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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3181 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3181 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 105, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 443, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 319, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 187, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 423, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 383, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 482, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 266, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 226, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Agronomy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.384
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 17  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0065-2113
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3181 journals]
  • New directions for integrated weed management: Modern technologies, tools
           and knowledge discovery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): Nicholas E. Korres, Nilda R. Burgos, Ilias Travlos, Maurizio Vurro, Thomas K. Gitsopoulos, Vijaya K. Varanasi, Stephen O. Duke, Per Kudsk, Chad Brabham, Christopher E. Rouse, Reiofeli Salas-Perez Weed science, as an integral part of agricultural production needs to evolve by moving away from its mono-disciplinary perspective at targeting weeds, sometimes a single species, through the overreliance on few single herbicide mechanisms of action. Herbicides remain a simple and cost-effective way to control weeds but they are rapidly losing their effectiveness due to evolution of herbicide resistance. Additionally, weed science has been left wanting for a strong theoretical foundation rooted in evolutionary and ecological disciplines therefore, there is a great need for a new weed management paradigm in modern agriculture based on ecological principles and nonconventional weed management approaches. The “many little hammers” concept and the “use of technological advancement” are two major integrated weed management components that are gaining momentum. Automated, robotic weed control is being rapidly developed, particularly for vegetable crops and organic agriculture. Cover crops and weed seed destruction techniques are becoming popular with growers. In the future, RNAi technology, gene editing and robotics will yield new tools for weed control. Agriculture is also moving into a new era of big data or “digital farming.” It will be interesting to see what new, unforeseen weed control solutions will be derived from this new farming approach that will allow more intelligent application and integration of weed management technologies. In an attempt to facilitate the suitability of these technologies into integrated weed management systems, this chapter reviews the strengths and weaknesses of these modern technologies and tools, and it highlights future research needs for each of these technologies.
       
  • Improving water use efficiency, nitrogen use efficiency, and radiation use
           efficiency in field crops under drought stress: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): Hayat Ullah, Raquel Santiago-Arenas, Zannatul Ferdous, Ahmed Attia, Avishek Datta Raising temperature and increased drought events induced by a changing climate have increased the need for efficient use of natural resources and energy supplies. Producing sufficient food and fibers for the growing population with changing consumption patterns from ever decreasing resource base requires strategic plans for efficient use of natural resources such as water, nutrients, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Water is considered as the second most limiting factor after land to increase food and fiber production. It is essential for various chemical and physiological reactions in plants and provides a medium where most cellular functions take place. Soil water-deficit significantly reduces crop yield and productivity through its adverse effects on nutrient uptake, net assimilation, and radiation use efficiency and subsequently on dry matter accumulation and production. Soil water affects nutrient transformation from unavailable to available form or vice versa, and thereby the total uptake amount. It also influences the availability of applied nutrients and efficiency through its effect on various nutrient loss mechanisms such as volatilization, nitrification, and/or urease hydrolysis. Soil nutrients and PAR are also key factors in crop production. Plants usually suffer from nutrient deficiencies and more importantly a reduction in net photosynthetic assimilation rate under water stress. Better inception of PAR is needed for higher biomass production and grain yield, which is also hampered under water-limited environments. The situation is expected to be further intensified in a future changing climate, which urgently calls for efficient adaptation strategies to mitigate the negative impacts associated with these changes on crop production, especially in dry areas. Therefore, improving the efficiency of natural resources use continues to escalate as a topic of interest for crop and soil scientists. This review presents an outline of defining water use efficiency, nitrogen use efficiency, and radiation use efficiency as well as their relationship under water-limited environments to identify agronomic- and physiologically-improved strategies for enhancing water, nutrient (nitrogen), and radiation use by field crops.
       
