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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3043 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 83, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 331, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 343, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in Experimental Biology
  [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1872-2423
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Edited by
    • Abstract: 2008
      Publication year: 2008
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Information about the Society for Experimental Biology (SEB)
    • Abstract: 2008
      Publication year: 2008
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Advances in experimental biology
    • Abstract: 2008
      Publication year: 2008
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Information about the Series Editors
    • Abstract: 2008
      Publication year: 2008
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Information about the Volume Editors
    • Abstract: 2008
      Publication year: 2008
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • List of Contributors
    • Abstract: 2008
      Publication year: 2008
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Toxicogenomics: unlocking the potential of the human genome
    • Abstract: 2008
      Publication year: 2008
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 2

      Toxicogenomics merges genomics with toxicology and observes the genome-wide effects of toxicants. The field is really only taking the first steps to establish the ‘ground rules’, nomenclature and standards by which it will develop and a standardised approach to toxicogenomic evaluation is still to be agreed. There is a great need to address toxicogenomics to iatrogenic morbidity, environmental health and safety and diet. In the case of iatrogenic morbidity, 0.5% of the UK hospital population is affected and toxicogenomics could lead to personalised medicine, i.e., to define a drug dosage tailored to each patient's unique genetic make-up and medical condition that is beneficial, inadequate or toxic. Before this can become a reality, toxicogenomic profiles need to be generated for a host of commonly prescribed drugs and shown to be robust in cross-centre, cross-platform comparisons; the magnitude of the work needed will be vast and needs to be nationally coordinated and funded. The potential of predictive toxicogenomic and all tri-nomic methodologies is far greater than its current usefulness. The sequencing of genomes alone is not a panacea. Rather, genomic, tri-nomic and pharmacogenetic databases must be integrated with a comprehensive toxicant class database with validated tri-nomic profiles linked to traditional toxicity endpoints; this should be carried out as exhaustively as the sequencing effort itself. This must be undertaken in order to exploit the vast potential of this new field to provide personalised medicine, sensitive and quick environmental health and safety surveillance and accurate and scientifically supported dietary advice.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Progress in ecotoxicogenomics for environmental monitoring, mode of
           action, and toxicant identification
    • Abstract: 2008
      Publication year: 2008
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 2

      The holistic tools developed through genomic technologies are becoming rapidly integrated into many biological fields including ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicogenomics encompasses the incorporation of genomic technologies, including transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, into ecological studies. Like biomarkers, ecotoxicogenomic techniques may be applied to many areas of ecotoxicology, and offer increased sensitivity and specificity, and may be more informative than traditional toxicity endpoints. There are several potential applications for ecotoxicogenomics, including chemical screening, environmental monitoring, and risk assessment. In each of these areas, recent studies are laying the foundations for the field and establishing proof-of-principle for ecotoxicogenomics. However, many challenges remain. Ecosystem complexity, limited or non-existing sequence data of relevant organisms, the need for bioinformatics tools and the cost of the technology are currently delaying the growth of ecotoxicogenomics and making interpretation of the results difficult. Consortiums could play a large role in propelling the field forward by facilitating the development of standardised genomic tools and protocols.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Fish toxicogenomics
    • Abstract: 2008
      Publication year: 2008
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 2

      Fish are effective sentinels of pollution in the aquatic environment and are employed widely in biomonitoring and in regulatory testing to assess for health effects of chemical exposure. Molecular biomarkers of chemical exposure in fish have been used effectively for many years. The recent availability of extensive sequence information in fish, however, has facilitated the application of more extensive molecular (including whole-genome) approaches to fish toxicology. Through the application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), differential display-PCR (DD-PCR), subtractive hybridisation and gene array methodologies (in which the responses of hundreds or even thousands of genes can be measured simultaneously), good insights have been gained into the mode of action (MOA) of a wide range of toxicants in fish and such approaches have illustrated the highly complex nature of some chemical effect pathways. Furthermore, genomic approaches have shown that different classes of toxicants operating through different MOAs can induce unique and diagnostic patterns of gene expression in fish. Studies in fish on transcriptome responses to various chemicals have also indicated the potential of genomics for diagnosing biological effects of chemicals. No transcriptomic studies have, however, been forthcoming to investigate how toxic responses that are consequently deleterious for the individual fish and potentially for the population are distinguished from adaptive responses, which may not affect fish. Rapid advancements have been made, but considerable challenges need to be met before the full potential of toxicogenomics can be realised for studies in fish. These challenges include the need for improved sequence annotation for fish, the application of international standards to arrays for data capture and analysis and appropriate (and more consistent) experimental design to ensure rigour in biological interpretations.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Current research in soil invertebrate ecotoxicogenomics
    • Abstract: 2008
      Publication year: 2008
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 2

