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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3185 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3185 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 100, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 434, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 308, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 420, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 382, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 472, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 218, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.562
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 26  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0065-2423
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3185 journals]
  • Exosomes of male reproduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 September 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Saradha Baskaran, Manesh Kumar Panner Selvam, Ashok Agarwal Exosomes are nanosized membrane vesicles secreted by wide variety of cells and found in abundance in biological fluids including semen. They contain cargo of lipids, proteins, microRNAs and mRNAs, and are known to play a major role in intracellular communication. Seminal exosomes mainly include epididymosomes and prostasomes. Most of the proteins associated with the epididymosomes are transferred to the sperm subcellular or membranous domains during their epididymal transit and are involved in the acquisition of fertilizing ability, modulation of motility and protection against oxidative stress. Proteins associated with prostasomes stimulate sperm motility and regulate the timing of capacitation to avoid premature induction of acrosome reaction. Furthermore, prostasomes protect the sperm from immune responses within the female reproductive tract. Overall, exosome-associated proteins play an indispensable role in maturation of spermatozoa and therefore, serve as an excellent biomarker in early diagnosis of male infertility.
       
  • Recent advances in the determination of insulins from biological fluids
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Andreas Thomas, Mario Thevis The qualitative and quantitative determination of insulin and its related substances (e. g., C-peptide) is of great importance in many different areas of analytical chemistry. In particular, due to the steadily increasing prevalence of metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus, an adequate control of the circulating amount of insulin is desirable. In addition, also in forensics and doping control analysis, the determination of insulin in blood, urine or other biological matrices plays a major role. However, in order to establish general reference values for insulin and C-peptide for diabetology, the comparability of measured concentrations is indispensable. This has not yet been fully implemented, although enormous progress has been made in recent years, and the search for a “gold standard” method is still ongoing. In addition to established ligand-binding assays, an increasing number of mass-spectrometric methods have been developed and employed as the to-date available systems (for example, high-resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometers) provide the sensitivity required to determine analyte concentrations in the sub-ng/mL (sub-100 pmol/L) level. Meanwhile, also high-throughput measurements have been realized to meet the requirement of testing a high number of samples in a short period of time. Further developments aim at enabling the online measurement of insulin in the blood with the help of an insulin sensor and, in the following, in addition to a brief review, today's state of the art testing developments are summarized.
       
  • Biomarkers in aggression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Mirko Manchia, Stefano Comai, Martina Pinna, Federica Pinna, Vassilios Fanos, Eileen Denovan-Wright, Bernardo Carpiniello Aggressive behavior exerts an enormous impact on society remaining among the main causes of worldwide premature death. Effective primary interventions, relying on predictive models of aggression that show adequate sensitivity and specificity are currently lacking. One strategy to increase the accuracy and precision of prediction would be to include biological data in the predictive models. Clearly, to be included in such models, biological markers should be reliably associated with the specific trait under study (i.e., diagnostic biomarkers). Aggression, however, is phenotypically highly heterogeneous, an element that has hindered the identification of reliable biomarkers. However, current research is trying to overcome these challenges by focusing on more homogenous aggression subtypes and/or by studying large sample size of aggressive individuals. Further advance is coming by bioinformatics approaches that are allowing the integration of inter-species biological data as well as the development of predictive algorithms able to discriminate subjects on the basis of the propensity toward aggressive behavior. In this review we first present a brief summary of the available evidence on neuroimaging of aggression. We will then treat extensively the data on genetic determinants, including those from hypothesis-free genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene studies. Transcriptomic and neurochemical biomarkers will then be reviewed, and we will dedicate a section on the role of metabolomics in aggression. Finally, we will discuss how biomarkers can inform the development of new pharmacological tools as well as increase the efficacy of preventive strategies.
       
