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Showing 1 - 200 of 3177 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 382, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 381, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 349, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 440, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)

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Journal Cover Advances in Applied Microbiology
  [SJR: 1.286]   [H-I: 49]   [23 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2164
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Chapter One Biologically Produced Methane as a Renewable Energy Source
    • Authors: D.E. Holmes; J.A. Smith
      Pages: 1 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology, Volume 97
      Author(s): D.E. Holmes, J.A. Smith
      Methanogens are a unique group of strictly anaerobic archaea that are more metabolically diverse than previously thought. Traditionally, it was thought that methanogens could only generate methane by coupling the oxidation of products formed by fermentative bacteria with the reduction of CO2. However, it has recently been observed that many methanogens can also use electrons extruded from metal-respiring bacteria, biocathodes, or insoluble electron shuttles as energy sources. Methanogens are found in both human-made and natural environments and are responsible for the production of ∼71% of the global atmospheric methane. Their habitats range from the human digestive tract to hydrothermal vents. Although biologically produced methane can negatively impact the environment if released into the atmosphere, when captured, it can serve as a potent fuel source. The anaerobic digestion of wastes such as animal manure, human sewage, or food waste produces biogas which is composed of ∼60% methane. Methane from biogas can be cleaned to yield purified methane (biomethane) that can be readily incorporated into natural gas pipelines making it a promising renewable energy source. Conventional anaerobic digestion is limited by long retention times, low organics removal efficiencies, and low biogas production rates. Therefore, many studies are being conducted to improve the anaerobic digestion process. Researchers have found that addition of conductive materials and/or electrically active cathodes to anaerobic digesters can stimulate the digestion process and increase methane content of biogas. It is hoped that optimization of anaerobic digesters will make biogas more readily accessible to the average person.

      PubDate: 2018-01-06T05:59:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2018)
  • Chapter Two Pathogen and Particle Associations in Wastewater
    • Authors: C. Chahal; B. van den Akker; F. Young; C. Franco; J. Blackbeard; P. Monis
      Pages: 63 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology, Volume 97
      Author(s): C. Chahal, B. van den Akker, F. Young, C. Franco, J. Blackbeard, P. Monis
      Disinfection guidelines exist for pathogen inactivation in potable water and recycled water, but wastewater with high numbers of particles can be more difficult to disinfect, making compliance with the guidelines problematic. Disinfection guidelines specify that drinking water with turbidity ≥1 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) is not suitable for disinfection and therefore not fit for purpose. Treated wastewater typically has higher concentrations of particles (1–10NTU for secondary treated effluent). Two processes widely used for disinfecting wastewater are chlorination and ultraviolet radiation. In both cases, particles in wastewater can interfere with disinfection and can significantly increase treatment costs by increasing operational expenditure (chemical demand, power consumption) or infrastructure costs by requiring additional treatment processes to achieve the required levels of pathogen inactivation. Many microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, protozoans) associate with particles, which can allow them to survive disinfection processes and cause a health hazard. Improved understanding of this association will enable development of cost-effective treatment, which will become increasingly important as indirect and direct potable reuse of wastewater becomes more widespread in both developed and developing countries. This review provides an overview of wastewater and associated treatment processes, the pathogens in wastewater, the nature of particles in wastewater and how they interact with pathogens, and how particles can impact disinfection processes.

      PubDate: 2018-01-06T05:59:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2018)
  • Chapter Three Insights in Waste Management Bioprocesses Using Genomic
    • Authors: H.J. Purohit; A. Kapley; A. Khardenavis; A. Qureshi; N.A. Dafale
      Pages: 121 - 170
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology, Volume 97
      Author(s): H.J. Purohit, A. Kapley, A. Khardenavis, A. Qureshi, N.A. Dafale
      Microbial capacities drive waste stabilization and resource recovery in environmental friendly processes. Depending on the composition of waste, a stress-mediated selection process ensures a scenario that generates a specific enrichment of microbial community. These communities dynamically change over a period of time while keeping the performance through the required utilization capacities. Depending on the environmental conditions, these communities select the appropriate partners so as to maintain the desired functional capacities. However, the complexities of these organizations are difficult to study. Individual member ratios and sharing of genetic intelligence collectively decide the enrichment and survival of these communities. The next-generation sequencing options with the depth of structure and function analysis have emerged as a tool that could provide the finer details of the underlying bioprocesses associated and shared in environmental niches. These tools can help in identification of the key biochemical events and monitoring of expression of associated phenotypes that will support the operation and maintenance of waste management systems. In this chapter, we link genomic tools with process optimization and/or management, which could be applied for decision making and/or upscaling. This review describes both, the aerobic and anaerobic, options of waste utilization process with the microbial community functioning as flocs, granules, or biofilms. There are a number of challenges involved in harnessing the microbial community intelligence with associated functional plasticity for efficient extension of microbial capacities for resource recycling and waste management. Mismanaged wastes could lead to undesired genotypes such as antibiotic/multidrug-resistant microbes.

