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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3183 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3183 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 101, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 433, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 295, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 418, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 373, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 467, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.562
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 26  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0065-2423
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3183 journals]
  • Advances in biomarker detection: Alternative approaches for blood-based
           biomarker detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Miguel Rosado, Rafael Silva, Mariana G. Bexiga, John G. Jones, Bruno Manadas, Sandra I. Anjo In the clinical setting, a blood sample is typically the starting point for biomarker search and discovery. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a highly sensitive and informative method for characterizing a very wide range of metabolites and proteins and is therefore a potentially powerful tool for biomarker discovery. However, the physicochemical characteristics of blood coupled with very large ranges of protein and metabolite concentrations present a significant technical obstacle for resolving and quantifying putative biomarkers by MS. Blood fractionation procedures are being developed to reduce the proteome/metabolome complexity and concentration ranges, allowing a greater diversity of analytes, including those at very low concentrations, to be quantified. In this chapter, several strategies for enriching and/or isolating specific blood components are summarized, including methods for the analysis of low and high molecular weight compounds, usually neglected in this type of assays, extracellular vesicles, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). For each method, relevant practical information is presented for effective implementation.
       
  • Amino and organic acid analysis: Essential tools in the diagnosis of
           inborn errors of metabolism
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): William S. Phipps, Patti M. Jones, Khushbu Patel Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are a large class of genetic disorders that result from defects in enzymes involved in energy production and metabolism of nutrients. For every metabolic pathway, there are defects that can occur and potentially result in an IEM. While some defects can go undetected in one's lifetime, some have moderate to severe clinical consequences. In the latter case, the biochemical defect leads to accumulation of metabolites and byproducts that are toxic or interfere with normal biological function. Disorders of amino acid metabolism, organic acid metabolism and the urea cycle comprise a large portion of IEMs. Two essential tools required for the diagnosis of these categories of disorders are amino acid and organic acid profiling. Most all clinical laboratories offering metabolic testing perform amino acid analysis, while organic acid profiling is restricted to more specialized pediatric hospitals and reference laboratories. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of various methodologies employed for amino acid and organic acid profiling as well as specific examples to demonstrate how these techniques are applied in clinical laboratories for the diagnosis of IEMs.
       
  • Advances in electrochemical immunosensors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Elif Burcu Aydin, Muhammet Aydin, Mustafa Kemal Sezgintürk Immunosensors are compact tools on which antibody and antigen interactions are formed. The specific interaction between antibody and antigen is detected by using a transducer and an electrical signal is measured. This specific interaction between these molecules makes immunosensor very attractive for several applications in different fields. Electrochemical immunosensors are successful devices in selective and sensitive detection of several analytes. Electrochemical transducing methods such as voltammetric, potentiometric, conductometric or impedimetric have been utilized in different applications due to their excellent properties such as being low-cost, sensitivity and simplicity. In this chapter, the fundamentals of electrochemical immunosensors are summarized and different applications in food, environmental and clinical analyses are investigated and discussed.
       
  • Lipid trafficking in cardiovascular disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Andrei C. Sposito, Francesca Zimetti, Joaquim Barreto, Ilaria Zanotti The reduction of plasma apolipoprotein B (apoB) containing lipoproteins has long been pursued as the main modifiable risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This has led to an intense search for strategies aiming at reducing plasma apoB-lipoproteins, culminating in reduction of overall CV risk. Despite 3 decades of progress, CVD remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and, as such, new therapeutic targets are still warranted. Clinical and preclinical research has moved forward from the original concept, under which some lipids must be accumulated and other removed to achieve the ideal condition in disease prevention, into the concept that mechanisms that orchestrate lipid movement between lipoproteins, cells and organelles is equally involved in CVD. As such, this review scrutinizes potentially atherogenic changes in lipid trafficking and assesses the molecular mechanisms behind it. New developments in risk assessment and new targets for the mitigation of residual CVD risk are also addressed.
       