  • Metabolomics in genetic testing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Jacopo Troisi, Pierpaolo Cavallo, Angelo Colucci, Luca Pierri, Giovanni Scala, Steven Symes, Carter Jones, Sean Richards Metabolomics is an intriguing field of study providing a new readout of the biochemical activities taking place at the moment of sampling within a subject's biofluid or tissue. Metabolite concentrations are influenced by several factors including disease, environment, drugs, diet and, importantly, genetics. Metabolomics signatures, which describe a subject's phenotype, are useful for disease diagnosis and prognosis, as well as for predicting and monitoring the effectiveness of treatments. Metabolomics is conventionally divided into targeted (i.e., the quantitative analysis of a predetermined group of metabolites) and untargeted studies (i.e., analysis of the complete set of small-molecule metabolites contained in a biofluid without a pre-imposed metabolites-selection). Both approaches have demonstrated high value in the investigation and understanding of several monogenic and multigenic conditions. Due to low costs per sample and relatively short analysis times, metabolomics can be a useful and robust complement to genetic sequencing.
       
  • Periodontal disease: From the lenses of light microscopy to the specs of
           proteomics and next-generation sequencing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Nagihan Bostanci, Kai Bao, David Greenwood, Angelika Silbereisen, Georgios N. Belibasakis Periodontal disease entails the inflammatory destruction of the tooth supporting (periodontal) tissues as a result of polymicrobial colonization of the tooth surface in the form of biofilms. Extensive data collected over the past decades on this chronic disease demonstrate that its progression is infrequent and episodic, and the susceptibility to it can vary among individuals. Physical assessments of previously occurring damage to periodontal tissues remain the cornerstone of detection and diagnosis, whereas traditionally used diagnostic procedures do neither identify susceptible individuals nor distinguish between disease-active and disease-inactive periodontal sites. Thus, more sensitive and accurate “measurable biological indicators” of periodontal diseases are needed in order to place diagnosis (e.g., the presence or stage) and management of the disease on a more rational less empirical basis.Contemporary “omics” technologies may help unlock the path to this quest. High throughput nucleic acid sequencing technologies have enabled us to examine the taxonomic distribution of microbial communities in oral health and disease, whereas proteomic technologies allowed us to decipher the molecular state of the host in disease, as well as the interactive cross-talk of the host with the microbiome. The newly established field of metaproteomics has enabled the identification of the repertoire of proteins that oral microorganisms use to compete or co-operate with each other. Vast such data is derived from oral biological fluids, including gingival crevicular fluid and saliva, which is progressively completed and catalogued as the analytical technologies and bioinformatics tools progressively advance. This chapter covers the current “omics”-derived knowledge on the microbiome, the host and their “interactome” with regard to periodontal diseases, and addresses challenges and opportunities ahead.
       
  • Evaluation of analytical performance of immunoassay methods for cTnI and
           cTnT: From theory to practice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Aldo Clerico, Martina Zaninotto, Andrea Padoan, Silvia Masotti, Veronica Musetti, Concetta Prontera, Rudina Ndreu, Giancarlo Zucchelli, Claudio Passino, Marco Migliardi, Mario Plebani Current guidelines worldwide recommend cardiac troponins I (cTnI) and T (cTnT) as the biomarkers of choice for the differential diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and the measurement of the 99th upper reference population limit (URL) value for cardiac troponins, with an imprecision of ≤ 10 CV%. Measuring the 99th URL of cTnI and cTnT is a challenging analytical task due to low biomarker concentrations present in healthy subjects. Therefore, since the year 2006, several manufacturers have established new generation cTnI and cTnT immunoassays with an improved analytical sensitivity in accordance with the quality specifications described in international guidelines, the more recent of which state that only immunoassays that meet the required quality specifications should be considered “high-sensitivity” methods. For the early diagnosis of ACS, and for the stratification of cardiovascular risk in cardiac patients and the general population, high-sensitivity methods should be employed. It is therefore important for laboratory professionals and clinicians to gain a thorough understanding of the analytical performances of immunoassay methods for cTnI and cTnT, especially at low to normal concentration ranges. The aim of the present study was to analyze critical aspects related to definition, analytical performance, pathophysiological interpretations, and the clinical relevance of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays.
       
