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Showing 1 - 200 of 3089 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 86, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 363, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 228, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 360, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 330, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 418, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 201, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Advances in Botanical Research
  [SJR: 0.619]   [H-I: 48]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2296
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3089 journals]
  • Structural Diversity Among Plastid Genomes of Land Plants
    • Authors: Jeffrey P. Mower; Trisha L. Vickrey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Jeffrey P. Mower, Trisha L. Vickrey
      The plastome of land plants is often considered to be highly conserved in sequence, structure, and content. This is particularly true for nonvascular land plants, for which few changes to the plastome have occurred throughout their evolutionary history. In vascular plants, however, the plastomic structure is more dynamic. Many lycophytes, most ferns, and particular lineages of seed plants have experienced extensive structural rearrangements, including inversions and modifications to the size and content of the IR. In this review, we describe the typical structural features of the land plant plastome, the major variations to this canonical structure that occur in various lineages, and the evolutionary implications of this structural variation.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:01:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.013
  • Evolution of the Plastid Genome in Green Algae
    • Authors: Monique Turmel; Claude Lemieux
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Monique Turmel, Claude Lemieux
      Comparative analyses of green algal plastid genomes (plastomes) have flourished in the past decade. In addition to improving our understanding of the phylogenetic relationships among green algal lineages, the expanded collection of plastome sequences has provided new insights into the ancestral architecture of this genome in the common ancestor of all green algae and into the changes that it underwent during lineage diversification in the two major divisions of the Viridiplantae (Chlorophyta and Streptophyta). The level of plastome diversity is much greater in the Chlorophyta than in the Streptophyta, with important variations seen at several levels—including genome size, presence/absence and size of the large inverted repeat encoding the rRNA operon, pattern of gene partitioning among single-copy regions, gene content, gene order, intron content, and amount of repetitive sequences—both within and across the main lineages of these two divisions. Here, we present an overview of the structural changes that sustained the plastome during the evolution of both chlorophyte and streptophyte algae. We begin by examining the range of variations observed at the above-mentioned levels in 112 chlorophyte taxa and then summarize what we learned for the Streptophyta based on the plastomes of 17 taxa. The chapter ends with a presentation of issues that need to be resolved in future studies.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:01:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.010
  • Aberration or Analogy' The Atypical Plastomes of Geraniaceae
    • Authors: Tracey A. Ruhlman; Robert K. Jansen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Tracey A. Ruhlman, Robert K. Jansen
      A number of plant groups have been proposed as ideal systems to explore plastid inheritance, plastome evolution and plastome-nuclear genome coevolution. Quick generation times and a compact nuclear genome in Arabidopsis thaliana, the relative ease of plastid isolation from Spinacia oleracea and the tractability of plastid transformation in Nicotiana tabacum are all desirable attributes in a model system; however, these and most other groups all lack novelty in terms of plastome structure and nucleotide sequence evolution. Contemporary sequencing and assembly technologies have facilitated analyses of atypical plastomes and, as predicted by early investigations, Geraniaceae plastomes have experienced unprecedented rearrangements relative to the canonical structure and exhibit remarkably high rates of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions. While not the only lineage with unusual plastome features, likely no other group represents the array of aberrant phenomena recorded for the family. In this chapter, Geraniaceae plastomes will be discussed and, where possible, compared with other taxa.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:01:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.017
  • Plastid Autonomy vs Nuclear Control Over Plastid Function
    • Authors: Jan de Vries; John M. Archibald
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Jan de Vries, John M. Archibald
      Plastids stem from free-living cyanobacteria. The transition from endosymbiont to organelle involved strong reductive evolution. Modern-day plastid genomes possess only a small fraction of the genes present in their cyanobacterial progenitors. In addition to genome reduction, plastids underwent modifications that facilitated recruitment of host-derived proteins and metabolites; both processes contributed to organellogenesis and a shift in control over plastid function from the organellar genome to that of the host. It is likely that most of the modifications to the early plastid happened before the major radiations that led to today's algae and plants. Plastids nevertheless exhibit substantial variation in form and function. In this chapter, we highlight some of the evolutionary implications of the differences in the genetic capacities of plastids across the breadth of plant and algal diversity. We focus on the transition from genetic semiautonomy, which is of relevance in the context of the endosymbiotic spread of plastids and kleptoplasty, to the high degree of nuclear control over plastid function seen in land plants. Genomic and transcriptomic investigations of diverse plants and algae have revealed important differences in the coding capacity of plastid genomes in different lineages, raising questions about how the plastid's own genetic capabilities impact its physiology as well as that of its host.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:01:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.011