  • Metal bioavailability and the soil microbiome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): Tarah S. Sullivan, Geoffrey Michael Gadd For over three centuries, soil scientists and microbiologists have been studying the most diverse habitat on the planet, characterizing the structure, function, and composition of the soil microbial community through a diverse array of techniques. Yet our understanding of the soil microbiome and the reciprocal dynamics with metal speciation and bioavailability remain primarily limited to model systems and isolated organisms. Metals, however, are ubiquitous in the environment, pervasive in agriculture, and essential to life functions. The purpose of this chapter is to review our existing knowledge on the soil factors that control metal bioavailability and bring that knowledge together with our understanding of dynamics of metals and metalloids with microbial communities in soil to highlight the current gaps in metal-microbiome research. Ultimately, restoration of ecosystem function, enhanced soil health and quality, and any type of management for microbial metal transformations will only be possible with a thorough understanding of how soil microbiomes interact with each other, the soil, their associated plant communities, and the impacts these interactions have on the molecular details underlying their biogeochemical function.
       
  • Soil organic carbon dynamics: Impact of land use changes and management
           practices: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): Thangavel Ramesh, Nanthi S. Bolan, Mary Beth Kirkham, Hasintha Wijesekara, Manjaiah Kanchikerimath, Cherukumalli Srinivasa Rao, Sasidharan Sandeep, Jörg Rinklebe, Yong Sik Ok, Burhan U. Choudhury, Hailong Wang, Caixian Tang, Xiaojuan Wang, Zhaoliang Song, Oliver W. Freeman II Global climate change has resulted in changes to the earth's geological, ecological, and biological ecosystems, which pose a severe threat to the existence of human civilization and sustenance of agricultural productivity vis-à-vis food security. In the last several decades, climate change has been linked to erratic rainfall distribution patterns and large variations in diurnal temperatures, because of a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. This, in turn, is thought to make world agricultural production systems more prone to failure. Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important component for the functioning of agro-ecosystems, and its presence is central to the concept of sustainable maintenance of soil health. Soil is the largest terrestrial carbon sink and contains 2- and 3-times more carbon than the carbon in the atmosphere and vegetation, respectively. Therefore, a meager change in soil carbon sequestration will have a drastic impact on the global carbon cycle and climate change. The SOC has different pools and fractions including total organic carbon (TOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), permanganate oxidizable carbon (KMnO4-C), and mineral associated organic carbon (MOC). Each has a varying degree of decomposition rate and stability. Researchers have identified many ways to offset the effect of climate change through modification of carbon sequestration in the soil. Identification of location-specific, suitable land use and management practices is one of the options to mitigate the impact of the climate change. It can be done by re-balancing different carbon pools and emission fluxes. Labile organic carbon pools including MBC, POC, and KMnO4-C are the most sensitive indicators for assessing soil quality after the adoption of alternate land use and management practices. Information on soil aggregation and SOC stabilization helps for long-term sequestration of carbon in the soil. Here we review the progress of work on SOC dynamics in the major ecosystems of the world. The information should enrich understanding of carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation strategies.
       
  • Breeding strategies for structuring salinity tolerance in wheat
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): Abdul Mujeeb-Kazi, Rana Munns, Awais Rasheed, Francis C. Ogbonnaya, Niaz Ali, Philip Hollington, Ian Dundas, Nasir Saeed, Richard Wang, Pichu Rengasamy, Muhammad Sohail Saddiq, Jose Luis Díaz De León, Muhammad Ashraf, Sanjaya Rajaram The wheat gene pool has a tremendous amount of genetic diversity for salinity tolerance. During the last few decades, several wheat genetic stocks have been developed showing all three types of tolerance mechanisms, i.e., tissue tolerance, osmotic tolerance and ion (Na+) exclusion. However, delivery of improved crop varieties adapted to saline conditions has been lagging behind due to several reasons including the huge knowledge gap in understanding genetic basis of salinity tolerance in wheat, and then applying the available knowledge to deliver salt-resilient crop varieties. We review the research around salinity tolerance in wheat in context of historical and rapidly evolving breeding technologies and discuss the future prospects. The extensive research on identifying promising resources of salinity tolerance in durum wheat, synthetic hexaploid wheats and tertiary gene pool species such as those of Thinopyrum have been explored to transfer salinity tolerance traits to bread wheat. As the last few years witnessed leading-edge transformations where we have now (i) new and improved genotyping assays in form of SNP arrays and next-generation sequencing to facilitate gene discovery, (ii) new generation turn-over methods to get five to six generations per year by “speed breeding” facilitating gene deployment, (iii) gene-editing tools to precisely manipulate the effects of causal genes, and (iv) new phenomic platforms for capturing salinity effects in field and glass-house conditions. Integration of all these technologies will help in understanding the complex genetic architecture of wheat adaptability in saline soils and will accelerate the delivery of our future potential wheat cultivars.
       
