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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3034 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3034 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 81, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 322, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 337, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 309, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 393, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
  [SJR: 0.9]   [H-I: 30]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2318
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3034 journals]
  • Robert John (Robin) Ferrier
    • Authors: Richard Furneaux; Ralf Schwörer; Sarah Wilcox
      Pages: 2 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 72
      Author(s): Richard Furneaux, Ralf Schwörer, Sarah Wilcox


      PubDate: 2016-01-04T06:30:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.accb.2015.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2016)
       
  • Chapter Two Synthetic Approaches to l-Iduronic Acid and l-Idose
    • Authors: Shifaza Mohamed; Vito Ferro
      Pages: 21 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 72
      Author(s): Shifaza Mohamed, Vito Ferro
      l-Iduronic acid (IdoA) is an important monosaccharide component of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as heparin, heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate. GAGs are complex, highly sulfated polysaccharides that mediate a multitude of physiological and pathological processes via their interactions with a range of diverse proteins. The main challenge in the synthesis of GAG oligosaccharides is the efficient gram-scale preparation of IdoA building blocks since neither IdoA nor l-idose is commercially available or readily accessible from natural sources. In this review, the different synthetic approaches for the preparation of IdoA and its derivatives, including l-idose, are presented and discussed. Derivatives of the latter are often used in GAG synthesis and are elaborated to IdoA via selective oxidation at C-6 after incorporation into a GAG chain. Particular focus will be given to the preparation of IdoA synthons most commonly used for GAG oligosaccharide synthesis, and on the progress made since the last systematic review in this area.

      PubDate: 2016-01-04T06:30:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.accb.2015.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2016)
       
  • Chapter Three Glycosylation of Cellulases
    • Authors: Eric R. Greene; Michael E. Himmel; Gregg T. Beckham; Zhongping Tan
      Pages: 63 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 72
      Author(s): Eric R. Greene, Michael E. Himmel, Gregg T. Beckham, Zhongping Tan
      Cellulose in plant cell walls is the largest reservoir of renewable carbon on Earth. The saccharification of cellulose from plant biomass into soluble sugars can be achieved using fungal and bacterial cellulolytic enzymes, cellulases, and further converted into fuels and chemicals. Most fungal cellulases are both N- and O-glycosylated in their native form, yet the consequences of glycosylation on activity and structure are not fully understood. Studying protein glycosylation is challenging as glycans are extremely heterogeneous, stereochemically complex, and glycosylation is not under direct genetic control. Despite these limitations, many studies have begun to unveil the role of cellulase glycosylation, especially in the industrially relevant cellobiohydrolase from Trichoderma reesei, Cel7A. Glycosylation confers many beneficial properties to cellulases including enhanced activity, thermal and proteolytic stability, and structural stabilization. However, glycosylation must be controlled carefully as such positive effects can be dampened or reversed. Encouragingly, methods for the manipulation of glycan structures have been recently reported that employ genetic tuning of glycan-active enzymes expressed from homogeneous and heterologous fungal hosts. Taken together, these studies have enabled new strategies for the exploitation of protein glycosylation for the production of enhanced cellulases for biofuel production.

      PubDate: 2016-01-04T06:30:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.accb.2015.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 72 (2016)
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 73


      PubDate: 2016-11-07T00:36:40Z
       
  • Recent Advances Toward Robust N-Protecting Groups for Glucosamine as
           Required for Glycosylation Strategies
    • Authors: Mohamed Ramadan El Sayed Aly; El Sayed H. El Ashry
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2016
      Source:Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Mohamed Ramadan El Sayed Aly, El Sayed H. El Ashry
      2-Amino-2-deoxy-d-glucose (d-glucosamine) is among the most abundant monosaccharides found in natural products. This constituent, recognized for its ubiquity, is presented in most instances as its N-acetyl derivative 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranose (N-acetylglucosamine, GlcNAc, NAG). It occurs as the β-linked pyranosyl group in polysaccharides and oligosaccharides, and sometimes as the monosaccharide itself, either in its native state or as a glycoconjugate. The compound's acylation profile and other aspects of its structure are important elements in determining the variety of reactivities and functions of the molecule as a whole. Methods elaborated to investigate these challenges have been intensively reviewed; however, a relatively more comprehensive reviewing of this subject is introduced here to cover some aspects that have not been sufficiently covered. This might enable those who are beginners in this field to be aware of the subject in a more comprehensive context. 2-Amino-2-deoxy-d-glucosylation strategies demand robust amino-protecting groups that survive under a variety of chemical conditions, yet provide groups that can be deprotected under relatively mild conditions. At the end of this review, a table that includes all the N-protecting groups that have been used for glucosamine is provided to introduce them at a glance to aid in constructing building blocks that will act as useful 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucosyl donors.

