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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3031 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3031 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 79, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 389, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in Genetics
  [SJR: 2.558]   [H-I: 54]   [15 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2660
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Sixteen Years of Meiotic Silencing by Unpaired DNA
    • Authors: T.M. Hammond
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): T.M. Hammond
      The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa possesses a process called meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD). MSUD has a remarkable ability to scan homologous chromosomes for unpaired DNA during meiosis. After unpaired DNA is identified, MSUD silences all RNA from the unpaired DNA along with any RNA transcribed from homologous sequences at other locations in the genome, regardless of their pairing state. The mechanism by which unpaired DNA is detected is unknown. Unpaired DNA segments can be as short as 1.3kb, if not shorter, and DNA sequences with only a small level of polymorphism (6%) can be considered unpaired by MSUD. MSUD research has identified nine proteins required for full efficiency of the process, three of which are homologs of the canonical RNA interference (RNAi) proteins Dicer, Argonaute, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Most MSUD proteins, including the RNAi homologs, appear to dock outside of the nuclear envelope during early stages of meiosis. Only two have been observed inside the nucleus, a low number given that the identification of unpaired DNA and the triggering of silencing must begin within this location. These two proteins may participate in the unpaired DNA detection process. Recent evidence indicates that the search for unpaired DNA is spatially constrained, possibly because of restrictions on the arrangement of chromatin loops during or after homolog pairing. This review attempts to provide a complete analysis of past, present, and future directions of MSUD research, starting with its discovery during a search for a conserved regulator of fungal development and ending with some benefits the process may provide to MSUD capable organisms.

      PubDate: 2017-01-03T15:58:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.11.001
  • Advances in Genetics
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics, Volume 96

      PubDate: 2016-10-30T16:15:34Z
  • Advances in Genetics, Volume 96
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics, Volume 96

      PubDate: 2016-10-30T16:15:34Z
  • The Functionality and Evolution of Eukaryotic Transcriptional Enhancers
    • Authors: A.D. Buffry; C.C. Mendes; A.P. McGregor
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): A.D. Buffry, C.C. Mendes, A.P. McGregor
      Enhancers regulate precise spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression in eukaryotes and, moreover, evolutionary changes in these modular cis-regulatory elements may represent the predominant genetic basis for phenotypic evolution. Here, we review approaches to identify and functionally analyze enhancers and their transcription factor binding sites, including assay for transposable–accessible chromatin-sequencing (ATAC-Seq) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9, respectively. We also explore enhancer functionality, including how transcription factor binding sites combine to regulate transcription, as well as research on shadow and super enhancers, and how enhancers can act over great distances and even in trans. Finally, we discuss recent theoretical and empirical data on how transcription factor binding sites and enhancers evolve. This includes how the function of enhancers is maintained despite the turnover of transcription factor binding sites as well as reviewing studies where mutations in enhancers have been shown to underlie morphological change.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T14:07:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.08.004
  • Advances in Dyslexia Genetics—New Insights Into the Role of Brain
    • Authors: S. Paracchini; R. Diaz; J. Stein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): S. Paracchini, R. Diaz, J. Stein
      Dyslexia is a common condition affecting up to 10% school-aged children. There is strong evidence that genetics plays an important role in dyslexia and is expected to be complex in nature. Few specific susceptibility factors have been identified so far, but their functional characterization has provided novel insights into the biology of dyslexia. In particular, they point to an unexpected role of candidate genes for dyslexia in the biology of cilia, cellular organelles required in many processes including the establishment of left-right asymmetries early in development. This observation has brought back into the spotlight the old idea of a link between dyslexia and handedness. Yet much of the genetics contributing to dyslexia remains unexplained. The lack of biological markers, clear diagnostic criteria, and homogeneous assessment strategies are just some of the factors preventing the collection of the cohorts powered enough for large-scale genetic studies. While the technology and methods to generate and handle large-scale data have reached unprecedented potential, the main challenge remains in establishing universal guidelines to collect suitable phenotype information across independent studies. These difficulties reflect the complex nature of dyslexia which is highly heterogeneous and often co-occurs with other neurodevelopmental disorders.

