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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3155 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3155 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 96, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 411, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 259, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 400, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 347, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 456, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 201, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Advances in Botanical Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.686
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0065-2296
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3155 journals]
  • Chapter Ten - Biotechnologies: The Ideal Victim'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 86Author(s): Nayla Farouki Biotechnologies, in general, and GM plants in particular, suffer from a sort of defiance that has gone beyond ordinary technophobia. Societies, in which all technological advancements are naturally embedded, react in various ways to what industries have to offer. Enthusiasm, slow appropriation, apprehension, rejection seem normal at the consumer's level, and each person ought to have the free choice to consume or not to consume. With plant biotechnologies, this normal evolution of technological offers, and of the free scientific research that goes with it, is now perturbed by overregulation on the one hand and straight and total forbiddance on the other.These pages are an attempt at an explanation of this phenomenon's specificity. What is it that makes biotechnologies different from other technologies on which there is no consensus, such as nuclear energy or robotics' What are humans scared of' and why'The answer could reside in the following: biotechnologies, where plants are concerned, that is where agriculture, food and the living environment are concerned, seem to have specific reasons for producing such negative feelings. Among all the “scary” inventions that some want to denounce, could it be that biotechnologies are the ideal victim'
       
  • Chapter Nine - Epigenetics, Epigenomics and Crop Improvement
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 86Author(s): Aliki Kapazoglou, Ioannis Ganopoulos, Eleni Tani, Athanasios Tsaftaris Epigenetics refers to heritable alterations in chromatin architecture that do not involve changes in the underlying DNA sequence but profoundly affect gene expression and impact cellular function. Epigenetic regulation is attained by specific mechanisms involving DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications and the action of noncoding (nc) RNAs which lead to open or closed chromatin states associated with gene activation or gene silencing, respectively. Over the past two decades extensive investigations have provided a wealth of information on epigenetic regulation at specific loci both in model and crop plants and the effect it may have on various aspects of plant development such as proper vegetative growth, successful reproduction and viability, effects on yield, and efficiency in coping with stress. In recent years, the rapid progress of high-throughput technologies has led to the unveiling of epigenetic landscapes at genome-wide scale (epigenomes) exemplified by the deciphering of the full methylomes, at single base resolution, of the model plant Arabidopsis and crop plants such as rice and tomato. An increasing number of epigenomes are now being investigated on crops of high economic value. Transgenerational natural or induced epigenetic variation can be a new source of phenotypic diversity especially for species with low genetic variation. The comparison of different epigenomes arising from different genotypes/tissues/cell types/environmental conditions can offer valuable information for the development of biomarkers paving the way to what is nowadays termed plant epibreeding. This review will attempt a comprehensive presentation of the progress in plant epigenetics both at small scale (single locus) and large scale (epigenome-wide) during development and in response to environmental stress, focusing on agronomically important crops and the impact that epigenetics, epigenomics and the new emerging field of epibreeding may have on crop improvement.
       
  • Chapter Eight - Genome Editing in Agricultural Biotechnology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 86Author(s): Maxence Pfeiffer, Francis Quétier, Agnès Ricroch Genome editing with engineered nucleases represents a specific and efficient tool to generate useful novel phenotypes in crops with an economic interest by base additions, deletions, gene replacement or transgene insertion. These techniques generate phenotypic variation in plants that can be indistinguishable from those obtained through natural means or conventional mutagenesis. The rapid development of these new techniques of plant breeding leads to several issues concerning the regulatory status of plants edited by engineered nucleases. This chapter aims at providing some keys to answer these issues. The intellectual property and legislation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in several countries including European Union and major countries such as the USA, China, Brazil, Argentina and India are discussed. A scientific description of these new editing techniques and of recently edited plants is included. From a technical point of view, edited plants should only be considered as GMOs in the current EU legislation of GMO in the case of transgene insertion, while the best regulatory issue might be a product-based approach.
       
