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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3183 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3183 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 100, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 435, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 419, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 382, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 472, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Botanical Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.686
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0065-2296
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3183 journals]
  • Chlorophyll-binding subunits of photosystem I and II: Biosynthesis,
           chlorophyll incorporation and assembly
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2019Source: Advances in Botanical ResearchAuthor(s): Josef Komenda, Roman Sobotka As an essential cofactor of photosystem I and photosystem II, chlorophyll plays a fundamental role in oxygenic photosynthesis. Chlorophyll molecules are responsible for both the absorption of visible light and its photochemical conversion during the process of charge separation. The vast majority of chlorophyll molecules located in photosystems is bound to six core subunits that appear to have a common evolutionary origin. Available data indicate that these large transmembrane proteins are synthesized on membrane-bound ribosomes and inserted into the thylakoid membrane with the assistance of SecY translocase and various protein factors. Newly synthesized chlorophyll-proteins associate with small transmembrane subunits, carotenoids, and other cofactors, and assemble in a stepwise manner into the final functional photosystems. This chapter summarizes our current knowledge of the individual events during photosystem biogenesis: apoprotein translation and membrane insertion, loading of chlorophyll molecules into the synthesized apoproteins, formation of assembly modules, and final assembly into the photosystems.
       
  • Evolution and function of light-harvesting antenna in oxygenic
           photosynthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2019Source: Advances in Botanical ResearchAuthor(s): Diana Kirilovsky, Claudia Büchel The light-harvesting proteins of oxygenic photosynthesis include mainly the phycobiliproteins and the light-harvesting complex (Lhc) family. Whereas the former are found in cyanobacteria, glaucophytes, red algae and cryptophytes, the latter are present in all eukaryotic organisms. Phycobiliproteins covalently bind bilins and are arranged in phycobilisomes in most organisms and form huge extramembranous protein aggregates. Only in cryptophytes they are lumenally localized. Lhc are membrane intrinsic proteins and fall in two distinct groups: the Lhca and Lhcb, serving as photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) antenna, respectively, are proteins of the green lineage of organisms (e.g., all green organisms from green algae to higher plants as well as chlorarachniophytes and euglenophytes). These proteins non-covalently bind Chl b, besides Chl a and carotenoids (Car). The other group consists of Lhcf, Lhcr, Lhcy, Lhcz, RedCaps and the photoprotective Lhcx. They bind a huge variety of carotenoids and often Chl c besides Chl a, depending on the taxon. These Lhc proteins are found mainly in the red lineage (red algae and all organisms derived thereof by secondary endosymbiosis, like, e.g., diatoms). Only Lhcx (also called LhcSR) is present in the green lineage as well and binds also Chl b instead of Chl c. Lhcf and Lhcr are the main light-harvesting proteins in the red lineage, whereby Lhcr often constitutes the PSI antenna. Besides these main Lhc families, another photoprotective protein, PsbS, is expressed in the green lineage that contains no pigments and consists of four helices. Only dinoflagellates contain an additional, water-soluble light-harvesting protein, the so-called peridinin-Chl protein.
       
  • Posttranslational control of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis: Interacting
           proteins, chaperones, auxiliary factors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2019Source: Advances in Botanical ResearchAuthor(s): Josephine Herbst, Daniel Hey, Bernhard Grimm Light is the key for life on earth. Every photoautotrophic organism depends on the absorption of photons from the visible spectrum of solar radiation. Exposure to light enables foliar photosynthetic reactions, which function in the transformation from sun light into biochemical energy. The essential pigments for light absorption are chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll and the appropriate spatio-temporal synthesis and supply of these pigments is essential for the performance of their light-dependent function. The control of chlorophyll synthesis should prevent the accumulation of metabolic intermediates, which would lead to unwanted production of reactive oxygen species. In the worst-case scenario, these reactive oxygen species trigger programmed cell death. Hence, the tight control of the entire chlorophyll-synthesizing pathway is indispensable to ensure a fast and precise response on changing environmental conditions. While transcription and translation of genes involved in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis are expected to be responsible for long-term control, the posttranslational modification of proteins adds another layer of control, which is responsible for short-term modulations of protein expression and function. The rapidly increasing number of studies on posttranslational control of enzymes in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis identified already several interesting mechanisms and new factors, which contribute to the control of the metabolic flow of tetrapyrroles.
       
