for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help

Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3163 journals)

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Showing 1 - 200 of 3163 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 402, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.128, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 243, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.732, CiteScore: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 392, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 336, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 440, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 172, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Journal Cover
Acta Ecologica Sinica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.18
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1872-2032
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • Influence of Ficus carica and Olea europaea leaves extracts on the
           mycelial growth of mushrooms in vitro

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Mustafa Nadhim Owaid, Ahmed Saadoon Jaloot, Dhuha Mohammed Ahmed The use of 20% plant leaves extracts included fig (Ficus carica) and olive (Olea europaea) and their mixture 1:1 as an amendment in the solid agar medium (PDA) is beneficial to promote the growth of four mycelial mushrooms. These are Pleurotus ostreatus (Grey oyster mushroom), Pleurotus cornucopiae (Yellow oyster mushroom), Coriolus versicolor (Turkey Tail mushroom), and Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom). C. versicolor showed better growth reached 67 mm significantly (p 
       
  • Assessment of the antimicrobial activity of the lipoidal and pigment
           extracts of Punica granatum L. leaves

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Marwa M. Elbatanony, Amal M. El-Feky, Bahaa A. Hemdan, M. Azab El-Liethy Punica granatum L. is one of the famous and old species belonging to Family Punicaceae. The lipoidal and natural pigment extracts of the pomegranate were screened for their antimicrobial activity against nine different microbial pathogens. Three different doses of each extract (50, 100 and 150 μl) at three different contact times (15, 30 and 60 min) were examined. Results can be cleared that, all tested microbial pathogens were inhibited by 150 μl of both extracts at 60 min. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of n-hexane extract was powerful than the pigment extract. Also, the quantitative evaluation of the pigments in the leaves was performed using spectroscopical and HPLC analyses, carotenoids and chlorophylls content of P. granatum L. leaves were spectroscopically determined (mg/g) as 6.7 ± 0.214 and 4.9 ± 0.251, respectively. Chlorophyll a and b were 2.33 ± 0.014 and 1.51 ± 0.023, respectively. HPLC analysis of lutein and β-carotene were investigated as 3.652 and 1.915 mg/g. GC/MS analysis of the saponifiable and unsaponifiable fraction of n-hexane extract was carried out and α-amyrin acetate, ergosterol, and α-tocopherol were isolated, purified and identified using different spectroscopical methods. Toxicity assessment demonstrated their high biocompatibility since no toxic effect was recorded.
       
  • Habitat distribution modelling and reinforcement of Elaeocarpus serratus
           L. - A threatened tree species of Assam, India for improvement of its
           conservation status

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Prantik Sharma Baruah, Kishor Deka, Lipika Lahkar, Bhaskar Sarma, S.K. Borthakur, Bhaben Tanti Elaeocarpus serratus L., commonly known as ‘rudraksh’ referred in the Ayurveda as a wonderful plant for strengthening body constitutions, has been recognized as a threatened plant of Assam, India. Traditionally, rudraksh beads, its bark and leaves are used to cure various ailments like stress, anxiety, depression, nerve pain, epilepsy, migraine, lack of concentration, asthma, hypertension, arthritis and liver diseases. The population stock of the species has been depleting very fast in its natural habitat due to rapid habitat fragmentation and changing climate altering the structural and functional integrity of the plant. Hence, conservation of E. serratus L. with proper scientific investigation to prevent from extinction in its wild habitat is urgently needed. The present study was emphasized with the specific objectives to study the distribution and population status, predication of suitable sites through ENM, standardization of macropropagation methods and reinforcement/reintroduction into the suitable wild habitat to improve conservation status. In the present investigation E. serratus L. was reported in few locations of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh with population sizes of mean density, frequency of occurrence and abundance in relation to other associated species as 0.333, 13.922 and 2.215 respectively. For improving the conservation status, potential area and habitat for reinforcement was predicted using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) distribution modelling algorithm. Subsequently, macropropagation protocol was standardized through seed germination and air-layering; saplings were raised and 1050 saplings were reintroduced to the wild habitats selected on the basis of ecological niche modelling. Survival rate was found significantly high as 68%, suggesting that our approach is effective for changing population status and to conserve the plant.
       
  • Influence of forest type, altitude and NDVI on soil properties in forests
           of North Western Himalaya, India

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Muneesa Banday, D.R. Bhardwaj, Nazir A. Pala The present study has reported the influence of forest types, altitude and NDVI (normalized differential vegetation index) on the soil properties. The study area covered four districts viz., Hamirpur, Bilaspur, Sirmaur and Solan of Himachal Pradesh state of India. To carry out this study, five forest types at three different altitudes (600–900 m); (900–1200 m) and (1200–1500 m) above sea level having NDVI values of N1 (0.0–0.1), N2 (0.1–0.2), N3 (0.2–0.3), N4 (0.3–0.4) and N4 (0.4–0.5) were taken into consideration. Among the forest types, northern mixed dry deciduous forest was largest reservoirs of soil organic carbon (SOC) (4.46, 1.52 and 1.46% in humus, 0–20 and 21–40 cm soil layers respectively). The lowest values for SOC were found in dry shiwalik sal forests (2.60, 0.79 and 0.62% in humus, 0–20 and 21–40 cm soil layers respectively). The values of SOC decreased with increase in soil depth. The results showed a positive correlation between SOC, available N, P, K, Ca, S with the altitude and NDVI. However a negative correlation between altitude and NDVI was observed with the bulk density, available Mg and soil pH. Soil pH had a negative influence on SOC whereas SOC had a positive influence on the availability of Nitrogen (N), Sulphur (S) and Potassium (K). The availability of competing cations like Potassium (K) and Calcium (Ca) had a negative effect on the availability of less competitive cations like Magnesium (Mg). The results of the present study can be pivotal in future climate change studies, soil carbon stock assessment and land use planning along the lines of REDD+ initiatives in North Western Himalayan ecosystem.
       
