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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3031 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3031 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 79, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 389, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 152, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 141, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in Chemical Engineering
  [SJR: 0.183]   [H-I: 23]   [24 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2377
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Chapter One Photobioreactor Modeling and Radiative Transfer Analysis for
           Engineering Purposes
    • Authors: Jérémi Dauchet; Jean-François Cornet; Fabrice Gros; Matthieu Roudet; Claude-Gilles Dussap
      Pages: 1 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 48
      Author(s): Jérémi Dauchet, Jean-François Cornet, Fabrice Gros, Matthieu Roudet, Claude-Gilles Dussap
      The present chapter introduces the theoretical framework for constructing predictive knowledge-models leading to the calculation of the volumetric rate of biomass production, the surface rate of biomass production and the thermodynamic efficiency of photobioreactors. Here, the main assumption is that photosynthesis reaction is limited by radiative transfer only. First, the predictive determination of the scattering and absorption properties of photosynthetic microorganisms of various types is addressed. Then, these radiative properties are used to calculate the radiation field within the reaction volume by solving the radiative transfer equation. Both the development of approximate solutions appropriated with typical photobioreactor configurations (intermediate scattering optical-thickness) and the rigorous solution of the radiative transfer equation by the Monte Carlo method are addressed, including the treatment of complex geometric structures. Finally, the thermokinetic coupling between the radiation field, the photosynthesis reaction rates and thermodynamic efficiency are investigated. For the special case of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis, a complete stoichiometric, kinetic and thermodynamic model is constructed using the linear thermodynamics of irreversible processes to analyze the primary events of photosynthesis (Z-scheme). Comparison between the theoretical calculations presented in this chapter and experimental results confirms the ability of the proposed predictive approach, after parameters reification, to quantify performances of many kinds of photobioreactors (geometry, size) functioning under different operating conditions. An extension of the proposed coupling approach for the more complicated case of eukaryotic (microalgae) micro-organisms is then proposed as further perspective of this work.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ache.2015.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2016)
       
  • Chapter Two Interaction Between Light and Photosynthetic Microorganisms
    • Authors: Laurent Pilon; Razmig Kandilian
      Pages: 107 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 48
      Author(s): Laurent Pilon, Razmig Kandilian
      This chapter aims to introduce the physical concepts and to provide the experimental and theoretical frameworks necessary to understand and to quantify the interaction between light and photosynthetic microorganisms. Indeed, light transfer is arguably the most critical aspect to consider in designing, optimizing, and operating photobioreactors of all sizes for the production of a wide range of value-added products. This chapter presents state-of-the art theoretical and experimental methods for determining the scattering phase function and the absorption and scattering cross-sections of unicellular and multicellular microorganisms as well as of colonies. An extensive database of these so-called radiation characteristics over the photosynthetically active radiation region is presented for a wide variety of promising freshwater and marine microalgae, cyanobacteria, and nonsulfur purple bacteria with various shapes, sizes, pigments, and responses to stresses. The effects of photoacclimation and of progressive and sudden nitrogen starvation on the radiation characteristics are illustrated with Nannochloropsis oculata. Finally, limitations of current approaches are discussed and future research directions are suggested.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ache.2015.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2016)
       
  • Chapter Three Modeling of Microalgae Bioprocesses
    • Authors: Matthias Schirmer; Clemens Posten
      Pages: 151 - 184
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 48
      Author(s): Matthias Schirmer, Clemens Posten
      Modeling of photobioprocesses is a powerful tool for process development and understanding. Nevertheless, this tool is nowadays not exhaustively employed due to lack of clear insights into the specific structure and small data basis. The following chapter gives an introduction on modeling phototrophic processes. Emphasis lays on simplification to be applicable to process development based on measurable data. The first step is to structure the problem into a reactor level, the level of metabolic fluxes, and the intracellular control level. Second, the general approach of lumping consecutive metabolic steps to metabolic fluxes and setting up appropriate balance equations and kinetics is outlined. Combining linear dependent parameters to observable yield coefficients is another approach for model reduction. To consider complexity on the control level an optimization approach is explained which has been successfully applied already to heterotrophs and phototrophs. Starting from a generic simulation example, third, the specific features are outlined in more detail. These are especially photosynthesis, carbon uptake, and carbon partitioning. For dynamic description of the complex reactions of the cells to environmental changes, examples are listed, some of them supported with data where available. The idea of this chapter is to give the basic biological background, to deduce step by step the model equations, and to give simulation results with quantitative parameter values. The chapter shall give the basis for a straight start into own modeling projects of the reader.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ache.2015.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2016)
       
