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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3161 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3161 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 97, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 418, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 266, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 163, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 406, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 351, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 465, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)

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Journal Cover
Advances in Agronomy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.384
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 15  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0065-2113
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Enhancing Rapeseed Tolerance to Heat and Drought Stresses in a Changing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2018Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): Wei Wu, Bao–Luo Ma, Joann K. Whalen Globally, the increase in climatic variability is responsible for more frequent extreme heat and drought stress events. Heat and water stress have a devastating impact on plant growth, development, and formation of the yield components of rapeseed/canola, an important oilseed crop for human consumption and a renewable feedstock for biodiesel production. The growing demand for rapeseed/canola will not be met unless strategies are rapidly developed to sustain and improve crop yields and product quality in the context of global climate change. Therefore, the objective of this review is to discuss the development of rapeseed/canola varieties with enhanced tolerance to heat and drought stresses, as the most promising solution to improve crop productivity in the future. The genetic basis of stress tolerance has provided plant breeders with new options for efficient breeding programs that support high yield potentials under both favorable and stressful environments. This review provides an update on recent advances in characterizing the response of rapeseed/canola to heat and drought stresses, from the molecular level (i.e., signal transduction) to phenotypes at the whole-plant and agroecosystem scales. Of particular interest is the ability of the root system to alleviate abiotic stressors. Roots, as the “hidden half” of the plant, play a central role in acquiring water and nutrients (i.e., improving water and nutrient use efficiencies) as well as anchoring the crop so it can resist lodging and tolerate heat and drought stresses. Considering the urgent need to achieve sustainable production of rapeseed/canola under changing climatic conditions, it is essential to determine how the root system can mitigate abiotic stress. Modern methodologies to quantify root system architecture are presented. Finally, we describe root-specific tolerance mechanisms to abiotic stress and explain how this information can be used to direct breeding programs and decide on agronomic practices that support sustainable rapeseed/canola production now and under future climate change scenarios.
  • Basmati Rice in the Indian Subcontinent: Strategies to Boost Production
           and Quality Traits
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): Gulshan Mahajan, Amar Matloob, Rajbir Singh, Vijai Pal Singh, Bhagirath Singh Chauhan Basmati rice has long been popular in Asia due to its distinctive natural aroma and characteristic elongation of grains after cooking. Demand for Basmati is increasing worldwide, especially in the Middle East, Europe, and the United States. Basmati rice from India and Pakistan earns almost three-times the price of high quality non-Basmati rice in the domestic and the international markets. Despite this, the development of high-yielding Basmati rice varieties has not kept pace with indica rice because of its incompatibility with improved indica, resulting in highly sterile crosses of indica x Basmati. Polygenic control over some of the quality traits in Basmati rice is another limitation, complicating attempts to combine desirable traits such as high yield, superior cooking quality, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this article, an attempt has been made to review the historical development of Basmati quality and aroma traits in the Indian subcontinent under different environmental and agronomic conditions. Special emphasis is given to the problems and prospects of Basmati rice breeding, with reference to trade, policy, marketing, and future research programs.
  • Increasing World Average Yields of Cereal Crops: It's All About Water
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): B.A. Stewart, Rattan Lal Food demand of the growing and increasingly affluent world population may necessitate additional food grains production by the year 2100 by 1 billion Mg and meat production by 200 million Mg. However, of the 3 billion Mg food grains produced globally, ∼30% are wasted through postharvest losses in developing countries and an inefficient supply chain system in developed nations. Rather than increasing the area under production, an appropriate strategy is to reduce food waste and enhance productivity of drylands through adoption of an efficient irrigation system or use of conservation agriculture based on no-till, residue mulch, cover cropping, and integrated nutrient management. Grain yield (GY) is affected by the product of four factors: evapotranspiration (ET), transpiration: ET ratio (T/ET), 1/TR, and the harvest index (HI) [GY = ET × 1/TR × HI]. TR or transpiration ratio is the kg of water required to produce 1 kg of the aboveground biomass. The most impact determinant of GY is ET. Thus, conserving water in the root zone is essential to improving agronomic productivity of dryland agriculture. By narrowing the yield gap and conserving water in the root zone, it is technically feasible to produce the cereals needed to meet the global demand by the year 2100 on 0.5 billion ha of cropland. However, the importance of judicious governance for translating science of water management into action cannot be overemphasized. After all, it's all about water. Its judicious management is critical to enhance ET, improve GY, and advance food and nutritional security.