      Soil species, such as earthworms, potworms, springtails and to a lesser extent, carabids, molluscs and oribatid and predator mites are widely used to assess the toxicity of soil pollutants in academic and regulatory contexts. A recent extension of this work has been to provide a mechanistic component to these studies. Initially, terrestrial ecotoxicogenomic studies used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas). This was simply because it was the first soil-dwelling species for which the required tools for detailed study (principally sequence information) were available. Latterly, sufficient sequencing information to allow routine assessment of the expression of individual genes/proteins and the production of custom cDNA microarrays has become available for species such as the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus (Hoffmeister), Eisenia fetida (Savigny), the potworm Enchytraeus albidus (Henle), and springtails Orchesella cincta (Linnaeus) and Folsomia candida (Willem). Initial transcriptomic studies with such species have confirmed the sensitivity of gene expression as an endpoint for chemical exposure and its value for identifying the mechanism of toxic effects. Combined with the development of methods for proteomics and metabolomics this means that it is now feasible to use soil invertebrates in studies that can advance fundamental knowledge of important aspects of ecotoxicology, such as the biochemical basis of species sensitivity, the prevalence of multiple (and unexpected) modes of action, the basis and consequences of chemical-induced change at the population and community level, and deriving better understanding of the combined effects of pollutants.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Daphnia as an emerging model for toxicological genomics
    • Abstract: 2008
      Publication year: 2008
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 2

      Daphnia are already an established model species in toxicology. This freshwater crustacean is used commonly for environmental monitoring of pollutants around the globe and plays an important role in establishing regulatory criteria by government agencies (e.g., US EPA, Environment Canada organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Environment Agency of Japan). Consequently, daphniids represent 8% of all experimental data for aquatic animals within the toxicological databases (Denslow et al., 2007). As such, their incorporation within the new field of toxicological genomics is limited only by the advancement of genomic resources. Because the development of these technologies requires the input and feedback of a large research community that extends far beyond the boundaries of any one discipline, the Daphnia Genomics Consortium (DGC) was formed in 2001 to: (i) provide the organizational framework to coordinate efforts at developing the Daphnia genomic toolbox; (ii) facilitate collaborative research and (iii) develop bioinformatics strategies for organizing the rapidly growing database. This chapter reviews the progress in establishing Daphnia as model species for genomic studies, with emphasis on toxicological applications. As the goals of the DGC are defined largely by extending the boundaries of current biological research in light of genomic information, this chapter first reviews Daphnia's unique biological attributes that make it ideal for such an expansion of research efforts. These attributes include a long tradition of ecological, evolutionary and toxicological study, culminating in the benefits provided by emerging genomic tools.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Whole genome microarray analysis of the expression profile of Escherichia
           coli in response to exposure to para-nitrophenol
    • Abstract: 2008
      Publication year: 2008
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 2

