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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3043 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3043 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 84, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 354, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 233, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 355, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 8, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
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Journal Cover Advances in Antiviral Drug Design
  [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1075-8593
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • List of Contributors
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 5



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Status Presens of Antiviral Drugs And Strategies: Part I: DNA Viruses and
           Retroviruses
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 5

      More than 40 compounds have been formally licensed for clinical use as antiviral drugs, and half of these are used for the treatment of HIV infections. The others have been approved for the therapy of herpesvirus (HSV, VZV, CMV), hepadnavirus (HBV), hepacivirus (HCV) and myxovirus (influenza, RSV) infections. New compounds are in clinical development or under preclinical evaluation, and, again, half of these are targeting HIV infections. Yet, quite a number of important viral pathogens (i.e. HPV, HCV, hemorrhagic fever viruses) remain in need of effective and/or improved antiviral therapies.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Status presens of antiviral drugs and strategies: Part II: RNA VIRUSES
           (EXCEPT RETROVIRUSES)
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 5

      More than 40 compounds have been formally licensed for clinical use as antiviral drugs, and half of these are used for the treatment of HIV infections. The others have been approved for the therapy of herpesvirus (HSV, VZV, CMV), hepadnavirus (HBV), hepacivirus (HCV) and myxovirus (influenza, RSV) infections. New compounds are in clinical development or under preclinical evaluation, and, again, half of these are targeting HIV infections. Yet, quite a number of important viral pathogens (i.e. HPV, HCV, hemorrhagic fever viruses) remain in need of effective and/or improved antiviral therapies.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Methylenecyclopropane Analogues of Nucleosides as Anti-herpes Agents
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 5

      The current status of methylenecyclopropane analogues of nucleosides has been reviewed including synthetic methodology for the first- and second-generation analogues, antiviral activity with emphasis on β- and γ-herpesviruses, structure-activity relationships and mechanism of action. Fluoromethylenecyclopropanes, nucleotide analogues and phenyl phosphoralaninate (PPA) pronucleotides are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of broad spectrum, orally active
           analogs of cidofovir and other acyclic nucleoside phosphonates
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 5



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • CCR5 antagonists for the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 5



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • The medicinal chemistry of the DATA and DAPY series of HIV-1
           non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
    • Abstract: 2007
      Publication year: 2007
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 5

      This contribution presents an historical account of the medicinal chemistry of the DATA (diaryltriazine) and DAPY (diarylpyrimidine) series of inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (NNRTIs). The history extends over a period of more than 18 years, starting from 1987, and is still ongoing. The authors attempt to describe the often tortuous and unpredictable route that led from the virological screening of compounds, over serendipitous chemistry, X-ray crystallography, molecular modelling, animal pharmacokinetics, biochemistry and physical chemistry to the design and further development of highly potent anti-HIV compounds, three of which are now in advanced stages of clinical studies. The emphasis in this historical account is on the medicinal chemistry that led to the DATA and DAPY series of NNRTIs.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • List of Contributors
    • Abstract: 2003
      Publication year: 2003
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • New Anti-HIV Agents in Preclinical or Clinical Development
    • Abstract: 2003
      Publication year: 2003
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 4

      Virtually all the compounds that are currently used (or have been the subject of advanced clinical trials) for the treatment of HIV infections, belong to one of the following classes: (i) nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs): i.e., zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir, emtricitabine and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs) (i.e., tenofovir disoproxil fumarate); (ii) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): i.e., nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz, emivirine; and (iii) protease inhibitors (PIs): i.e., saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir and lopinavir. In addition to the reverse transcriptase and protease reaction, various other events in the HIV replicative cycle can be considered as potential targets for chemotherapeutic intervention: (i) viral adsorption, through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 (polysulfates, polysulfonates, polycarboxylates, polyoxometalates, polynucleotides, and negatively charged albumins); (ii) viral entry, through blockade of the viral coreceptors CXCR4 (i.e., bicyclam (AMD3100) derivatives) and CCR5 (i.e., TAK-779 derivatives); (iii) virus-cell fusion, through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein gp41 (T-20, T-1249); (iv) viral assembly and disassembly, through NCp7 zinc finger-targeted agents (2,2′-dithiobisbenzamides (DIBAs), azadicarbonamide (ADA)); (v) proviral DNA integration, through integrase inhibitors such as 4-aryl-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid derivatives; (vi) viral mRNA transcription, through inhibitors of the transcription (transactivation) process (flavopiridol, fluoroquinolones). Also, various new NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs have been developed that possess, respectively: (i) improved metabolic characteristics (i.e., phosphoramidate and cyclosaligenyl pronucleotides by-passing the first phosphorylation step of the NRTIs), (ii) increased activity (“second” generation NNRTIs (i.e., TMC-125, DPC-083)) against those HIV strains that are resistant to the “first” generation NNRTIs, or (iii), as in the case of PIs, a different, modified peptidic (i.e., azapeptidic (atazanavir)) or non-peptidic scaffold (i.e., cyclic urea (mozenavir), 4-hydroxy-2-pyrone (tipranavir)). Non-peptidic PIs may be expected to inhibit HIV mutant strains that have become resistant to peptidomimetic PIs.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus integration
    • Abstract: 2003
      Publication year: 2003
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Non-peptidic protease inhibitors (NPPIs): Tipranavir
    • Abstract: 2003
      Publication year: 2003
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Design of Neuraminidase Inhibitors as Anti-Influenza Virus Agents
    • Abstract: 2003
      Publication year: 2003
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Six-membered Carbocyclic Nucleosides
    • Abstract: 2003
      Publication year: 2003
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • cycloSal-Pronucleotides—Design of the Concept, Chemistry, and
           Antiviral Activity
    • Abstract: 2003
      Publication year: 2003
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 4