  • Transformative, Systemic Learning in Agronomic Research and Education
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): D.M. Vietor A more holistic perspective concerning benefits of farms to society was envisioned for research and education relevant to current Science Frontiers of the American Society of Agronomy (ASA). A transformative approach in which interdisciplinary research contributed to productive and sustainable agricultural systems in the world was proposed. Career experiences of the author revealed both challenges and opportunities inherent to holistic approaches involving the contrasting worldviews represented among multiple research disciplines and diverse stakeholders. The objectives were (1) develop a learning system that accommodated diverse disciplinary knowledge and human values and affect in the context of agroecosystems and (2) relate a model of systemic learning to research and education relevant to the ASA Science Frontiers. The author's holistic perspective of learning emerged during a shift from purposive learning, which emphasized goal-oriented research and education focused on systems in the world, to purposeful and critical learning about learning itself. Models of systemic learning were developed to represent relationships among learner experiences and worldviews, affective phenomena, cognition, and action. Metalearning about systemic learning itself, including relationships of culture, ethics, and politics to worldviews of stakeholders, contributed to the transformative nature of the systemic learning models. Critical evaluations of the systemic learning models provided a seminal example of an epistemology for integrating human values, norms, and affective phenomena during research and education relevant to ASA Science Frontiers.
  • Laser Diffractometry in the Measurements of Soil and Sediment Particle
           Size Distribution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): Andrzej Bieganowski, Magdalena Ryżak, Agata Sochan, Gyöngyi Barna, Hilda Hernádi, Michał Beczek, Cezary Polakowski, András Makó The laser diffraction method (LDM) is a relatively new technique that is increasingly used in measurements of the particle size distribution (PSD) of soil and sediments. It has significant advantages (high precision, simple and rapid measurement) but the PSDs obtained by LDM often differ from those obtained with previously used sieve-sedimentation methods (SSMs). The main factors influencing the measurements that use LDM (among others: soil pretreatment, construction of the device settings of the operator, specificity of soil material, and the problem of fulfilling the assumptions of the method) are presented and the problem of comparability with SSM. New areas of investigations using LDM are also discussed. The work concludes with a set of postulates that should be taken into account to standardize LDM and increase the comparability of results, not only with SSMs but also with the PSDs obtained in other laboratories, including the diffractometers deriving from other producers.
  • A Review of Tillage Practices and Their Potential to Impact the Soil
           Carbon Dynamics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2018Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): Promil Mehra, John Baker, Robert E. Sojka, Nanthi Bolan, Jack Desbiolles, Mary B. Kirkham, Craig Ross, Risha Gupta The intensification of global agriculture has led to a decline in arable land. Globally, agriculture intensification has not only degraded the soil quality but also contributed to increasing the greenhouse gas (GHG) levels. These concerns attract the interest of environmental scientists and academicians to find ways to sequester more carbon (C) in the agricultural soils. Tillage is one method that can affect biological C sequestration and effects the GHG production. The components of GHGs are produced slowly from the soil through the reactions taking place between C and nutrients (nitrogen in particular), which remain present in the soil. An understanding of biological C sequestration processes in agricultural production systems can lead to potentially cost-effective strategies able to mitigate global warming. Globally, the shift in tillage practice from conventional tillage to no-tillage is effectively protecting soils under cropping, improving their quality—or reducing their rate of soil organic matter decline—as well as enhancing the resilience of cropping systems. This review summarizes the current knowledge about no-till technology and its impacts on soil properties related to carbon dynamics and explores the potential role of tillage practices in mitigating climate change.
