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Showing 1 - 200 of 3175 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 375, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 374, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 335, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 429, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in Clinical Chemistry
  [SJR: 0.938]   [H-I: 33]   [28 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2423
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Chapter Six Uncertainty in Measurement: Procedures for Determining
           Uncertainty With Application to Clinical Laboratory Calculations
    • Authors: Robert B. Frenkel; Ian Farrance
      Pages: 125 - 207
      Abstract: Publication date: 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry, Volume 85
      Author(s): Robert B. Frenkel, Ian Farrance
      In Part II of this review we consider the very common case of multiple inputs to a measurement process. We derive, using only elementary steps and the basic mathematics covered in Part I, the formula for the propagation of uncertainties from the inputs to the output. The Gaussian density distribution is briefly explained, since an understanding of this distribution is needed for the determination of so-called expanded uncertainties at the end of a measurement process. The propagation formula in general involves correlations among the inputs, although in many cases these correlations can be considered negligible. Correlations, however, need to be taken into account in related matters such as line-fitting and have particular relevance to method comparisons. These topics are addressed briefly. We next discuss the important question of bias and its incorporation into the expression of uncertainty. We present, finally, six real-world cases in clinical chemistry where uncertainty in the estimated value of the measurand is calculated using the propagation formula.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:08:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 85 (2018)
  • Chapter One Protein Carbamylation: Chemistry, Pathophysiological
           Involvement, and Biomarkers
    • Authors: Stéphane Jaisson; Christine Pietrement; Philippe Gillery
      Pages: 1 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry, Volume 84
      Author(s): Stéphane Jaisson, Christine Pietrement, Philippe Gillery
      Protein carbamylation refers to a nonenzymatic modification, which consists in the binding of isocyanic acid on protein functional groups. This reaction is responsible for the alteration in structural and functional properties of proteins, which participate in their molecular aging. Protein molecular aging is now considered a molecular substratum for the development of chronic and inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, or rheumatoid arthritis. As a consequence, carbamylation-derived products have been proposed as interesting biomarkers in various pathological contexts and appropriate analytical methods have been developed for their quantification in biological fluids. The purpose of this review is (i) to describe the biochemical bases of the carbamylation reaction, (ii) to explain how it contributes to protein molecular aging, (iii) to provide evidence of its involvement in aging and chronic diseases, and (iv) to list the available biomarkers of carbamylation process and the related analytical methods.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T15:29:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2018)
  • Chapter Five Uncertainty in Measurement: Procedures for Determining
           Uncertainty With Application to Clinical Laboratory Calculations
    • Authors: Robert B. Frenkel; Ian Farrance
      Pages: 125 - 207
      Abstract: Publication date: 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry, Volume 84
      Author(s): Robert B. Frenkel, Ian Farrance
      The “Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement” (GUM) is the foundational document of metrology. Its recommendations apply to all areas of metrology including metrology associated with the biomedical sciences. When the output of a measurement process depends on the measurement of several inputs through a measurement equation or functional relationship, the propagation of uncertainties in the inputs to the uncertainty in the output demands a level of understanding of the differential calculus. This review is intended as an elementary guide to the differential calculus and its application to uncertainty in measurement. The review is in two parts. In Part I, Section 3, we consider the case of a single input and introduce the concepts of error and uncertainty. Next we discuss, in the following sections in Part I, such notions as derivatives and differentials, and the sensitivity of an output to errors in the input. The derivatives of functions are obtained using very elementary mathematics. The overall purpose of this review, here in Part I and subsequently in Part II, is to present the differential calculus for those in the medical sciences who wish to gain a quick but accurate understanding of the propagation of uncertainties.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T15:29:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 84 (2018)
  • Adiponectin and Its Isoforms in Pathophysiology
    • Authors: Merel van Andel; Annemieke C. Heijboer; Madeleine L. Drent
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Merel van Andel, Annemieke C. Heijboer, Madeleine L. Drent
      Adiponectin circulates in blood in multiple isoforms. High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is thought to be most biologically active and promotes glucose uptake, insulin sensitivity, and fatty acid oxidation. In obesity, adiponectin isoform formation is disrupted, leading to an inverse association between metabolic disease and HMW and total adiponectin. Adiponectin isoforms also function as acute-phase reactants influencing inflammation in acute and chronic disease. Interestingly, adiponectin and mortality have a U-shaped association. Unfortunately, data concerning adiponectin and its pathophysiologic function conflict. This is predominantly due to difficulties in adequate measurement of adiponectin isoforms and lack of a gold standard. In this review we provide a general overview of the formation and function of adiponectin and its isoforms under physiologic conditions. We highlight the ways adiponectin isoform formation is disrupted in obesity and its ensuing pathologic conditions. Furthermore, we will elaborate on the role of adiponectin isoforms as inflammatory proteins with respect to cardiac and kidney disease and discuss the association of adiponectin with mortality. Finally, we will provide a historical perspective on the measurement of adiponectin isoforms, current limitations, and future challenges.

