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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3043 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 348, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 353, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 250, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in Catalysis
  [SJR: 2.139]   [H-I: 42]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0360-0564
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Advances in Catalysis, Volume 56


      PubDate: 2013-12-03T20:19:55Z
       
  • Paul B. Weisz 1919–2012
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Advances in Catalysis, Volume 56
      Author(s): Thomas F. Degnan


      PubDate: 2013-12-03T20:19:55Z
       
  • Haldor Topsøe 1913–2013
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Advances in Catalysis, Volume 56
      Author(s): Bjerne S. Clausen , James Dumesic


      PubDate: 2013-12-03T20:19:55Z
       
  • Chapter One Analysis of Catalyst Surface Structure by Physical Sorption
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Advances in Catalysis, Volume 56
      Author(s): Karl D. Hammond , Wm. Curtis Conner Jr.
      Heterogeneous catalysis usually takes place by sequences of reactions involving fluid-phase reagents and the exposed layer of the solid catalyst surface. Estimation of the total catalyst surface area, its potential accessibility to gas- or liquid-phase reactants, and general catalytic activity are initially based on the morphology of the catalyst. Universally, measurements of adsorption and their interpretation are used to estimate the surface area and porosity relevant to catalytic reactions. We provide here a description of many traditional and recent techniques in adsorption-based catalyst characterization intended for experimental practitioners of adsorption. Our chapter includes descriptions of which regions of the isotherm correspond to micropore filling, mesopore filling, surface coverage, and saturation, supplemented by discussions of model isotherms, from the Langmuir isotherm and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller theory to the Halsey equation. Pore size distribution methods include the Barrett–Joyner–Halenda and related methods for mesopores, empirical methods developed for micropores, and simulation-based methods that have finally resolved the differences between adsorption (increasing loading) and desorption (decreasing loading). This chapter also includes a discussion of hysteresis and metastability, both of which “trip up” experimentalists from time to time. We finish with a description of data acquisition methods and equipment, which are often obscured behind the facade of automation, and a discussion of what users should be aware of and what can go wrong.

      PubDate: 2013-12-03T20:19:55Z
       
  • Chapter Two Carbon in Catalysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Advances in Catalysis, Volume 56
      Author(s): Robert Schlögl
      This review is concerned with nanoscale carbon as a catalyst. Elemental carbon has become available in many nanostructured forms representing combinations of the hybridizations found in fundamental carbon allotropes, and the materials can be enriched by a large number of surface functional groups, some generated by nanostructuring. Consequently, many examples of catalytic applications of carbon are documented, but the development of the field has been hampered by the lack of a conceptual approach linking structure and function and by the lack of understanding of synthesis of the materials. This chapter provides a foundation for an advanced comprehension of the catalytic reactivity of carbon and addresses key aspects of characterization and synthesis. The usefulness of X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and electron microscopy for the characterization of nanoscale carbons is briefly contrasted with the limitations of these methods. The various structural elements—among them carbon hybridization, local defects, and topology—that contribute to the electronic structure are discussed in detail. The difficulties of analyzing the resulting complex electron spectra are highlighted. In its core part, this chapter uses the derived knowledge of the electronic structure to arrive at concepts illustrating carbon’s potential in catalysis. A general synthesis strategy for the controlled functionalization of carbons is laid out. The ambivalent role of carbon deposits on catalyst surfaces as poisons or an active phase is demonstrated. One-third of the chapter is devoted to two case studies that illustrate the ideas; the catalytic transformations are the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene and of alkanes.