      PubDate: 2018-01-06T05:59:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2018)
  • Chapter Four The Oral Microbiome in Health and Its Implication in Oral and
           Systemic Diseases
    • Authors: B. Sampaio-Maia; I.M. Caldas; M.L. Pereira; D. Pérez-Mongiovi; R. Araujo
      Pages: 171 - 210
      Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology, Volume 97
      Author(s): B. Sampaio-Maia, I.M. Caldas, M.L. Pereira, D. Pérez-Mongiovi, R. Araujo
      The oral microbiome can alter the balance between health and disease, locally and systemically. Within the oral cavity, bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses may all be found, each having a particular role, but strongly interacting with each other and with the host, in sickness or in health. A description on how colonization occurs and how the oral microbiome dynamically evolves throughout the host's life is given. In this chapter the authors also address oral and nonoral conditions in which oral microorganisms may play a role in the etiology and progression, presenting the up-to-date knowledge on oral dysbiosis as well as the known underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms involving oral microorganisms in each condition. In oral pathology, oral microorganisms are associated with several diseases, namely dental caries, periodontal diseases, endodontic infections, and also oral cancer. In systemic diseases, nonoral infections, adverse pregnancy outcomes, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes are among the most prevalent pathologies linked with oral cavity microorganisms. The knowledge on how colonization occurs, how oral microbiome coevolves with the host, and how oral microorganisms interact with each other may be a key factor to understand diseases etiology and progression.

      PubDate: 2018-01-06T05:59:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 97 (2018)
  • Chapter One Current Interventions for Controlling Pathogenic Escherichia
    • Authors: Nam Hee Kim; Tae Jin Cho; Min Suk Rhee
      Pages: 1 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology, Volume 100
      Author(s): Nam Hee Kim, Tae Jin Cho, Min Suk Rhee
      This review examined scientific reports and articles published from 2007 to 2016 regarding the major environmental sources of pathogenic Escherichia coli and the routes by which they enter the human gastrointestinal tract. The literature describes novel techniques used to combat pathogenic E. coli transmitted to humans from livestock and agricultural products, food-contact surfaces in processing environments, and food products themselves. Although prevention before contamination is always the best “intervention,” many studies aim to identify novel chemical, physical, and biological techniques that inactivate or eliminate pathogenic E. coli cells from breeding livestock, growing crops, and manufactured food products. Such intervention strategies target each stage of the food chain from the perspective of “Farm to Table food safety” and aim to manage major reservoirs of pathogenic E. coli throughout the entire process. Issues related to, and recent trends in, food production must address not only the safety of the food itself but also the safety of those who consume it. Thus, research aims to discover new “natural” antimicrobial agents and to develop “multiple hurdle technology” or other novel technologies that preserve food quality. In addition, this review examines the practical application of recent technologies from the perspective of product quality and safety. It provides comprehensive insight into intervention measures used to ensure food safety, specifically those aimed at pathogenic E. coli.