  • Chapter Five Industrial Photobioreactors and Scale-Up Concepts
    • Authors: Jeremy Pruvost; Francois Le Borgne; Arnaud Artu; Jean-François Cornet; Jack Legrand
      Pages: 257 - 310
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 48
      Author(s): Jeremy Pruvost, Francois Le Borgne, Arnaud Artu, Jean-François Cornet, Jack Legrand
      Unlike other more classical bioprocesses for heterotrophic growth (typically yeasts and bacteria) where mixing tanks have standard geometries, microalgal culture has no single standard geometry. The main reason is the need for a light supply, which (1) has spurred various technologies designed to maximize light use and (2) greatly increases process complexity, as light is a complex parameter to handle. However, in-depth and long-term modeling efforts have now yielded engineering tools to design, optimize, and control photobioreactors in a predictive and rational way. Here we discuss the parameters to consider when designing and operating microalgal cultivation systems and how appropriate engineering rules can support optimal system design and operation. Once the practical and economic constraints of the final application have been appropriately factored in, it becomes possible to set a rational design of effective technologies. This is illustrated later in this chapter in examples of successful developments, some of which are commercially available via AlgoSource Technologies. The examples chosen serve to highlight the many applications of photobioreactors from lab-scale fundamental studies to large solar industrial production, and to illustrate how a handful of engineering rules frame the various photobioreactor design options (artificial light or natural sunlight, external or internal lighting, high-cell-density culture, and more).

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ache.2015.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2016)
       
  • Chapter One Unified Framework of Multiscale Density Functional Theories
           and Its Recent Applications
    • Authors: Shuangliang Zhao; Yu Liu; Xueqian Chen; Yunxiang Lu; Honglai Liu; Ying Hu
      Pages: 1 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 47
      Author(s): Shuangliang Zhao, Yu Liu, Xueqian Chen, Yunxiang Lu, Honglai Liu, Ying Hu
      Most chemical engineering processes involve complex multiphase fluid systems, and their evolution depends on the mechanism by which the inhomogeneous subsystems exchange information at different length scales. Whereas numerous theoretical methods with specific description accuracies have been developed for investigating physicochemical properties of various fluid systems, a unified theory that enables the investigation of mesoscale problems is still needed. Here, we introduce a unified framework of multiscale density functional theories (DFTs). With the same physical concept and mathematical framework four different versions of DFTs, covering quantum, atomic, molecular, and polymeric DFTs, are presented complemented with their illustrative applications at individual scales. In addition, the combinations of those DFTs with each other and with other conventional theories and simulation approaches are also discussed. Finally, general discussions on the up-to-date progress of DFTs and the expectations on their further extensions are given. The introduction of this unified framework of DFTs is expected to advance the theoretical study of mesoscale problems.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ache.2015.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2016)
       
