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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3184 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3184 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 100, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 433, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 305, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 418, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 380, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 469, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 218, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Applied Microbiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.089
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 24  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0065-2164
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3184 journals]
  • Azotobacters as biofertilizer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2019Source: Advances in Applied MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Hirendra Kumar Das Azotobacters have been used as biofertilizer since more than a century. Azotobacters fix nitrogen aerobically, elaborate plant hormones, solubilize phosphates and also suppress phytopathogens or reduce their deleterious effect. Application of wild type Azotobacters results in better yield of cereals like corn, wheat, oat, barley, rice, pearl millet and sorghum, of oil seeds like mustard and sunflower, of vegetable crops like tomato, eggplant, carrot, chillies, onion, potato, beans and sugar beet, of fruits like mango and sugar cane, of fiber crops like jute and cotton and of tree like oak. In addition to the structural genes of the enzyme nitrogenase and of other accessory proteins, A. vinelandii chromosomes contain the regulatory genes nifL and nifA. NifA must bind upstream of the promoters of all nif operons for enabling their expression. NifL on activation by oxygen or ammonium, interacts with NifA and neutralizes it. Nitrogen fixation has been enhanced by deletion of nifL and by bringing nifA under the control of a constitutive promoter, resulting in a strain that continues to fix nitrogen in presence of urea fertilizer. Additional copies of nifH (the gene for the Fe-protein of nitrogenase) have been introduced into A. vinelandii, thereby augmenting nitrogen fixation. The urease gene complex ureABC has been deleted, the ammonia transport gene amtB has been disrupted and the expression of the glutamine synthase gene has been regulated to enhance urea and ammonia excretion. Gluconic acid has been produced by introducing the glucose dehydrogenase gene, resulting in enhanced solubilization of phosphate.
       
  • The role of microorganisms in soy sauce production
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2019Source: Advances in Applied MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Desmond K. O'toole Soy sauce is a salty condiment commonly used in Eastern Asia that is made from soy beans with varying amounts of wheat or no wheat at all. It is known as shoyu in Japan, chiang-yu (or -yi) in China, kecup in Indonesia, kunjang in Korea, toyo in The Philippines, and see-ieu in Thailand (Beuchat, 1985; Djien, 1982; Fukushima, 1989). It provides flavor in an otherwise bland diet, and nutritionally it provides salt (NaCl) and predigested proteins in a diet that is traditionally protein poor. It has been made for centuries on a small scale in many towns and villages in Asia, but since 1950, particularly in Japan, the manufacturing process has been studied and modernized so that its manufacture is now concentrated in large factories using modern, controlled methods of production (Sasaki & Nunomura, 1993). In Japan, soy sauce fermentation is a major food manufacturing activity. More than 1.1 million kiloliters of soy sauce was produced in 1986 by 3000 producers, and the Kikkoman Company supplied 30% of the market (Fukushima, 1989). By 1990 there were 2871 manufacturers, 5 of which produced about 50% of the total production (Sasaki & Nunomura, 1993). While modern methods are used for most of the soy sauce produced in Japan, and factory production in other Asian countries is growing, soy sauce is still produced by methods involving no modern technological inputs (Röling, Prasetyo, Timotius, Stouthamer, & van Verseveld, 1994).
       
  • Application of model systems to study adaptive responses of Mycobacterium
           tuberculosis during infection and disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2019Source: Advances in Applied MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Bhavna Gowan Gordhan, Julian Peters, Bavesh Davandra Kana Tuberculosis (TB) claims more human lives than any other infectious organism. The lethal synergy between TB-HIV infection and the rapid emergence of drug resistant strains has created a global public health threat that requires urgent attention. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB is an exquisitely well-adapted human pathogen, displaying the ability to promptly remodel metabolism when encountering stressful environments during pathogenesis. A careful study of the mechanisms that enable this adaptation will enhance the understanding of key aspects related to the microbiology of TB disease. However, these efforts require microbiological model systems that mimic host conditions in the laboratory. Herein, we describe several in vitro model systems that generate non-replicating and differentially culturable mycobacteria. The changes that occur in the metabolism of M. tuberculosis in some of these models and how these relate to those reported for human TB disease are discussed. We describe mechanisms that tubercle bacteria use to resuscitate from these non-replicating conditions, together with phenotypic heterogeneity in terms of culturabiliy of M. tuberculosis in sputum. Transcriptional changes in M. tuberculosis that allow for adaptation of the organism to the lung environment are also summarized. Finally, given the emerging importance of the microbiome in various infectious diseases, we provide a description of how the lung and gut microbiome affect susceptibility to TB infection and response to treatment. Consideration of these collective aspects will enhance the understanding of basic metabolism, physiology, drug tolerance and persistence in M. tuberculosis to enable development of new therapeutic interventions.
       