  • Chapter Seven - Recombinant Therapeutic Molecules Produced in Plants
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 86Author(s): Qiang Chen Research on the use of plants for production of protein-based therapeutics has increased tremendously since the initial experiments in the early 1990s. Plant-based expression systems offer several production advantages of low cost, rapidity, scalability, and a significantly lower chance of contamination with prion or mammalian viruses. In addition, the capability of plants in producing homogeneous N-glycans allows the development of novel therapeutics with superior efficacy and safety to their mammalian cell-produced counterparts. Various plant species have been used to develop and produce vaccines, antibodies, and pharmaceutical enzymes against a myriad of diseases by multiple expression technologies. While most of these plant-made therapeutics are in preclinical development, many have progressed into human clinical study phases and several have been approved by regulatory agencies. The current status and recent advancement of plant-based expression systems and key clinical products will be presented in this chapter. The remaining challenges and future directions for the field of plant-made therapeutics will be discussed.
       
  • Chapter Six - Genetic Engineering of Crop Plants: Colombia as a Case Study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 86Author(s): Julián Mora-Oberlaender, Adriana Castaño Hernández, Silvio Alejandro López-Pazos, Alejandro Chaparro-Giraldo Colombia was one of the leading countries in the formulation and negotiation of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, and as a megadiverse country has taken the challenge of developing technical and institutional capacities to ensure that applications of biotechnological developments do not pose risks to human and animal health or the environment. Since 2000 there are GM crops which have been approved for environmental release in Colombia. The first approved crop was blue carnation. To date, GM maize, cotton, flowers, and soybeans have been authorized for growing. The approval of foods derived from GM plants for human consumption in Colombia is a process that has been going on since 2003 and to date there are 104 genetically modified events approved for this purpose. Those events are present in maize, soybean, cotton, canola, sugar beet, rice and wheat. For their use as animal feed there are 59 approved events from six different crop species, mainly maize, soybean and cotton. Colombia has various research institutions, working on genetic transformation of crop plants of economic importance for the country, but to date none of them have reached the market. The adoption of agbiogenerics as an alternative approach by national research groups may reduce the time and cost associated and facilitate the eventual commercialization of a Colombian biotechnological crop. This presents a challenge that involves all stages of GM crop development.
       
  • Chapter Four - Regulating Safety of Novel Food and Genetically Modified
           Crops
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 86Author(s): Andrew Bartholomaeus The principle of proportionality, embodying concepts of fairness, equity, and consistency, is fundamental to human rights, national and international law, and subordinate regulation. This principle, in theory, provides some limits on the potential unintended consequences that may result from disproportionate regulatory burdens distorting individual and corporate behaviour, the consequences of which may exceed the real or imagined harms the original regulations were intended to prevent. Current regulatory burdens applied in a number of jurisdictions on recombinant DNA technology and the new biotechnologies, however, as opposed to other less precise mechanisms of gene alteration in common use, are applied discriminately, are disproportionate to the known (lack of) plausible food safety risks, are ignorant of the broader knowledge of natural plant genome plasticity, and are consequently ethically highly questionable at best. Although major corporations developing GM crops are arguably beneficiaries of the reduced competition resulting from disproportionate regulatory burdens and their associated costs, this comes at the substantial detriment both to the respective jurisdictions and to developing economies seeking to improve the welfare of disadvantaged communities through the use of advanced plant breeding technologies. Disproportionate regulation of GMOs is consequently risk generating rather than risk mitigating and is contrary to the intent of the precautionary principle. The key principles underlying rational, ethical, risk proportionate regulation of new plant varieties developed by any technique, conventional or otherwise, are discussed.
       
  • Chapter Two - How Agrobacterium, a Natural Genetic Engineer, Became a Tool
           for Modern Agriculture
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 86Author(s): Léon Otten Agrobacterium is well known for its capacity to transfer specific fragments of DNA (transferred DNA or T-DNA) into plant cells, leading to the formation of tumours (crown galls) by A. tumefaciens and to abundant root growth (hairy roots) by A. rhizogenes. The T-DNA contains genes which change the growth of plant cells in various ways and lead to the production of special metabolites (called opines) used by the bacterium for its growth. The discovery of this natural plant transformation system started about one hundred years ago, and the adaptation of A. tumefaciens as a vector to stably introduce foreign DNA into plants has led to a revolution in plant research and in agriculture. The potential of A. rhizogenes is not yet fully exploited and much remains to be learnt about its root-inducing properties. Recent research has shown that apart from tumours and hairy roots, Agrobacterium can also produce transgenic plants in at least three different plant genera (Nicotiana, Linaria and Ipomoea), with stable transmission of T-DNA genes across species. In the case of Nicotiana tabacum, some cultivars express the TB-mas2′ T-DNA gene to high levels in roots and produce the corresponding opine. The possible growth-modifying role of T-DNA genes in natural transformants remains to be studied.
       