  • Allelopathic effect of aqueous extracts of three weed species on the
           growth and leaf chlorophyll content of bread wheat

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Saira Siyar, Abdul Majeed, Zahir Muhammad, Hazrat Ali, Naila Inayat The purpose of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of weeds (Avena fatua, Melilotus officinalis and Polypogon hissaricus) on germination, growth, dry biomass and chlorophyll concentration of three cultivars of wheat (Ata Habib, Pirsabaq and Serin). In germination test, different concentrations of aqueous extracts (5, 10 and 15 g/l) of the three weeds significantly reduced percent germination; however, 15 g/l extract of M. officinalis resulted in complete failure of germination of cultivar Pirsabaq. In pot culture, root and shoot length, chlorophyll concentration and seedling dry biomass of the three wheat varieties showed differential responses to different weeds. Aqueous extract at 15 g/l of A. fatua increased root and shoot length and dry biomass of cultivar Pirsabaq; however, these parameters were significantly retarded in other two wheat cultivars by extract of weeds. Moisture content of the cultivars did not show any response to allelopathic stress of the weeds. In contrast, chlorophyll concentration in Pirsabaq and Serin was significantly increased by aqueous extract of all the weeds but reduced it in cultivar Ata Habib by 50%. In general, Ata Habib was found to be the most sensitive cultivar to the imposed allelopathic stress. The phytotoxic potential of three weeds was found in the order of A. fatua > M. officinalis > P. hissaricus.
       
  • Soil physical properties and carbon/nitrogen relationships in stable
           aggregates under legume and grass fallow

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): B.E. Udom, S. Omovbude Short-season fallow with legumes and/or grasses can restore the soil organic C and nitrogen (N) and improve soil structure. In this study, we accessed the effects of 2-season legume and grass fallow on structural properties and C/N relationships in aggregates of a sandy loam soil. Two legumes (Calopogonium mucunoides and Centrosema pubescens), and two grasses (Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) and goose grass (Eleusine indica) were used. Results showed that Calopogonium and Centrosema increased soil total porosity and reduced soil bulk densities, while goose grass increased bulk density and reduced total porosity of the soils at 0–15 and 15–30 cm depths. Guinea grass significantly increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity (50.4 cm h−1) and water holding capacity of the soils. Aggregates, 4.75 to 0.5 mm were greater in Guinea grass and least in goose grass fallowed soils. Calopogonium increased macro-aggregates at 0–15 cm soils by 48%, and mean weight diameter (MWD) by 44%. Organic carbon in 0.5–0.25 mm and
       
  • Crop residue-derived dissolved organic matter accelerates the
           decomposition of native soil organic carbon in a temperate agricultural
           ecosystem

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Qingyan Qiu, Lanfang Wu, Binbin Li Crop residue-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in soil carbon (C) cycling. To investigate the effects of maize residue-derived DOM and urea additions on the native soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and soil net C balance a pot experiment was carried out during the winter wheat growing season in the North China Plain (NCP). The results showed that adding maize residue-derived DOM alone (RDOM) or together with urea (RDOM + N) accelerated the decomposition of native SOC and resulted in a net SOC loss. The net loss of SOC was 3.90 ± 0.61 and 3.53 ± 0.48 g C m−2 in RDOM and RDOM + N treatments, respectively. The stimulatory effect of per unit DOM-C addition on the native SOC decomposition was 0.25 ± 0.05 and 0.45 ± 0.07 for the RDOM and RDOM + N treatments, respectively. Increases in the microbial biomass and the activity of β-glucosidase, invertase and cellobiohydrolase as well as soil mineral N content were responsible for a more intense priming effect in DOM-amended soils. The positive relationship between primed soil C and soil available N (R = 0.76, P 
       
  • Antimicrobial activities of Asafoetida and Shirazi thyme essential oils
           improve the vase life of gerbera cut flowers

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 3Author(s): Tahereh Mallahi, Asghar Ramezanian, Mohammad Jamal Saharkhiz, Jamal Javanmardi, Aida Iraji This study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition of asafoetida (Ferula assa-foetida) essential oil (FAEO) and Shirazi thyme (Zataria multiflora) EO (ZMEO) and their impact on vase life of gerbera cut flowers (Gerbera jamesonii cv. Rosalyn). Five concentrations of both, ZMEO and FAEO including 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg L−1 used as continuous vase solution for gerbera cut flowers. EOs used in this study were extracted by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger apparatus. They were analyzed by GC and GC–MS for determination of the active compounds. Thirty five compounds were identified in ZMEO, mainly including thymol (40.1%), p-cymene (15.5%) and carvacrol (6.5%). Also, thirty compounds were identified in FAEO. The main components were trans propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (21.7%), eudesmol (10-epu-γ) (19.2%) and cis propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (10.2%). The results showed that both ZMEO and FAEO at all concentrations could act as an effective antibacterial compounds and this property increased by increasing their concentration. The results of this research showed that ZMEO increased the vase life at all concentrations but high concentrations of FAEO increased mortality percentage and reduced the vase life of cut flowers. The relative fresh weight and vase solution uptake of gerbera cut flowers increased by the applied EOs treatments. ZMEO at 400 mg L− 1 and FAEO at 300 and 400 mg L− 1 resulted the least stem color change. Overall, 200 mg L− 1 ZMEO and 100 mg L− 1 FAEO were the best treatments for maintenance of gerbera cut flowers quality during vase life.
       
  • Studying the effects of heavy metal on chlorophyll and sugar in one
           year-old seedlings organs of Acer velutinum specie

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 3Author(s): Seyed Armin Hashemi Pollution is one of the most important factors inhibiting growth in the environment; therefore the effects of zinc pollution were studied in Acer velutinum specie. Two years old seedlings of Acer velutinum specie were prepared from nursery, the concentrations of zero and one hundred and thirty mg per liter of zinc chloride solution were added to the soil of seedlings pots after calculating and after passing a three-month period of seedling growth, the plant organs were removed, then the amount of zinc concentration in the samples was determined and data were analyzed. The results of the analysis showed that the highest amount of accumulation on the stem, root and soil in treatment concentrations is 87.75, 65.68 and 24.78 mg per kg and accumulation of zinc in total chlorophyll and sugar in treatment concentrations is 4.61 and 0.6028 mg per g, respectively, and accordingly Acer velutinum specie is suitable for refinement of soils contaminated with zinc.
       
  • The impact of iron plaque on La and Nd uptake and translocation in rice
           (Oryza sativa L.)