      PubDate: 2018-01-06T05:59:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2018)
  • Microbial Source Tracking of Cronobacter spp.
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2018
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): Steve Forsythe
      Being able to track bacterial pathogens is essential for epidemiological purposes as well as monitoring in-house production facilities. Common bacterial pathogens, such as Salmonella serovars, are already been well defined, and their detection methods are very advanced. However, this will not be the case for emergent bacterial pathogens, as was the case for Cronobacter. The clinical significance of the organism is due to its association with rare sporadic infections in adults, and severe life-threatening outbreaks of necrotizing enterocolitis and meningitis in newborn babies. The main recognized route of infection being through the consumption of contaminated reconstituted powdered infant formula. Key to the advances in being able to track this organism during formula production and outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units has been the use of DNA sequence-based methods, and most recently those which profile whole-genome sequences. This chapter considers how the latest DNA sequence-based methods in genotyping Cronobacter serve as a model for analyzing emergent bacterial pathogens in the future. The methods considered will initially highlight the limitations of phenotyping, then advance from the DNA probe-based methods for serotyping through to DNA sequence-based methods, especially multilocus sequence typing which is supported by an open access database. Finally the development of typing methods based on whole-genomes sequences, CRISPR-cas array profiling and SNP analysis, will be covered. The overall perspective is that emergent pathogens need to be investigated with the most advanced methods in order for robust and reliable control measures to be adopted.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T22:10:31Z
  • Biofilm: A Hotspot for Emerging Bacterial Genotypes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2018
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): Live L. Nesse, Roger Simm
      Bacteria have the ability to adapt to changing environments through rapid evolution mediated by modification of existing genetic information, as well as by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). This makes bacteria a highly successful life form when it comes to survival. Unfortunately, this genetic plasticity may result in emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and even the creation of multiresistant “superbugs” which may pose serious threats to public health. As bacteria commonly reside in biofilms, there has been an increased interest in studying these phenomena within biofilms in recent years. This review summarizes the present knowledge within this important area of research. Studies on bacterial evolution in biofilms have shown that mature biofilms develop into diverse communities over time. There is growing evidence that the biofilm lifestyle may be more mutagenic than planktonic growth. Furthermore, all three main mechanisms for HGT have been observed in biofilms. This has been shown to occur both within and between bacterial species, and higher transfer rates in biofilms than in planktonic cultures were detected. Of special concern are the observations that mutants with increased antibiotic resistance occur at higher frequency in biofilms than in planktonic cultures even in the absence of antibiotic exposure. Likewise, efficient dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes, as well as virulence genes, has been observed within the biofilm environment. This new knowledge emphasizes the importance of biofilm awareness and control.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T22:10:31Z
  • Bacterial Anaerobic Synthesis Gas (Syngas) and CO2+H2 Fermentation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2018
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): Frank R. Bengelsdorf, Matthias H. Beck, Catarina Erz, Sabrina Hoffmeister, Michael M. Karl, Peter Riegler, Steffen Wirth, Anja Poehlein, Dirk Weuster-Botz, Peter Dürre
      Anaerobic bacterial gas fermentation gains broad interest in various scientific, social, and industrial fields. This microbial process is carried out by a specific group of bacterial strains called acetogens. All these strains employ the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway but they belong to different taxonomic groups. Here we provide an overview of the metabolism of acetogens and naturally occurring products. Characteristics of 61 strains were summarized and selected acetogens described in detail. Acetobacterium woodii, Clostridium ljungdahlii, and Moorella thermoacetica serve as model organisms. Results of approaches such as genome-scale modeling, proteomics, and transcriptomics are discussed. Metabolic engineering of acetogens can be used to expand the product portfolio to platform chemicals and to study different aspects of cell physiology. Moreover, the fermentation of gases requires specific reactor configurations and the development of the respective technology, which can be used for an industrial application. Even though the overall process will have a positive effect on climate, since waste and greenhouse gases could be converted into commodity chemicals, some legislative barriers exist, which hamper successful exploitation of this technology.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T22:10:31Z
  • Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter Species: Mechanisms and Genomic
    • Authors: Chris A. Whitehouse; Shaohua Zhao; Heather Tate
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): Chris A. Whitehouse, Shaohua Zhao, Heather Tate
      The Campylobacter genus is a large and diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that are known to colonize humans and other mammals, birds, reptiles, and shellfish. While it is now recognized that several emerging Campylobacter species can be associated with human disease, two species, C. jejuni and C. coli, are responsible for the vast majority of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Infection with C. jejuni, in particular, has also been associated with a number of extragastrointestinal manifestations and autoimmune conditions, most notably Guillain–Barré syndrome. The antimicrobial drugs of choice for the treatment of severe Campylobacter infection include macrolides, such as erythromycin, clarithromycin, or azithromycin. Fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, are also commonly used for empirical treatment of undiagnosed diarrheal disease. However, resistance to these and other classes of antimicrobial drugs is increasing and is a major public health problem. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that over 300,000 infections per year are caused by drug-resistant Campylobacter. In this chapter, we discuss the taxonomy of the Campylobacter genus, the clinical and global epidemiological aspects of Campylobacter infection, with an emphasis on C. jejuni and C. coli, and issues related to the treatment of infection and antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. We further discuss the use of next-generation sequencing for the detection and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance genes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T17:06:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2018.01.001
  • Spore Germination of Pathogenic Filamentous Fungi
    • Authors: Poppy C.S. Sephton-Clark; Kerstin Voelz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): Poppy C.S. Sephton-Clark, Kerstin Voelz
      Fungi, algae, plants, protozoa, and bacteria are all known to form spores, especially hardy and ubiquitous propagation structures that are also often the infectious agents of diseases. Spores can survive for thousands of years, frozen in the permafrost (Kochkina et al., 2012), with the oldest viable spores extracted after 250 million years from salt crystals (Vreeland, Rosenzweig, & Powers, 2000). Their resistance to high levels of UV, desiccation, pressure, heat, and cold enables the survival of spores in the harshest conditions (Setlow, 2016). For example, Bacillus subtilis spores can survive and remain viable after experiencing conditions similar to those on Mars (Horneck et al., 2012). Spores are disseminated through environmental factors. Wind, water, or animal carriage allow spores to be spread ubiquitously throughout the environment. Spores will break dormancy and begin to germinate once exposed to favorable conditions. Germination is the mechanism that converts the spore from a dormant biological organism to one that grows vegetatively and is capable of either sexual or asexual reproduction. The process of germination has been well studied in plants, moss, bacteria, and many fungi (Hohe & Reski, 2005; Huang & Hull, 2017; Vesty et al., 2016). Unfortunately, information on the complex signaling involved in the regulation of germination, particularly in fungi remains lacking. This chapter will discuss germination of fungal spores covering our current understanding of the regulation, signaling, outcomes, and implications of germination of pathogenic fungal spores. Owing to the morphological similarities between the spore-hyphal and yeast-hyphal transition and their relevance for disease progression, relevant aspects of fungal dimorphism will be discussed alongside spore germination in this chapter.