  • Chapter Three Role of Interfacial Force on Multiphase Microflow—An
           Important Meso-Scientific Issue
    • Authors: Kai Wang; Jianhong Xu; Guotao Liu; Guangsheng Luo
      Pages: 163 - 191
      Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 47
      Author(s): Kai Wang, Jianhong Xu, Guotao Liu, Guangsheng Luo
      An understanding of multiphase microflows is critical for the development and application of microstructured chemical systems in the chemical industry. As one of the most important meso-scientific issues, interfacial science could be a bridge connecting microscopic molecular components and macroscopic fluid behaviors in these systems. Working together with viscous and inertial forces, the interfacial force also dominates complicated multiphase flow patterns and well-controlled droplets and bubbles. In this review, the generation mechanisms of different flow patterns and the break-up rules for droplets and bubbles in microchannels are introduced first. The effects of the adjustable fluid/solid interfaces, or so-called wetting properties, of microchannels on multiphase flow patterns, as well as microchannel surface modification methods, are then discussed. The dynamic fluid/fluid interfaces in multiphase microflows with variable interfacial tensions are also presented, including the scientific reasons, measuring methods, their effect on multiphase microflows, and further works.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ache.2015.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2016)
       
  • Chapter Five MTO Processes Development
    • Authors: Mao Ye; Hua Li; Yinfeng Zhao; Tao Zhang; Zhongmin Liu
      Pages: 279 - 335
      Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 47
      Author(s): Mao Ye, Hua Li, Yinfeng Zhao, Tao Zhang, Zhongmin Liu
      Methanol to olefins (MTO), which provides a new route to produce light olefins such as ethylene and propylene from abundant natural materials (e.g., coal, natural gas or biomass), has been recently industrialized by the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. In this contribution, the process development of MTO is introduced, which emphasizes the importance of mesoscale studies and focuses on three aspects: a mesoscale modeling approach for MTO catalyst pellet, coke formation and control in MTO reactor, and scaling up of the microscale-MTO fluidized bed reactor to pilot-scale fluidized bed reactor. The challenges and future directions in MTO process development are also briefed.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ache.2015.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2016)
       
  • Chapter One Unified Design Strategies for Particulate Products
    • Authors: Wolfgang Peukert; Doris Segets; Lukas Pflug; Günter Leugering
      Pages: 1 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 46
      Author(s): Wolfgang Peukert, Doris Segets, Lukas Pflug, Günter Leugering
      Unit operations and product design are the two most important pillars of chemical engineering. Product design is the formation, formulation, handling, manufacturing, and characterization of complex multiphase products with specific properties and is thus at the core of mesoscale science and engineering. The applications define the required product properties which cover both classical fields of process technology in the chemical industry as well as new emerging fields of electronics, energy and environmental technologies, life sciences, materials science and engineering, nanotechnology, and photonic technologies highlighting the broad relevance of mesoscale science. Unifying principles of product design are proposed which are widely applicable to many different kinds of products including solid, liquid, and even gaseous particles. Results from the Erlangen Cluster of Excellence “Engineering of Advanced Materials” show that the joint venture of chemical engineering with materials science in concert with the basic sciences opens new prospects for all involved disciplines. In particular, chemical and biochemical engineering expands through particle technologies also in physics-related fields of technology such as electronics, photonics, or 3D printing. Rigorous mathematical optimization methods based on predictive models for products, structures, and processes catalyze new possibilities for true design of particulate products which is at the core of mesoscale science and technology.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ache.2015.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 46 (2016)
       
  • Chapter Two Multiscale Analysis of a Coating Process in a Wurster
           Fluidized Bed Apparatus
    • Authors: Stefan Heinrich; Maksym Dosta; Sergiy Antonyuk
      Pages: 83 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 46
      Author(s): Stefan Heinrich, Maksym Dosta, Sergiy Antonyuk
      This contribution outlines a multiscale simulation approach for analysis of a Wurster coating process occurring in a fluidized bed. The processes occurring in the apparatus are described on four different time and length scales: The Discrete Element Method coupled with Computational Fluid Dynamics, where each particle is considered as a separate entity and its motion in fluid field is calculated, play a central role in the modeling framework. On the macroscale, the Population Balance Model describes the particle growth. The nozzle zone model calculates the wetting and overspray rate on the mesoscale. The model on the lowest scale predicts the impact behavior of wetted particles. The influence of key processing parameters, such as gap distance or atomization air flow, on the particle-fluid dynamics during coating process is analyzed. In order to get material parameters, such as coefficient of restitution and friction, a set of experimental investigations of a model material is performed.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ache.2015.10.012
      Issue No: Vol. 46 (2016)
       