  • The multifaceted regulation of 5-aminolevulinic acid synthesis. Numerous
           ways to control glutamyl-tRNA reductase
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2019Source: Advances in Botanical ResearchAuthor(s): Andreas Richter, Bernhard Grimm 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is the first stable, committed metabolic intermediate of the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis pathway. The different classes of tetrapyrrole end-products, such as chlorophyll, heme, phycobilins, and siroheme, fulfill pivotal functions in photosynthetic organisms and are required in different quantities during the daily environmental changes and the entire plant development. As result of the light-absorbing characteristics of tetrapyrroles as well as their redox properties as oxidants and reductants, the biosynthetic pathway requires safety precautions to ensure a continuous flow of metabolites and to prevent accumulation of excessive light-absorbing end-products, intermediates, and breakdown products. ALA synthesis is the rate-limiting step of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis and is controlled by tight light-dark and environmental-dependent regulatory mechanisms at the transcriptional and post-translational level. In this chapter, we summarize several post-translational control mechanisms of ALA synthesis, mainly on glutamyl-tRNA reductase, the first enzyme of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, which ensure a partially coinciding regulation for the adequate supply of metabolic precursors for the synthesis of tetrapyrroles in plants.
       
  • Studying conformational changes of proteins via single-molecule
           spectroscopy: Cryogenic temperatures versus room temperature
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2019Source: Advances in Botanical ResearchAuthor(s): Jürgen Köhler, Richard J. Cogdell The photophysical properties of chromophores react very sensitively upon changes of their electrostatic environment. This allows conformational fluctuations of a protein to be monitored by optical spectroscopy via the fluctuations of the spectral signatures of chromophores that are embedded in the protein's matrix. However, to be successful as an approach this requires that the structural fluctuations within the proteins would occur synchronously. This restriction can be overcome by studying the proteins on an individual basis. In this contribution, we illustrate this approach on the example of the peripheral light-harvesting complexes from photosynthetic purple bacteria that contain bacteriochlorophyll a as natural cofactors.
       
  • Evolution of tetrapyrrole pathway in eukaryotic phototrophs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2019Source: Advances in Botanical ResearchAuthor(s): Jaromír Cihlář, Zoltán Füssy, Miroslav Oborník Tetrapyrroles such as chlorophyll and heme are involved in conversion of the light energy to chemical bonds by photosynthetic electron transfer as well as phosphorylation and participation as cofactor in various enzymatic activities and in cellular signaling, respectively. Therefore, they are crucial constituents of the cell metabolism in all three domains of cellular life. In eukaryotes, the pathway was shaped by past endosymbioses and consecutive endosymbiotic and non-endosymbiotic gene transfers. These processes resulted in a true mosaic of enzymes with diverse origins and reshuffled subcellular localizations. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge on the arrangement of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs, and discusses how endosymbiotic events modulate this pathway arrangement.
       
  • Chapter Four - Nitrogen storage and cycling in trees
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 89Author(s): Gen Li, Gary D. Coleman Seasonal nitrogen cycling is an important trait and adaptive strategy for trees to conserve and reuse nitrogen. This review examines the current progress towards understanding the molecular and physiological basis of seasonal nitrogen cycling in trees. Since most of what is known about nitrogen cycling in trees comes from research in Populus, this review relies heavily on research in this genus. We also highlight major knowledge gaps in understanding the regulatory pathways and transport mechanism that govern seasonal N cycling.
       
  • Chapter Three - The ectomycorrhizal contribution to tree nutrition
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 89Author(s): Adeline Becquer, Carmen Guerrero-Galán, Janice L. Eibensteiner, Gabriella Houdinet, Heike Bücking, Sabine D. Zimmermann, Kevin Garcia Trees can be associated with dozens of fungi helping them to acquire resources from forest soils. The most widespread mutualistic association in boreal and temperate forests is the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. This symbiosis involves mushroom-forming fungi of basidiomycota, ascomycota, and some zygomycota clades and the roots of woody plant species, including oaks, poplars or pines. Although the impact of this association on ecosystem production and tree nutrition is investigated for about a century, our understanding on the molecular mechanisms that control water and nutrient fluxes between plant and fungal partners is still limited. Here, we review the recent knowledge on the ectomycorrhizal contribution to tree nutrition. We specifically highlight the molecular mechanisms driving the acquisition, translocation and release of water and nutrients in ectomycorrhizal systems. We particularly focus on the transport of macronutrients, including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur and calcium, micronutrients, and water by the symbiotic partner. We also provide background on the evolution, diversity, and importance of this symbiosis, identify knowledge gaps, and propose future research directions.
       