      PubDate: 2016-10-30T23:07:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.accb.2016.08.001
       
  • Carbohydrate-Processing Enzymes of the Lysosome: Diseases Caused by
           Misfolded Mutants and Sugar Mimetics as Correcting Pharmacological
           Chaperones
    • Authors: Arnold E. Stütz; Tanja M. Wrodnigg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2016
      Source:Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Arnold E. Stütz, Tanja M. Wrodnigg
      Lysosomal storage diseases are hereditary disorders caused by mutations on genes encoding for one of the more than fifty lysosomal enzymes involved in the highly ordered degradation cascades of glycans, glycoconjugates, and other complex biomolecules in the lysosome. Several of these metabolic disorders are associated with the absence or the lack of activity of carbohydrate-processing enzymes in this cell compartment. In a recently introduced therapy concept, for susceptible mutants, small substrate-related molecules (so-called pharmacological chaperones), such as reversible inhibitors of these enzymes, may serve as templates for the correct folding and transport of the respective protein mutant, thus improving its concentration and, consequently, its enzymatic activity in the lysosome. Carbohydrate-processing enzymes in the lysosome, related lysosomal diseases, and the scope and limitations of reported reversible inhibitors as pharmacological chaperones are discussed with a view to possibly extending and improving research efforts in this area of orphan diseases.

      PubDate: 2016-10-30T23:07:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.accb.2016.08.002
       
  • Stevia Glycosides: Chemical and Enzymatic Modifications of Their
           Carbohydrate Moieties to Improve the Sweet-Tasting Quality
    • Authors: Gerrit J. Gerwig; Evelien M. te Poele; Lubbert Dijkhuizen; Johannis P. Kamerling
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Gerrit J. Gerwig, Evelien M. te Poele, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Johannis P. Kamerling
      Stevia glycosides, extracted from the leaves of the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, display an amazing high degree of sweetness. As processed plant products, they are considered as excellent bio-alternatives for sucrose and artificial sweeteners. Being noncaloric and having beneficial properties for human health, they are the subject of an increasing number of studies for applications in food and pharmacy. However, one of the main obstacles for the successful commercialization of Stevia sweeteners, especially in food, is their slight bitter aftertaste and astringency. These undesirable properties may be reduced or eliminated by modifying the carbohydrate moieties of the steviol glycosides. A promising procedure is to subject steviol glycosides to enzymatic glycosylation, thereby introducing additional monosaccharide residues into the molecules. Depending on the number and positions of the monosaccharide units, the taste quality and sweetness potency of the compounds will vary. Many studies have been performed already, and this review summarizes the structures of native steviol glycosides and the recent data of modifications of the carbohydrate moieties that have been published to provide an overview of the current progress.

      PubDate: 2016-08-31T07:22:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.accb.2016.05.001
       
  • Endoglycosidases for the Synthesis of Polysaccharides and Glycoconjugates
    • Authors: Chao Li; Lai-Xi Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Author(s): Chao Li, Lai-Xi Wang
      Recent advances in glycobiology have implicated essential roles of oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates in many important biological recognition processes, including intracellular signaling, cell adhesion, cell differentiation, cancer progression, host–pathogen interactions, and immune responses. A detailed understanding of the biological functions, as well as the development of carbohydrate-based therapeutics, often requires structurally well-defined oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates, which are usually difficult to isolate in pure form from natural sources. To meet with this urgent need, chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis has become increasingly important as the major means to provide homogeneous compounds for functional glycocomics studies and for drug/vaccine development. Chemoenzymatic synthesis, an approach that combines chemical synthesis and enzymatic manipulations, is often the method of choice for constructing complex oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates that are otherwise difficult to achieve by purely chemical synthesis. Among these, endoglycosidases, a class of glycosidases that hydrolyze internal glycosidic bonds in glycoconjugates and polysaccharides, are emerging as a very attractive class of enzymes for synthetic purposes, due to their transglycosylation activity and their capability of transferring oligosaccharide units en bloc in a single step, in contrast to the limitation of monosaccharide transfers by common glycosyltransferases. In this chapter, we provide an overview on the application of endoglycosidases for the synthesis of complex carbohydrates, including oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans, and other biologically relevant polysaccharides. The scope, limitation, and future directions of endoglycosidase-catalyzed synthesis are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-08-27T05:58:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.accb.2016.07.001
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 72