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 3Author(s): Zhongjun Hu, Shulan Jin, Yizong Huang, Ying Hu, Wei Cheng, Haichao Lin The effect of root surface iron plaque formation on the uptake, transfer and accumulation of La and Nd in the rice root system was evaluated by using solution cultures. The results showed that La and Nd pollution stress inhibit formation of rice root surface iron plaques. The amount of La and Nd absorbed by the rice root surface iron plaque rose with the increase of La and Nd solution concentrations. Iron plaque formation on the rice root surface significantly decreases the La and Nd concentrations in rice roots and shoots. At growth solution La concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mmol.L− 1, concentrations of La in rice roots with induced iron plaques decreased by 17.1%, 37.4%, and 31.2%, respectively, and concentrations of La in rice shoots decreased by 43.9%, 60.6%, and 27.0%, respectively, when compared to plants with non-induced iron plaques. Also, with Nd solution concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mmol.L− 1, the Nd concentrations in rice roots and shoots of plants with induced iron plaques decreased by 21.0–31.7% and 22.7–47.5%, respectively when compared to plants with non-induced iron plaques. Iron plaque formation on the rice root surface affects the accumulation and transfer of La and Nd in rice roots. Accumulation of La and Nd was greater in rice roots than in rice shoots regardless of whether the plants had induced or non-induced iron plaques. Transfer coefficients of iron plague on rice root surface and root system under La treatments were both higher than those under Nd treatment. For rice roots and iron plaques on the root surface, the enrichment coefficient in the La treatment group was less than that in the Nd treatment group, while for rice shoots, the enrichment coefficient in the La treatment group was greater than that in the Nd treatment group. Clearly, the mechanisms governing the effect of iron plaque on La and Nd uptake and transfer in the rice root system are rather complicated.
       
  • Hydrogeochemical characterization of Yercaud lake southern India:
           Implications on lake water chemistry through multivariate statistics

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 3Author(s): V. Gopal, Hema Achyuthan, M. Jayaprakash In this paper, a study on the surface and deeper waters of the Yercaud Lake, Tamil Nadu, South India, was carried out to understand the geochemistry of the lake waters and also to determine its utility for agricultural purposes. Totally, 50 surface and deep water samples were collected from Yercaud Lake. Major ion and heavy metals were measured. The data obtained were interpreted using the lake water composition. The mean concentration of physicochemical parameters and heavy metals for the surface and deep waters have the following values, pH (7.6), EC (263.4), Ca2 +(16.3), Mg2 +(7.4), Na+(19.2), K+(1.5), Cl−(18.2), NO3−(1.5), SO42 −(1.5), HCO3– (97.9), Fe (1.3), Mn (0.1), Cr (0.4), Cu (0.005), Pb (0.31), Zn (0.01), Co (0.095) and Ni (0.075). The data generated reflects that the water samples are dominated by recharge process, especially due to the monsoonal rains and natural springs within the lake. The geochemical data reveals that the lake water is suitable for the agricultural purpose and the chemistry of water is mainly influenced by the weathering of bedrock, especially the charnockites bedrock. The sodium adsorption ratio and sodium percentage (%Na) values indicate that the lake water is suitable for irrigation. Dominant heavy metals in the lake waters are mainly because of the lithogenic as well as through minor anthropogenic inputs. Based on our data it is noted that proper management plans are required to monitor the pollution source in the lake, with strict policy measures.
       
  • Rapid discrimination of Schisandra sphenanthera and Schisandra chinensis
           using electronic tongue and ultra-performance liquid chromatography
           coupled with chemometrics

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 3Author(s): Qianqian Mou, Jingxia He, Xiaofang Li, Bin Yang, Lixin Yang, Hua Li Both Schisandra sphenanthera (S. sphenanthera) and Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis) are used as traditional Chinese medicines, but they have different medicinal properties. Because S. sphenanthera is cheaper, it is often used as a counterfeit product for S. chinensis. In the present study, an electronic tongue (e-tongue) was used for discrimination of the two Schisandraceae species. In addition, the contents of schisandrin, schizandrol B, schisantherin A, deoxyschizandrin, and schisandrin B were determined simultaneously by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA) were used to establish the mathematical models for species identification, and the classification rates for both methods reached 100%. The e-tongue coupled with multivariate analysis exhibited the excellent performance and classification accuracy, and this was validated by the ultra-performance liquid chromatography results. This simple e-tongue technique could be useful for rapid and accurate identification of S. sphenanthera and S. chinensis.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Impact of Lantana camara hexane extract on survival, growth and
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 3Author(s): Sunil Kayesth, Kamal Kumar Gupta Present research work investigated the impact of hexane extract of Lantana camara leaves on the survival, survival duration, growth and development of the Dysdercus koenigii. Newly emerged fifth instar nymphs were exposed to nine concentrations viz. 10%, 5%, 2.5%, 1.25% 0.1%, 0.05%, 0.025%, 0.0125% and 0.00625% of the extract by ‘dry film residual method’ for 24 h. The results indicated that the survival and the growth of the nymphs decreased with increasing concentrations of the L. camara extract. The nymphs presented developmental malformation including incomplete moulting followed by death of the moulting nymphs, supernumerary nymphal instars, adults with wing deformities, and adults with exuviae attached to the body. The GC–MS analysis of the extract indicated presence of phytoconstituents with insecticidal activities, and intermediates of the juvenile hormone biosynthetic pathway. It was surmised that these intermediates individually or synergistically influence JH biosynthesis. L. camara extract causes mortality, inhibits growth and development and results in developmental anomalies in the D. koenigii thus indicated its potentials in the ‘integrated pest management’.
       
  • Effects of grazing disturbance on plant diversity, community structure and
           direction of succession in an alpine meadow on Tibet Plateau, China

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 3Author(s): Yujie Niu, Siwei Yang, Guizhen Wang, Li Liu, Limin Hua To elucidate the effects of grazing intensity and grazing time on plant diversity and community structure, as well as the successional differentiation in an alpine meadow, a controlled grazing trial, with six grazing intensities on an alpine meadow was conducted in the eastern Qilian Mountain region for four years. Using species accumulation curves, RDA ordination and variance decomposition, we analyzed the changes in proportion of dominant species, richness, abundance, as well as the life forms of plant communities under grazing disturbance. Both the grazing intensity and grazing time had a significant effect on these dominant species, richness, abundance, as well as the life forms in the plant community (P 
       
  • Comparison of crop productivity and soil microbial activity among
           different fertilization patterns in red upland and paddy soils