  • Biosurfactants for Sustainable Soil Management
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): Zulfiqar Ahmad, Muhammad Imran, Samia Qadeer, Sabir Hussain, Rukhsana Kausar, Lorna Dawson, Azeem Khalid Degradation of soil resources is a serious global environmental issue and it may be made worse by climate change. It is important that soils should be handled with a careful consideration for sustainable agricultural production using environmental friendly techniques. The use of the biosurfactants and also biosurfactants producing microorganisms to improve soil health and to bioremediate polluted soils is an emerging approach. This review is primarily focused on the use of biosurfactants produced by microorganisms and their application to restore soil health and improve agricultural production in a sustainable way. As a perspective of this review, it is proposed that future studies should explain how and when these approaches can be feasible in terms of production costs and availability of these compounds. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review highlighting the potential applicability of biosurfactants and biosurfactants producing microorganisms for sustainable soil management.
  • The Role of Soil Organic Matter for Maintaining Crop Yields: Evidence for
           a Renewed Conceptual Basis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): Per Schjønning, Johannes L. Jensen, Sander Bruun, Lars S. Jensen, Bent T. Christensen, Lars J. Munkholm, Myles Oelofse, Sanmohan Baby, Leif Knudsen Soil organic carbon (SOC) is believed to play a crucial role for many soil functions and ecosystem services. Despite much research, a lower threshold of SOC for sustainable crop production has not been identified across soil types. We addressed a comprehensive dataset with yields of winter wheat for nearly a 1000 field nitrogen (N) response experiments performed over 3 decades in Denmark. The soils ranged from coarse sand to clay loam (0.016–0.406 kg clay kg− 1 minerals) with SOC ranging from 0.005 to 0.039 kg kg− 1 minerals. All experiments were located on arable soil that was fully fertilized with all other plant nutrients. Based on the yield response at 4–6 levels of applied mineral N, we estimated the potential yield not restricted by any nutrient, Ypot, the yield at no applied N, YN0, the marginal agronomic efficiency (AEN0) in terms of the increase in yield per unit of applied N at zero N, and the level of mineral N, Nopt, needed to obtain Ypot. YN0 increased with Fines20 (proportion of soil minerals < 20 μm). AEN0 decreased with SOC independent of soil type. Nopt decreased with increase in SOC. Ypot increased significantly with a squared expression of Fines20 and decreased significantly with SOC. Ypot was better explained by RH = Fines20/SOC than SOC per se. Our results indicate a positive effect of SOC in terms of a reduction of mineral N needed to obtain the potential crop yield, and a negative effect on Ypot. We suggest a multigate regulation concept for future studies addressing the non-N effect of SOC. We further draw attention to the importance of the quality of the SOC for better understanding effects on crop yields.
  • Antiinflammatory Potential of Medicinal Plants: A Source for Therapeutic
           Secondary Metabolites
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2018Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): Nirit Bernstein, Muhammad Akram, Muhammad Daniyal, Hinanit Koltai, Marcelo Fridlender, Jonathan Gorelick Plants containing natural products have been used worldwide in traditional medicine since antiquity and are a source of potential and powerful drugs. The potential of higher plants as a source for new drugs is still largely unexplored, and among the estimated 250,000–500,000 plant species, only a small fraction has been submitted to biological or pharmacological screening. Medicinal plants and their isolated compounds are utilized worldwide in traditional medicine for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions, and the therapeutic potential of traditionally used plants and their constituents is currently a target of research in the pursuit of novel antiinflammatory drugs. Inflammation is the normal reaction of animal living tissue to all forms of injury. It is a dynamic and complex tissue reaction provoked by cellular injury, which involves a cascade of biochemical events. Although inflammation is a protective measure taken by the organism to eliminate the injurious stimuli, uncontrolled inflammation can lead to damage. For this reason, inflammation is closely regulated by the body or with the aid of administrated antiinflammatory compounds. The search for alternative substances capable of interfering with the inflammatory process has become a significant issue in scientific research, especially with reference to the search for natural substances and the reduction of negative side effects of conventional medications. Although dozens of plant species were reported in ethnomedicine for the treatment of inflammation, only a fraction of these were confirmed in antiinflammatory studies. This review evaluates the current state of knowledge concerning promising antiinflammatory activity of herbal plants and plant substances that have been tested in inflammatory models using modern scientific systems.