      PubDate: 2016-01-04T06:30:57Z
       
  • Chapter Four Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOS)
    • Authors: Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 72
      Author(s): Xi Chen
      The important roles played by human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS), the third major component of human milk, in the health of breast-fed infants have been increasingly recognized, as the structures of more than 100 different HMOS have now been elucidated. Despite the recognition of the various functions of HMOS as prebiotics, antiadhesive antimicrobials, and immunomodulators, the roles and the applications of individual HMOS species are less clear. This is mainly due to the limited accessibility to large amounts of individual HMOS in their pure forms. Current advances in the development of enzymatic, chemoenzymatic, whole-cell, and living-cell systems allow for the production of a growing number of HMOS in increasing amounts. This effort will greatly facilitate the elucidation of the important roles of HMOS and allow exploration into the applications of HMOS both as individual compounds and as mixtures of defined structures with desired functions. The structures, functions, and enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of HMOS are briefly surveyed to provide a general picture about the current progress on these aspects. Future efforts should be devoted to elucidating the structures of more complex HMOS, synthesizing more complex HMOS including those with branched structures, and developing HMOS-based or HMOS-inspired prebiotics, additives, and therapeutics.

      PubDate: 2016-01-04T06:30:57Z
       
  • Serge David 1921–2014
    • Authors: David Bonnaffé; Claudine Augé; Jacques Augé; Claire David-Mabille
      Pages: 2 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 71
      Author(s): David Bonnaffé , Claudine Augé , Jacques Augé , Claire David-Mabille


      PubDate: 2014-12-07T02:58:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-800128-8.10000-7
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2014)
       
  • Chapter 3 Nitrogen-Containing Macrocycles Having a Carbohydrate Scaffold
    • Authors: Mykhaylo A. Potopnyk; Sławomir Jarosz
      Pages: 227 - 295
      Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 71
      Author(s): Mykhaylo A. Potopnyk , Sławomir Jarosz
      Nitrogen-containing macrocyclic compounds (amines, amides, and N-heterocyclic derivatives) are important targets in supramolecular chemistry. This chapter discusses the importance of aza-macrocycles in general and, in particular, those receptors containing sugar unit(s). The combination of a carbohydrate scaffold bearing nitrogen-containing functional groups in macrocyclic molecules opens a convenient route to chiral receptors having potentially useful properties. The carbohydrate-based macrocycles discussed are classified into several general groups: (1) aza-crown ethers containing a carbohydrate subunit, (2) cyclic homooligomers from amino sugars, (3) sugar-based cryptands, (4) cyclic peptides containing amino sugar units (including C 2- and C 3-symmetrical macrocyclic glycopeptides), (5) nitrogen- containing glycophanes, and (6) 1,2,3-triazoles containing synthetic cyclodextrin analogues. The general strategies employed, as well as specific ones leading to such complex derivatives, are surveyed. Applications of such carbohydrate receptors, pointing to their importance as hosts in supramolecular chemistry, are discussed.

      PubDate: 2014-12-07T02:58:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-800128-8.00003-0
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2014)
       
  • Chapter 4 Mechanism-Based Inhibitors of Glycosidases Design and
           Applications
    • Authors: Wouter W. Kallemeijn; Martin D. Witte; Tom Wennekes; Johannes M.F.G. Aerts
      Pages: 297 - 338
      Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 71
      Author(s): Wouter W. Kallemeijn , Martin D. Witte , Tom Wennekes , Johannes M.F.G. Aerts
      This article covers recent developments in the design and application of activity-based probes (ABPs) for glycosidases, with emphasis on the different enzymes involved in metabolism of glucosylceramide in humans. Described are the various catalytic reaction mechanisms employed by inverting and retaining glycosidases. An understanding of catalysis at the molecular level has stimulated the design of different types of ABPs for glycosidases. Such compounds range from (1) transition-state mimics tagged with reactive moieties, which associate with the target active site—forming covalent bonds in a relatively nonspecific manner in or near the catalytic pocket—to (2) enzyme substrates that exploit the catalytic mechanism of retaining glycosidase targets to release a highly reactive species within the active site of the enzyme, to (3) probes based on mechanism-based, covalent, and irreversible glycosidase inhibitors. Some applications in biochemical and biological research of the activity-based glycosidase probes are discussed, including specific quantitative visualization of active enzyme molecules in vitro and in vivo, and as strategies for unambiguously identifying catalytic residues in glycosidases in vitro.