  • Nitrate N loss by leaching and surface runoff in agricultural land: A
           global issue (a review)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2019Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): Zhao-Hui Wang, Sheng-Xiu Li Agricultural systems are nitrogen (N) deficient throughout the world and N is the most important nutrient in realizing the maximum potential of the crop and sustainability of the environment. The production and utilization of the chemical N fertilizer (CNF) have played a great role in increasing crop yield and meeting the demand of population growth. However, with excessive input of chemical N fertilizers, nitrate N leaching and surface runoff seriously threat people health and pollute biological environments. Based on a large number of publications, this paper has comprehensively reviewed the importance of application of CNF, the problems caused by the excessive chemical N input, with attention mainly to the seriousness of nitrate N loss by leaching and runoff, factors affecting nitrate N leaching and runoff, methods for controlling nitrate leaching and runoff, and research needs in the future globally in details.
       
  • Effects of agricultural intensification on soil biodiversity and
           implications for ecosystem functioning: A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2019Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): Marie-Anne de Graaff, Nicole Hornslein, Heather L. Throop, Paul Kardol, Linda T.A. van Diepen Environmental perturbations such as agricultural intensification may alter soil biodiversity in a manner that affects ecosystem functioning, but links are not well quantified. With this review we ask: (1) “How does agricultural intensification affect soil biodiversity'” and (2) “How do such changes in soil biodiversity affect ecosystem function'” We used meta-analysis to quantify responses across studies. Our results indicate that agricultural intensification can significantly alter soil biodiversity, with negative impacts of synthetic N fertilization on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) and faunal diversity, and positive effects on fungal- and microbial functional diversity. Bacterial diversity increased with low synthetic N input rates ( 5 years, suggesting that agricultural management practices that promote soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation and retention enhance bacterial biodiversity. Tillage negatively impacted soil faunal and bacterial diversity, but did not affect AMF, fungal or functional diversity, and organic farming relative to conventional farming did not affect soil biodiversity. Biodiversity manipulation studies indicate that changes in soil biodiversity affect ecosystem process rates, although manipulated biodiversity levels tend to exaggerate biodiversity losses and possibly overestimate consequences for ecosystem functioning relative to measured biodiversity losses from environmental perturbations. There is a need for more studies that evaluate how losses in soil biodiversity following environmental perturbations directly affect ecosystem functioning. Advances in analytical techniques to identify soil organisms and an increase in soil biodiversity manipulation experiments should help solidify links between environmental changes, soil biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.
       
  • Advances in mechanisms of drought tolerance in crops, with emphasis on
           barley
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2019Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): Amare Kebede, Manjit S. Kang, Endashaw Bekele According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), droughts have significant economic, environmental, and social impacts, both direct and indirect. All field crops are affected by drought. Global warming and climate change are expected to exacerbate this phenomenon. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) ranks fourth among cereals after wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L.), and rice (Oryza sativa L.). Drought is a significant issue in barley breeding programs. The purpose of this chapter is to review pertinent literature on general drought-tolerance mechanisms in important field crops and provide the latest state-of-the-art information on drought-coping mechanisms in barley, including molecular basis of crop response in moisture-limited environments. We highlight research insights, existing gaps, and future research directions regarding drought tolerance in barley. Known quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genes, such as Dhn and DREB, and their use in marker-assisted selection for drought tolerance are summarized. Traits associated with improved performance (early vigor, plant height, spike waxiness, and thousand-grain weight) under low-moisture stress environments have been identified as useful criteria in breeding for drought-tolerant barley. Low stomatal density cultivars of barley should be developed to combat drought and climate change. Latest innovations in genome-editing technology, such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9), clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats from Prevotella and Francisella 1 (CRISPR-Cpf1), and multiplexed accurate genome editing with short, trackable, integrated cellular barcodes (MAGESTIC), should be useful for plant breeders in modifying the barley genome, as needed, to develop drought-tolerant cultivars.
       
