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Showing 1 - 200 of 3030 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 79, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 19)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.054, h-index: 35)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.801, h-index: 26)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.139, h-index: 42)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 304, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 390, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.354, h-index: 22)
Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in Agronomy
  [SJR: 2.071]   [H-I: 82]   [15 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 0065-2113
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3030 journals]
  • Preventive Weed Management in Direct-Seeded Rice: Targeting the Weed
    • Authors: Adusumilli N. Rao; Daniel C. Brainard; Virender Kumar; Jagdish K. Ladha; David E. Johnson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Adusumilli N. Rao, Daniel C. Brainard, Virender Kumar, Jagdish K. Ladha, David E. Johnson
      In Asia, direct-seeded rice (DSR) is becoming popular as an alternative to puddled transplanted rice (PTR) due to its potential to save scarce resources (labor, water, and energy), reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve soil physical properties, and increase yields in rotational crops. However, weed management in DSR is more difficult because the initial size differential between weeds and rice is small, reducing crop competitiveness and limiting opportunities for selective control measures including flooding. In this context, preventive approaches—those which focus primarily on limiting dispersal and persistence of weed propagules—may play a critical role in complementing the current reliance on curative tactics such as herbicides. Greater understanding and integration of preventive approaches in DSR may reduce the risks of herbicide resistance development, limit adverse effects of herbicides on human health and the environment, and lower the overall weed management costs. However, information on preventive weed management in DSR is relatively limited. Therefore, the central objectives of this review are to: (i) summarize existing knowledge regarding preventive strategies; (ii) discuss key integrated preventive weed management approaches that have the greatest potential for practical application in DSR systems; and (iii) identify knowledge gaps that limit our ability to optimize preventive approaches. Based on an extensive review of existing literature, we conclude that (i) Minimizing weed seed production in the field is critically important for managing weed seedbanks in DSR, but that given seed dispersal in both time and space, prevention of seed production from neighboring bunds, rice–fallow land and irrigation channels bordering DSR areas may be equally important; (ii) Minimizing dispersal of weed seeds into DSR fields may be a practical approach for species that are dispersed primarily by humans (e.g., as contaminants in crop seeds or through irrigation canals), but not for species that are dispersed primarily by other means (wind and birds); (iii) Promotion of seed predation may be a useful strategy in managing certain weed species in DSR—especially where zero-tillage is used—but more research is needed on the identity of seed predators and management factors that promote their activity; (iv) available evidence suggests that the potential for promotion of seed decay is limited in scope but may be valuable for the management of certain relatively nonpersistent weeds in some cropping systems; (v) strategies that stimulate fatal germination of weed seeds (e.g., stale seedbed) appear to be one of the most promising means of prevention in DSR, but increased information on the mechanisms and timing of dormancy release for key species is needed to optimize and enhance the value of this approach; (vi) Prevention of weed germination and emergence in DSR through mulching—especially in zero-till systems—has proven benefits, but its widespread applicability is limited by the economic tradeoffs associated with using mulch as a source of livestock feed; and (vii) development of anaerobic germination (AG)-tolerant rice cultivars and complementary flooding strategies which can tolerate anaerobic conditions/flooding hold great potential for the suppression of weeds in DSR. Successful integration of preventive approaches for managing weeds in DSR will depend on the development of multidisciplinary approaches which are biologically effective, economically feasible, and socially acceptable. Preventive weed control measures alone are unlikely to be sufficient for the effective and economical management of weeds in DSR systems, but their integration with curative approaches should reduce weed management costs and increase both the likelihood of adoption of DSR and the realization of its benefits for food security.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T10:37:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.02.002
  • An Important Tool With No Instruction Manual: A Review of Gypsum Use in
    • Authors: Samuel M. Zoca; Chad Penn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Samuel M. Zoca, Chad Penn
      Land application of gypsum has been studied and utilized in agriculture and environmental remediation for many years. Most of the published literature has focused on gypsum application impacts on soil properties rather than crop yields. This literature review was conducted to (i) gather results from gypsum application studies relevant to crop grain yield, soil physical–chemical properties, and environmental impact; (ii) report different methods for determining gypsum application rates; (iii) suggest recommendations for future studies on land application of gypsum. Improvement in plant nitrogen use efficiency was rarely discussed as a potential mechanism for improving yield. Free Al activity has been demonstrated to be more correlated with plant yield responses to gypsum application than exchangeable Al or Al saturation. However, few authors reported Al speciation and Al activity. While gypsum is reported to improve soil chemical properties in most cases, these changes do not necessarily translate to increases in yield. Improvements in physical properties for nonsodic soils are not consistent. It is difficult to exactly determine the positive effects from gypsum application that are responsible for yield increases, since there are often many simultaneous physical and chemical changes occurring in the soil. Improvement in crop yield may be a result of an additive or synergistic effect of each of these potential changes. In addition, these potential changes, as varied as they are, appear to also vary with crop, soil type, and rainfall regime. Therefore, meta-analysis of gypsum experiments is highly recommended in order to improve gypsum recommendations across diverse environments.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T10:37:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.03.001
  • Series page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 143