      PubDate: 2018-03-21T08:25:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2018.02.007
  • Metabolomics and Lipidomics of Ischemic Stroke
    • Authors: Anthony
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Anthony Au
      Ischemic stroke is a sudden loss of brain function due to the reduction of blood flow. Brain tissues cease to function with subsequent activation of the ischemic cascade. Metabolomics and lipidomics are modern disciplines that characterize the metabolites and lipid components of a biological system, respectively. Because the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke is heterogeneous and multifactorial, it is crucial to establish comprehensive metabolomic and lipidomic approaches to elucidate these alterations in this disease. Fortunately, metabolomic and lipidomic studies have the distinct advantages of identifying tissue/mechanism-specific biomarkers, predicting treatment and clinical outcome, and improving our understanding of the pathophysiologic basis of disease states. Therefore, recent applications of these analytical approaches in the early diagnosis of ischemic stroke were discussed. In addition, the emerging roles of metabolomics and lipidomics on ischemic stroke were summarized, in order to gain new insights into the mechanisms underlying ischemic stroke and in the search for novel metabolite biomarkers and their related pathways.

      PubDate: 2018-03-21T08:25:50Z
  • Proteomics for Biomarker Identification and Clinical Application in Kidney
    • Authors: Lin Chen; Wei Su; Hua Chen; Dan-Qian Chen; Ming Wang; Yan Guo; Ying-Yong Zhao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Lin Chen, Wei Su, Hua Chen, Dan-Qian Chen, Ming Wang, Yan Guo, Ying-Yong Zhao
      Treatment effectiveness for kidney disease is limited by lack of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic biomarkers. The gold standard test renal biopsy along with serum creatinine and proteinuria is often necessary to establish a diagnosis, particularly in glomerular disease. Proteomics has become a powerful tool for novel biomarker discovery in kidney disease. Novel proteomics offer earlier and more accurate diagnosis of renal pathology than possible with traditional biomarkers such as serum creatinine and urine protein. In addition, proteomic biomarkers could also be useful to choose the most suitable therapeutic targets. This review focuses on the current status of proteomic biomarkers from animal models (5/6 nephrectomy, unilateral ureteral obstruction, and diabetic nephropathy) and human studies (chronic kidney disease, glomerular diseases, transplantation, dialysis, acute and drug-induced kidney injury) to assess relevant findings and clinical usefulness. Current issues and problems related to the discovery, validation, and clinical application of proteomic biomarkers are discussed. We also describe several proteomic strategies highlighting technologic advancements, specimen selection, data processing and analysis. This review might provide help in future proteomic studies to improve the diagnosis and management of kidney disease.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T07:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2018.02.005
  • Obesity, Thrombotic Risk, and Inflammation in Cancer
    • Authors: Benjamín Rubio-Jurado; Luz-Ma-Adriana Balderas-Peña; Eduardo E. García-Luna; María G. Zavala-Cerna; Carlos Riebeling-Navarro; Pedro A. Reyes; Arnulfo H. Nava-Zavala
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Benjamín Rubio-Jurado, Luz-Ma-Adriana Balderas-Peña, Eduardo E. García-Luna, María G. Zavala-Cerna, Carlos Riebeling-Navarro, Pedro A. Reyes, Arnulfo H. Nava-Zavala
      Neoplasms exhibits a high incidence and mortality rates due to their complex and commonly overlapping clinical, biochemical, and morphologic profiles influenced by acquired or inherited molecular abnormalities, cell of origin, and level of differentiation. Obesity appears related to ~20% of cancers including endometrial, esophageal, colorectal, postmenopausal breast, prostate, and renal. Several factors other than obesity, i.e., insulin, insulin-like growth factor, sexual hormones, and adipokines may play a potential role in neoplasia. Cancer-associated hypercoagulable and thrombotic states are influenced by abnormalities in the vascular wall and susceptibility to invasion, interference in blood flow and increase in circulating tissue factor and thrombin, activation of cell growth factors, the presence of a central catheter, chemotherapies, neoplasm type, and surgery. In cancer, thromboembolic complications are the second most frequent cause of death with pulmonary thromboembolism in ~50% of cases postmortem. Thrombosis worsens prognosis as demonstrated with a survival rate as low as 12% per year vs 36% in nonthrombic patients. Deep vein thrombosis is the most frequent thromboembolic complication in cancer. It is usually detected at diagnosis and within the first 3 months of chemotherapy. The underlining mechanisms of this association should be further studied to identify patients at higher risk and develop adequate prevention, diagnostic, and treatment measures. The D-dimer test can be successfully used to assess the fibrinolytic phase of coagulation and as such is routinely used in suspected cases of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism. In addition, significant advances have been made in understanding the composition and functional capabilities of the gut microbiota in the inflammatory process, obesity, and its roles in cancer; however, the intricate balance that exists within the microbiota may not only affect the host directly, it can also disrupt the entire microbial community. Conclusions: Cancer is a prothrombotic and inflammatory state in which the activation of coagulation is related to tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. It is important to identify the relationship between body mass index with these processes and clarify their importance in cancer prognosis. Future research should answer the question if manipulation of resident microbial communities could potentially improve prognosis and treatment outcome.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T07:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2018.02.006