  • Integrated Management of Soil Fertility and Land Resources in Sub-Saharan
           Africa: Involving Local Communities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018Source: Advances in AgronomyAuthor(s): Vincent B. Bado, André Bationo The soils of sub-Saharan Africa are characterized by their poverty in nutrients along with low clay and organic carbon content and low exchange capacity. There is high pressure on land resources with the quick growth of population and demand for food. Maintaining the fertility of cultivated soils and land resources is a challenge. Since the paradigm of “external input” in the 1960s and 1970s, to the latest concept of integrated soil fertility management, most of the approaches remain crop oriented or livestock oriented with less attention to local communities (LC), which are at the heart of land resource management. This chapter suggests a new integrated and holistic approach involving LC for land resources management, including cultivated soils and rangelands. A global framework is proposed for development of management options of land resources with LC. It is a dynamic process of participative management of lands as providers of services for the entire community.
  • Chapter Six - Rice in Saline Soils: Physiology, Biochemistry, Genetics,
           and Management
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 148Author(s): Mubshar Hussain, Shakeel Ahmad, Sajjad Hussain, Rattan Lal, Sami Ul-Allah, Ahmad Nawaz Salt stress is an acute threat to plants, especially to field crops in irrigated and saline areas of the world. Rice is the second staple crop of the world after wheat, and its production is strongly affected by salinity. Therefore, to ensure food security, it is crucial to manage salt stress for sustainable rice production under saline conditions. Plant physiological, biochemical, and genetic characteristics play an important role in the adaptation of rice to saline environments. Further, the knowledge of the relationship among these characteristics is necessary to manage the salt stress and achieve optimal rice production. This review focuses on the response of rice to salinity stress; its physiological, biochemical, and genetic changes; its adaptation to saline soils through osmoregulation, ion homeostasis, apoplastic acidification, synthesis of antioxidants, genes, and hormonal regulations; and synthesis of stress-responsive proteins. Future research is needed on management strategies such as breeding for salt-tolerant cultivars, application of molecular markers to select salt-tolerant germplasm, potential of genetic transformation for salinity resistance, application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and plant growth-regulating rhizobacteria, nutrient management, and seed priming techniques for sustainable rice production in saline areas. In conclusion, salt stress affects metabolism and physiology of rice and reduces the agronomic yield. Therefore, development of salt-tolerant genotypes may be a prudent strategy to manage the salinity. Focused research on integration of different management options can lead to sustainable rice production in saline areas which may contribute significantly to global food security.
  • Chapter Five - Distributed Temperature Sensing for Soil Physical
           Measurements and Its Similarity to Heat Pulse Method
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 148Author(s): Hailong He, Miles F. Dyck, Robert Horton, Min Li, Huijun Jin, Bingcheng Si Application of the distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system in environmental and earth sciences is a rapidly evolving field. The aim of this review is to provide information to the novice and expert alike for the use of a DTS system for soil physical measurements. DTS is capable of measuring soil temperature at scales of meters to kilometers, and soil thermal properties and water contents can be derived based on DTS-measured temperatures. This literature review summarizes the interdisciplinary results obtained by theoretical, experimental, and numerical methods in laboratory and field investigations. This review is organized as follows: (1) review of theories and principles for Raman-DTS, the components of a DTS system, methods for measurements, calibration, data interpretation, and accuracy and precision assessment of the DTS method for soil science and hydrological application; (2) discussion of the applications of the DTS method for soil temperature, thermal properties, and water/moisture measurement; and (3) discussion of the limitations and perspectives for the application of DTS and its similarity to the heat pulse method. The chapter closes with a brief overview of future needs and opportunities for further development and application of the DTS method.