  • Ecological weed management in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prospects and
           implications on other agroecosystem services
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2019Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): Paolo Bàrberi In Sub-Saharan Africa weeds represent a major constraint to food production, and overreliance on herbicides, including toxic ones, is a raising issue. Nonetheless, effective non-chemical weed management practices are adopted by several Sub-Saharan farmers, and may foster ecological intensification and agroecological crop management in the region. Ecological Weed Management (EWM) is a combination of methods aimed to achieve long-term weed suppression through the use of ecological interactions between crop, weeds, soil and/or other taxa fostered by appropriate agroecosystem management, with the least possible use of direct weed control methods, chemical or non chemical. The opportunities offered by EWM in Sub-Saharan Africa are synthesized based on results of a comprehensive literature review. Ecological Weed Management of Striga spp., emblematic parasitic weeds in the area, is treated in details showing that effective methods exist and often work better when combined. These methods include, e.g., the development of cultivars resistant or tolerant of infection, improved crop rotations, cover crops, intercrops and mulches, other soil-based positive interactions, and biocontrol via use of pathogenic fungi. Strategies including functional biodiversity-based methods are expected to foster EWM and overall agroecological crop management in the region. EWM methods can support other agroecosystem services (e.g., soil fertility) and at the same time be improved by methods aiming at other services (e.g., push-pull strategies against maize cob borers). Transdisciplinary collaboration and scientists' engagement in participatory research and action with farmers and other stakeholders would be instrumental to facilitate broader adoption of EWM in Sub-Saharan Africa.
       
  • Review of existing knowledge on soil crusting in South Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2019Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): Michiel Christiaan Laker, Gerhardus Petrus Nortjé Soil crusting (surface sealing) is a widespread and serious problem throughout all nine provinces of South Africa and in neighboring countries, like Botswana, Namibia, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. It is a problem in extensive rangelands and game parks and under rain-fed cropping and irrigated agriculture. Both mineral and biological soil crusts are problems. Various research methodologies are used to study soil crusting. Soil factors determining the susceptibility of a soil to crusting include soil organic matter, sesquioxides, particle size distribution, exchangeable sodium percentage, magnesium: calcium ratio and parent material. Negative impacts of soil crusting include reduction of water infiltration, leading to increased runoff and erosion and induced drought; inhibiting soil aeration; inhibiting germination and seedling emergence; inhibiting root functioning and development. Management practices that lead to the development of bare areas on crusted soils or those are aimed at deliberately maintaining bare areas, e.g., under drip and micro irrigation, aggravate soil crusting and its negative impacts. Crusted soils often do not recover even after several decades. Soil crusts can be ameliorated by means of mulching or application of gypsum (or phosphogypsum) or organic soil conditioners, such as polyacrylamide.
       
  • Cakile maritima, a promising model for halophyte studies and a putative
           cash crop for saline agriculture
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2019Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): Delphine Arbelet-Bonnin, Ibtissem Ben-Hamed-Louati, Patrick Laurenti, Chedly Abdelly, Karim Ben-Hamed, François Bouteau Agricultural intensification necessary for global food security as well as changes in temperature and precipitation patterns expected from climate change are likely to cause further deterioration irrigated lands in various part of the world. Salinization is spreading particularly in arid and semi-arid regions and urban sprawl is forcing agricultural production into marginal areas. Many salted marginal areas could support biomass production if halophytes able to tolerate high salinity were used. This chapter presents general data on Cakile maritima, a halophyte, concerning its ecological characteristics, diversity and distribution, adaptation to environment and its potential uses as medicinal plant, for oilseed production or phytoremediation. In a second part we present what have been uncovered in C. maritima in term of mechanisms and physiological adaptations to salinity when compared to other plants.Cakile maritima appears worthy of attention since it meets numerous criteria for being a good genetic model of halophyte. It has a small diploid genome, a short life cycle and produces large amount of seeds. Furthermore Cakile maritima represents a promising species owing its large geographical and ecological amplitude, its economic potential because of its ability to produce numerous secondary compounds and as an oilseed and energy crop. This renders the cultivation of this plant on salted marginal soil of practical significance in the context of the necessary development of biosaline agriculture in the future.
       