      PubDate: 2016-10-10T17:25:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.08.003
  • Genetics of Schizophrenia: Historical Insights and Prevailing Evidence
    • Authors: J. van de Leemput; J.L. Hess; S.J. Glatt; M.T. Tsuang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): J. van de Leemput, J.L. Hess, S.J. Glatt, M.T. Tsuang
      Schizophrenia's (SZ's) heritability and familial transmission have been known for several decades; however, despite the clear evidence for a genetic component, it has been very difficult to pinpoint specific causative genes. Even so genetic studies have taught us a lot, even in the pregenomic era, about the molecular underpinnings and disease-relevant pathways. Recurring themes emerged revealing the involvement of neurodevelopmental processes, glutamate regulation, and immune system differential activation in SZ etiology. The recent emergence of epigenetic studies aimed at shedding light on the biological mechanisms underlying SZ has provided another layer of information in the investigation of gene and environment interactions. However, this epigenetic insight also brings forth another layer of complexity to the (epi)genomic landscape such as interactions between genetic variants, epigenetic marks—including cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone modification processes—, gene expression regulation, and environmental influences. In this review, we seek to synthesize perspectives, including limitations and obstacles yet to overcome, from genetic and epigenetic literature on SZ through a qualitative review of risk factors and prevailing hypotheses. Encouraged by the findings of both genetic and epigenetic studies to date, as well as the continued development of new technologies to collect and interpret large-scale studies, we are left with a positive outlook for the future of elucidating the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying SZ and other complex neuropsychiatric disorders.

      PubDate: 2016-09-27T04:54:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.08.001
  • Fungal Light Sensing at the Bench and Beyond
    • Authors: K.K. Fuller; J.C. Dunlap; J.J. Loros
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): K.K. Fuller, J.C. Dunlap, J.J. Loros
      Visible light is a pervasive environmental signal that orients most organisms in space and time. For a fungus, the detection of light is facilitated by diverse classes of photoreceptor proteins, which in turn coordinate growth, spore dispersal, stress resistance, primary metabolism, and toxin production. We will first provide a discussion on signal input, focusing on recent insights into how fungal photoreceptors detect and transmit information at the biochemical and molecular levels. We will then pivot our discussion to how light influences fungal behaviors that are of industrial, agricultural, or even medical relevance. Because the light environment can be easily manipulated in many contexts, we will argue that understanding fungal photobiology is both an important basic and applied endeavor.

      PubDate: 2016-09-27T04:54:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.08.002
  • Advances in Genetics
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics, Volume 95

      PubDate: 2016-08-07T02:37:11Z
  • Advances in Genetics, Volume 95
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics, Volume 95

      PubDate: 2016-08-07T02:37:11Z
  • Transcriptional Regulation During Zygotic Genome Activation in Zebrafish
           and Other Anamniote Embryos
    • Authors: Wragg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): J. Wragg, F. Müller
      Embryo development commences with the fusion of two terminally differentiated haploid gametes into the totipotent fertilized egg, which through a series of major cellular and molecular transitions generate a pluripotent cell mass. The activation of the zygotic genome occurs during the so-called maternal to zygotic transition and prepares the embryo for zygotic takeover from maternal factors, in the control of the development of cellular lineages during differentiation. Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies have allowed the dissection of the genomic and epigenomic processes mediating this transition. These processes include reorganization of the chromatin structure to a transcriptionally permissive state, changes in composition and function of structural and regulatory DNA-binding proteins, and changeover of the transcriptome as it is overhauled from that deposited by the mother in the oocyte to a zygotically transcribed complement. Zygotic genome activation in zebrafish occurs 10 cell cycles after fertilization and provides an ideal experimental platform for elucidating the temporal sequence and dynamics of establishment of a transcriptionally active chromatin state and helps in identifying the determinants of transcription activation at polymerase II transcribed gene promoters. The relatively large number of pluripotent cells generated by the fast cell divisions before zygotic transcription provides sufficient biomass for next generation sequencing technology approaches to establish the temporal dynamics of events and suggest causative relationship between them. However, genomic and genetic technologies need to be improved further to capture the earliest events in development, where cell number is a limiting factor. These technologies need to be complemented with precise, inducible genetic interference studies using the latest genome editing tools to reveal the function of candidate determinants and to confirm the predictions made by classic embryological tools and genome-wide assays. In this review we summarize recent advances in the characterization of epigenetic regulation, transcription control, and gene promoter function during zygotic genome activation and how they fit with old models for the mechanisms of the maternal to zygotic transition. This review will focus on the zebrafish embryo but draw comparisons with other vertebrate model systems and refer to invertebrate models where informative.