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T10:37:29Z
  • Humin: Its Composition and Importance in Soil Organic Matter
    • Authors: Michael H.B.; Hayes Rosaleen Mylotte Roger Swift
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Michael H.B. Hayes, Rosaleen Mylotte, Roger S. Swift
      Humin is the insoluble component of soil organic matter (SOM) that remains after extraction of the other components of SOM that are soluble in aqueous base. Humin usually makes up a substantial component of SOM, but its lack of solubility and intractable nature have made it difficult to study. To put this contemporary review of humin into perspective, a summary of the historical development of SOM studies and the terminology used to describe the various components of SOM is presented. Two major recent advances, namely, sophisticated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and the introduction of a solvent system (acidified dimethylsulfoxide) capable of dissolving humin, have facilitated studies of its composition. The NMR techniques used are briefly explained and the results obtained from their application are presented. Based on this information, the possible contributions to humin of various plant/soil components are assessed. The major components of the humin are predominantly aliphatic hydrocarbon functionalities, especially those found in lipids, waxes, cuticular materials, cutin/cutan, and suberin/suberan, which are relatively minor components of plants. There is also evidence for small amounts of carbohydrate (possibly highly ordered cellulose), peptide, and peptidoglycans; but there is little evidence for lignin-derived structures. The composition of humin differs considerably from the base-soluble components of the SOM. All components of SOM eventually decompose but at different rates, but the accumulation of humin constituents relative to their levels in plants indicates that they are relatively resistant to decomposition. The environmental consequences of humin composition and the opportunities presented are discussed and future possibilities outlined.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T10:24:52Z
  • Soil: The Forgotten Piece of the Water, Food, Energy Nexus
    • Authors: Jerry L. Hatfield; Thomas J. Sauer; Richard M. Cruse
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Jerry L. Hatfield, Thomas J. Sauer, Richard M. Cruse
      The water, food, energy nexus has prompted sustainability concerns as interactions between these interdependent human needs are degrading natural resources required for a secure future world. Discussions about the future needs for food, water, and energy to support the increasing world population have ignored our soil resource that is the cornerstone or our capacity to produce food, capture water, and generate energy from biological systems. Soil scientists often recognize soils as a critical component of food, energy, or water security; however, the translation of that awareness into action strategies to either enhance public recognition of soil resource importance or improve soil management is lacking. Food, water, and energy security represents the current and future challenge of sustaining humankind while protecting the environment. These interactions are recognized by scientists, but the linkage to policy decisions or implementation of strategies to create positive outcomes for food, energy, or water enhancement is lacking. If we consider that soil is responsible for 99% of the world's food production, then the importance of soil in the food, energy, water nexus becomes apparent. If we further consider that soil erosion is the major factor, affecting soil degradation and declines in productivity are directly related to degradation of the soil resource, then the implications of soil in the context of increasing food, energy, and water security becomes more evident. However, if the attitude is one that technology will provide answers to these problems, then the soil degradation rate will continue to increase and we will reach a tipping point in which technological advances will not be able to overcome the impacts of a reduced topsoil depth coupled with a more variable climate. Soil is the forgotten piece of the food, energy, water nexus; however, the oversight extends beyond this nexus to include many of the ecological services required by humankind.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T13:25:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.02.001
  • Delineation of Soil Management Zones for Variable-Rate Fertilization: A
    • Authors: Said Nawar; Ronald Corstanje; Graham Halcro; David Mulla; Abdul M. Mouazen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Said Nawar, Ronald Corstanje, Graham Halcro, David Mulla, Abdul M. Mouazen
      Different methods of management zone (MZ) delineation have been established over the past 2 decades based on approaches, which have been largely constrained by the available data collection methods that are often time consuming and expensive. This situation is being changed by recent advances in sensor technology, making a huge amount of data available. Advances in computing power make it possible to analyze and utilize this large amount of data. These current advances in technology are gradually turning MZ maps into commercially viable agricultural products for large-scale adoption. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical overview of MZ delineation approaches for precision agriculture applications, and to compare and contrast traditional with advanced sensing technologies for delineating MZs. This review illustrates how recent development in sensing technologies, geostatistical analysis, data fusion, and interpolation techniques have improved precision and reliability of MZ delineation, making it a viable strategy in commercial agriculture. Studies from the last decade showed that when MZ delineation techniques are used for variable-rate nutrient application, farm efficiency increased when this is compared to traditional uniform-rate application methods. This improved farm production efficiency is accompanied by a reduction in environmental impacts. Implementation of MZ therefore often provides financial and environmental benefits, and we can foresee an increase in the diffusion and application of precision agriculture techniques in the near future.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T18:12:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.01.003
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 142