  • Chapter Three Euler–Lagrange Modeling of the Hydrodynamics of Dense
           Multiphase Flows
    • Authors: Johan T. Padding; Niels G. Deen; E.A.J.F. (Frank) Peters; J.A.M. (Hans) Kuipers
      Pages: 137 - 191
      Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 46
      Author(s): Johan T. Padding, Niels G. Deen, E.A.J.F. (Frank) Peters, J.A.M. (Hans) Kuipers
      The large-scale hydrodynamic behavior of relatively dense dispersed multiphase flows, such as encountered in fluidized beds, bubbly flows, and liquid sprays, can be predicted efficiently by use of Euler–Lagrange models. In these models, grid-averaged equations for the continuous-phase flow field are solved, where the grid size is larger than the discrete phase size, while the discrete phase is explicitly tracked and experiencing forces in a Lagrangian fashion. In this chapter, we provide a summary of our own efforts in this field, including details which we deem necessary for a novice to be aware of. We start with a theoretical introduction to Euler–Lagrange models, emphasizing the importance of the availability of high-quality correlations for the interphase momentum transfer and the outcome of binary interactions between members of the discrete phase. Then, in three topical sections, we discuss implementations of the methods which are used intensely in our group: the computational fluid dynamics/discrete element method (CFD–DEM), discrete bubble method (DBM), and direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC). CFD–DEM is most suitable for solid particles moving in a gas. The interplay between hydrodynamic flow and dissipative collisions between these particles leads to inhomogeneities at meso- and larger scale. DBM applies to bubbly flows, where the additional complication of coalescence and splitting of bubbles needs to be taken into account accurately. DSMC is suitable for not-too-dense systems of particles or droplets in a gas (dispersed volume fraction less than 10%). Collisions between the discrete phase elements are detected stochastically from the local number density, relative velocities, and sizes of neighboring dispersed elements, leading to a considerable saving of computer time. We end with an outlook into directions of research which would lead to an even more comprehensive use of Euler–Lagrange models in the future.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ache.2015.10.005
      Issue No: Vol. 46 (2016)
       
  • Chapter Four Particle Scale Study of Heat Transfer in Packed and Fluidized
           Beds
    • Authors: Qinfu Hou; Jieqing Gan; Zongyan Zhou; Aibing Yu
      Pages: 193 - 243
      Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 46
      Author(s): Qinfu Hou, Jieqing Gan, Zongyan Zhou, Aibing Yu
      Understanding and modeling coupled flow and heat transfer in a particulate system at a particle scale is a rapidly developing research area, in connection with the development of discrete particle simulation techniques and computer technology. The approach based on the discrete element method plays an important role in this area. This approach can provide detailed dynamic information of particulate systems, such as realistic packing structure, transient/static deformation, and relative velocities between fluid and individual particles. The information is directly related to the prediction of thermal behavior. In this chapter, the development of this approach in our laboratory is briefly reviewed, together with the discussion of different case studies. It is concluded that this particle scale approach is effective for studying the coupled fluid flow and heat transfer in particulate systems, although further developments are necessary to be generally applied to industrial processes.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ache.2015.10.006
      Issue No: Vol. 46 (2016)
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 49


      PubDate: 2016-11-30T01:01:10Z
       
  • Contents of Previous Volumes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 49