  • Phenotypic instability in fungi
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2019Source: Advances in Applied MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Philippe Silar Fungi are prone to phenotypic instability, that is, the vegetative phase of these organisms, be they yeasts or molds, undergoes frequent switching between two or more behaviors, often with different morphologies, but also sometime having different physiologies without any obvious morphological outcome. In the context of industrial utilization of fungi, this can have a negative impact on the maintenance of strains and/or on their productivity. Instabilities have been shown to result from various mechanisms, either genetic or epigenetic. This chapter will review different types of instabilities and discuss some lesser-known ones, mostly in filamentous fungi, while it will direct readers to additional literature in the case of well-known phenomena such as the amyloid prions or fungal senescence. It will present in depth the “white/opaque” switch of Candida albicans and the “crippled growth” degeneration of the model fungus Podospora anserina. These are two of the most thoroughly studied epigenetic phenotypic switches. I will also discuss the “sectors” presented by many filamentous ascomycetes, for which a prion-based model exists but is not demonstrated. Finally, I will also describe intriguing examples of phenotypic instability for which an explanation has yet to be provided.
       
  • Toward rational selection criteria for selection of probiotics in pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2019Source: Advances in Applied MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Weilan Wang, Michael Gänzle An accurate understanding of properties of probiotics is a prerequisite for selecting probiotic organisms for use in swine production. This review aims to review selection criteria for probiotic organism in swine. The systematically investigated ecological history rather than the source of isolates should be regarded as the natural origin of probiotic strains, which helps to correct the inconsistencies arising from incorrect identification of the source. Moreover, in vivo studies are suggested as follow-up assessment to validate the characteristics of probiotic predicted by in vitro experiments. In addition, the intended probiotic effect depends on the age of the animal and disease prevention in young animals may require different probiotic strains when compared to growth promotion in older animals. With adequate selection criteria, the inclusion of probiotic in feed supplementation is a promising way to exert positive effects on sows, newborns, weanling animals and grower-finisher pigs. Both host-adapted probiotics and nomadic probiotics can be applied for pathogen inhibition but host adapted organisms appear to have a different mode of action. Host-adapted probiotic strains are likely to be associated with exclusive colonization while the nomadic or environmental strain exert better immune stimulating functions. Strains with potent enzymatic activity are fitter for grower pigs favoring feed digestion and enhancing growth performance.
       
  • Mucoid switch in Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria: Triggers,
           molecular mechanisms and implications in pathogenesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2019Source: Advances in Applied MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Mirela R. Ferreira, Sara C. Gomes, Leonilde M. Moreira Bacteria produce a vast range of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) to thrive in diverse environmental niches and often display a mucoid phenotype in solid media. One such exopolysaccharide, cepacian, is produced by bacteria of the genus Burkholderia and is of interest due to its role in pathogenesis associated with lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Cepacian is a repeat-unit polymer that has been implicated in biofilm formation, immune system evasion, interaction with host cells, resistance against antimicrobials, and virulence. Its biosynthesis proceeds through the Wzy-dependent polymerization and secretion mechanism, which requires a multienzymatic complex. Key aspects of its structure, genetic organization, and the regulatory network involved in mucoid switch and regulation of cepacian biosynthesis at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels are reviewed. It is also evaluated the importance of cepacian biosynthesis/regulation key players as evolutionary targets of selection and highlighted the complexity of the regulatory network, which allows cells to coordinate the expression of metabolic functions to the ones of the cell wall, in order to be successful in ever changing environments, including in the interaction with host cells.
       
