in the genesis and progression of several tumors.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • The role of the BCR/ABL oncogene in human leukemia
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      This chapter discusses the role of the BCR/ABL oncogene in human leukemia. Cancer is the consequence of an accumulation of multiple critical genetic alterations that confer a growth advantage. The complexity of the process is apparent from both the diversity of genes that are involved in the process (oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes with diverse functions), the mechanisms of genetic alteration (amplification, overexpression, deregulation, deletion, point mutation, and translocation), and from the subtleties of the alterations arising within individual genes that can elicit a proliferative advantage. One example of oncogene activation by translocation is described in detail in the chapter. The translocation fuses two human genes, BCR and ABL, and this juxtaposition appears to be a critical change in some leukemias. The gene fusion is the first recognized example of a specific genetic change in human cancer. Following the cytogenetic identification of the translocation, the genetic rearrangement is characterized precisely by molecular techniques.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Adventures in myc-ology
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      This chapter discusses the adventures in mycology. Many of the now familiar concepts concerning the molecular biology of cancer are derived from the study of viral oncology. This includes a major contribution to the list of the dominantly acting transforming genes called “oncogenes.” Although the study of the viral oncogenes currently is not the dominant theme in the molecular biology of cancer, an understanding of the contributions from viral research is a necessary element in understanding any of the oncogenes. The myc gene is discovered in the avian acute transforming retroviruses, CMII, MC29, MH2, and OK I0. The viruses in this group cause a broad spectrum of malignancies in vivo, including sarcomas, carcinomas, and myelocytomas, and also possess the ability to transform fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and bone marrow cells in culture. As for all of the other retroviral oncogenes, the viral myc gene (v-myc) is derived from the host cell genome by a recombination event between a replication competent retrovirus and a preexisting host cell gene, in this case the cellular myc gene (c-myc).

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
  • Cytogenetic and molecular studies of male germ-cell tumors
    • Abstract: 1995
      Publication year: 1995
      Source:Advances in Genome Biology, Volume 3

      Although the biological significance of GCTs to the study of malignancy and differentiation has been well recognized for some time, detailed genetic analysis based on fresh tumor biopsies has not been initiated until recently. The first stage of such studies, as with other, more extensively investigated tumor systems, has been cytogenetic analysis. To date, cytogenetic data on 225 tumors are available which, although small in number, have already yielded valueble insights into the biology of these tumors and a clinically useful marker. Thus, initial correlations between chromosome change and histology have been recorded, gene amplification associated with malignant progression has been identified, cytogenetic basis of malignant differentiation in teratomatous lesions has been clarified, and sites of candidate tumor suppressor genes unique to this system have been identified. The usefulness of i(12p) as a diagnostic marker, especially in tumors of uncertain histologies has been established. Because of the clinical usefulness of this marker, molecularly based methods for its detection, without the need for formal cytogenetic analysis, have been developed. Cytogenetic analysis of larger prospectively ascertained series than have been performed so far and analysis of large numbers of tumors utilizing molecular techniques can be expected to yield significant insights into the biology and clinical behavior of these tumors.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:32Z
       
 
 
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