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Showing 1 - 200 of 3030 Journals sorted alphabetically
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 79, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 303, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 21)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.311, h-index: 16)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 15)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.071, h-index: 82)
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Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
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Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
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Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 332, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 304, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 390, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access  
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 154, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription  
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access  
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.711, h-index: 78)
Annales d'Endocrinologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.394, h-index: 30)
Annales d'Urologie     Full-text available via subscription  
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.177, h-index: 13)
Annales de Chirurgie de la Main et du Membre Supérieur     Full-text available via subscription  
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Annales de Chirurgie Vasculaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Acta Ecologica Sinica
  [SJR: 0.172]   [H-I: 29]   [8 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1872-2032
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3030 journals]
  • Morphological variability and allometric relationships of the herb Panax
           notoginseng in Yunnan, China

    • Authors: Ji Zhang; Yan-Li Zhao; Hang Jin; Jin-Yu Zhang; Yuan-Zhong Wang
      Pages: 65 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 2
      Author(s): Ji Zhang, Yan-Li Zhao, Hang Jin, Jin-Yu Zhang, Yuan-Zhong Wang
      A plant's morphology changes throughout its ontogeny. Investigating the allometric relationships between different morphological traits could provide useful information for cultivation of medicinal plants. Here we collected 698 individuals of Panax notoginseng for allometric analysis from seven populations cultivated in Yunnan, Southwest China. The slopes and intercepts of the allometric relationships were estimated by Standardized Major Axis regression. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in each morphological variable considered among populations. Allometric analysis showed that all of the log-log relationships had different slopes or shared a common slope but differed in intercept (p<0.001). The morphological traits showed flexible allometric relationships. However, the root biomass that considered as a target trait showed the least allometric variability (slope=1.068–1.378) when compared to other variables. This could be because of the hundreds of years of cultivation and artificial selection.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.008
  • Aspects and altitudes modify the requirement of disturbance in oak
           (Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus) belt of Garhwal Himalaya

    • Authors: Sunil Prasad; Vikaspal Singh; DS Chauhan
      Pages: 70 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 2
      Author(s): Sunil Prasad, Vikaspal Singh, DS Chauhan
      Present study measures the impact of forest disturbance on population structure and regeneration status of a Himalayan banj oak (Qsuercus leucotrichophora A. Camus) forest at different aspects and altitudes. The whole study was carried out by placing 300 systematically selected sample plots in banj oak forest. The study revealed that moderately disturbed forest patches were present in all elevation ranges and both north and south facing aspects whereas most of the highly disturbed patches were situated near middle and lower stretches of forests or close to habitations. Density of primary diameter class (5–15cm) was recorded highest in moderately disturbed zone in upper elevation ranges and north facing aspect and ‘fair’ category of regeneration was most frequent in all elevation ranges and aspects. The paper concludes a positive effect of mid-level disturbance on plant community for better regeneration and study recommends a minimum resource extraction and silvicultural practices in banj-oak belt of Himalaya for a minimum canopy opening which not only be able to provide biomass to local communities for their daily needs but also would be able to maintain and improve forest health.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.009
  • Effects of shell morphological traits on the weight trait of the orange
           strain of the Manila clam

    • Authors: Zhong-ming Huo; Yu-an Wu; Zhi-ying Gao; Guan-nan Chu; Xi-wu Yan; Feng Yang; Guo-fan Zhang
      Pages: 75 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 2
      Author(s): Zhong-ming Huo, Yu-an Wu, Zhi-ying Gao, Guan-nan Chu, Xi-wu Yan, Feng Yang, Guo-fan Zhang
      A new strain of Manila clam with orange shell color was produced after selection within a full-sib family for two generations. In the present study, the shell length, height, and width, and the live body weight of the orange strain were measured, and their correlation coefficients were calculated. The shell morphological traits were used as independent variables, and the live body weight was used as the dependent variable for calculating the path coefficients, correlation index, and determination coefficients. The results showed that the correlation coefficients between each shell morphological trait and the live body weight were all highly significant (P <0.01). The correlation indices (R 2) of morphological traits against the live body weight of clams were larger than 0.85, indicating that the morphology traits were the main factors affecting the body weight. Multiple regression equations were obtained to estimate shell length X 1 (cm), shell height X 2 (cm), and shell width X 3 (cm) against live body weight Y (g): Y =−2.62+0.34 X 1 +0.145 X 2, (X 1 <0.05, X 2 <0.05). The results suggest that the shell length could be used as the main trait for selective breeding and could indirectly make a large improvement in the weight trait.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.007
  • Dynamic assessment of the value of vegetation carbon fixation and oxygen
           release services in Qinghai Lake basin

    • Authors: Tao Zhang; Guangchao Cao; Shengkui Cao; Xiaoge Zhang; Jing Zhang; Guangzhao Han
      Pages: 79 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 2
      Author(s): Tao Zhang, Guangchao Cao, Shengkui Cao, Xiaoge Zhang, Jing Zhang, Guangzhao Han
      Studies on ecosystem service function have an important significance for analyzing and understanding global warming. With the introduction of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies for the evaluation of ecosystem service function, the scope for analysis has been widening. Increasing number of researchers use these technologies to quantify the value of ecosystem service functions and reveal their spatial-temporal variability. By using the data for the interpretation of five RS images and net primary productivity (NPP) in Qinghai Lake basin, we assessed the value of vegetation carbon fixation and oxygen release services and revealed their dynamic variation in this basin. The result suggested that the average values of vegetation carbon fixation and oxygen release services in Qinghai Lake basin between 1987 and 2010 were spatially distributed in a ring shape around the Qinghai Lake and decreased from southeastern to the north and northwestern regions; the northwestern areas had the lowest value. The vegetation carbon fixation value between 1987 and 2010 was on an average 28.87×108 yuan/a in Qinghai Lake basin, whereas the oxygen release value was 64.41×108 yuan/a. Alpine meadow ecosystem showed the highest value of vegetation carbon fixation and oxygen release services function in Qinghai Lake basin, with average values of 18.28×108 yuan/a and 40.79×108 yuan/a, respectively, followed by those of temperate steppe and sparse vegetation. The vegetation carbon fixation and oxygen release values in Qinghai Lake basin gradually increased from 1987 to 2010, with the maximum value in 2010. By the end of 2010, the values increased by 7.19×108 yuan and 16.04×108 yuan, respectively. The values slightly decreased in barren land, lakeside marsh, river valley swamp, and sandy areas, but increased to different degrees in other ecosystems. Among them, the largest increase was noted in alpine meadow (4.38×108 yuan and 9.78×108 yuan, respectively), followed by those in temperate steppe with increased values of 1.12×108 yuan and 2.49×108 yuan, respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.005
  • Effects of simulated warming on soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and
           archaea communities in an alpine forest of western Sichuan, China

    • Authors: Li Zhang; Fuzhong Wu; Zhenfeng Xu; Bo Tan; Ao Wang; Wanqin Yang
      Pages: 85 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 2
      Author(s): Li Zhang, Fuzhong Wu, Zhenfeng Xu, Bo Tan, Ao Wang, Wanqin Yang
      Ongoing climate change, characterized by winter warming, snow cover decline and extreme weather events, is changing terrestrial ecosystem processes in high altitude and latitude regions. Winter soil processes could be particularly sensitive to climate change. In fact, winter warming and snow cover decline are interdependent in cold biomes, and have a synergistic effect on soil processes. Soil microorganisms not only play crucial roles in material cycling and energy flow, but also act as sensitive bio-indicators of climate change. However, little information is available on the effect of winter warming on forest soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA). The alpine and subalpine forest ecosystems on the eastern Tibet Plateau have important roles in conserving soil, holding water, and maintaining biodiversity. To understand the changes in AOB and AOA communities under climate change scenarios, an altitudinal gradient experiment in combination with soil column transplanting was conducted at the Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, which is situated in the Bipeng Valley of Lixian County, Sichuan, China. Thirty intact soil columns under an alpine forest at an altitude of 3582m were transplanted and incubated at 3298m and 3023m forest sites, respectively. Compared with the 3582m, we expected air temperature increases of 2°C and 4°C at the 3298m and 3023m, respectively. However, the temperatures in the soil organic layer (OL) and mineral soil layer (ML) increased by 0.27°C and 0.13°C, respectively, at 3023m and −0.36°C and −0.35°C at 3298m. Based on a previous study and with simultaneous monitoring of soil temperature, the abundances of AOB and AOA communities in both the OL and ML were measured by qPCR in December 2010 (i.e., the onset of the frozen soil period) and March 2011 (i.e., the late frozen soil period). The soil columns incubated at 3023m had relatively higher AOB abundances and lower AOA/AOB ratios than those at 3298m, while higher AOA abundances and AOA/AOB ratios were observed at 3298m. The abundance of the microbial community at the late frozen period was higher than that at the onset of frozen soil, and the changes in microbial community abundance at the late frozen period were more substantial. Furthermore, the nitrate nitrogen (N) concentrations in both the OL and ML were significantly higher than ammonia N concentrations, implying that soil nitrate N is the primary component of the inorganic N pool in the alpine forest ecosystem. Additionally, the responses of AOA and AOB in the soil OL to soil column transplanting were more sensitive than the responses of those in ML. In conclusion, climate warming alters the abundance of the ammonia-oxidizing microbial community in the alpine forest ecosystem, which, in turn, might affect N cycling.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.004
  • Floral traits and mating system of Hibiscus trionum (Malvaceae)

    • Authors: Qun Li; Cheng-Jiang Ruan; Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva
      Pages: 91 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 2
      Author(s): Qun Li, Cheng-Jiang Ruan, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva
      Variations in floral traits and floral structures influence plant mating systems. Hibiscus trionum produces large, showy flowers typical of an outcrossing species, yet flowers are autonomously self-pollinated. In this study, we measured floral morphology, breeding system and outcrossing rate estimated by ISSR markers. Results indicate that two types of flowers were observed in H. trionum, and the type I with bigger petals appears to be much more visible to pollinators, demonstrated by than type II flowers with smaller petals. The flowers with hand pollination were closed 1h earlier than intact flowers, whether they were type I or II. The relationship between the amount of pollen deposited on the stigma and the number of seeds per capsule was highly significant, and 80 or more pollens per flower can make the mean number of seeds (mean=37) in H. trionum. Delayed selfing in H. trionum did not provide a large contribution to seed production, since reproductive assurance were only 0.025. However, successful reproduction of 72.5% flowers in the absence of pollinators suggested that selfing provides reproductive assurance during seasons, in which pollinators were limiting. The multilocus outcrossing rates in different populations varied from 0.982 to 1.200, with a mean of 1.116. Our data provide an empirical demonstration of a predominantly outcrossing species with potential delayed selfing when pollinators are absent or scarce.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.011
  • Determination of food sources and trophic position in Malaysian tropical
           highland streams using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes

    • Authors: Dhiya Shafiqah Ridzuan; Che Salmah Md. Rawi; Suhaila Abdul Hamid; Salman Abdo Al-Shami
      Pages: 97 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 2
      Author(s): Dhiya Shafiqah Ridzuan, Che Salmah Md. Rawi, Suhaila Abdul Hamid, Salman Abdo Al-Shami
      Stable isotope analysis has been extensively used as an effective tool in determination of trophic relationship in ecosystems. In freshwater ecosystem, aquatic invertebrates represent main component of a river food web. This study was carried out to determine potential food sources of freshwater organism together with pattern of trophic position along the river food web. In this study, rivers of Belum-Temengor Forest Complex (BTFC) has been selected as sampling site as it is a pristine area that contains high diversity and abundance of organisms and can be a benchmark for other rivers in Malaysia. Stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ 13C) and nitrogen (δ 15N) were applied to estimate trophic position and food web paradigm. Analysis of stable isotopes based on organic material collected from the study area revealed that the highest δ 13C value was reported from filamentous algae (−22.68±0.1260/00) and the lowest δ 13C was in allocthonous leaf packs (−31.58±0.1870/00). Meanwhile the highest δ 15N value was in fish (8.45±0.1770/00) and the lowest value of δ 15N was in autochthonous aquatic macrophyte (2.00±1.2340/00). Based on the δ 15N results, there are three trophic levels in the study river and it is suggested that the trophic chain begins with organic matter followed by group of insects and ends with fish (organic matter<insects<fish).