  • Toward a holistic approach for diagnosing sepsis in the emergency
           department
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Gianfranco Cervellin, Philipp Schuetz, Giuseppe Lippi Sepsis is an important healthcare issue worldwide due to the unfavorable clinical outcome and the increasing risk of antimicrobial resistance caused by inappropriate usage of antimicrobials. According to the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3), sepsis is currently defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by deregulated host response to an infection. This updated definition has contributed to revolutionizing our current understanding of sepsis, emphasizing the central pathogenetic role of the non-homeostatic host response to microorganisms rather than the infection per se. As a result, “bloodstream infection” is no longer being used synonymously to sepsis. Although blood culture has been considered the gold standard for diagnosing sepsis for decades, the accuracy of this technique remains limited due to the low diagnostic sensitivity with high false negative rates in patients undergoing antimicrobial therapy, and in patients with severe localized infections or in noninfectious cause of sepsis. Also, preanalytical factors and possible contamination further limit the reliability of blood cultures. Recent evidence suggests that an increased concentration of some innovative sepsis biomarkers, especially procalcitonin and presepsin, more reliably reflects the systemic host response to infection. Recent evidence suggests that the measurement of such sepsis biomarkers in addition to blood culture or molecular biology further improves the diagnostic management of patients with possible sepsis. The current article aims to propose a “holistic” approach to sepsis diagnostics, encompassing a reasonable combination of clinical signs and symptoms, sepsis biomarkers and microbiological tests.
       
  • Proteomics of reproduction: Prospects and perspectives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Manesh Kumar Panner Selvam, Saradha Baskaran, Ashok Agarwal In recent years, proteomics has been used widely in reproductive research in order to understand the molecular mechanisms related to gametes at the cellular level and the role of proteins involved in fertilization. Network and pathway analysis using bioinformatic tools have paved way to obtain a wider picture on the possible pathways associated with the key differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) and its implication in various infertility scenarios. A brief overview of advanced techniques and bioinformatic tools used for reproductive proteomics is presented. Key findings of proteomic-based studies on male and female reproduction are also presented. Furthermore, the chapter sheds light on the cellular pathways and potential biomarkers associated with male and female infertility. Proteomics coupled with bioinformatic analysis provides an ideal platform for non-invasive management of infertility in couples.
       
  • Advances in HER2 testing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Yun Chen, Liang Liu, Ronghua Ni, Weixian Zhou HER2-positive breast cancer is a particularly aggressive type of breast cancer. Indication of HER2 positivity is essential for its treatment. In addition to a few FDA-approved methods such as immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of HER2 protein expression and in situ hybridization (ISH) assessment of HER2 gene amplification, several novel methods have been developed for HER2 testing in recent years. This chapter provides an overview of HER2 testing with emphasis on those new methods.
       
  • Advances in oral cancer detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Debolina Chakraborty, N. Chandrasekaran, Amitava Mukherjee High incidence of oral carcinoma and its late-stage presentation are the major global healthcare issues. The World Health Organization (WHO) has set early diagnosis and prevention of oral cancer as their primary objective. It is important to consider the time of oral screening, as it plays a pivotal role in understanding the disease prognosis. Critical signs and symptoms that can be identified during initial oral screening can improve the chances of patient's survival. Reports suggest that socio-economic factors, lack of public awareness and delays from primary health care centers are few of the major parameters that contribute to patient's mortality and morbidity. Conventional technique of visual examination of the oral lesion can effectively monitor patient mortality when exposed to risk factors. However, several disadvantages limit the clinical utility of this technique. Thus, screening aids that efficiently differentiate between a benign and malignant lesion as well as deliver information about early OSCC can ameliorate the complications associated with oral cancer diagnosis. Recent advances in optical imaging systems, such as tissue-fluorescence imaging and optical coherence tomography have been proved to be considerably efficient. Additionally, extensive research has been directed towards nanoparticle-based immunosensors, DNA analysis, and salivary proteomics. However, lack of proper clinical trials and correlation with biopsy result hinder the usage of these screening techniques in clinics. In this review, we highlight the importance of early diagnosis of oral cancer as well as discuss about the effectiveness and limitations of the recent diagnostic aids. It can be stated that public awareness regarding routine oral examination and employing screening methods that are non-invasive, robust, and economic, would enhance early stage diagnosis of oral cancer and have a positive impact on patient's survival.
       