  • Chapter Two - Resources for conifer functional genomics at the omics era
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 89Author(s): Rafael A. Cañas, Mª Belén Pascual, Fernando N. de la Torre, Concepción Ávila, Francisco M. Cánovas Conifers are a group of woody plants that dominate vast forest ecosystems and represent a fundamental source of raw materials such as wood and other forest-derived products of great interest for humankind. Thus, understanding the molecular basis underlying the growth and development of these woody plants, as well as the response of these plants to environmental cues, is of paramount importance for the conservation of coniferous natural forests and the production of new tree lines with improved traits for sustainable forest plantations. Conifers have a series of characteristics that hinder the application of genetics and molecular biological approaches to generate data of high biological value. However, nowadays the biological sciences are dominated by omics techniques that have extensively increased the fundamental knowledge of conifer biology over the last decade. Novel resources are currently available for functional genomics research, and these resources are accessible to researchers all over the world. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and assembly capacity have enabled whole-genome sequencing of several conifer species and have favoured the development of functional genomics studies in these non-model plant species. Currently, it is possible to obtain large amounts of data to explore the transcriptome or genome of any species with a limited budget. However, functional genomics studies using genetics approaches and gene manipulation remain tremendously challenging, and the application of recent gene editing techniques in conifers is awaited.
       
  • Chapter One - Genomics of forest trees
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 89Author(s): Nathaniel Robert Street Over the past decade increasing availability and decreasing costs of “next” generation sequencing has revolutionised our ability to assay numerous aspects of genome function. Initially, massively parallel high throughput sequencing technologies resulted in a rapid increase in the number of published tree genomes and, to an even greater extent, transcriptome studies. Whereas previous genomics efforts were concentrated on a small number of model species, these new sequencing technologies have liberated the choice of species, particularly so assaying gene expression using RNA Sequencing and, more recently, for assays of epigenomics including genome structure and accessibility. These advances in sequencing throughput and cost enabled the first draft assemblies of the large (~ 20 Gbp) genomes of a number of conifer species in addition to an ever-increasing number of angiosperm tree species, with more than 40 genomes now publicly available. The falling cost of sequencing has also enabled genome resequencing, genome wide association studies and population gene expression studies, the results of which are providing new insight into the developmental programs associated with wood formation, stress and disease tolerance, adaptive potential, population genetics and evolutionary history of tree species.
       
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    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 89Author(s):
       
  • Chapter Ten - Phytoremediation with trees
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 89Author(s): Luis Gómez, Angela Contreras, David Bolonio, Julia Quintana, Luis Oñate-Sánchez, Irene Merino Phytoremediation is a proven technology for many organic and inorganic pollutants. Practical reasons have led trees to be neglected in laboratory studies in favour of herbaceous model species. However, trees are gaining momentum over herbaceous plants in field trials because of their greater effectiveness. Recent progress supports that fast-growing trees commonly used in short-rotation coppicing are naturally endowed with key advantages to fight pollution. If properly managed, these trees can also provide important ecological services that will contribute positively to cost-effectiveness and social perception. To fully exploit this potential, we need to better understand the biochemical networks underlying pollutant metabolism and the complex interactions between trees and their endophytic and rhizospheric communities. We examine here recent advances regarding the uptake and fate of relevant organic and inorganic pollutants in plants, with particular emphasis on results obtained with trees. The prospects offered by microbial inoculation and genetic transformation, two approaches successfully field tested, are also discussed. Tree planting for land restoration fits nicely in the new paradigm of phytomanagement.
       