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • List of contributors
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • From d-to l-nucleoside analogs as antiviral agents
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Orally bioavailable acyclic nucleoside phosphonate prodrugs: Adefovir
           dipivoxil and bis(POC)PMPA
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • HEPT: From an investigation of lithiation of nucleosides towards a
           rational design of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors of
           HIV-1
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Sialidase inhibitors as anti-influenza drugs
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Bicyclam derivatives as HIV inhibitors
    • Abstract: 1999
      Publication year: 1999
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 3



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • List of contributors
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Antisense oligonucleotides as antiviral agents
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Design and synthesis of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors as
           broad-spectrum antiviral agents
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Carbocyclic nucleosides
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Comments on nucleotide delivery forms
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 2



      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
  • Discovery and design of HIV protease inhibitors as drugs for treatment of
           aids
    • Abstract: 1996
      Publication year: 1996
      Source:Advances in Antiviral Drug Design, Volume 2

      The protease encoded within the pol gene of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is essential for maturation of the newly budded virion to an infectious viral particle. For this reason, inhibitors of the HIV protease have been developed as possible drugs for treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition associated with HIV infection. The viral protease is a paradigm for rational drug design. It is a member of a well-characterized mechanistic set of proteases, the aspartyl enzymes, and therefore much is known by inference regarding its structure and mechanism. Yet, it is also unique among all known proteases in having a dimeric structure, and accordingly, it offers a selective target for drugs in humans. The monomeric units, identical, 99-residue polypeptides, each contribute symmetrically to the catalytic site, and the enzyme is a C 2-symmetric dimer. At the time of this writing, hundreds of structures have been solved crystallographically for the HIV-1 protease, both alone and in complexes with a wide spectrum of inhibitors, so the enzyme ranks among the best understood in terms of both structure and mechanism. The protease is also unique in its specificity, being able to hydrolyze almost any peptide bond, given an optimal distribution of amino acids in P4 through P4′, and accessibility to the bond in question. This specificity has been the basis for early development of protease inhibitors with noncleavable transition state inserts replacing the scissile bond pair. However, if an HIV protease inhibitor is to be successful as a drug for treatment of AIDS, it must not only be potent in blocking enzyme activity, but it must satisfy the usual criteria that define a useful therapeutic agent. The last 5 years have witnessed a transition from peptide-like inhibitors that are generally marginal as drugs because of poor solubility and/or bioavailability, to smaller, nonpeptide, organic molecules with enhanced pharmacokinetic properties. The process of protease inhibitor development has encompassed everything from serendipitous, classical screening approaches to de novo design. The latter achievement has been possible through an iterative cycle of crystallographic analysis, computer-assisted refinement and prediction, organic synthesis, and biological assays. In fact, this whole process of discovery of drugs designed to target the HIV protease represents a powerful alliance among numerous disciplines, including virology, biochemistry, molecular biology, X-ray crystallography, computer modeling, medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, and applied medicine. This chapter focuses on this process, highlighting those protease inhibitors that have been brought forward for clinical trials, and providing some early results in the clinics. Some discussion is also included of mutations in the protease, which have been documented in viral strains that show resistance to protease inhibitor drugs.

      PubDate: 2012-12-17T18:13:09Z
       
 
 
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