  • Advances in celiac disease testing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Tibor Pasinszki, Melinda Krebsz Celiac disease (CD) is a T cell-mediated inflammatory autoimmune disorder of the upper small intestine caused by the ingestion of gluten. It is increasingly recognized as a global problem by experts and societies. The diagnosis of CD is of crucial importance because its delay strongly affects patient's health and quality of life. The diagnosis of CD is, however, complex and requires reliable, sensitive, specific, rapid, simple, and cost-effective, as well-as non-invasive analytical tools. There is also a high demand to develop simple point-of-care (POC) tests for non-specialists at home or in doctors' offices. Analytical techniques are now moving toward the development of fast, more simple, non-invasive, and POC analyses. The present review focuses on recent advances of CD biomarker detection in body fluids, concerning CD specific autoantibody detection in blood and saliva using electrochemical, optic-fiber, and piezoelectric biosensors and POC finger-prick tests, and identifying CD characteristic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urine and feces.
       
  • Advances in DNA/RNA detection using nanotechnology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Hong Zhou, Jing Liu, Jing-Juan Xu, Shusheng Zhang, Hong-Yuan Chen Specific nucleic acid detection in vitro or in vivo has become increasingly important in the discovery of genetic diseases, diagnosing pathogen infection and monitoring disease treatment. One challenge, however, is that the amount of target nucleic acid in specimens is limited. Furthermore, direct sensing methods are also unable to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Fortunately, due to advances in nanotechnology and nanomaterials, nanotechnology-based bioassays have emerged as powerful and promising approaches providing ultra-high sensitivity and specificity in nucleic acid detection. This chapter presents an overview of strategies used in the development and integration of nanotechnology for nucleic acid detection, including optical and electrical detection methods, and nucleic acid assistant recycling amplification strategies. Recent 5 years representative examples are reviewed to demonstrate the proof-of-concept with promising applications for DNA/RNA detection and the underlying mechanism for detection of DNA/RNA with the higher sensitivity and selectivity. Furthermore, a brief discussion of common unresolved issues and future trends in this field is provided both from fundamental and practical point of view.
       
  • Pentraxin-3 and endothelial dysfunction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Alexandru Zlibut, Ioana Corina Bocsan, Lucia Agoston-Coldea Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is involved in vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction through various mechanisms. Until now, most studies confirmed an important link between PTX3 and endothelial dysfunction and identified several pathogenetic pathways. PTX3 modulates inflammatory cells, thus stimulating vascular inflammation. Within endothelial cells, it decreases nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, inhibits cell proliferation and alters their functions. PTX3 blocks the effect of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) by making a molecular complex with these molecules inactivating them. However, there are substances like the tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein (TSG-6) that block the PTX3-FGF2 interaction. Interacting with P-selectin, it promotes vascular inflammatory response and endothelial dysfunction. PTX3 also increases the matrix metalloproteinases synthesis directly or by blocking NO synthesis. From a clinical point of view, PTX3 positively correlates with arterial hypertension, flow mediated dilation and, with intima media thickness. Therefore, the involvement of PTX3 in the pathogenesis and evaluation of endothelial dysfunction is clear, and it may become a biomarker in this direction, but further studies are needed to determine its reliability in this direction. Last but not least, PTX3 could become an effective therapeutic target for preventing this dysfunction, but further research needs to be conducted.
       