  • Chapter One - Plant Domestication, the Brave Old World of Genetic
           Modification
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 86Author(s): Henry I. Miller, Piero A. Morandini The genetic improvement of crop plants via the newer techniques of biotechnology to produce “genetically modified” crops is a significant driver of progress in agriculture. However, progress has not been unimpeded: various controversies swirl around the benefits, uniqueness, supposed risks and other aspects of “GMOs”, or genetically modified organisms—which, as we explain, is a meaningless “category”—and the foods derived from them. In order to resolve the conundrums posed by those issues, it is important to understand the pedigree of genetic modification, which had its inception in the domestication of plants. In this chapter, we briefly introduce the crucial determinants of the “domestication syndrome” for cereals and legumes—that is, loss of seed shattering and reduced seed dormancy—and how it evolved through the ages into contemporary “genetic modification”. We argue that the application of genetic engineering to crops within a few years brought a wave of improved domestication traits. Moreover, contrary to most of the early domestication traits, some of these novel traits are advantageous to the crop and not just to humans. The other chapters in this volume discuss current developments in technology, the promise of modern molecular genetic engineering, and the legal and regulatory landscape.
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 86Author(s):
       
  • Chapter Eleven - Molecular Evolution of Plastid Genomes in Parasitic
           Flowering Plants
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 85Author(s): Susann Wicke, Julia Naumann Heterotrophic carbon acquisition is the most unusual lifestyle in plants, whereby the heterotrophs obtain water, nutrients, and macromolecules from either another plant or a fungus. Besides numerous morphological changes that accompany the transition to a fully heterotrophic lifestyle in plants, the so-called parasitic reduction syndrome manifests at the molecular level, especially in the plastid genome. Here, we provide an overview of the sizes, architectures, and coding capacity of plastid genomes in heterotrophic land plants, with a major focus on flowering plants. Our compilation of plastomes of over 75 taxa covering 15 lineages of haustorial parasites and mycoheterotrophs reveals novel insights into the order of housekeeping gene losses, where apparently several plastid tRNA gene deletions precede the loss of ribosomal subunits. A comparison of the three major conceptual models of plastome degradation en route to heterotrophy in plants shows that plastid evolutionary trajectories are essentially convergent across lineages—independent of the feeding type. However, several questions regarding the series and timing of functional and physical gene losses remain unclear, in part because functional data are widely lacking. Nevertheless, the currently available evolutionary models of reductive plastome evolution provide excellent starting points for leaving the paths of descriptive science towards hypothesis-driven research.
       
  • Chapter Ten - Plastome Phylogenetics: 30 Years of Inferences Into Plant
           Evolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 85Author(s): Matthew A. Gitzendanner, Pamela S. Soltis, Ting-Shuang Yi, De-Zhu Li, Douglas E. Soltis From restriction site analyses to whole plastid genome sequences, our understanding of green plant (Viridiplantae; ~ 500,000 extant species) evolutionary relationships over the past three decades has largely been informed by analyses of the plastid genome. The plastid genome has informed studies ranging from population genetics to phylogenetics, the latter ranging from the intraspecific level to studies of all green plants. Diverse portions of the genome ranging from plastid spacers to entire genomes provide valuable data for plant evolutionary biologists. Recent phylogenetic analyses using whole plastid genomes sampled from over 2000 species representing all major groups of green plants have both solidified our understanding of relationships and highlighted the few key nodes in plant evolutionary history that remain unresolved. Likewise, detailed large-scale analyses of plastomes across angiosperms reinforce firmly supported nodes but fail to resolve a handful of remaining questionable relationships. The long history of plastid phylogenetics will serve as a reference point as scientists continue to expand beyond the plastid genome and include more nuclear and mitochondrial data in their analyses. These comparisons are crucial in that recent studies indicate some discordance between nuclear and plastid gene trees both across green plants as a whole and within angiosperms. Rather than being a source of concern, these discordances point to the complex and intriguing one-billion-year evolutionary history of the green plant clade, a clade that is foundational to life on Earth.
       