  • Epigenetic reprogramming and potential application of epigenetic-modifying
           drugs in acquired chemotherapeutic resistance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Logeswari Ponnusamy, Prathap Kumar S. Mahalingaiah, Kamaleshwar P. Singh Chemotherapy is the most common clinical choice of treatment for cancer, however, acquired chemoresistance is a major challenge that limits the successful outcome of this option. Systematic review of in vitro, in vivo, preclinical and clinical studies suggests that acquired chemoresistance is polygenic, progressive, and involve both genetic and epigenetic heterogeneities and perturbations. Various mechanisms that confer resistance to chemotherapy are tightly controlled by epigenetic regulations. Poised epigenetic plasticity and temporal increase in epigenetic alterations upon chemotherapy make chemoresistance likely an epigenetic-driven process. The transient and reversible nature of epigenetic modulations enable ways to intervene the epigenetic re-programing associated with acquired chemoresistance via application of epigenetic modifying drugs. This review discusses recent understandings behind the various mechanisms of acquired chemoresistance that are under the control of epigenetic drivers, potential application of epigenetic-based drugs in resensitizing refractory cancers to chemotherapy, the limitations and future scope for clinical application of epigenetic therapeutics in successfully addressing chemoresistance.
       
  • Lectin biosensors in cancer glycan biomarker detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): M. Luísa S. Silva Cancer has high incidence and it will continue to increase over the next decades. Detection and quantification of cancer-associated biomarkers is frequently carried out for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment monitoring at various disease stages. It is well-known that glycosylation profiles change significantly during oncogenesis. Aberrant glycans produced during tumorigenesis are, therefore, valuable molecules for detection and characterization of cancer, and for therapeutic design and monitoring. Although glycoproteomics has benefited from the development of analytical tools such as high performance liquid chromatography, two-dimensional gel and capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, these approaches are not well suited for rapid point-of-care (POC) testing easily performed by medical staff.Lectins are biomolecules found in nature with specific affinities toward particular glycan structures and bind them thus forming a relatively strong complex. Because of this characteristic, lectins have been used in analytical techniques for the selective capture or separation of certain glycans in complex samples, namely, in lectin affinity chromatography, or to characterize glycosylation profiles in diverse clinical situations, using lectin microarrays. Lectin-based biosensors have been developed for the detection of specific aberrant and cancer-associated glycostructures to aid diagnosis, prognosis and treatment assessment of these patients. The attractive features of biosensors, such as portability and simple use make them highly suitable for POC testing. Recent developments in lectin biosensors, as well as their potential and pitfalls in cancer glycan biomarker detection, are presented in this chapter.
       
  • Cytokines in heart failure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Adina Elena Stanciu The natural history of heart failure (HF) is not linear, because changes in the heart structure and function start long before the disease becomes clinically evident. Many different cytokines originating from intracardiac tissues (cardiomyocytes, cardiac endothelial cells, cardiac fibroblasts, and cardiac infiltrated immune cells) or extracardiac tissues (adipose tissue, gut, and lymphoid organs) have been identified in HF. Because the levels of circulating cytokines correlate with the development and severity of HF, these mediators may have both pathophysiological importance, through their ability to modulate inflammation, myocyte stress/stretch, myocyte injury and apoptosis, fibroblast activation and extracellular matrix remodeling, and utility as clinical predictive biomarkers. A greater understanding of the mechanisms mediated by the multifaceted network of cytokines, leading to distinct HF phenotypes (HF with reduced or preserved ejection fraction), is urgently needed for the development of new treatment strategies. In this chapter, all these issues were thoroughly discussed, pointing on the practical considerations concerning the clinical use of the cytokines as prognostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in HF.
       