  • Microbes associated with fresh produce: Sources, types and methods to
           reduce spoilage and contamination
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2019Source: Advances in Applied MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Maciej Kaczmarek, Simon V. Avery, Ian Singleton Global food security remains one of the most important challenges that needs to be addressed to ensure the increasing demand for food of the fast growing human population is satisfied. Fruits and vegetables comprise an essential component of a healthy balanced diet as they are the major source of both macro- and micronutrients. They are particularly important for communities in developing countries whose nutrition often relies solely on a plant-based diet. Recent advances in agriculture and food processing technologies have facilitated production of fresh, nutritious and safe food for consumers. However, despite the development of sophisticated chemical and physical methods of food and equipment disinfection, fresh-cut produce and fruit juice industry still faces significant economic losses due to microbial spoilage. Furthermore, fresh produce remains an important source of pathogens that have been causing outbreaks of human illness worldwide. This chapter characterizes common spoilage and human pathogenic microorganisms associated with fresh-cut produce and fruit juice products, and discusses the methods and technology that have been developed and utilized over the years to combat them. Substantial attention is given to highlight advantages and disadvantages of using these methods to reduce microbial spoilage and their efficacy to eliminate human pathogenic microbes associated with consumption of fresh-cut produce and fruit juice products.
       
  • Biological oxidation of iron sulfides
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: Advances in Applied MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Mathilde Monachon, Magdalena Albelda-Berenguer, Edith Joseph The biological oxidation of minerals and ores, called bioleaching, has been studied for the last decades to solubilize metals and recover them. In particular, iron sulfides are the most studied ores for an optimum extraction of different metals, such as copper or zinc. The use of chemolithotrophic bacteria, as Acidothiobacillus ferrooxidans, to oxidize both iron and sulfur species in aerobic conditions and at acidic pH shows promising results. In the field of heritage preservation, the development of “green” treatments is more and more studied. Waterlogged archeological wood presents an accumulation of iron sulfides within its structure, which, after exposition to oxygen, lead to salt precipitation and acidification and so to the degradation of the wooden artifact. A new extraction method, based on the dissolution of iron sulfides by the use of bacteria could be an alternative to the current chemical extraction methods, as being more respectful and ecological. While A. ferrooxidans is very effective in mines and groundwater, in the field of conservation-restoration of wood, Thiobacillus denitrificans is a better candidate as it grows at neutral pH, which is less aggressive for organic substrates (wood here). Preliminary studies show the efficiency of T. denitrificans for the dissolution of iron sulfides, as the concentration of nitrates used as electron donors decreases while the concentration of sulfates produced increases without degrading the wooden matrix. Long-term behavior should be studied to assess the stability of the artifacts after treatment.
       
  • Siderophores: From natural roles to potential applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2019Source: Advances in Applied MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Magdalena Albelda-Berenguer, Mathilde Monachon, Edith Joseph Siderophores are secondary metabolites produced by different organisms in order to scavenge iron from their surrounding environment making this essential element available to the cell. Presenting high affinity for ferric iron, siderophores are secreted out to form soluble ferric complexes that can be taken up by the organisms. Siderophores present complex chemistry that allows them to form the strongest iron-chelating complexes. Interest in this field is always up to date and new siderophores are found with new roles and applications. For example, siderophores participate to the mobilization of iron and other elements and are involved in virulence processes. Recently, a strong relation between siderophores and oxidative stress tolerance has been also highlighted. Their application in medicine has been widely studied as well as in agriculture. However, new fields are paying attention to the use of siderophores as green-iron chelators. In particular, siderophores have been proposed for the preservation of cultural heritage.
       