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.10.002
  • Ecological survey of two Calomyscidae species; Goodwin's brush-tailed
           mouse and Hotson's brush-tailed mouse (Rodentia) in the eastern parts of

    • Authors: Kordiyeh Hamidi; Jamshid Darvish; Maryam M. Matin
      Pages: 105 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 2
      Author(s): Kordiyeh Hamidi, Jamshid Darvish, Maryam M. Matin
      Calomyscus elburzensis and C. hotsoni are two species of the rodents family Calomyscidae which are distributed mainly in Iran. Herein, we evaluated the habitat and ecological differences of these two brush-tailed mice in order to test the credibility of a hypothesis stating that species from habitats with different climates and vegetation show greater intraspecific differentiation than those from areas with more similar climates and vegetation. This study was carried out in four rocky regions in Iran between 2013 and 2015. Totally 52 brush-tailed mice were captured from Kopet-Dag, Khaje-Morad, Ark, and Shadan and Olang during the field studies. Maximum parsimony analysis inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences (Cytb) was used for species identification, and also comparison of mean Kimura 2-paramater distances was performed. According to the molecular studies, specimens from the first two regions were assigned to C. elburzensis and samples from Ark, and Shadan and Olang belonged to C. hotsoni. The mean distances within all examined Iranian samples of both C. elburzensis and C. hotsoni were 2.3% and 0.9%, respectively. Based on our field studies, C. elburzensis were captured either from “cold mountainous” climate zone with Juniperus excelsa as main vegetation cover or from “Mediterranean” in which Pistacia atlantica is predominant vegetation. C. hotsoni were found in “hot dry desert” and “cold semi-desert” regions both characterized by Ephedra sp. and Avena sativa vegetation cover. Dog rose seeds were the main food of C. elburzensis in Kopet-Dag, whereas brush-tailed mice in the other three regions fed mainly on Mount Atlas pistache fruits. C. elburzensis inhabited concealed rock crevices, but C. hotsoni were found living in burrows which were digged in the soft soils. Individuals of C. hotsoni showed more calm behavior as compared with C. elburzensis. Meriones persicus and Cricetulus migratorius (Rodentia) as well as Ochotona rufescence (Lagomorpha) were the most abundant small mammals encountered with C. elburzensis, while M. persicus was the most successful rodent with sympatric colonies with C. hotsoni. In conclusion, in accordance with the greater genetic distances observed in C. elburzensis populations as compared with C. hotsoni, more significant differences in the habitat structure were also found for the first species in different parts of its distribution range.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.010
  • Soil microorganisms nitrogen transformation test for abamectin 3.6g/L EC
           (w/v) in loamy sand soil

    • Authors: Nageswara Rao Tentu; Parvatamma Botsa; Manohara Naidu Tentu; Karri Apparao
      Pages: 115 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 2
      Author(s): Nageswara Rao Tentu, Parvatamma Botsa, Manohara Naidu Tentu, Karri Apparao
      The present study was conducted to determine the nitrogen transformation test of abamectin 3.6g/L EC. This study was conducted as per OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals OECD 216. The test item abamectin 3.6g/L emulsifiable concentrate (EC) was applied in a loamy sand soil and incubated over a period of 28days for nitrogen transformation test at concentrations of 3.2μL/kg soil dry weight and 16μL/kg soil dry weight. The concentrations tested were based on one and five times the maximum recommended field application rates of 1200mL/ha and 6000mL/ha of abamectin 3.6g/L EC, respectively. The deviation in soil nitrate content determined at 28days after application of the test item to soil compared to the control was 0.14% and −9.25% for the single and five times test concentrations, respectively. There is no significant variation between the treatment groups and control sample. The rate of nitrate formation between 14 and 28days after application of the test item to soil deviate from control by 10.41% and 13.74% for 3.2 and 16μL/kg soil dry weight, respectively. Deviations in nitrate levels and nitrate formation rates in soil treated with up to and including 16μL/kg of test item/kg soil dry weight were <25%, compared to control indicating no significant effect occurred in nitrogen transformation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2017.02.001
  • Histopathological changes and transcriptional alterations of three
           coagulation factors in zebrafish (Danio rerio) following short-term
           exposure to MC-LR

    • Authors: Lili Wei; Yi Liu; Zirui Wang; Jiming Ruan; Huadong Wu; Qiwang Zhong
      Pages: 120 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 2
      Author(s): Lili Wei, Yi Liu, Zirui Wang, Jiming Ruan, Huadong Wu, Qiwang Zhong
      Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most common hepatotoxic cyanotoxin produced primarily by Microcystis aeruginosa. Although deaths from microcystin toxication have widely been attributed to hypovolemic shock due to hepatic interstitial hemorrhage, so far, information on coagulation factors of MC-LR has been rare. In our present study, the effects of MC-LR on the coagulation factors expression and pathological changes in zebrafish were investigated. Adult zebrafish were injected intraperitoneally with 200μg/kg MC-LR and newly hatched larvae were placed in glass wares containing 200μg MC-LR/L, liver and whole larvae were collected after exposure for 12h, 24h, 48h and 96h, respectively. mRNA levels of coagulation factor IX (FIX), coagulation factor VII (FVII) and coagulation factor VIIi (FVIIi) in liver of adult fish and total zebrafish larvae were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. Significant depression of FIX and FVII were observed in adult zebrafish at different time point, and FVIIi were also significantly decreased except for 12h post-injection. In addition, the histopathological changes in adult zebrafish liver were observed, and the severe hepatic injuries were found at 96h. The pathological changes further explained the transcriptional results. The transcriptions of FVII were significantly depressed throughout the entire experiment in zebrafish larvae, and the FIX only significantly depressed after exposure for 48 and 96h, however, FVIIi just was significantly reduced after 12h and 24h stimulation. Whatever the mechanism, the effects of MC-LR on the transcription of these coagulation factors might explain the intrahepatic hemorrhage in liver after exposure to MC-LR, and which would provide new information to elucidate the hepatotoxicity of MC-LR.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T03:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.006
  • Study on the effects of arsenic pollution on the communities of
           macro-invertebrate in Xieshui River

    • Authors: Shiyun Chi; Juxiang Hu; Jinxiu Zheng; Fangyong Dong
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 1
      Author(s): Shiyun Chi, Juxiang Hu, Jinxiu Zheng, Fangyong Dong
      In 2006 and 2007, five sampling stations were set up in Xieshui River and its tributaries to study the macro-invertebrate communities, and measure physicochemical parameters and contents of different forms of arsenic. A comparative analysis and multivariate statistical methods were used to explore the effects of arsenic pollution on the macro-invertebrate communities. In this study, sixty species were identified, including 39 aquatic insects, 10 mollusks, 5 oligochaetes, 1 crustacean, and 5 others. Results of the comparative analysis indicated that the macro-invertebrate communities at the station with serious arsenic pollution tended to be simple and showed a significant decreasing in density, biomass, and biodiversity in comparison with the other stations. Arsenic pollution also had a major effect on the dominant species and groups. For instance, EPT taxa disappeared at the station with serious arsenic pollution, and chironomids that belong to the genus Cardiocladius were very tolerant to high concentrations of arsenic. Results of the functional feeding groups (FFGs) analysis indicated that the predators were more tolerant to arsenic pollution, while the scrapers, filterers, and collectors were relatively sensitive to arsenic pollution. Results of a non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) analysis showed that when the concentration of inorganic arsenic decreased to the range between the criteria continuous concentration (CCC) and the criteria maximum concentration (CMC), the effects of inorganic arsenic on the macro-invertebrate communities seemed to be insignificant. Results of a BVSTEP (Bio-Env Step-Wise Procedure) analysis showed that water temperature, rotifer density, trivalent arsenic, pentavalent arsenic, and total inorganic arsenic greatly influenced species appearance, while rotifer density and various forms of arsenic had a considerable impact on the species composition.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T12:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.09.003
  • Effect of stand age on soil microbial community structure in wolfberry
           (Lycium barbarum L.) fields

    • Authors: Junhua Zhang; Ming Li; Guoqi Zheng
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 1
      Author(s): Junhua Zhang, Ming Li, Guoqi Zheng
      Soil physicochemical properties and microbes are essential in terrestrial ecosystems through their role in cycling mineral compounds and decomposing organic matter. This study examined the effect of stand age on soil physicochemical properties and microbial community structure in wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fields, in order to reveal the mechanism of soil degradation due to long-term stand of L. barbarum. The objective of the study was achieved by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarker analysis of soil samples from L. barbarum fields in Zhongning County, Ningxia Province—the origin of L. barbarum. Five stand ages of L. barbarum were selected, <1, 3, 6, 9, and 12years (three plots each). The results showed that soil bulk density increased slightly with increasing stand age, while no clear trend was observed in soil pH or total salinity. As the stand age increased, soil organic matter and nutrients first increased before decreasing, with the highest levels being found in year 9. There was an amazing variety of PLFA biomarkers in soil samples at different stand ages. The average concentrations of total, bacterial, fungal, and actinomycete PLFAs in the surface soil initially decreased and then increased, before decreasing with the stand age in summer. The PLFA concentrations of major microbial groups were highest in year 9, with the total PLFA concentrations being 32.97% and 10.67% higher than those in years <1 and 12, respectively. Higher microbial PLFA concentrations were detected in summer relative to autumn and in the surface relative to the subsurface soil. The highest ratios of Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacterial (G−/G+) and fungal to bacterial (F/B) PLFAs were obtained in year 6, on average 76.09% higher than those at the other four stand ages. The soil environment was most stable in year 6, with no differences between other stand ages. Therefore, soil microbial community structure was strongly influenced by the stand age in year 6 only. The effect of stand age on soil G−/G+ and microbial community structure varied with season and depth; there was little effect for F/B in the 20–40cm soil layer. Principal component analysis revealed no correlations between microbial PLFA concentrations and total salinity in the soil; negative correlations were noted between soil pH and F/B in summer (P <0.01), as well as between soil pH and fungal PLFA in autumn (P <0.05). Moreover, microbial PLFA concentrations were correlated with soil organic matter (mean R =0.7725), total nitrogen (mean R =0.8296), total phosphorus (mean R =0.8175), available nitrogen (mean R =0.7458), and available phosphorus (mean R =0.7795) (P< 0.01). On the whole, the soil ecosystem was most stable in year 6, while soil organic matter, nutrients, and microbial PLFA concentrations were maximal in year 9; thereafter, soil fertility indices and microbial concentrations decreased and soil quality declined gradually as the stand age increased. Therefore, farmers should reduce the application rate of fertilizers, especially compound or mixed fertilizers, in L. barbarum fields; organic or bacterial manure can be applied increasingly to improve the soil environment and prolong the economic life of L. barbarum.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T12:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.003
  • Resistance characteristics of Cedrus deodara and Sabina chinensis to heavy
           metal accumulation under different atmospheric conditions