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T18:12:38Z
  • Effects of Drought Stress on Morphophysiological Traits, Biochemical
           Characteristics, Yield, and Yield Components in Different Ploidy Wheat: A
    • Authors: Jian-Yong Wang; You-Cai Xiong; Feng-Min Li; Kadambot H.M. Siddique; Neil C. Turner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Jian-Yong Wang, You-Cai Xiong, Feng-Min Li, Kadambot H.M. Siddique, Neil C. Turner
      Increases in the yield of wheat, a major cereal crop grown in semiarid and temperate regions of the world, are often limited by drought. In this chapter, we quantitatively evaluated the effects of drought stress on the morphophysiological and biochemical characteristics, growth and biomass partitioning, and yield formation of diploid (2n), tetraploid (4n), and hexaploid (6n) wheat using a meta-analysis of published data. The study synthesized results from 303 papers published before May 2015, taking into account wheat ploidy level, rooting environment (pots or field), spring or winter type, and drought stress at different phenological stages. Drought stress reduced yields more in 2n wheat than 4n and 6n wheat due to a greater reduction in grain number and seed size; reduced aboveground biomass more in 2n and 4n than 6n wheat, but reduced root biomass more in 6n than 2n and 4n wheat; and gas exchange more in 4n wheat than 6n wheat; while major biochemical parameters increased more in 2n and 4n wheat than in 6n wheat. Across all ploidy levels, drought stress in the reproductive phase affected grain yield more than drought stress in the vegetative stage. Wheat grown in pots with limited rooting capacity had a greater reduction in yield, yield components and biomass, and greater increases in stress-induced biochemical parameters, than plants grown in the field. Drought stress reduced yields of spring wheat more than winter wheat. Domestication and selection of higher ploidy wheat have reduced the adverse effects of drought stress on yield and yield components, optimized biomass allocation toward higher seed yields, and reduced stress-related physiological and biochemical responses.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T16:46:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2017.01.002
  • Soil Water Characteristics of European SoilTrEC Critical Zone
    • Authors: S. Rousseva; M. Kercheva; T. Shishkov; G.J. Lair; N.P. Nikolaidis; D. Moraetis; P. Krám; S.M. Bernasconi; W.E.H. Blum; M. Menon; S.A. Banwart
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): S. Rousseva, M. Kercheva, T. Shishkov, G.J. Lair, N.P. Nikolaidis, D. Moraetis, P. Krám, S.M. Bernasconi, W.E.H. Blum, M. Menon, S.A. Banwart
      Most of soil functions depend directly or indirectly on soil water retention and transmission, which explains their importance for many environmental processes within Earth's Critical Zones. Soil hydraulic properties are essential in irrigation and drainage studies for closing water balance equation, for predicting leaching of nutrients, for water supply to plants, and for other agronomical and environmental applications. Soil hydraulic properties reflect the structure of the soil porous system comprising pores of different geometry and sizes. This investigation comprises a detailed analytical study of soil hydraulic properties and climate conditions at 18 methodologically selected sites in Damma Glacier, Slavkov Forest, Marchfeld, and Koiliaris Critical Zone Observatories of SoilTrEC project. The local moisture regimes were assessed on a long-term basis by the Newhall model. The experimental data for soil water content at different potentials were used for assessing water storage capacity, pore size distribution, parameters of fitted retention curve equation, curve slope at the inflection point, and water permeability characteristics of each soil horizon. The differences of soil water retention and transmission characteristics—as fundamental properties describing soil structure—were explained by the different stages of soil profile development, parent materials, organic matter content, and land use histories.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T20:50:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.004
  • Soil Functions in Earth's Critical Zone: Key Results and Conclusions
    • Authors: S.A. Banwart; S.M. Bernasconi; W.E.H. Blum; D.M. de Souza; F. Chabaux; C. Duffy; M. Kercheva; P. Krám; G.J. Lair; L. Lundin; M. Menon; N. Nikolaidis; M. Novak; P. Panagos; K.V. Ragnarsdottir; D.A. Robinson; S. Rousseva; P. de Ruiter; P. van Gaans; L. Weng; T. White; B. Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): S.A. Banwart, S.M. Bernasconi, W.E.H. Blum, D.M. de Souza, F. Chabaux, C. Duffy, M. Kercheva, P. Krám, G.J. Lair, L. Lundin, M. Menon, N. Nikolaidis, M. Novak, P. Panagos, K.V. Ragnarsdottir, D.A. Robinson, S. Rousseva, P. de Ruiter, P. van Gaans, L. Weng, T. White, B. Zhang
      This chapter summarizes the methods, results, and conclusions of a 5-year research project (SoilTrEC: Soil Transformations in European Catchments) on experimentation, process modeling, and computational simulation of soil functions and soil threats across a network of European, Chinese, and United States Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs). The study focused on the soil functions of biomass production, carbon storage, water storage and transmission, water filtration, transformation of nutrients, and maintaining habitat and genetic diversity. The principal results demonstrate that soil functions can be quantified as biophysical flows and transformations of material and energy. The functions can be simulated with mathematical models of soil processes within the soil profile and at the critical zone interfaces with vegetation and atmosphere, surface waters and the below-ground vadose zone and groundwater. A new dynamic model for soil structure development, together with data sets from the CZOs, demonstrate both seasonal fluctuations in soil structure dynamics related to vegetation dynamics and soil carbon inputs, and long-term trends (decadal) in soil carbon storage and soil structure development. Cross-site comparison for 20 soil profiles at seven field sites with variation in soil type, lithology, land cover, land use, and climate demonstrate that sites can be classified, using model parameter values for soil aggregation processes together with climatic conditions and soil physical properties, along a trajectory of soil structure development from incipient soil formation through productive land use to overly intensive land use with soil degradation. A new modeling code, the Integrated Critical Zone model, was applied with parameter sets developed from the CZO site data to simulate the biophysical flows and transformations that quantify multiple soil functions. Process simulations coupled the new model for soil structure dynamics with existing modeling approaches for soil carbon dynamics, nutrient transformations, vegetation dynamics, hydrological flow and transport, and geochemical equilibria and mineral weathering reactions. Successful calibration, testing, and application of the model with data sets from horticulture plot manipulation experiments demonstrate the potential to apply modeling and simulation to the scoping and design of new practices and policy options to enhance soil functions and reduce soil threats worldwide.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T07:12:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.11.001
  • Modeling the Impact of Carbon Amendments on Soil Ecosystem Functions Using
           the 1D-ICZ Model
    • Authors: M. Kotronakis; G.V. Giannakis; N.P. Nikolaidis; E.C. Rowe; J. Valstar; N.V. Paranychianakis; S.A. Banwart
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): M. Kotronakis, G.V. Giannakis, N.P. Nikolaidis, E.C. Rowe, J. Valstar, N.V. Paranychianakis, S.A. Banwart
      In the next four decades, humanity needs to double food and energy production and increase the supply of clean water by over 50% while mitigating and adapting to climate change. A central element in the strategy of addressing these major environmental challenges is to maintain the central role of Earth's essential soil functions and related ecosystem services. Many soil functions are affected by soil structure in terms of particle aggregation and porosity. The objective of this work is to model soil structure and biomass dynamics, nutrients uptake, and yields using the 1D Integrated Critical Zone (1D-ICZ) model which is a mechanistic mathematical description of soil processes and functions. The 1D-ICZ model simulates the coupled processes that underpin major soil functions including water flow and storage, biomass production, carbon and nutrient sequestration, pollutant transformation, and supporting biological processes, and thus is capable of quantifying essential soil ecosystem services. The model was validated using data derived from a field experiment where tomato plants were grown using different treatments of commercial mineral fertilizers, compost, manure, and a 30% manure–70% compost amendment. Detailed data have been collected over four growing seasons on soil and soil solution chemistry, aggregate formation, and plant production. The model has been able to capture the biomass production, the temporal dynamics of the water-stable aggregate formation and the dynamics of carbon and nutrient sequestration in the different sizes aggregates as well as the variability of water filtration and transformation efficiency in the different amendment treatments. The model results demonstrate the value of applying computational simulation tools such as the 1D-ICZ model to test options for improved land management measures and to support sustainable land care practices.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T07:12:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.010
  • Soil Mineralogy Changes With Different Agricultural Practices During
           8-Year Soil Development From the Parent Material of a Mollisol
    • Authors: Y.-L. Liu; S.-H. Yao; X.-Z. Han; B. Zhang; S.A. Banwart
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Y.-L. Liu, S.-H. Yao, X.-Z. Han, B. Zhang, S.A. Banwart
      Clay minerals are involved in the formation of soil structure and soil cation exchange capacity through interaction with soil organic matter. Through these interactions, clay minerals contribute to soil functions and the delivery of soil ecosystem services. Although clay minerals are considered stable over long periods of time, recent studies have demonstrated that the crystallographic structures and types of clay minerals can undergo spontaneous modification and transformation with changes in environmental conditions. However, little is known whether and how soil organic matter affects the evolution of clay minerals during these transitions. We examined changes in soil mineralogy during the 8 years of soil development from the parent material (PM) of a Mollisol under different agricultural practices in Northeastern China. Mineralogical changes were determined by X-ray diffraction and data analysis through spectra decomposition. The mineral composition varied with initial particle size classes and showed rapid changes, including transformation between illite and vermiculite or illite and smectite, depending on K+ availability and transformations between smectite and vermiculite under acidic conditions. The mineral composition changed with soil depth due to transport of vermiculite and well-crystallized illite as fine particles. Soil organic matter was more strongly bound to vermiculite and smectite than to kaolinite and illite and therefore influenced the transport of these mineral particles. However, the soil organic matter–mineral association did not affect transformation between illite and vermiculite or smectite. Therefore, the effects of particle size, organic matter, and soil depth on soil mineral composition were exhibited to different extents and interacted differently under different agricultural practices. These results of the 8-year field experiment suggest that soil mineral composition of the more intensely weathered PM of the studied Mollisols can change after agricultural restoration more quickly than previously known. The rate and extent of these transformations must be considered in agricultural practices that are used to manage soil functions and associated ecosystem services of soil systems.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T07:12:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.015
  • Modeling Soil Aggregation at the Early Pedogenesis Stage From the Parent
           Material of a Mollisol Under Different Agricultural Practices
    • Authors: N. Li; M.-Y. You; B. Zhang; X.-Z. Han; S.K. Panakoulia; Y.-R. Yuan; K. Liu; Y.-F. Qiao; W.-X. Zou; N.P. Nikolaidis; S.A. Banwart
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): N. Li, M.-Y. You, B. Zhang, X.-Z. Han, S.K. Panakoulia, Y.-R. Yuan, K. Liu, Y.-F. Qiao, W.-X. Zou, N.P. Nikolaidis, S.A. Banwart
      Soil aggregation and development of soil structure play a crucial role in determining soil functions and ecosystem services in Earth's Critical Zone. Soil organic matter (SOM) is the main constituent that binds mineral particles together into larger-sized aggregates. Many theoretical concepts have been proposed to explain soil aggregation and SOM accrual processes, but quantification of the processes remains lacking. We observed changes in aggregate size mass distribution and aggregate carbon content in 2 discrete years from an 8-year field experiment, which was conducted to determine how to speed up soil development and restoration with different agricultural practices. The 2-year data showed that the proportion of macroaggregates (>250μm) increased with the decreasing proportions of microaggregates (53–250μm) and soil texture units (<53μm) and increasing proportion of particulate organic matter occluded in the macroaggregates. This aggregation process was more noticeable in the field treatments with higher organic carbon input. By using these data, we successfully calibrated the recently developed CAST mathematical model, which assumes that primary macroaggregates are first formed around plant-derived organic matter and primary microaggregates are then formed within the macroaggregates as the occluded organic materials are decomposed. The secondary microaggregates and macroaggregates are assumed to form after the breakdown of primary macroaggregates. The calibration processes separated the plant growth season from the frozen winter season. Some calibrated parameters were the same for all of the field treatments, and these parameters included the first-order rate constants of the fragmentation and decomposition of plant litter within the macroaggregates, the decomposition rates of organic matter incorporated and protected in microaggregates, and organic carbon associated with the free soil texture units. Other calibrated parameter values were affected by the field treatments, and the parameters were the first-order decay rate constants of the plant-derived organic matter in nonaggregated soils and in the secondary macroaggregates, the least carbon sources for the formation of the secondary macroaggregates, and the correction factor to adjust carbon with the mass flow of the soil texture units. The differences in the calibrated parameter values suggested that the rates of the primary macroaggregation and the secondary microaggregation were likely controlled by the intrinsic properties of the parent material rather than by the land use and agricultural practices, whereas the rates of the secondary macroaggregation process were likely affected by land use through controlling plant litter quality and quantity and by agricultural practices, such as soil tillage, and to a less extent by fertilizers that control organic input and then carbon and mass content of the soil texture units and microaggregates. The model results were consistent with measured changes over time of the aggregate mass distribution by size class, the total organic matter content, and the SOM bound in aggregates. However, the CAST model did not reproduce particularly well the mass of the soil texture units within different aggregate size classes nor the relative contribution of carbon stocks from different carbon pools within aggregates. The gap between observations and model results points the way forward to develop further the detailed process descriptions in the CAST modeling approach, for example, to consider primary microaggregation directly from basic soil texture units. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that the CAST model is very powerful to predict the dynamics of soil aggregation and concurrent SOM change in response to changes in land use and soil management.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T07:12:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.007
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2017
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 141