  • Recombinant Therapeutic Molecules Produced in Plants
    • Authors: Qiang Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Qiang Chen
      Research on the use of plants for production of protein-based therapeutics has increased tremendously since the initial experiments in the early 1990s. Plant-based expression systems offer several production advantages of low cost, rapidity, scalability, and a significantly lower chance of contamination with prion or mammalian viruses. In addition, the capability of plants in producing homogeneous N-glycans allows the development of novel therapeutics with superior efficacy and safety to their mammalian cell-produced counterparts. Various plant species have been used to develop and produce vaccines, antibodies, and pharmaceutical enzymes against a myriad of diseases by multiple expression technologies. While most of these plant-made therapeutics are in preclinical development, many have progressed into human clinical study phases and several have been approved by regulatory agencies. The current status and recent advancement of plant-based expression systems and key clinical products will be presented in this chapter. The remaining challenges and future directions for the field of plant-made therapeutics will be discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:01:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.11.006
  • Lost in the Light: Plastid Genome Evolution in Nonphotosynthetic Algae
    • Authors: David R. Smith
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): David R. Smith
      Photosynthesis is an awe-inspiring process. It has shaped, coloured, and diversified the biological world in innumerable ways and supplies us with the air we breathe. Photosynthetic organisms are literally our lifelines on Earth. Without them we perish. Perhaps this is why many of us are uncomfortable with and confused by the concept of a photosynthetic organism forfeiting its ability to convert sunlight into chemical energy, giving up its life-sustaining powers. Indeed, the evolutionary loss of photosynthesis, which has occurred countless times throughout evolution, remains a poorly understood and underappreciated topic, both among researchers and the general public. This is unfortunate because nonphotosynthetic plants and algae represent some of the most diverse and interesting (and even deadly) species on the planet, and they can teach us a lot about photosynthesis and biology as a whole. Here, I review the origins and evolution of nonphotosynthetic eukaryotic algae. I portray these biologically “broken light bulbs” in a contemporary framework, paying particular attention to their plastid genomes, which are much more complex and architecturally varied than one might expect. If you are anything of a rebel and prefer misfits over conformists, trouble makers over the straight-laced, and mysteries over simple plotlines, then you will not be disappointed by the eclectic assemblage of algae that have relinquished their hold on the sun.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T13:01:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.10.001
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 84

      PubDate: 2017-10-17T12:04:03Z
  • Biology of Haptophytes: Complicated Cellular Processes Driving the Global
           Carbon Cycle
    • Authors: Yoshinori Tsuji; Masaki Yoshida
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Yoshinori Tsuji, Masaki Yoshida
      Haptophytes are one of the photosynthetic microalgae with red-algal-derived chloroplasts, and thought to be among the most important primary producers in oceans. Calcifying haptophytes (coccolithophores) have a significant effect on the global carbon cycle, as they fix dissolved inorganic carbon through photosynthesis and calcification. Given that these two processes occur in a single cell, intracellular ion and metabolite traffic is expected to be more complex than in other algae. Haptophytes synthesise and accumulate various compounds during photosynthesis, such as long chain unsaturated ketones (alkenones), β-glucan, mannitol, acid polysaccharides (APs), and dimethylsulphoniopropionate. Some compounds are not equally produced in all haptophytes but are produced by specific species or groups. For example, APs are produced only in coccolithophores and suggested to support morphogenesis of calcite scales. The structure of APs is highly species-specific. Alkenones are produced in only five haptophyte species regardless of their calcification ability. The occurrence of such variations in carbon metabolism across species is also a marked characteristic of haptophytes. This chapter introduces basic cellular features of haptophytes and focuses on features of their carbon metabolism and calcification.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T06:01:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.07.002
  • Chromerids and Their Plastids
    • Authors: Miroslav
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Zoltán Füssy, Miroslav Oborník
      Chrompodellids, a monophyletic group consisting of predatory colpodellids and the chromerid algae Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis, are the closest known relatives to apicomplexan parasites. The photosynthetic plastids of Chromera and Vitrella are evolutionarily linked to apicoplasts, nonphotosynthetic plastids of apicomplexans, allowing the reconstruction of processes that shaped these organelles into their current form and function. Chromerid and apicomplexan plastids are derived from a rhodophyte endosymbiont and thus share common origin with the plastids of the “red lineage”. Plastids in apicomplexans and chrompodellids play major roles in cellular biochemistry and dependence on plastid pathways underlies the organelle's essentiality in most nonphotosynthetic lineages. The architecture and gene content of plastid genomes differ significantly in the two described chromerids, as do their nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Life cycle complexity also varies in chromerids, possibly reflecting adaptive mechanisms in their respective ecological niches. Finally, accumulating evidence suggests a tertiary endosymbiosis with an ochrophyte symbiont was the origin of current plastids in chromerid algae and apicomplexan parasites.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T06:01:05Z
