Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3161 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3161 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 106, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 446, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 324, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 429, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 395, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 488, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 265, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 213, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Computers
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.205
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 14  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0065-2458
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Air pollution control model using machine learning and IoT techniques
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Chetan Shetty, B.J. Sowmya, S. Seema, K.G. SrinivasaAbstractProblem with the automobile engines continues to increase in a very large scale. Every vehicle has its own emission but problem arises when the emission occurs beyond standard values. Even though lot of changes has been made in the consumption of fuel, increasing urbanization and industrialization contribute for the poor air quality. With the technical advancements in machine learning, it's been possible to build predictive models for monitoring and controlling pollution based on the real-time data. With this, we are using IoT techniques for monitoring the emission rates of vehicles. A predictive model is built on the real-time data available, predicting the values of carbon monoxide. Sensors are embedded in the vehicles to measure the pollutants levels. By using the monitoring techniques, vehicle details such as location, owner is notified with the current situation of pollution in his location and his vehicle emission rate contributing to environment. Machine learning model is used for the prediction of pollution level in the vehicle location based on the previous data and the current data obtained by the sensors. Here the pollutants level can be controlled using smart emission surveillance system. The system shoots beyond threshold value taken from the Bharat Stage emission standards then automatically a notification will be sent to the vehicle owner. The emitted level will be monitored and the fuel supply to the engine will be cut off using solenoid valve at the same time.
       
  • Digital twin: Empowering edge devices to be intelligent
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Vidya Hungud, Senthil Kumar ArunachalamAbstractEdge/fog devices, such as machineries at manufacturing floors, instruments in hospitals, digital assistants with human beings, equipment and appliances at factories, wares and utensils at homes, cameras at important places such as airports, railway stations, retail stores and malls, entertainment plazas, eating joints, stadiums, and auditoriums are all set to join in the mainstream computing as they are being stuffed with increased processing capabilities, memory and storage capacities. They are also being connected with one another in the vicinity directly and indirectly through a middleware solution. Also remotely held, cloud-hosted and cyber applications and databases are also being integrated with ground-level edge/fog devices. Through such extreme connectivity and deeper integration, edge and fog devices are intrinsically and externally enabled to do real-time data capture, processing, analytics, knowledge discovery, decision-making and actuation. Precisely speaking, edge/fog devices and their clusters are all set to become the next-generation, highly optimized and organized IT infrastructure for producing and delivering real-time applications and services. In other words, edge/fog clouds are being dynamically established and sustained in order to provide a variety of service-oriented, event-driven, people-centric, mission-critical, knowledge-filled, and context-aware services for both professionals and commoners.Real-time sensor and streaming data analytics can be easily accomplished through edge clouds in order to supply personalized, predictive and prescriptive insights. Edge clouds are also getting synchronized with conventional clouds such as public, private, and hybrid clouds in order to facilitate comprehensive and historical data analytics. This chapter is for accentuating and articulating how edge devices become intelligent in their actions and reactions in conjunction with their respective digital twins.
       
  • Industry 4.0: Industrial Internet of Things (IIOT)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Sathyan MunirathinamAbstractThe physical world is transformed into being digitized and makes everything connected. An explosion of smart devices and technologies has allowed mankind to be in constant communication anywhere and anytime. IoT trend has created a sub-segment of the IoT market known as the industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) or Industry 4.0. Industry 4.0 dubbed I4.0 marks the fourth in the Industrial Revolution that focuses heavily on interconnectivity, automation, autonomy, machine learning, and real-time data. By 2020, it is estimated that over 30 billion of the world's devices will be connected in some way—which is 20 billion more devices than today! The consistent capturing and transmitting of data among machines provide manufacturing companies with many growth opportunities. The IIoT is expected to transform how we live, work and play. The number one challenge faced by the Industrial IoT is security and privacy. If we cannot alleviate many of the security and privacy issues that impact the Industrial IoT, we will not be able to achieve its full potential. IoT and the trend toward greater connectivity means more data gathered from more places, in real time, to enable real-time decisions and increase revenue, productivity, and efficiency.
       
  • The fog computing/edge computing to leverage Digital Twin
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): J. Pushpa, S.A. KalyaniAbstractCloning the real world entity to virtual object is already studied in most of the field but making the cloned object more intelligent and healer of real-time physical object will give a new vision on technology. Digital Twin is fitting into the above statement. It is the conjugation of Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, IoT and Big data to evolve as ubiquitous solution for all kind of issue. Digital Twin can build on many form based on the requirement which is basically designed to resolve the challenges of the real world entity.Digital Twin is not limited for solving standalone system, single entity and Machinery problem but also suitable for all kind of data management and controlling issues. Digital Twin can extend its arm by embedding with Edge or Fog computing which can be the solution to reduce the connectivity and latency issue in network.In this chapter, Methodologies for leveraging the Digital Twin using Fog/Edge computing will be discussed with the suitable use case such as Wind Turbine, Product Management, Healthcare center and so on. We also discuss the Financial Benefit, Tangible Benefits and Connectivity Model.
       
  • Digital twin technology for “smart manufacturing”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Preetha Evangeline, AnandhakumarAbstractThe insights into additive manufacturing, the Internet of Things, and analytics enable us to help organizations reassess their people, processes, and technologies in light of advanced manufacturing practices that are evolving every day. Manufacturing processes are becoming increasingly digital. As this trend unfolds, many companies often struggle to determine what they should be doing to drive and deliver real value both operationally and strategically. Indeed digital solutions may promise significant value for an organization. Of particular fascination of late seems to be the notion of a digital twin: a near-real-time digital image of a physical object or process that helps optimize business performance.
       