    • Authors: Ruirui Zhao; Cong Shi; Meili Zhou; Guoping Chen; Zhangying Gao; Fuchen Shi
      Pages: 18 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ruirui Zhao, Cong Shi, Meili Zhou, Guoping Chen, Zhangying Gao, Fuchen Shi
      Cedrus deodara and Sabina chinensis are widely planted in North China. The needles of C. deodara and S. chinensis were sampled in the urban, suburban, and rural districts of Tianjin where the atmospheric conditions are significantly different according to the environmental monitoring results. The Cu, Mn, Zn, and Pb concentrations in the samples were examined via ICP. The resistance indexes, and the malonic aldehyde (MDA), soluble sugar, and free proline levels were also determined. The Pearson coefficients between the resistance indexes and the heavy metal contents were analyzed to compare the two plants abilities to accumulate heavy metal and their resistance characteristics. The results indicated that the heavy metal concentrations had the following significant trend: urban areas>suburban areas>rural areas. In urban areas, the Mn, Zn, and Pb concentrations in C. deodara were as high as 2024.77mg·kg−1, 2397.07mg·kg−1, and 130.07mg·kg−1, significantly higher than in S. chinensis. The Mn, Zn, and Pb concentrations in C. deodara were extremely significantly positively correlated (P <0.01), but no significant correlations were noted in S. chinensis. The MDA, soluble sugar, and free proline concentrations in C. deodara increased as the heavy metal contents rose along the urban–rural gradient, and were positively correlated with the plant heavy metal contents. They were much higher than the contents in S. chinensis where no differences were noted among the sampling sites. In conclusion, the heavy metal resistance methods used by C. deodara and S. chinensis are different. C. deodara could absorb and accumulate many heavy metals, mainly through increased physiological resistance to stress. In contrast, S. chinensis resistance relied on avoiding contact with the metals and by reducing absorption. These differences are associated with the biological characteristics of C. deodara and S. chinensis, and are closely connected with their coniferous and morphological differences.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T12:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.001
  • Urban ecological corridors construction: A review

    • Authors: Jian Peng; Huijuan Zhao; Yanxu Liu
      Pages: 23 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jian Peng, Huijuan Zhao, Yanxu Liu
      An ecological corridor, with both ecological and cultural functions, is a symbol of urban ecological or green civilization, and has therefore become one of the major topics in the fields of landscape ecology, urban ecology, and ecological planning. On the one hand, along with the prominent contradiction between regional ecological protection and economic development, as well as between the growing ecological demands of urban residents and the destruction of natural ecosystems, the construction of urban ecological corridors is very challenging. On the other hand, with contemporary urbanization and ecological civilization development, the standards and requirements for the construction of urban ecological corridors are set higher and higher. Constructing an urban ecological corridor is therefore particularly important, and must adopt a spatial approach that balances the relationship between ecological protection and economic development. In this study, the classification of urban ecological corridors was firstly conducted according to the structural or functional differences. Secondly, research progress on the construction of urban ecological corridors was systematically summarized and the main inadequacies were indicated. Following the analysis of the main methods employed in the construction of urban ecological corridors, existing methods were classified into three kinds, i.e. qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, and spatial analysis. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the methods of subjective judgment, suitability and sensitivity analysis, network analysis, and minimum cost path analysis were compared. To provide theoretical support for the construction and management of urban ecological corridors, four key research directions were also pointed out, i.e. the identification of key nodes of urban ecological corridor, the determination of the width of urban ecological corridor, the measurement of integrated effect of urban ecological corridor, and the multi-scale integration of urban ecological corridor. The present study will aid in accelerating and improving the process of ecological corridors construction in China's new-type urbanization.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T12:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.12.002
  • Effects of elevated atmospheric O3 concentrations on early and late leaf
           growth and elemental contents of Acer truncatum Bung under mild drought

    • Authors: Li Li; Xiaoke Wang; Junfeng Niu; Jian Cui; Qianqian Zhang; Wuxing Wan; Bojie Liu
      Pages: 31 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 1
      Author(s): Li Li, Xiaoke Wang, Junfeng Niu, Jian Cui, Qianqian Zhang, Wuxing Wan, Bojie Liu
      To investigate the possible interactive effects of elevated atmospheric ozone (O3) concentrations and periodic drought stress on physiology of Shantung maple (Acer truncatum Bung), an experiment was conducted from the growth season of 2012 to 2013 with open-top chambers (OTCs) in Changping district, a suburb of Beijing, China. Four treatments were administered with three replications in twelve OTCs which were NN (well watered+ambient air), NO (well watered+add 100nll−1 O3 above ambient air), DN (drought stress+ambient air) and DO (drought stress+add 100nll−1 O3 above ambient air). Leaf area (LA), leaf mass per area (LMA), individual leaf weight (ILW), carbon(C), nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) contents in early and late leaves were measured at the end of the second year. The results showed: (1) Both elevated O3 concentration and drought treatments significantly reduced early leaf LMA, LA, ILW, leaf N and S contents, with a reduction of 28.7, 45.7, 61.3, 39.6, 16.1% by O3 stress and 12.5, 46.8, 53.5, 15.45 and 22% by drought stress, respectively, while only LMA of late leaf was reduced 12.1% by O3 treatments and LA and ILW were significantly reduced 23.3% and 30% by drought treatments. (2) Significant interactions of elevated atmospheric O3 concentration and mild drought were detected on LMA, LA, ILW, N and C contents in early leaves and LMA in late leaves. Except for LA, the decreases under interactive treatments were all less than independent O3 effects. In conclusion, late leaf had less responses to elevated O3 and drought stresses than early leaves which need to be considered separately. The interactive effects suggested drought had antagonistic effects with O3 on growth indicators except for LA, indicating drought could mitigate the adverse efforts from O3 effects.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T12:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.10.006
  • Studying the ability to absorb heavy metal of cadmium on the amount of
           sugar and chlorophyll using seedlings of berry specie (Morus alba) in
           pollution area

    • Authors: Abdolhosein Nahvi; Seyed Armin Hashemi; Mir Mozaffar Fallahchai
      Pages: 35 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 1
      Author(s): Abdolhosein Nahvi, Seyed Armin Hashemi, Mir Mozaffar Fallahchai
      Heavy metals are from the group of problematic factors in the ecosystem that due to being non-absorbable and having physiological effects on the activity of living organisms at low concentrations are of particular importance. In this study, the ability of berry specie to absorb heavy metal of cadmium was studied. One year old seedlings of berry specie were prepared from the nursery, concentrations of zero and 100mg per liter of cadmium chloride solution were added to the seedlings pots soil after calculation, and after a three-month period of seedling growth, shoots and roots were separated, then the concentration amount of cadmium in the samples was determined and data were examined. The results of data analysis showed that the highest rate of cadmium accumulation in stems, roots and soil in treatment concentration is 54.76, 107.75 and 8.825mg per kg, respectively, and the rate of cadmium accumulation in total chlorophyll and sugar in treatment concentration is 3.16 and 0.6693mg per g, respectively, and based on the results of this research berry specie is relatively suitable for remediation of soils contaminated with cadmium.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T12:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.08.006
  • The effects of gap disturbance on the seedling emergence, survival and
           growth of two different native species in Inner Mongolia

    • Authors: Haiming Kan; Juying Wu; Yingjun Zhang; Guixia Liu
      Pages: 38 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 1
      Author(s): Haiming Kan, Juying Wu, Yingjun Zhang, Guixia Liu
      A field study was conducted to investigate the effects of gap disturbance on the seedling establishment process of two native species. Seeds of Agropyron cristatum and Stipa krylovii were reseeded to artificially created gaps in a degraded steppe in North China. There were seven treatments: shoot gaps and root gaps (10cm, 20cm and 40cm in diameters), no gaps (control). Shoot gaps were formed by removing above ground vegetation and below ground biomass without restricting the re-growth of neighbor roots back into the gap. The root gaps were accomplished by using polyvinyl chloride pipes sunk in the soil of shoot gaps to exclude neighboring roots. Seedling emergence, survival and growth performance after 90days of growing were recorded for both species. Gap significantly increased soil moisture, especially for root gaps. Emergence increased significantly for both species as gap size increased. Seedling emergence and survivorship of both species were greater in gaps than in controls. However, the gap size showed a significantly negative effect on Agropyron cristatum's survivorship. Growth performance of Agropyron cristatum and Stipa krylovii differ in their response to gap disturbance. Gap had positive effects on seedling growth (including seedling height, dry weight, and numbers of tillers and leaves) of Stipa krylovii, but had negative effects on seedling growth of Agropyron cristatum. The two species have significantly different responses to gap disturbance. All results suggest that Stipa krylovii is a gap-enhanced species, and Agropyron cristatum is not. Predation by insects may be one of the key reasons to explain the stand dominance in this grassland.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T12:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.09.002
  • Sunflower germination and growth behavior under various gamma radiation
           absorbed doses

    • Authors: Fida Hussain; Munawar Iqbal; Syed Zahir Shah; M. Afzal Qamar; Tanveer H. Bokhari; Mazhar Abbas; Muhammad Younus
      Pages: 48 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 1
      Author(s): Fida Hussain, Munawar Iqbal, Syed Zahir Shah, M. Afzal Qamar, Tanveer H. Bokhari, Mazhar Abbas, Muhammad Younus
      Gamma radiation, various absorbed doses (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5 krad) effects were evaluated on sunflower (Helianthus annus. L.) germination and growth characteristics. Sunflower healthy seeds were exposed to gamma radiation source Co60 at nuclear institute for food and agriculture and exposed seeds were grown under controlled laboratory conditions. In comparison to control, gamma radiation absorbed doses affected the measured response positively i.e., radical length, plumule length, number of roots, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry weight, germination percentage, time of germination and diameter of hypocotyl of sunflower enhanced up to 83.15%, 70.32%, 73.03%, 4.80%, 3.26%, 72.0%, −18.88% and 12.58%, respectively. The time of germination, fresh weight and percent moisture contents enhanced insignificantly, however, the response was higher than control. All gamma radiation absorbed doses showed a stimulatory effect on sunflower germination and seedling growth characteristics. The low gamma radiation absorbed doses were found to be more effective versus higher doses for enhancing the germination and growth characteristics of sunflower. In view of positive effect of gamma radiation of sunflower germination and growth characteristics, it is concluded that this techniques could possibly be used for the enhancement of germination, growth and ultimately yield in sunflower in areas where germination is low due to unfavorable conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T12:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.09.009
  • Measurement and analysis of the yearly characteristics of deep-buried
           phreatic evaporation in a hyper-arid area