      PubDate: 2016-07-17T19:33:50Z
  • Evolutionary Genetics of the Cavefish Astyanax mexicanus
    • Authors: Casane
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): D. Casane, S. Rétaux
      Blind and depigmented fish belonging to the species Astyanax mexicanus are outstanding models for evolutionary genetics. During their evolution in the darkness of caves, they have undergone a number of changes at the morphological, physiological, and behavioral levels, but they can still breed with their river-dwelling conspecifics. The fertile hybrids between these two morphotypes allow forward genetic approaches, from the search of quantitative trait loci to the identification of the mutations underlying the evolution of troglomorphism. We review here the past 30years of evolutionary genetics on Astyanax: from the first crosses and the discovery of convergent evolution of different Astyanax cavefish populations to the most recent evolutionary transcriptomics and genomics studies that have provided researchers with potential candidate genes to be tested using functional genetic approaches. Although significant progress has been made and some genes have been identified, cavefish have not yet fully revealed the secret of their adaptation to the absence of light. In particular, the genetic determinism of their loss of eyes seems complex and still puzzles researchers. We also discuss future research directions, including searches for the origin of cave alleles and searches for selection genome-wide, as well as the necessary but missing information on the timing of cave colonization by surface fish.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:57:18Z
  • Gal4 Driver Transgenic Zebrafish: Powerful Tools to Study Developmental
           Biology, Organogenesis, and Neuroscience
    • Authors: Kawakami Asakawa; Hibi Itoh Muto Wada
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): K. Kawakami, K. Asakawa, M. Hibi, M. Itoh, A. Muto, H. Wada
      Targeted expression by the Gal4-UAS system is a powerful genetic method to analyze the functions of genes and cells in vivo. Although the Gal4-UAS system has been extensively used in genetic studies in Drosophila, it had not been applied to genetic studies in vertebrates until the mid-2000s. This was mainly due to the lack of an efficient transgenesis tool in model vertebrates, such as the P-transposable element of Drosophila, that can create hundreds or thousands of transgene insertions in different loci on the genome and thereby enables the generation of transgenic lines expressing Gal4 in various tissues and cells via enhancer trapping. This situation was revolutionized when a highly efficient transgenesis method using the Tol2 transposable element was developed in the model vertebrate zebrafish. By using the Tol2 transposon system, we and other labs successfully performed gene trap and enhancer trap screens in combination with the Gal4-UAS system. To date, numerous transgenic fish lines that express engineered versions of Gal4 in specific cells, organs, and tissues have been generated and used for various aspects of biological studies. By constructing transgenic fish lines harboring genes of interest downstream of UAS, the Gal4-expressing cells and tissues in those transgenic fish have been visualized and manipulated via the Gal4-UAS system. In this review, we describe how the Gal4-UAS system works in zebrafish and how transgenic zebrafish that express Gal4 in specific cells, tissues, and organs have been used for the study of developmental biology, organogenesis, and neuroscience.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:57:18Z
  • The Zebrafish as Model for Deciphering the Regulatory Architecture of
           Vertebrate Genomes
    • Authors: Rastegar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): S. Rastegar, U. Strähle
      Despite enormous progress to map cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), like enhancers and promoters in genomes, elucidation of the regulatory landscape of the developing embryo remains a challenge. The zebrafish embryo with its experimental virtues has a great potential to contribute to this endeavor. However, so far progress remained behind expectation. We discuss here available methods and their limitations and how the zebrafish embryo could contribute in the future to unravel the wiring of the vertebrate genome.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:57:18Z
  • Advances in Genetics
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics, Volume 94

      PubDate: 2016-05-03T01:53:04Z
  • Advances in Genetics, Volume 94
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics, Volume 94