      In ecotoxicology, standard biological assays are used to determine the effects of chemicals on microorganisms. One assay, the microbial multiplication inhibition test, measures the degree of growth inhibition of a population of microorganisms when exposed to a chemical. Whilst this test indicates crude inhibitory effects of chemicals on cells, it offers no insight as to why the cells are inhibited. Genomic array technology was used to investigate the effects of a nitroaromatic compound, para-nitrophenol (PNP), on Escherichia coli K12-MG1655 cells. Global changes in gene expression showed exposure to PNP caused E. coli cells to prematurely enter stationary phase, as shown by downregulation of genes involved in protein synthesis (rpl, rps, rpm). Genes of the emrRAB operon, which confers resistance to compounds that uncouple oxidative phosphorylation, were upregulated in cells in response to PNP exposure. PNP also induced the marRAB operon and dps gene, which bestow resistance to oxidative stress. A compound structurally similar to PNP, dinitrophenol (DNP) a protonophore that uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, has previously been shown to induce the marRAB operon. Like DNP, we suggest that PNP uncouples oxidative phosphorylation within E. coli cells. The upregulated marRAB and emrRAB genes also confer antibiotic resistance and efflux mechanisms, respectively, within E. coli. A downregulation of genes encoding porins, for the transport of solutes, in the outer membrane of cells (ompA, ompC, ompF and ompT), indicated that PNP also affected cell membrane constituents. In addition, rpoE, which encodes a sigma factor involved in cell envelope stress response, was upregulated in cells following PNP exposure. Genes that conferred resistance to low pH (hdeA, hdeB) were upregulated in cells that were exposed to PNP. Furthermore, the acidic nature of the PNP medium may have activated a pH-inducible gene, inaa, which (as with marRAB operon) bestows antibiotic stress resistance in E. coli.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Systems toxicology: using the systems biology approach to assess chemical
           pollutants in the environment
    • Abstract: 2008
      Publication year: 2008
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 2

      There are many complex problems in environmental toxicology that we have historically not been able to resolve in a satisfactory quantitative manner. These complexities include the effects of mixtures of pollutants, complex exposure profiles, or the complex responses of organisms or ecosystems over different timescales. The cell biology community, along with mathematicians developed the ‘Systems Biology’ concept. This is a modelling tool that was developed to understand and predict how complex biological process at the cellular, and sub-cellular level, work. It is also theoretically possible to apply this systems approach to toxicology, called ‘Systems Toxicology’. This discipline is in its infancy. Historic concepts in the control of biological systems are outlined, and how these relate to the modern concept of systems biology. We then describe systems toxicology and its application to environmental pollution. System toxicology involves the input of data into computer modelling techniques, which use mostly differential equations, models of networks, or cellular automata theory. The input data can be biological information from organisms exposed to pollutants. These inputs could be data from the ‘omics, or traditional biochemical or physiological effects data. The input data must also include environmental chemistry data sets and quantitative information on ecosystems so that geochemistry, toxicology, and ecology can be modelled together. The outputs could include complex descriptions of how organisms and ecosystems respond to chemicals or other pollutants and the inter-relationships with the many other environmental variables involved. The model outputs could be at the cellular level, organ, organism, or ecosystem level. Ecologically relevant outputs could be achieved (‘systems ecotoxicology’), provided environmental variability is considered in the modelling. Systems toxicology is potentially a very powerful tool, but a number of practical issues remain to be resolved such as the creation and quality assurance of databases for environmental pollutants and their effects, as well as user-friendly software that uses ecological or ecotoxicological parameters and terminology.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Index of authors
    • Abstract: 2008
      Publication year: 2008
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Information about the Series Editors
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 1



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Information about the Volume Editors
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 1



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • List of Contributors
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 1



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • On the comparative biology of Nitric Oxide (NO) synthetic pathways:
           Parallel evolution of NO-mediated signaling
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 1

      Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the smallest and most diffusible signal molecules known. It can be synthesized in virtually any cell of our body and found in nearly every major group of organisms on our planet. Here, we will discuss several enzymatic and nonenzymatic pathways of NO synthesis in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes including protists, plants and animals. Many of these synthetic mechanisms can coexist within the same cell or cell population. We will also briefly review comparative aspects of NO signaling with a focus on the diversity of NO synthases in invertebrate animals and nonanimal groups. NO-related regulatory mechanisms may be as old as cellular organization itself, so that “ancestral” functions of NO in prokaryotes and basal eukaryotes are likely well preserved across billions of years of biological evolution and can be essential for biomedical studies and clinical applications. On the other hand, NO synthetic pathways might represent examples of parallel evolution in different lineages of organisms.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Nitric oxide biogenesis, signalling and roles in molluscs: The Sepia
           officinalis paradigm
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 1

      The past decade has witnessed a burst of interest in the biological roles of nitric oxide (NO) and its signalling pathway in molluscs. Several roles of NO have been demonstrated in different functions often related to specific behaviours such as olfaction, feeding, learning, defence, development and movement. The complex roles of NO in the ink gland and nervous system of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis are paradigmatic in this respect. Stimulation of NO production via the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signal transduction pathway induces a series of events that, though apparently unrelated, come together to control overall regulation of the ink defence system. It is the aim of this chapter to provide a brief overview of the biogenesis and roles of NO in molluscs with specials reference to studies carried out in the authors’ laboratories on the ink system of S. officinalis. A prospective analysis of future advances in the field is also offered.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Soluble guanylyl cyclases in invertebrates: Targets for NO and O2
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 1