  • Stepping into the digitally instrumented and interconnected era
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Pethuru Raj, Jenn-Wei LinAbstractThis chapter is to tell all about the digitization-inspired possibilities and opportunities and how software-defined cloud centers are the best fit for hosting and running digital applications. Also, how the next-generation data analytics can be smartly accomplished through cloud platforms and infrastructures is also explained in detail. We are to describe some of the impactful developments and technological advancements brewing in the IT space, how the tremendous amount of data getting produced and processed through cloud systems is to impact the IT and business domains, and how next-generation IT infrastructures are accordingly getting refactored, remedied and readied for the impending big data-induced challenges, how likely the move of the data analytics discipline toward fulfilling the digital universe requirements of extracting and extrapolating actionable insights for the knowledge-parched is, and finally for the establishment and sustenance of the dreamt smarter planet. In short, the uninhibited explosion of digitized systems and connected devices pour out a tremendous amount of multi-structured data and the impending challenge is to make sense out of the data heaps. Data analytics is the way to go and in the recent past, the overwhelming trend is to empower our everyday systems with machine and deep learning algorithms to automatically learn out of data heaps and streams in order to be distinctively intelligent in their actions and reactions. This chapter is specially prepared to put a stimulating foundation for explaining the nitty-gritty of the Digital Twin paradigm.
       
  • Machine learning and deep learning algorithms on the Industrial Internet
           of Things (IIoT)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): P. AmbikaAbstractDeep transformation and human progress is a new industrial revolution that makes “Automation of Everything.” It connects all digital interfaces, data analysis and control of the physical world through networks of computers. This key revolution promises everyone to unlock trillions of opportunities in the next decade. Human could feel massive improvements in productivity in physical and digital industries that enhances quality life of a human healthier and more sustainable community. In the world of IIoT, the creation of massive amounts of data from a various sensors is common and there is lot of challenges. This goal of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive review about Machine learning and deep learning techniques, popular algorithms, and their impact on Industrial Internet of Things. This chapter also delves use cases where machine learning is used and to gain insights from IoT data.
       
  • The growing role of integrated and insightful big and real-time data
           analytics platforms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Ranganathan Indrakumari, Thangamuthu Poongodi, Palanimuthu Suresh, Balusamy BalamuruganDigitization era is altering several industries which include the way in which the data is analyzed and it is inferred that about 2.7 Zettabytes of data exist in the digital world today. By 2020 the data generated per second for every human being will approximate amount to 1.7 megabytes and the volume of data would double every 2 years thus reach the 40 ZB point by 2020. Interactive Data Corporation (IDC) estimated that by the end of year 2020, the e-commerce transactions B2B and B2C will hit 450 billion per day on the internet.The advent of Big and real time Data has triggered disruptive changes in many fields and the exploding volume of different sources of data like heterogeneous data, data integration, spatio-temporal correlation of data, batch analytics and real-time analytics, data sharing, semantic interoperability requires the development of a scalable platform that can fuse multiple data layers to handles the data intelligently.In Big Data approaches, the challenge is not anymore to collect the data, but to draw valuable conclusions by properly analyzing them. The growth in Unstructured Data generated by business is irrefutable and they are under more pressure to preserve it for longer periods of time. To be clear, exploiting the collected data has been always considered by practitioners and researchers, but the huge velocity, heterogeneity and enormity of massive stream of real-time data shove the limits of the current storage, management and processing capabilities.Admittedly, the traditional method of Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) are challenged and cannot be applied on the emerging opportunistically and crowed sensed data streams. Some of these data streams are structured in a way that serve only one predefined purpose and cannot be directly used for other means. Yet, there are emerging unstructured data such as context-based data from the internet and social media as well as credit card transactions that is not clear if they can be used to better understand the mobility patterns.The analytical company Gartner states that by 2020 there will be over 26 billion interconnected devices. It is obvious, that they will produce massive amounts of meaningful data. Those data can be used for many applications such as real-time industrial equipment monitoring, traffic planning, automated maintenance, etc. Therefore, it is essential to develop modern system abstractions that allow us to resourcefully process huge and new data streams. This enormous amount of data urges the growth of integrated and insightful big and real-time data analytics Platforms.The upcoming contemporary technology like digital twin, integrates historical data from past machine usage to the current data. It uses sensors to collect the real-time data, working status and other operational data attached to the physical model. These components send the relevant data via a cloud-based system to the other side of the bridge with the help of data analytics platform which produces the required insights. The big and real-time data analytics Platforms assist to perform useful operations on data analytics as a complete package. For this purpose, data analytics platform are used to acquire constructive insight from the huge volume of data.Data analytics platform is an ecosystem of technologies and services that can help the businesses in increasing revenues, enhance operational efficiency, stabilize marketing campaigns and customer service efforts, respond more quickly to emerging market trends and gain a competitive edge over rivals. The data analytics platform finds the pattern and relationships in data by applying statistical techniques and communicates the results generated by analytical models to executives and end users to make decisions with the help of data visualization tools that display data on a single screen and can be updated in real time as new information becomes available. Big data and real-time data analytics platform supports the full spectrum of data types, protocols and integration to speed up and simplify the data wrangling process. The big data and real time platform provides accurate data, increase efficiency in the workspace, gives answers to complex questions along with security and hence it plays the key role in business analytics.
       
  • Addressing issues with MLC phase-change memory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Marjan Asadinia, Hamid Sarbazi-AzadAbstractAll of the presented solutions in this book focused on using MLC phase change memory (PCM) due to density advantage and prolonging PCM lifetime. However, resistance drift can be one of the challenging issues for MLC PCMs. While it is desired to have the density advantage of MLC, the trade-off is resistance drift. Since MLCs have closely separated resistance regions, drift has a chance of overlapping intermediate regions. It may then bring out either single bit or multi-bit soft error. Indeed, drift source is related to the semi amorphous resistance regions that are metastable vs time and temperature while crystalline resistance proves to be stable across time and temperature. This chapter solves this challenge of resistance drift problems by designing a memory architecture and circuit. It improves energy, latency and reliability of MLC PCM while maintaining its capacity advantage. The solution we offer is variable resistance spectrum MLC PCM.
       