    • Authors: Hongshou Li; Wanfu Wang; Hongtao Zhan; Fei Qiu; Fasi Wu; Guobing Zhang
      Pages: 53 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 1
      Author(s): Hongshou Li, Wanfu Wang, Hongtao Zhan, Fei Qiu, Fasi Wu, Guobing Zhang
      Water scarcity is the primary cause of land deterioration, so finding new available water resources is crucial to ecological restoration. We investigated a hyper-arid Gobi location in the Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes in this work wherein the burial depth of phreatic water is over 200m. An air-conditioner was used in a closed greenhouse to condense and measure the yearly amount of phreatic evaporation (PE) from 2010 to 2015. The results shown that the annual quantity of PE is 4.52mm, and that the PE has sinusoidal characteristics. The average PE is 0.0183mmd−1 from March to November. Accordingly, by monitoring the annual changes in soil-air temperature and humidity to a depth of 5.0m, we analyzed the water migration mechanism in the heterothermozone (subsurface zone of variable temperature). The results show that, from March to November, the temperature and absolute humidity (AH) increase. This is due to the flow of solar heat entering the soil — the soil subsequently releases moisture and the soil is in a state of increasing AH so that evaporation occurs. From November to March, the temperature decreases. Now, the soil absorbs water vapor and AH is in a state of decline. Thus, it is temperature alternation in the heterothermozone — due to solar heat transfer — that provides the main driving power for PE. When it drives water vapor to move downwards in the heterothermozone, a small part is reversed upwards and evaporates. Solar radiation intensity dominates the annual sinusoidal PE characteristics.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T12:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.10.001
  • Mineralization of amino acids and its signs in nitrogen cycling of forest

    • Authors: Hongliang Ma; Guangting Pei; Ren Gao; Yunfeng Yin
      Pages: 60 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 37, Issue 1
      Author(s): Hongliang Ma, Guangting Pei, Ren Gao, Yunfeng Yin
      Amino acid mineralization and its fate in soil have effects on soil nitrogen cycling. Here we used 15N-labeled alanine and methionine to study differences in their mineralization from soil organic nitrogen under 60% WHC (water holding capacity) and 90% WHC soil conditions. We found that the maximum mineralization rates were at the 24th hours for alanine and at the 5th hours for methionine, and about two times greater rates at 60% WHC than at 90% WHC. The half-live was 24–72h for alanine and >72h for methionine. Half-lives of amino acids occurred sooner under 90% WHC than under 60% WHC. The results suggested that some kind of amino acids do lead the nitrogen cycling in a specific ecosystem or as a sign to trigger soil nitrogen cycling when land utilization was altered or disturbed severely by humans.

      PubDate: 2017-01-15T12:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.09.001
  • Effects of various stocking rates on grassland soil respiration during the
           non-growing season

    • Authors: Zhanlei Pan; Zhijun Wei; Lei Ma; Yuping Rong
      Pages: 411 - 416
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 6
      Author(s): Zhanlei Pan, Zhijun Wei, Lei Ma, Yuping Rong
      Soil respiration is a key component of net CO2 exchange in grassland ecosystems and directly influences the soil carbon pool dynamics. While numerous soil respiration studies in grazed grasslands exist, the accurate quantification of the net CO2 exchange in grassland ecosystems throughout the entire year is required to determine whether grazed grasslands are carbon sinks or sources. In this study, we evaluated how stocking rate influenced soil respiration during the non-growing season in a typical grassland in the Hebei Province of North China. To examine the effects of stocking rate on soil respiration, soil respiration rates were measured using a soil greenhouse gas flux measurement system. Three stocking rates—ungrazed control (UG), moderate grazing (MG), and heavy grazing (HG)—were applied by grazing small tail sheep (ewes and lambs) at different densities from the end of June to early October in 2010 through 2013, and the relationships among soil respiration, stocking rate, and environmental factors were analyzed during the non-growing season (1 October 2013 to 30 April 2014). Variation in soil respiration followed a “V” pattern and was correlated with soil temperature and moisture for all stocking rates. Stocking rates did not significantly influence soil temperature or soil moisture; however, cumulative CO2 emissions during the non-growing season decreased dramatically (P <0.05) with increased stocking rates, following the order of UG (0.51±0.015kgCm−2)>MG (0.38±0.012kgCm−2)>HG (0.33±0.009kgCm−2). The influences of air and soil temperature on soil respiration rate were best described by an exponential equation (R2 =0.43–0.55; P <0.01). A significant quadratic relationship was found between soil moisture and soil respiration rate (R2 =0.46–0.67; P <0.01). Soil respiration during the non-growing season was most strongly influenced by air temperature (R2 =0.56), with Q 10values either increasing or decreasing relative to the UG treatment for the MG and HG treatment, respectively. Given the strong influence of grazing intensity on soil respiration in this grassland ecosystem, we suggest that the accurate estimates of annual soil respiration should routinely account for soil respiration during the non-growing season.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T05:24:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.09.004
  • Effects of tree species transition on soil microbial biomass and community
           structure in subtropical China

    • Authors: Minhuang Wang; Xiaohua Wan; Zaipeng Yu; Zhenhong Hu; Zongming He; Zhiqun Huang
      Pages: 417 - 423
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 6
      Author(s): Minhuang Wang, Xiaohua Wan, Zaipeng Yu, Zhenhong Hu, Zongming He, Zhiqun Huang
      Large-scale land use changes have remarkably influenced the global carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. Soil microorganisms are known to be the key drivers of these processes and act as susceptive indicators of changes in ecosystem functioning due to land use changes. In forest ecosystems, differences in the stability and turnover of soil C and N pools are mainly associated with the variation in the above- and belowground litter/root inputs to the soil from the tree species. However, the impact of soil C and N pool differences caused by tree species on soil microbial community structure has not been fully investigated in subtropical China. This study aimed to assess the effects of tree species conversion from a coniferous to broad-leaved plantation on the soil microbial biomass and community structure associated with C and N transformations within the plant-soil system. The microbial biomass and composition (reflected by 28 phospholipid fatty acid profiles), soil C and N pools in the top soils, and C and N contents of certain litter and fine root profiles were measured 19years after the reforestation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) woodland with the same species or a native broadleaf species Mytilaria laosensis. The results suggested that soil microbial biomass was significantly higher in the M. laosensis than in the C. lanceolata plantations, and non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination plots showed distinct patterns of soil microbial community structure between these two species. Soil microbial biomass showed negative correlations with litter N or mineral N content, i.e., ammonium N (NH4 +-N) and nitrate N (NO3 −-N), but was positively correlated with soil C content and litter C: N ratio. Further, there were negative correlations between soil microbial biomass C and mineral N pools. These results indicated that tree species transition from M. laosensis to C. lanceolata might have improved the soil labile C and N pools and their availability, leading to an increase in the soil microbial biomass. Redundancy analysis conducted to elucidate the relationships between the microbial community and C or N parameters also showed that the soil C: N ratio, soil total N, and NH4 +-N might be the major factors influencing the soil microbial community. However, soil microbial diversity and richness were not significantly altered by the tree species transition. These results suggested that the potential process rates mediated by litter-derived C and N availabilities might not always be accompanied by a remarkable response from community diversity, but might affect microbial biomass. In conclusion, long-term tree species transition from coniferous to broad-leaved plantations significantly improved soil C and N pools and their availabilities, thereby increasing the soil microbial biomass and changing the composition of in situ soil microbial community. Previous events (e.g., land use history) might have considerable long-lasting impacts on soil microbial diversity and richness than the contemporary environment variables caused by the tree species transition 19years after reforestation.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T05:24:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.10.003
  • Quantification of nitrogen dry and wet deposition in Fujian tobacco
           planting area

    • Authors: Wen Xu; Wenqing Li; Shunhui Chen; Daowei Yang; Yangyang Zhang; Jing Xue; Xuejun Liu
      Pages: 424 - 432
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 6
      Author(s): Wen Xu, Wenqing Li, Shunhui Chen, Daowei Yang, Yangyang Zhang, Jing Xue, Xuejun Liu
      In this study, the wet/bulk and dry atmospheric deposition of different inorganic nitrogen (N) species was investigated in the Fujian tobacco planting area from 2010 to 2014. Wet/bulk N deposition flux of inorganic N was monitored at five sites (Fuzhou, Shanghang, Changting, Taining, and Wuyishan) of Fujian by using precipitation gauges. While dry deposition fluxes of gaseous NH3, NO2, and HNO3 (gNH3, gNO2, and gHNO3), and particulate NH4 + and NO3 − (pNH4 + and pNO3 −) were estimated only at the Fuzhou site through multiplying monthly mean Nr concentrations obtained from DELTA (DEnuder for Long-Term Atmospheric sampling) system (gNH3, gHNO3, pNH4 +, pNO3 −) and passive samplers (gNO2) and the modeled monthly mean dry deposition velocities provided by the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Annual mean NH4 +-N, NO3 −-N, and total inorganic N (TIN) concentrations in precipitation (rainwater and snow) were 0.21–1.05, 0.33–0.74, and 0.59–1.68mgNL−1, respectively, and the averages over the monitoring period were 0.55, 0.49, and 1.04mgNL−1, respectively. Across the five monitoring sites, the average annual wet/bulk N deposition was 17.6kgNha−1 a−1, while that of NH4 +-N and NO3 −-N amounted to 9.2 and 8.4kgNha−1 a−1, respectively. Wet/bulk deposition was lowest at Changting, but no significant differences were found between the other four sites. Annual mean atmospheric concentrations of gNH3, gNO2, gHNO3, pNH4 +, and pNO3 − were 1.87, 2.95, 0.45, 2.36, and 1.23μgNm−3, respectively. Gaseous NH3 concentrations were highest in summer and lowest in winter. In contrast, seasonal fluctuations in other measured Nr species (e.g., gNO2) were not as large as those of gNH3. The annual mean total dry deposition was estimated to be 9.6kgNha−1 a−1, and those of the individual species, gNH3, gNO2, gHNO3, pNH4 +, and pNO3 − were estimated to be 4.1, 2.2, 2.0, 0.8, and 0.4kgNha−1 a−1, respectively. Based on the similarities in wet deposition, if we assume a similar level of dry deposition at all the sites, the total (dry and wet) N deposition was 27.2kgNha−1 a−1 on average, which twice the critical load (10–15kgNha−1 a−1) for forest ecosystems, suggesting a risk of “N saturation” in the local natural environment.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T05:24:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.09.007
  • Effects of salinity and water stress on the physiological and ecological
           processes and plasticity of Tamarix ramosissima seedlings