  • Standardization of BNP and NT-proBNP Immunoassays in Light of the Diverse
           and Complex Nature of Circulating BNP-Related Peptides
    • Authors: Alexander G. Semenov; Evgeniya E. Feygina
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Alexander G. Semenov, Evgeniya E. Feygina
      Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the N-terminal fragment of the BNP precursor (NT-proBNP) are widely used as heart failure (HF) biomarkers. Since the discovery of BNP in 1988, much effort has been allocated to the precise detection of BNP and NT-proBNP levels for reliable HF diagnostics. As a result, measurements of these biomarkers are globally accepted and used in clinical practice for the diagnosis of acute and chronic HF, risk stratification, and monitoring response to therapy. Several immunoassays specific for BNP and NT-proBNP are currently commercially available. Recent comparative studies show that there are marked differences between different BNP and NT-proBNP assays and platforms, and the results of measurements are not comparable enough. The lack of equivalence between the assays complicates the interpretation of the results and renders the cut-off points for diagnostic decisions to be method dependent. Presently, there is no agreement on what kind of BNP or NT-proBNP standard should be used for calibration, and a certified reference material as well as reference measurement procedures are lacking. The aim of this chapter is to summarize the available data on the complex nature of BNP-related peptides, specificity for existing BNP and NT-proBNP immunoassays, and to discuss potential approaches for standardization of BNP and NT-proBNP measurements.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T07:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2018.02.001
  • Inflammatory Response During Myocardial Infarction
    • Authors: Joaquim B. Oliveira; Alexandre A.S.M. Soares; Andrei C. Sposito
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Joaquim B. Oliveira, Alexandre A.S.M. Soares, Andrei C. Sposito
      The occlusion of a coronary artery by a thrombus generated on a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque has been pursued in the last decades as a determining event for the clinical outcome after myocardial infarction (MI). Yet, MI causes a cell death wave front, which triggers an inflammatory response to clear cellular debris, and which in excess can double the myocardial lesion and influence the clinical prognosis in the short and long term. Accordingly, proper, timely regulated inflammatory response has now been considered a second pivotal player in cardiac recovery after MI justifying the search for pharmacological strategies to modulate inflammatory effectors. This chapter reviews the key events and the main effectors of inflammation after myocardial ischemic insult, as well as the contribution of this phenomenon to the progression of atherosclerosis.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T22:00:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.12.002
  • Blood Glucose Determination: Effect of Tube Additives
    • Authors: Giuseppe Lippi; Mads Nybo; Janne Cadamuro; Joao T. Guimaraes; Edmée van Dongen-Lases; Ana-Maria Simundic
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Giuseppe Lippi, Mads Nybo, Janne Cadamuro, Joao T. Guimaraes, Edmée van Dongen-Lases, Ana-Maria Simundic
      The measurement of fasting plasma glucose may be biased by a time-dependent decrease of glucose in blood tubes, mainly attributable to blood cell metabolism when glycolysis is not rapidly inhibited or blood cells cannot be rapidly separated from plasma. Although glycolysis inhibitors such as sodium fluoride (NaF) in combination with potassium oxalate (KOx) are currently used for overcoming this drawback, their efficacy for stabilizing blood glucose is seemingly limited, and probably lower than that of newer additives such as the citrate buffer. Therefore, we performed a critical analysis of the current scientific literature aimed to generate evidence-based information about the advantages of using citrate buffer in blood tubes compared to the more conventional NaF additive. The results of our systematic overview of the literature show that citrate blood tubes represent a considerable step forward in achieving more accurate and reliable plasma glucose measurements, thereby limiting the risk of underdiagnosing diabetes due to spurious decrease of glucose concentration in uncentrifuged blood specimens, ensuring higher stability of glucose levels over time, while simultaneously producing less hemolysis compared to NaF blood tubes. Therefore, we suggest that the use of this new mixture should be encouraged for achieving a higher degree of accuracy and standardization of plasma glucose measurements.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T22:00:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.12.003
  • Distribution of Fatty Acids and Lipids During Pregnancy
    • Authors: Preeti Chavan-Gautam; Alka Rani; Dilys J. Freeman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Preeti Chavan-Gautam, Alka Rani, Dilys J. Freeman
      Maternal fatty acid and lipid metabolism undergoes changes during pregnancy to facilitate fetal growth and development. Different types of fatty acids have different roles in maintaining a successful pregnancy and they are incorporated into different forms of lipids for the purpose of storage and transport. This chapter aims to provide an understanding of the distribution and metabolism of fatty acids and lipids in the maternal, placental, and fetal compartments. We further describe how this distribution is altered in maternal obesity, preterm birth, and pregnancy complications such as gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T22:00:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.12.006