      PubDate: 2013-12-03T20:19:55Z
       
  • Chapter Three Catalytic Deoxygenation Chemistry Upgrading of Liquids
           Derived from Biomass Processing
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Advances in Catalysis, Volume 56
      Author(s): Tracy J. Benson , Prashant R. Daggolu , Rafael A. Hernandez , Shetian Liu , Mark G. White
      The composition of a typical pyrolysis oil is used to pose the problem of oxygen removal from this oil and to motivate a discussion of the different reactions for oxygen removal that are thermodynamically favored. From a consideration of this thermodynamics analysis of the favored reactions, the surface chemistry literature is surveyed to reveal those materials that allow the adsorption of oxygen-containing species. Included in this survey are experimental and theoretical studies. This consideration of adsorption of oxygen-containing species prompts a further examination of the literature of reaction mechanisms and reaction sequences to reveal the conventional pathways to remove oxygen from the substrates. Moreover, the literature of hydroprocessing is reviewed to show how traditional hydrodesulfurization catalysts have been studied as a hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) catalyst of the reactive species in pyrolysis oils. Furthermore, aqueous-phase reforming is discussed as an alternative to HDO.

      PubDate: 2013-12-03T20:19:55Z
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advances in Catalysis, Volume 55



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:29:21Z
       
  • Michel Boudart 1924–2012
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advances in Catalysis, Volume 55



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:29:21Z
       
  • Chapter One Heterogeneous Catalysis by Gold
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advances in Catalysis, Volume 55

      Gold can be deposited as nanoparticles (NPs) with diameters of 2–5nm and clusters with diameters less than 2nm on a variety of materials such as oxides, carbides, and sulfides of transition metals, carbons, and organic polymers. Such supported gold NPs and clusters exhibit surprisingly high catalytic activities for many reactions, with both gas- and liquid-phase reactants, in particular, at temperatures below 573K. Until now, more than 10 techniques have been developed for depositing gold as NPs and clusters. The atomic scale structures of supported NPs and clusters have been extensively and intensively investigated with a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The mechanisms of catalysis by supported gold NPs have recently been elucidated by using real powder catalysts and model single-crystal catalysts for the low-temperature oxidation of CO. Another simple reaction that has recently been investigated is dihydrogen dissociation, for which gold NP catalysts are still poorly active. Both of these reactions have been demonstrated to take place at perimeter interfaces around the gold NPs. This result means that there is a great chance for gold to exhibit high catalytic activity for hydrogenation reactions by an appropriate choice of metal oxide supports and by minimizing the diameters of gold particles. The catalytic nature of gold clusters has also been investigated theoretically in relation to the effect of cluster size and the influence of organic ligands and polymers. The catalytic performance of gold NPs and clusters has been explored extensively for reactions of both gases and liquids. Supported gold catalysts are useful for air cleaning at room temperature, and they are valuable for green production of bulk and fine chemicals. Supported gold clusters are expected to open new doors for simple chemistry for the selective manufacture of needed products. Size and structure specificity are expected to present opportunities for selective conversions. It is recommended that researchers explore the magic numbers and structures of gold and suitable support materials for selected target reactions.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:29:21Z
       
  • Chapter Two Ordered Mesoporous Materials as Catalysts
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Advances in Catalysis, Volume 55

      After their discovery in the early 1990s, ordered mesoporous materials have become one of the most widely investigated classes of materials, and applications have been considered in many areas, in particular in catalysis. They have attracted attention because of their unique properties such as high surface areas, controllable compositions, crystallinity, thermal and chemical stability, tailored porosities, narrow pore size distributions, concave surface curvatures, surface functionalities, as well as the opportunities they offer for incorporation of catalytically active and selective species. This chapter is focused on the properties of ordered mesoporous solids that distinguish them from more conventional porous catalytic materials. Emphasis is placed on history, development, and methods of synthesis of ordered mesoporous materials.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:29:21Z
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: 2011
      Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advances in Catalysis, Volume 54



      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:29:21Z
       
  • Chapter 1 Designing Molecular Catalysts with Enhanced Lewis Acidity
    • Abstract: 2011
      Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advances in Catalysis, Volume 54