      PubDate: 2016-11-30T01:01:10Z
       
  • Mechanistic Understanding of Thermochemical Conversion of Polymers and
           Lignocellulosic Biomass
    • Authors: X. Zhou; L.J. Broadbelt; R. Vinu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering
      Author(s): X. Zhou, L.J. Broadbelt, R. Vinu
      Pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical technique to convert polymers such as waste plastics and lignocellulosic biomass to liquid products that are valuable either directly as or are potentially upgraded to liquid fuels and fine chemical intermediates. Mechanistically, polymer pyrolysis involves a complex set of free radical, concerted, and/or ionic reactions that occur via numerous competing pathways. Engineering these pathways to produce the required molecules warrant a thorough understanding of kinetics of the reactions under different conditions. In this critical review, after emphasizing the need for resource and energy recovery from polymers, the elementary reactions involved in the pyrolysis of polyolefins to various products are discussed along with an elucidation of detailed kinetic modeling. The reactions involved in oxidative pyrolysis of polymers are also discussed with polystyrene autoxidation as an example case. The influence of catalysts such as zeolites in altering the product distribution from pyrolysis of synthetic polymers is discussed. As lignocellulosic biomass is more complex in structure compared to synthetic polymers, the challenges and methodology involved in modeling the degradation of its basic constituents, viz. cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, to various organics are discussed. After elucidating the influence of various concerted reactions involved in cellulose pyrolysis on product yields, the effect of catalysts on biomass fast pyrolysis and bio-oil upgradation are discussed. The review concludes with a note on advantages of copyrolysis of synthetic polymers and biomass to enhance the quality of bio-oil that can be easily converted to biofuel with minimal upgradation.

      PubDate: 2016-11-15T23:59:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ache.2016.09.002
       
  • Gas Turbines and Engine Simulations
    • Authors: Cuenot
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering
      Author(s): B. Cuenot
      Turbulent combustion is a complex phenomenon combining the random nature of turbulence with the nonlinearity of chemistry. As a major process for energy production, in particular in propulsion systems, turbulent combustion must be perfectly controlled to ensure maximum efficiency with minimum environmental impact in terms of both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. Today, the design and development of new concepts cannot be efficiently performed with experiment only and numerical simulation is required. An important step has been made in the last decades with the help of high-performance computing, which has allowed to go beyond the limited description of turbulence by the mean, as is done in the Reynolds-averaged approach. Thanks to large eddy simulation (LES), numerical simulation has recently emerged as a predictive tool, complementary to experiment and essential to understand the subtle interactions between fluid mechanics, thermochemistry, and heat transfer. In this chapter the main elements and current research trends of turbulent combustion modeling in the context of LES are described. First a brief introductory overview of technical challenges faced by engine manufacturers is given in the fields of automotive, aeronautical, and spatial propulsion. Combustion basics including thermochemistry and laminar flames are then presented to introduce the various concepts of turbulent combustion modeling. To illustrate the capacities of LES, recent examples of simulations are presented for various propulsion systems, in steady or transient operation phases where LES is undoubtedly the best adapted approach. Finally, recent first steps toward multiphysics computations, including two-phase flows and heat transfer, are reported.

      PubDate: 2016-11-08T23:30:13Z
       
  • Steam Cracking and EDC Furnace Simulation
    • Authors: Y. Zhang; G. Hu; W. Du; F. Qian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering
      Author(s): Y. Zhang, G. Hu, W. Du, F. Qian
      Industrial cracking furnaces for ethene and ethylene dichloride (EDC) production are highly energy intensive. Much effort has been exerted toward achieving higher thermal efficiency and product yield. Numerical modeling has shown to be useful in furnace design and optimization. The advantage of numerical modeling over experiments is that a wider operating range can be simulated, allowing theoretical optimum to be found as guidance for practical. Industrial steam cracking furnaces have been extensively studied via numerical simulations over the past few decades, leading to many interesting results that offer deep insights into steam cracking processes. In this chapter, progress in the modeling of industrial cracking furnaces for both ethene and EDC production that has taken place in the last 5 years is reviewed. The discussion on ethene cracking furnaces includes fully coupled furnace-reactor simulations for the furnaces, the investigation of radiative heat transfer, the heat transfer and flow boiling of complex hydrocarbon feedstock in convection sections, and the integrated operation and cyclic scheduling optimization of cracking furnace systems. For the EDC cracking furnace, the effect of the fuel gas allocation factor, CCl4 concentration, on the run length of the furnace is presented. In addition to the recent advances in cracking furnace modeling, the problems encountered by the current furnace design in fulfilling the new requirements of higher efficiency and lower emission of NO x and CO2 are detailed. The alternative approaches, which may provide a better solution for this issue, are given, with a potential research focus on cracking furnace design and optimization that may occur in the future.