    • Authors: Ruiqun Zhang; Xiaodong Ma; Minghui Wang; Haohao Lv; Chengang Zhu
      Pages: 433 - 441
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 6
      Author(s): Ruiqun Zhang, Xiaodong Ma, Minghui Wang, Haohao Lv, Chengang Zhu
      Tamarix ramosissima grows in extremely arid areas and is a dominant species of desert riparian forests in the lower reaches of the Tarim River. Using a single factor control test with indoor potted plants, T. ramosissima seedlings were treated with either salt or water stress, and compared to a control treatment. For salt stress, plants were treated with one of five salinity gradients: a control group with no salt stress (S0); light salt stress (S1); moderate salt stress (S2); middle, and high salt stress (S3); and high salt stress (S4). In addition, five moisture gradients were employed: groups D0, D1, D2, D3, and D5 (flooding), for which soil water contents were 75%, 55%, 35%, 15% field water capacity, and flooding, respectively. Combined treatments with both salt and water stress were not performed. The goal of the present study was to analyze the effects of salt and water stress on T. ramosissima seedlings by measuring photosynthetic characteristics, anatomical structure, and morphological plasticity characteristics, such as height, crown breadth, epidermis, and changes to the cortex, vascular cylinder etc. Because structure provides the basis for function, the anatomical structure of desert plants can be indicative of their photochemical efficiency. The results showed that: 1) salt and water stress resulted in relatively lower growth rates, biomass, and smaller plant height and crown width of T. ramosissima seedlings. In addition, the root to shoot biomass ratio initially increased and then decreased rapidly. Salt stress adversely affected seedling growth to a greater extent than water stress did (P <0.05). 2) No significant differences were observed in the S1, D1, and S2 treatments. Fluorescence parameters decreased significantly (P <0.05), and photochemical efficiency and photosynthetic activity were inhibited in the S3 and D2 treatments. With increasing stress, the chlorophyll and the leaf water contents decreased suggesting that increased stress is not conducive to normal development. 3) Salt and water stress both affected the xylem conduits of T. ramosissima seedlings. Under salt stress, the diameters of the root xylem vessels were significantly smaller than that of the control group, and vessel densities were significantly higher than that of control group. The opposite trends were observed under water stress. The percentage of total diameters of epidermal and palisade tissue, and the cortical thickness of seedlings increased under water stress, all adaptations that are favorable for water retention and improved photosynthetic efficiency. 4) The height growth rate, chlorophyll content, leaf cuticle thickness, assimilating branches, and the root plasticity index were greatest under conditions of either salt or water stress. Seedlings were more tolerant to water stress than to salt stress. The mean plasticity indexes could be classified as root>assimilating shoots>leaf under salt stress, and leaf>root>assimilating branches under water stress. In summary, T. ramosissima seedlings were better adapted to low levels of stress as observed in the S0 and D1 treatments. Compared to water stress, salt stress is a more critical ecological factor that is important to inhibition of the growth of T. ramosissima seedlings.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T05:24:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.09.006
  • The applicability of the species pool hypothesis to community diversity in
           the Inner Mongolia grassland along a mean annual precipitation gradient

    • Authors: Yang Liu; Qingfu Liu; Xiaoli Sun; Xuefeng Zhang; Sarula Kang; Yong Ding; Qing Zhang; Jianming Niu
      Pages: 442 - 447
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 6
      Author(s): Yang Liu, Qingfu Liu, Xiaoli Sun, Xuefeng Zhang, Sarula Kang, Yong Ding, Qing Zhang, Jianming Niu
      Exploring the underlying mechanisms of community diversity is a key issue in ecology and conservation biology. Community diversity studies typically focus on local processes, but these factors cannot completely explain community diversity. Many previous studies have shown that species richness can be quite different among communities with similar habitats. Therefore, the importance of regional processes has gradually been considered, and many hypotheses based on regional processes have been proposed. The species pool hypothesis developed by Zobel et al. is one of the most important theoretical developments in the field of community diversity. The species pool hypothesis suggests that community diversity is not only associated with contemporary environmental factors and local ecological processes (e.g., competition, predation, resources, spread, and interference), but is also limited by the regional species pool. The regional species pool is the set of species in a certain region that are capable of coexisting in a target community, which is shaped by historical (e.g., glaciation and geological age) and regional processes (e.g., speciation, immigration, dispersion, and extinction). To explore the applicability of the species pool hypothesis to community diversity in the Inner Mongolia grassland, we investigated the species diversity in the grassland region from late July to mid-August in 2012, when the grassland community biomass was at its peak. In this region, precipitation is considered the most important environmental factor affecting species diversity. Therefore, we established 192 field sites in the Inner Mongolia grassland along a gradient of mean annual precipitation. The position of each field site was located using GPS. At each site, an area of 10m×10m was delineated, and 10 plots of 1m×1m were randomly placed in the delineated area to survey all plant species. Based on these data, the relationships between regional diversity (gamma diversity) and community diversity (alpha diversity) were analyzed along seven mean annual precipitation (MAP) gradients. Gamma diversity is the total species richness at a site. Alpha diversity is defined as the mean species richness (number) for the 10 plots at a site. The correlation coefficient between these two diversity indices was used to verify the applicability of the species pool hypothesis. A few key results were obtained. (1) Both alpha diversity and gamma diversity increased significantly with MAP in the Inner Mongolia grassland. (2) Gamma diversity and alpha diversity showed a significant positive linear relationship under different gradients of MAP, which reveals that the species pool hypothesis adequately explained community diversity along different precipitation gradients. (3) The effect of the regional species pool on community species diversity weakened as the MAP increased, which explains the decrease in the applicability of the species pool hypothesis as MAP increased. (4) Exploring the relationship between gamma diversity and alpha diversity represents an effective method for determining the impact of the species pool on community diversity. This study contributes to the theory regarding the mechanisms that maintain community diversity. It also has practical applications for the protection of diversity in the Inner Mongolia grassland.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T05:24:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.10.004
  • Effects of multi-scale landscape heterogeneity on soil meso- and
           microfaunal communities in typical regions of the lower reaches of the
           Yellow River

    • Authors: Zihan Li; Bo Song; Qinghe Zhao; Shengyan Ding
      Pages: 448 - 455
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 6
      Author(s): Zihan Li, Bo Song, Qinghe Zhao, Shengyan Ding
      The development of intensive agriculture has caused a decline in habitat variability and loss of biodiversity in the agro-landscapes of the world. To explore the relationships between landscape heterogeneity and soil meso- and microfaunal communities in typical agricultural landscapes, we established a study area in Fengqiu County, Henan Province, which is a typical agricultural region in the lower reaches of the Yellow River. We established different buffer radii (25m, 50m, 100m, 150m, 200m, and 250m) at the plot scale, based on a multi-scale (plot, habitat, and field) approach. We combined soil faunal diversity data from 31 sampling plots in the study area. We used the landscape index of CONTAJ as a priori landscape index to determine landscape heterogeneity levels, including high, medium and low landscape heterogeneity. Moreover, at the habitat scale, we selected farmland and woodland in each plot as habitats. At the field scale, soil sampling rings and Tullgren funnels were used to obtain soil meso- and microfauna from the center and edge of the farmland and woodland habitats. In addition, the effects of scale on the diversity of soil meso- and microfauna were analyzed using a multivariable ANOVA at plot, habitat, and field scales. A total of 2300 soil faunal individuals belonging to 27 classes were identified. The dominant groups included Oribatida, Actinedida, and Formicidae. Hypogastruridae, Isotomidae, Poduridae, Diptera larvae, and Coleoptera larvae were common groups. The results indicated that different habitats and fields contained different species abundances of soil meso- and microfauna. For example, the center of farmland had the greatest species abundance of soil fauna, whereas the lowest abundance occurred in the center of the woodland. Furthermore, species diversity indices including species richness, Shannon index, and Simpson index were the highest at the edge of the farmland, but the lowest in the center of the woodland. Animal diversity in the soil indicated that, except for species richness, there were no significant differences among other diversity indices. The effects of habitat scale on the soil faunal communities were most significant among the three scales (plot, habitat, and field). Although there was no significant effect among different landscape heterogeneity levels at the plot scale, the effect of landscape heterogeneity index on the soil fauna was significant at the 25m buffer radius. We concluded that although woodlands did not maintain soil meso- and microfauna diversity in study area, this habitat has important ecological values that require further study. Compared with farmland, woodland could provide better habitats for soil meso- and microfauna in the future. Therefore, it is important to reinforce the protection of woodlands in agricultural landscapes.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T05:24:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.10.005
  • Effects of environmental stress on seed germination and seedling growth of
           Salsola ferganica (Chenopodiaceae)

    • Authors: Yali Ma; Jinghua Zhang; Xiaorong Li; Shiyue Zhang; Haiyan Lan
      Pages: 456 - 463
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 6
      Author(s): Yali Ma, Jinghua Zhang, Xiaorong Li, Shiyue Zhang, Haiyan Lan
      Plant growth and development are usually influenced by salt, drought, high or low temperature, strong illumination and other adverse factors, which may finally threaten the settlement and propagation of the species. Studies on seed germination behavior and seedling growth of annual halophyte plant living in harsh environment can help us to thoroughly understand the tolerance mechanism of desert plants. Salsola ferganica, an annual halophyte living in extreme desert habitat, has special morphological structure and characteristics in tolerance of stress. In the present study, we discussed the effects of different stress conditions, such as light, day/night temperature variation, salt (NaCl) and drought (PEG 6000), etc. on seed germination (SG) and seedling growth (SGr) of S. ferganica. Results showed that: (1) Light had a positive effect, while darkness had a negative effect on SG, which indicates that seed germination of S. ferganica depends on and is sensitive to light. (2) Monthly examination of SG from 2014 to 2015 showed that SG of seed without winged perianth (NWP) was apparently higher than seed with winged perianth (WWP) stored at room temperature (RT) or 4°C. For WWP seeds, SG in light was significantly higher than that in darkness; SG also varied among seasons: in Spring, SG of seeds stored at RT was the lowest and so did it in summer with seeds stored at 4°C. SG of seeds stored at both temperatures had no significant difference at the same month. Seed vigor agreed with SG behavior partly and there was no obvious difference between months. (3) The day/night temperature variation (D/NTV) applied significant effect on SG and SGr. SG decreased at lower D/NTV (e.g. 5°C/15°C) but increased at middle and higher D/NTV (e.g. 10°C/20°C, 15°C/25°C, 20°C/30°C) in light. In darkness, the SG decreased at higher D/NTV (e.g. 15°C/25°C, 20°C/30°C) but increased at lower and middle D/NTV (e.g. 5°C/15°C, 10°C/20°C). 10°C/20°C D/NTV had positive effect on SG in both light and darkness; germination rate was promoted at higher D/NTV in both light and darkness. SGr was promoted at lower D/NTV while inhibited at higher D/NTV. (4) SG at lower concentration of NaCl (<100mmolL−1, osmotic pressure (OP)≥−500kPa) and PEG (<150gL−1, OP≥−300kPa) was similar to the control (OP 0kPa); however SG at higher concentration of NaCl (≥500mmolL−1, OP<−2478kPa) and PEG (≥200gL−1, OP<−300kPa) significantly decreased but still exceeded 35%, indicating that S. ferganica is salt- and drought-tolerant. When considered of the SG between NaCl and PEG treatment at the same level of OP, which was much better with NaCl than that with PEG. Taken together, we speculate that S. ferganica should employ ‘cautious strategy’ in germination, which means that under favorable conditions with light, temperature, water, etc., S. ferganica can germinate actively and get enough seedlings developing into adult plants; whereas under unfavorable conditions, the seeds may not germinate or germinate in a small amount to replenish soil seed bank.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T05:24:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.09.008
  • Detecting the richness and dissimilarity patterns of Theaceae species in
           southern China

    • Authors: Ming-Gang Zhang; Chen-Yu Huang; Mi-De Rao; Jian-Wen Chen; Yu-Zhuo Wang; Xiang-Cheng Mi
      Pages: 464 - 468
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 6
      Author(s): Ming-Gang Zhang, Chen-Yu Huang, Mi-De Rao, Jian-Wen Chen, Yu-Zhuo Wang, Xiang-Cheng Mi
      Theaceae is a plant family that mainly distributed in tropical or subtropical regions of Asia. Most species of Theaceae are endemic to China. Here, we used the herbarium collections aim to: a) detect the spatial species richness patterns; b) find out the geographical divisions and c) detect the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns (β diversity). The current distributions of 193 Theaceae species were modeled using MaxEnt. Meanwhile, we calculated the pair wise dissimilarity between grid cell assemblages based on beta-sim index. An ordination was used to analyze the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We found that the diversity hotspots for Theaceae species mainly locate in Fujian and Guangxi province. Two major divisions were suggested by the ordination analysis. The longitudinal division implies the climatic divergences between southeastern and southwestern China, while the latitudinal division implies the geographical barriers. For the species in southeastern China, the dissimilarity pattern is mainly driven by temperature annual range, annual precipitation and annual mean temperature. In the southwestern China, isothermality, precipitation seasonality and the rising altitude are the three main drivers. For effective conserving the Theaceae species, the protection of the micro-habitats and the high diversity areas on both sides of these divisions will be essential.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T05:24:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.06.010
  • Predictive models for biomass and carbon stock estimation in male bamboo
           (Dendrocalamus strictus L.) in Doon valley, India