      PubDate: 2018-01-06T05:59:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.10.002
  • Advances in Applied Microbiology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology, Volume 97

      PubDate: 2018-01-06T05:59:17Z
  • Host Sensing by Pathogenic Fungi
    • Authors: Sarah L. Sherrington; Pizga Kumwenda; Courtney Kousser; Rebecca A. Hall
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): Sarah L. Sherrington, Pizga Kumwenda, Courtney Kousser, Rebecca A. Hall
      The ability to cause disease extends from the ability to grow within the host environment. The human host provides a dynamic environment to which fungal pathogens must adapt to in order to survive. The ability to grow under a particular condition (i.e., the ability to grow at mammalian body temperature) is considered a fitness attribute and is essential for growth within the human host. On the other hand, some environmental conditions activate signaling mechanisms resulting in the expression of virulence factors, which aid pathogenicity. Therefore, pathogenic fungi have evolved fitness and virulence attributes to enable them to colonize and infect humans. This review highlights how some of the major pathogenic fungi respond and adapt to key environmental signals within the human host.

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T18:38:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.10.004
  • Fungal Genomes and Genotyping
    • Authors: Ricardo Araujo; Benedita Sampaio-Maia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): Ricardo Araujo, Benedita Sampaio-Maia
      The availability of complete fungal genomes is expanding rapidly and is offering an extensive and accurate view of this “kingdom.” The scientific milestone of free access to more than 1000 fungal genomes of different species was reached, and new and stimulating projects have meanwhile been released. The “1000 Fungal Genomes Project” represents one of the largest sequencing initiative regarding fungal organisms trying to fill some gaps on fungal genomics. Presently, there are 329 fungal families with at least one representative genome sequenced, but there is still a large number of fungal families without a single sequenced genome. In addition, additional sequencing projects helped to understand the genetic diversity within some fungal species. The availability of multiple genomes per species allows to support taxonomic organization, brings new insights for fungal evolution in short-time scales, clarifies geographical and dispersion patterns, elucidates outbreaks and transmission routes, among other objectives. Genotyping methodologies analyze only a small fraction of an individual's genome but facilitate the comparison of hundreds or thousands of isolates in a small fraction of the time and at low cost. The integration of whole genome strategies and improved genotyping panels targeting specific and relevant SNPs and/or repeated regions can represent fast and practical strategies for studying local, regional, and global epidemiology of fungi.

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T18:38:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.10.003
  • Fungi in Deep Subsurface Environments
    • Authors: Magnus Ivarsson; Stefan Bengtson; Henrik Drake; Warren Francis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): Magnus Ivarsson, Stefan Bengtson, Henrik Drake, Warren Francis
      The igneous crust of the oceans and the continents represents the major part of Earth's lithosphere and has recently been recognized as a substantial, yet underexplored, microbial habitat. While prokaryotes have been the focus of most investigations, microeukaryotes have been surprisingly neglected. However, recent work acknowledges eukaryotes, and in particular fungi, as common inhabitants of the deep biosphere, including the deep igneous provinces. The fossil record of the subseafloor igneous crust, and to some extent the continental bedrock, establishes fungi or fungus-like organisms as inhabitants of deep rock since at least the Paleoproterozoic, which challenges the present notion of early fungal evolution. Additionally, deep fungi have been shown to play an important ecological role engaging in symbiosis-like relationships with prokaryotes, decomposing organic matter, and being responsible for mineral weathering and formation, thus mediating mobilization of biogeochemically important elements. In this review, we aim at covering the abundance and diversity of fungi in the various igneous rock provinces on Earth as well as describing the ecological impact of deep fungi. We further discuss what consequences recent findings might have for the understanding of the fungal distribution in extensive anoxic environments and for early fungal evolution.

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T18:38:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.11.001
  • Twenty-Five Years of Investigating the Universal Stress Protein: Function,
           Structure, and Applications
    • Authors: Amy C. Vollmer; Steven J. Bark
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): Amy C. Vollmer, Steven J. Bark
      Since the initial discovery of universal stress protein A (UspA) 25 years ago, remarkable advances in molecular and biochemical technologies have revolutionized our understanding of biology. Many studies using these technologies have focused on characterization of the uspA gene and Usp-type proteins. These studies have identified the conservation of Usp-like proteins across bacteria, archaea, plants, and even some invertebrate animals. Regulation of these proteins under diverse stresses has been associated with different stress-response genes including spoT and relA in the stringent response and the dosR two-component signaling pathways. These and other foundational studies suggest Usps serve regulatory and protective roles to enable adaptation and survival under external stresses. Despite these foundational studies, many bacterial species have multiple paralogs of genes encoding these proteins and ablation of the genes does not provide a distinct phenotype. This outcome has limited our understanding of the biochemical functions of these proteins. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of Usps in general and UspA in particular across different genera as well as conclusions about their functions from seminal studies in diverse organisms. Our objective has been to organize the foundational studies in this field to identify the significant impediments to further understanding of Usp functions at the molecular level. We propose ideas and experimental approaches that may overcome these impediments and drive future development of molecular approaches to understand and target Usps as central regulators of stress adaptation and survival. Despite the fact that the full functions of Usps are still not known, creative many applications have already been proposed, tested, and used. The complementary approaches of basic research and applications, along with new technology and analytic tools, may yield the elusive yet critical functions of universal stress proteins in diverse systems.