      PubDate: 2016-11-08T23:30:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ache.2016.09.003
       
  • Pyrolysis, Gasification, and Combustion of Solid Fuels
    • Authors: E. Ranzi; T. Faravelli; F. Manenti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2016
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering
      Author(s): E. Ranzi, T. Faravelli, F. Manenti
      The aim of this chapter is to discuss and summarize the research activities done at Politecnico di Milano in the field of the detailed kinetic modeling of pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of solid fuels. Different critical steps are involved in this multicomponent, multiphase, and multiscale problem. The first complexity relies in the characterization of the solid fuels and their pyrolysis and devolatilization process. Detailed kinetic mechanisms, both in the solid and gas phase, involve a large number of species and reactions, which make the computations expensive and strongly reduce model applicability. For this reason, they need to be reduced and simplified, while still maintaining their description capability. Therefore, chemical lumping procedures are extensively applied to allow the development and validation of the overall mathematical model. Whereas the composition of plastics is usually well defined, coals, biomasses, and MSW (municipal solid waste) are typical fuels with a large composition variability and they require a characterization in terms of a few reference components. Multistep kinetic mechanisms with a lumped characterization of gas, tar, and residue are discussed, for the different solid fuels. Successive or secondary gas-phase reactions involve gas and tar components released during the devolatilization phase, while heterogeneous gasification or combustion reactions further modify the solid residue. Finally, the mathematical modeling of solid fuel gasification or combustion requires a comprehensive description of the coupled transport and kinetic processes, both at the particle and at the reactor scale. Several examples illustrate the capabilities and limitations of this model.

      PubDate: 2016-10-25T09:05:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.ache.2016.09.001
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 48


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
       
  • Chapter Four Microalgal Photosynthesis and Growth in Mass Culture
    • Authors: Marcel Janssen
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 48
      Author(s): Marcel Janssen
      The development of large-scale outdoor microalgae production requires a thorough understanding of microalgal growth which should be encompassed in a mathematical model. The model should be as simple as possible allowing use in outdoor practice by persons with varying backgrounds. This chapter provides a basis for such a model connecting microalgal growth and photobioreactor productivity to light exposure. Only light exposure is included as an environmental variable because sunlight irradiance will ultimately limit areal productivity and all other cultivation parameters must be balanced to that number. Within microalgal mass cultures inside photobioreactors a light gradient will develop determining microalgal growth. This light gradient depends on microalgal specific light absorption and biomass concentration. Based on the light gradient the local rates of photosynthesis are calculated and integrated over reactor volume. The model is connected to our current understanding of photosynthesis by adopting proven photosynthesis models developed by Blackman and Jassby & Platt, and employing efficiency parameters based on theoretical evaluations and practical experiments. The wavelength dependency of light absorption is included. Photosynthesis is then connected to microalgal growth adopting the model of Pirt and distinguishing between maintenance-related respiration and growth-related respiration. The model is used to analyze productivity of simple photobioreactor geometry (1-dimensional light path) and calculate the limits of light-use efficiency. At the end of the chapter the assumptions and simplifications made are discussed in the light of possible effects of photoacclimation, mixing along the light gradient, day/night cycles, and the complexity of accurately modeling the light field.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
       
  • Contents of Volumes in This Serial
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 48