  • Chapter Eight - Cell wall pectins in tree growth and woody biomass
           utilization
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 89Author(s): Scott A. Harding, Chung-Jui Tsai Pectins are networks of dynamically and variably modified, galacturonan-rich polymers that occur predominantly in the primary cell wall and the middle lamella between cells. Despite their low abundance in lignocellulosic feedstocks, pectins can have outsized, and often negative effects on post-harvest processing. There is compelling evidence that pectins interfere with bio-based saccharification. Transgenic strategies for improving woody biomass utilization by pectin manipulation have therefore been explored. While much research has focused on the apoplastic, in muro steps of pectin modification during cell wall remodelling, recent biotechnological successes suggest potential for substantial and informative gains by targeting biosynthetic steps in the Golgi apparatus. At the same time, it must be recognized that pectins are essential for plant fitness. They comprise a substantial fraction of the primary cell wall, which, during rapid growth and differentiation, constitutes most of the cell wall. Pectin involvement in plant defence, stomatal dynamics, embolism control, root nutrient uptake and trace metal sequestration will also need to be taken into account to maximize the potential for durable gains. Early reports suggest that there is potential for bottom line success, not only for saccharification efficiency, but for biomass yields as well. Longer-term field testing across more varied environments, with more detailed phenotyping, will provide valuable insights for the future of pectin manipulation in woody biomass improvement.
       
  • Chapter Seven - Digging in wood: New insights in the regulation of wood
           formation in tree species
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 89Author(s): Eduardo L.O. Camargo, Raphaël Ployet, Hua Cassan-Wang, Fabien Mounet, Jacqueline Grima-Pettenati Wood, which represents the most abundant lignocellulosic biomass on earth, fulfils key roles in trees, and is also a raw material for multiple end-uses by mankind. The differentiation of this complex vascular tissue starts with cell division in the vascular cambium and is characterized by a massive deposition of lignified secondary cell walls mainly in fibres and vessels. A transcriptional network underlying this differentiation process ensures a tight regulation of the expression of thousands of genes both at the spatial and temporal levels. Most of our current knowledge of this hierarchical network was extrapolated from studies performed in Arabidopsis. Here, we review recent findings on the regulation of wood formation in angiosperm trees species highlighting conserved and distinct mechanisms with Arabidopsis. We provide examples shedding light on the central role of auxin and its cross-talk with other hormones at different stages of secondary xylem differentiation. Functional studies of trees' wood-associated transcription factors revealed diversified functions as compared to their Arabidopsis orthologs. Sophisticated mechanisms of alternative splicing and cross-regulation between the two distinct groups of top level NAC-domain master regulators were uncovered. These findings underlie the high level of complexity of wood formation in trees and provide a framework for future lines of research in this exiting research field.
       
  • Chapter Six - Activity of the shoot apical and cambial meristems:
           Coordination and responses to environmental signals
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 89Author(s): Rita Teresa Teixeira, Xiaoyan Sheng, Amy M. Brunner A tree shoot includes multiple developmental gradients that reflect the relationships of the shoot apical meristem, the cambial meristem and the tissues and organs they produce. The adaptation of trees to temperate and boreal climates depends on the ability of these two meristems to appropriately respond to environmental signals that are markers of seasonal changes. The aim of this review is to present a more holistic view of the tree shoot, including the developmental changes associated with seasonally regulated growth transitions. We consider the role of long-distance communication in coordinating leaf development, the transition to secondary growth and meristem activity. Using Populus as the model, we discuss the roles of signalling mediated by hormones, sugar and FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2) in coordinating tree shoot developmental processes.
       
  • Chapter Five - Embryology in conifers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 89Author(s): Sara von Arnold, David Clapham, Malin Abrahamsson Conifers, which grow in all climate zones, are important both ecologically and economically. An understanding of the regulation of the development of coniferous trees from single cells to mature trees is critical for scientific and biotechnological applications. Early embryogenesis is a crucial developmental phase during which the basic features of the plant body are established: the apical-basal axis of polarity, the various tissue layers, and the root and the shoot poles. Conifer somatic embryogenesis is of special interest both as a model system for zygotic embryogenesis and because of its potential for mass propagation of selected genotypes. The cell and molecular biology of higher plant embryogenesis has been most studied in the angiosperm Arabidopsis. Like seeds in Arabidopsis, conifer seeds contain a simple mature embryo. However, the patterning of cell division and cell differentiation leading to the final shape are dramatically different in the two groups of species. This is not surprising since the common ancestor of gymnosperms and angiosperms dates from ca. 300 Myr ago. The aim of this review is to give an updated survey of the developmental patterning and its regulation during zygotic and somatic embryogenesis in conifers, particularly the genera Picea and Pinus. Somatic embryogenesis biotechnology is much affected by the occurrence of cleavage polyembryony in Pinus and its absence in Picea.
       