  • Inter-line level schemes for handling hard errors in PCMs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Marjan Asadinia, Hamid Sarbazi-AzadAbstractTo address the problem of fast degradation in PCM main memory systems in the presence of severe cell wear-out, this chapter introduces and evaluates some ways to deal with hard error issues in phase change memory. Our observation reveals when some memory pages reach their endurance limits, other pages may be far from their limits even when using a perfect wear-leveling. Recent studies have proposed redirection or correction schemes to alleviate this problem, but all suffer from poor throughput or latency.In this chapter, we also propose On-demand page paired PCM (OD3P) memory system. Our technique mitigates the problem of fast failure of pages by redirecting them onto other healthy pages, leading to gradual memory capacity degradation. We then extend our proposed scheme at line-level, called line-level OD3P as a way to increase the durability of PCM pages by enabling line pairing within a page. Afterwards, we introduce our simulation environment and experimental results of our evaluations.
       
  • Handling hard errors in PCMs by using intra-line level schemes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Marjan Asadinia, Hamid Sarbazi-AzadAbstractIn this chapter, we first introduce one shifting mechanisms in order to further prolonging the lifetime of a phase change memory (PCM) device, reducing the write rate to PCM cells, and handling cell failures when hard faults occur. In this line, Byte-level Shifting Scheme (BLESS) is addressed and reduces write pressure over hot cells of blocks. Additionally, we illustrate that using the MLC capability of PCM and manipulating the data block to recover faulty cells can also be used for error recovery purpose. Next, we propose another intra-line level pairing scheme (ILP). This novel recovery mechanism can statically partition a data block into a small number of groups and efficiently benefits from the advantages of MLC capability and enables word-pairing mechanism within a line.
       
  • Phase-change memory architectures
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Marjan Asadinia, Hamid Sarbazi-AzadAbstractSome of the recent approaches regarding leverage PCM will be reviewed in this chapter. The chapter starts with a discussion regarding future main memory systems that includes hybrid architecture schemes using both PCM and DRAM arrays. Later, we focus on PCM only approaches and this section will help describe some techniques for reducing the increased read latency because of slow writes in PCMs.In this chapter, we also illustrate wear-leveling approaches and review the security problems of this memory approach which are lifetime limited. This section includes an overview of the recent security aware wear-leveling techniques, whose methods help detect attacks, and their issues during the runtime.Finally, we describe efficient schemes with hard error detection and correction capabilities as well as soft error problems like resistance drift.
       
  • Introduction to nonvolatile memory technologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Marjan Asadinia, Hamid Sarbazi-AzadAbstractDynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) has been the leading main memory technology during the last four decades. In deep submicron regime, however, scaling DRAM comes with several challenges caused by charge leakage and imprecise charge placement. Phase Change Memory (PCM) technology is known as one of the most promising technologies to replace DRAM. Compared to competitive nonvolatile memories like NAND Flash, Spin Transfer Torque random-access memory (STT-RAM), Magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM), PCM benefits from best attributes of fast random access, negligible leakage energy, superior scalability, high density, and operating in both Single-level Cell (SLC) and Multilevel Cell (MLC) storage levels without imposing large storage overhead. Unfortunately, density advantage of MLC PCM devices comes at the cost of lower write endurance that results in fast wear-out of memory cells. Adding to it, other preliminary concerns for PCM applicability are related to low resilience to soft errors because of resistance drift, higher latency and energy consumption. To alleviate this issue, recent studies have proposed redirection or correction schemes, but all suffer from poor throughput and latency. None of the techniques proposed in the literature to improve the lifetime and reliability of PCM memories consider the impressive characteristic of PCMs to easily shape-shifting from SLC to MLC storage level using some negligible overhead of read/write circuits. We exploit this remarkable ability to propose some new techniques to improve the durability and reliability of PCMs in this book. This chapter gives an overview of nonvolatile memory technologies, memory hierarchy in modern computers, PCM technology maturity and finally introduce the structure of the book and its chapters.
       
  • The emerging phase change memory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Marjan Asadinia, Hamid Sarbazi-AzadAbstractThis chapter evaluates viewpoints on the Phase Change Memory (PCM) devices and materials entailing multi-level cell (MLC) phase change memory as well as its trade-offs. This chapter lists the main difficulties related to PCMs and possible recommendations to address those challenges. The next chapters introduce some simple techniques to alleviate some of the problems listed here.
       
  • Using clickstream data to enhance reverse engineering of Web applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Marko Poženel, Boštjan SlivnikDue to advances in Web technologies, existing Web applications are rewritten or replaced by new ones. As a result of either ad hoc or agile development, many of them lack proper technical documentation. Nevertheless, the domain knowledge built into these applications is valuable, which is why the reverse engineering, an activity aimed at detecting software components and their interrelationships to provide multiple views of software systems at a higher level of abstraction, of existing Web applications is becoming an important issue.Apart from the static reverse engineering based on examining the system's source code, analyzing the dynamic aspect of Web applications often proves worthwhile. One important source of data the dynamic analysis of a Web application can be based on are HTTP server log files. User sessions, results of clickstream analysis, and session reconstruction in particular, can be used as the basis for the first automatic step of reverse engineering, employed in order to gain a quick insight into Web application's source code.It is shown how clickstream data can be used to reveal not only the intensity of connections between individual Web application's source code artifacts but also the overall structure of a Web application. The extracted structure, based either on code artifacts names or their usage, is presented visually as an ATG, with code artifacts belonging to the same application module grouped together. Because session reconstruction is an inherently probabilistic process and thus in general produces noisy data, clustering the code artifacts becomes a challenging task. It is shown that multidimensional scaling and even a simple graph drawing approaches yield better representation of the application transition graph than hierarchical clustering.The method was tested against the results obtained by an expert (the author of the Web application used as a test case). Additionally, the method can also be used for verifying the structure obtained by manual reverse engineering of the application's source code.
       