  • Metabolomics of Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder: Overview
           and Future Perspective
    • Authors: Kenji Hashimoto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Kenji Hashimoto
      Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are the most common mood disorders. They are etiologically related, but clinically distinct psychiatric illnesses. Their shared clinical features result in high rates of misdiagnosis due to a lack of biomarkers that allow their differentiation. BD is more frequently misdiagnosed as MDD because of overlapping symptomology, often later onset of mania, and frequent occurrence of depressive episodes in patients with BD. Misdiagnosis is also increased when patients with BD present symptoms indicative of a clinically significant depressive episode, but are premorbid for manic symptoms, or previous manic states not recognized. Therefore, the development of specific biomarkers for these disorders would be invaluable for establishing the correct diagnosis and treatment of MDD and BD. This chapter presents an overview and future perspective of the identification of biomarkers for mood disorders using metabolomics.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T22:00:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.12.005
  • Circulating Tumor Cells and Implications of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal
    • Authors: Lori E. Lowes; Alison L. Allan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Lori E. Lowes, Alison L. Allan
      The majority of cancer-related deaths result from metastasis, the process by which cancer cells escape the primary tumor site and enter into the blood circulation in order to disseminate to secondary locations throughout the body. Tumor cells found within the circulation are referred to as circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and their detection and enumeration correlate with poor prognosis. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a dynamic process that imparts epithelial cells with mesenchymal-like properties, thus facilitating tumor cell dissemination and contributing to metastasis. However, EMT also results in the downregulation of various epithelial proteins typically utilized by CTC technologies for enrichment and detection of these rare cells, resulting in reduced detection of some CTCs, potentially those with a more metastatic phenotype. In addition to the current clinical role of CTCs as a prognostic biomarker, they also have potential as a predictive biomarker via CTC characterization. However, CTC characterization is complicated by the unknown biological significance of CTCs possessing an EMT-like phenotype, and the ability to capture and understand this CTC subpopulation is an essential step in the utilization of CTCs for patient management. This chapter will review the process of EMT and its contribution to metastasis; discusses current and future clinical applications of CTCs; and describes both traditional and novel methods for CTC enrichment, detection, and characterization with a specific focus on CTCs with an EMT phenotype.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T00:31:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.10.004
  • Indoor Tanning a Gianus Bifrons: Vitamin D and Human Cancer
    • Authors: Giuseppe Lippi; Gianfranco Cervellin; Elisa Danese
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Giuseppe Lippi, Gianfranco Cervellin, Elisa Danese
      Despite it is now undeniable that indoor tanning exposure is associated with a number of skin cancers, its favorable effects on vitamin D status may bear some underestimated and currently unexplored health benefits. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin naturally present in a limited number of foods, the concentration of which largely depends on ultraviolet (UV) B sources exposure in humans. A strong, graded, and inverse association has been documented between serum vitamin D and the risk of developing certain types of malignancy, especially colorectal, breast, lung, bladder, and kidney cancers. The overall mortality from any type of cancer is also apparently lower in subjects with increased values of serum vitamin D. Both genomic and nongenomic mechanisms have been identified to support the anticancer effects of vitamin D. Notably, UVB radiation emitted from indoor tanning devices is effective to linearly increase the serum vitamin D concentration, up to twofold. Therefore, some favorable effects against the risk of developing many human diseases, including nonskin cancers, cannot be excluded at first glance, although they may not be only linked to vitamin D status. Further large, prospective or randomized studies should be hence planned to definitely establish whether the unfavorable effects of indoor tanning exposure on skin cancers may be outweighed by the still unexplored benefits attributable to amelioration of vitamin D status.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T19:47:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.10.005
  • Urinary Nucleosides and Deoxynucleosides
    • Authors: Małgorzata Patejko; Wiktoria Struck-Lewicka; Danuta Siluk; Małgorzata Waszczuk-Jankowska; Michał J. Markuszewski
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Małgorzata Patejko, Wiktoria Struck-Lewicka, Danuta Siluk, Małgorzata Waszczuk-Jankowska, Michał J. Markuszewski
      Urinary nucleosides and deoxynucleosides are mainly known as metabolites of RNA turnover and oxidative damage of DNA. For several decades these metabolites have been examined for their potential use in disease states including cancer and oxidative stress. Subsequent improvements in analytical sensitivity and specificity have provided a reliable means to measure these unique molecules to better assess their relationship to physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. In fact, some are currently used as antiviral and antitumor agents. In this review we provide insight into their molecular characteristics, highlight current separation techniques and detection methods, and explore potential clinical usefulness.