      PubDate: 2017-01-09T06:05:06Z
  • European Contribution Towards a Global Assessment of Agricultural Soil
           Organic Carbon Stocks
    • Authors: Y. Yigini; L. Montanarella; P. Panagos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Y. Yigini, L. Montanarella, P. Panagos
      The chapter discusses a study that predicts the global organic carbon stocks for agricultural soils using European databases with geostatistical analysis and modeling. The overall statistical model consists of two submodels namely donor and donee modules. The donor module uses statistics to quantify the relationships between soil organic carbon (SOC) and environmental covariates. The covariates were selected based on their availability at global scale and their roles as major drivers that affect the carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. Multiple linear regression was used in the donor module with the selected covariates and dense SOC measurements coming from LUCAS soil database (Toth et al., 2013a). The LUCAS soil database has more than 22,000 SOC measurements from European countries and a standardized sampling procedure was used routinely to collect samples of around 0.5kg of topsoil (0–20cm) each. The donor module reveals and quantifies the relationships between SOC mass concentration in soil and the predictors to be used in the donee model to extend the prediction at global scale using the same set of predictors. We used the WorldClim dataset (Hijmans et al., 2005), which is comprised of global climate data layers representing long-term conditions for the years from 1950 to 2000. The land cover data were extracted from the GlobCover 2009 (ESA and Universite' Catholique de Louvain, 2010) provided by the European Space Agency (ESA), the terrain parameters were derived from CGIAR-CSI SRTM 90m Database (Jarvis et al., 2008), the soil layers obtained from Harmonized World Soil Database (FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC, 2012), and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data were obtained from Copernicus Global Land Service Data Portal (Copernicus Global Land Service, 2015). The study yielded promising results which are broadly consistent with similar efforts predicting global agricultural SOC stocks. Our model fits the SOC data well (R 2 =0.35) and preliminary results suggest a global agricultural SOC estimate of 100.34Pg (Petagrams) in the first 20cm. The study predicts the global agricultural SOC stocks using a geostatistical approach and the results are consistent with previous studies that used process-based SOC models.

      PubDate: 2017-01-09T06:05:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.012
  • Valuation of Soil Ecosystem Services
    • Authors: J.Ö.G. Jónsson; B. Davíðsdóttir; N.P. Nikolaidis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): J.Ö.G. Jónsson, B. Davíðsdóttir, N.P. Nikolaidis
      Soil natural capital and soil ecosystem services (ES) are under increasing pressure because of human activities. Soils provide multiple benefits to humans, and the role of soil in Earth's Critical Zone is fundamental to its functions that provide these benefits. Despite their importance, soils are rarely appreciated for the values they provide. One reason is the absence of their economic value in land-use decision making. We present a framework for categorizing and economically valuing soil ES and illustrating the use of the framework in a case study for three soil ES in the Koiliaris watershed on the Greek island of Crete. The value of the soil ES estimated was crop and livestock biomass 740–7560id$ha−1 year−1; filtering of nutrients and contaminants 0–278id$ha−1 year−1; and climate regulation −2200 to −5610id$ha−1 year−1. Highlights • Soils provide multiple economic benefits that are rarely accounted for. • A framework for the classification and economic valuation of soil ecosystem services (ES) is presented. • The soil framework is applied at Koiliaris, Crete, Greece for three soil ES. • This chapter illustrates soil ES values from −5610 to 7560id$ha−1 year−1 depending on the specific soil ES.

      PubDate: 2017-01-09T06:05:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.011
  • Effects of Dry and Wet Sieving of Soil on Identification and
           Interpretation of Microbial Community Composition
    • Authors: A. Blaud; M. Menon; B. van der Zaan; G.J. Lair; S. Banwart
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): A. Blaud, M. Menon, B. van der Zaan, G.J. Lair, S. Banwart
      Soil aggregates are microhabitats for microorganisms, and directly influence microorganisms that live within and are influenced by microorganisms in return. Two methods are used to isolate soil aggregates by their size: dry sieving (sieving air-dried soil) and wet sieving (sieving soil in water). Wet-sieving methods are generally considered to represent separation of aggregate classes that are stable to physical disaggregation in water, a condition considered favorable for protecting soil structure over time. However, little is known about the effect of sieving methods on microbial abundance, diversity, and functions, hindering the understanding of the relationship between soil structure and soil aggregates as habitat and soil microorganisms. In this study, the effect of dry and wet sieving on bacterial diversity, and abundance of microorganisms involved in N fixation (nifH gene), nitrification (amoA bacteria and archaea), and denitrification (narG, nirS and nosZ genes), was determined for four sizes of soil aggregates from a cropland and grassland. Quantitative-PCR (Q-PCR) showed little differences in relative gene abundance between size fractions of soil aggregates, but wet-sieving method significantly increased gene abundance for amoA bacteria, nirS and nosZ genes. When the N functional genes were expressed as percentage of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes, the wet sieving resulted in significantly higher genes percentage for all the genes (except for narG gene), and significant differences between soil aggregate size fractions at the grassland site. The different sieving methods resulted in different bacterial community compositions, but only the wet-sieving method was able to reveal significant differences in bacterial community composition between soil fractions in grassland. The results demonstrate significantly different quantitative and qualitative interpretation of soil microbial community depending on whether aggregate samples were obtained from wet or dry sieving, highlighting the importance in the choice of the sieving method.