  • Energy-efficient edge based real-time healthcare support system
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): S. Abirami, P. ChitraAbstractThe ubiquitous usage of wearable IoT (wIoT) devices has created a formidable opportunity for remote health monitoring system to provide paramount services such as preventive care and early intervention for populations at risk. The cloud-edge paradigm can efficiently manifest the complex computations required in providing these services. But the challenge in its exertion lies in incorporating intelligence at the edge devices. With the deluge of data availability, deep learning methods are very promising to obtain sufficient performance in healthcare applications. As the edge devices are resource-constrained in terms of compute capability and energy consumption, unleashing deep learning services from the cloud to the edge requires efficient tackling of the exorbitant computational and energy requirements of deep learning frameworks. In this chapter, an energy-efficient smart edge based health care support system (EESE-HSS) is proposed for diabetic patients with cardiovascular disease. The proposed cloud-edge paradigm makes use of a hierarchical computing architecture for exerting expeditious diagnosis during emergencies. The intelligence framework incorporated at the edge is also built in an energy-efficient manner. Thus, the proposed healthcare support system has better efficacy in terms of energy efficiency and reduced latency. This makes it very supportive for fall detection in diabetic patients with cardiovascular disease who are susceptible to the risk of heart attack, stroke, heart failure and other vicious diseases.
       
  • Digital twin in consumer choice modeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): D. Sudaroli VijayakumarAbstract“Digital twin” more often perceived as a twin terminology along with industry virtualization of physical assets. The usage of digital twin on physical asset is well known, such as to predict when the individual parts of a machine must be replaced. However, digital twin technology in non-physical modeling is a vibrant research area. One area where digital twin can be effective is predicting the customer's needs. Most businesses to predict the customer's needs uses risk analysis and profitability assessment which holds its own pitfalls. One of the major downfalls arises during the analysis on historical data is the time consumed.Time is one of the crucial factors that determines the profit a company makes, holding of customers, satisfying the customers' needs at the right time, fails because of the static behavior. This can be made more effective by enforcing Digital twin to track the customer behavior dynamically such as the products they consume, their satisfaction. So instead of relying on the historical data, the data for digital twin will be from CRMs, logs, order processing info etc. Right product at right time can be achieved by creating suitable machine learning models on this dynamic dataset and this trained model are held in the digital twin, which runs them in real time. For achieving this approach, a specific technology called Tarantool Data Grid is very useful. In this chapter, we will explore how this technology can be used to create consumer choice modeling using Digital Twin with suitable use cases.
       
  • The human body: A digital twin of the cyber physical systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Janet Barnabas, Pethuru RajAbstractThe human body is an excellent engineered product from which many computing systems have drawn its inspiration. The seamless integration of computation and physical components create and substantiate the human body as an excellent parallel of the cyber physical systems (CPS).The human body is a combination of computation, communication and control processes. The Embedded sensors all over the body monitors and controls the physical processes, with feedback loops where physical processes affect actions and reactions and vice versa. This system can be termed as a digital twin of the present CPS.In this chapter, we will analyze the architecture of a cyber physical system and spring parallels to the functioning of various systems in the human body to gather pearls of wisdom from its design as it is a multifarious digital twin of the CPS. The twin is biological systems of the human body and not a virtual system.
       
  • Digital twin: The industry use cases
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Pethuru Raj, Chellammal SurianarayananAbstractWithout an iota of doubt, the well-intended digital transformation initiatives through the smart and systematic application of digitization and digitalization technologies and tools is leading to both tactical as well as strategical accomplishments across industry verticals. Worldwide enterprising businesses ought to consistently and consciously embark on various digital innovation and disruption activities in order to be ahead of their competitors in the knowledge-driven marketplace. There are a number of pioneering digital technologies emerging to speed up and streamline the activities to meet up digital transformation goals. Digital twin is perhaps one of the widely discussed and dissected digital intelligence technologies for the forthcoming era of knowledge-filled, mission-critical and people-centric services. With the faster maturity and stability of information, communication, sensing, perception, decision-making and actuation technologies, the digital twin paradigm is acquiring a lot of mind and market shares. This chapter is specially prepared and incorporated in this book to tell the prominent and dominant use cases of the fast-evolving digital twin. We have also added a number of industry use cases and benefits for unambiguously substantiating the varied claims on the future of this unique and sustainable discipline.
       
  • Impact of cloud security in digital twin
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): N. Susila, Sruthi Anand, S. UshaAbstractDigital Twin is a way to virtually represent or model a physical object using the real time data. This innovation sets up a way to deal with industries and organizations to supervise their products, consequently bridging the gap between design and implementations. As the name suggests, “Digital Twin” infers that a reproduction of the product is made in order to have a nearby relationship with the live item. The procedure of computerized twin begins by gathering real time data, processed data, and operational data and performs distinctive investigation which helps in anticipating the future. This additionally enhances the customer experiences by giving a digital feel of their product. The objective behind all these is the job of gathering information and putting them in a place, i.e., the cloud which could store exorbitant data. The user experience gets enhanced by the intervention of digital twin technology which could help in the successful working of the products geographically distributed. The impact of Internet of Things and Cloud Computing lifts up the digital twin.The information gathered from the sources can be arranged in terms of utilization and prospect to change on a timely basis. These data, as they are stored require proper coordination and a legitimate use.Digital Twin innovation assumes incredible opportunities in the field of manufacturing, healthcare, smart cities, automobile and so on. The effect of having a digital twin for the product makes it simple for activities and recognize the blemishes, if any happened. This approach can help reduce the workload and furthermore can get trained on the virtual machine without the need of a specific training.With the most prevailing technologies of today, like Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Internet of Things more prominent approach to train and monitor products, taking care of its own execution, collaborating to different frameworks, performing self-repairs are made possible. Hence the future is getting unfolded with the emerging DIGITAL TWIN era. The massive data utilized in the field of digital twin is prone to severe security breaches. Thus digital twin technology should be handled with extreme care so as to protect the data. Hence, this chapter identifies the ways and means of collecting, organizing and storing the data in a secured cloud environment. The data is filtered according to the use and priority and pushed into the cloud. It is determined to implement an exclusive algorithm for a secured cloud which would greatly benefit the users and the providers to handle and process it effectively.
       