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 3Author(s): Liu Kai-lou, Li Ya-zhen, Zhou Li-jun, Chen Yan, Huang Qing-hai, Yu Xi-chu, Li Da-ming Soil enzyme activity and microorganism community can be changed through different long-term fertilization patterns. However, the effect of different fertilization practices on soil microorganisms might differ among crop systems. The objective of the study was to reveal the change of soil enzyme activity and soil microorganism community in different fertilizations both in upland and paddy soils. Therefore, based on long-term fertilization experiments in upland soil started in 1986 and adjacent paddy soil experiment commenced in 1981, with both consisting of 4 treatments: Control (no fertilization), N (only nitrogen fertilizer), NPK (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium fertilizers) and NPKM (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium fertilizers plus organic manure), grain yield, soil fertility, activities of soil urease, catalase, acid phosphatase, microorganism community (the number of bacteria, fungus and actinomycete) were analyzed. The result showed that: the highest grain yield was attained under the application of chemical fertilizers plus manure, as compared with Control, NPKM significantly increased the grain yield by 908.63% in corn and 118.80% in rice (p 
       
  • Ecological effects of forest roads on plant species diversity in Caspian
           forests of Iran

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 3Author(s): Mir Mozaffar Fallahchai, Katayoun Haghverdi, Mohammad Sadegh Mojaddam Current research includes the effects of asphalt forest roads on changes of plant cover and tree regeneration from asphalt forest roads edges towards its inner parts in two compartments of Nave Asalem forests located in the north of Iran. For this reason, in each side of road, 6 sample plots (20 m × 20 m) were established for measuring plant species diversity. In each sample plot, ground vegetation and tree regeneration were assessed within nine 2 × 2 m micro plots. In total, 12 sample plots and 108 μ plots were established. Results indicated that the road positions were effective on plant species diversity. The highest diversity and evenness indices value were observed down of the road compared to the up of the road position for herbal and tree regeneration layers. The same results were found also for herbal richness indices. Up of road position had the greatest value of richness indices in comparison to the other road position for tree regeneration layer. Also, the results showed that diversity, richness, and evenness indices were decreased with the increasing of distance from the road side for herbs and tree regeneration layers. This study indicated that roads can increase plant biodiversity; that is, tree regeneration density.
       
  • Fungal interaction between Trichoderma spp. and Pleurotus ostreatus on the
           enriched solid media with licorice Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 3Author(s): Behar Moqdad Al-Ani, Mustafa Nadhim Owaid, Sajid Salahuddin Salem Al-Saeedi The aim of this study is to investigate the antifungal activity of mycelia of Pleurotus ostreatus (white oyster mushroom) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root extract against three undesirable fungi. They are Trichoderma spp., Trichoderma harzianum I and Trichoderma harzianum II which was tested on PSA (potato sucrose agar) medium enriched with licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root extract (PSA-G media) using three concentrations (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 g/L) in alone and dual cultures. Trichoderma spp. showed less mycelial growth of 8.75, 9.17 and 9.50 mm/day on PSA-G0.05, PSA-G0.1 and PSA-G0.2 respectively compared with 10.25 mm/day on fresh PSA (control) in dual culture. The best mycelial growth inhibition was recorded on PSA-G0.2 (14.97%) by T. harzianum II in alone culture opposite 63.72% in dual ones. The lower mycelial growth rate of T. harzianum I was 17.75 mm/day on PSA-G0.1 (0.10 g/L). In dual culture, overgrowth time of T. harzianum I had 5 days compared as approx. 6 days in alone culture. Generally, when the concentration of licorice extract increased, the mycelial growth rate of the undesirable fungi decreased. Also, all PSA-G media, especially PSA-G0.2, indicated low growth averages compared with the control (fresh PSA) against the pathogen while this concentration encourages growth of oyster mushroom. Also, this concentration reduced the density of sporulation of green molds; therefore, this concentration can be applied to reduce influence this pathogen in cultivation farm.
       
  • Variation of soil carbon pools in Pinus sylvestris plantations of
           different ages in north China

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 3Author(s): Zhaodi Wang, Xiaodong Yao, Wei Wang Plantations play an important role in absorbing atmospheric CO2 and plantation soil can serve as an important carbon (C) sink. However, the stocks and dynamics of soil C in differently aged plantation forests in north China remain uncertain. In this study, we measured soil inorganic carbon (SIC), soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen content (STN), the light (LF) and heavy fractions (HF) of soil organic matter (SOM) to a depth of 1 m in 3 different ages (10-, 30-, 40-year-old) of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (Mongolia pine) plantations in 2011 and 2012. Soil pH, texture and moisture were also measured to explore the causes of SOC dynamics for different stand ages. Our results showed that no significant difference in SIC content was observed at different soil depths. As forest age increases, SIC content as well as the C and N content in SOM, LF and HF initially rose and then decreased, while the LF in SOC initially decreased and then increased. Although the C:N ratio of SOC and HF did not significantly change, the C:N ratio of LF increased with depth. SOC dynamics at different stand ages were significantly correlated with soil moisture and clay content. Soil pH and moisture explained 58.63% of the overall variation of SOC at different depths. Moreover, the SOC increased during the early stage of afforestation, mostly because of the increase in recalcitrant C; however, the decrease of SOC with increasing stand age was also mainly affected by C loss in the recalcitrant C pool.
       
  • A novel perspective to bitumen refineries life cycle assessment and
           processes emissions

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 3Author(s): Saeed Morsali This study provides an introduction and a novel view of the impacts of oil refineries industry on human health, ecosystem quality and resources. The scope and issues for dealing with these challenges are rather wide and complex because the Oil refineries are complex facilities. Several processes, such as distillation, vacuum distillation, or steam reforming are required to produce a large variety of oil products such as gasoline, light fuel oil or bitumen. The goals, perspectives and expectation for the environmental practice and control have changed dramatically over the last couple of decades. Hence the required approach has to be multidisciplinary, based on established scientific concepts and sound engineering principles. The environmental impacts of oil refineries are assessed using the technique of life cycle assessment (LCA). In this paper, only the material production phase of the bitumen LCA is considered. To improve the quality of the LCA, a regionalized life cycle inventory (LCI) database for the Oil refineries and commercial LCI databases are used to validate and model unit processes with an LCA software.
       