  • Chapter Six - Transposable Elements as Tool for Crop Improvement
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 88Author(s): Michael Thieme, Etienne Bucher Transposable elements (TEs) are major contributors to the size of plant genomes. For a long time, TEs had a very negative connotation being primarily considered as “parasites” or “junk DNA”. In recent years, this view has started to change: Even though TEs can damage genes present in the host genome, they also contribute to stress response and played a key role in crop domestication. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms involved in taming TEs, how TEs link the genome and epigenome to the environment, their contribution to gene structure and expression and finally discuss how TE could be used for crop breeding.
       
  • Chapter Four - EpiRILs: Lessons From Arabidopsis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 88Author(s): Marco Catoni, Sandra Cortijo In recent times, epigenetic marks have emerged as important players involved in the regulation of gene expression and transposable element silencing in many organisms. In plants, many epigenetic changes, mainly at the level of DNA methylation, are transgenerational stable and contribute to formation of epialleles, affecting developmental and agronomical traits. In this scenario, it becomes critical to differentiate the genetic from the epigenetic contribution to plant phenotypes. In Arabidopsis, epigenetic Recombinant Inbred Lines (epiRILs), obtained by an initial cross of isogenic parents with different DNA methylation profiles, provide a powerful tool to investigate the role and significance of epigenetic alteration in identical or almost identical genetic backgrounds. Such populations have greatly increased our knowledge in mechanisms involved in epialleles formation and stability, as well as in the consequences of DNA methylation changes in genomic stability, transposable elements activation and phenotypic traits.
       
  • Chapter Three - Epigenetic Diversity and Application to Breeding
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 88Author(s): Sunil Kumar Kenchanmane Raju, Chad E. Niederhuth Natural phenotypic variation is the basis of crop improvement. Understanding the basis of this variation has long focused on the role of genetic diversity and its exploitation in breeding programs. Beyond the genetic level, the genome is regulated by various chromatin modifications, which can be referred to as the “epigenome”. Differences in the epigenome between individuals can affect gene expression and be a contributing factor in phenotypic variation. In some instances, these differences may also be inherited independent of genetic variation. While much has been learned mechanistically, the study of epigenomic diversity and function in plants has remained limited to a handful of examples. Moving the study of epigenome from one of discovery to application will require addressing still unanswered questions of how extensive epigenomic variation is, its relationship to the genome, and ultimately its contribution to phenotypic variation.
       
  • Chapter Two - Epigenetic Mechanisms in Plants
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 88Author(s): Hiroki Maeji, Taisuke Nishimura Gene expression is associated with chromatin status, which is often determined by epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and histone variants. Genetic and genomic studies mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana have revealed the functions of these epigenetic marks and identified many of the factors involved in the regulation of epigenetic marks. Based on the findings obtained from these studies, new molecular breeding techniques will undoubtedly be developed and applied to commercially important plant species. In this chapter, the mechanisms and functions of DNA methylation, histone modification, and of histone variants are outlined.
       
  • Chapter One - Epigenetics – A Historical Perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 88Author(s): Peter Meyer The term ‘epigenetics’ refers to heritable and reversible changes to a gene that do not alter its DNA sequence but that affect its competence or efficiency of expression. The three contexts in which epigenetic changes are predominantly studied today are their contribution to the developmental program of an organism, their part in the response of an organism to changing environmental conditions and their contribution to evolutionary flux via the production of new epigenetic variants.Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's theory about the inheritance of acquired characteristics initiated the discussion about the role of heritable epigenetic changes in evolution, and Conrad Waddington's epigenetic landscape model provided a new definition of epigenesis, the development of the phenotype, as the combination of genetic expression and tissue interaction. Plant research has played a crucial role in the identification of epigenetic concepts and mechanisms, especially via the analysis of plant transposons and transgenes that helped to discover the importance of chromatin states and small RNAs.
       