  • Chapter Three - The Effects of Mulch and Nitrogen Fertilizer on the Soil
           Environment of Crop Plants
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 153Author(s): Xiukang Wang, Junliang Fan, Yingying Xing, Guoce Xu, Haidong Wang, Jian Deng, Yanfeng Wang, Fucang Zhang, Peng Li, Zhanbin Li The demand for food is expected to significantly increase with continued population growth over the next 50 years, indicating that agricultural efficiency should be simultaneously stabilized and enhanced. Here, we discuss the effects of mulching and nitrogen (N) fertilizer on the soil environment and crop yield to inform food security. The use of mulch in agriculture provides many benefits to the soil by reducing evaporation, improving temperatures, adjusting the microbial biomass, maintaining the soil organic carbon balance, increasing nutrient cycling, promoting soil enzyme activity, enhancing soil aggregate stability and suppressing weed infestation. Nitrogen fertilization can markedly improve soil fertility and crop yield. However, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and the environment may be negatively affected by the improper application of N fertilizers. The improvement of NUE has been an important focus in field management for the more sustainable use of valuable N fertilizers. A better understanding of the interaction between N and mulch may improve NUE and crop yields. Inorganic mulches more efficiently alter the soil environment to enhance the NUE and crop yield, while organic mulching materials are more environmentally friendly and inexpensive. The selection of appropriate mulching materials should be combined with effective N management strategies, crop species, crop management practices and climatic conditions. In the future, precise nitrogen fertilizer management on farms and the development of relatively high-NUE and high-yielding crops will be highly feasible.
       
  • Chapter Two - Nitrogen Fertilization Management of Switchgrass, Miscanthus
           and Giant Reed: A Review
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 153Author(s): Andrea Monti, Walter Zegada-Lizarazu, Federica Zanetti, Michael Casler To successfully develop production systems for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), miscanthus (Miscanthus spp.), and giant reed (Arundo donax L.), accurate information on effective nitrogen fertilization management on different soil types, climate and growth conditions, and for specific end uses is essential. Nitrogen is the main element, along with water, that determines biomass productivity, but at the same time, it is also the most environmentally and economically impacting agronomic factor. Variation in rhizomes, soil biota, mycorrhizae, N deposition, absorption, mobilization, and N sources renders the uniform estimation of N need very byzantine. Moreover, the majority of studies refer to environmental conditions that are insufficiently defined or subject to peculiar local conditions that can lead to controversial or inconclusive results. The literature clearly shows that (i) great deal of uncertainty surrounds this subject, (ii) clear justifications of the N fertilization dose used in the context of agronomic trials are often missing, and (iii) researchers generally rely on common sense and personal experience, rather than sound science. Therefore, the present review has the ambition to help identify common denominators and guidelines to define the optimal N supply for switchgrass, miscanthus and giant reed as a function of environmental and growing conditions. This review addresses N supply for agronomic and ecological studies focused on biomass production and on breeding nurseries and trials focused on optimal cultivar development strategies.
       
  • Chapter One - Novel Practices and Smart Technologies to Maximize the
           Nitrogen Fertilizer Value of Manure for Crop Production in Cold Humid
           Temperate Regions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 153Author(s): Joann K. Whalen, Ben W. Thomas, Mehdi Sharifi Manure applications support crop production, maintain soil fertility, and recycle locally available nutrients in cold humid temperate regions, consistent with the principles of sustainable agriculture. Manure may be an excellent nitrogen (N) fertilizer for crops if it provides plant-available N as ammonium (NH4+) and from organic N mineralization in synchrony with crop N demands. The objective of this review was to describe the N fertilizer value of manure based on its physico-chemical characteristics, its transformation into plant-available N as modulated by soil abiotic and biotic conditions, and agronomic practices related to manure handling, storage, and land application. Methods of measuring the plant-available N released from manure and estimating its N fertilizer value are presented. Finally, we discuss how sensor networks can be used to optimize the N fertilizer value of manure. Our concept includes (1) a smart approach to conserve manure N in livestock production facilities and storages and (2) a smart system for precise spatio-temporal application of manure to deliver plant-available N in synchrony with crop N demands. Sensor networks that monitor real-time changes in ammonia (NH3) and oxygen concentrations should help to minimize losses of plant-available N during manure storage. On-the-go technologies for variable rate manure application will be linked with multispectral crop data and geospatial soil inputs to make a smart decision system that can maximize the N fertilizer value of manure in cold humid temperate regions.
       