    • Authors: R. Kaushal; V. Subbulakshmi; J.M.S. Tomar; N.M. Alam; J. Jayaparkash; H. Mehta; O.P. Chaturvedi
      Pages: 469 - 476
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 6
      Author(s): R. Kaushal, V. Subbulakshmi, J.M.S. Tomar, N.M. Alam, J. Jayaparkash, H. Mehta, O.P. Chaturvedi
      The present study was conducted in Doon valley of north western Himalaya to estimate biomass and carbon storage in male bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) raised on degraded bouldary land. Different non-linear models (Monomolicular, Logistic, Gompetz, Allometric, Rechards, Chapman) were fitted to the relationship between total biomass as dependent variable and diameter at breast height (DBH) as independent variable. The adjusted R2 values were >0.85 for all the six models indicating that all models are apparently equally efficient. Allometric model (Y= a ×DBH b ) was found to be best performing and was used for fitting different biomass components using DBH as explanatory variable. The estimated total aboveground biomass from the developed allometric model was 18.91Mgha−1 in 6year and 109.30Mgha−1 in 20years old plantation. Carbon content in different components revealed that it was higher in culm (48.66%) followed by branch (48.09%) and leaf (44.68%). The total biomass carbon stocks mitigated were 8.39 and 49.08Mgha−1 in 6 and 20year old plantations.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T05:24:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.07.003
  • Variation in biomass and morphology of Artemisia fragrans Willd. under
           grazing in northwest mountainous rangelands of Iran

    • Authors: Javad Motamedi; Esmaeil Sheidai Karkaj; Fatemeh Alilou
      Pages: 477 - 482
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 6
      Author(s): Javad Motamedi, Esmaeil Sheidai Karkaj, Fatemeh Alilou
      Animal grazing in rangelands ecosystems is considered as one of the most influential factors in changing plants' biomass, dimensional characteristics and different aspects of ecosystem. Regarding the fact that Artemisia fragrans species is one of the main dominated species of mountainous rangelands in the northwest of Iran, limited information is available concerning the influence of various grazing intensities on its structural properties, aerial biomass, and especially on its underground biomass. In order to this, the effects of different grazing intensities (low, moderate and high) on aerial and underground biomass and structural properties of this species are investigated. Accordingly, three rangeland areas with various grazing intensities were chosen and sixty 1m2 plots were established along six, 100m transects. Afterwards, structural properties, leaf litter, aerial and underground biomass of the Artemisia fragrans species were measured in each of the areas. In order to compare the mean biomass and structural parameters of the plant in the three areas, one-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range tests were used. The results indicate that there is a significant difference between the quantity of investigated parameters (except for the area and diameter of the collar) of the studied species under three grazing intensities. The highest and lowest aerial biomass average in two places with low and high grazing intensities was 5.18 and 76.42g, respectively. Moreover, the maximum average of underground biomass per plant (95.32g) and its minimum amount (46.56g) belong to low and high grazing intensities, respectively. Estimating the percentage of parameters' variations in areas with high and moderate grazing intensities in comparison to the area with low grazing intensity demonstrated that all the parameters had a decreasing trend and the maximum percentage of variations of this species is related to the high intensity grazing area. Generally, by increasing grazing intensity, the decrease in collar diameter and plant cover was the lowest and for the characteristics of leaf litter, underground and aerial biomass was the highest.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T05:24:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.07.004
  • Study of phyto-sociology and ecology of naturally growing Ocimum species
           with their conservational strategies in Dakshin Dinajpur district of West

    • Authors: Tanmay Chowdhury; Amitava Mandal; Amit Kumar Jana; Subhas Chandra Roy; Dilip De Sarker
      Pages: 483 - 491
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 6
      Author(s): Tanmay Chowdhury, Amitava Mandal, Amit Kumar Jana, Subhas Chandra Roy, Dilip De Sarker
      A phyto-sociological and ecological study of naturally growing Ocimum species and their conservational strategies is carried out in Dakshin Dinajpur district, West Bengal, India. The main objective of this work is to find out their (O. americanum and O.× africanum) natural distribution, density, abundance and the dominance along with associated species. A total of 50 (1×1m2) quadrats were made at two study sites, each site contained 25 quadrats. Coexistence of almost 57 species of families with both study species of Ocimum in two study sites indicates similar habitat preference of these species. Dicotyledon species were found maximum in all quadrat of the two study sites. Following the present biotic or abiotic threat as well as oblivious human activities to these species we propose here few possibilities for their conservation. The study will encourage ecologists, pharmacologists as well as biologists to do similar studies on various naturally growing important plants in this part of country.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T05:24:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.08.003
  • To evaluate the effects of secondary metabolites produced by Bacillus
           subtilis mutant M419‌ against Papilio demoleus L. and Aspergillus flavus

    • Authors: Shiva Osouli; Hamideh Afsharmanesh
      Pages: 492 - 496
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 6
      Author(s): Shiva Osouli, Hamideh Afsharmanesh
      Bacillus subtilis inhibits growth of plant pathogen and causes mortality of plant pests by producing lipopeptide biosurfactans. In this study secondary metabolites produced by Bacillus subtilis mutant M419 was extracted and production of lipopeptide surfactants of the mutant was observed by hemolytic activity and oil spreading techniques. The effects of the biosurfactant on mortality of the first and second instars of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus was evaluated by leaves immersion method at 3600, 1800, 900, 450 and 0mg/l concentrations in laboratory. The LC50 and LC90 values after 4days of contact were measured 1172.145mg/l and 3336.999mg/l, respectively. Results indicated that, these values were 3.8-fold and 1.62-fold lower than that obtained after 2 and 3days, respectively. The crude biosurfactant retained the larvicidal activity even when autoclaved at 121°C for 15min. B. subtilis M419 was able to inhibit considerably Aspergillus flavus growth in a dual culture assay.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T05:24:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.08.002
  • A review on salinity adaptation mechanism and characteristics of Populus
           euphratica, a boon for arid ecosystems

    • Authors: Vishnu D. Rajput; Tatiana Minkina; Chen Yaning; Svetlana Sushkova; Victor A. Chapligin; Saglara Mandzhieva
      Pages: 497 - 503
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 6
      Author(s): Vishnu D. Rajput, Tatiana Minkina, Chen Yaning, Svetlana Sushkova, Victor A. Chapligin, Saglara Mandzhieva
      Salinity is a worldwide problem, occurring in all climatic regions. Populus euphratica is a diverse riparian species, which survives in saline environments, and have numerous adaptation capacities to combat salinity stress. In this review, we collected available research information about the effect of salinity on its physiology, morphology, anatomy with relation to hydraulic traits. The information showed that P. euphratica can progressively tolerate high salinity stress by changing its stomatal aperture, activities of antioxidant, xylem anatomy and hydraulic conductivity. It can be a good option for afforestation and reclamation of salinized lands, which may be an option for increasing the production of feed stocks for non-food goods, and positive impact on climate.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T05:24:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.08.001
  • Living with wildlife: Conflict or co-existence

    • Authors: Thapa Rakshya
      Pages: 509 - 514
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 6
      Author(s): Thapa Rakshya
      Conflict between human and wildlife takes place because of sharing and competition for limited resources. The conflicts become a controversial, if it is concerned with the livelihood and economic value. Protected Areas (PAs) worldwide are facing a problem, because of Human–Wildlife Conflict (HWC). The damages caused by wildlife have affected the day to day activities of people and there has been a query regarding the humanitarian value and wildlife welfare. The study was conducted in Chitwan National Park (CNP), Nepal, to find out the major losses caused by wildlife, especially, the mammals in the surrounding villages. The results showed that the main wildlife caused damages include crop depredation followed by livestock loss. Majority of the respondents i.e. 149 (89 males and 60 females) said that the main reasons for disliking wildlife is because they destroy crops and 10 males and 6 females stated that the reasons for disliking wildlife is because livestock depredation do occurs. As, the people living around the CNP mainly depend on agriculture and livestock farming for their survival, thus, wildlife activities have been a huge concern to them. The local people have been suffering from the huge economic losses by wildlife damages which have heightened the antagonistic behavior towards wildlife. And it has probably questioned on the conservation and management of wildlife in a long run. Though, there has been a global and national concern in making efforts not to overlook either of them but the query remains “How is it Possible?” so “Living with wildlife: Conflict or Coexistence” has remained a query without answer.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T05:24:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.08.004
  • Studies on changes and cause of the minimum air temperature in Songnen
           Plain of China during 1961–2010

    • Authors: Xue Qiu; Lijuan Zhang; Li Wenliang; Yu Yang; Pan Tao
      Pages: 311 - 320
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 5
      Author(s): Xue Qiu, Lijuan Zhang, Li Wenliang, Yu Yang, Pan Tao
      In this study, we took Songnen Plain of China as the study area, collected the observed minimum air temperature, the minimum air temperature reanalysis data (ERA-40), and the minimum land surface temperature from 1961 to 2010, the nighttime land surface temperature (MOD11A2) from 2000 to 2010. Further, with the obtained and processed data, we analyzed the mechanism and impact of land use change on minimum air temperature within the recent 50years in the Songnen Plain of China using climate tendency rate, Observation Minus Reanalysis (OMR) and spatial analysis methods. The analysis results can be summarized as follows. (1) The areas of agricultural land, built up, unused land, and forest land have increased and the areas of grassland and water have decreased from 1960 to 2010. In particular, the areas of unused land and built up have increased significantly with about 22 times and 9 times respectively compared with their areas in 1960. (2) During 1961–2010, with the land use change in the Songnen Plain, the maximum air temperature and diurnal temperature range trend has decreased, the minimum air temperature trend has increased, and impact of land use change on minimum air temperature trend is greater than maximum air temperature trend. (3) The unused land has the highest minimum air temperature, nighttime land surface temperature, and minimum land surface temperature than any other land uses, and all corresponding temperature is lower in the agricultural land and the lowest in the forestland. (4) The conversion from any other land uses to the unused land will result in the increasing of the temperature and to the agricultural land and forest land will cause the decreasing of the temperature.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T13:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.06.009
  • The floral scent of Ficus pumila var. pumila and its effect on the
           choosing behavior of pollinating wasps of Wiebesia pumilae