      PubDate: 2016-05-03T01:53:04Z
  • Diversity of Entomopathogenic Fungi: Which Groups Conquered the Insect
    • Authors: J.P.M. D.P.; Hughes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): J.P.M. Araújo, D.P. Hughes
      The entomopathogenic fungi are organisms that evolved to exploit insects. They comprise a wide range of morphologically, phylogenetically, and ecologically diverse fungal species. Entomopathogenic fungi can be found distributed among five of the eight fungal phyla. Entomopathogens are also present among the ecologically similar but phylogenetically distinct Oomycota or water molds, which belong to a different kingdom, the Stramenopila. As a group of parasites, the entomopathogenic fungi and water molds infect a wide range of insect hosts, from aquatic larvae to adult insects from high canopies in tropical forests or even deserts. Their hosts are spread among 20 of the 31 orders of insects, in all developmental stages: eggs, larvae, pupae, nymphs, and adults. Such assortment of niches has resulted in these parasites evolving a considerable morphological diversity, resulting in enormous biodiversity, the majority of which remains unknown. Here we undertake a comprehensive survey of records of these entomopathogens in order to compare and contrast both their morphologies and their ecological traits. Our findings highlight a wide range of adaptations that evolved following the evolutionary transition by the fungi and water molds to infect the most diverse and widespread animals on Earth, the insects.

      PubDate: 2016-03-18T03:21:55Z
  • Disease Dynamics in Ants: A Critical Review of the Ecological Relevance
           of Using Generalist Fungi to Study Infections in Insect Societies
    • Authors: R.G. Loreto; D.P. Hughes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): R.G. Loreto, D.P. Hughes
      It is assumed that social life can lead to the rapid spread of infectious diseases and outbreaks. In ants, disease outbreaks are rare and the expression of collective behaviors is invoked to explain the absence of epidemics in natural populations. Here, we address the ecological approach employed by many studies that have notably focused (89% of the studies) on two genera of generalist fungal parasites (Beauveria and Metarhizium). We ask whether these are the most representative models to study the evolutionary ecology of ant–fungal parasite interactions. To assess this, we critically examine the literature on ants and their interactions with fungal parasites from the past 114years (1900–2014). We discuss how current evolutionary ecology approaches emerged from studies focused on the biological control of pest ants. We also analyzed the ecological relevance of the laboratory protocols used in evolutionary ecology studies employing generalist parasites, as well as the rare natural occurrence of these parasites on ants. After a detailed consideration of all the publications, we suggest that using generalist pathogens such as Beauveria and Metarhizium is not an optimal approach if the goal is to study the evolutionary ecology of disease in ants. We conclude by advocating for approaches that incorporate greater realism.

      PubDate: 2016-03-18T03:21:55Z
  • Entomopathogenic Fungi: New Insights into Host–Pathogen Interactions
    • Authors: T.M. Butt; C.J. Coates I.M. Dubovskiy N.A. Ratcliffe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): T.M. Butt, C.J. Coates, I.M. Dubovskiy, N.A. Ratcliffe
      Although many insects successfully live in dangerous environments exposed to diverse communities of microbes, they are often exploited and killed by specialist pathogens. Studies of host–pathogen interactions (HPI) provide valuable insights into the dynamics of the highly aggressive coevolutionary arms race between entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) and their arthropod hosts. The host defenses are designed to exclude the pathogen or mitigate the damage inflicted while the pathogen responds with immune evasion and utilization of host resources. EPF neutralize their immediate surroundings on the insect integument and benefit from the physiochemical properties of the cuticle and its compounds that exclude competing microbes. EPF also exhibit adaptations aimed at minimizing trauma that can be deleterious to both host and pathogen (eg, melanization of hemolymph), form narrow penetration pegs that alleviate host dehydration and produce blastospores that lack immunogenic sugars/enzymes but facilitate rapid assimilation of hemolymph nutrients. In response, insects deploy an extensive armory of hemocytes and macromolecules, such as lectins and phenoloxidase, that repel, immobilize, and kill EPF. New evidence suggests that immune bioactives work synergistically (eg, lysozyme with antimicrobial peptides) to combat infections. Some proteins, including transferrin and apolipophorin III, also demonstrate multifunctional properties, participating in metabolism, homeostasis, and pathogen recognition. This review discusses the molecular intricacies of these HPI, highlighting the interplay between immunity, stress management, and metabolism. Increased knowledge in this area could enhance the efficacy of EPF, ensuring their future in integrated pest management programs.