      The major cellular targets for NO are soluble guanylyl cyclases (sGCs), which are activated upon binding NO and catalyse the synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP). Invertebrates and possibly vertebrates have two families of sGCs: conventional NO-sensitive sGCs, and atypical sGCs that are insensitive to NO. Recent evidence suggests that the atypical sGCs act as oxygen sensors, mediating behavioral responses to oxygen content in the environment. Here we review the biochemical properties of both families of sGCs and recent evidence supporting the model that atypical sGCs can act as molecular oxygen sensors.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Nitric oxide signalling in insect epithelial transport
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 1

      Nitric oxide (NO) is a key regulator of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signalling, and has major roles in the function of insect Malpighian (renal) tubules. Insect tubules determine survival of the whole animal, and study of the mechanisms of tubule function in vivo have increased our understanding of epithelial function, as well as advancing the development of novel pesticide strategies. NO controls the rate of fluid transport by the Malpighian tubules of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, where the overall physiological effect on the tubule by NO results from interactions of NO with cGMP signalling pathway components, in particular cGMP-hydrolysing phosphodiesterases. NO also modulates fluid transport rates in tubules from medically relevant insect vectors, the mosquito and tsetse fly. Furthermore, the only known family of insect nitridergic neuropeptides – the capa peptides – has also been identified in the mosquito, and shown to stimulate NO/cGMP signalling and fluid transport in tubules from Anopheles, Aedes and Glossina but not Schistocerca – suggesting a conservation of capa-induced NO/cGMP signalling across Dipteran species. A newly-discovered role of the Drosophila tubule in immune sensing is described. Microbial challenge increases NO and antimicrobial peptide production by the tubule; moreover, transgenic modulation of NO levels in vivo in only specific cells of the tubule increases tubule antimicrobial peptide production and confers increased survival of the whole animal upon immune challenge. We show here that Aedes tubules can also act as immune sensors, and mount a NO response to immune challenge. Thus, tubules possess a host of functions relevant to insect survival, in which NO plays major roles. The current challenge will be to use the genomic resources available to Drosophila, and increasingly to Anopheles, to further our understanding of the role of NO signalling in survival of the adult insect.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Nitric oxide/cyclic GMP signaling and insect behavior
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 1

      Behavioral control involves the perception of external information by sensory organs, its integration with proprioceptive information representing an individual's internal state, selection of appropriate actions by central nervous circuits, and their adaptive performance by neuron–muscular and neurosecretory systems. There is accumulating evidence from various species that the gaseous signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) participates in the control of insect behavior on all these levels. In contrast to the spatially and temporally precise transmission at conventional chemical synapses, NO is formed on demand, freely diffuses through cellular membranes, and may thus coordinate units of neurons without anatomically established synaptic interconnections. As a laterally diffusing messenger, NO may influence populations of sensory afferences, interneurons and efferent cells, contributing to all levels of processing between sensory activation and the activation of neurosecretory and motor functions. After briefly summarizing some general aspects of NO signaling mechanisms and the distribution of their functional components in the insect nervous system, we present a collection of studies demonstrating the direct contribution of NO to the processing of behaviorally relevant sensory information and the selection and coordinated performance of situation-specific behaviors.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Impact of nitrative/nitrosative stress in mitochondria: Unraveling targets
           for malaria chemotherapy
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 1

      Nitric oxide (NO) has been identified as one of the most important signaling molecules in living organisms. In addition to the direct effects of NO, recent studies have revealed that protein modifications by NO, such as nitration or S-nitrosation, are also of biological significance as regulatory mechanisms that can affect cellular functions. Both protein modifications occur as a consequence of oxidative/nitrative stress. Some of these protein modifications have been found in mitochondria, and in certain cases the corresponding activities and/or pathways affected have been identified. The protein modifications can result as collateral damage during normal or pathological oxidative/nitrative stress, or in more localized, controlled situations that modulate signal transduction pathways. As an example of these complex phenomena, we discuss the interplay among the malaria parasite, mosquito and host, focusing on the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and protein modifications in controlling parasite development.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Effects of S-nitrosation of nitric oxide synthase
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 1