  • Chapter Five - Ditch-buried straw return: A novel tillage practice
           combined with tillage rotation and deep ploughing in rice-wheat rotation
           systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 154Author(s): Haishui Yang, Jiajia Zhou, Jinxia Feng, Silong Zhai, Weiping Chen, Jian Liu, Xinmin Bian Rice-wheat rotation is the main farming system in the Yangtze River regions, and plays a critical role in maintaining food safety in China. However, some serious issues are emerging during agricultural production. One is that long-term conservation tillage leads to shallow and stringent ploughing layers. The other is that large quantity of straws is difficult to effectively manage in the limited rotation gaps between both crops. Our group designed a novel soil tillage practice, ditch-buried straw return (DB-SR), to overcome such problems. In this chapter, we summarized our current advances from 10-year's research for DB-SR in the rice-wheat rotation systems. DB-SR showed excellent straw incorporation capability, improvements in soil ecological processes as well as positive effects on pest control, crop growth and final yield performance. Our results suggested that DB-DR is effective in sustaining crop production and has a great potential for extension in the rice-wheat rotation farming regions. However, we also need more agricultural engineering scientists to join us for developing an all-in-one machine which supports this novel soil tillage practice.
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 153Author(s):
       
  • Chapter Four - Seasonal crop yield forecast: Methods, applications, and
           accuracies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 154Author(s): Bruno Basso, Lin Liu The perfect knowledge of yield before harvest has been a wish puzzling human being since the beginning of agriculture because seasonal forecast of crop yield plays a critical role in decision making for different stakeholders—from farmers to policy makers to governments for food security, to commodities traders. Different methods have been used to forecast yield with different levels of granularity, accuracy and timing.This chapter presents a critical review of the current seasonal crop yield forecasting methods found in the scientific literature. Extensive research has been conducted on crop yield forecast, particularly for wheat, maize, rice, barley, and soybean.Yield forecast are mainly based on field surveys, statistical regressions between historical yield and in-season variables (agrometeorological, or remotely sensed data), crop simulation models, or on integration between statistical modeling with dynamic process-based crop simulation models. A low number of studies rely on field surveys as a means to forecast yield, but they remain the main methods of yield forecast and estimation in several countries (i.e., USA). This chapter aims to report results found in peer-review journals for different crops, methods, geographies, and accuracies, and to end with a critical perspective on the advantage and disadvantage of the different methods currently employed by researchers and stakeholders.
       
  • Chapter Three - Uncertainties in soil physicochemical factors controlling
           phosphorus mineralization and immobilization processes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 154Author(s): Mary R. Arenberg, Yuji Arai It became increasingly important to regulate phosphorus (P) loss from P-rich agricultural fields because of accelerated eutrophication and hypoxia in freshwater and coastal marine systems in the world. Understanding the P stabilization mechanisms in soils, such as mineralization and immobilization, will help in adopting good agricultural management practices and implementing watershed-scale monitoring programs. This review examined the current knowledge of P mineralization and immobilization in soils and physicochemical factors that are influencing the terrestrial P cycle. It has been our common knowledge that a ratio of C:P in organic residue controls the fate of P in soils. Accepted thresholds for mineralization and immobilization are approximately 200:1 and 300:1, respectively. However, it was found that various abiotic and biotic factors influence the P mineralization and immobilization in soils. In this chapter, we reviewed P mineralization/immobilization studies that examined the impact of microbial C:P ratio, pH, labile organic and inorganic P, aeration, moisture content, types of organic C and N, microbial biomass, vegetation type, and microbial- and plant-driven phosphatase activity, and intensity of anthropogenic management. In summary, we presented uncertainties from conflicting results that require further examination.
       