  • Circulating microRNA in cardiovascular disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): E.C. Fung, A.N. Butt, J. Eastwood, R. Swaminathan, R. Sodi Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure (HF) are two major causes of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of these conditions is essential to instigate immediate treatment that may result in improved outcomes. Traditional biomarkers of AMI include cardiac troponins and other proteins released from the injured myocardium but there are a number of limitations with these biomarkers especially with regard to specificity. In the past few years circulating nucleic acids, notably microRNA that are small non-coding RNAs that regulate various cellular processes, have been investigated as biomarkers of disease offering improved sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis and prognostication of various conditions. In this review, the role of microRNAs as biomarkers used in the diagnosis of AMI and HF is discussed, their advantage over traditional biomarkers is outlined and the potential for their implementation in clinical practice is critically assessed.
       
  • Phosphaturia in kidney stone formers: Still an enigma
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Valerie Walker Calcium kidney stones are common worldwide. Most are idiopathic and composed of calcium oxalate. Calcium phosphate is present in around 80% and may initiate stone formation. Stone production is multifactorial with a polygenic genetic contribution. Phosphaturia is found frequently among stone formers but until recently received scant attention. This review examines possible mechanisms for the phosphaturia and its relevance to stone formation from a wide angle. There is a striking lack of clinical data. Phosphaturia is associated, but not correlated, with hypercalciuria, increased 1,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D [1,25 (OH)2D], and sometimes evidence of disturbances in proximal renal tubular function. Phosphate reabsorption in the proximal renal tubules requires tightly regulated interaction of many proteins. Paracellular flow through intercellular tight junctions is the major route of phosphate absorption from the intestine and can be reduced therapeutically in hyperphosphatemic patients. In monogenic defects stones develop when phosphaturia is associated with hypercalciuria, generally explained by increased 1,25 (OH)2D production in response to hypophosphatemia. Calcification does not occur in disorders with increased FGF23 when phosphaturia occurs in isolation and 1,25 (OH)2D is suppressed. Candidate gene studies have identified mutations in the phosphate transporters, but in few individuals. One genome-wide study identified a polymorphism of the phosphate transporter gene SLC34A4 associated with stones. Others did not find mutations obviously linked to phosphate reabsorption. Future genetic studies should have a wide trawl and should focus initially on groups of patients with clearly defined phenotypes. The global data should be pooled.
       
  • A practical guide to validation and verification of analytical methods in
           the clinical laboratory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Joachim Pum Although the measures to improve quality in the clinical laboratory have been enormous in the past years, not least of all due to the introduction of the ISO standards 15189 and 17025, the handling of validation and verification of method performance often still differs widely from laboratory to laboratory. Much of what is published on the topic contains complex statistics and is difficult to implement in routine laboratories. The result is, that this point is often neglected or implemented incorrectly, which in turn can lead to false conclusions about method performances, potentially compromising patient safety or contributing to incorrect diagnoses. As it has long become a standard requirement for accredited laboratories to evaluate and document the analytical performance of all methods not only prior to their first implementation, but also during ongoing operation, there is a need for clear, standardized and practical guidelines on the subject. This review summarizes the current literature on the topic, focusing on the requirements for method validations, or as the case may be, verifications and describes when to validate, when to verify and which statistical tests are appropriate for each. Proper interpretation of statistical test results and acceptance criteria for each procedure are alluded to. Specific topics, which are addressed, are precision and bias verification of quantitative, qualitative and semi-quantitative procedures, method comparisons with Bland-Altman Plots, Passing-Bablok regression analysis, 2 × 2 contingency tables and bubble charts, linearity studies, analytical sensitivity and specificity, performing carry-over studies and establishing and confirming reference ranges.
       