      Nitric oxide (NO) is a key mammalian signaling molecule that affects numerous physiological processes. Mammals possess three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS): endothelial (eNOS), neuronal (nNOS), and inducible (iNOS). These isoforms differ in their tissue distribution, cellular location, regulation, and NO output. NO synthesized by eNOS and nNOS acts in a paracrine fashion, whereby NO generated in one cell acts upon an adjacent cell by binding to and activating soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Activation of sGC by NO leads to a several hundredfold enhancement of cyclic guanidine monophosphate (cGMP) synthesis. Notable outcomes of elevated cGMP levels are neurotransmission and smooth muscle relaxation. iNOS is capable of synthesizing much higher steady-state levels of NO, and the toxicity of NO is harnessed as part of the innate immune response. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that NO targets proteins other than sGC. S-nitrosation is an example of nonclassical NO signaling, defined as sGC/cGMP-independent, and has garnered attention with regard to the regulation of NOS activity both in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this review is to cover what is currently known about the S-nitrosation of NOS isoforms.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Regulatory role and evolution of unconventional NOS-related RNAs
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 1

      Endogenous nitic oxide (NO) produced by the enzyme NO synthase (NOS) has an important role in a variety of physiological processes. The toxic properties of NO however suggest that its production must be tightly regulated. A particularly exciting and novel aspect of the regulation of NO signalling is the possibility that the expression of NOS genes is controlled by unconventional mechanisms that depend on the presence of natural antisense transcripts (NATs). Here we will discuss the properties of three distinct NATs discovered in the central nervous system (CNS) of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. These transcripts possess regions of significant complementarity to NOS-encoding mRNAs. Importantly, our experiments on identified molluscan neurons suggest that NATs regulate the expression of the NOS gene through the formation of duplex molecules with the NOS mRNA. Recent discoveries of NOS-related NATs in mammals support the results of our molluscan studies. Thus, it is quite likely that NAT-mediated regulation of NO signalling is a phenomenon shared by a variety of species.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • The role of blood nitrite in the control of hypoxic vasodilation
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 1

      In the past few years circulating nitrite has been increasingly regarded not only as an inert end-product of endogenous nitric oxide (NO), but also as an important physiological compound that participates in the regulation of hypoxic vasodilation. The vasoactivity of nitrite appears to involve its one-electron reduction to NO, whereby nitrite represents a storage pool of NO activity that becomes available during tissue hypoxia. Among the mechanisms for NO formation from nitrite so far identified, the nitrite reductase activity of deoxygenated hemoglobin has been the focus of several recent studies, which have assigned to red blood cells a considerable role in NO generation and local blood flow regulation. This hemoglobin-based mechanism for nitrite vasoactivity involves nitrite transport from plasma into the red blood cells, its reaction with deoxygenated rather than oxygenated hemoglobin to generate NO, the diffusion of NO out of red blood cells, and finally activation of the vasodilatory response. In this review we critically address these steps with the aim of identifying potential control sites along the pathway from plasma nitrite to vasoactive NO, and discuss alternative mechanisms for nitrite-induced blood vessel dilation.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Nitrite is a vascular store of NO which mediates hypoxic signaling and
           protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 1

      The circulating anion nitrite, once thought to be a physiologically inert byproduct of nitric oxide (NO) oxidation, has been proposed to be a vascular storage form of bioactive NO. Nitrite is reduced to bioactive NO along a physiological oxygen and pH gradient by its reaction with deoxygenated hemoglobin and other hemoproteins. Through this mechanism, nitrite plays a role in hypoxic vasodilation and is capable of inhibiting mitochondrial respiration during hypoxia. Accumulating data demonstrate that nitrite is a potent mediator of cytoprotection after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in several organs, including the heart, liver, and brain. However, the mechanisms of nitrite-dependent cytoprotection remain unknown. In this article, we review the role of nitrite as a hypoxic source of NO and discuss the potential mechanisms of nitrite-mediated cytoprotection from I/R injury.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Nitric oxide and the zebrafish (Danio rerio): Developmental neurobiology
           and brain neurogenesis
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 1

      Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms produce nitric oxide (NO), which is of vital importance in physiological processes as well as for pathology and recovery in various diseases. NO may also possess important roles in embryonic development and plasticity changes in later life. Knowledge about vertebrate developmental neurobiology has to a large degree come from studies of bony fishes (teleosts) such as the zebrafish (Danio rerio, Teleostei), and studies of teleost NO systems have provided insights about the role of NO in these events. We therefore summarize current knowledge about the presence, molecular identity and expression of NOS isoforms in teleosts, i.e., neuronal NOS (NOS I/NOS1), the presumed immune response related inducible NOS (NOS III/NOS2) and the vascular/endothelial NOS (NOS III/NOS3). We describe the spatio-temporal expression of NOS I in relation to the neurotransmitter/hormone differentiation during early development, and present new data about the establishment of NOS I expression in areas of the adult brain with ongoing neurogenesis. We also present further evidence for the influence of NO on early organogenesis, demonstrated by abnormal organ development caused by manipulation of NO systems in embryos. It is concluded that knowledge about the zebrafish NOS/NO systems contribute to the understanding of NO functions in general, and provide an experimental model for studies of functions and cellular mechanisms of NO in vertebrate body morphogenesis and organogenesis. Due to the high capacities for ongoing cell mitosis and neural plasticity throughout life, teleost species may also emerge as important models for studies on retained cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult central nervous system (CNS). Future studies need to include more molecular data on identified, but poorly characterized or as-yet unidentified NO-producing NOS isoforms in teleosts, in combination with experimental studies with applications of new investigative tools.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • NO in the development of fish
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 1

      Autonomic innervation, at least of the cardiovascular system, appears late during the development of vertebrate embryos. In the early stages of innervation, control may be achieved by the activity of hormones, including for example the messenger molecule nitric oxide (NO). While NO in adult vertebrates is known to play a key function in many physiological processes, such as control of vascular tone, neurotransmission, macrophage activity and angiogenesis, very little is known about the onset of NO responsiveness during development. In fish, the presence of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) have been established by cloning and sequencing. The presence of endothelial NOS (eNOS) is indicated by immunological data, but attempts to identify eNOS at the molecular level have failed so far. nNOS expression, in particular, has been shown to occur at very early developmental stages. Analysis of the effect of NO on the cardiovascular system in zebrafish embryos and larvae revealed almost no effects on cardiac activity during chronic exposure to NO-producing chemicals, whereas vascular reactivity was observed in veins and arteries of the zebrafish in early developmental stages (5–6 days post-fertilization). Chronic exposure to a NO donor also modified the development of the vascular system by inducing an earlier appearance of some blood vessels in the trunk region of the zebrafish larvae. The nervous system and the gut also appear to be organs in which the early expression of NOS is of functional importance.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Role of nitric oxide in vascular regulation in fish
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 1

      Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the oldest signaling molecules in animals, which acts as an intercellular and intracellular messenger in a multitude of cell types. Its role in the vascular biology of terrestrial vertebrates, particularly in mammals, is well established and extensively documented. This review article deals with the occurrence and effects of NO in the fish vascular system. In fish, the information regarding the roles of NO in the control of vascular resistance is surprisingly scanty; on the other hand, there is increasing evidence for a role for the NO synthase (NOS)/NO system in this highly diverse group of animals. Many authors have reported the occurrence and localization of both constitutive and inducible NOS (iNOS) isoforms in fish tissues, including gills and heart. Endothelial NOS (eNOS) has been detected in the vascular and endocardial endothelium of eel and some Antarctic fish, as well as in the endothelial cells of developing zebrafish. Evidence has been also reported for NOS-independent NO production, and particularly on the conversion of nitrite to NO by erythrocytes under conditions of hypoxia. The functional roles (vascular effects) of NO in developing and adult fish have been investigated. Studies on various fish species show results specific to the species or to the particular vascular preparation used. Fish appear to be an ideal model for studying the conservation and diversity of the functional roles of NO in the control of vascular resistance.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • NOS distribution and NO control of cardiac performance in fish and
           amphibian hearts
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 1