  • Chapter One - Technical aspects of blockchain and IoT
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Computers, Volume 115Author(s): Hany F. Atlam, Gary B. WillsAbstractBlockchain technology is getting a growing attention from various organizations and researchers as it provides magical solutions to the problems associated with the classical centralized architecture. Blockchain, whether public or private, is a distributed ledger with the capability of maintaining the integrity of transactions by decentralizing the ledger among participating users. On the other hand, the Internet of Things (IoT) represents a revolution of the Internet which can connect nearly all environment devices over the Internet to share their data to create novel services and applications for improving our quality of life. Although the centralized IoT system provides countless benefits, it raises several challenges. Resolving these challenges can be done by integrating IoT with blockchain technology. To be prepared for the integration process, this chapter provides an overview of technical aspects of the blockchain and IoT. It started by reviewing blockchain technology and its main structure. Applications and challenges of the blockchain are also presented. This is followed by reviewing the IoT system by highlighting common architecture and essential characteristics. Various applications and challenges of the IoT system are also discussed.
       
  • Chapter Eight - A blockchain based access control framework for the
           security and privacy of IoT with strong anonymity unlinkability and
           intractability guarantees
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Computers, Volume 115Author(s): Aafaf OuaddahAbstractMotivated by the recent explosion of interest around the blockchain, we examine whether they make a good fit to build a lightweight and robust access control framework to address security and privacy issues in the Internet of Things (IoT) sector. In this direction, this chapter discusses the limitations of the centralized model to secure IoT and proposes the blockchain approach as example of successful distributed system to bring security and privacy to IoT devices. In this direction, we introduce FairAccess and PPDAC, as a lightweight and privacy-preserving access control framework based on the emergent blockchain technology, mainly the permissionless and public type, to ensure fine-grained access control functions for IoT devices with strong anonymity guarantee for IoT end-users. The proposed framework retains the benefits of the blockchain to meet IoT security and privacy arising needs while overcoming the challenges in integrating the blockchain to IoT.
       
  • Testing at scale of IoT blockchain applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Michael A. Walker, Douglas C. Schmidt, Abhishek DubeyAbstractDue to the ever-increasing adaptation of Blockchain technologies in the private, public, and business domains, both the use of Distributed Systems and the increased demand for their reliability has exploded recently, especially with their desired integration with Internet-of-Things devices. This has resulted in a lot of work being done in the fields of distributed system analysis and design, specifically in the areas of blockchain smart contract design and formal verification. However, the focus on formal verification methodologies has meant that less attention has been given toward more traditional testing methodologies, such as unit testing and integration testing. This includes a lack of full support by most, if not all, the major blockchain implementations for testing at scale, except on fully public test networks. This has several drawbacks, such as: (1) The inability to do repeatable testing under identical scenarios, (2) reliance upon public mining of blocks, which introduces unreasonable amounts of delay for a test driven development scenario that a private network could reduce or eliminate, and (3) the inability to design scenarios where parts of the network go down. In this chapter we discuss design, testing methodologies, and tools to allow Testing at Scale of IoT Blockchain Applications.
       
  • Teaching graduate students how to review research articles and respond to
           reviewer comments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Milan Banković, Vladimir Filipović, Jelena Graovac, Jelena Hadži-Purić, Ali R. Hurson, Aleksandar Kartelj, Jovana Kovačević, Nenad Korolija, Miloš Kotlar, Nenad B. Krdžavac, Filip Marić, Saša Malkov, Veljko Milutinović, Nenad Mitić, Stefan Mišković, Mladen Nikolić, Gordana Pavlović-Lažetić, Danijela Simić, Sana Stojanović Djurdjević, Staša Vujičić StankovićAbstractThis article deals with teaching students how to review research articles of other authors and how to respond to reviewer comments related to their own articles. By teaching these skills, one educates students how to do something which is undoubtedly much more important for their professional development: how to properly do their own research and how to properly write their own research articles. The guidelines given are primarily intended for students of computer science. Nevertheless, the notions presented here are applicable to areas other than computing. Since there are so many branches within computing, each one characterized by its own particular features, this article also includes a section on variations of presented methodology, which are of interest for each particular branch of computer science covered by the authors of this article. In general, the review process consists of two main parts: formal review and quality review. Led by the lack of results in the available literature, an analysis based on readability index evaluates average article acceptance rates, review times, and delay period for publishing accepted articles depending on the following: article types, willingness of reviewers to do reviews, journal impact factor, and the scientific field. Quality review must be taken into account for all types of articles. Appendix A describes specific experiences from various scientific fields. Appendix B gives specific guidelines for a number of fields covered by the authors of this article.
       