      PubDate: 2017-01-09T06:05:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.006
  • Bio-Intervention of Naturally Occurring Silicate Minerals for Alternative
           Source of Potassium: Challenges and Opportunities
    • Authors: B.B. Basak; B. Sarkar; D.R. Biswas; S. Sarkar; P. Sanderson; R. Naidu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): B.B. Basak, B. Sarkar, D.R. Biswas, S. Sarkar, P. Sanderson, R. Naidu
      Soil needs simultaneous replenishment of various nutrients to maintain its inherent fertility status under extensive cropping systems. Replenishing soil nutrients with commercial fertilizer is costly. Among various fertilizers, deposits of potassium (K) ore suitable for the production of commercial K fertilizer (KCl) are distributed in few northern hemisphere countries (Canada, Russia, Belarus, and Germany) which control more than 70% of the world's potash market. Naturally occurring minerals, particularly silicate minerals, could be used as a source of K, but not as satisfactorily as commercial K fertilizers. In this context, bio-intervention (in combination with microorganisms and/or composting) of silicate minerals has been found quite promising to improve plant K availability and assimilation. This is an energy efficient and environmentally friendly approach. Here we present a critical review of existing literature on direct application of silicate minerals as a source of K for plant nutrition as well as soil fertility enhancement by underpinning the bio-intervention strategies and related K solubilization mechanisms. An advancement of knowledge in this field will not only contribute to a better understanding of the complex natural processes of soil K fertility, but also help to develop a new approach to utilize natural mineral resources for sustainable and environmental friendly agricultural practices.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T10:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.016
  • Long-Term Aging of Biochar: A Molecular Understanding With Agricultural
           and Environmental Implications
    • Authors: S. Mia; F.A. Dijkstra; B. Singh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): S. Mia, F.A. Dijkstra, B. Singh
      Biochar has unveiled a new avenue for carbon (C) sequestration and has shown the potential to increase agricultural productivity. Although there is still debate about the mineralization rate of biochar and its role in sustaining soil fertility after fresh biochar amendment, oxidized or aged biochar has shown strong positive effects on crop productivity. Aging of biochar changes its physiochemical properties, while a range of biochar-derived organic materials (BDOMs) can be formed. These changes have significant consequences for the bioavailability and transport of nutrients and contaminants. In this review, we provide an overview of biochar aging, focusing on its change in structure, surface chemical properties, and the interactions of biochar and BDOMs with nutrients and contaminants in the soil. Synthesis of spectroscopic data from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and near edge X-ray fine structure (NEXAFS) showed that with progressive aging, either artificially or naturally, biochar undergoes structural and chemical changes leading to progressive formation of surface functional groups such as carboxyl, phenolic, and carbonyl groups. As a result, the O:C ratio, negative surface charge, and cation exchange capacity increase with increased level of aging. The surface oxidized biochar and BDOMs may interact with soil minerals, nutrients, and contaminants resulting in increased mineral-stabilized organic matter, cation retention, anion bioavailability, and reduced organic contaminants’ sorption. Therefore, application of aged biochar could potentially increase agricultural productivity with increased capacities to retain nutrients while serving the role of C sequestration.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T10:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.001
  • Mineral Nutrition of Cocoa: A Review
    • Authors: J.A. van Vliet; K.E. Giller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): J.A. van Vliet, K.E. Giller
      Cocoa is an important global commodity. It is mostly grown on small farms by millions of cocoa farmers who depend on the crop for their livelihood. Although potential yields exceed 6000kg/ha, average farm yields are often around 400kg/ha. Among the production constraints met by farmers is nutrient limitation. In this review, we compile current knowledge on nutrient cycling in cocoa production systems, nutrient requirements of cocoa, and yield response to fertilizer application in relation to factors such as management, climatic, and soil conditions. Large amounts of nutrients are cycled within cocoa systems, mostly through 5–10t/ha/yr litter fall. Still, harvesting and small nutrient losses such as leaching lead to nutrient exports causing gradual soil nutrient depletion. Exact nutrient requirements of cocoa are unknown. Leaf and soil test interpretation to identify additional nutrient needs remain ambiguous. Recommended nutrient application rates vary more than 10-fold. In several trials fertilizer application more than doubled cocoa productivity; in other cases response is minimal. Differences in response between regions, fields and even trees have yet to be explained. Interactions with agroecology and management (especially shade) are poorly understood. Without this fundamental knowledge, farm level recommendations have a weak scientific base. Different types of research are recommended to complement current knowledge. Existing data and trials can be exploited through additional analysis and more detailed measurements. Cocoa farms are highly diverse and on-farm trials offer opportunities for understanding variability in production and fertilizer response. Finally, multifactorial shade–fertilizer response trials will be essential to address some of the fundamental knowledge gaps.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T10:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.017
  • Integrated Critical Zone Model (1D-ICZ): A Tool for Dynamic Simulation of
           Soil Functions and Soil Structure
    • Authors: G.V. Giannakis; N.P. Nikolaidis; J. Valstar; E.C. Rowe; K. Moirogiorgou; M. Kotronakis; N.V. Paranychianakis; S. Rousseva; F.E. Stamati; S.A. Banwart
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): G.V. Giannakis, N.P. Nikolaidis, J. Valstar, E.C. Rowe, K. Moirogiorgou, M. Kotronakis, N.V. Paranychianakis, S. Rousseva, F.E. Stamati, S.A. Banwart
      Food security should be addressed in relation to soil sustainability and sustainable land care, and examined within the science framework of Earth's critical zone as an integrated system that includes Earth surface interactions, connected to soil functions, and ecosystem services. There is a great need to develop critical zone mathematical models that will simulate and quantify soil functions and that can be used as management tools to address soil sustainability and land care practices. The integrated critical zone model, 1D-ICZ, couples computational modules for soil organic matter dynamics, soil aggregation and structure dynamics, bioturbation, plant productivity and nutrient uptake, water flow, solute speciation and transport, and mineral weathering kinetics. The 1D-ICZ model, coupled with new pedotransfer functions to predict bulk soil properties, introduces for the first time a model that dynamically links soil structure characteristics and hydraulic soil properties by simulating their changes under varying meteorological conditions and plant growth. Field data from a Mediterranean olive grove at the Koiliaris Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) were used to simulate carbon addition to soil and agricultural management scenarios, in order to illustrate the model's ability to quantify soil management impact on soil functions and biogeochemical transformations and fluxes. The 1D-ICZ model can be used to assess, understand, and quantify the complex interactions between the different processes in the soil-plant-water system and can be applied as a tool to design sustainable agricultural management practices, taking into consideration synergy and trade-offs among soil functions.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T10:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.009
  • Factors Controlling Soil Structure Dynamics and Carbon Sequestration
           Across Different Climatic and Lithological Conditions
    • Authors: S.K. Panakoulia; N.P. Nikolaidis; N.V. Paranychianakis; M. Menon; J. Schiefer; G.J. Lair; P. Kram; S.A. Banwart
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): S.K. Panakoulia, N.P. Nikolaidis, N.V. Paranychianakis, M. Menon, J. Schiefer, G.J. Lair, P. Kram, S.A. Banwart
      Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a strong determinant of soil fertility through its positive effects on soil structure and soil chemical and biological properties which in turn stimulate primary production. The objective of this work was to simulate field sites that represent different land uses and management practices in three continents, in order to identify the most important factors controlling soil structure dynamics and C sequestration across different climatic and lithological conditions as well as to quantify the rates of the aforementioned processes. The carbon, aggregation, and structure turnover (CAST) model was used to simulate SOC sequestration, aggregate formation, and structure dynamics in three field sites including nontilled soils of natural ecosystems and tilled soils of agricultural fields in Europe (Critical Zone Observatories (CZO) of the SoilTrEC network) and one site in North America. Derived data from the simulations’ results of SOC stocks and water-stable aggregate (WSA) particle size distribution, together with the respective results of three additional sites (Damma Glacier CZO, Milia (Greece), and Heilongjiang Mollisols (China)), were statistically analyzed in order to determine the factors affecting SOC sequestration and soil structure development. The natural ecosystems include nontilled soils covered with natural local vegetation, while the agricultural sites include cultivated and tilled soils covered with crops. The natural ecosystems were represented by Damma Glacier CZO (Switzerland), Heilongjiang Mollisols (China), Koiliaris CZO (Greece), Clear Creek (United States), and the Slavkov Forrest CZO (Czech Republic), whereas the agricultural field sites were located at Heilongjiang Mollisols (China), Koiliaris CZO (Greece), Clear Creek (United States), Marchfeld CZO (Austria), and Milia (Greece). Principal component analysis (PCA) identified clay content, bulk density, climatic conditions (precipitation and evapotranspiration), organic matter (OM), and its decomposition rates as the most important factors that controlled soil structure development. The relative importance of each of these factors differs under differing climatic and lithological conditions and differing stages of soil development. Overall, the modeling results for both natural ecosystems and agricultural fields were consistent with the field data. The model reliably simulated C and soil structure dynamics in various land uses, climatic conditions, and soil properties providing support for the underlying conceptual and mathematical modeling and evidence that the CAST model is a reliable tool to interpret soil structure formation processes and to aid the design of sustainable soil management practices.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T10:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.008
  • Interception of Subsurface Lateral Flow Through Enhanced Vertical
           Preferential Flow in an Agroforestry System Observed Using Dye-Tracing and
           Rainfall Simulation Experiments
    • Authors: Y. Wang; B. Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Y. Wang, B. Zhang
      Surface soil hydrology is a major control on the terrestrial water cycle in Earth's Critical Zone (CZ). Partitioning of vertical preferential flow and subsurface lateral flow is commonly attributed to the heterogeneity of slope, soil profile horizon, and soil structure, but the influences of land-use types are largely unknown. Agroforestry systems (AF) can intercept subsurface lateral flow for reducing nitrogen losses to drainage water and for alleviating secondary salinity in central China and southeast Australia. These effects have been attributed to enhanced evapotranspiration and canopy interception in the agroforestry systems compared to monocropping systems (MC). Here, we show the differences in lateral and vertical soil hydrological pathways between AF and MC with dye-tracing experiments before and during a simulated rainfall event. Before the rainfall, the vertical and horizontal dye-staining patterns demonstrated that preferential flow occurred through isolated macropores with fine tree roots in AF and through connected cracks in MC. The dye coverage area and depth indicated greater vertical preferential flow in AF than in MC. During the 2-h rainfall event, the dye-staining area at different depths indicated that the preferential flow contributed to greater near-surface lateral flow in MC than in AF. The changes in the hydrological pathways were attributed to deep roots and no physical barrier from plough pan in AF and the presence of the plough pan in MC. These results suggest that land use has strong water partitioning effects not only above ground but also in the subsurface, and that understanding the landscape hydrology in the Earth's Critical Zone required quantification of the considering coupled pedological and biological processes.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T10:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.014
  • Brazilian Agriculture in Perspective: Great Expectations vs Reality
    • Authors: F.A.O. Camargo; L.S. Silva; G.H. Merten; F.S. Carlos; P.C. Baveye; EW. Triplett
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): F.A.O. Camargo, L.S. Silva, G.H. Merten, F.S. Carlos, P.C. Baveye, EW. Triplett
      Agronomists in most parts of the world are already, and will be increasingly in the next couple of decades, solicited to resolve pressing issues associated with global climate change and food security. For a number of reasons, it is most likely that in both of these areas, their research will be very tightly linked to what happens in Brazil. In that context, this chapter attempts to offer as complete a picture as possible of the events and influences that have shaped historically both Brazilian agriculture and its agricultural research efforts, as well as their relationships with other sectors of Brazilian society. An account is provided of the history of Brazilian agriculture and of the initially slow, then extremely rapid development of the agricultural research sector. This chapter also analyzes in detail the present contributions of agriculture to the economic and social consolidation of Brazil, describes the main actors of research and technological development, discusses the effect of agricultural production and expansion on the environment, tries to identify the various forces that are influencing Brazilian agriculture in the future, and lists the main challenges that will have to be faced in the future of Brazilian and world agriculture. Throughout the chapter, we try to make clear how Brazilians interpret as half-truths a number of statements commonly made about Brazilian agriculture, and how they see their agriculture evolve in the foreseeable future, with a discourse that often differs substantially from the one commonly put forth by the media or even scientists elsewhere in the world. This analysis results in the description of a proposed national agricultural policy that attempts to move Brazilian agriculture in the right direction within the context of the nation's economy.