  • Acute phase reactant serum amyloid A in inflammation and other diseases
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Yan Zhang, Jie Zhang, Huiming Sheng, Haichuan Li, Rongfang Wang Acute-phase reactant serum amyloid A (A-SAA) plays an important role in acute and chronic inflammation and is used in clinical laboratories as an indicator of inflammation. Although both A-SAA and C-reactive protein (CRP) are acute-phase proteins, the detection of A-SAA is more conclusive than the detection of CRP in patients with viral infections, severe acute pancreatitis, and rejection reactions to kidney transplants. A-SAA has greater clinical diagnostic value in patients who are immunosuppressed, patients with cystic fibrosis who are treated with corticoids, and preterm infants with late-onset sepsis. Nevertheless, for the assessment of the inflammation status and identification of viral infection in other pathologies, such as bacterial infections, the combinatorial use of A-SAA and other acute-phase proteins (APPs), such as CRP and procalcitonin (PCT), can provide more information and sensitivity than the use of any of these proteins alone, and the information generated is important in guiding antibiotic therapy. In addition, A-SAA-associated diseases and the diagnostic value of A-SAA are discussed. However, the relationship between different A-SAA isotypes and their human diseases are mostly derived from research laboratories with limited clinical samples. Thus, further clinical evaluations are necessary to confirm the clinical significance of each A-SAA isotype. Furthermore, the currently available A-SAA assays are based on polyclonal antibodies, which lack isotype specificity and are associated with many inflammatory diseases. Therefore, these assays are usually used in combination with other biomarkers in the clinic.
       
  • Titin fragment in urine: A noninvasive biomarker of muscle degradation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Masafumi Matsuo, Hiroyuki Awano, Nobuhiro Maruyama, Hisahide Nishio Titin/connectin, encoded by the TTN gene, is the largest protein in humans. It acts as a molecular spring in the sarcomere of striated muscles. Although titin is degraded in the skeletal muscles of patients with muscular dystrophies, studies of titin have been limited by its mammoth size. Mutations in the TTN gene have been detected not only in skeletal muscle diseases but in cardiac muscle diseases. TTN mutations result in a wide variety of phenotypes. Recent proteome analysis has found that titin fragments are excreted into the urine of patents with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have shown that urinary titin is a useful noninvasive biomarker for the diagnosis and screening of not only DMD, but also of neuromuscular diseases, for predicting the outcome of cardiomyopathy and for evaluating physical activities. The development of ELISA systems to measure urinary titin has opened a door to studying muscle degradation directly and noninvasively. This review provides current understanding of urinary titin and future prospects for measuring this protein.
       
  • Advances in monitoring anticoagulant therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Mojca Božič Mijovski Anticoagulant drugs directly or indirectly influence coagulation factors preventing fibrin formation, thus preventing blood clotting. They are classified into two groups according to the mode of application, namely parenteral and oral drugs. Among the latter, vitamin K antagonists (most often warfarin) were most widely used for almost a century. In recent years new oral anticoagulant drugs have become available that directly target either factor IIa or Xa (direct oral anticoagulants, DOACs). The proportion of patients to whom DOACs are prescribed is increasing because clinical studies have proved they are at least as effective and safe as vitamin K antagonists. Some of the anticoagulant drugs require regular laboratory monitoring, while others only need assessment of blood drug levels in specific clinical situations.This chapter provides an overview of appropriate laboratory tests used for either regular laboratory monitoring of therapy or occasional assessment of the anticoagulant effect of both parenteral and oral anticoagulant drugs used in clinical practice.
       
  • Telomeres in neurological disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Ayyappan Anitha, Ismail Thanseem, Mahesh Mundalil Vasu, Vijitha Viswambharan, Suresh A. Poovathinal Ever since their discovery, the telomeres and the telomerase have been topics of intensive research, first as a mechanism of cellular aging and later as an indicator of health and diseases in humans. By protecting the chromosome ends, the telomeres play a vital role in preserving the information in our genome. Telomeres shorten with age and the rate of telomere erosion provides insight into the proliferation history of cells. The pace of telomere attrition is known to increase at the onset of several pathological conditions. Telomere shortening has been emerging as a potential contributor in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and depression. The rate of telomere attrition in the brain is slower than that of other tissues owing to the low rate of cell proliferation in brain. Telomere maintenance is crucial for the functioning of stem cells in brain. Taking together the studies on telomere attrition in various neurological disorders, an association between telomere shortening and disease status has been demonstrated in schizophrenia, AD and depression, in spite of a few negative reports. But, studies in ASD and PD have failed to produce conclusive results. The cause-effect relationship between TL and neurological disorders is yet to be elucidated. The factors responsible for telomere erosion, which have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders, need to be explored in detail. Telomerase activation is now being considered as a potential therapeutic strategy for neurological disorders.
       