      One of the key challenges in catalysis is the generation of catalytically active metal centers that are highly Lewis acidic so that the metal center can easily bind with a nucleophilic monomer to initiate a catalytic process. With this goal in mind, we pursued the designed synthesis of catalytically active metal centers with enhanced Lewis acidity, adopting two different synthetic strategies. One is the introduction of oxygen between two different metal atoms, and the other is the chemical attachment of highly electronegative fluorine around the catalytically active metal center. The attachment of the oxygen between the two metal centers also brings the metals into close proximity at the molecular level, resulting in a pronounced chemical communication between the metals. The compounds with different metals have often modified the fundamental properties of the individual metal atoms through the well-known “cooperative interaction” that is otherwise difficult to achieve. The synthetic strategy takes advantage of the Brønsted acidic character of the M(OH) moiety in building up a new class of heterometallic complexes. Further, the discovery of Me3SnF as one of the most useful fluorinating reagents for organometallic complexes leads to the successful preparation of organometallic fluorides of Group-4 metals. This synthetic development has resulted in the availability of catalysts of a new class bearing enhanced Lewis acidic metal centers resulting either from oxygen bridging or from the attachment of a highly electronegative fluorine to a catalytically active metal center. In many cases, these complexes have proved to be excellent candidates for olefin polymerization, ring-opening polymerization of caprolactone, olefin epoxidation, and olefin hydroformylation. The improvement in the catalytic properties is a result of the presence of a more electrophilic metal center, which is essential for the catalysis.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:29:21Z
       
  • Chapter 2 Modern Strategies in Supramolecular Catalysis
    • Abstract: 2011
      Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advances in Catalysis, Volume 54

      This chapter summarizes the main achievements in the area of supramolecular catalysis in the past decade. Supramolecular chemistry emerged 40 years ago. The initial focus was host–guest chemistry, and one target application was the use of such interactions to bring catalyst and substrate together. Examples in the first part of this chapter illustrate how rates of reactions, selectivities, regioselectivities, and enantioselectivities may change through assemblies designed as models for enzymes. In the beginning, natural host molecules such as cyclodextrins and modified cyclodextrins received most attention, but later a plethora of synthetic hosts were developed. More recently, the construction of host molecules was facilitated enormously by the introduction of supramolecular “tools”; according to this principle, large entities are constructed by bringing together smaller building blocks via noncovalent forces, such as hydrogen bonding, ionic bonding, metal–ligand coordination bonding, fluorophilic interactions, etc. A large number of host molecules were reported in the past decade, and most of them do not function merely as hosts but instead are containers that can host more than one molecule and have catalytic functions incorporated. A variety of names are used for these entities, such as capsule, cavitand, nanoreactor, nanocontainer, cage molecule, and receptor molecule. Large changes in selectivities and rates of catalytic reactions relative to those of bare catalytic sites have been reported. The second part of this chapter deals with the supramolecular construction of ligands or entire catalyst assemblies. This modular construction has enabled the synthesis of large catalyst libraries, which are useful for catalyst optimization and catalyst screening. In this way, new catalysts were developed, and new ways to control rates and selectivities of catalytic reactions were recognized. Biomacromolecules (and modified variants) have been used, particularly as sources of chirality in catalytic transformations, via supramolecular interactions with homogeneous catalysts. The last part of the chapter shows that supramolecular interactions can be used successfully for the immobilization of homogeneous catalysts. By its nature, the bonding is reversible, and the developments have led to a new reactor configuration for use of homogeneous catalysts, termed reverse-flow adsorption.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:29:21Z
       
  • Chapter 3 Mechanistic Issues in Fischer–Tropsch Catalysis
    • Abstract: 2011
      Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advances in Catalysis, Volume 54

      Computational studies have recently generated important information regarding reaction intermediates and activation barriers of elementary reaction steps that are part of the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. We use these results to analyze various mechanistic options that have been proposed for the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. The computational results do not support the Pichler–Schulz chain-growth mechanism, which postulates chain growth by CO insertion. Rather, the results are in agreement with the Sachtler–Biloen mechanism, which postulates chain growth via adsorbed “C1” species; furthermore, the Gaube chain-growth mechanism, which closely resembles that proposed by Maitlis, is found to be preferred over the initially assumed Brady–Pettit mechanism. The various elementary steps are discussed, and the values that their relative rates must assume for successful Fischer–Tropsch chain growth are outlined. Within the Sachtler–Biloen kinetics scheme, a high chain-growth probability is obtained when chain termination is rate limiting. Consequently, CO dissociation has to be facile. The “C1” species that is incorporated into the growing chain appears to be “CH” or “CH2”; thus, these species must be present in high surface concentrations. Brønsted–Evans–Polanyi relationships are used to link activation energies to surface reactivity. The structure sensitivity of the elementary reaction steps, specifically, initiation, chain growth, and termination, is analyzed. On the basis of these considerations, one can understand why particular metals are suitable Fischer–Tropsch catalysts.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:29:21Z
       