  • Chapter Nine - Structural Diversity Among Plastid Genomes of Land Plants
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 85Author(s): Jeffrey P. Mower, Trisha L. Vickrey The plastome of land plants is often considered to be highly conserved in sequence, structure, and content. This is particularly true for nonvascular land plants, for which few changes to the plastome have occurred throughout their evolutionary history. In vascular plants, however, the plastomic structure is more dynamic. Many lycophytes, most ferns, and particular lineages of seed plants have experienced extensive structural rearrangements, including inversions and modifications to the size and content of the IR. In this review, we describe the typical structural features of the land plant plastome, the major variations to this canonical structure that occur in various lineages, and the evolutionary implications of this structural variation.
       
  • Chapter Eight - Aberration or Analogy' The Atypical Plastomes of
           Geraniaceae
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 85Author(s): Tracey A. Ruhlman, Robert K. Jansen A number of plant groups have been proposed as ideal systems to explore plastid inheritance, plastome evolution and plastome-nuclear genome coevolution. Quick generation times and a compact nuclear genome in Arabidopsis thaliana, the relative ease of plastid isolation from Spinacia oleracea and the tractability of plastid transformation in Nicotiana tabacum are all desirable attributes in a model system; however, these and most other groups all lack novelty in terms of plastome structure and nucleotide sequence evolution. Contemporary sequencing and assembly technologies have facilitated analyses of atypical plastomes and, as predicted by early investigations, Geraniaceae plastomes have experienced unprecedented rearrangements relative to the canonical structure and exhibit remarkably high rates of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions. While not the only lineage with unusual plastome features, likely no other group represents the array of aberrant phenomena recorded for the family. In this chapter, Geraniaceae plastomes will be discussed and, where possible, compared with other taxa.
       
  • Chapter Seven - Evolution of Gymnosperm Plastid Genomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 85Author(s): Shu-Miaw Chaw, Chung-Shien Wu, Edi Sudianto The rapid increase in plastome availability on GenBank has greatly deepened our understanding of plastomic evolution and plastid phylogenomics in gymnosperms. The plastomes of the five extant gymnosperm groups show distinctive evolutionary patterns. For example, those of cycads are conserved in architecture, gene content, and nucleotide substitution rates. Compared to cycads, the plastome of ginkgo has its inverted repeats (IRs) slightly contracted. The IRs of the three gnetophyte genera, represented by Ephedra, Gnetum, and Welwitschia, have undergone multiple expansions, contractions, and inversions. Meanwhile, the highly rearranged plastomes of Pinaceae and cupressophytes lack canonical IRs and contain lineage-specific repeats that trigger the generation of isomeric plastomes. In terms of nucleotide substitution rates, the plastome of ginkgo features an extremely slow rate of nucleotide substitutions, similar to those of cycads. In contrast, the plastomes of gnetophytes have relatively accelerated rates of nucleotide substitutions. Comparatively, nucleotide substitution rates in the plastomes of Pinaceae and cupressophytes are faster than cycads and ginkgo, but slower than those of gnetophytes. In this chapter, we summarize the progression of these findings and discuss potential causes for the variation in gymnosperms. We also review the use of these plastomes for resolving long-standing issues in seed plant and gymnosperm phylogenies. We conclude this chapter with some future directions for plastomic studies in gymnosperms.
       