  • Chapter Six - The chemical and laboratory investigation of hemolysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Clinical Chemistry, Volume 89Author(s): Alexa J. Siddon, Christopher A. Tormey The abnormal breakdown of circulating red blood cells (RBCs), also known as hemolysis, is a significant clinical issue that can present as a primary disorder or arise secondary to another disease process. The evaluation for pathologic hemolysis (and the establishment of a hemolytic disorder) is heavily dependent on assays performed and overseen by the divisions of Hematology, Blood Bank/Transfusion Medicine, Clinical Chemistry, and Immunology in the clinical laboratory. Because of the wide variety of assays used across the spectrum of clinical pathology and potential pitfalls/limitations associated with this testing, the decision of which assay to choose and, perhaps more importantly, how to interpret results, can both be quite challenging. Thus, the aim of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review on the laboratory investigation of pathologic forms of hemolysis and hemolytic disorders. This chapter will: (1) introduce basic concepts on the pathophysiology of hemolysis and (2) examine assays available for hemolysis on a laboratory-by-laboratory basis, with a particular emphasis on the strengths, limitations, and clinical interpretations of each of these assays.
       
  • Chapter Two - New biomarkers in endometriosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Clinical Chemistry, Volume 89Author(s): Larissa M. Coutinho, Márcia C. Ferreira, Ana Luiza L. Rocha, Márcia M. Carneiro, Fernando M. Reis Endometriosis is a benign gynecological disorder which presents significant challenges in terms of diagnosis and management. Despite decades of research, there are no sufficiently sensitive and specific signs and symptoms nor blood tests for the clinical confirmation of endometriosis, which hampers prompt diagnosis and treatment. The huge majority of potential biomarkers has been discarded in research stage and very few have been translated to clinical practice. Serum CA-125 is the most studied and used one, but studies have shown its poor diagnostic performance. Several factors involved in the chronic inflammatory process of endometriosis, such as hormones, cytokines, chemokines, angiogenic factors, oxidative stress markers and others, have been implicated in the disease's pathogenesis and have been extensively studied, but not a single one has successfully been able to accurately identify the disease. MicroRNAs have emerged more recently but their utility to detect endometriosis remains uncertain. The search for a biomarker or a set of biomarkers is still open and may benefit from novel molecular biology and bioinformatics approaches to mine and uncover molecular signatures specifically associated with the disease.
       
  • Clinical implications of fetuin-A
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Peter Jirak, Lars Stechemesser, Elena Moré, Michael Franzen, Albert Topf, Moritz Mirna, Vera Paar, Rudin Pistulli, Daniel Kretzschmar, Bernhard Wernly, Uta C. Hoppe, Michael Lichtenauer, Hermann Salmhofer Fetuin-A, also termed alpha2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein, is a 46 kDa hepatocyte derived protein (hepatokine) and serves multifaceted functions.(i)It acts as systemic inhibitor of extraosseous calcification, serves as transport protein for calcium and phosphate in colloidal calciprotein particles and is involved in bone mineralization. Severe derangements of this system occur in chronic renal disease and are associated with mineral bone disorder. Fetuin-A levels have been associated with survival of renal and transplant patients. Low fetuin-A and high calcification propensity each increase mortality.(ii)An independent second aspect of fetuin-A is its interaction with the insulin receptor. Associations of fetuin-A levels with metabolic syndrome as well as pursuant atherosclerotic vascular effects have been established. This could be explained by differences in patient characteristics, different stages of vascular calcifications, presence of diabetes and kidney dysfunction.(iii)A further issue is the acute phase response of fetuin-A to various inflammatory stimuli and injuries. Dependent on the mode of stimulation, fetuin-A may work as a positive or negative acute phase protein. It may also serve as a protective agent in severe systemic inflammation. A suggestive role of fetuin-A may evolve in wasting and malnutrition–inflammation–atherosclerosis syndromes of chronic disease. A novel aspect is the putative role of fetuin-A in adipose tissue inflammation.(iv)With respect to heart disease, aspects of coronary arterial disease, heart failure and valvular stenosis and calcification have been elucidated. Associations of fetuin-A levels have been found with coronary artery disease, ischemic cardiomyopathy and aortic stenosis.
       