  • Influence of sediment characteristics on density and distribution of
           Ocypodoid crab burrows (superfamily: Ocypodoidea) along the coastal areas
           of Pakistan

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 3Author(s): Noor Us Saher, Naureen Aziz Qureshi, Asmat Saleem Siddiqui Crabs belong to the superfamily Ocypodoidea are a significant component of benthic fauna and considered as ecosystem engineers because of their dynamic role as an active burrower in mangrove and estuarine environment. The current investigation was to evaluate the crab burrow density, diameter and total area of burrow opening along the coast of Pakistan. The variations in burrow properties and their relation to sediment characteristics were also evaluated to recognize the most influencing variables of sediments that effects on crab burrows. All crab burrow and sediment characteristics differed significantly (p 
       
  • Ecological restoration and factors regulating phytoplankton community in a
           hypertrophic shallow lake, Lake Taihu, China

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Zhixin Ke, Ping Xie, Longgen Guo A restoration program for the control of cyanobacterial blooms and the re-establishment of submerged macrophytes was conducted in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu since 2003. The effect of this ecological projects on plankton community and water quality, and factors regulating phytoplankton community were investigated in 2005. In general, some improvements of water quality occurred in the ecological restoration region, especially in the region of restoring aquatic macrophytes, where we detected significant reduction of nutrients. However, it seems the abundance of phytoplankton cannot be effectively control by the present ecological engineering. The phytoplankton abundance was high in the target restoration zone. Results of CCA and correlation analysis indicate that the phytoplankton community was mainly controlled by physico-chemical factors. Cyanobacteria species were positively related with pH, temperature, TP and TSS, while negatively related with TN, TN/TP and conductivity. The most discriminant variable was TN/TP, which explained 15% of the total variance of phytoplankton. However, TN was more important for the fluctuation of TN/TP than TP. It suggested that TN may be the ultimate factor controlling the phytoplankton community in Lake Taihu. Variation partitioning analysis showed that the pure contribution of crustacean was low for the variation of phytoplankton, suggesting that top-down control by crustacean zooplankton was weak in Lake Taihu. In general, this study suggested the reduction of nutrient load should be more important than top-down control using zooplankton for the ecosystem restoration in Lake Taihu.
       
  • Response of maize genotypes with different nitrogen use efficiency to low
           nitrogen stresses

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 May 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Peng-fei Duan ObjectivesThis paper aims to compare the property difference of spatial and temporal distribution of different nitrogen use efficiency maize genotypes and discuss the physiological mechanism of nitrogen efficiency of maize.MethodIn this study, phenotype of root crowns of maize in seedling stage (V5), bell stage (V12) and silking stage (R1) was conducted to discover phenes and phene modules related to N acquisition. An image was captured for the whole roots. Custom software was used to measure root phenes including root area, root projected structure length, maximum width of roots, and root angle. The study was conducted to examine the differences in spatial and temporal distribution of maize root at two nitrogen levels (0 and 240 kg hm-2), high efficiency genotype ZHENGDAN958 (ZD958) and low efficiency genotype DANYU13 (DY13) are used in field production. Under the low nitrogen stress conditions, the root area of ZD958 significantly increased after bell stage and exceeds the CK by 20.2% at silking stage. With LN, the root projected structure length of ZD958 was longer than that of CK by 49.4% at silking stage. The low efficiency genotype DY13 had no obvious change at two nitrogen levels. The number of the grain yield and root system biomass of high efficiency genotype ZD958 was remarkably larger than that of low efficiency genotype DY13.ConclusionDuring the whole growth stage, the root dry weight, root area and the root width med of high efficiency genotype ZD958 were larger than that of high efficiency genotype DY13. Besides, under the low nitrogen stress conditions, the width of ZD958 deep soil root tended to become longer which is good for the nitrogen absorption from the deep soil. High efficiency genotype can construct a root system which is in a well-developed and reasonable spatial distribution before blooming, so as to ensure plant nitrogen absorption and biomass generation as well. The root index of the nitrogen responsivity of high efficiency genotype ZD958 was higher than that of low efficiency genotype DY13 before blooming.
       
  • Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system: Estimation of soil aggregates
           stability

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Maryam Marashi, Ali Mohammadi Torkashvand, Abbas Ahmadi, Mehrdad Esfandyari In present study, the capabilities of multiple linear regression (MLR) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) in developing pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for estimating geometric mean diameter (GMD) and mean weight diameter (MWD), from routine soil properties and combination of routine soil properties and fractal dimension of aggregates were evaluated. For this reason 101 samples were collected form the Northwest of Iran and some their properties such as soil texture, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and organic matter (OM), fractal dimension of aggregates between number-diameter (Dn), mass-diameter (Dmt), and bulk density-diameter (Dmy) were determined and used as an input variables for determining of mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD) by MLR and ANFIS PTFs. Results showed that the application of fractal dimension of aggregates as a predictor in two methods improved the accuracy of PTFs. As well as, results showed that ANFIS have greater potential for determination of the relationships between soil aggregate stability indices and other soil properties in compared with MLR. Therefore using of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) in developing pedotransfer functions is recommended.
       
  • Factors affecting farmers' willingness to pay for adopting vegetable
           residue compost in North China

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Ying Zhou, Qingbo Zhou, Shouwen Gan, Liying Wang The random disposal of vegetable residues in north China has become an important obstacle for the sustainable development of vegetable industry. The composting treatment technology has been transformed into organic fertilizer by high temperature fermentation, which has become a widely promoted agricultural clean production technology. However, due to the voluntary nature of farmers' adoption and their reluctance to adopt, this study aimed at assessing the factors that influence their adoption will and evaluate the value of willingness to pay (WTP) for composting technology. Data were collected from 142 respondents through a household survey in Gaocheng District by using structural questionnaire of contingent valuation method (CVM). Some qualitative response models (Probit, Logistic and multiple linear regression models) were applied for examining the main factors influencing the vegetable residue compost adoption and estimating the WTP value. The findings showed that social resource factors play an important role in the respondents' behaviors toward composting technology adoption. The empirical results indeed highlighted that subsidy policy, top dressing time, age, scale, investment of irrigation and net income have significant positive influences on the WTP of compost, while work time and information sources have a negative impact. Government subsidy is a necessary premise for implementing the composting program. The governments should subsidize the remaining 97% of the construction costs to ensure the smooth implementation of composting technology. The findings specifically mentioned that the subsidy object should be the disadvantaged peasant groups with lower household income but more environmentally conscious. This paper is believed to not only assess the technical externality of vegetable residues for the first time but also provide decision reference for policymakers, especially in the background of rapid development of agricultural clean production technology, the accuracy and efficiency of subsidies should be improved.
       