  • Chapter Five - Sexual and Non-sexual Reproduction: Inheritance and
           Stability of Epigenetic Variations and Consequences for Breeding
           Application
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 88Author(s): Yu-Hung Hung, Fang Liu, Xiang-Qian Zhang, Wenyan Xiao, Tzung-Fu Hsieh Although plant breeding has traditionally relied on exploiting genetic diversity, epigenetic variations are attracting new attentions in breeding design. Epigenetic modifications play a critical role in regulating gene expression during development and in response to environmental stimulation, and thereby contribute to phenotypic variation. When epigenetic modifications persist during reproduction and are stably transmitted to the next generation, transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic variations has a potential to produce heritable phenotypic diversity. In addition to naturally occurring epialleles, genetic variation due to organization of duplicated genes or transposon polymorphisms are a potential source for inducing epialleles. Furthermore, stress-induced activation and mobilization of transposable elements represent another promising avenue to create new genetic and epigenetic diversity that can be sexually or asexually propagated. Finally, methods for artificially creating epigenetic diversity in experimental models have been developed and applied to select crop species in some cases. With the advance in epigenome profiling techniques, dissection of epigenetic-based complex traits, and the development of molecular tools for locus-specific epigenome editing, the effects of epigenetics for underlying phenotypic traits can be unequivocally elucidated.
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 88Author(s):
       
  • Advances in Botanical Research
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 88Author(s):
       
  • Chapter Eight - Hybrid Vigor: Importance of Epigenetic Processes and
           Consequences for Breeding
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 88Author(s): Naomi Miyaji, Ryo Fujimoto Heterosis or hybrid vigor is a phenomenon in which a hybrid progeny exhibits superior performance compared to their parental inbred lines. F1 hybrid seed production system is used for many crops and vegetables because of the high yield due to hybrid vigor. It has been over 100 years since the discovery of the hybrid vigor phenomenon; however, the molecular mechanism of hybrid vigor is still a mystery. Understanding the mechanism of hybrid vigor will allow developing more efficient breeding systems and contribute to food security. At this time, hybrid vigor research has mainly used genetic approaches providing a number of findings in many plant species. High throughput sequencing will make genetic analysis more efficient, and large-scale quantitative trait analysis or genome wide association analysis has been performed in some plant species. However recent works have revealed that epigenetic regulations also contribute to hybrid vigor. In this chapter, we will discuss the most recent findings suggesting that epigenetic regulation may play important roles in hybrid vigor.
       
  • Chapter Nine - The Control of Bud Break and Flowering Time in Plants:
           Contribution of Epigenetic Mechanisms and Consequences in Agriculture and
           Breeding
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 88Author(s): Amanda Malvessi Cattani, Tiago Sartor, Vítor da Silveira Falavigna, Diogo Denardi Porto, Carolina Pereira Silveira, Paulo Ricardo Dias de Oliveira, Luís Fernando Revers In perennial plants, the release of bud dormancy, with subsequent flowering, resembles the vernalization process of Arabidopsis thaliana and cereals. Especially for perennial crops from temperate regions, dormancy is an important adaptive trait for both survival and growth. Exposure to sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing periods. Here, we compile research data on mechanisms controlling the overlapping developmental processes that define dormancy induction, maintenance and release, bud burst and flowering. Recent findings highlight the relevance of genome-wide epigenetic modifications related to dormancy events, and more specifically the epigenetic regulation of DORMANCY-ASSOCIATED MADS-box, FLOWERING LOCUS C and FLOWERING LOCUS T genes, key integrators of vernalization effectors on flowering. The roles of plant growth regulators in controlling bud break and flowering are discussed in relation to epigenetic mechanisms. A growing body of knowledge demonstrates that epigenetic regulation plays a key role in these processes in perennial horticultural and forestry plants. We discuss the most relevant molecular and genomics research that contribute to better understanding of the dormancy process and pave the way to precise manipulation of dormancy-related horticultural traits, such as flowering time. Finally, some of the challenges for further research in bud dormancy and consequences in agriculture are discussed within the context of global climate change.
       
  • Chapter Ten - Epigenetic Regulations of Fleshy Fruit Development and
           Ripening and Their Potential Applications to Breeding Strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 88Author(s): Etienne Bucher, Junhua Kong, Emeline Teyssier, Philippe Gallusci Fleshy fruits, which are only found in Angiosperms, are of high economic importance as they represent an essential component of the human daily diet. True fruits derive from carpels, a leaf-like organ, and their development requires major reprogrammings of gene expression patterns of which we are just starting to grasp the importance of epigenetic regulations. Starting at fruit set, fruit development can be subdivided in two main steps, cell division and cell enlargement, that are followed by ripening in the case of fleshy fruits, whereas dry fruits enter a lignification phase before dehiscence occurs. Here, we summarize the state of the art in epigenetic regulation of fruit initiation, development and ripening with a focus on fleshy fruits. We present evidence that stable epigenetic variations, also called epimutations can affect fruit phenotype and discuss the role of DNA methylation and specific histone post translational modifications at the different fruit developmental phases. Indeed most works so far have been performed on tomato, the model for fleshy fruit studies, but recent works also indicate that epigenetic regulations might be of primary importance in other fruits, although the precise mechanisms might differ. Future research directions required to answer key remaining questions are discussed with the idea to develop breeding strategies that will integrate the epigenetic dimension.
       