      PubDate: 2016-12-28T10:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.003
  • Quantifying the Incipient Development of Soil Structure and Functions
           Within a Glacial Forefield Chronosequence
    • Authors: M. Andrianaki; S.M. Bernasconi; N.P. Nikolaidis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): M. Andrianaki, S.M. Bernasconi, N.P. Nikolaidis
      In this study, we used the newly developed mathematical model CAST (carbon, aggregation, and structure turnover) to simulate the accumulation of soil organic carbon and the development of soil structure along the 150 years soil chronosequence of the Damma glacier Critical Zone Observatory (CZO). As first step in the modeling procedure, an adaptation of the widely used multipool Rothamsted carbon model RothC was tested. The calibration of the model is based on the extensive dataset available for the Damma glacier CZO and a published reconstruction of climate back to 1867. The adapted RothC model simulates effectively the dynamics of total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass (BIO), and humified organic matter (HUM) pools, while decomposable plant material (DPM) and resistant plant material (RPM) pools which are calculated by the model are slightly overestimated compared to measured values. In a second set of simulations, the CAST model was applied and captured effectively the carbon content of the three aggregate classes which are considered by the model (macroaggregates: >250μm (AC3), microaggregates: 53–250μm (AC2), silt–clay-sized aggregates: <53μm (AC1)). The major percentage of aggregates belongs to the AC3 class, which consists of the particulate organic matter primarily loosely bound with the mineral particles. The amount of aggregates within the AC1 aggregate class is low, while the formation of the AC2 aggregates has not been initiated at this stage of soil development. One of the most important finding of this study is that the CAST model realistically calculates the processes during the initial stages of soil structure development, even though the soils of the Damma glacier CZO soil chronosequence are characterized by very poor soil structure and low clay content. The main process for soil development at this early stage is identified to be the macroaggregation through the addition of particulate organic matter. Microaggregation of smaller-sized particles and aggregates is not found to be a major contribution to soil structure development at this stage and it is only observed at the end of the chronosequence. Finally, despite the extreme climatic conditions of the alpine environment, the young nature of the soils and the short growing season, both models performed very well after calibration of the carbon turnover rates.