      PubDate: 2017-12-07T18:46:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.10.001
  • Laboratory Assessment of Anemia
    • Authors: Sirisha Kundrapu; Jaime Noguez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Sirisha Kundrapu, Jaime Noguez
      Anemia is one of the most common health problems in both industrialized and developing countries. It has been recognized by the World Health Organization as an important disorder leading to significant health care burden. Laboratory testing plays a significant role in the diagnosis of most types of anemia since the clinical diagnosis may not always be straightforward, especially with multiple underlying conditions. Once the existence of anemia is established, the cause must be determined to enable selection of a specific and effective therapy. Various hematologic parameters and biochemical tests can be used in combination with patient clinical history to identify the most likely causes of anemia.

      PubDate: 2017-12-07T18:46:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.10.006
  • Locked Nucleic Acid Technology for Highly Sensitive Detection of Somatic
           Mutations in Cancer
    • Authors: Takayuki Ishige; Sakae Itoga; Kazuyuki Matsushita
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Takayuki Ishige, Sakae Itoga, Kazuyuki Matsushita
      The molecular diagnosis of the cancer mutational status is essential for modern clinical laboratory medicine. Mutations in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA genes are widely analyzed in solid tumors such as lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma. The allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, high-resolution melting, and Sanger sequencing are used for detecting and identifying gene mutations in many clinical laboratories. The locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs that contain a methylene bridge connecting the 2′ oxygen and 4′ carbon in the ribose moiety. This methylene bridge locks the ribose group into a C3′-endo conformation. LNA, including an oligonucleotide, increases the thermal stability of hybrid strands. The use of LNA technology in molecular diagnostic methods improves the specificity and sensitivity of assays. This review describes routinely analyzed mutations and molecular diagnostic methods used in the clinical laboratory along with the performance improvement of mutational analysis with LNA.

      PubDate: 2017-11-27T17:59:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.10.002
  • Liquid Biopsy: From Basic Research to Clinical Practice
    • Authors: Mónica Macías; Estibaliz Alegre; Angel Díaz-Lagares; Ana Patiño; Jose L. Pérez-Gracia; Miguel Sanmamed; Rafael López-López; Nerea Varo; Alvaro González
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Mónica Macías, Estibaliz Alegre, Angel Díaz-Lagares, Ana Patiño, Jose L. Pérez-Gracia, Miguel Sanmamed, Rafael López-López, Nerea Varo, Alvaro González
      Liquid biopsy refers to the molecular analysis in biological fluids of nucleic acids, subcellular structures, especially exosomes, and, in the context of cancer, circulating tumor cells. In the last 10 years, there has been an intensive research in liquid biopsy to achieve a less invasive and more precise personalized medicine. Molecular assessment of these circulating biomarkers can complement or even surrogate tissue biopsy. Because of this research, liquid biopsy has been introduced in clinical practice, especially in oncology, prenatal screening, and transplantation. Here we review the biology, methodological approaches, and clinical applications of the main biomarkers involved in liquid biopsy.

      PubDate: 2017-11-27T17:59:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.10.003
  • Toward a Blood-Borne Biomarker of Chronic Hypoxemia: Red Cell Distribution
           Width and Respiratory Disease
    • Authors: Joseph
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Joseph W. Yčas
      Hypoxemia (systemic oxygen desaturation) marks the presence, risk, and progression of many diseases. Episodic or nocturnal hypoxemia can be challenging to detect and quantify. A sensitive, specific, and convenient marker of recent oxygen desaturation represents an unmet medical need. Observations of acclimatization to high altitude in humans and animals reveals several proteosomic, ventilatory, and hematological responses to low oxygen tension. Of these, increased red cell distribution width (RDW) appears to have the longest persistence. Literature review and analyses of a 2M patient database across the full disease pathome revealed that increased RDW is predictive of poor outcome for certain diseases including many if not all hypoxigenic conditions. Comprehensive review of diseases impacting the respiratory axis show many are associated with increased RDW and no apparent counterexamples. The mechanism linking RDW to outcome is unknown. Conjectural roles for iron deficiency, inflammation, and oxidative stress have not been born out experimentally. Sports-doping studies show that erythropoietin (EPO) injection can induce formation of unusually large red blood cells (RBC) in sufficient numbers to increase RDW. Because endogenous EPO responds strongly to hypoxemia, this molecule could potentially mediate a long-lived RDW response to low oxygenation. RDW may be a guidepost signaling that unexploited information is embedded in subtle RBC variation. Applying modern techniques of measurement and analysis to certain RBC characteristics may yield a more specific and sensitive marker of chronic pulmonary and circulatory diseases, sleep apnea, and opioid inhibition of breathing.