  • Chapter Six - Evolution of the Plastid Genome in Green Algae
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 85Author(s): Monique Turmel, Claude Lemieux Comparative analyses of green algal plastid genomes (plastomes) have flourished in the past decade. In addition to improving our understanding of the phylogenetic relationships among green algal lineages, the expanded collection of plastome sequences has provided new insights into the ancestral architecture of this genome in the common ancestor of all green algae and into the changes that it underwent during lineage diversification in the two major divisions of the Viridiplantae (Chlorophyta and Streptophyta). The level of plastome diversity is much greater in the Chlorophyta than in the Streptophyta, with important variations seen at several levels—including genome size, presence/absence and size of the large inverted repeat encoding the rRNA operon, pattern of gene partitioning among single-copy regions, gene content, gene order, intron content, and amount of repetitive sequences—both within and across the main lineages of these two divisions. Here, we present an overview of the structural changes that sustained the plastome during the evolution of both chlorophyte and streptophyte algae. We begin by examining the range of variations observed at the above-mentioned levels in 112 chlorophyte taxa and then summarize what we learned for the Streptophyta based on the plastomes of 17 taxa. The chapter ends with a presentation of issues that need to be resolved in future studies.
       
  • Chapter Five - Evolution of the Plastid Genomes in Diatoms
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 85Author(s): Mengjie Yu, Matt P. Ashworth, Nahid H. Hajrah, Mohammad A. Khiyami, Mumdooh J. Sabir, Alawiah M. Alhebshi, Abdulrahman L. Al-Malki, Jamal S.M. Sabir, Edward C. Theriot, Robert K. Jansen Diatoms are a monophyletic group of eukaryotic, single-celled heterokont algae. Despite years of phylogenetic research, relationships among major groups of diatoms remain uncertain. Here we assess diatom phylogenetic relationships using the plastid genome (plastome). The 22 previously published diatom plastomes showed variable genome size, gene content and extensive rearrangement. We report another 18 diatom plastome sequences ranging in size from 119,120 to 201,816 bp. Plagiogramma staurophorum had the largest plastome sequenced so far due to large inverted repeats and a 2971 bp group II intron insertion in petD. The previously reported loss of psaE, psaI and psaM genes in Rhizosolenia imbricata also occurred in the closely related species Rhizosolenia fallax. In the largest genome-scale phylogeny yet published for diatoms based on 103 shared plastid-coding genes from 40 diatoms and Triparma laevis as the outgroup, Leptocylindrus was recovered as sister to the remaining diatoms and the clade of Attheya plus Biddulphia was recovered as sister to pennate diatoms, strongly rejecting monophyly of two of the three proposed classes of diatoms. Our study also revealed extensive gene loss and a strong positive correlation between sequence divergence and gene order change in diatom plastomes.
       
  • Chapter Four - Comparative Plastid Genomics of Glaucophytes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 85Author(s): Adrian Reyes-Prieto, Sarah Russell, Francisco Figueroa-Martinez, Christopher Jackson Diverse studies of plastid data suggest that the photosynthetic organelles of red algae, viridiplants, and glaucophytes, the three lineages comprising the Archaeplastida supergroup, share a common ancestor. Glaucophyte plastids are unique among archaeplastidians due to the presence of a vestigial peptidoglycan wall and the accumulation of RuBisCO in the stroma that resembles cyanobacterial carboxysomes. These ancestral traits, typically observed in cyanobacteria, have led to suggestions that glaucophytes are the earliest branching Archaeplastida lineage. Plastid phylogenomic surveys recover Glaucophyta as the earliest-diverging branch, but tree topology tests have not rejected the placement of red algae or viridiplants as the first splitting group. Resolving the branching history of the primary plastids might rely on both the implementation of phylogenetic methods that cope better with systematic errors and further expansion of the taxonomic sampling. The paucity of the Glaucophyta genome data has been a limitation when contrasting different hypotheses about the diversification of the Archaeplastida. The plastome of Cyanophora paradoxa was the only available from Glaucophyta for almost 20 years, until recently when plastomes of Glaucocystis, Cyanoptyche, and Gloeochaete and other Cyanophora species were sequenced. Comparative analyses show that the plastid gene repertoire of glaucophytes is highly conserved, and that the size and gene content of their plastomes do not differ drastically from those of other archaeplastidians. In fact, in terms of gene content, red algal plastomes are likely more similar to the repertoire of the ancestral primary plastid. Studies of plastomes have expanded our perspective about the diversity within Glaucophyta, but such studies are still based on limited taxonomic samples. The further inclusion of data from novel glaucophyte taxa will be critical to obtain more solid answers about the evolution and diversity of these rare algae.
       