  • Chapter 4 Vanadium Phosphate Materials as Selective Oxidation Catalysts
    • Abstract: 2011
      Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advances in Catalysis, Volume 54

      Vanadium phosphates have been established as selective hydrocarbon oxidation catalysts for more than 40 years. Their primary use commercially has been in the production of maleic anhydride (MA) from n-butane. During this period, improvements in the yield of MA have been sought. Strategies to achieve these improvements have included the addition of secondary metal ions to the catalyst, optimization of the catalyst precursor formation, and intensification of the selective oxidation process through improved reactor technology. The mechanism of the reaction continues to be an active subject of research, and the role of the bulk catalyst structure and an amorphous surface layer are considered here with respect to the various V–P–O phases present. The active site of the catalyst is considered to consist of V4+ and V5+ couples, and their respective incidence and roles are examined in detail here. The complex and extensive nature of the oxidation, which for butane oxidation to MA is a 14-electron transfer process, is of broad importance, particularly in view of the applications of vanadium phosphate catalysts to other processes. A perspective on the future use of vanadium phosphate catalysts is included in this review.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:29:21Z
       
  • Chapter 5 Monolithic Catalysts and Reactors High Precision with Low Energy
           Consumption
    • Abstract: 2011
      Publication year: 2011
      Source:Advances in Catalysis, Volume 54

      Structured catalysts and reactors offer high precision in catalysis at all relevant scales of the catalytic process, from that of the catalytic species up to that of the reactor. Monoliths are the prime example of such catalysts because of their wide practical applications. Thus, monoliths are emphasized in this review, but most of the text is also relevant to all structured reactors, including microreactors. Conceptually, monoliths exhibit more degrees of freedom in design than conventional reactors, such as fixed-bed and slurry reactors. The flow in monoliths is laminar, and as a consequence, they are associated with high efficiency and minimum chaotic characteristics. The hydrodynamics of single-phase and multiphase flow reactors are remarkably simple. Under most conditions in multiphase systems, Taylor flow (segmented flow) prevails, associated with high rates of mass transfer notwithstanding low energy consumption, but under other conditions, the film flow regime can be realized either in cocurrent or in countercurrent flow of gas and liquid streams, making the monolith a good structure for novel technologies such as catalytic distillation. Monoliths offer freedom in the design of reactor configuration. Examples are loop reactors for strong exo- and endothermic reactions, which allow a combination with separate heat exchange without the penalty of a large energy consumption, which otherwise is usually unavoidable for the large recycle ratios needed. For applications in fine chemistry and in the laboratory, a convenient monolithic stirred reactor is presented. The principal bottleneck for practical application of monolith reactors is the synthesis rather than the design of the catalytic monolith. When a monolith reactor is considered as an alternative to a fixed-bed reactor packed with commercially available catalyst particles, the grim reality is that a development program is needed to producing the catalytic monolith. Therefore, preparation methods including synthesis of various coating layers and the deposition of active catalytic species are described in detail here. This chapter also includes an exhaustive review of practical applications of monolith reactors. In applications in which high gas flow rates have to be accommodated, monoliths monoliths are the state of the art in many cases, exemplified by automobile exhaust abatement reactors—because of the popularity of automobiles, more monolithic reactors are being used than fixed-bed reactors. Applications in processes with liquid-phase and gas–liquid-phase reactants are scarce, but one well-known commercial process (the reduction step in the production of hydrogen peroxide) shows the feasibility of monoliths. Several processes are in the development stage. Included in the review are an assessment of the impact of these reactors on process intensification and applications in biotechnology and photocatalysis.

      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:29:21Z
       
 
 
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