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 47


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
       
  • Chapter Two Surface Structure and Interaction of Surface/Interface Probed
           by Mesoscale Simulations and Experiments
    • Authors: Linghong Xuebo; Quan Yihui Dong Gaobo Wenlong Xie Jian Zhou
      Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 47
      Author(s): Linghong Lu, Xuebo Quan, Yihui Dong, Gaobo Yu, Wenlong Xie, Jian Zhou, Licheng Li, Xiaohua Lu, Yudan Zhu
      Heterogenous catalysis, fluid transportation, wetting, nanofriction, and protein adsorption are important phenomena in chemical and biological engineering. Mesoporous materials show great prospect in heterogenous catalysis. However, the reaction and transport in mesopores differ from that in the macroscale, so the complicated structure and intra-/interaction of the interface must be clarified to reveal the mechanism of regulation. Wetting is of key importance for many applications. Ionic liquids (ILs) are a new promising class of lubricants; its performance strongly depends on the wetting behavior at interface. The frictional properties of thin films depend on the film packing density, structure, and crystallinity. Protein adsorption onto surfaces is fundamental for the development of low-fouling surfaces, protein immobilization, and protein separations. The adsorbed proteins act as an intermediary between the implanted material and the surrounding tissues, subsequently influencing the host responses. Therefore, surface repellence to protein is critical for the development of advanced biomaterials. These microscopic phenomena cannot be accurately analyzed by only using simple experiment. Using molecular simulation, it has been found that the flow of polar liquid on the surface of TiO2 can be improved significantly. Coupling different simulation methods is needed to consider the behavior of fluid on rough interface with reaction. We can investigate the reaction mechanism and the relationship between changes of the composition quantitatively, using ReaxFF method that considers reaction and transition simultaneously for a large system. Due to a greater impact of interfacial roughness on the stability of the catalytic, the new method “interface coarse-grained mesoscopic simulation” should be adopted. Because of the large size of the protein molecule, mesoscale approaches are needed. Researchers used coarse-grained simulation methods to study its adsorption and interfacial behavior and obtained a lot of results. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used to measure the force of clusters or fluids on surfaces with different roughness in mesoscopic directly and then draw the law of interface behaviors. People can establish the relationship between AFM measurement results and coarse-grained force field; it is expected to become a powerful medium-scale method to promote the study of the current mesoscale phenomena and mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
       
  • Chapter Four Mesoscale Modeling
    • Authors: Wei Wang; Yanpei Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 47
      Author(s): Wei Wang, Yanpei Chen
      Gas–solid fluidization is a typical nonlinear nonequilibrium system with multiscale structure. In particular, the mesoscale structure in terms of bubbles or clusters, which can be characterized by nonequilibrium features in terms of bimodal velocity distribution, energy nonequipartition, and correlated density fluctuations, is the critical factor. Traditional two-fluid model (TFM) and relevant closures depend on local equilibrium and homogeneous distribution assumptions, and fail to predict the dynamic, nonequilibrium phenomena in circulating fluidized beds even with fine-grid resolution. In contrast, the mesoscale modeling, as exemplified by the energy-minimization multiscale (EMMS) model, is consistent with the nonequilibrium features in multiphase flows. Thus, the structure-dependent multifluid model conservation equations with the EMMS-based mesoscale modeling greatly improve the prediction accuracy in terms of flow, mass transfer, and reactions as well as the understanding of flow regime transitions. Such discrepancies raise the question of the applicability of the local equilibrium assumption underlying the TFM and further shed light to the necessity of mesoscale modeling.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
       