  • Organokines in disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Hye Soo Chung, Kyung Mook Choi Studies have linked obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dementia. Their relationship to the incidence and progression of these disease states suggests an interconnected pathogenesis involving chronic low–grade inflammation and oxidative stress. Metabolic syndrome represents comorbidities of central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension and hyperglycemia associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, NAFLD, atherosclerotic CVD and neurodegenerative disease. As the socioeconomic burden for these diseases has grown signficantly with an increasing elderly population, new and alternative pharmacologic solutions for these cardiometabolic diseases are required. Adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver are central endocrine organs that regulate inflammation, energy and metabolic homeostasis, and the neuroendocrine axis through synthesis and secretion of adipokines, myokines, and hepatokines, respectively. These organokines affect each other and communicate through various endocrine, paracrine and autocrine pathways. The ultimate goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive understanding of organ crosstalk. This will include the roles of novel organokines in normal physiologic regulation and their pathophysiological effect in obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, CVD, NAFLD and neurodegenerative disorders.
       
  • Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: Strategy to develop clinical peptide
           biomarkers for more accurate evaluation of the pathophysiological status
           of this syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Yoshihiko Araki, Mitsuaki Yanagida Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) is the most common and widely known as serious complication of pregnancy. As this syndrome is a major leading cause of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity/mortality worldwide, many studies have sought to identify candidate molecules as potential disease biomarkers (DBMs) for use in clinical examinations. Accumulating evidence over the past 2 decades that the many proteolytic peptides appear in human humoral fluids, including peripheral blood, in association with an individual's health condition. This review provides the potential utility of peptidomic analysis for monitoring for pathophysiological status in HDP, and presents an overview of current status of peptide quantification technology. Especially, the technical limitations of the methods used for DBM discovery in the blood are discussed.
       
  • Myokines: The endocrine coupling of skeletal muscle and bone
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Marta Gomarasca, Giuseppe Banfi, Giovanni Lombardi Bone and skeletal muscle are integrated organs and their coupling has been considered mainly a mechanical one in which bone serves as attachment site to muscle while muscle applies load to bone and regulates bone metabolism. However, skeletal muscle can affect bone homeostasis also in a non-mechanical fashion, i.e., through its endocrine activity. Being recognized as an endocrine organ itself, skeletal muscle secretes a panel of cytokines and proteins named myokines, synthesized and secreted by myocytes in response to muscle contraction. Myokines exert an autocrine function in regulating muscle metabolism as well as a paracrine/endocrine regulatory function on distant organs and tissues, such as bone, adipose tissue, brain and liver.Physical activity is the primary physiological stimulus for bone anabolism (and/or catabolism) through the production and secretion of myokines, such as IL-6, irisin, IGF-1, FGF2, beside the direct effect of loading. Importantly, exercise-induced myokine can exert an anti-inflammatory action that is able to counteract not only acute inflammation due to an infection, but also a condition of chronic low-grade inflammation raised as consequence of physical inactivity, aging or metabolic disorders (i.e., obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus).In this review article, we will discuss the effects that some of the most studied exercise-induced myokines exert on bone formation and bone resorption, as well as a brief overview of the anti-inflammatory effects of myokines during the onset pathological conditions characterized by the development a systemic low-grade inflammation, such as sarcopenia, obesity and aging.
       
  • Advances in biomarker detection: Alternative approaches for blood-based
           biomarker detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Miguel Rosado, Rafael Silva, Mariana G. Bexiga, John G. Jones, Bruno Manadas, Sandra I. Anjo In the clinical setting, a blood sample is typically the starting point for biomarker search and discovery. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a highly sensitive and informative method for characterizing a very wide range of metabolites and proteins and is therefore a potentially powerful tool for biomarker discovery. However, the physicochemical characteristics of blood coupled with very large ranges of protein and metabolite concentrations present a significant technical obstacle for resolving and quantifying putative biomarkers by MS. Blood fractionation procedures are being developed to reduce the proteome/metabolome complexity and concentration ranges, allowing a greater diversity of analytes, including those at very low concentrations, to be quantified. In this chapter, several strategies for enriching and/or isolating specific blood components are summarized, including methods for the analysis of low and high molecular weight compounds, usually neglected in this type of assays, extracellular vesicles, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). For each method, relevant practical information is presented for effective implementation.
       