  • Implementing circulating tumor DNA analysis in a clinical laboratory: A
           user manual
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Thibaud Koessler, Alfredo Addeo, Thierry Nouspikel Liquid biopsy, the analysis of cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), is becoming one of the most promising tools in oncology. It has already shown its usefulness in selecting and modulating therapy via remote analysis of the tumor genome and holds important promises in cancer therapy and management, such as assessing the success of key therapeutic steps, monitoring residual disease, early detection of relapses, and establishing prognosis. Yet, ctDNA analysis is technically challenging and its implementation in the laboratory raises multiple strategic and practical issues. As for oncology clinics, integration of this novel test in well-established therapeutic protocols can also pose numerous questions. The current review is intended as a field guide for (1) diagnostic laboratories wishing to implement, validate and possibly accredit ctDNA testing and (2) clinical oncologists interested in integrating the various applications of liquid biopsies in their daily practice. We provide advice and practical recommendations based on our own experience with the technical validations of these methods and on a review of the current literature, with a focus toward gastro-intestinal, lung and breast cancers.
       
  • Laboratory assessment of multiple myeloma
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 January 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Tracy Morrison, Ronald A. Booth, Kristin Hauff, Philip Berardi, Alissa Visram Laboratory testing plays an essential role in the diagnosis and management of patients with multiple myeloma. A variety of chemistry and molecular assays are routinely used to monitor patient progress, response to treatment and relapse.Here, we have reviewed current literature and core guidelines on the details of laboratory testing in myeloma-related investigations. This includes the use and value of protein electrophoresis, serum free light chain and cytogenetic testing. Furthermore, we discuss other traditional chemistry assays essential to myeloma investigation, and potential interferences that may arise due to the disease nature of myeloma, that is, the presence of a monoclonal immunoglobulin. Finally, we discuss the importance of communication in protein electrophoresis results, where laboratorians are required to relate clinically relevant myeloma-relevant information to the ordering physician on the background of a complex pattern of serum or urine proteins.Laboratory testing in myeloma-related investigation relies on several traditional chemistry assays. However, we anticipate new tests and technologies to become available in the future with improved analytical sensitivity, as well as improved clinical sensitivity in identifying patients who are at high risk of progression to multiple myeloma.
       
  • Glycosylation markers in cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Atit Silsirivanit Alteration of glycosylation, a hallmark of cancer, results in the production of tumor-associated glycans or glycoproteins. These molecules are subsequently secreted or membrane-shed into the blood stream and thus serve as tumor-associated markers. Increased glycosylation in cancer is triggered by overexpression of glycoproteins that carry certain specific glycans, increase or decrease of nucleotide sugar donors and altered expression of glycosyltransferase and glycosidase enzymes. In this chapter, the biochemistry and function of glycoprotein, glycan and enzyme markers are reviewed. These glycosylation markers, applicable for detection and monitoring of cancer, include CA19-9, CA125, CEA, PSA and AFP. Because of their specific affinity to distinct sugar moieties, lectins are useful for developing assays to detect these tumor associated glycans and glycoproteins in clinical samples. As such, various enzyme-linked lectin assays (ELLA) have been developed for diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis. Because glycosylation changes occur early in cancer, the detection of tumor associated glycosylation markers using lectin based assays is an effective strategy to improve diagnosis and treatment resulting better outcomes clinically.
       
 
 
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