      PubDate: 2014-12-07T02:58:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-800128-8.00004-2
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2014)
       
  • Chapter 5 Modulating LPS Signal Transduction at the LPS Receptor Complex
           with Synthetic Lipid A Analogues
    • Authors: Aileen F.B. White; Alexei V. Demchenko
      Pages: 339 - 389
      Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 71
      Author(s): Aileen F.B. White , Alexei V. Demchenko
      Sepsis, defined as a clinical syndrome brought about by an amplified and dysregulated inflammatory response to infections, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Despite persistent attempts to develop treatment strategies to manage sepsis in the clinical setting, the basic elements of treatment have not changed since the 1960s. As such, the development of effective therapies for reducing inflammatory reactions and end-organ dysfunction in critically ill patients with sepsis remains a global priority. Advances in understanding of the immune response to sepsis provide the opportunity to develop more effective pharmaceuticals. This article details current information on the modulation of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor complex with synthetic Lipid A mimetics. As the initial and most critical event in sepsis pathophysiology, the LPS receptor provides an attractive target for antisepsis agents. One of the well-studied approaches to sepsis therapy involves the use of derivatives of Lipid A, the membrane-anchor portion of an LPS, which is largely responsible for its endotoxic activity. This article describes the structural and conformational requirements influencing the ability of Lipid A analogues to compete with LPS for binding to the LPS receptor complex and to inhibit the induction of the signal transduction pathway by impairing LPS-initiated receptor dimerization.

      PubDate: 2014-12-07T02:58:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-800128-8.00005-4
      Issue No: Vol. 71 (2014)
       
  • Chapter 1 Carbohydrate–Protein Interactions Molecular Modeling
           Insights
    • Authors: Serge Igor
      Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 71
      Author(s): Serge Pérez , Igor Tvaroška
      The article reviews the significant contributions to, and the present status of, applications of computational methods for the characterization and prediction of protein–carbohydrate interactions. After a presentation of the specific features of carbohydrate modeling, along with a brief description of the experimental data and general features of carbohydrate–protein interactions, the survey provides a thorough coverage of the available computational methods and tools. At the quantum-mechanical level, the use of both molecular orbitals and density-functional theory is critically assessed. These are followed by a presentation and critical evaluation of the applications of semiempirical and empirical methods: QM/MM, molecular dynamics, free-energy calculations, metadynamics, molecular robotics, and others. The usefulness of molecular docking in structural glycobiology is evaluated by considering recent docking- validation studies on a range of protein targets. The range of applications of these theoretical methods provides insights into the structural, energetic, and mechanistic facets that occur in the course of the recognition processes. Selected examples are provided to exemplify the usefulness and the present limitations of these computational methods in their ability to assist in elucidation of the structural basis underlying the diverse function and biological roles of carbohydrates in their dialogue with proteins. These test cases cover the field of both carbohydrate biosynthesis and glycosyltransferases, as well as glycoside hydrolases. The phenomenon of (macro)molecular recognition is illustrated for the interactions of carbohydrates with such proteins as lectins, monoclonal antibodies, GAG-binding proteins, porins, and viruses.

      PubDate: 2014-12-07T02:58:16Z
       
  • Chapter 2 Chemical Synthesis of Saponins
    • Authors: Yang Stephane; Laval Biao
      Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, Volume 71
      Author(s): You Yang , Stephane Laval , Biao Yu
      Saponins are a large family of amphiphilic glycosides of steroids and triterpenes found in plants and some marine organisms. By expressing a large diversity of structures on both sugar chains and aglycones, saponins exhibit a wide range of biological and pharmacological properties and serve as major active principles in folk medicines, especially in traditional Chinese medicines. Isolation of saponins from natural sources is usually a formidable task due to the microheterogeneity of saponins in Nature. Chemical synthesis can provide access to large amounts of natural saponins as well as congeners for understanding their structure–activity relationships and mechanisms of action. This article presents a comprehensive account on chemical synthesis of saponins. First highlighted are general considerations on saponin synthesis, including preparation of aglycones and carbohydrate building blocks, assembly strategies, and protecting-group strategies. Next described is the state of the art in the synthesis of each type of saponins, with an emphasis on those representative saponins having sophisticated structures and potent biological activities.

      PubDate: 2014-12-07T02:58:16Z
       
 
 
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