  • Amino and organic acid analysis: Essential tools in the diagnosis of
           inborn errors of metabolism
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): William S. Phipps, Patti M. Jones, Khushbu Patel Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are a large class of genetic disorders that result from defects in enzymes involved in energy production and metabolism of nutrients. For every metabolic pathway, there are defects that can occur and potentially result in an IEM. While some defects can go undetected in one's lifetime, some have moderate to severe clinical consequences. In the latter case, the biochemical defect leads to accumulation of metabolites and byproducts that are toxic or interfere with normal biological function. Disorders of amino acid metabolism, organic acid metabolism and the urea cycle comprise a large portion of IEMs. Two essential tools required for the diagnosis of these categories of disorders are amino acid and organic acid profiling. Most all clinical laboratories offering metabolic testing perform amino acid analysis, while organic acid profiling is restricted to more specialized pediatric hospitals and reference laboratories. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of various methodologies employed for amino acid and organic acid profiling as well as specific examples to demonstrate how these techniques are applied in clinical laboratories for the diagnosis of IEMs.
       
  • Advances in electrochemical immunosensors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Elif Burcu Aydin, Muhammet Aydin, Mustafa Kemal Sezgintürk Immunosensors are compact tools on which antibody and antigen interactions are formed. The specific interaction between antibody and antigen is detected by using a transducer and an electrical signal is measured. This specific interaction between these molecules makes immunosensor very attractive for several applications in different fields. Electrochemical immunosensors are successful devices in selective and sensitive detection of several analytes. Electrochemical transducing methods such as voltammetric, potentiometric, conductometric or impedimetric have been utilized in different applications due to their excellent properties such as being low-cost, sensitivity and simplicity. In this chapter, the fundamentals of electrochemical immunosensors are summarized and different applications in food, environmental and clinical analyses are investigated and discussed.
       
  • Lipid trafficking in cardiovascular disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Andrei C. Sposito, Francesca Zimetti, Joaquim Barreto, Ilaria Zanotti The reduction of plasma apolipoprotein B (apoB) containing lipoproteins has long been pursued as the main modifiable risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This has led to an intense search for strategies aiming at reducing plasma apoB-lipoproteins, culminating in reduction of overall CV risk. Despite 3 decades of progress, CVD remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and, as such, new therapeutic targets are still warranted. Clinical and preclinical research has moved forward from the original concept, under which some lipids must be accumulated and other removed to achieve the ideal condition in disease prevention, into the concept that mechanisms that orchestrate lipid movement between lipoproteins, cells and organelles is equally involved in CVD. As such, this review scrutinizes potentially atherogenic changes in lipid trafficking and assesses the molecular mechanisms behind it. New developments in risk assessment and new targets for the mitigation of residual CVD risk are also addressed.
       
  • Toward a holistic approach for diagnosing sepsis in the emergency
           department
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Gianfranco Cervellin, Philipp Schuetz, Giuseppe Lippi Sepsis is an important healthcare issue worldwide due to the unfavorable clinical outcome and the increasing risk of antimicrobial resistance caused by inappropriate usage of antimicrobials. According to the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3), sepsis is currently defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by deregulated host response to an infection. This updated definition has contributed to revolutionizing our current understanding of sepsis, emphasizing the central pathogenetic role of the non-homeostatic host response to microorganisms rather than the infection per se. As a result, “bloodstream infection” is no longer being used synonymously to sepsis. Although blood culture has been considered the gold standard for diagnosing sepsis for decades, the accuracy of this technique remains limited due to the low diagnostic sensitivity with high false negative rates in patients undergoing antimicrobial therapy, and in patients with severe localized infections or in noninfectious cause of sepsis. Also, preanalytical factors and possible contamination further limit the reliability of blood cultures. Recent evidence suggests that an increased concentration of some innovative sepsis biomarkers, especially procalcitonin and presepsin, more reliably reflects the systemic host response to infection. Recent evidence suggests that the measurement of such sepsis biomarkers in addition to blood culture or molecular biology further improves the diagnostic management of patients with possible sepsis. The current article aims to propose a “holistic” approach to sepsis diagnostics, encompassing a reasonable combination of clinical signs and symptoms, sepsis biomarkers and microbiological tests.
       