      PubDate: 2017-09-19T13:01:15Z
  • miRNAs: Nanomachines That Micromanage the Pathophysiology of Diabetes
    • Authors: Shilpy Sharma; Abraham B. Mathew; Jeetender Chugh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Shilpy Sharma, Abraham B. Mathew, Jeetender Chugh
      Diabetes mellitus (DM) refers to a combination of heterogeneous complex metabolic disorders that are associated with episodes of hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance occurring as a result of defects in insulin secretion, action, or both. The prevalence of DM is increasing at an alarming rate, and there exists a need to develop better therapeutics and prognostic markers for earlier detection and diagnosis. In this review, after giving a brief introduction of diabetes mellitus and microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis pathway, we first describe various in vitro and animal model systems that have been developed to study diabetes. Further, we elaborate on the significant roles played by miRNAs as regulators of gene expression in the context of development of diabetes and its secondary complications. The different approaches to quantify miRNAs and their potential to be used as therapeutic targets for alleviation of diabetes have also been discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-08-11T02:27:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.06.003
  • Fortilin: A Potential Target for the Prevention and Treatment of Human
    • Authors: Decha Pinkaew; Ken Fujise
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Decha Pinkaew, Ken Fujise
      Fortilin is a highly conserved 172-amino-acid polypeptide found in the cytosol, nucleus, mitochondria, extracellular space, and circulating blood. It is a multifunctional protein that protects cells against apoptosis, promotes cell growth and cell cycle progression, binds calcium (Ca2+) and has antipathogen activities. Its role in the pathogenesis of human and animal diseases is also diverse. Fortilin facilitates the development of atherosclerosis, contributes to both systemic and pulmonary arterial hypertension, participates in the development of cancers, and worsens diabetic nephropathy. It is important for the adaptive expansion of pancreatic β-cells in response to obesity and increased insulin requirement, for the regeneration of liver after hepatectomy, and for protection of the liver against alcohol- and ER stress-induced injury. Fortilin is a viable surrogate marker for in vivo apoptosis, and it plays a key role in embryo and organ development in vertebrates. In fish and shrimp, fortilin participates in host defense against bacterial and viral pathogens. Further translational research could prove fortilin to be a viable molecular target for treatment of various human diseases including and not limited to atherosclerosis, hypertension, certain tumors, diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy, hepatic injury, and aberrant immunity and host defense.

      PubDate: 2017-08-11T02:27:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.06.006
  • Calcium and Bone Metabolism Indices
    • Authors: Song
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Lu Song
      Calcium and inorganic phosphate are of critical importance for many body functions, thus the regulations of their plasma concentrations are tightly controlled by the concerted actions of reabsorption/excretion in the kidney, absorption in the intestines, and exchange from bone, the major reservoir for calcium and phosphate in the body. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) control calcium homeostasis, whereas PTH, 1,25(OH)2D, and bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF 23) control phosphate homeostasis. Hypoparathyroidism can cause hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, whereas deficient vitamin D actions can cause osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children. Hyperparathyroidism, alternatively, can cause hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. Laboratory tests of calcium, phosphate, PTH, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D are very useful in the diagnosis of abnormalities associated with calcium and/or phosphate metabolisms. Bone is constantly remodeled throughout life in response to mechanical stress and a need for calcium in extracellular fluids. Metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis, osteomalacia in adults or rickets in children, and renal osteodystrophy develop when bone resorption exceeds bone formation. Bone turnover markers (BTM) such as serum N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) and C-terminal collagen cross-link (CTX) may be useful in predicting future fracture risk or monitoring the response to anti-resorptive therapy. There is a need to standardize sample collection protocols because certain BTMs exhibit large circadian variations and tend to be influenced by food intakes. In the United States, a project to standardize BTM sample collection protocols and to establish the reference intervals for serum P1NP and serum CTX is ongoing. We anticipate the outcome of this project to shine lights on the standardization of BTM assays, sample collection protocols, reference intervals in relation to age, sex, and ethnic origins, and clinical utilities of BTMs. This review will briefly discuss the regulations of calcium and phosphate homeostasis, laboratory's role in the diagnosis, and monitoring of bone and calcium metabolism, as well as the usefulness and controversies of the utilities of BTMs in the diagnosis and monitoring of metabolic bone diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-08-11T02:27:56Z
  • Cytokines and MicroRNA in Coronary Artery Disease
    • Authors: Hamed Mirzaei; Gordon A. Ferns; Amir Avan; Majid G. Mobarhan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Hamed Mirzaei, Gordon A. Ferns, Amir Avan, Majid G. Mobarhan
      Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health problem globally. The high incidence and case fatality of CVD are, to a large extent, a consequence of its late diagnosis and lack of highly sensitive and specific markers. Only a very small number of biomarkers, such as troponin, detect late disease. There is some evidence of an association and dysregulation between specific cytokines in the pathogenesis of CVD. These molecules are involved in inflammatory and immune mechanisms associated with atherogenesis. Several molecular/cellular pathways that include STAT, MAPK, and SMAD are modulated by cytokines. Against this background, microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs with important roles in pathological events, leading to atherosclerotic CVD. It has been shown that the latter could affect cytokine production and contribute to progression of atherosclerotic CVD. Moreover, modulation of miRNAs appears to inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis, attenuate infarct size, and reduce cardiac dysfunction. This review highlights several recent preclinical and clinical studies on the role of cytokines in CVD, novel miRNA-based therapeutic approaches for therapeutic intervention, and potential circulating cytokines that have promise as biomarkers in CVD.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T20:54:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.06.004
  • Biological and Molecular Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells: A
           Creative Strategy for Precision Medicine'
    • Authors: Shukun Chen; Amin El-Heliebi; Thomas Kroneis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Shukun Chen, Amin El-Heliebi, Thomas Kroneis
      Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a group of rare cells disseminated from either primary or metastatic tumors into the blood stream. CTCs are considered to be the precursor of cancer metastasis. As a critical component of liquid biopsies, CTCs are a unique tool to understand the formation of metastasis and a valuable source of information on intratumor heterogeneity. Much effort has been invested in technologies for the detection of CTCs because they are rare cells among the vast number of blood cells. Studies in various cancers have repeatedly demonstrated that increased CTC counts prior to or during treatment are significantly associated with poor outcomes. In the new era of precision medicine, the study of CTCs reaches far beyond detection and counting. The rapidly growing field of analytical platforms for rare-cell analysis allows in-depth characterization of CTCs at the bulk cell and single-cell level. Genetic profiling of CTCs may provide an insight into the real-time tumor status, may allow the monitoring and evaluation of treatment response in clinical routine, and may lead to the development of novel therapeutic targets as well.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T20:54:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.06.001
  • Human Papillomavirus and Its Testing Assays, Cervical Cancer Screening,
           and Vaccination
    • Authors: Yusheng Zhu; Yun Wang; Julie Hirschhorn; Kerry J. Welsh; Zhen Zhao; Michelle R. Davis; Sarah Feldman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Yusheng Zhu, Yun Wang, Julie Hirschhorn, Kerry J. Welsh, Zhen Zhao, Michelle R. Davis, Sarah Feldman
      Human papillomavirus (HPV) was found to be the causative agent for cervical cancer in the 1980s with almost 100% of cervical cancer cases testing positive for HPV. Since then, many studies have been conducted to elucidate the molecular basis of HPV, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis of the virus, and the risk factors for HPV infection. Traditionally, the Papanicolaou test was the primary screening method for cervical cancer. Because of the discovery and evolving understanding of the role of HPV in cervical dysplasia, HPV testing has been recommended as a new method for cervical cancer screening by major professional organizations including the American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology. In order to detect HPV infections, many sensitive and specific HPV assays have been developed and used clinically. Different HPV assays with various principles have shown their unique advantages and limitations. In response to a clear causative relationship between high-risk HPV and cervical cancer, HPV vaccines have been developed which utilize virus-like particles to create an antibody response for the prevention of HPV infection. The vaccines have been shown in long-term follow-up studies to be effective for up to 8 years; however, how this may impact screening for vaccinated women remains uncertain. In this chapter, we will review the molecular basis of HPV, its pathogenesis, and the epidemiology of HPV infection and associated cervical cancer, discuss the methods of currently available HPV testing assays as well as recent guidelines for HPV screening, and introduce HPV vaccines as well as their impact on cervical cancer screening and treatments.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T12:01:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.01.004
  • Bulky DNA Adducts, Tobacco Smoking, Genetic Susceptibility, and Lung
           Cancer Risk
    • Authors: Armelle Munnia; Roger W. Giese; Simone Polvani; Andrea Galli; Filippo Cellai; Marco E.M. Peluso
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Armelle Munnia, Roger W. Giese, Simone Polvani, Andrea Galli, Filippo Cellai, Marco E.M. Peluso
      The generation of bulky DNA adducts consists of conjugates formed between large reactive electrophiles and DNA-binding sites. The term “bulky DNA adducts” comes from early experiments that employed a 32P-DNA postlabeling approach. This technique has long been used to elucidate the association between adducts and carcinogen exposure in tobacco smoke studies and assess the predictive value of adducts in cancer risk. Molecular data showed increased DNA adducts in respiratory tracts of smokers vs nonsmokers. Experimental studies and meta-analysis demonstrated that the relationship between adducts and carcinogens was linear at low doses, but reached steady state at high exposure, possibly due to metabolic and DNA repair pathway saturation and increased apoptosis. Polymorphisms of metabolic and DNA repair genes can increase the effects of environmental factors and confer greater likelihood of adduct formation. Nevertheless, the central question remains as to whether bulky adducts cause human cancer. If so, lowering them would reduce cancer incidence. Pooled and meta-analysis has shown that smokers with increased adducts have increased risk of lung cancer. Adduct excess in smokers, especially in prospective longitudinal studies, supports their use as biomarkers predictive of lung cancer.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T04:02:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.01.006
  • Peptide Antibodies in Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics
    • Authors: Nicole H. Trier; Gunnar Houen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Nicole H. Trier, Gunnar Houen
      Peptide antibodies, with their high specificities and affinities, are invaluable reagents for peptide and protein recognition in biological specimens. Depending on the application and the assay, in which the peptide antibody is to used, several factors influence successful antibody production, including peptide selection and antibody screening. Peptide antibodies have been used in clinical laboratory diagnostics with great success for decades, primarily because they can be produced to multiple targets, recognizing native wildtype proteins, denatured proteins, and newly generated epitopes. Especially mutation-specific peptide antibodies have become important as diagnostic tools in the detection of various cancers. In addition to their use as diagnostic tools in malignant and premalignant conditions, peptide antibodies are applied in all other areas of clinical laboratory diagnostics, including endocrinology, hematology, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, infectious diseases, and amyloidoses.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T04:02:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.01.002
  • Measurement and Clinical Utility of βCTX in Serum and Plasma
    • Authors: Stephen A.P. Chubb; Samuel D. Vasikaran
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Stephen A.P. Chubb, Samuel D. Vasikaran
      Biochemical markers of bone turnover (BTM) are released during bone remodeling and can be measured in blood or urine as noninvasive surrogate markers for the bone remodeling rate. The C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (βCTX) is released during bone resorption and is specific to bone tissue. Assays have been developed to measure βCTX in blood and in urine; most current use of βCTX measurement for research and in clinical practice is performed on a blood sample. Method-specific differences for serum and plasma βCTX have led to initiatives to standardize or harmonize βCTX commercial assays. βCTX demonstrates significant biological variation due to circadian rhythm and effect of food which can be minimized by standardized sample collection in the fasting state in the morning. While βCTX predicts fracture risk independent of bone mineral density, lack of data has precluded its inclusion in fracture risk calculators. The changes seen in βCTX with antiresorptive therapies have been well characterized and this has led to its widespread use for monitoring therapy in osteoporosis. However, more fracture-based data on appropriate treatment goals for monitoring need to be developed. Evidence is lacking for the use of βCTX in managing “drug holidays” of bisphosphonate treatment in osteoporosis or risk stratifying those at increased risk of developing osteonecrosis of the jaw. βCTX is useful as an adjunct to imaging techniques for the diagnosis of Paget's disease of bone and for monitoring therapy and detecting recurrence. βCTX also shows promise in the management of metastatic bone disease.

      PubDate: 2017-02-16T16:00:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.01.003
  • Microparticles in Chronic Heart Failure
    • Authors: Alexander E. Berezin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Alexander E. Berezin
      Heart failure (HF) continues to have a sufficient impact on morbidity, mortality, and disability in developed countries. Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that microparticles (MPs) might contribute to the pathogenesis of the HF development playing a pivotal role in the regulation of the endogenous repair system, thrombosis, coagulation, inflammation, immunity, and metabolic memory phenomenon. Therefore, there is a large body of data clarifying the predictive value of MP numerous in circulation among subjects with HF. Although the determination of MP signature is better than measurement of single MP circulating level, there is not yet close confirmation that immune phenotype of cells produced MPs are important for HF prediction and development. The aim of the chapter is to summarize knowledge regarding the role of various MPs in diagnosis and prognosis of HF. The role of MPs as a delivery vehicle for drugs attenuated cardiac remodeling is considered.

      PubDate: 2017-02-16T16:00:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.01.001
  • Physical Exercise and DNA Injury: Good or Evil?
    • Authors: Elisa Danese; Giuseppe Lippi; Fabian Sanchis-Gomar; Giorgio Brocco; Manfredi Rizzo; Maciej Banach; Martina Montagnana
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Clinical Chemistry
      Author(s): Elisa Danese, Giuseppe Lippi, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Giorgio Brocco, Manfredi Rizzo, Maciej Banach, Martina Montagnana
      Regular, low-intensity physical activity is currently advocated for lowering the risk of developing many acute and especially chronic diseases. However, several lines of evidence attest that strenuous exercise may enhance inflammation and trigger the generation of free radical-mediated damage, thus overwhelming the undisputable benefits of regular, medium-intensity physical activity. Since reactive oxygen species are actively generated during high-intensity exercise, and these reactive compounds are known to impact DNA stability, we review here the current evidence about strenuous exercise and DNA injury. Despite the outcome of the various studies cannot be pooled due to considerable variation in design, sample population, outcome, and analytical techniques used to assess DNA damage, it seems reasonable to conclude that medium- to high-volume exercise triggers a certain amount of DNA injury, which appears to be transitory and directly proportional to exercise intensity. This damage, reasonably attributable to direct effect of free radicals on nucleic acids, is efficiently repaired in vivo within 24–72h. Therefore, physical exercise should not bear long-term consequences for athlete's health provided that an appropriate time of recovery between volumes of high-intensity exercise is set. Regular exertion, with a step-by-step increase of exercise load, also seems to be the most safe approach for eluding DNA instability.

      PubDate: 2017-02-16T16:00:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.acc.2017.01.005
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