      PubDate: 2016-12-21T11:40:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.013
  • Reduced Subsurface Lateral Flow in Agroforestry System Is Balanced by
           Increased Water Retention Capacity: Rainfall Simulation and Model
    • Authors: Y. Wang; B. Zhang; S.A. Banwart
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Y. Wang, B. Zhang, S.A. Banwart
      Soil hydrology controls the terrestrial water cycle and the transport of substances to influence the environmental quality of Earth's critical zone (CZ). Soil and water management in agroforestry systems (AF) is able to reduce soil nitrogen losses and to alleviate secondary salinity in some regions of the world by reducing subsurface lateral flow. Compared to monocropping (MC) system, the reduction of subsurface lateral flow in AF has been attributed not only to the enhanced evapotranspiration and canopy interception but also to changes in soil structure and related hydraulic properties. However, for AF, it remains unclear how changes in soil structure and hydraulic properties occur and can act to reduce the subsurface later flow. Rainfall simulation experiments were conducted in the field and soil matric potential was measured to determine the effect of AF and MC on the dynamics of rainfall infiltration, subsurface lateral flow, and soil water storage in the soil profile. The calculated isolines of soil matric potential showed that a physical domain of water saturation occurred in the subsoils during the rainfall and diminished after the rainfall. The water saturation domain was larger during the rainfall and drained more slowly after the rainfall in AF than in MC. These results illustrated that AF increased vertical preferential flow and retarded the subsurface lateral flow, resulting in increased water retention capacity in the soil profile, compared to MC. The changed water mass and flow distribution was attributed to the deep roots, which increase macropores oriented in the vertical direction and modify micro- and mesopores in the lateral direction, resulting in changes in anisotropy of soil hydraulic properties along transects of slope. These proposed mechanisms were successfully verified by mathematical modeling. Numerical experiments using the Hydrus-2D mathematical modeling code at the virtual condition of the same antecedent soil moisture condition along the slope at different rainfall events ruled out the effect of antecedent soil moisture or evapotranspiration on generation of subsurface flow. These findings suggest that land use has strong effects on water distribution not only above the ground but also in the subsurface. The changes in soil structure and hydraulic properties need to be considered in understanding landscape hydrology related to agricultural practices and their impacts on Earth's CZ.

      PubDate: 2016-12-21T11:40:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.005
  • Livestock Production and Its Impact on Nutrient Pollution and Greenhouse
           Gas Emissions
    • Authors: K. Sakadevan; M.-L. Nguyen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): K. Sakadevan, M.-L. Nguyen
      The livestock sector provides more than one-third of human protein needs and is a major provider of livelihood in almost all developing countries. While providing such immense benefits to the population, poor livestock management can potentially provide harmful environmental impacts at local, regional, and national levels which have not been adequately addressed in many countries with emerging economies. Twenty-six percent of global land area is used for livestock production and forest lands are continuously being lost to such activities. Land degradation through soil erosion and nutrient depletion is very common across pastures and rangelands. The intensification of livestock production led to large surpluses of on-farm nitrogen and phosphorus inputs that can potentially contribute to nonpoint source pollution of water resources in many parts of the world. The sector is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs) contributing around 14.5% of all human-induced GHG emissions, a major driver of use and pollution of freshwater (accounting 10% anthropogenic water use) and a contributor to the loss of biodiversity. About 60% of global biomass harvested annually to support all human activity is consumed by livestock industry, undermining the sustainability of allocating such large resource to the industry. Despite the negative impacts of livestock production, opportunities exist to balance the competing demands of livestock production and the environment. These include (1) improved technologies and practices that increase livestock productivity with optimal use of land and water, (2) reorienting grazing systems to provide environmental services for water, biodiversity, carbon sequestration, and resource conservation, (3) reducing GHG emission from livestock production, and (4) an effective management strategy for efficient and sustainable use of manure in livestock production. Further research, appropriate policy development, and institutional support are important to ensure the competitiveness of the industry. Integration of crops with livestock production provides opportunities for increasing resource use efficiencies and reducing environmental pollution, making the system resilient to impacts of climate change, reducing GHG emissions from the system, enhancing soil quality and fertility, and improving water quantity and quality. Appropriate techniques for assessing and monitoring impacts of livestock production are necessary for developing strategies and making the system profitable, sustainable, and resilient. Isotopic and nuclear techniques play an important role in such assessment and monitoring.

      PubDate: 2016-12-13T11:02:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.10.002
  • Half title page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 140

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T12:22:56Z
  • Series page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 140

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T12:22:56Z
  • Title page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy, Volume 140

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T12:22:56Z
  • Delineating the Convergence of Biogeochemical Factors Responsible for
           Arsenic Release to Groundwater in South and Southeast Asia
    • Authors: J.W. Stuckey; D.L. Sparks; S. Fendorf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): J.W. Stuckey, D.L. Sparks, S. Fendorf
      Arsenic (As), a toxic metalloid common throughout the Earth's crust, accounts for the most widespread poisoning of a human population in history. Within the major deltas of South and Southeast (S/SE) Asia, rivers annually deposit As-bearing iron oxides, oxyhydroxides, and hydroxides (collectively referred to as Fe oxides hereafter) derived from the Himalaya. The high primary productivity and monsoonal flooding in the tropical deltas promote microbially driven As release to groundwater through dissimilatory As(V)/Fe(III) reduction. Groundwater is a primary source of drinking and irrigation water in the region, especially within rural areas. Prolonged consumption of As-contaminated groundwater can lead to a multitude of serious health complications, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Here we define the parameters controlling the locations of active microbially driven As release to groundwater, including suboxic/anoxic conditions, microbial communities capable of mediating As(V)/Fe(III) reduction, the reactivity of As-bearing Fe oxides, and the sources and reactivity of organic carbon (C). Conditions for microbially driven As release are optimized where the reactivity of both As-bearing Fe oxides and organic C is greatest. Optimal conditions for As release are found in near-surface sediments of the Red River, under permanent wetlands of the Mekong River, and at depth (∼20m) in the Yangtze River Basin, whereas findings are variable within the Bengal Basin. Land and water management changes resulting in increased flood duration in deltaic environments may result in new locations of active microbial As release to groundwater.