  • Proteomics of reproduction: Prospects and perspectives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Manesh Kumar Panner Selvam, Saradha Baskaran, Ashok Agarwal In recent years, proteomics has been used widely in reproductive research in order to understand the molecular mechanisms related to gametes at the cellular level and the role of proteins involved in fertilization. Network and pathway analysis using bioinformatic tools have paved way to obtain a wider picture on the possible pathways associated with the key differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) and its implication in various infertility scenarios. A brief overview of advanced techniques and bioinformatic tools used for reproductive proteomics is presented. Key findings of proteomic-based studies on male and female reproduction are also presented. Furthermore, the chapter sheds light on the cellular pathways and potential biomarkers associated with male and female infertility. Proteomics coupled with bioinformatic analysis provides an ideal platform for non-invasive management of infertility in couples.
       
  • Advances in HER2 testing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Yun Chen, Liang Liu, Ronghua Ni, Weixian Zhou HER2-positive breast cancer is a particularly aggressive type of breast cancer. Indication of HER2 positivity is essential for its treatment. In addition to a few FDA-approved methods such as immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of HER2 protein expression and in situ hybridization (ISH) assessment of HER2 gene amplification, several novel methods have been developed for HER2 testing in recent years. This chapter provides an overview of HER2 testing with emphasis on those new methods.
       
  • Advances in oral cancer detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Debolina Chakraborty, N. Chandrasekaran, Amitava Mukherjee High incidence of oral carcinoma and its late-stage presentation are the major global healthcare issues. The World Health Organization (WHO) has set early diagnosis and prevention of oral cancer as their primary objective. It is important to consider the time of oral screening, as it plays a pivotal role in understanding the disease prognosis. Critical signs and symptoms that can be identified during initial oral screening can improve the chances of patient's survival. Reports suggest that socio-economic factors, lack of public awareness and delays from primary health care centers are few of the major parameters that contribute to patient's mortality and morbidity. Conventional technique of visual examination of the oral lesion can effectively monitor patient mortality when exposed to risk factors. However, several disadvantages limit the clinical utility of this technique. Thus, screening aids that efficiently differentiate between a benign and malignant lesion as well as deliver information about early OSCC can ameliorate the complications associated with oral cancer diagnosis. Recent advances in optical imaging systems, such as tissue-fluorescence imaging and optical coherence tomography have been proved to be considerably efficient. Additionally, extensive research has been directed towards nanoparticle-based immunosensors, DNA analysis, and salivary proteomics. However, lack of proper clinical trials and correlation with biopsy result hinder the usage of these screening techniques in clinics. In this review, we highlight the importance of early diagnosis of oral cancer as well as discuss about the effectiveness and limitations of the recent diagnostic aids. It can be stated that public awareness regarding routine oral examination and employing screening methods that are non-invasive, robust, and economic, would enhance early stage diagnosis of oral cancer and have a positive impact on patient's survival.
       