  • Chapter Three - Plastid Genomes in the Myzozoa
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 85Author(s): Sergio A. Muñoz-Gómez, Claudio H. Slamovits The myzozoa encompasses quite disparate protists, like the infamous apicomplexan parasites, or the famous dinoflagellate phytoplankton. Collectively, myzozoans display a wide diversity of plastids; they all most likely descended from a common myzozoan plastid ancestor. Some myzozoan plastids are photosynthetic whereas others are not; some have plastid genomes (plastomes) but others have lost them. The only two eukaryotes known to have lost plastids altogether are myzozoans. In this chapter, we explore the diversity and evolution of myzozoan plastids and plastomes, and compare them to those of other photosynthetic eukaryotes. Myzozoan plastomes are remarkable for encompassing the smallest photosynthesis-supporting plastomes known (in peridinin dinophytes) and for having the lowest GC content of all plastomes (in sporozoans). Myzozoan plastomes also have the smallest gene repertoires among red lineage plastomes, and such a state seems to have been reached through at least four episodic events of plastome reduction; two of these episodes appear to be associated with symbiogeneses. Myzozoans have played an important role in our understanding of plastid and plastome reduction among eukaryotes. Future discoveries of ‘environmental’ plastomes will allow us to increase the diversity and better reconstruct the diversification of myzozoan plastomes.
       
  • Chapter Two - Lost in the Light: Plastid Genome Evolution in
           Nonphotosynthetic Algae
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 85Author(s): David R. Smith Photosynthesis is an awe-inspiring process. It has shaped, coloured, and diversified the biological world in innumerable ways and supplies us with the air we breathe. Photosynthetic organisms are literally our lifelines on Earth. Without them we perish. Perhaps this is why many of us are uncomfortable with and confused by the concept of a photosynthetic organism forfeiting its ability to convert sunlight into chemical energy, giving up its life-sustaining powers. Indeed, the evolutionary loss of photosynthesis, which has occurred countless times throughout evolution, remains a poorly understood and underappreciated topic, both among researchers and the general public. This is unfortunate because nonphotosynthetic plants and algae represent some of the most diverse and interesting (and even deadly) species on the planet, and they can teach us a lot about photosynthesis and biology as a whole. Here, I review the origins and evolution of nonphotosynthetic eukaryotic algae. I portray these biologically “broken light bulbs” in a contemporary framework, paying particular attention to their plastid genomes, which are much more complex and architecturally varied than one might expect. If you are anything of a rebel and prefer misfits over conformists, trouble makers over the straight-laced, and mysteries over simple plotlines, then you will not be disappointed by the eclectic assemblage of algae that have relinquished their hold on the sun.
       
  • Chapter One - Plastid Autonomy vs Nuclear Control Over Plastid Function
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 85Author(s): Jan de Vries, John M. Archibald Plastids stem from free-living cyanobacteria. The transition from endosymbiont to organelle involved strong reductive evolution. Modern-day plastid genomes possess only a small fraction of the genes present in their cyanobacterial progenitors. In addition to genome reduction, plastids underwent modifications that facilitated recruitment of host-derived proteins and metabolites; both processes contributed to organellogenesis and a shift in control over plastid function from the organellar genome to that of the host. It is likely that most of the modifications to the early plastid happened before the major radiations that led to today's algae and plants. Plastids nevertheless exhibit substantial variation in form and function. In this chapter, we highlight some of the evolutionary implications of the differences in the genetic capacities of plastids across the breadth of plant and algal diversity. We focus on the transition from genetic semiautonomy, which is of relevance in the context of the endosymbiotic spread of plastids and kleptoplasty, to the high degree of nuclear control over plastid function seen in land plants. Genomic and transcriptomic investigations of diverse plants and algae have revealed important differences in the coding capacity of plastid genomes in different lineages, raising questions about how the plastid's own genetic capabilities impact its physiology as well as that of its host.
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 85Author(s):
       
 
 
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