  • Secondary Plastids of Euglenophytes
    • Authors: Anna M.G. Vanclová; Lucia Hadariová; Štěpánka Hrdá; Vladimír Hampl
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Anna M.G. Vanclová, Lucia Hadariová, Štěpánka Hrdá, Vladimír Hampl
      Euglenophytes obtained their plastids from a primary green alga related to extant genus Pyramimonas. The relatively recent establishment of this new organelle is an intriguing evolutionary phenomenon worth studying and comparing with other secondary plastids with a regard to their similarities and differences. A remarkably fast evolution driven by rapid intron gain and diversification is observed in euglenid plastid genomes which often tend to swell in size and rearrange while keeping the gene content stable. As a result of the secondary endosymbiosis, the plastid is wrapped in an additional membrane which makes any protein, metabolite, or ion transporting routes more complicated. In the case of protein import, secretory pathway-derived, signal peptide-dependent mechanism involving the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, and vesicular transport were recruited. The plastid endosymbiosis also served as a source of various oddities concerning metabolic pathways as the new organelle contained some of the enzymes and pathways already present in the host. Thus, several cases of division of labour and specialization can be observed, as well as simple redundancies which might be in fact just transitory and will eventually disappear in the future course of evolution. Endosymbiotic and lateral gene transfers were quite common in the ancestors of euglenophytes, especially in the case of plastid proteins many of which were demonstrated to have originated not only from the green-algal endosymbiont but also from a spectrum of nongreen lineages. The circumstances of the nongreen-algal gene gains are unclear. Another evolutionary phenomenon occurring in euglenophytes is the secondary loss of plastid or its photosynthetic capacity. This process gave rise to a number of distinct species which no longer possess the ability to photosynthesize. Interestingly, this “bleaching” process can be induced in the laboratory, enabling to study the process of plastid loss in vitro.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T06:01:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.06.008
  • Cryptomonads: A Model Organism Sheds Light on the Evolutionary History of
           Genome Reorganization in Secondary Endosymbioses
    • Authors: Goro Tanifuji; Naoko T. Onodera
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Goro Tanifuji, Naoko T. Onodera
      The cryptomonads are ubiquitous in the earth's hydrosphere. Most members of this unicellular group are photosynthetic and retain red alga-derived plastids. The significant feature of cryptomonads from an evolutionary and biological point of view is that they contain the residual nucleus of a eukaryotic endosymbiont, the so-called nucleomorph, which is direct evidence of eukaryote–eukaryote endosymbiosis. Besides cryptomonads, this unusual organelle has been found only in chlorarachniophytes so far. In the first half of this chapter, we briefly describe cryptomonad morphology, classification, and phylogeny. The evolutionary history of auto- or heterotrophic lifestyle transitions in cryptomonads is discussed. In the latter part, we focus on the recent outcomes of comparative genomics and review perspectives on the genome reorganization process that occurs during the integration of two eukaryotes into one organism.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T06:01:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.06.005
  • Secondary Plastids of Stramenopiles
    • Authors: Richard G. Dorrell; Chris Bowler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Richard G. Dorrell, Chris Bowler
      The stramenopiles encompass an incredible diversity of organisms, including ecologically fundamental single-celled algae such as diatoms, giant macroalgae such as kelps, as well as photo-mixotrophic and heterotrophic species. The photosynthetic species possess plastids of secondary or higher red algal origin. The diversity of stramenopile species provides an ideal system for exploring the fundamental features underpinning plastid establishment in eukaryotes, and also how plastid metabolism has diversified following endosymbiosis. In this chapter, we present an overview of stramenopile diversity and explore the chimeric origins of the stramenopile plastid, which utilises a combination of pathways derived from red algae and other sources to support its function. Next, we discuss unusual features of stramenopile plastid metabolism, some of which, responses to acute nutrient limitation and metabolic crosstalk with the mitochondria, may be specific to the diatoms and underpin their relative success in the contemporary ocean. Finally, we discuss even more dramatic transitions in the evolutionary history and life strategies of individual stramenopile groups, including evidence that stramenopiles may have given rise to some of the other major plastid lineages observed today, such as those of haptophytes and dinoflagellates, thus majorly contributing to the spread of photosynthesis through the tree of life.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T06:01:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.06.003
  • The Dark Side of the Chloroplast: Biogenesis, Metabolism and Membrane
           Biology of the Apicoplast
    • Authors: Giel G. van Dooren; Sanduni V. Hapuarachchi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Giel G. van Dooren, Sanduni V. Hapuarachchi
      Members of the phylum Apicomplexa contain plastids, termed apicoplasts, that were derived by secondary endosymbiosis. Unlike most of their sun-loving cousins, apicomplexans are parasites that live in the dark recesses of the animal hosts they infect. As a consequence, apicoplasts are not photosynthetic, but nevertheless carry out essential metabolic processes. In this chapter, we examine the evolution, biogenesis and functions of the apicoplast. In particular, we focus on the biology of the membranes that surround this organelle, which play key roles in the biogenesis of the organelle, and link the metabolic functions of the apicoplast with the rest of the cell.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T06:01:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.06.007