      PubDate: 2016-09-09T05:43:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.06.002
  • A Review of Uptake and Translocation of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care
           Products by Food Crops Irrigated with Treated Wastewater
    • Authors: B. Colon; G.S. Toor
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): B. Colon, G.S. Toor
      Concerns and knowledge of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) presence in agricultural soils have led to research efforts to assess the uptake and translocation of PPCPs into edible parts of crops. This interest stems because PPCPs can be transferred from soils to food crops due to the use of treated wastewater, also called reclaimed or recycled water, for irrigation. We identified and reviewed 28 plant uptake studies relevant to food crops irrigated with reclaimed water to better understand how PPCPs are taken and translocated in food crops. The food crops included bulb vegetables, cole crops, cucurbits, cereal grains, fruiting and leafy vegetables, herbs and spices, and roots and tuber vegetables. Of the 28 studies of reclaimed water use, 22 were conducted in controlled or greenhouse settings and 6 were field studies. The data from these studies collectively showed that PPCPs can be taken up and then translocate into edible parts of food crops at detectable levels. However, human exposure of PPCPs from food crops is expected to be low due to the smaller concentrations found in food crops. Our major knowledge gap in current understanding of PPCPs uptake by crops irrigated with reclaimed water are lack of sufficient field data as only a limited number of field studies have been conducted. As reclaimed water use is anticipated to increase to meet agriculture water demands, we suggest that additional field studies are needed to better understand the uptake and translocation of PPCPs by crops over multiple growing seasons in different parts of the world.

      PubDate: 2016-09-09T05:43:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.07.001
  • Climate Resilient Villages for Sustainable Food Security in Tropical
           India: Concept, Process, Technologies, Institutions, and Impacts
    • Authors: Ch. Srinivasa Rao; K.A. Gopinath; J.V.N.S. Prasad; Prasannakumar; A.K. Singh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Ch. Srinivasa Rao, K.A. Gopinath, J.V.N.S. Prasad, Prasannakumar, A.K. Singh
      The world population is expected to increase by a further three billion by 2050 and 90% of the three billion will be from developing countries that rely on existing land, water, and ecology for food and well-being of human kind. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its fifth assessment report (AR5) stated that warming of the climate system is unequivocal and is more pronounced since the 1950s. The atmosphere and oceans have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, and sea level has risen. Each of the last three decades has been successively warmer at the earth's surface than any preceding decade since 1850 and the globally averaged combined land and ocean surface temperature data as calculated by a linear trend show a warming of 0.85°C (0.65–1.06°C) over the period of 1880–2012. World Meteorological Organization (WMO) ranked 2015 as the hottest year on record. Climate change poses many challenges to growth and development in South Asia. The Indian agriculture production system faces the daunting task of feeding 17.5% of the global population with only 2.4% of land and 4% of water resources at its disposal. India is more vulnerable to climate change in view of the dependence of huge population on agriculture, excessive pressure on natural resources, and relatively weak coping mechanisms. The warming trend in India over the past 100 years has indicated an increase of 0.6°C, which is likely to impact many crops, negatively impacting food and livelihood security of millions of farmers. There are already evidences of negative impacts on yield of wheat and paddy in some parts of India due to increased temperature, water stress, and reduction in number of rainy days. Significant negative impacts have been projected under medium-term (2020–39) climate change scenario, for example, yield reduction by 4.5–9%, depending on the magnitude and distribution of warming. Since agriculture currently contributes about 15% of India's gross domestic product (GDP), a negative impact on production implies cost of climate change to roughly range from 0.7% to 1.35% of GDP per year. Indian agriculture, with 80% of farmers being smallholders (<0.5ha) having diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, is monsoon-dependent rainfed agriculture (58%), about 30% of population undernourished, migration from rural to urban regions, child malnutrition etc., has become more vulnerable with changed climate or variability situations. During the past decade, frequency of droughts, cyclone, and hailstorms increased, with 2002, 2004, 2009, 2012, and 2014 being severe droughts. Frequent cyclones and severe hailstorms in drought prone areas have become common. Eastern part of the country is affected by seawater intrusion. Reduced food grain productivity, loss to vegetable and fruit crops, fodder scarcity, shortage of drinking water to animals during summer, forced migration of animals, severe loss to poultry and fishery sectors were registered, threatening the livelihoods of rural poor. Enhancing agricultural productivity, therefore, is critical for ensuring food and nutritional security for all, particularly the resource-poor, small, and marginal farmers who would be the most affected. In the absence of planned adaptation, the consequences of long-term climate change on the livelihood security of the poor could be severe. In India, the estimated countrywide agricultural loss in 2030 is expected to be over $7 billion that will severely affect the income of at least 10% of the population. However, this could be reduced by 80%, if cost-effective climate resilient measures are implemented. Climate risks are best addressed through increasing adaptive capacity and building resilience which can bring immediate benefits and can also reduce the adverse impacts of climate change. Climate resilient agriculture (CRA) encompasses the incorporation of adaptation and resilient practices in agriculture which increases the capacity of the system to respond to various climate-related disturbances by resisting damage and ensures quick recovery. Such disturbances include events such as drought, flood, heat/cold wave, erratic rainfall pattern, pest outbreaks, and other threats caused by changing climate. Resilience is the ability of the system to bounce back and essentially involves judicious and improved management of natural resources, land, water, soil, and genetic resources through adoption of best bet practices. CRA is a way to achieve short- and long-term agricultural development priorities in the face of climate change and serves as a bridge to other development priorities. It seeks to support countries and other actors in securing the necessary policy, technical and financial conditions to enable them to: (1) sustainably increase agricultural productivity and incomes in order to meet national food security and development goals, (2) build resilience and the capacity of agricultural and food systems to adapt to climate change, and (3) seek opportunities to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and increase carbon sequestration. These three conditions (food security, adaptation, and mitigation) are referred to as the “triple win” of overall CRA.
      PubDate: 2016-08-30T00:55:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.06.003
  • Aromatic Arsenical Additives (AAAs) in the Soil Environment: Detection,
           Environmental Behaviors, Toxicities, and Remediation
    • Authors: Q.-L. Fu; C. Liu; V. Achal; Y.-J. Wang; D.-M. Zhou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2016
      Source:Advances in Agronomy
      Author(s): Q.-L. Fu, C. Liu, V. Achal, Y.-J. Wang, D.-M. Zhou
      Due to the extensive application of aromatic arsenical additives (AAAs) in the animal feeding industry worldwide, soil contamination by AAAs has attracted great interests recently. This paper comprehensively reviewed the recent advances in the detection, environmental behaviors, toxicities, and remediation for AAAs in soil system. As of now, HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS are the most predominent techniques used to separate and determine the species and concentrations of AAAs as well as their metabolites. Sorption and biotic transformation are the two main processes in affecting the fate of AAAs in soil, but few works have focused on their aerobic degradation, plant accumulation, and transformation mechanisms. Arsenic is highly toxic, and the toxicity of arsenic species ranked in the order of MMA(III) (monomethylarsonic acid)>iAs(III)>iAs(V)>organic As. However, the combined toxicity of different arsenic species to soil organisms and their potential human risk should be emphasized in the future. It has been found that Fe- and/or Al-containing drinking-water treatment residuals are promising materials to immobilize arsenic in AAAs polluted sites, but to reduce AAAs application in animal feeding industry will be vital for soil environmental protection.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T06:14:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/bs.agron.2016.06.004
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