  • Graph grammar induction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Luka Fürst, Marjan Mernik, Viljan MahničAbstractWe propose a novel approach to the graph grammar induction problem, the goal of which is to find a concise graph grammar whose language (the set of graphs which can be generated using the grammar's productions, i.e., graph substitution rules) contains all of the given “positive” graphs and none of the given “negative” graphs. Most of the existing induction methods learn graph grammars from positive examples alone, performing an iterative specific-to-general search procedure in which candidate productions for the grammar being induced are created from repeated subgraphs in the input graph set. Our approach, by contrast, couples the induction process with a graph grammar parser, thus inducing grammars from both positive and negative graphs. In addition to a graph grammar generalization operator akin to those found in the majority of existing approaches, we employ a novel generalization technique based on merging similar productions, which makes it possible to further reduce the size of the induced grammar. We applied our approach to several nontrivial graph sets, including a set of chemical structural formulas with both positive and negative examples, and obtained graph grammars which can be regarded as a concise and meaningful generalization of the input graphs.
       
  • Intelligent agents in games: Review with an open-source tool
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Matej Vitek, Peter PeerAbstractThe field of artificial intelligence has come a long way in the last 50 years, and studies of its methods soon expanded to a field in which they are of great practical value—computer games. The concept of intelligent agents provides a much needed theoretical background for the comparison of various different approaches to intelligent, rational behavior of computer-controlled characters in games. By combining rationality with certain limitations to the capabilities of our agents, we can achieve behavior resembling that of a human player, which is also desirable in games. The goal of this article is to introduce various types of agents that are used in games, show how to implement meaningful, reasonable limitations to agent capabilities into the game world, and provide a freely available, open-source application for the comparison of such agents. Additionally, in this article we show that even the simplest agents can succeed in their tasks in certain task environments, whereas more difficult task environments often require a more sophisticated agent architecture. Our application consists of two task environments with nine agents in total but could easily be extended with additional task environments and agent implementations. In the end, we find the addition of goals into the agent architecture has the biggest impact on the agent's behavior and performance, whereas the state-based approach helps keep our implementation simple and compact.
       
  • Blockchain with IOT: Applications and use cases for a new paradigm of
           supply chain driving efficiency and cost
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Arnab BanerjeeAbstractThis chapter discusses the use cases of Blockchain with IOT along with other systems/practices to achieve a new paradigm of supply chain. The chapter identifies immediate challenges in various realms of supply chain ranging from product or order tracking, traceability and recall, counterfeiting, agri supply chain, automotive supply chain, digital homes, offices and warehouses to manufacturing and distribution supply chain. Elaborating the key features and capabilities of IOT and Blockchain it explains with example how the combination of these two powerful technologies along with peripherals systems and backbone ERPs can solve the listed business problems. It explores the process flows, technical architecture and business impacts with the IOT and Blockchain combination. The chapter ends with listing of the economic value and cost savings, the IOT Blockchain combination brings to supply chain and the opportunities lying in future.
       
  • ator—An+automatic+algorithm+evaluation+system&rft.title=Advances+in+Computers&rft.issn=0065-2458&rft.date=&rft.volume=">ALGator—An automatic algorithm
           evaluation system
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Tomaž DobravecAbstractThe design of algorithms for solving various kinds of computer-related problems can generally be divided into two parts: the theoretical evolution of the algorithms and the practical assessment of their behavior. While the aim of the first part is to derive algorithms and to prove their theoretical characteristics, the second part struggles to discover the usefulness of the presented solutions when it comes to solving existing problems on real-world computers. Due to the necessary simplifications used in the models of the theoretical analysis, the results of both parts of the process are not always consistent. From a theoretical point of view, it is very important to develop good algorithms, theoretically prove their efficiency and thus sometimes show the theoretical boundaries of a particular problem. However, if these algorithms do not perform well in practice, all the theoretical work is not much more than “art for art's sake.” Therefore, an unbiased and holistic algorithm evaluation is a very important element of the algorithm-design process. To create a fair and reproducible environment in which the algorithm's implementations can be compared is a big challenge; therefore, researchers normally use more or less reasonable simplifications, which leads to results that are not comparable and therefore sometimes misleading. To overcome this problem we introduce a system called ALGator that was developed to facilitate and automate the algorithm-evaluation process. ALGator creates an environment in which the time complexity and other project-specific indicators can be measured and provides tools for the automatic and semi-automatic analyses of the results of the algorithms' execution. In this chapter we present the implementation and the functionalities of the ALGator system and give several practical examples of its use in the evaluation of real algorithms.
       
  • Asymmetric windows in digital signal processing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Robert RozmanAbstractSymmetric windows are widely used in the field of digital signal processing due to their easy design and linear phase property. Nevertheless, symmetry also implies a few potential drawbacks like longer time delay in short-time frequency analysis and some limitations in frequency response. The removal of the symmetry constraint can therefore lead to asymmetric windows better in certain respects. In signal processing, better signal representations and related improved processing performance can be accomplished. In addition, shorter time delay can be achieved with asymmetric windows. This feature is important for contemporary spoken communications in the Internet or mobile networks and all other real-time signal processing applications.The article gives a comprehensive review of the past and current work in the field of asymmetric windows. We elaborate on our work and related efforts of other researchers inspired by the idea of asymmetry. Shorter time delay and some better spectral properties are the most prominent potential of asymmetric windows. However, there are also some other more subtle properties which can improve the performance in specific application contexts (e.g., frequency estimation and detection of closely spaced components in frequency analysis). Several examples of interesting effects of asymmetric windows are presented, followed by empirical evaluations in the fields of pitch modification, shorter time delay audio processing (e.g., speech coding), frequency analysis, speech processing, and FIR filter design. In addition, a detailed comparison of various asymmetric windows found in the literature to widely known symmetric windows is made taking into account several practical and theoretical aspects. Finally, all presented achievements are summarized in a table which provides a complete overview of the current state of this interesting research and application field.
       