  • Plastid Complexity in Dinoflagellates: A Picture of Gains, Losses,
           Replacements and Revisions
    • Authors: Ross F. Waller; Luděk Kořený
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Ross F. Waller, Luděk Kořený
      Dinoflagellates are exemplars of plastid complexity and evolutionary possibility. Their ordinary plastids are extraordinary, and their extraordinary plastids provide a window into the processes of plastid gain and integration. No other plastid-bearing eukaryotic group possesses so much diversity or deviance from the basic traits of this cyanobacteria-derived endosymbiont. Although dinoflagellate plastids provide a major contribution to global carbon fixation and energy cycles, they show a remarkable willingness to tinker, modify and dispense with canonical function. The archetype dinoflagellate plastid, the peridinin plastid, has lost photosynthesis many times, has the most divergent organelle genomes of any plastid, is bounded by an atypical plastid membrane number and uses unusual protein trafficking routes. Moreover, dinoflagellates have gained new endosymbionts many times, representing multiple different stages of the processes of organelle formation. New insights into dinoflagellate plastid biology and diversity also suggest that it is timely to revise notions of the origin of the peridinin plastid.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T06:01:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.06.004
  • The Convoluted Evolution of Eukaryotes With Complex Plastids
    • Authors: Fabien Burki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Fabien Burki
      The textbook version of how plastids were established by endosymbiosis and subsequently diversified is like a well-oiled machine: a cyanobacterial endosymbiont was taken up by a heterotrophic cell and transformed over time into a bona fide photosynthetic organelle (plastid), ultimately giving rise to all plants and algae. The reality, however, is much more complicated and this chapter attempts to describe recent advances in the field of plastid evolution brought to light by disciplines such as phylogenomics, comparative genomics, and cell biology. If (almost) all plastids may ultimately trace back to the same original endosymbiotic event, the very large diversity of plastids we observe today can only be explained by multiple layers of endosymbioses. That is, plastids were passed between distantly related eukaryotic lineages multiple times, essentially creating a phylogenetic imbroglio where plastids appear monophyletic but hosts are not. The burning question then is: how can we best fit plastid and host data into a comprehensive evolutionary framework' Focusing not only on the so-called complex plastids (the product of eukaryote-to-eukaryote endosymbioses) and the lineages that host them but also on the many related plastid-lacking lineages and orphan taxa, I discuss the emergence of new models of plastid evolution. These models generalize the notion of serial endosymbioses to explain the scattered distribution of plastids in the eukaryotic tree of life. As such, they make new testable predictions as to how complex algae are connected through endosymbiotic gene transfer, but testing this will require first to determine the real magnitude of this process.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T06:01:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.06.001
  • Chlorarachniophytes With Complex Secondary Plastids of Green Algal Origin
    • Authors: Yoshihisa Hirakawa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Yoshihisa Hirakawa
      Diverse algae have evolved ‘secondary’ plastids through parallel endosymbiotic uptakes of photosynthetic eukaryotes either of green or red algae, and these events are referred to as secondary endosymbioses. Chlorarachniophytes are a group of marine unicellular algae with four-membrane-bound secondary plastids that originated from a green algal endosymbiont. Remarkably, chlorarachniophyte plastids possess a vestigial nucleus termed a ‘nucleomorph’ in the periplastidal compartment between the second and third membranes that corresponds to the remnant cytoplasm of the endosymbiont. Given that endosymbiont nuclei have disappeared in most secondary plastid-bearing algae, chlorarachniophytes appear to represent an intermediate stage of secondary endosymbiosis and thereby offer an interesting opportunity to study complex plastid evolution. In this chapter, I summarise the current understanding of the evolutionary history of chlorarachniophytes in terms of morphology, phylogeny, and genomics.

      PubDate: 2017-07-28T00:02:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.06.006
  • Let There Be Light: A Contemporary Primer on Primary Plastid Endosymbiosis
    • Authors: David R. Smith
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): David R. Smith
      Endosymbiosis, more than any other process, perhaps, is the leading narrative upon which the history of eukaryotic evolution has been written. Primary endosymbiosis, which is the uptake of a prokaryote by another living cell, has arguably been the driving force for the origins and diversification of complex life on Earth. The genetic integration of, first, a nonphotosynthetic alphaproteobacterium and, later, a photosynthetic cyanobacterium into a eukaryotic cellular framework have shaped and altered the planet's biodiversity and biogeochemistry in countless ways, from the land, to the water, to the atmosphere. If you are alive today and reading these words, it is in no small part because of endosymbiosis. Like all eukaryotes, we are the product of an ancient endosymbiotic love affair, and for plants and algae the endosymbiotic romance was a complicated triangle. Here, I recount my own passions for the topic of endosymbiosis, highlighting past and present breakthroughs as well as some of the controversies and unanswered questions that have plagued the field. I focus on the evolution of primary plastids, their genomes, and the supergroup to which they are found (the Archaeplastida), including members that have lost photosynthetic capabilities but still retain a colourless plastid.