    • Authors: You-ling Chen; Mei-li Huang; Wen-shan Wu; Ai-fang Wang; Tiantian BAO; Cui-fang Zheng; Lien-siang Chou; Hsy-yu Tzeng; Shu-wen Tu
      Pages: 321 - 326
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 5
      Author(s): You-ling Chen, Mei-li Huang, Wen-shan Wu, Ai-fang Wang, Tiantian BAO, Cui-fang Zheng, Lien-siang Chou, Hsy-yu Tzeng, Shu-wen Tu
      Floral scent is an important vehicle of communication between plants and their pollinators. In an obligate mutualism between fig and fig wasps, the chemical regulation plays a crucial role in their encounter. Pollinating wasps mainly rely on their olfactory sensation to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by their host plants to localize their hosts. In this study, we collected the VOCs from male and female figs of Ficus pumila var. pumila by in vivo dynamic headspace adsorption (VDHA) before and after pollination, and analyzed the VOCs using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). We examined the Wiebesia pumilae pollinators' behavior in response to the VOCs at different developmental phases in Y-tube experiments. The results: (1) The fig volatiles of F. pumila var. pumila contained a variety of compounds, in which Linalool appears to be the dominant one to pollinating wasps, suggesting that Linalool may be used for the long-range localization while the short-range localization may rely on the chemical profile containing specific compositions and concentrations. (2) Although the quality and quantity of VOCs were different between receptive male and female syconia, they shared a few compounds which account for >50% of total volatiles. In addition, the proportion of the three classes of compounds including terpenes, benzenoids, and fatty acid derivatives was similar, suggesting that a simulating interaction occurs between the VOCs of receptive male and female syconia. Furthermore, the Y-tube experiments showed no preference of pollinating wasps to the male and female syconia. Therefore a pollinator is unlikely to discriminate male and female figs via the VOC variations. (3) The VOCs of syconia were changed after pollination or oviposition, with some compounds decreased (e.g. Linalool) or even disappeared, while some increased (e.g. Longifolene) or new compounds formed. In terms of the chemical composition, terpenes and fatty acid derivatives are decreased, while benzenoids are increased, and nitrogens arisen. The results derived from Y-tube experiments showed that the VOCs of receptive male and female figs played a very significant role in attracting pollinating wasps. In contrast, the fig volatiles of inter-floral phase (5days after pollination or oviposition) were significantly repellent to the wasps. Figs may thus express their flower developmental and pollinating or ovipositing status by changing their VOC quantity and composition in order for pollinating wasps to receive the chemical signals, choose the right hosts, and recognize the right developmental phases of their hosts.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T13:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.06.008
  • Spatial distribution of the herbaceous layer and its relationship to soil
           physical–chemical properties in the southern margin of the Gurbantonggut
           Desert, northwestern China

    • Authors: Junxiang Ding; Lianlian Fan; Yanfeng Cao; Mei Liu; Jie Ma; Yan Li; Lisong Tang
      Pages: 327 - 332
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 5
      Author(s): Junxiang Ding, Lianlian Fan, Yanfeng Cao, Mei Liu, Jie Ma, Yan Li, Lisong Tang
      Herbaceous plants, particularly ephemerals, exhibit higher variability than any other plants in desert ecosystems. The spatial distribution of herbaceous plants is restricted by environmental factors and presents obvious regularity. To elucidate the restriction and distribution regularity of herbaceous plants, we investigated the characteristics of the herbaceous layer and the soil physical–chemical properties at the bottom, middle, and top of sand dunes in the southern margin of the Gurbantonggut Desert, northwestern China. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was performed to analyze the relationship between herbaceous layer characteristics and soil physical–chemical properties. Results showed that: (1) the distribution of the herbaceous layer at different positions on the sand dunes exhibited clear selectivity. Soil in the middle and lower parts of the sand dunes demonstrated higher water, organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) contents, as well as higher electrical conductivity (EC), than that at the top of the sand dunes. Accordingly, the herbaceous layer in the middle and lower parts of the sand dunes presented higher density, coverage, and above-ground biomass and contained fewer species than that at the top of the sand dunes. (2) RDA showed that TN and TP were the two key factors that significantly influenced herbaceous layer characteristics (p <0.01) and explained 10.1% and 41.9% of the variance, respectively. SOC and EC also significantly influenced herbaceous layer characteristics (p <0.05) but only explained 4.2% and 3.5% of the variance, respectively. Soil water (SW) and pH did not significant influence herbaceous layer characteristics (p >0.05). Moreover, herbaceous layer coverage and aboveground biomass showed positive correlations with TP and TN, whereas species number was negatively correlated with soil physical–chemical properties. Our results suggested that the spatial distribution of the herbaceous layer was sensitive to changes in soil physical–chemical properties. In particular, TN and TP significantly influenced the coverage, species diversity, and above-ground biomass of the herbaceous layer.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T13:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.06.006
  • The distribution variation and key influencing factors of soil organic
           carbon of natural deciduous broadleaf forests along the latitudinal

    • Authors: Jing Cong; Xiulei Wang; Xiao Liu; Yuguang Zhang
      Pages: 333 - 339
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 5
      Author(s): Jing Cong, Xiulei Wang, Xiao Liu, Yuguang Zhang
      Soil organic carbon plays a key role in soil carbon stock in response to global climate changes. Forests are considered to be an important resource in contributing to mitigating the carbon cycling. Therefore, forest soils should be paid more attention in exploring soil organic carbon on a regional scale. The aim of this study is to explore the variation trend of soil organic carbon content and environmental impact in natural deciduous broadleaf forests along a north-south latitudinal gradient in China. Soil organic carbon showed a significantly (P <0.05) decreasing trend with the latitude increasing, similar observation to total nitrogen. Partial Pearson correlation analysis indicated that total nitrogen was the most positively (R =0.91) and significantly (P <0.05) correlated with soil organic carbon, which indicated close coupling between carbon and nitrogen in soil. The climate, soil pH and plants were also the key factors in influencing the distribution of soil organic carbon.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T13:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.06.002
  • Drought risk analysis of maize under climate change based on natural
           disaster system theory in Southwest China

    • Authors: Jian-ying Jia; Lan-ying Han; Yi-feng Liu; Nan He; Qiang Zhang; Xin Wan; Yu-fang Zhang; Jia-min Hu
      Pages: 340 - 349
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 5
      Author(s): Jian-ying Jia, Lan-ying Han, Yi-feng Liu, Nan He, Qiang Zhang, Xin Wan, Yu-fang Zhang, Jia-min Hu
      Agro-drought risk analysis is helpful for improving the ability of regional disaster management and reducing potential drought risk under climate change. In this paper, we use daily meteorological observations from 60 stations and maize yield data in Southwest China during the period from 1961 to 2012. Based on natural disaster risk theory, maize drought risk assessment model is established from four factors: hazard, exposure, vulnerability, drought prevention and mitigation, and maize drought risk is zoned and analyzed in Southwest China under climate change. The results show that under climate warming, the high and sub high risk zones are decreased in Yunnan Province and emerged in central and northwest Sichuan Province, the low and sub low risk zones are largely reduced in Sichuan Province, Guizhou Province and Chongqing City, and the other increasing zones are mainly moderate risk zones. In summary, maize drought risk mainly depends on the maize drought hazard; the maize drought risk increases in the north and decreases in most of south under climate warming in Southwest China. Enhancing maize drought risk management helps to reduce the potential risk to agricultural production in southwest China under climate change.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T13:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.06.001
  • Effects of building shade on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence
           of Euonymus fortunei

    • Authors: Xiuhua Song; Hui Li
      Pages: 350 - 355
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 5
      Author(s): Xiuhua Song, Hui Li
      Urban shading is caused by artificial urban construction and has different effects on the photosynthesis of plant, and this shading will affect the plants in photosynthesis. The purpose of the study was to reveal the plant photosynthetic characteristics in urban shading, provide theoretical basis for improving the ecological benefits of urban vegetation and provide scientific basis for urban plant landscape configuration. We selected leaf samples of Euonymus fortunei from three typical urban light environments: full natural light, part-time shade and full urban building shade. We quantified various measures of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence using the CIRAS-2 photosynthesis and FMS-2 fluorescence systems, respectively. The results indicated that urban shading by artificial structures caused differences in both the spatial and temporal distribution of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Surprisingly, this was not due to differences to the air temperature (Ta), relative humidity and CO2 concentrations, which were consistent among the light conditions. Urban building shade also caused changes in leaf morphology and chloroplast pigment content of E. fortunei. Leaf area (LA) increased with part-time shade and decreased with full shade, while lamina mass per unit area (LMA) decreased significantly as the shade increased. Chlorophyll b content increased and the chlorophyll a/b ratio decreased with the decrease of PAR. Pn of E. fortunei displayed an irregular single-peak curve under full light and part-time shade, and the peak for each appeared at 10:00 and 12:00, respectively. Pn displayed a double-peak curve under full shade, with peaks appearing at 10:00 and 16:00. Tr of E. fortunei was significantly correlated with Pn. The Pn-PAR curve showed that Pmax, LSP, LCP, and Rd all decreased along with PAR, with the exception of AQY, which significantly increased. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters also changed under the different light environments. Fo and ΦPSII both increased with the decreases in PAR, but Fv/Fm and NPQ decreased. Different levels of urban shading caused the changes in adaptive strategies of E. fortunei. When there was no direct sunlight appearing, a highest level of shading, E. fortunei presented obvious adaptive changes in its physiological photosynthetic processes, morphology, photosynthetic pigments and so on, and this type of the greatest shading caused by urban buildings or other infrastructures can obviously affect the growth of plants.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T13:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.05.008
  • Fingerprint natural soil N2O emission from nitration and denitrification
           by dual isotopes (15N and 18O) and site preferences

    • Authors: Zhongsheng Zhang; Wang Jian Jim; Xianguo Lu
      Pages: 356 - 360
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 5
      Author(s): Zhongsheng Zhang, Wang Jian Jim, Xianguo Lu
      Nitrification and denitrification are the main contributors to soil N2O production and emission, and distinguishing their contributions to N2O emission under natural conditions is vital to deciphering nitrogen biogeochemistry. Stable isotopes have provided insight to resolve this problem, of which δ 15N2Obulk (15N abundance in N2O), dual isotopes (δ 15N, δ 18O) and site preference (SP) are the most effective methods currently. δ 15N2Obulk is useful in tracing substrates yielding N2O, but it is helpless to make accurate differentiation between nitrification and denitrification; The dual isotopes, δ 15N and δ 18O, introduce O atom sources in partitioning N2O source and this method could roughly apportion N2O from nitrification and denitrification. However, expensive equipment requirements and the inherent uncertainties on δ 18O determination owning to few data available hamper its accuracy and applicability on distinguishing nitrification and denitrification. Site preference (SP) provides new insight on distinguishing contribution of nitrification and denitrification on N2O emission and results in more accuracy results. We summarized that the average values of δ 15N2Obulk, δ 18O and SP during denitrification, which were −29.29‰, 19.78‰, and 2.43‰, respectively, are much lower than the corresponding values during nitrification, which were −7.87‰, 48.03‰ and24.14‰, respectively.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T13:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.05.007
  • Changes and drivers of plant community in the natural broadleaved forests
           across geographic gradient

    • Authors: Jing Cong; Xiujiang Su; Xiao Liu; Yadong Xue; Guangliang Li; Diqiang Li; Yuguang Zhang
      Pages: 361 - 366
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 5
      Author(s): Jing Cong, Xiujiang Su, Xiao Liu, Yadong Xue, Guangliang Li, Diqiang Li, Yuguang Zhang
      Geographic variation can lead to the changes of local plant species, which play crucial roles in primary production and ecosystem structure. Therefore, understanding multiple scale distribution patterns of plant species is important for us to effectively monitor ecosystem changes due to climate changes and other modifications. Here, we mainly investigated the distribution pattern of wood vascular plants and key environmental controlling forces in natural broadleaved forest along the latitudinal gradient across 24 geographic regions of China continental territory. The results showed that the richness and diversity of plant community significantly decreased with the increasing latitude. The similarity of plant community also decreased with increasing latitudinal distance. The mean annual precipitation and mean annual temperature played the most important roles in the distribution of plant community across latitudinal gradient, followed by soil pH and soil moisture.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T13:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.05.006
  • Native vegetation pattern and the spread of three invasive species in
           Palani Hill National Park, Western Ghats of India