  • Blockchain technology for decentralized autonomous organizations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Madhusudan Singh, Shiho KimAbstractWith continuously changing operational and business needs of the organizations, Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAO) is the current need of the organizations. Centralized Autonomous Organization (CAO) lack transparency and are managed by few efficient managers whereas Decentralized autonomous Organization's (DAO) is novel scalable, self-organizing coordination on the blockchain, controlled by smart contracts and its essential operations are automated agreeing to rules and principles assigned in code without human involvement. In this chapter we discuss the needs for Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAO) and key efforts in this field. We then introduce a prospective solution employing blockchain Ethereum, which incorporates a Turing complete programming language with smart contract computing functionality. A solution is elaborated that permits the formation of organizations where participants preserve straight real-time check of contributed collects and governance policies are formalized, automatized and imposed using software. Basic code for smart contract is composed to make a Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) on the Ethereum blockchain. We also explain the working of DAOs code, centering on fundamental establishment and governance characteristics, which includes organization, formation and voting rights. DAOs are considered to agree to the expectation of the business work in the future. But there is still lack of operational base for DAOs in the blockchain community.
       
  • Integration of IoT with blockchain and homomorphic encryption: Challenging
           issues and opportunities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Rakesh Shrestha, Shiho KimAbstractThe advancement of new technology has taken a huge leap in the last few decades. It is bringing a drastic change in each step of human life that are capable of performing intelligent tasks. The internet of things and blockchain are disruptive technologies that have received a huge attention from industry, academic and financial technologies. There is a risk of privacy leakage of sensitive information in the centralized IoT system because the centralized servers can access the plain text data from the IoT devices. There is an extensive interest in applying the blockchain in the IoT system to provide IoT data privacy and decentralized access model. However, the previous blockchain-based IoT systems have issues related to privacy leakage of sensitive information to the servers as the servers can access the plaintext data from the IoT devices. So, we present the potential of integration of blockchain based-IoT with homomorphic encryption that can secure the IoT data with high privacy in a decentralized mode. In addition, we provide comparison of the recent technologies toward the securing and preserving the privacy of the IoT data using blockchain and homomorphic encryption technology. We have also highlighted the research challenges and possible future research directions in the integrated blockchain-based IoT with homomorphic encryption.
       
  • Consensus mechanisms and information security technologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Peng Zhang, Douglas C. Schmidt, Jules White, Abhishek DubeyAbstractDistributed Ledger Technology (DLT) helps maintain and distribute predefined types of information and data in a decentralized manner. It removes the reliance on a third-party intermediary, while securing information exchange and creating shared truth via transaction records that are hard to tamper with. The successful operation of DLT stems largely from two computer science technologies: consensus mechanisms and information security protocols. Consensus mechanisms, such as Proof of Work (PoW) and Raft, ensure that the DLT network collectively agrees on contents stored in the ledger. Information security protocols, such as encryption and hashing, protect data integrity and safeguard data against unauthorized access.The most popular incarnation of DLT has been used in cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum, through public blockchains, which requires the application of more robust consensus protocols across the entire network. An example is PoW, which has been employed by Bitcoin, but which is also highly energy inefficient. Other forms of DLT include consortium and private blockchains where networks are configured within federated entities or a single organization, in which case less energy intensive consensus protocols (such as Raft) would suffice. This chapter surveys existing consensus mechanisms and information security technologies used in DLT.
       
  • A comprehensive survey of issues in solid state drives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Youngbin Jin, Ben LeeAbstractFlash memory-based solid state drives (SSDs) have become ubiquitous in modern computing systems, such as high-performance servers, workstation, desktops, and laptops, due to their performance and density. The architecture of SSDs has evolved to exploit the advantages of flash memories and at the same time conceal their shortcomings. SSD concurrency techniques such as channel striping, flash-chip pipelining, die interleaving, and plane sharing utilize the available parallelism of flash memories, while the flash translation layer (FTL) operations minimize the latency overhead of flash memories. This chapter provides a comprehensive survey of SSD topics that span across from the physical properties of a flash memory cell to the architecture of SSDs. The FTL-related topics are discussed in the context of inter-related system-level operations, which include address mapping, garbage collection, wear leveling, bad block management, SSD concurrency techniques, and page allocation strategies. This chapter also surveys recent research efforts on SSDs.
       
  • Toward realizing self-protecting healthcare information systems: Design
           and security challenges
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Qian ChenAbstractThis book chapter reviews the history of Healthcare Information Systems (HISs), discusses recent cyber security threats affecting HISs, and then introduces the autonomic computing concept and applies the concept to design self-protecting HISs (SPHISs) that can defend themselves against cyber intrusions with little or no human intervention. To realize such SPHISs, we first study security vulnerabilities of the HIS network, communication links and protocols. Based on these vulnerabilities, the component design of a SPHIS is presented. We propose that a SPHIS should contain monitoring systems, early estimation modules, intrusion detection, network forensics analysis devices and intrusion response systems. Finally, existing self-protecting approaches for HIS, enterprise systems and industrial control systems are demonstrated in detail. This chapter provides an innovated design of an autonomic security management system that could reduce IT professional's management burdens while enhancing the security posture of their HISs.
       
  • Revisiting VM performance and optimization challenges for big data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Muhammad Ziad Nayyer, Imran Raza, Syed Asad HussainAbstractThe concept of virtualization in cloud computing aims to maximize resource utilization and minimize cost by deploying multiple Virtual Machines (VMs) on a single physical server sharing resources such as CPU, Cache, I/O, and Memory. The sharing of these resources can cause severe performance degradation, thus requiring VM migration techniques for performance enhancement. The introduction of big data has made the performance enhancement more challenging due to extensive volume, velocity, variety, variability, and veracity of data. The existing VM performance and optimization challenges need to be optimized for big data use cases. This chapter presents big data triggered VM performance challenges focusing big data applications and storage migration in cloud computing. State of the art VM migration techniques are evaluated against challenges posed by big data to outline possible solutions and research challenges.
       