      PubDate: 2017-07-28T00:02:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.06.002
  • Advances in Botanical Research
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 83

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T11:07:27Z
  • Advances in Botanical Research
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 83

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T11:07:27Z
  • Advances in Botanical Research
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 82

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T15:55:54Z
  • Advances in Botanical Research
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 82

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T15:55:54Z
  • Bio- and Phytoremediation of Pesticide-Contaminated Environments: A Review
    • Authors: N. Eevers; J.C. White; J. Vangronsveld; N. Weyens
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): N. Eevers, J.C. White, J. Vangronsveld, N. Weyens
      Pesticide-contaminated fields can be found worldwide due to excessive use of insecticides, herbicides and fungicides. Many of the pesticides that were once used intensively are now forbidden and have been shown to have deleterious health effects. Plants, bacteria and fungi have been shown to possess pesticide-degrading capacities, which can be applied in the successful remediation of contaminated fields and water. This article will first provide an overview of the different types of pesticides, their application and their key characteristics, followed by an analysis of their behaviour in the environment. Pesticides that are introduced into the environment seldom stay where they were applied. A complex system of transport, transfer and transformation of pesticides throughout different environmental compartments often takes place. These processes all influence the possible remediation of the pesticide-contaminated media. We will then review several possible remediation strategies that are currently available. Bioremediation is the first technology that is reviewed. With bioremediation, the focus is on the remediation of pesticides by microorganisms in bulk soil, without the aid or presence of plants. Second, plant-associated remediation is discussed. When focussing on plant-associated remediation, a distinction has to be made between rhizoremediation in the rhizosphere and phytoremediation within the plant tissues. While rhizoremediation and phytoremediation processes are possible solely with the use of plants, many of these processes are optimized by associations between plants and microorganisms. Plants and bacteria or fungi often live in a symbiotic relationship that aids them in surviving contaminated environments, as well as with the degradation of the contaminants they encounter. In the last part of the review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of “natural” remediation strategies as compared to more classical industrial approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T00:17:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2017.01.001
  • Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Contaminant Toxicity in Plants: The
           Importance of Sulphur and Associated Signalling Pathways
    • Authors: Sophie Hendrix; Peter Schröder; Els Keunen; Christian Huber; Ann Cuypers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Sophie Hendrix, Peter Schröder, Els Keunen, Christian Huber, Ann Cuypers
      Environmental contamination with metals and organic compounds poses a serious threat to human health. Investigating plant responses to these contaminants at the molecular and cellular level is crucial to optimize phytoremediation strategies to clean up contaminated soils. Two key players in plant stress responses are the sulphur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine. Cysteine is an important constituent of the metal-chelating metallothioneins and is also the precursor for glutathione and subsequent phytochelatin synthesis. During stress conditions, glutathione is involved in (1) metal chelation, (2) xenobiotic detoxification and (3) antioxidative defence. The activated form of methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, is involved in the synthesis of ethylene and polyamines, both playing important roles in signal transduction. This review provides an overview of sulphur uptake and assimilation and its conversion into basic metabolites essential for detoxification and signal transduction during metal and organic contaminant exposure in plants. Furthermore, the cross talk between these pathways and their relation to the contaminant-induced oxidative challenge are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T14:55:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2016.12.007
  • Allelopathy and the Role of Allelochemicals in Plant Defence
    • Authors: S. Latif; G. Chiapusio; L.A. Weston
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): S. Latif, G. Chiapusio, L.A. Weston
      Allelopathy is described as the interference to plant growth resulting from chemical interactions among plants and other organisms mediated through release of plant-produced bioactive secondary metabolites referred to as allelochemicals. A number of mechanisms have been studied for the release of allelochemicals from various plant tissues including volatilization or leaching from aerial parts, exudation from roots and decomposition of plant residues in soil. Despite differences in biological activity and mode of action, related compounds commonly share similar biosynthetic pathways while some classes of metabolites can be produced using diverse biosynthetic pathways. Recently considerable research has also been undertaken to critically understand the role of allelochemicals in plant succession and plant invasion in native and nonnative ecosystem. In addition, numerous studies have been performed on the selection and utilization