      PubDate: 2017-11-12T00:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.10.001
  • Advances in Applied Microbiology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology, Volume 101

      PubDate: 2017-10-16T16:27:41Z
  • Microbial Transformation of Iodine: From Radioisotopes to Iodine
    • Authors: Chris M. Yeager; Seigo Amachi; Russell Grandbois; Daniel I. Kaplan; Chen Xu; Kathy A. Schwehr; Peter H. Santschi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): Chris M. Yeager, Seigo Amachi, Russell Grandbois, Daniel I. Kaplan, Chen Xu, Kathy A. Schwehr, Peter H. Santschi
      Iodine is a biophilic element that is important for human health, both as an essential component of several thyroid hormones and, on the other hand, as a potential carcinogen in the form of radioiodine generated by anthropogenic nuclear activity. Iodine exists in multiple oxidation states (−1, 0, +1, +3, +5, and +7), primarily as molecular iodine (I2), iodide (I−), iodate ( I O 3 − ) , or organic iodine (org-I). The mobility of iodine in the environment is dependent on its speciation and a series of redox, complexation, sorption, precipitation, and microbial reactions. Over the last 15years, there have been significant advances in iodine biogeochemistry, largely spurred by renewed interest in the fate of radioiodine in the environment. We review the biogeochemistry of iodine, with particular emphasis on the microbial processes responsible for volatilization, accumulation, oxidation, and reduction of iodine, as well as the exciting technological potential of these fascinating microorganisms and enzymes.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T18:41:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.07.002
  • Toward Genome-Based Metabolic Engineering in Bacteria
    • Authors: Sabine Oesterle; Irene Wuethrich; Sven Panke
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): Sabine Oesterle, Irene Wuethrich, Sven Panke
      Prokaryotes modified stably on the genome are of great importance for production of fine and commodity chemicals. Traditional methods for genome engineering have long suffered from imprecision and low efficiencies, making construction of suitable high-producer strains laborious. Here, we review the recent advances in discovery and refinement of molecular precision engineering tools for genome-based metabolic engineering in bacteria for chemical production, with focus on the λ-Red recombineering and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 nuclease systems. In conjunction, they enable the integration of in vitro-synthesized DNA segments into specified locations on the chromosome and allow for enrichment of rare mutants by elimination of unmodified wild-type cells. Combination with concurrently developing improvements in important accessory technologies such as DNA synthesis, high-throughput screening methods, regulatory element design, and metabolic pathway optimization tools has resulted in novel efficient microbial producer strains and given access to new metabolic products. These new tools have made and will likely continue to make a big impact on the bioengineering strategies that transform the chemical industry.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T15:25:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.07.001
  • Advances in Applied Microbiology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology, Volume 100

      PubDate: 2017-07-22T21:54:10Z
  • The Contribution of Bacteriophages to the Biology and Virulence of
           Pathogenic Clostridia
    • Authors: Louis-Charles Fortier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): Louis-Charles Fortier
      Bacteriophages are key players in the evolution of most bacteria. Temperate phages have been associated with virulence of some of the deadliest pathogenic bacteria. Among the most notorious cases, the genes encoding the botulinum neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum types C and D and the α-toxin (TcnA) produced by Clostridium novyi are both encoded within prophage genomes. Clostridium difficile is another important human pathogen and the recent identification of a complete binary toxin locus (CdtLoc) carried on a C. difficile prophage raises the potential for horizontal transfer of toxin genes by mobile genetic elements. Although the TcdA and TcdB toxins produced by C. difficile have never been found outside the pathogenicity locus (PaLoc), some prophages can still influence their production. Prophages can alter the expression of several metabolic and regulatory genes in C. difficile, as well as cell surface proteins such as CwpV, which confers phage resistance. Homologs of an Agr-like quorum sensing system have been identified in a C. difficile prophage, suggesting that it could possibly participate in cell–cell communication. Yet, other C. difficile prophages contain riboswitches predicted to recognize the secondary messenger molecule c-di-GMP involved in bacterial multicellular behaviors. Altogether, recent findings on clostridial phages underline the diversity of mechanisms and intricate relationship linking phages with their host. Here, milestone discoveries linking phages and virulence of some of the most pathogenic clostridial species will be retraced, with a focus on C. botulinum, C. novyi, C. difficile, and C lostridium perfringens phages, for which evidences are mostly available.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T22:19:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.05.002
  • Sodium Chloride Does Not Ensure Microbiological Safety of Foods: Cases and
    • Authors: Nam Hee Kim; Tae Jin Cho; Min Suk Rhee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): Nam Hee Kim, Tae Jin Cho, Min Suk Rhee
      Addition of salt or salt-containing water to food is one of the oldest and most effective preservation methods in history; indeed, salt-cured foods are generally recognized as microbiologically safe due to their high salinity. However, a number of microbiological risks remain. The microbiological hazards and risks associated with salt-cured foods must be addressed more in-depth as they are likely to be underestimated by previous studies. This review examined a number of scientific reports and articles about the microbiological safety of salt-cured foods, which included salted, brined, pickled, and/or marinated vegetables, meat, and seafood. The following subjects are covered in order: (1) clinical cases and outbreaks attributed to salt-cured foods; (2) the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in such foods; (3) the molecular, physiological, and virulent responses of the pathogens to the presence of NaCl in both laboratory media and food matrices; (4) the survival and fate of microorganisms in salt-cured foods (in the presence/absence of additional processes); and (5) the interaction between NaCl and other stressors in food processes (e.g., acidification, antimicrobials, drying, and heating). The review provides a comprehensive overview of potentially hazardous pathogens associated with salt-cured foods and suggests further research into effective intervention techniques that will reduce their levels in the food chain.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T22:19:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.05.001
  • Advances in Applied Microbiology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology, Volume 99