  • SSIM and ML based QoE enhancement approach in SDN context
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Asma Ben LetaifaAbstractToday, video streaming rose above all other traffic types over the internet. While providing this service with a high quality is the most challenging task, researchers are trying to solve the challenge by giving a more efficient network where congestion, broadband limitations and unsatisfied users are limited. In new multimedia based networks, new challenges move from technology-oriented services to user-oriented services which prove the importance of QoE. Service providers' growth depends nowadays not only on QoS parameters but also on clients' feeling and expectation. That is why; service providers must measure received QoE and this becomes a challenge regarding the evaluation of users' feeling. For users, qualitative perception differs from one user to another and service providers affront difficulties to transform the qualitative values into the quantitative one. The QoE evaluation needs more sophisticated methods to describe the real expectation of users. New multimedia applications provide at any user locations media who are sharing video, and communicating together in virtual network. These applications require providing the best possible QoE to consumers. When it comes to us, we present in this paper a machine learning approach combined with adaptive coding in order to provide a better QoE for video streaming services. This solution will be established using SDN architecture. We can justify this choice because we need a centralized architecture, where the totality of the network is known, to predict its status. So, we will implement a machine learning algorithm in the controller: this algorithm, called ML-based SSIM, will calculate approximately the quality needed for a video to be streamed. Finally, the quality found by the ML-based SSIM Algorithm will be combined with the network situation to choose the right coding. First part of the paper deals with an introduction of QoE requirement, metrics and protocols used especially in streaming services, then we give a complete study around Machine learning algorithms and other fields used in literature to enhance QoE. We define in this paper, at first, QoS and QoE, then the serving environment such as mobile cloud computing and software Defined Network (SDN). Then, we give both objective and subjective metrics, expose mathematical approaches used in modeling, predicting and evaluating QoE. Second, we expose the SSIM approach and explain how our proposed one is based on. The last part of the paper deals with experiments: we describe SDN environment deployment, describe scenarios and finally simulate on SDN emulator some topologies to demonstrate the impact of SDN components helping QoE measurement. At the end, we give the results and values. We highlight the future of our proposition.
       
  • Integrated platforms for blockchain enablement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Md Sadek Ferdous, Kamanashis Biswas, Mohammad Jabed Morshed Chowdhury, Niaz Chowdhury, Vallipuram MuthukkumarasamyAbstractThe Internet of Things (IoT) is experiencing an exponential growth in a wide variety of use-cases in multiple application domains, such as healthcare, agriculture, smart cities, smart homes, supply chain, and so on. To harness its full potential, it must be based upon a resilient network architecture with strong support for security, privacy, and trust. Most of these issues still remain to be addressed carefully for the IoT systems. Blockchain technology has recently emerged as a breakthrough technology with the potential to deliver some valuable properties such as resiliency, support for integrity, anonymity, decentralization, and autonomous control. A number of blockchain platforms are proposed that may be suitable for different use-cases including IoT applications. In such, the possibility to integrate the IoT and blockchain technology is seen as a potential solution to address some crucial issues. However, to achieve this, there must be a clear understanding of the requirements of different IoT applications and the suitability of a blockchain platform for a particular application satisfying its underlying requirements. This chapter aims to achieve this goal by describing an evaluation framework which can be utilized to select a suitable blockchain platform for a given IoT application.
       
  • Intersections between IoT and distributed ledger
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Hany F. Atlam, Gary B. WillsAbstractThe Internet of Things (IoT) is growing exponentially. It allows not only humans but also all various devices and objects in the environment to be connected over the Internet to share their data to create new applications and services which result in a more convenient and connected lifestyle. However, the current centralized IoT architecture faces several issues. For instance, all computing operations of all nodes in the network are carried out using a single server. This creates a single point of failure in which if the server goes down, the entire system will be unavailable. Also, the IoT centralized architecture is an easy target of various types of security and privacy attacks, since all IoT data collected from different devices is under the full authority of a single server. Therefore, adopting one of the Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLTs) for the IoT may be the right decision. One of the popular types of DLTs is the blockchain. It provides an immutable ledger with the capability of maintaining the integrity of transactions by decentralizing the ledger among participating nodes in the blockchain network which eliminates the need for a central authority. Integrating the IoT system with the blockchain technology can provide several benefits which can resolve the issues associated with the IoT centralized architecture. Therefore, this chapter provides a discussion of the intersection between IoT and DLTs. It started by providing an overview of the DLT by highlighting its main components, benefits and challenges. The centralized IoT system is also discussed with highlighting its essential limitations. Then, the integration of blockchain with IoT is presented by highlighting the integration benefits. Various application and challenges of integrating blockchain with IoT are also discussed.
       
  • Blockchain applications in healthcare and the opportunities and the
           advancements due to the new information technology framework
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2019Source: Advances in ComputersAuthor(s): Ramzi Abujamra, David RandallAbstractThe promise of blockchain extends into healthcare allowing a transformation of our current system and its use of information technology. The current use of information technology in healthcare can be advanced with blockchain. The fundamental values that blockchain will bring include decentralization due to its distributed ledger technology, interoperability and increased security and immutability. These benefits enable a healthcare system that is integrated, seamless and more secure and with an increased level of compliance. Blockchains offer the opportunity to deliver secure and highly efficient transaction processing between patient, provider and payer and other healthcare parties in a more efficient and seamless way. The use of smart contracts in healthcare is the catalyst by which blockchains can deliver these transactions in a transformative way. The application of blockchains combined with the Internet of Things (IoT) is also a catalyst that will enable these transactions to be processed to disrupt healthcare from its current state at this time. We explore ways that blockchain and its associated information technology will revolutionize our healthcare system that we believe would allow for a more efficient and fluid environment with improved cost efficiencies.
       
 
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