  • Chapter Two - Research and innovation priorities as defined by the
           Ecophyto plan to address current crop protection transformation challenges
           in France
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 154Author(s): Jay Ram Lamichhane, Antoine Messéan, Pierre Ricci In the last decade, an extraordinary policy effort has been put in place to reduce the use of chemical plant protection products (PPPs) in French agriculture. This was done through a National Action Plan called Ecophyto which is the French response to the EU Framework Directive on the sustainable use of PPPs. The change in crop protection, required to meet the ambitious goal of Ecophyto, has generated three major research needs: first, exploration of new fields of knowledge (e.g., links between cropping systems, biodiversity and pest regulation), second, support of the unprecedented devices (e.g., pest monitoring system and farm network) put in place to accompany the transition phase, and third, reconsideration of issues related to pest management methods in the context of the changes of farming practices promoted by Ecophyto. To address these new research needs, Ecophyto has devoted a specific research and innovation (R&I) axis which prioritized relevant research questions covering eight thematic areas: (i) pest monitoring and decision-making, (ii) design of IPM solutions, (iii) diversification of pest control methods, (iv) durability and sustainability of these methods, (v) socio-economic aspects of the transition toward a low-input crop protection system, (vi) contribution of public policy for such a transition, (vii) development of indicators to assess the use and impacts of chemical PPPs, and (viii) effects on human health due to exposure to chemical PPPs. The resulting scientific program was disseminated through a diversity of calls for proposals which vastly mobilized public research, in partnership with agricultural experimentation networks and private research. This initiative has translated into dynamic and significant advances made by research which, in part, are already discernible. It will eventually produce a corpus of scientific knowledge and technical innovations which can contribute to the expected transition toward a low-input crop protection system, as long as farmers are associated in the design of sustainable IPM solutions and other concerned stakeholders of the sociotechnical system are mobilized.
       
  • Chapter One - Genesis of seleniferous soils and associated animal and
           human health problems
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 154Author(s): Karaj S. Dhillon, Surjit K. Dhillon, Bijay-Singh The soils containing selenium (Se) high enough to produce forages and grain crops with toxic level of Se for animal and human consumption are designated as seleniferous soils. Seleniferous soils located in several countries around the globe were developed under the action of similar factors and processes on the parent material as for the normal soils, but the parent material inherently contained high Se levels. Nevertheless, different anthropogenic activities like burning of fossil fuels, use of fertilizers, sewage sludge, and underground water for raising crops have also contributed to Se enrichment of soils. The baseline values of natural or geogenic Se in the soils revealed the extent to which soils may have been contaminated by anthropogenic activities over a period of time. Except that the farm produce contained high Se levels and many a times not suitable for human or animal consumption, the overall productivity potential of seleniferous soils is not adversely influenced due to high Se levels. The geochemical and soil characteristics control the speciation of Se, solid-phase distribution, and concentration in food components, which in turn determine the daily Se intake by animals and humans in a region. Daily intake of Se in human beings varied from 30 to 6690 μg day− 1 with the highest levels reported from the seleniferous regions. Consumption of> 400 μg Se day− 1 may lead to serious health hazards in humans. Chronic or acute Se toxicity causes loss of hair and nails in humans and blind staggers and alkali disease in livestock.
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 154Author(s):
       
  • Chapter Four - Utilizing Crop Wild Relatives to Combat Global Warming
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2019Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 153Author(s): Kodoth Prabhakaran Nair Global warming is a reality man has to live with. Future food security will be dependent on a combination of the stresses, both biotic and abiotic, imposed by climate change, variability of weather within the growing season, development of cultivars more suited to different ambient conditions, and the ability to develop effective adaptation strategies which allow these cultivars to express their genetic potential under the changing climate conditions. Those plant species which are very closely related to field crops, including their progenitors, having the potential to contribute beneficial traits for crop improvement, such as, resistance to an array of biotic and abiotic stresses, enriching the gene pool, leading ultimately to enhanced plant yield, thereby aiding humanity's relentless search for production of more food to meet the ever growing needs of a burgeoning world population, are Called the “Crop Wild Relatives”(CWRs). In fact, CWRs are known to have tremendous potential to sustain and enhance global food security, thereby contributing enormously to humanity's well-being. Therefore, their search, characterization and conservation in crop breeding programs assume great importance. Viewed against the recent upheavals in global climate change, the task becomes all the more important. Against the background of the disastrous after effects, especially the alarming environmental hazards of the highly soil extractive farming, euphemistically known as the “green revolution,” of the 1960s, the task assumes much cruciality. This chapter discusses, at length, the role of CWRs and how they can be tapped to enable mankind to ensure sustainability of food production.
       
 
 
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