  • Chapter Four - Soil Processes and Wheat Cropping Under Emerging Climate
           Change Scenarios in South Asia
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 148Author(s): Mangi L. Jat, Bijay-Singh, Clare M. Stirling, Hanuman S. Jat, Jagdish P. Tetarwal, Raj K. Jat, Rajbir Singh, Santiago Lopez-Ridaura, Paresh B. Shirsath Wheat is one of the most important staple foods as it provides 55% of the carbohydrates and 20% of the food calories and protein consumed worldwide. Demand for wheat is projected to continue to grow over the coming decades, particularly in the developing world, to feed an increasing population. More than 22% of global area under wheat is located in South Asia which is home to about 25% of the world's population. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has projected that in the 21st century South Asia is going to be hit hard by climate change. Changes in mean annual temperature will exceed 2°C above the late-20th-century baseline and there can be declines in the absolute amount of precipitation during December to February, when wheat is grown in the region. Temperature, precipitation, and enhanced CO2 level in the atmosphere, the three climate change drivers can affect wheat cropping both directly at plant level and indirectly through changes in properties and processes in the soil, shifts in nutrient cycling, insect pest occurrence, and plant diseases. Studies pertaining to the effects of climate change on soil processes and properties are now becoming available and it is becoming increasingly clear that climate change will impact soil organic matter dynamics, including soil organisms and the multiple soil properties that are tied to organic matter, soil water, and soil erosion. Warmer conditions will stimulate soil N availability through higher rates of mineralization so that fertilizer management in wheat is also going to be governed by emerging climate change scenarios. Similarly, higher temperatures and altered precipitation regimes will determine the net irrigation water requirements of wheat. Several simulation models have projected reduced wheat yields in the emerging climate change scenarios, but occurrence of an extreme heat event around senescence can lead to crop models to underestimate the effects of heat on senescence by as much as 50% for late sowing dates for 2°C rise in mean temperature. So as to project productivity of wheat in South Asia in the emerging climate change scenarios with increased certainty, integrated holistic modeling studies will be needed which also take into account effect of extreme heat events as well as the contribution of altered soil processes and properties.
  • Chapter Three - Establishing High-Yielding Maize System for Sustainable
           Intensification in China
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 148Author(s): Qingfeng Meng, Zhenling Cui, Haishun Yang, Fusuo Zhang, Xinping Chen Although importance of high-yielding maize system for food security has been extensively studied and discussed worldwide, more must be done in the context of improving yield while simultaneously reducing agricultural environmental costs to achieve sustainable intensification (SI). Using China's maize production as an example, we discussed the system with equal emphasis on high yield and high nitrogen (N) use efficiency in regards to SI. Through yield potentials and gaps analysis with the help of crop modeling, the high-yielding maize system was designed and developed to make maximum use of solar energy and growing season with favorable temperatures via genetics × environment × management (G × E × M) interactions. In this high-yielding system compared with the low-yielding traditional farmers system, total dry matter increased with stable harvest index, aboveground plant N uptake requirement per grain yield deceased largely, and the percentage of the dry matter and N accumulation during the middle-late growing season increased significantly. Accordingly, an in-season root-zone N management was developed for high-yielding maize system to match the total N requirement by crop in application amount, placement, and timing for nonlimiting N supply with minimum losses to the environment. The high-yielding system showed great potential for SI which reduced N2O and other greenhouse gas emission intensity by 10%–30%. Moreover, we suggest future research direction for high-yielding maize system to address multiply challenges in a changing world including climate change, resource depletion and shortage, and soil constrains and degradation to ensure food security.