  • Chapter Six Mesoscale Effects on Product Distribution of
           Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis
    • Authors: Mingquan Shao; Youwei Jianfeng Chen Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 47
      Author(s): Mingquan Shao, Youwei Li, Jianfeng Chen, Yi Zhang
      Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS), directly converting a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (syngas) into sulfur-free hydrocarbons, has attracted much attention from academic and industrial community. However, the development of FTS mainly depends on experience, resulting in the inefficient development of catalysts and industrialization design. Recently, a new analysis method, mesoscale analysis, has attracted more attention due to researching on between different scales or crossing several scales, which would contribute to efficient R&D process of FTS. This chapter will summarize the multiscale effects on FTS products distribution such as ASF distribution, kinetic model, reactor flow model and discuss mesoscale effects on FTS product distribution, such as modified ASF product distribution, olefin readsorption mechanism model and diffusion-reaction model of FTS process.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
       
  • Contents of Volumes in This Serial
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 47


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 46


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
       
  • Chapter Five Mesoscale Transport Phenomena and Mechanisms in
           Gas–Liquid Reaction Systems
    • Authors: Ning Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 46
      Author(s): Ning Yang
      Mesoscale transport phenomena and mechanisms are essential to achieve a more fundamental understanding on the mass, momentum, and heat transfer in the classical study of transport phenomena and on the mixing, residence time distribution, and rate-limiting analysis in chemical reaction engineering, yet they are now beyond the scope of classical textbooks of chemical engineering. We highlight a heuristic mesoscale modeling approach starting from a conceptual energy-minimization multiscale (EMMS) model and ending at the stability-constrained multifluid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. While the stability condition determines the direction of system evolution, the stability-constrained CFD further describes the dynamics of structure evolution. We establish the dual-bubble-size model, an extended EMMS approach for gas–liquid systems. Stability condition is formulated as the minimization of the sum of two energy dissipations, reflecting the compromise of a liquid-dominant regime at which smaller bubbles prevail and a gas-dominant regime favoring the existence of larger bubbles. It supplies a mesoscale constraint for conservation equations and a mesoscale perspective to understand the macroscale regime transition. The model calculation for gas–liquid and gas–solid systems demonstrates the intrinsic similarity of the two systems; the system evolution at macroscale is driven by stability conditions. Theoretically stability condition may offer closure laws for CFD simulation, leading to the stability-constrained multifluid CFD model. While direct integration is difficult, we propose various simplified approaches to derive the closure models for drag, bubble-induced turbulence and correction factors for coalescence rate in population balance equations. The stability-constrained multifluid CFD model shows much advantage over traditional closure models.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
       
  • Chapter Six Mesoscale Flow Structures and Fluid–Particle
           Interactions
    • Authors: Harry E.A.; Van den Akker
      Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 46
      Author(s): Harry E.A. Van den Akker
      During the last two decades, the insight has gradually grown—thanks to advances in both experimental techniques and computational simulation tools—that many dispersed two-phase flows are dominated by dynamic mesoscale coherent structures in which particles, bubbles, or drops organize themselves. Evidence from experiments, hydrodynamic analyses, and computational simulations on the presence and dynamics of such structures, strands, and clusters is presented. Their origin being less well understood, the general consensus is that fluid–particle interaction forces play a dominant role in bringing and keeping the dispersed-phase particles together. This chapter then revisits the topic of the fluid–particle interaction in all of its aspects and constituents such as single-particle steady-state drag, added mass, Basset force, lift, and particle rotation, while also the effects of particle and fluid acceleration and carrier phase turbulence are reviewed. The common practice of linearly adding the various correlations obtained for very specific canonical cases is to be rejected for other flow conditions than just creeping flow. Particular attention is paid to the way the pertinent fluid–particle interaction correlations are utilized in computational simulations of both the Euler–Lagrange (point-particle tracking) and Euler–Euler (two-fluid) type, where a distinction is made between Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes-based simulations and large-eddy simulations. Tracking a particle immersed in a 3D turbulent fluid in the presence of other particles by means of the steady-state drag force is a dubious approach. Undoubtedly, the best representation of the fluid–particle interaction can be obtained from periodic-box direct numerical simulations.

      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
       
  • Contents of Volumes in This Serial
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Chemical Engineering, Volume 46


      PubDate: 2016-04-09T11:57:12Z
       
 
 
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