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T18:13:52Z
  • Microbial Ecology and Process Technology of Sourdough Fermentation
    • Authors: Luc De Vuyst; Simon Van Kerrebroeck; Frédéric Leroy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): Luc De Vuyst, Simon Van Kerrebroeck, Frédéric Leroy
      From a microbiological perspective, sourdough is to be considered as a specific and stressful ecosystem, harboring yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), that is used for the production of baked goods. With respect to the metabolic impact of the sourdough microbiota, acidification (LAB), flavor formation (LAB and yeasts), and leavening (yeasts and heterofermentative LAB species) are most noticeable. Three distinct types of sourdough fermentation processes can be discerned based on the inocula applied, namely backslopped ones (type 1), those initiated with starter cultures (type 2), and those initiated with a starter culture followed by backslopping (type 3). A sourdough-characteristic LAB species is Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. A sourdough-characteristic yeast species is Candida humilis. Although it has been suggested that the microbiota of a specific sourdough may be influenced by its geographical origin, region specificity often seems to be an artefact resulting from interpretation of the research data, as those are dependent on sampling, isolation, and identification procedures. It is however clear that sourdough-adapted microorganisms are able to withstand stress conditions encountered during their growth. Based on the technological setup, type 0 (predoughs), type I (artisan bakery firm sourdoughs), type II (industrial liquid sourdoughs), and type III sourdoughs (industrial dried sourdoughs) can be distinguished. The production of all sourdoughs, independent of their classification, depends on several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Both the flour (type, quality status, etc.) and the process parameters (fermentation temperature, pH and pH evolution, dough yield, water activity, oxygen tension, backslopping procedure and fermentation duration, etc.) determine the dynamics and outcome of (backslopped) sourdough fermentation processes.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T17:06:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.02.003
  • Fungal Biorecovery of Gold From E-waste
    • Authors: Saskia Bindschedler; Thi Quynh Trang Vu Bouquet; Daniel Job; Edith Joseph; Pilar Junier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): Saskia Bindschedler, Thi Quynh Trang Vu Bouquet, Daniel Job, Edith Joseph, Pilar Junier
      Waste electric and electronic devices (e-waste) represent a source of valuable raw materials of great interest, and in the case of metals, e-waste might become a prized alternative source. Regarding gold, natural ores are difficult to mine due to their refractory nature and the richest ores have almost all been exploited. Additionally, some gold mining areas are present in geopolitically unstable regions. Finally, the gold mining industry produces toxic compounds, such as cyanides. As a result, the gold present in e-waste represents a nonnegligible resource (urban mining). Extraction methods of gold from natural ores (pyro- and hydrometallurgy) have been adapted to this particular type of matrix. However, to propose novel approaches with a lower environmental footprint, biotechnological methods using microorganisms are being developed (biometallurgy). These processes use the extensive metabolic potential of microbes (algae, bacteria, and fungi) to mobilize and immobilize gold from urban and industrial sources. In this review, we focus on the use of fungi for gold biomining. Fungi interact with gold by mobilizing it through mechanical attack as well as through biochemical leaching by the production of cyanides. Moreover, fungi are also able to release Au through the degradation of cyanide from aurocyanide complexes. Finally, fungi immobilize gold through biosorption, bioaccumulation, and biomineralization, in particular, as gold nanoparticles. Overall, the diversity of mechanisms of gold recycling using fungi combined with their filamentous lifestyle, which allows them to thrive in heterogeneous and solid environments such as e-waste, makes fungi an important bioresource to be harnessed for the biorecovery of gold.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T14:37:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.02.002
  • Diversity, Application, and Synthetic Biology of Industrially Important
           Aspergillus Fungi
    • Authors: Hee-Soo Park; Sang-Cheol Jun; Kap-Hoon Han; Seung-Beom Hong; Jae-Hyuk Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): Hee-Soo Park, Sang-Cheol Jun, Kap-Hoon Han, Seung-Beom Hong, Jae-Hyuk Yu
      The filamentous fungal genus Aspergillus consists of over 340 officially recognized species. A handful of these Aspergillus fungi are predominantly used for food fermentation and large-scale production of enzymes, organic acids, and bioactive compounds. These industrially important Aspergilli primarily belong to the two major Aspergillus sections, Nigri and Flavi. Aspergillus oryzae (section Flavi) is the most commonly used mold for the fermentation of soybeans, rice, grains, and potatoes. Aspergillus niger (section Nigri) is used in the industrial production of various enzymes and organic acids, including 99% (1.4 million tons per year) of citric acid produced worldwide. Better understanding of the genomes and the signaling mechanisms of key Aspergillus species can help identify novel approaches to enhance these commercially significant strains. This review summarizes the diversity, current applications, key products, and synthetic biology of Aspergillus fungi commonly used in industry.