of weed suppressive crops and their residues for weed management in sustainable agriculture systems. A better understanding of allelochemical production with respect to plant defence strategies, both physical and chemical, may also allow us to better protect and manage developing crops, limit the spread of invasive weeds, preserve native plant stands and create strategies for allelochemical development and application as novel pesticides. The use of sensitive analytical techniques associated with performance of metabolomics in concert with other omics technologies has led to new advances in the identification of unique allelochemicals, the biosynthetic pathways associated with their production, their complex role(s) in the soil rhizosphere and their production as impacted by a changing climate. Identification of novel plant metabolites, including allelochemicals, may result in a source of biologically based pesticides through the provision of complementary structures for future synthesis and as an aid in the development of new molecular target sites.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T11:29:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2016.12.001
  • Plants in Air Phytoremediation
    • Authors: S.W. Gawronski; H. Gawronska; S. Lomnicki; A. Sӕbo; J. Vangronsweld
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): S.W. Gawronski, H. Gawronska, S. Lomnicki, A. Sӕbo, J. Vangronsweld
      Air pollution has become a global problem and affects nearly all of us. Most of the pollution is of anthropogenic origin and therefore we are obliged to improve this situation. In solving this problem basically our only partners are plants with their enormous biologically active surface area. Plants themselves are also victims of air pollution but because they are sedentary they developed very efficient defence mechanisms, which can also be exploited to improve the humanosphere. For their life processes plants require intensive gas exchange, during which air contaminants are accumulated on leaf surfaces or absorbed into the tissues. Some of the pollutants are included by plants in their own metabolism while others are sequestered. In some plant species, the processes of removing pollutants from the air is conducted in a very efficient way and therefore they are used in the environmental friendly biotechnology called phytoremediation. For urban areas, outdoor phytoremediation is recommended while indoor phytoremediation can be applied in our homes and workplaces. Because in near future purifying outdoor air to protect human health and well-being does not look the most promising, an important and increasing role will be played by indoor phytoremediation.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T11:29:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2016.12.008
  • The Bacterial and Fungal Microbiota of Hyperaccumulator Plants: Small
           Organisms, Large Influence
    • Authors: Sofie Thijs; Tori Langill; Jaco Vangronsveld
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Sofie Thijs, Tori Langill, Jaco Vangronsveld
      Hyperaccumulator plants can take up large amounts of metals in their shoots without showing significant signs of toxicity. This makes hyperaccumulators ideal candidates for metal phytoremediation and phytomining. Hyperaccumulation of metals does not only depend on the bioavailability of the metals in soil and the expression of detoxification genes and metal transporters provided by the plant, but also on the plant-associated microbiota. Studies using culture-dependent strategies have shown that hyperaccumulator plants carry a high diversity of bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere and endosphere, some of which are shown to have potential for assisting plants to grow in metal-contaminated soil and regulating plant metal uptake. However, there is yet little information available about the total microbial communities and their functions associated with the majority of hyperaccumulators known to date. Culture-independent molecular techniques and next generation sequencing allow to uncover a broader diversity of microbial species than the classical 1% cultivable fraction and can provide unprecedented insights in microbial community functions. Some unique microbial groups that are highly abundant in heavy contaminated sites have been detected in this way and have great potential for improving the efficiency of metal phytoextraction. This chapter provides the latest insights in the plant-associated microbiota of common hyperaccumulator plant species and discusses on the implications, and future prospects, of exploiting the microbiome for enhancing metal uptake by plants.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T11:29:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2016.12.003
  • Mycorrhiza-Assisted Phytoremediation
    • Authors: Laura Coninx; Veronika Martinova; Francois Rineau
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Laura Coninx, Veronika Martinova, Francois Rineau
      Soil contamination is a major environmental problem affecting human health worldwide. A sustainable solution for this contamination is phytoremediation, a technique that has gotten more and more attention over the past decade. In this chapter, we will discuss how mycorrhizal fungi (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, ericoid mycorrhiza and ectomycorrhiza) can assist in phytoremediation. Our aim is to evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of mycorrhiza-assisted phytoremediation, review examples from literature, and provide recommendations for future studies. Both inorganic and organic pollution and factors influencing the effect of mycorrhization will be addressed. Furthermore, molecular mechanisms associated with the beneficial effects of mycorrhizal inoculation will be discussed. Since there are a number of studies (34) reporting quantitative data on the effect of mycorrhizal fungi on organic soil pollution, a meta-analysis was performed to quantify the influence of mycorrhiza on the degradation of organics. Although the effects of mycorrhization are highly variable, it is clear that mycorrhizae have the potential to enhance the phytoremediation efficiency of organic as well as inorganic pollution. Mycorrhiza-assisted phytoremediation is thus a valuable strategy for the remediation of contaminated areas and should be further studied.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T04:38:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2016.12.005