  • Effect of salinity on germination characters and seedlings parameters of
           Egyptian flax cultivars growing in Nyiregyhaza

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): W.A.E. Abido, L. Zsombik In the recent years using non-traditional sources, i.e. saline water in irrigation becomes essential. Overcoming the toxic effects of salinity stress and improving salt tolerance is consider one of the challenges for enhancing germination, seedling characters and biochemical analysis. Therefore, a laboratory experiment was conducted to study the response of seven Egyptian flax cultivars i.e. (Giza 9, Giza 10, Giza 11, Giza 12, Sakha 2, Sakha 5 and Sakha 6) germinated under five salinity stress i.e. (control, 3, 6, 9 and 12 dS m−1) at Research Institute of Nyiregyhaza using Factorial Experimental in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. The following results were recorded: Tested Egyptian flax cultivars significantly varied for germination characters, seedling properties and chemical analysis. Giza 11 exceeded recorded the maximum values of germination and seedling characters, potassium and proline content compared with the other studied cultivars. Increasing salinity stress up to 12 dS m−1 significantly affected germination characters, seedlings parameters and chemical analysis. In general, Giza 11 cultivar substantiated best at high level of salinity stress compared with other studied cultivars. Furthermore, produced the lowest values of Na+ content.
       
  • The effects of environmental factors on some vegetative characteristics of
           Quercus brantii in Kouh gachan, Ilam, west of Iran

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Iman Haghiyan In this study the effects of environmental factors on some vegetative characteristics of Quercus brantii was investigated in Kouh gachan, Ilam, West of Iran, using multivariate analysis. Therefore 64 sample plots with a size of 200 m2 were considered for measuring the vegetative parameters. Some environmental factors such as slope, aspect and soil depth were recorded in all sample plots. The Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was used to investigate the relation between vegetative parameters and environmental factors. Redundancy analysis (RDA) analysis was also used to interpret the results. The results of DCA analysis showed that the effect of environmental factors on vegetation cover is significant. Slope had the smallest and the soil depth had the biggest effect on vegetative characteristics of Quercus brantii. The results also confirmed the usage of RDA analysis for investigating the relationship between environmental factors and vegetative characteristics.
       
  • Floristic inventory of wild plants of Peshawar university campus

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Bakhtiar Gul, Ijaz Ahmad, Haroon Khan, Umar Zeb, Hafiz Ullah Floristic inventory of wild plants comprised of total 129 plant species belonging to 42 families and 101 genera. Location wise UAP contributed greater amount of plant species (53%), followed by PFI (29%), UoP (15%) and Islamia College (3%). Majority of the plants were annual herbs (58%), followed by perennial herbs (29%), trees (10%) and shrubs (3%), respectively. The leading families included Poaceae, contributed 18% of all the plant species. Habitat wise, 44% of them grew in grassy plains, abandoned lands and mismanaged lawns, followed by roadsides (34%), undulating grassy plains (15%) and stony grounds with uneven topography along with stream banks and drainage ditches (7%). Still some of plant species were used as ornamentals, while some shrubs were use in fencing around fields; others were utilized as green manure, for fishing, sheltering and religious purposes. Exploring and identifying the wild flora of the campus and compiling as a handbook would help to monitor new plants introductions particularly of noxious invasive weeds in the campuses in future.
       
  • Exploring an efficient habitat index for predicting population and
           abundance of migratory birds in Poyang Lake Wetland, South China

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Hongmei Zhao, Yeqiao Wang, Bing Xu, Xiaoling Chen, Zhiyong Jiang Poyang Lake wetland is an important wintering habitat of migratory birds with a complexity of coupled nature and human systems. Reported studies suggested that habitat indices were mostly developed based on single-class factors and scale-dependent. Therefore the indices might not be sufficient and applicable to predict regional changes for population and abundance of migratory birds (PMB and AMB) in Poyang Lake wetland at watershed and basin scales. In order to explore an efficient habitat index for predicting PMB and AMB, an integrated and scale-independent habitat index was proposed by integration of landscape and environmental temperature variables at basin and watershed scales. The landscape index and environmental temperature index based on single-class dominant factors, were also evaluated by weighted additive method. Multi-source data, including multi-spatial and temporal remote sensing images and field survey data, was used in this study. Results indicated that the average 10-night temperature in July (TN-Jul.) had dominant influence on PMB and the environmental temperature index was a better predictor for predicting PMB; AMB was influenced by both landscape and temperature variables and the proposed integrated habitat index was better for prediction of AMB in Poyang Lake wetland. The proposed integrated habitat index is a supplement of the single-class habitat index, which provides a more scientific technique for the study of biodiversity.
       
  • Impact of rapid urbanization on the floral diversity and agriculture land
           of district Dir, Pakistan

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Muhammad Shuaib, Kashif Ali, Sajjad Ahmed, Firasat Hussain, Muhammad Ilyas, Nazim Hassan, Ikramullah Khan, Fida Hussain In the World urbanization is a serious problem especially in developing countries which creates serious environmental problems like climatic and ecological changes in the ecosystem. The present paper aims to explain urbanization that causes loss of agriculture lands, biodiversity, soil erosions and grazing in District Dir. Urbanization decreased species richness such as Salix alba and Populus alba in the last few years in the local area. Soil of local area was divided into three different zones and was tested for soil texture and mineral percentage. Zone I soil showed sandy loamy texture with a pH of 8.3, Nitrogen 0.012%, Phosphorus 5.0% and organic matter was 0.74 (ppm). Zone II soil was loamy sand in texture with pH 8.1, Nitrogen 0.011%, Phosphorus 6.2%, and organic matter was 0.24 (ppm) while Zone III soil texture was silty clay loam with a pH of 8.1, Nitrogen 0.032%, Phosphorus 11.3%, and organic matter was 0.60 (ppm). The current work concludes that urbanizations affect natural biodiversity and agriculture lands, and that soil erosion and watering-points trampled by livestock is one of the significant problems in district Dir, and that the main degrading factor is the overexploitation of vegetation for fuel-wood and livestock grazing.
       