  • Chapter Five - Legacy Nutrient Dynamics at the Watershed Scale:
           Principles, Modeling, and Implications
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 149Author(s): Dingjiang Chen, Hong Shen, Mingpeng Hu, Jiahui Wang, Yufu Zhang, Randy A. Dahlgren Legacy nutrient accumulation from excess anthropogenic inputs has become a serious environmental issue in many watersheds worldwide. In this review, we provide a systematic overview of sources, legacy nutrient pools, watershed-scale water quality models, and agronomic and environmental implications of legacy nitrogen and phosphorus pools. Hydrological, biogeochemical, and anthropogenic factors exert interacting controls on legacy nutrient dynamics in soils, sediments, and vadose zone/groundwater. Most current watershed models do not effectively incorporate legacy nutrient dynamics, while models that consider legacy effect often have high uncertainty in their treatment of legacy nutrient dynamics. In many intensively managed watersheds, legacy nutrients are a dominant and long-term (> 10 years) source of nutrients to receiving waters, as well as a potentially important nutrient source for crop production. Many existing beneficial management measures have limitations for reducing legacy nutrient losses to surface waters due to appreciable differences in legacy nutrient forms, watershed storage locations, and temporal dynamics compared to those of contemporary nutrient inputs. Recognizing the importance of legacy nutrients is necessary for developing sustainable watershed nutrient management plans for future food, bioenergy, and water security. These plans require strategies to maximize use of legacy nutrient resources to minimize their loss to the atmosphere (e.g., N2O emissions) and surface waters. Finally, this synthesis identified future research needs for improving the understanding, utilization, and mitigation of watershed legacy nutrient pools.
  • Chapter One - Biochar Effects on Rice Paddy: Meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 148Author(s): Yasser M. Awad, Jinyang Wang, Avanthi D. Igalavithana, Daniel C.W. Tsang, Ki-Hyun Kim, Sang S. Lee, Yong Sik Ok Rice is staple for nearly half of the world population. Biochar (BC) improves crop yields, reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and immobilizes heavy metals in the soil. This study was aimed to meta-analyze the data from the published articles focused on the various BCs’ effects on rice yield, soil acidity, GHG emissions, and bioavailability of Cd and Pb. The data of pyrolysis temperature, application rate, and feedstock of BCs were categorized by using the MetaWin software for calculating the mean effect sizes (E) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared to the control, the BCs increased soil pH and rice yield by 11.8% (medium E +: 0.436 to 0.439) and 16% (large E +: 0.790 to 0.883), respectively. Applying BCs derived from different feedstocks and pyrolysis temperatures reduced N2O emissions from rice paddies (large E −: − 0.692 to − 0.863). The BCs produced at 550–600°C reduced the GHG emission with medium to large negative effects (E −: − 1.571 to − 0.413). Applications of BCs at a range of 41–50 t ha− 1 were the best for rice productivity. Applications of all types and rates of BCs showed the significant decrease of available Cd by 35.4%–38.0% in a soil and led to the Cd reduction by an average of 43.6% in rice grains compared to the untreated soils. Applying BC is a promising approach to meet the challenges of sustainable global rice production, and the properties of BCs should be fully characterized and designed depending on its needs prior to its application.