  • Metallophytes of Serpentine and Calamine Soils – Their Unique
           Ecophysiology and Potential for Phytoremediation
    • Authors: Małgorzata Wójcik; Cristina Gonnelli; Federico Selvi; Sławomir Dresler; Adam Rostański; Jaco Vangronsveld
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Małgorzata Wójcik, Cristina Gonnelli, Federico Selvi, Sławomir Dresler, Adam Rostański, Jaco Vangronsveld
      For years, metallophytes of both natural and human-influenced metalliferous soils have focussed considerable attention due to their unique appearance and ability to colonize often extremely harsh habitats. A majority of metal-contaminated areas comprise serpentine (ultramafic, rich in Ni, Cr and Co) and calamine (rich in Zn, Pb and Cd) soils hosting characteristic serpentine and calamine flora, which is the focus of this review. Through microevolution, the plants inhabiting metalliferous habitats have developed a range of intriguing adaptive traits, demonstrated as characteristic morphological, behavioural and physiological alterations that enable them to avoid and/or tolerate metal toxicity. The mechanisms responsible for protection of the plant cell from metals entering the protoplast as well as for detoxification of toxic metal ions inside the cell by chelation, vacuolar sequestration and exclusion from the protoplast are reviewed. These mechanisms have resulted in highly specialized plants able to hyperaccumulate or avoid metals in the shoots. Potential applications of both kinds of metallophytes in rehabilitation and phytoremediation of metal-polluted sites are briefly discussed. Moreover, other beneficial applications of metal-rich plant biomass are mentioned, e.g., as a bio-ore for precious metal recovery (phytomining, agromining), a by-product for eco-catalyst production or a natural source of micronutrients that are essential for human diet and health (biofortification). The need of active protection of metalliferous sites and conservation of metallophyte biodiversity is pointed out.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T04:38:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2016.12.002
  • Phytoremediation and Phytomining: Status and Promise
    • Authors: Rufus L. Chaney; Ilya A. Baklanov
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Rufus L. Chaney, Ilya A. Baklanov
      Phytoremediation of inorganics is comprised of technologies to protect the environment from contaminated soils. This broad group of technologies includes phytoextraction (removal from soil), phytomining (accumulating economic metal value in plant biomass) and phytostabilization (limiting plant metals and soil metal uptake and/or bioavailability using plants and soil amendments). As agronomic technologies, selection of plant genotypes, management of soil properties, appropriate use of fertilizers and soil pH adjustment amendments are required for optimum effectiveness. Phytoextraction depends on the availability of plants which can accumulate and tolerate ∼100-fold higher metal concentrations than tolerated by common crop species. Unless a plant can accumulate over 1% (10g/kg) of a metal in dry shoot biomass, it is unlikely to remove metals rapidly enough to support economic remediation. For element cases where contamination is low (Cd), plants which accumulate over 1000μg/g may be able to achieve adequate phytoextraction. In the case of Ni, the combination of extensive ultramafic soils rich in Ni, and natural hypernickelophores (accumulate over 10g Ni/kg) with high harvestable biomass yield allows a phytomining technology to be profitable. Increasing knowledge of the biochemistry and genetic mechanisms used by hyperaccumulator plants portend the day that high biomass element hyperaccumulator plant genotypes can be constructed for soil remediation in all climatic zones.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T04:38:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2016.12.006
  • Potential Role of Plant-Associated Bacteria in Plant Metal Uptake and
           Implications in Phytotechnologies
    • Authors: Petra S. Kidd; Vanessa Álvarez-López; Cristina Becerra-Castro; Maribel Cabello-Conejo; Ángeles Prieto-Fernández
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): Petra S. Kidd, Vanessa Álvarez-López, Cristina Becerra-Castro, Maribel Cabello-Conejo, Ángeles Prieto-Fernández
      Plants interact closely with microbes and these can enhance plant growth and health by increasing nutrient uptake and improving plant resistance to pathogens and stress. Plant-associated microorganisms are commonly used as ‘biofertilisers’ in agriculture but their incorporation into phytoremediation systems to improve plant establishment and growth, and modify plant metal accumulation, is more recent. This review focuses on the recent advances in the use of plant–bacterial associations to enhance phytoextraction (phytomining) processes in trace element (TE)–contaminated or –enriched sites. Experimental evidence shows that plant-associated bacteria play an important role in plant TE bioaccumulation, and bench level studies suggest bacterial inoculants could enhance phytoextraction efficiency. However, the performance of these bacterial inoculants under natural conditions will have to be investigated under a field scale.