  • Habitat mapping, population size and preventing extinction through
           improving the conservation status of Calamus nambariensis Becc. - an
           endemic and threatened cane of Assam, India

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Kishor Deka, S.K. Borthakur, Bhaben Tanti Cane is one of the important forest products after timber, form an integral part of a rural and tribal population of many of the tropical countries of South East Asia, Africa and America. Calamus nambariensis Becc. has been recognized as endemic and threatened cane to the North East region of India. The plant is restricted to only two pockets of Assam with a poor population size. Therefore, conservation of this plant through proper scientific investigation is utmost necessary. The present investigation has as its objectives to study the distribution, estimation of population size, standardization of suitable micropropagation methods for reintroduction and reinforcement in suitable wild habitat as determined by ecological niche modelling (ENM) for the purposes of conservation. For improving the conservation status of the species, potential area and habitat for reintroduction was determined using maximum entropy (MaxEnt) distribution modelling algorithm. The population size in both the site was found to be very poor i.e., mean density, frequency of occurrence and abundance in relation to other associated species was 0.600, 29.26 and 2.307 in Nambor Reserve Forest whereas 0.526, 27.407 and 2.112 respectively in Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary. Macropropagation of C. nambariensis was standardized here through seed germination which was found to be more efficient in terms of time and cost which revealed 87% germination in treated seeds, followed by 61% only for untreated seeds till 90 days. It was also observed that seedlings in the hilly slope of Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary (reinforcement) showed high survivability than that of the hilly slop of Lahorijan Reserve Forest (reintroduction). Further, survival rate was measured for 24 months, which revealed significantly very high on an average of 97.85% in both the locations, while 1200 numbers of C. nambariensis plantlets were transferred to the field. The present study could change the population size of C. nambariensis in its natural habitat, proving effective means for preventing extinction and improving conservation status of the plant.
       
  • Effect of water stress on germination of some Hungarian wheat landraces
           varieties

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): W.A.E. Abido, L. Zsombik In order to examine germination characters, seedling parameters, water relative content, tolerance index and enzyme activities of seven Hungarian wheat landraces varieties (Tiszadadai, Riscsei, Komloi, Leweucei, Mateteleki, Mikebudai and Nyiradi) under five concentrations of water stress (0, 6, 12, 18, and 24%) of polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000). A laboratory experiment has been conducted through Factorial Experiment in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four repetitions at Research Institute of Nyiregyhaza, Hungary. From the obtained results, Leweucei variety was surpassed other studied verities under study and recorded the highest values of all studied characters followed by Mateteleki, Komloi, Nyiradi, Riscsei, Tiszadadai and Mikebudai. Increasing water stress (PEG-6000) from 0 to 6, 12, 18 and 24% significantly reduced germination characters, seedlings parameters, water relative content (WRC), tolerance index and α and β-amylases activities. Generally, under water stress condition, Leweucei and Mateteleki varieties were recorded the highest values of water relative content (WRC), tolerance index (TI) and α and β-amylases activities as well as able to prompt better drought tolerance and could be suggested as a good resource for breeding programs and cultivation under drought stress conditions compared with other wheat landraces varieties.
       
  • A novel approach for removing an industrial dye 4GL by an Algerian
           Bentonite

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 2Author(s): Amel Belaroussi, Fatima Labed, Aicha Khenifi, Rachid Ait Akbour, Zohra Bouberka, Mostéfa Kameche, Zoubir Derriche Adsorption processes of 4GL on two different bentonite-based sorbents were compared: i) Sodium-bentonite in the presence of a cationic surfactant CTAMB; ii) organobentonite alone. This latter was prepared by exchanging the inorganic cation of bentonite with a quaternary ammonium cation at 100% of the clay's CEC. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of various parameters such as the quaternary ammonium cation (CTAMB) loading, contact time and initial 4GL concentration.From the kinetic study, it is interesting to note that Organobentonite exhibits faster kinetics compared to Na-bentonite/CTAMB system. The comparison between isotherm plots makes clear that the presence of CTAMB in solution changes the 4GL isotherm. Compared to organobentonite, the adsorption capacity is higher when CTAMB was present in solution. In this case, the results of 4GL adsorption by bentonite obey to Langmuir model. While for organobentonite, all models seem to be applicable. The difference between the two methods is confirmed by XRD analysis.The performance shown by Organobentonite and Na-bentonite/CTAMB system was suitable compared to other adsorbents, reflecting a promising future utilization in wastewater treatment.
       
  • The current status of biological control of weeds in southern China and
           future options

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 2Author(s): Shicai Shen, Michael D. Day, Gaofeng Xu, Diyu Li, Guimei Jin, Xingxiang Yin, Yanxian Yang, Shufang Liu, Qing Zhang, Rui Gao, Fudou Zhang, Rachel L. Winston China has become one of the countries most seriously affected by invasive alien weeds in the world. Weeds impact agriculture, the environment and human health, and conventional control methods such as herbicides are expensive, damaging to human health and unsustainable. As the impacts and costs of weed control in China increase, there is an urgent need to manage some of the more important weeds through more sustainable methods. Classical biological control of invasive alien weeds is environmentally-friendly and sustainable. Biological control in China began in the 1930s with the introduction of two agents into Hong Kong for the control of Lantana camara. Since then, a further seven biological control agents have been introduced into China to control four weed species. In addition, 11 biological control agents targeting seven weed species have naturally spread into China. Together, these biological control agents are helping to control some of China's worst weeds. However, these efforts are only a small portion of the weeds that could be targeted for weed biological control. This paper reviews the current status of weed biological control efforts against introduced weeds in ten provinces and regions in southern China and provides a platform to identify the most effective and appropriate weed biological control opportunities and programmes to pursue in the future. Introducing additional safe and effective biological control agents into China to help manage some of the worst weeds in the region should reduce the use of herbicides and impacts on human health and the environment, while increasing productivity and food security.
       