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 148Author(s):
  • Chapter Four - The Importance of Sustained Grassland and Environmental
           Research: A Case Study From North Wyke Research Station, UK, 1982–2017
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 149Author(s): Martin S.A. Blackwell, Steve C. Jarvis, Roger J. Wilkins, Deborah A. Beaumont, Laura M. Cardenas, David R. Chadwick, Adrian L. Collins, Jennifer A.J. Dungait, Malcolm J. Gibb, Alan Hopkins, Michael R.F. Lee, Tom H. Misselbrook, Philip J. Murray, Jerry R.B. Tallowin This chapter reviews contributions made to agricultural and environmental science and practice from research on temperate grassland carried out from 1982 to present at Rothamsted Research's North Wyke Research Station, Devon, UK. It describes the evolution of the research program and demonstrates the importance of sustained, interdisciplinary, and collaborative research. North Wyke has maintained a clear research focus, alongside an ability to adapt to changing grassland and environmental research needs and funding sources, and despite having changed affiliations on several occasions. The substantial contribution to agricultural and environmental science arising from the research station has influenced and continues to influence farm practice, research, and policy nationally and internationally. Some key topics have included nutrient cycling, farm waste management, gaseous emissions, biodiversity, grazing management, animal production (meat and milk), and forage quality. Currently, North Wyke Research Station is leading the way on taking increasingly holistic approaches to researching more efficient, sustainable approaches to grazing-livestock agricultural production. This involves the use of world-leading, facilities such as the North Wyke Farm Platform, comprising three farmlets, designed to test the productivity and environmental sustainability of contrasting temperate grassland beef and sheep systems. Future perspectives highlight key challenges facing the agricultural industry including climate change mitigation and adaptation, and the growing world population. Opportunities exist to tackle these challenges through technological advances, but also through increased integration of agricultural, environmental, economic and social research. North Wyke Research Station provides an example of a research facility where such challenges can be addressed.
  • Chapter Three - Cracks and Potholes in Vertisols: Characteristics,
           Occurrence, and Management
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 149Author(s): Jayaraman Somasundaram, Rattan Lal, Nishant K. Sinha, Ram Dalal, Adhinarayanan Chitralekha, Ranjeet S. Chaudhary, Ashok K. Patra Vertisols constitute one of the unique soil orders, with distinct characteristics including self-mulching, swelling and shrinking, cracking, and pothole formation; and excessive surface runoff and soil erosion during high rainfall. Cracks are among distinct features and are used as defining criteria of Vertisols in Soil Taxonomy. The process of cracking is a significant researchable issue in soil science with regards to the occurrence, formation, management, and modeling. Management of Vertisols is a challenging task because of specific physical constraints such as narrow workable range of soil moisture, peculiar consistency of sticky when wet and very hard when dry, and cracking. The cracking pattern is affected by a variety of factors including clay content, soil moisture, tillage practices, cropping system, and land use. In addition, cracking is also affected by type and amount of clay and the moisture regime. Cracks can have both positive and negative influence on the soil–plant system. Soil cracks provide a passage for quick water entry into the deeper layer of soil profile in the rainy season, in turn reducing risks of soil erosion and enhancing the soil moisture reserves. On the other hand, slumping surface soils through cracks results in formation of potholes which exacerbate risks of ground water pollution. Cracks can aggravate losses by evaporation of irrigation- or rain water from the greater evaporating surface area during the postirrigation/rainy season. Increase in evaporative loss has implications to scheduling of irrigation and the quantity of water application. Cracks are also important to the movement of water down the soil profile following the prolonged/extended dry season, but are also a cause of extrawater losses through evaporation from the cracks’ surfaces. Despite their significance, scientific and practical knowledge about crack management in Vertisols is scanty. Cracking patterns in soil can be modified by tillage practices, organic amendments, and crop residue management. Therefore, suitable land management practices include measures for conserving the ground water such as permanent broad bed and furrow, and ridge-furrow systems used in conjunction with the application of organic manures and amendments and conservation tillage system. Such measures can decrease the formation of wide cracks, reduce loss of water through evaporation in semiarid environment, and improve soil health. This chapter describes occurrence, formation, characterization, and management of cracks and potholes for sustaining soil health and enhancing crop productivity on Vertisols.