  • Role and regulation of the stress activated sigma factor sigma B (σB) in
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2018Source: Advances in Applied MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Amber Dorey, Catarina Marinho, Pascal Piveteau, Conor O'Byrne The stress activated sigma factor sigma B (σB) plays a pivotal role in allowing the food-borne bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to modulate its transcriptional landscape in order to survive in a variety of harsh environments both outside and within the host. While we have a comparatively good understanding of the systems under the control of this sigma factor much less is known about how the activity of σB is controlled. In this review, we present a current model describing how this sigma factor is thought to be controlled including an overview of what is known about stress sensing and the early signal transduction events that trigger its activation. We discuss the known regulatory overlaps between σB and other protein and RNA regulators in the cell. Finally, we describe the role of σB in surviving both saprophytic and host-associated stresses. The complexity of the regulation of this sigma factor reflects the significant role that it plays in the persistence of this important pathogen in the natural environment, the food chain as well as within the host during the early stages of an infection. Understanding its regulation will be a critical step in helping to develop rational strategies to prevent its growth and survival in the food destined for human consumption and in the prevention of listeriosis.
       
  • Nitrogen cycling during wastewater treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2018Source: Advances in Applied MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Dawn E. Holmes, Yan Dang, Jessica A. Smith Many wastewater treatment plants in the world do not remove reactive nitrogen from wastewater prior to release into the environment. Excess reactive nitrogen not only has a negative impact on human health, it also contributes to air and water pollution, and can cause complex ecosystems to collapse. In order to avoid the deleterious effects of excess reactive nitrogen in the environment, tertiary wastewater treatment practices that ensure the removal of reactive nitrogen species need to be implemented. Many wastewater treatment facilities rely on chemicals for tertiary treatment, however, biological nitrogen removal practices are much more environmentally friendly and cost effective. Therefore, interest in biological treatment is increasing. Biological approaches take advantage of specific groups of microorganisms involved in nitrogen cycling to remove reactive nitrogen from reactor systems by converting ammonia to nitrogen gas. Organisms known to be involved in this process include autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, heterotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing archaea, anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (anammox), nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, complete ammonia oxidizers, and dissimilatory nitrate reducing microorganisms. For example, in nitrifying–denitrifying reactors, ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria convert ammonia to nitrate and then denitrifying microorganisms reduce nitrate to nonreactive dinitrogen gas. Other nitrogen removal systems (anammox reactors) take advantage of anammox bacteria to convert ammonia to nitrogen gas using NO as an oxidant. A number of promising new biological treatment technologies are emerging and it is hoped that as the cost of these practices goes down more wastewater treatment plants will start to include a tertiary treatment step.
       
  • Oxalic acid, a molecule at the crossroads of bacterial-fungal interactions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2018Source: Advances in Applied MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Fabio Palmieri, Aislinn Estoppey, Geoffrey L. House, Andrea Lohberger, Saskia Bindschedler, Patrick S.G. Chain, Pilar Junier Oxalic acid is the most ubiquitous and common low molecular weight organic acid produced by living organisms. Oxalic acid is produced by fungi, bacteria, plants, and animals. The aim of this review is to give an overview of current knowledge about the microbial cycling of oxalic acid through ecosystems. Here we review the production and degradation of oxalic acid, as well as its implications in the metabolism for fungi, bacteria, plants, and animals. Indeed, fungi are well known producers of oxalic acid, while bacteria are considered oxalic acid consumers. However, this framework may need to be modified, because the ability of fungi to degrade oxalic acid and the ability of bacteria to produce it, have been poorly investigated. Finally, we will highlight the role of fungi and bacteria in oxalic acid cycling in soil, plant and animal ecosystems.
       
  • Bacterial spores, from ecology to biotechnology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2018Source: Advances in Applied MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Christophe Paul, Sevasti Filippidou, Isha Jamil, Wafa Kooli, Geoffrey L. House, Aislinn Estoppey, Mathilda Hayoz, Thomas Junier, Fabio Palmieri, Tina Wunderlin, Anael Lehmann, Saskia Bindschedler, Torsten Vennemann, Patrick S. Chain, Pilar Junier The production of a highly specialized cell structure called a spore is a remarkable example of a survival strategy displayed by bacteria in response to challenging environmental conditions. The detailed analysis and description of the process of sporulation in selected model organisms have generated a solid background to understand the cellular processes leading to the formation of this specialized cell. However, much less is known regarding the ecology of spore-formers. This research gap needs to be filled as the feature of resistance has important implications not only on the survival of spore-formers and their ecology, but also on the use of spores for environmental prospection and biotechnological applications.
       
 
 
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