      PubDate: 2016-03-10T20:01:05Z
  • From So Simple a Beginning: The Evolution of Behavioral Manipulation by
    • Authors: D.P. Hughes; Loreto Quevillon Bekker H.C. Evans
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): D.P. Hughes, J. Araújo, R. Loreto, L. Quevillon, C. de Bekker, H.C. Evans
      Parasites can manipulate the behavior of their hosts in ways that increase either their direct fitness or transmission to new hosts. The Kingdom Fungi have evolved a diverse array of strategies to manipulate arthropod behavior resulting in some of the most complex and impressive examples of behavioral manipulation by parasites. Here we provide an overview of these different interactions and discuss them from an evolutionary perspective. We discuss parasite manipulation within the context of Niko Tinbergen's four questions (function, phylogeny, causation, and ontogeny) before detailing the proximate mechanisms by which fungi control arthropod behavior and the evolutionary pathways to such adaptations. We focus on some systems for which we have recently acquired new knowledge (such as the zombie ant fungus, Ophiocordyceps unilateralis s.l.), but a major goal is also to highlight how many interesting examples remain to be discovered and investigated. With this in mind, we also discuss likely examples of manipulated spiders that are largely unexplored (“zombie spiders”). Armed with advanced tools in evolutionary biology (from serial block face SEM to RNAseq) we can discover how the fungi, a group of microbes capable of coordinated activity, have evolved the ability to direct animal behavior. In short, we have the ability to understand how the organism without the brain controls the one with the brain. We hope such a goal, coupled with the knowledge that many diverse examples of control exist, will inspire other organismal biologists to study the complex adaptations that have arisen from “so simple a beginning.”

      PubDate: 2016-02-23T02:01:40Z
  • Advances in Genetics
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics, Volume 93

      PubDate: 2016-02-23T02:01:40Z
  • Advances in Genetics, Volume 93
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics, Volume 93

      PubDate: 2016-02-23T02:01:40Z
  • Studying the Evolution of the Vertebrate Circadian Clock: The Power of
           Fish as Comparative Models
    • Authors: N.S. Foulkes; D. Whitmore; D. Vallone; C. Bertolucci
      Pages: 1 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): N.S. Foulkes, D. Whitmore, D. Vallone, C. Bertolucci
      The utility of any model species cannot be judged solely in terms of the tools and approaches it provides for genetic analysis. A fundamental consideration is also how its biology has been shaped by the environment and the ecological niche which it occupies. By comparing different species occupying very different habitats we can learn how molecular and cellular mechanisms change during evolution in order to optimally adapt to their environment. Such knowledge is as important as understanding how these mechanisms work. This is illustrated by the use of fish models for studying the function and evolution of the circadian clock. In this review we outline our current understanding of how fish clocks sense and respond to light and explain how this differs fundamentally from the situation with mammalian clocks. In addition, we present results from comparative studies involving two species of blind cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus and Phreatichthys andruzzii. This work reveals the consequences of evolution in perpetual darkness for the circadian clock and its regulation by light as well as for other mechanisms such as DNA repair, sleep, and metabolism which directly or indirectly are affected by regular exposure to sunlight. Major differences in the cave habitats inhabited by these two cavefish species have a clear impact on shaping the molecular and cellular adaptations to life in complete darkness.

      PubDate: 2016-07-17T19:33:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.05.002
  • The Genomics, Epigenomics, and Transcriptomics of HPV-Associated
           Oropharyngeal Cancer—Understanding the Basis of a Rapidly Evolving
    • Authors: M. Lechner; T.R. Fenton
      Pages: 1 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): M. Lechner, T.R. Fenton
      Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been shown to represent a major independent risk factor for head and neck squamous cell cancer, in particular for oropharyngeal carcinoma. This type of cancer is rapidly evolving in the Western world, with rising trends particularly in the young, and represents a distinct epidemiological, clinical, and molecular entity. It is the aim of this review to give a detailed description of genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, and posttranscriptional changes that underlie the phenotype of this deadly disease. The review will also link these changes and examine what is known about the interactions between the host genome and viral genome, and investigate changes specific for the viral genome. These data are then integrated into an updated model of HPV-induced head and neck carcinogenesis.