  • Advances in celiac disease testing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Tibor Pasinszki, Melinda Krebsz Celiac disease (CD) is a T cell-mediated inflammatory autoimmune disorder of the upper small intestine caused by the ingestion of gluten. It is increasingly recognized as a global problem by experts and societies. The diagnosis of CD is of crucial importance because its delay strongly affects patient's health and quality of life. The diagnosis of CD is, however, complex and requires reliable, sensitive, specific, rapid, simple, and cost-effective, as well-as non-invasive analytical tools. There is also a high demand to develop simple point-of-care (POC) tests for non-specialists at home or in doctors' offices. Analytical techniques are now moving toward the development of fast, more simple, non-invasive, and POC analyses. The present review focuses on recent advances of CD biomarker detection in body fluids, concerning CD specific autoantibody detection in blood and saliva using electrochemical, optic-fiber, and piezoelectric biosensors and POC finger-prick tests, and identifying CD characteristic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urine and feces.
       
  • Advances in DNA/RNA detection using nanotechnology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Hong Zhou, Jing Liu, Jing-Juan Xu, Shusheng Zhang, Hong-Yuan Chen Specific nucleic acid detection in vitro or in vivo has become increasingly important in the discovery of genetic diseases, diagnosing pathogen infection and monitoring disease treatment. One challenge, however, is that the amount of target nucleic acid in specimens is limited. Furthermore, direct sensing methods are also unable to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Fortunately, due to advances in nanotechnology and nanomaterials, nanotechnology-based bioassays have emerged as powerful and promising approaches providing ultra-high sensitivity and specificity in nucleic acid detection. This chapter presents an overview of strategies used in the development and integration of nanotechnology for nucleic acid detection, including optical and electrical detection methods, and nucleic acid assistant recycling amplification strategies. Recent 5 years representative examples are reviewed to demonstrate the proof-of-concept with promising applications for DNA/RNA detection and the underlying mechanism for detection of DNA/RNA with the higher sensitivity and selectivity. Furthermore, a brief discussion of common unresolved issues and future trends in this field is provided both from fundamental and practical point of view.
       
  • Pentraxin-3 and endothelial dysfunction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): Alexandru Zlibut, Ioana Corina Bocsan, Lucia Agoston-Coldea Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is involved in vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction through various mechanisms. Until now, most studies confirmed an important link between PTX3 and endothelial dysfunction and identified several pathogenetic pathways. PTX3 modulates inflammatory cells, thus stimulating vascular inflammation. Within endothelial cells, it decreases nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, inhibits cell proliferation and alters their functions. PTX3 blocks the effect of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) by making a molecular complex with these molecules inactivating them. However, there are substances like the tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein (TSG-6) that block the PTX3-FGF2 interaction. Interacting with P-selectin, it promotes vascular inflammatory response and endothelial dysfunction. PTX3 also increases the matrix metalloproteinases synthesis directly or by blocking NO synthesis. From a clinical point of view, PTX3 positively correlates with arterial hypertension, flow mediated dilation and, with intima media thickness. Therefore, the involvement of PTX3 in the pathogenesis and evaluation of endothelial dysfunction is clear, and it may become a biomarker in this direction, but further studies are needed to determine its reliability in this direction. Last but not least, PTX3 could become an effective therapeutic target for preventing this dysfunction, but further research needs to be conducted.
       
  • Circulating microRNA in cardiovascular disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2019Source: Advances in Clinical ChemistryAuthor(s): E.C. Fung, A.N. Butt, J. Eastwood, R. Swaminathan, R. Sodi Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure (HF) are two major causes of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of these conditions is essential to instigate immediate treatment that may result in improved outcomes. Traditional biomarkers of AMI include cardiac troponins and other proteins released from the injured myocardium but there are a number of limitations with these biomarkers especially with regard to specificity. In the past few years circulating nucleic acids, notably microRNA that are small non-coding RNAs that regulate various cellular processes, have been investigated as biomarkers of disease offering improved sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis and prognostication of various conditions. In this review, the role of microRNAs as biomarkers used in the diagnosis of AMI and HF is discussed, their advantage over traditional biomarkers is outlined and the potential for their implementation in clinical practice is critically assessed.
       
 
 
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