      PubDate: 2017-02-06T00:36:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2016.12.004
  • Plant Communication With Associated Microbiota in the Spermosphere,
           Rhizosphere and Phyllosphere
    • Authors: P. Lemanceau; M. Barret; S. Mazurier; S. Mondy; B. Pivato; T. Fort; C. Vacher
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): P. Lemanceau, M. Barret, S. Mazurier, S. Mondy, B. Pivato, T. Fort, C. Vacher
      Plants are surrounded with microorganisms whose abundance is promoted by the release of plant organic compounds and by the presence of niches favourable to microbial development and activities. These microorganisms thrive in three main plant compartments, i.e., spermosphere, rhizosphere and phyllosphere, which are interconnected. They are recruited from the environment (soil, atmosphere) and from the mother plant via the seed. Plants indeed modulate the composition and activities of the hosted microbial populations through complex communication trackways relying on trophic interactions and/or molecular signalization. The tuning of these interactions by the plant favours beneficial microbial populations and activities while depressing deleterious ones, which have a major impact on plant growth and health. This review presents the current knowledge of the plant communication with associated microorganisms in the spermosphere, rhizosphere and phyllosphere and of plant and microbial traits involved. Possible prospects of application of this knowledge for monitoring plant–microbe interactions in agroecological systems with reduced chemical inputs are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T04:13:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2016.10.007
  • Communication Between Host Plants and Parasitic Plants
    • Authors: P. Delavault; G. Montiel; G. Brun; J.-B. Pouvreau; S. Thoiron; P. Simier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): P. Delavault, G. Montiel, G. Brun, J.-B. Pouvreau, S. Thoiron, P. Simier
      Parasitic plants are usually considered as botanical curiosities because of their shapes and colours. However, in some cases, they are proving to be terrible bioagressors in man-made ecosystems. Parasitic plants have indeed the capacity to connect intimately with other plants to exploit their resources (water, nutrients, growth regulators…) for their development. Thus, these plants are the result of an evolutionary transition from autotrophism to heterotrophism. The underlying process of this trophic exploitation, governed by a fine-tuned molecular dialogue between both partners, is an extraordinary example of adaptive plant biology operated by these parasitic organisms in the course of evolution. This transition is associated with remarkable morphological and physiological adaptations, and these adaptive strategies have led some parasitic plants to become deadly pests for crops against which no efficient control methods are yet available, especially in terms of sustainability. This chapter highlights the actual knowledge regarding the molecular aspects of these intimate and intriguing communications between host plants and parasitic plants, with a special focus on root parasitic plants.

      PubDate: 2016-11-30T03:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2016.10.006
  • Plant–Plant Communication Through Common Mycorrhizal Networks
    • Authors: L. Gilbert; D. Johnson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2016
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): L. Gilbert, D. Johnson
      Mycorrhizal fungi can interconnect individual plants to form common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs). Recent work has shown that these networks can transport signals produced by plants in response to herbivore and pathogen infestation to neighbouring plants before they are themselves attacked. The speed of transfer to uninfested plants is such that the mechanism is likely to have measurable benefits for plant protection. At present, the nature of the signals and the degree of plant and fungal control of their delivery are unknown. Interplant communication of signals via mycorrhizal fungi means we must rethink our understanding of multitrophic interactions in nature, and the findings have led to several hypotheses concerning the evolutionary outcomes of the process. We urgently need to better understand the mechanisms of signal transfer in natural plant communities, and attempt to harness the formation of CMNs as a tool for sustainable pest management in agriculture.

      PubDate: 2016-11-15T18:55:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2016.09.001
  • From the Lab Bench to the Forest: Ecology and Defence Mechanisms of
           Volatile-Mediated ‘Talking Trees’
    • Authors: G. Arimura; I.S. Pearse
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2016
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): G. Arimura, I.S. Pearse
      Transfer of information is important for almost all biotic interactions, but has received less attention in plants. Volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) emitted from floral tissues and green tissues of plants affect how plants interact with each other (informally termed ‘plant communication’), with mutualists such as pollinators and with enemies such as herbivores. In this chapter, we give an overview of VOC-based plant communication, in which plants that eavesdrop on VOC signals emitted from neighbouring herbivore-damaged plants increase their defence. While historically controversial, recent research has begun to establish the details of these interactions in various plant systems, including the identity of the VOC signal, the mechanism of VOC perception and the transduction pathways that link VOC perception to a defensive response. At the same time, ecological studies have begun to establish the evolutionary drivers of plant communication. Key insights from these studies are that these responses are kin-specific, memorable and mediated by known internal defence signals and epigenetic regulations in plant cells. Moving forward, studies that connect our increasing understanding of the mechanisms of plant–plant communication with their ecological consequences will help determine the importance of this type of defensive induction as well as the targets of selection within the plant–plant communication apparatus.

      PubDate: 2016-11-01T10:05:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2016.08.001
  • Chatting With a Tiny Belowground Member of the Holobiome: Communication
           Between Plants and Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria
    • Authors: R. Sharifi; C.-M. Ryu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2016
      Source:Advances in Botanical Research
      Author(s): R. Sharifi, C.-M. Ryu
      As sessile organisms, plants have facilitated to actively protect themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses. For this, plants keep communicating with other organisms including insect and microbes inside and outside plant surface including root surface. In the area around the root referred to as the rhizosphere, diverse root-associated bacteria interact with plants with both positive and negative effects. In the past three decades, a group of rhizosphere bacteria known as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been intensively studied for possible use in improving plant health. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on the nature of PGPR, their signatures and their roles in plant growth promotion and biological control against plant pathogens, as revealed by classic physiological and morphological observations and recent cutting-edge technology. We also discuss new information on insect–plant–PGPR tritrophic interactions, as well as technology transfer from the laboratory to the field. We use the new concept of the holobiome to help elucidate plant–PGPR interactions. Understanding plant root–bacterial communications in this novel framework may facilitate the improvement of plant health in agricultural production systems.

      PubDate: 2016-10-05T03:47:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.abr.2016.09.002
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