      PubDate: 2016-02-12T17:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adgen.2015.12.001
  • Genomic and Transcriptomic Approaches to Study Cancer in Small Aquarium
           Fish Models
    • Authors: J. Regneri; B. Klotz; M. Schartl
      Pages: 31 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): J. Regneri, B. Klotz, M. Schartl
      Zebrafish and medaka that develop tumors have become valuable tools for experimental cancer research. With the advent of microarrays and new sequencing technologies it has become feasible to perform whole genome, exome, and transcriptome analyses in these fish models. Analyses that compare the two fish models with each other and with data from human tumors have revealed a plethora of important insights. An unexpected high degree of comparability of molecular features of fish and human tumors has been detected. Furthermore, analyses of the fish model data have uncovered molecules that have not received appropriate attention in studies on their human tumor counterparts and thus have provided valuable candidates for novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:57:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.04.001
  • Utilizing Genomics to Study Entomopathogenicity in the Fungal Phylum
           Entomophthoromycota: A Review of Current Genetic Resources
    • Authors: H.H. De Fine Licht; A.E. Hajek; J. Eilenberg; A.B. Jensen
      Pages: 41 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): H.H. De Fine Licht, A.E. Hajek, J. Eilenberg, A.B. Jensen
      The order Entomophthorales, which formerly contained c.280 species, has recently been recognized as a separate phylum, Entomophthoromycota, consisting of three recognized classes and six families. Many genera in this group contain obligate insect-pathogenic species with narrow host ranges, capable of producing epizootics in natural insect populations. Available sequence information from the phylum Entomophthoromycota can be classified into three main categories: first, partial gene regions (exons+introns) used for phylogenetic inference; second, protein coding gene regions obtained using degenerate primers, expressed sequence tag methodology or de novo transcriptome sequencing with molecular function inferred by homology analysis; and third, primarily forthcoming whole-genome sequencing data sets. Here we summarize the current genetic resources for Entomophthoromycota and identify research areas that are likely to be significantly advanced from the availability of new whole-genome resources.

      PubDate: 2016-02-17T21:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.01.003
  • Advances in Genomics of Entomopathogenic Fungi
    • Authors: J.B. Wang; R.J. St. Leger; C. Wang
      Pages: 67 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): J.B. Wang, R.J. St. Leger, C. Wang
      Fungi are the commonest pathogens of insects and crucial regulators of insect populations. The rapid advance of genome technologies has revolutionized our understanding of entomopathogenic fungi with multiple Metarhizium spp. sequenced, as well as Beauveria bassiana, Cordyceps militaris, and Ophiocordyceps sinensis among others. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that the ancestors of many of these fungi were plant endophytes or pathogens, with entomopathogenicity being an acquired characteristic. These fungi now occupy a wide range of habitats and hosts, and their genomes have provided a wealth of information on the evolution of virulence-related characteristics, as well as the protein families and genomic structure associated with ecological and econutritional heterogeneity, genome evolution, and host range diversification. In particular, their evolutionary transition from plant pathogens or endophytes to insect pathogens provides a novel perspective on how new functional mechanisms important for host switching and virulence are acquired. Importantly, genomic resources have helped make entomopathogenic fungi ideal model systems for answering basic questions in parasitology, entomology, and speciation. At the same time, identifying the selective forces that act upon entomopathogen fitness traits could underpin both the development of new mycoinsecticides and further our understanding of the natural roles of these fungi in nature. These roles frequently include mutualistic relationships with plants. Genomics has also facilitated the rapid identification of genes encoding biologically useful molecules, with implications for the development of pharmaceuticals and the use of these fungi as bioreactors.

      PubDate: 2016-03-18T03:21:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.01.002
  • Whole-Organism Cellular Pathology: A Systems Approach to Phenomics
    • Authors: K.C. Cheng; S.R. Katz; A.Y. Lin; X. Xin; Y. Ding
      Pages: 89 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): K.C. Cheng, S.R. Katz, A.Y. Lin, X. Xin, Y. Ding
      Phenotype is defined as the state of an organism resulting from interactions between genes, environment, disease, molecular mechanisms, and chance. The purpose of the emerging field of phenomics is to systematically determine and measure phenotypes across biology for the sake of understanding. Phenotypes can affect more than one cell type and life stage, so ideal phenotyping would include the state of every cell type within the context of both tissue architecture and the whole organism at each life stage. In medicine, high-resolution anatomic assessment of phenotype is obtained from histology. Histology's interpretative power, codified by Virchow as cellular pathology, is derived from its ability to discern diagnostic and characteristic cellular changes in diseased tissues. Cellular pathology is observed in every major human disease and relies on the ability of histology to detect cellular change in any cell type due to unbiased pan-cellular staining, even in optically opaque tissues. Our laboratory has shown that histology is far more sensitive than stereomicroscopy for detecting phenotypes in zebrafish mutants. Those studies have also shown that more complete sampling, greater consistency in sample orientation, and the inclusion of phenotypes extending over longer length scales would provide greater coverage of common phenotypes. We are developing technical approaches to achieve an ideal detection of cellular pathology using an improved form of X-ray microtomography that retains the strengths and addresses the weaknesses of histology as a screening tool. We are using zebrafish as a vertebrate model based on the overlaps between zebrafish and mammalian tissue architecture, and a body size small enough to allow whole-organism, volumetric imaging at cellular resolution. Automation of whole-organism phenotyping would greatly increase the value of phenomics. Potential societal benefits would include reduction in the cost of drug development, a reduction in the incidence of unexpected severe drug and environmental toxicity, and more rapid elucidation of the contributions of genes and the environment to phenotypes, including the validation of candidate disease alleles identified in population and personal genetics.