      PubDate: 2017-03-27T14:30:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.03.001
  • The Arsenic Detoxification System in Corynebacteria: Basis and Application
           for Bioremediation and Redox Control
    • Authors: Luis M. Mateos; Almudena F. Villadangos; Alfonso G. de la Rubia; Alvaro Mourenza; Laura Marcos-Pascual; Michal Letek; Brandán Pedre; Joris Messens; Jose A. Gil
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): Luis M. Mateos, Almudena F. Villadangos, Alfonso G. de la Rubia, Alvaro Mourenza, Laura Marcos-Pascual, Michal Letek, Brandán Pedre, Joris Messens, Jose A. Gil
      Arsenic (As) is widespread in the environment and highly toxic. It has been released by volcanic and anthropogenic activities and causes serious health problems worldwide. To survive arsenic-rich environments, soil and saprophytic microorganisms have developed molecular detoxification mechanisms to survive arsenic-rich environments, mainly by the enzymatic conversion of inorganic arsenate (AsV) to arsenite (AsIII) by arsenate reductases, which is then extruded by arsenite permeases. One of these Gram-positive bacteria, Corynebacterium glutamicum, the workhorse of biotechnological research, is also resistant to arsenic. To sanitize contaminated soils and waters, C. glutamicum strains were modified to work as arsenic “biocontainers.” Two chromosomally encoded ars operons (ars1 and ars2) are responsible for As resistance. The genes within these operons encode for metalloregulatory proteins (ArsR1/R2), arsenite permeases (Acr3-1/-2), and arsenate reductases (ArsC1/C2/C1′). ArsC1/C2 arsenate reductases are coupled to the low molecular weight thiol mycothiol (MSH) and to the recently discovered mycoredoxin-1 (Mrx-1) present in most Actinobacteria. This MSH/Mrx-1 redox system protects cells against different forms of stress, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), metals, and antibiotics. ROS can modify functional sulfur cysteines by oxidizing the thiol (-SH) to a sulfenic acid (-SOH). These oxidation-sensitive protein cysteine thiols are redox regulated by the MSH/Mrx-1 couple in Corynebacterium and Mycobacterium. In summary, the molecular mechanisms involved in arsenic resistance system in C. glutamicum have paved the way for understanding the cellular response against oxidative stress in Actinobacteria.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T23:15:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.01.001
  • Uranium Bioreduction and Biomineralization
    • Authors: Rehemanjiang Wufuer; Yongyang Wei; Qinghua Lin; Huawei Wang; Wenjuan Song; Wen Liu; Daoyong Zhang; Xiangliang Pan; Geoffrey Michael Gadd
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): Rehemanjiang Wufuer, Yongyang Wei, Qinghua Lin, Huawei Wang, Wenjuan Song, Wen Liu, Daoyong Zhang, Xiangliang Pan, Geoffrey Michael Gadd
      Following the development of nuclear science and technology, uranium contamination has been an ever increasing concern worldwide because of its potential for migration from the waste repositories and long-term contaminated environments. Physical and chemical techniques for uranium pollution are expensive and challenging. An alternative to these technologies is microbially mediated uranium bioremediation in contaminated water and soil environments due to its reduced cost and environmental friendliness. To date, four basic mechanisms of uranium bioremediation—uranium bioreduction, biosorption, biomineralization, and bioaccumulation—have been established, of which uranium bioreduction and biomineralization have been studied extensively. The objective of this review is to provide an understanding of recent developments in these two fields in relation to relevant microorganisms, mechanisms, influential factors, and obstacles.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T12:31:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.01.003
  • Stone-Eating Fungi: Mechanisms in Bioweathering and the Potential Role of
           Laccases in Black Slate Degradation With the Basidiomycete Schizophyllum
    • Authors: Julia Kirtzel; Daniela Siegel; Katrin Krause; Erika Kothe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): Julia Kirtzel, Daniela Siegel, Katrin Krause, Erika Kothe
      Many enzymes, such as laccases, are involved in the saprotrophic lifestyle of fungi and the effects of those may be linked to enhanced bioweathering on stone surfaces. To test this hypothesis, we studied the decomposition of kerogen-enriched lithologies, especially with black slate containing up to 20% of Corg. Indeed, a formation of ditches with attached hyphal material could be observed. To address enzymes involved, proteomics was performed and one group of enzymes, the multicopper oxidase family members of laccases, was specifically investigated. A role in bioweathering of rocks containing high contents of organic carbon in the form of kerogen could be shown using the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune, a white rot fungus that has been used as a model organism to study the role of filamentous basidiomycete fungi in bioweathering of black slate.