  • Chapter Eleven - Aspects of Epigenetic Regulation in Cereals
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 88Author(s): Omar Oltehua-Lopez, Ana E. Dorantes-Acosta, Mathieu Ingouff, Sophie Lanciano, Olivier Leblanc, Daniel Grimanelli, Marie Mirouze, Mario A. Arteaga-Vazquez Plants' ability to respond to environmental stimuli and developmental cues depends upon changes in gene expression. In eukaryotes, genetic information encoded by DNA is packed in a highly regulated and dynamic nucleoprotein complex known as chromatin that is subject to epigenetic modifications. Historically, several biological phenomena relying on epigenetic mechanisms were first characterized in plants. Seminal discoveries such as paramutation and silencing of transposable elements were made in maize (Zea mays). Later rice (Oryza sativa) was selected as a good model for monocotyledons owing to its relatively small genome size and well-annotated sequenced genome. In the past few years an increasing number of epigenetic and epigenomic studies were performed in both maize and rice. In this chapter we will first compare the basic knowledge acquired on epigenetic regulation in rice and maize versus Arabidopsis, then we will describe cereals-specific aspects of epigenetic regulations.
       
  • Chapter Twelve - Epigenetics in Forest Trees: State of the Art and
           Potential Implications for Breeding and Management in a Context of Climate
           Change
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 88Author(s): Mamadou Dia Sow, Isabel Allona, Christophe Ambroise, Daniel Conde, Régis Fichot, Svetlana Gribkova, Véronique Jorge, Grégoire Le-Provost, Luc Pâques, Christophe Plomion, Jérôme Salse, Léopoldo Sanchez-Rodriguez, Vincent Segura, Jörg Tost, Stéphane Maury Forest trees are long-lived organisms subject to repeated environmental constraints throughout their long lifetimes. They have developed various mechanisms enabling them to cope with fluctuating environmental conditions during their life span, and to survive to current climate change. Epigenetics has recently emerged as a powerful set of mechanisms regulating various developmental processes, plant growth and responses to environmental variations. Such epigenetic mechanisms, which may remain stable along tree life or across generations, constitute a source of rapid phenotypic variations potentially improving adaptation of the plants in situations in which naturally occurring mutations are very rare.In this review, we summarize recent advances in forest tree epigenomics. We first draw the particularities of trees and the available (epi) genomics resources and strategies. Then, we discuss the potential contributions of epigenetics to cope with global climate change and regulate various developmental processes, such as developmental transitions during the annual cycle, phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental variations and stress memory, as well as local adaptation. Finally, we propose some challenges for forest management and highlighted the need to take epigenetics into account in forest tree breeding strategies.
       
  • Chapter Seven - Roles of Epigenetic Mechanisms in Grafting and Possible
           Applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 88Author(s): Margot M.J. Berger, Philippe Gallusci, Emeline Teyssier Grafting is a technic that allows combining the root system from one plant (rootstock) with the shoot of another plant (scion), with the aim to improve the plant agronomical characteristics. Several steps are required for a successful grafting interaction that involves the formation of a callus followed by the differentiation of vascular tissues that connect the rootstock to the scion. When successful, the rootstock-scion interaction results in a complex exchange of signals between the partners eventually leading to phenotypic variations. Several studies have now shown that in addition to nutritional and hormonal signals epigenetic regulations may also play an important role during the establishment of a successful graft interaction, and contribute to the numerous phenotypic consequences of rootstock-scion interactions. Here we summarize the most recent data indicating that both DNA methylation and siRNAs exchanges are essential components of the epigenetic dialogue between the graft partners, and could be the basis of strategies aiming at generating rootstock and scion phenotypic diversity in plants including those which are mainly clonally propagated.
       
 
 
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