  • Chapter Two - On the Use of Silicon as an Agronomic Mitigation Strategy to
           Decrease Arsenic Uptake by Rice
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 149Author(s): Angelia L. Seyfferth, Matt A. Limmer, Gretchen E. Dykes Rice is a staple food for over half the global population and its sustainable production is directly linked to global food security. Rice yield and human health are threatened by arsenic (As) contamination in rice grain. Arsenic enters rice mainly because the geochemical parameters under which rice is conventionally grown mobilize soil As, and because three of the four predominant As species are taken up by rice roots along the efficient silicon (Si) transport pathway. Several strategies have been explored to decrease toxic As uptake by rice including water management, plant breeding and genetic approaches, and Si management. Water management is effective at decreasing As uptake by rice and decreases methane (CH4) emissions, but may decrease rice yield and increase grain cadmium (Cd) content and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Plant breeding or genetic approaches aim to select for or engineer cultivars that limit grain As. Si management aims to increase plant-available Si to compete with As for root uptake. Addition of Si improves rice yield, particularly when plants are stressed with As. Si also affects As speciation, both in the porewater and in the plant, Fe plaque mineral composition and quantity, and greenhouse gas emissions, although performance is amendment specific. More research is needed to mechanistically understand the diverse interactions between Si and As in sorption, porewater chemistry, microbial processes, plant uptake of As, and grain accumulation and speciation of As. Because of the plethora of beneficial effects of Si, Si holds tremendous promise as a sustainable soil amendment in the effort to mitigate rice accumulation of As.
  • Chapter One - Advances in Molecular Approaches for Understanding Soil
           Organic Matter Composition, Origin, and Turnover: A Historical Overview
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 149Author(s): Ingrid Kögel-Knabner, Cornelia Rumpel Individual molecular components of soil organic matter (SOM) have been studied since the early 19th century. Their characterization is essential, because knowledge of the molecular structures constituting SOM allows for the detailed understanding of its origin and the processes implicated in soil C sequestration. This provides the basis for target-oriented development of management practices to optimize ecosystem services provided by soil. The aim of this review is to give an overview about the major analytical developments and the information gain that could be achieved by application of molecular methods in SOM research. Up to the 1980s, studies concentrated on the characterization of the chemical nature of SOM. Analyses were mainly based on soluble OM compounds, which were fractionated chemically into humic and fulvic acids. During the 1990s, the focus changed and scientists were more interested in biological processes controlling SOM formation and its dynamics. Introduction of physical fractionation and combination of molecular and isotopic techniques allowed assessment of composition, origin, and turnover of SOM within specific localizations in the mineral soil matrix. Analyses of the dynamics of single molecules led to a massive change of paradigms. Long residence times of SOM are no longer explained by chemical recalcitrance but by microbial products being stabilized by the interaction with soil minerals and microbial inaccessibility. In recent years, techniques yielding results with high molecular and spatial resolution were introduced, which will allow the acquisition of much more detailed information, moving a step further toward elucidating the nature and properties of SOM.
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 149Author(s):
  • Chapter Two - Stabilization of Soil Organic Carbon as Influenced by Clay
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2018Source: Advances in Agronomy, Volume 148Author(s): Mandeep Singh, Binoy Sarkar, Subhas Sarkar, Jock Churchman, Nanthi Bolan, Sanchita Mandal, Manoj Menon, Tapan J. Purakayastha, David J. Beerling There is a growing concern about climate change, and soils have attracted significant research attention as a sink for atmospheric CO2. Mechanisms of soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization have received much focus recently due to its relevance in controlling the global C cycle. The purpose of this chapter is to review our existing knowledge of soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics with special reference to the role of clay mineralogy in the retention and stabilization of OC in soil. A good understanding of the stabilization mechanisms of SOM will help in adopting good management practices for SOM storage, improving soil structure and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Here we present the SOM dynamics in relation to their sources and sinks, factors affecting SOC sequestration, and various processes involved in SOM stabilization. We critically review the studies examining soil, environmental, and management factors impacting SOM stabilization with a special reference to clay mineralogy. Finally, we present some future research needs in this area.
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