      Nitric oxide (NO), generated endogenously by a family of NO synthases (NOS) in the heart, has important autocrine–paracrine effects on cardiac function, modulating the inotropic state, excitation–contraction coupling, diastolic function, heart rate and β-adrenergic responsiveness. Fish and amphibian hearts share common structural and functional aspects with higher vertebrates, while differing in relevant ultrastructural, myoarchitectural, vascular and pumping features. This synopsis deals with cardiac NOS expression and localization in phylogenetically and eco-physiologically different teleost species, as well as in lungfish and frog, thus documenting the long evolutionary history of cardiac NO. In particular, the role of NO in the mechanical performance of teleost and frog hearts, both in the absence (i.e., unstimulated heart preparations) and in the presence of physical (i.e., load changes) and chemical (inotropic agonists) stimuli, is analysed. Using teleost and amphibian hearts as natural models in which the coronary system is absent, or scarcely present, the importance of an endocardial endothelium (EE) NO-mediated intracavitary control of mechanical performance is emphasized. This highlights the ancient autocrine–paracrine role of the cardiac NOS/NO system during the evolution of the poikilotherm vertebrate heart.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Nitric oxide and histamine in hibernation and neuroprotection
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 1

      The short-lived free radical gas nitric oxide (NO) and the histaminergic neuronal systems are widely distributed in most brain regions, thereby being involved in various homeostatic and neurobiological activities as well as neurodegenerative processes. In the case of the first neuronal system, its production relies on three specifically and dimerically active NO synthase (NOS) enzyme isoforms. An enzymatic system related to the activation of its two major neuromediators (glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA]), which are co-localized to NOergic fibers throughout the different brain regions. Consequently, NOergic signaling deriving from this complex neuronal system tends to strengthen its role in the successful execution of determinant behaviors such as sensorimotor tasks. It is worthwhile noting that the activation of endothelial NOS in blood vessels seems to be beneficial for the maintenance of cerebral blood flow not only in pathological syndromes but also in physiological conditions, such as the torpor state of hibernators, that manifest ischemic-like damage. Although the free radical gas modifies the circadian sleep–wake cycle, this cycle, which in hibernators is replaced by ultradian rhythms, does not appear to be linked to NOergic influences. It seems that the phylogenetically old group of histaminergic neurons, which activates three distinct G-protein-coupled receptors in the brain, is more directly involved in the regulation of hibernation. This article reviews the modulatory role of NOergic and histaminergic neuronal systems in hibernation and in other physiological states that involve neuronal plasticity. Potentially important protective roles of these systems in neurodegenerative diseases and cerebral ischemia are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Nitric oxide, peroxynitrite and matrix metalloproteinases: Insight into
           the pathogenesis of sepsis
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 1

      Sepsis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in North America. Clinical trials in the past have produced only modest reductions in mortality. Part of the reason for the failure of these trials is a general lack of understanding of the pathogenesis of sepsis. Gram-negative sepsis is initiated by lipopolysaccharide, a component in the outer wall of Gram-negative bacteria. It is important to understand the cardiovascular pathophysiology of sepsis, as cardiovascular symptoms predominate. These symptoms include altered blood coagulation, as well as vascular and myocardial complications. During sepsis, there is an enhanced state of coagulation due to the activation of extrinsic and intrinsic clotting pathways. The vascular complications involve the development of two interacting factors: overproduction of vasodilatory substances and vascular hyporeactivity to vasoconstrictors. The cardiac complications are believed to be due to an intrinsic decrease in myocardial contractile function. This review will focus on three important mechanisms for the pathogenicity of sepsis: nitric oxide, oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinases. An enhanced amount of nitric oxide is generated via increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase during sepsis. Oxidative stress is also enhanced and is increased primarily by the formation of peroxynitrite, the toxic reaction product of nitric oxide and superoxide. A new emerging field in sepsis pathophysiology is the activation of matrix metalloproteinases as a result of enhanced oxidative stress. An upregulation of these enzymes during sepsis has been demonstrated in both clinical and basic science models. Moreover, studies have shown a beneficial effect of pharmacological inhibition and genetic ablation of matrix metalloproteinases. This review provides an overview of the cardiovascular abnormalities of sepsis as well as various mechanisms of its pathogenicity, with particular emphasis on matrix metalloproteinases.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
  • Index of authors
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Experimental Biology, Volume 1



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:27Z
       
 
 
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