    • Authors: B. Balaguru; S. Soosairaj; N. Nagamurugan; R. Ravindran; A. Ahamed Khaleel
      Pages: 367 - 376
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 5
      Author(s): B. Balaguru, S. Soosairaj, N. Nagamurugan, R. Ravindran, A. Ahamed Khaleel
      Invasions by exotic plants threaten the biodiversity and integrity of Protected Areas (PAs) by manipulating the species composition, the nutrient cycling and the hydrology prevailing in the specific habitat. Invasion of plant species in the natural ecosystem especially in the precincts of Western Ghats is due to rampant anthropogenic pressures. Complete assessment of the vegetation, richness distribution of Invasive Alien Species (IAS) and their association with the environmental drivers is essential to manage the PAs effectively. The present study analyses the richness of native vegetation with a comparative view on the distribution of Lantana camara, Chromolena odorata and Pteridium aquilinum in proposed Palani Hill National Park (PHNP), Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Secondly prepare models of the distribution of the target invasive species in the region. The biotic and abiotic data along with the vegetation type were generated and overlaid on IAS distribution to model the spread of target plant species. The study revealed that the distribution of invasive species negative relationship between the native species richness and positive relationship between the species dominance. Among the forest types dry evergreen, moist deciduous and tree savanna were found to be more vulnerable to invasion of Lantana camara and Chromolena odorata, wherein tree savanna and plantation were more vulnerable to invasion of Pteridium aquilinum. The information will strongly support effective management of Protected Areas.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T13:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.05.005
  • Comparing Chinese and international studies of riparian forests: A
           bibliometric survey (1981–2014)

    • Authors: Jingyi Ding; Wenwu Zhao
      Pages: 377 - 385
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 5
      Author(s): Jingyi Ding, Wenwu Zhao
      A bibliometric analysis based on the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases was conducted to identify the differences between Chinese and international studies of riparian forests as well as their future research directions. The analysis included publication output, geographical and institutional patterns, research priorities and hot topics. International riparian forests research has experienced notable growth over the past three decades, while Chinese research did not expand rapidly until 2000. The United States housed 16 of the 20 most active institutions in riparian forests research, while the Chinese Academy of Sciences ranked 20th among the most active institutions. The priorities of international research included focuses on multiple scales and ecological processes in riparian forests. In comparison, Chinese research was strongly regional in scope and prioritized large-scale inland river basins and desert riparian forests. For both international and Chinese research, the hot topics were dynamic changes in riparian forests and the human impact on riparian forests ecosystems, which may become priority areas for future research. However, compared to international studies, fewer Chinese studies have tried to predict future scenarios ofriparian forests. Therefore, this subject may be a direction for future Chinese riparian forests research.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T13:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.05.004
  • Species diversity and functional diversity of insects in Wuxijiang
           National Wetland Park, East China

    • Authors: Jianqiang Gu; Jing Zhou; Maxwell Wilson; Kefeng Jia; Kun Lv; Zhihong Xu
      Pages: 386 - 391
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 5
      Author(s): Jianqiang Gu, Jing Zhou, Maxwell Wilson, Kefeng Jia, Kun Lv, Zhihong Xu
      World-wide wetlands are experiencing increasing pressure from economic development, including the conversion of wetlands to agriculture. While it is assumed that this land use change will have negative impacts on local biodiversity, the specific impacts of agriculture on insect biodiversity in wetland ecosystems are poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap we investigated insect communities in the multi-land use Wuxijiang National Wetland Park, quantifying both species diversity and functional diversity. Four species diversity indexes and twelve functional diversity indexes were used to describe species diversity and functional diversity respectively. We provide three primary results: 1.) Species diversity and functional diversity of natural wetland plants is not necessarily higher than artificial economic plants; 2.) Species diversity indexes are generally correlated with functional diversity indexes; and 3.) Straw mulch cultivation can increase the species diversity and functional diversity of insect.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T13:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.07.002
  • Floristic composition and community types of Gedo Dry Evergreen Montane
           Forest, West Shewa, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Birhanu Kebede; Teshome Soromessa; Ensermu Kelbessa
      Pages: 392 - 400
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 5
      Author(s): Birhanu Kebede, Teshome Soromessa, Ensermu Kelbessa
      This study was conducted on Gedo Dry Evergreen Montane Forest in West Shewa Zone of Oromia National Regional State, 182–196km west of Finfinne (Addis Ababa). The objective of the study was to determine floristic composition and community types of Gedo Forest. Systematic sampling method was used to collect vegetation data from 72 (20m×20m) and subplots of 1m×1m at the four corners and the center of the large quadrat for herbaceous plants. Vegetation classification was performed using PC-ORD software package. Hence four plant community types (clusters) were identified from the hierarchal cluster analysis using PC-ORD version 5 computer programme namely Chionanthus mildbraedii-Olea capensis subsp. Macrocarpa, Brucea antidysenterica-Allophylus abyssinicus, Maesa lanceolata-Vernonia auriculifera-Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata, Gnidia glauca-Echinops macrochaetus-Olinia rochetiana community types. Sorensen's similarity coefficient was used to detect similarities and dissimilarities among communities. Shannon-Wiener diversity index was applied to quantify species diversity and richness. A total of two hundred thirty five species of plants (herbs, shrubs, lianas and trees) were recorded. One hundred and forty of the species collected from sample plots were used for floristic analysis. The rest, 95, were collected out of sample plots but from the forest and used to describe the complete floristic list. Asteraceae is the most dominant family with 36 species in 24 genera followed by Fabaceae with 16 species in 14 genera and Lamiaceae with 16 species and 13 genera. Out of the plants identified in this study, 25 were endemic species which have been included in the preliminary list assessed for IUCN Red Data List. The forest was compared with five dry evergreen forests of Ethiopia which is vital for general conservation and management of the forests and particular to endemic species for the country's priority sites.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T13:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.07.001
  • Stem radial growth in response to microclimate in an Asian tropical dry
           karst forest

    • Authors: Lifeng Hu; Zexin Fan
      Pages: 401 - 409
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 5
      Author(s): Lifeng Hu, Zexin Fan
      Relationships between environmental factors and stem radius variation at short temporal scales can provide useful information regarding the sensitivity of tree species' productivity to climate change. In this study, we used automatic point dendrometers to continuously record day-to-day stem radius variations of two evergreen (Alphonsea monogyna and Celtis philippensis Blanco) and two deciduous (Lagerstroemia villosa, Garuga floribunda var. gamblei) broadleaves species growing in a tropical karst forest in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, southwest China. Daily stem radius increments were extracted from dendrometer traces, and were correlated with environmental variables recorded from nearby standard meteorological stations. The results indicated that stem radial growth of the four species initiated from late dry season (middle April), speeded in rainy season (July to August) and slowed down after October. Daily stem radius increments of the four species correlated positively with relative humidity (RH) and rainfall (Rain), while correlated negatively with daily maximum temperatures (Tmax), vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Rainfall and moisture availability during early growth season (May–June) was important for stem radius growth of the four studied species. Stem radial growth rates of two deciduous species (L. villosa, G. floribunda var. gamblei) declined significantly during short-term drought events occurred during late April and late May to early June, then recovered quickly after one or more rainfall events, which indicated a more sensitive response to climatic factors as compared with evergreen species. These results provide evidences for studying and predicting tree growths and forest productivities in the tropical karst forests under future climate change.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T13:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.09.005
  • Detecting of heavy metal pollution in steel factory environment health of
           the North of Iran

    • Authors: Seyed Armin Hashemi; Abdolkarim Keshavarz Shokri; Masoomeh Tahvildari
      Pages: 225 - 228
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 4
      Author(s): Seyed Armin Hashemi, Abdolkarim Keshavarz Shokri, Masoomeh Tahvildari
      Heavy metals like cadmium, lead and mercury are inessential and toxic elements which are created by various urban, industrial and agricultural activities and cause resources pollution. In this study, the soil sample was derived from the environment within the steel factory and from the leaves and roots of poplar trees existed inside of the steel factory and also the samples of soil, leaves and roots of poplar trees were provided outside of the factory. Sampling was random and after that, the amount of heavy metals, cadmium, lead and mercury, was calculated by atomic absorption spectrometer and then studied by Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, ANOVA, T-test, Levin test and Tukey test. The results suggest that there is a significant difference between existing mercury inside and outside of factory environment. The minimum stored density is related to mercury which has been observed in the leaf and root more than the others and less than the others in aerial organs of leaves.

      PubDate: 2016-07-29T11:00:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.04.011
  • Relationship between stem CO2 efflux and stem temperature at different
           measuring depths in Pinus massoniana trees

    • Authors: Qingpeng Yang; Ming Xu; Yonggang Chi; Yunpu Zheng
      Pages: 229 - 235
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 4
      Author(s): Qingpeng Yang, Ming Xu, Yonggang Chi, Yunpu Zheng
      The response of stem CO2 efflux to temperature is crucial in predicting the carbon cycle in forest ecosystems under future scenarios. However, the relationship between stem CO2 efflux and stem temperature at different measuring depths is not well understood. In this study we measured stem CO2 efflux and stem temperature at different depths in six Pinus massoniana trees for 2days. We found a strong diel hysteresis between stem CO2 efflux and stem temperature. The diel hysteresis varied with increasing depth from a counterclockwise direction at a depth of 0cm to a clockwise direction at depth of 7cm. The effects of the high resistance to radial diffusion and sap flux on stem CO2 efflux may contribute to the diel hysteresis. The results also showed that the Q 10 values of stem CO2 efflux increased from 1.51 at a depth of 0cm to approximately 2.22 at a depth of 7cm, indicating that the depth for stem temperature measurement plays a pivotal role in estimating the temperature sensitivity of stem CO2 efflux. Moreover, we found that 3cm deep was the appropriate depth for stem temperature measurement, because of the highest R2 (0.96) for the efflux–temperature curve and nearly no hysteresis between stem CO2 efflux and temperature in our study. Therefore, consideration of the stem temperature measurement depth is necessary to understand the response of stem CO2 efflux to temperature and accurately fit the Q 10 value of stem CO2 efflux. However, this generalization must be examined under other conditions such as different seasons or other tree species.

      PubDate: 2016-07-29T11:00:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.chnaes.2016.05.001
  • The effects of motor oil on the growth of three aquatic macrophytes

    • Authors: Hanife
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 36, Issue 6
      Author(s): Hanife ÖZBAY
      In this study, the effect of used motor oil on the growth rate of three different species of aquatic macrophytes was investigated for a three week period under laboratory conditions. Three treatments were used in pots: high oil, low oil, and a control, each with three replicate buckets (three pots per bucket). The relative growth rate (RGR) of the tested plants, Potamogeton gramineus L., Myriophyllum spicatum L., and Ceratophyllum demersum L., differed significantly between treatments (p <0.001, one-way ANOVA). In the control treatment, C. demersum, M. spicatum and P. gramineus grew well and produced more lateral shoots than in the high and the low motor oil treatments. The longest shoot lengths were also greater for all three plants in the control than in the low and the high motor oil groups.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T05:24:50Z
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