      PubDate: 2017-02-24T12:25:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2017.01.002
  • Advances in Applied Microbiology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology, Volume 98

      PubDate: 2017-02-10T12:14:51Z
  • Antivirulence Properties of Probiotics in Combating Microbial Pathogenesis
    • Authors: M. Surendran Nair; M.A. Amalaradjou; K. Venkitanarayanan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): M. Surendran Nair, M.A. Amalaradjou, K. Venkitanarayanan
      Probiotics are nonpathogenic microorganisms that confer a health benefit on the host when administered in adequate amounts. Ample evidence is documented to support the potential application of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of infections. Health benefits of probiotics include prevention of diarrhea, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea and traveler's diarrhea, atopic eczema, dental carries, colorectal cancers, and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. The cumulative body of scientific evidence that demonstrates the beneficial effects of probiotics on health and disease prevention has made probiotics increasingly important as a part of human nutrition and led to a surge in the demand for probiotics in clinical applications and as functional foods. The ability of probiotics to promote health is attributed to the various beneficial effects exerted by these microorganisms on the host. These include lactose metabolism and food digestion, production of antimicrobial peptides and control of enteric infections, anticarcinogenic properties, immunologic enhancement, enhancement of short-chain fatty acid production, antiatherogenic and cholesterol-lowering attributes, regulatory role in allergy, protection against vaginal or urinary tract infections, increased nutritional value, maintenance of epithelial integrity and barrier, stimulation of repair mechanism in cells, and maintenance and reestablishment of well-balanced indigenous intestinal and respiratory microbial communities. Most of these attributes primarily focus on the effect of probiotic supplementation on the host. Hence, in most cases, it can be concluded that the ability of a probiotic to protect the host from infection is an indirect result of promoting overall health and well-being. However, probiotics also exert a direct effect on invading microorganisms. The direct modes of action resulting in the elimination of pathogens include inhibition of pathogen replication by producing antimicrobial substances like bacteriocins, competition for limiting resources in the host, antitoxin effect, inhibition of virulence, antiadhesive and antiinvasive effects, and competitive exclusion by competition for binding sites or stimulation of epithelial barrier function. Although much has been documented about the ability of probiotics to promote host health, there is limited discussion on the above mentioned effects of probiotics on pathogens. Being in an era of antibiotic resistance, a better understanding of this complex probiotic–pathogen interaction is critical for development of effective strategies to control infections. Therefore, this chapter will focus on the ability of probiotics to directly modulate the infectious nature of pathogens and the underlying mechanisms that mediate these effects.

      PubDate: 2017-02-04T12:10:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.12.001
  • Physiological Role of Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems in
           Food-Associated Lactic Acid Bacteria
    • Authors: Vicente Monedero; Ainhoa Revilla-Guarinos; Manuel Zúñiga
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): Vicente Monedero, Ainhoa Revilla-Guarinos, Manuel Zúñiga
      Two-component systems (TCSs) are widespread signal transduction pathways mainly found in bacteria where they play a major role in adaptation to changing environmental conditions. TCSs generally consist of sensor histidine kinases that autophosphorylate in response to a specific stimulus and subsequently transfer the phosphate group to their cognate response regulators thus modulating their activity, usually as transcriptional regulators. In this review we present the current knowledge on the physiological role of TCSs in species of the families Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae of the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). LAB are microorganisms of great relevance for health and food production as the group spans from starter organisms to pathogens. Whereas the role of TCSs in pathogenic LAB (most of them belonging to the family Streptococcaceae) has focused the attention, the roles of TCSs in commensal LAB, such as most species of Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae, have been somewhat neglected. However, evidence available indicates that TCSs are key players in the regulation of the physiology of these bacteria. The first studies in food-associated LAB showed the involvement of some TCSs in quorum sensing and production of bacteriocins, but subsequent studies have shown that TCSs participate in other physiological processes, such as stress response, regulation of nitrogen metabolism, regulation of malate metabolism, and resistance to antimicrobial peptides, among others.

      PubDate: 2017-01-20T21:58:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.12.002
  • Iron and Fungal Physiology: A Review of Biotechnological Opportunities
    • Authors: L. Comensoli; S. Bindschedler; P. Junier; E. Joseph
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Applied Microbiology
      Author(s): L. Comensoli, S. Bindschedler, P. Junier, E. Joseph
      Iron is an essential inorganic micronutrient. Because of its low toxicity only a few studies have dealt with the importance of iron in fungal physiology. Most of the studies published so far focus on iron sequestration by animal fungal pathogens, iron uptake by mycorrhizal fungi, or iron redox activities by fungal wood degraders. However, a general overview on the relationship between fungal physiology and iron is still lacking. In this review we present a summary of the types of physiological activities that participate in iron homeostasis in fungi and how these activities can be used for the development of original biotechnological applications in relationship to iron-containing matrices. Concrete examples of biotechnological applications involving iron and fungi are also discussed. In the last part, a specific research project in biotechnology focusing on the use of fungi for the conservation of archaeological objects in iron is described in detail. This project aims at developing a new conservation-restoration method to preserve archaeological iron artifacts exploiting the ability of fungi to transform and uptake iron. Preliminary results obtained in this project regarding iron-reduction, iron uptake, and biogenic formation of iron minerals are presented and discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-03T20:36:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.aambs.2016.11.001
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