      PubDate: 2016-08-02T00:27:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.05.003
  • Insect Pathogenic Fungi as Endophytes
    • Authors: S. Moonjely; L. Barelli; M.J. Bidochka
      Pages: 107 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): S. Moonjely, L. Barelli, M.J. Bidochka
      In this chapter, we explore some of the evolutionary, ecological, molecular genetics, and applied aspects of a subset of insect pathogenic fungi that also have a lifestyle as endophytes and we term endophytic insect pathogenic fungi (EIPF). We focus particularly on Metarhizium spp. and Beauveria bassiana as EIPF. The discussion of the evolution of EIPF challenges a view that these fungi were first and foremost insect pathogens that eventually evolved to colonize plants. Phylogenetic evidence shows that the lineages of EIPF are most closely related to grass endophytes that diverged c. 100MYA. We discuss the relationship between genes involved in “insect pathogenesis” and those involved in “endophytism” and provide examples of genes with potential importance in lifestyle transitions toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been coopted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. The interactions of EIPF with their host plants are discussed in some detail. The genetic basis for rhizospheric competence, plant communication, and nutrient exchange is examined and we highlight, with examples, the benefits of EIPF to plants, and the potential reservoir of secondary metabolites hidden within these beneficial symbioses.

      PubDate: 2016-02-17T21:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adgen.2015.12.004
  • Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi
    • Authors: H. Zhao; B. Lovett; W. Fang
      Pages: 137 - 163
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): H. Zhao, B. Lovett, W. Fang
      Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests.

      PubDate: 2016-02-12T17:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adgen.2015.11.001
  • Molecular Genetics of Beauveria bassiana Infection of Insects
    • Authors: A. Ortiz-Urquiza; N.O. Keyhani
      Pages: 165 - 249
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): Almudena Ortiz-Urquiza, Nemat O. Keyhani
      Research on the insect pathogenic filamentous fungus, Beauveria bassiana has witnessed significant growth in recent years from mainly physiological studies related to its insect biological control potential, to addressing fundamental questions regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms of fungal development and virulence. This has been in part due to a confluence of robust genetic tools and genomic resources for the fungus, and recognition of expanded ecological interactions with which the fungus engages. Beauveria bassiana is a broad host range insect pathogen that has the ability to form intimate symbiotic relationships with plants. Indeed, there is an increasing realization that the latter may be the predominant environmental interaction in which the fungus participates, and that insect parasitism may be an opportunist lifestyle evolved due to the carbon- and nitrogen-rich resources present in insect bodies. Here, we will review progress on the molecular genetics of B. bassiana, which has largely been directed toward identifying genetic pathways involved in stress response and virulence assumed to have practical applications in improving the insect control potential of the fungus. Important strides have also been made in understanding aspects of B. bassiana development. Finally, although increasingly apparent in a number of studies, there is a need for progressing beyond phenotypic mutant characterization to sufficiently investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying B. bassiana's unique and diverse lifestyles as saprophyte, insect pathogen, and plant mutualist.

      PubDate: 2016-02-12T17:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adgen.2015.11.003
  • Transcriptomic Approaches in the Zebrafish Model for
           Tuberculosis—Insights Into Host- and Pathogen-specific Determinants of
           the Innate Immune Response
    • Authors: E.L. Benard; J. Rougeot; P.I. Racz; H.P. Spaink; A.H. Meijer
      Pages: 217 - 251
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): E.L. Benard, J. Rougeot, P.I. Racz, H.P. Spaink, A.H. Meijer
      Mycobacterium marinum infection in zebrafish has become a well-established model of tuberculosis. Both embryonic and adult zebrafish infection studies have contributed to our knowledge of the development and function of tuberculous granulomas, which are typical of mycobacterial pathogenesis. In this review we discuss how transcriptome profiling studies have helped to characterize this infection process. We illustrate this using new RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data that reveals three main phases in the host response to M. marinum during the early stages of granuloma development in zebrafish embryos and larvae. The early phase shows induction of complement and transcription factors, followed by a relatively minor induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines within hours following phagocytosis of M. marinum. A minimal response is observed in the mid-phase, between 6 hours and 1day post infection, when the tissue dissemination of M. marinum begins. During subsequent larval development the granulomas expand and a late-phase response is apparent, which is characterized by progressively increasing induction of complement, transcription factors, pro-inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases, and other defense and inflammation-related gene groups. This late-phase response shares common components with the strong and acute host transcriptome response that has previously been reported for Salmonella typhimurium infection in zebrafish embryos. In contrast, the early/mid-phase response to M. marinum infection, characterized by suppressed pro-inflammatory signaling, is strikingly different from the acute response to S. typhimurium infection. Furthermore, M. marinum infection shows a collective and strongly fluctuating regulation of lipoproteins, while S. typhimurium infection has pronounced effects on amino acid metabolism and glycolysis.

      PubDate: 2016-06-16T18:57:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.04.004
  • Insect Immunity to Entomopathogenic Fungi
    • Authors: H.-L. Lu; R.J. St. Leger
      Pages: 251 - 285
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): H.-L. Lu, R.J. St. Leger
      The study of infection and immunity in insects has achieved considerable prominence with the appreciation that their host defense mechanisms share many fundamental characteristics with the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies on the highly tractable model organism Drosophila in particular have led to a detailed understanding of conserved innate immunity networks, such as Toll. However, most of these studies have used opportunistic human pathogens and may not have revealed specialized immune strategies that have arisen through evolutionary arms races with natural insect pathogens. Fungi are the commonest natural insect pathogens, and in this review, we focus on studies using Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. that have addressed immune system function and pathogen virulence via behavioral avoidance, the use of physical barriers, and the activation of local and systemic immune responses. In particular, we highlight studies on the evolutionary genetics of insect immunity and discuss insect–pathogen coevolution.

      PubDate: 2016-01-28T02:43:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adgen.2015.11.002
  • Molecular Genetics of Secondary Chemistry in Metarhizium Fungi
    • Authors: B.G.G. Donzelli; S.B. Krasnoff
      Pages: 365 - 436
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Advances in Genetics
      Author(s): B.G.G. Donzelli, S.B. Krasnoff
      As with many microbes, entomopathogenic fungi from the genus Metarhizium produce a plethora of small molecule metabolites, often referred to as secondary metabolites. Although these intriguing compounds are a conspicuous feature of the biology of the producing fungi, their roles in pathogenicity and other interactions with their hosts and competing microbes are still not well understood. In this review, secondary metabolites that have been isolated from Metarhizium are cataloged along with the history of their discovery and structural elucidation and the salient biological activities attributed to them. Newly available genome sequences revealed an abundance of biosynthetic pathways and a capacity for producing SMs by Metarhizium species that far exceeds the known chemistry. Secondary metabolism genes identified in nine sequenced Metarhizium species are analyzed in detail and classified into distinct families based on orthology, phylogenetic analysis, and conservation of the gene organization around them. This analysis led to the identification of seven hybrid polyketide/nonribosomal peptide synthetases (M-HPNs), two inverted hybrid nonribosomal peptide/polyketide synthetases (M-IHs), 27 nonribosomal peptide synthetases (M-NRPSs), 14 nonribosomal peptide synthetase–like (M-NPL) pathways, 32 polyketide synthases, and 44 terpene biosynthetic genes having a nonuniform distribution and largely following established phylogenetic relationships within the genus Metarhzium. This systematization also identified candidate pathways for known Metarhizium chemistries and predicted the presence of unknown natural products for this genus by drawing connections between these pathways and natural products known to be produced by other fungi.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T00:54:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.01.005
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