  • Distribution characteristics and factors influencing the ecosystem in
           western Hubei

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 2Author(s): Wenjie Hu, Xiaorong Wang, Hongxia Cui, Lei Pan, Lanying Zheng, Tian Fu, Hongdong Pang Western Hubei is the most concentrated area of forest resources in Hubei Province, and the knowledge of the distribution characteristics of ecosystem carbon density is important to understand the regional characteristics of carbon density and its mechanism of formation. Carbon density and factors influencing different layers in the ecosystem were studied by using field data. The average carbon density of ecosystems in western Hubei was 159.05 t/hm2; the carbon density of different forest types in descending order was Abies fargesii forests (362.25 t/hm2), mixed broadleaf-conifer forests (154.13 t/hm2), broad-leaved forests (146.09 t/hm2), and coniferous forests (135.76 t/hm2), and ecosystem carbon density increased with increasing age. The carbon density of the arborous layer, shrub layer, and soil layer of A. fargesii forests was significant higher than that of the other forests (P 
       
  • Effects of grazing disturbance on plant diversity, community structure and
           direction of succession in an alpine meadow on Tibet Plateau, China

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 2Author(s): Yujie Niu, Siwei Yang, Guizhen Wang, Li Liu, Limin Hua To elucidate the effects of grazing intensity and grazing time on plant diversity and community structure, as well as the successional differentiation in an alpine meadow, a controlled grazing trial, with six grazing intensities on an alpine meadow was conducted in the eastern Qilian Mountain region for four years. Using species accumulation curves, RDA ordination and variance decomposition, we analyzed the changes in proportion of dominant species, richness, abundance, as well as the life forms of plant communities under grazing disturbance. Both the grazing intensity and grazing time had a significant effect on these dominant species, richness, abundance, as well as the life forms in the plant community (P 
       
  • Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Pb, As and Cu) in
           sediments of Dohezar River, North of Iran, Tonekabon city

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 2Author(s): Sahar Sartipi Yarahmadi, Mohamad Reza Ansari Sediments of the Dohezar River in Tonekabon contain high levels of heavy metals and therefore, they were chemically analyzed to determine concentrations of these elements. In fact, this research intended to evaluate the ecological risks of the heavy metals As, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Cu in the river sediments. Contamination indices such as enrichment factor and contamination factor, potential ecological risk index for each heavy metal (Ei), and potential ecological risk index (RI) were evaluated. Considering the average concentrations of the heavy metals at all of the Stations, the maximum average for the elements was zinc and the minimum was copper. Therefore, the averages of changes in the concentrations of the elements are Zn > Cr > Pb > As > Cu. Considering calculation of the enrichment factors for the heavy metals according to the EF classification table, the maximum number of Stations (43.02%) with respect to contamination with As were in class 4(moderately severe enrichment). With respect to enrichment of Pb, Zn, Cr, and copper, the rest of the stations with 83.72, 77.91, 86.05, and 69.77%, respectively, were in class 2 (minor enrichment). Considering the high concentrations of the studied elements in the sediments of the region compared to the background value, and based on calculations related to contamination factor, arsenic with the average of 11.9 exceeded the most from the standard limit. It was followed by Pb with 2.2, zinc with 2, Cr with 1.8, and Cu with1.6 (copper exceeding the least from the standard limit). With respect to Ei (the potential ecological risk index for each heavy metal), arsenic was the element with the highest environmental risk. Moreover, with respect to RI (potential ecological risk index), most Stations were in the low-grade range (low environmental risk). This research used statistical studies on correlation coefficients and cluster analysis to find the origin of the heavy metals in the sediments of the region. The low correlation between the heavy metals in the soil can indicate they probably did not have the same source. Moreover, these elements have different geochemical behaviors due to their low correlation. Finally, the kriging method was employed to extract interpolation maps of the spatial distribution for each of the heavy metals.
       
  • Proposal of a marine protected area surveillance system against illegal
           vessels using image sensing and image processing

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 2Author(s): Amit Md. Estiaque Arefin Conservation of marine fauna is a great concern in the present days for a number of reasons. Implementation of marine protected area is considered to be a common practice for the conservation of marine fauna at a specific area. However, in many cases, the present management system of the marine protected areas fails to protect marine fauna. This paper proposes a marine protected area surveillance system that uses airborne image sensing and digital image processing to monitor the marine protected area against illegal vessels efficiently. The system architecture, including the system structure, execution planning, and algorithm, has been described for the proposed surveillance system. It is apparent from this study that the currently proposed marine protected area surveillance system is better than the previously proposed ones.
       
  • Requiring more empirical studies in ecology: A comparison of sample size
           in meta-analysis of ecology and medicine

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 2Author(s): Zhanhuan Shang Meta-analysis is an effective and popular tool for studies of systemic literature or research cases review. Compared with medicine, the ecological publications with meta-analysis typically addressed more questions, but with a less datasets. Therefore, in ecology the meta-analysis method should have higher credibility as it does in medicine. For the future of meta-analysis in ecology, the more important work is to implement more empirical studies, such as ‘coordinated distributed experiment’, to get more reliable datasets.
       
  • Nested PCR assay for the rapid detection of Naegleria fowleri
           from swimming pools in Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 2Author(s): W.M. Hikal, M.A. Dkhil The free-living amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri is the only species infects humans world widely distributed. N. fowleri is the causative agent of very rare but severe brain infection called primary amoebic meningo-encephalitis (PAM), a rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system mainly in immuno-compromised individuals. N. fowleri infects human through the entry of the nose, and it happens when human swimming or diving in warm freshwater, such as lakes, rivers and swimming pools. The disease is acute, and patients often die within 5–10 days and before the infectious agent can be diagnosed. Limited information is available about the existence of pathogenic N. fowleri, in Egypt, so the present of N. fowleri is an important public health. In the present study, we examined hundred water, dust and swap samples collected from 5 swimming pools in Cairo, Egypt. Based on morphological characteristics of trophozoite and cyst, flagellation test 56% of thermo-tolerant Naegleria like amoeba was detected. The incidence of thermo-tolerant free-living amoebae reached 84, 80and 70% from water, cotton swap and dust samples, respectively at cultivation temperature of 45 °C. The highest occurrence of thermo-tolerant amoebae were recorded in summer (100 & 87.5%) while the lowest one were recorded in winter (58 & 37.5%) in both water and dust samples, respectively. In swap samples, the highest occurrence of thermo-tolerant free-living amoeba was recorded in both summer and spring (100%), while the lowest one was recorded in winter (40%). N. fowleri was performed on 24 samples from a total of 56 (42.2%) samples which are positive by culture. Nested PCR using Mp2Cl5 gene primers that is unique to N. fowleri was carried out. The N. fowleri specific primer showed band at 166 bp against 24 of 56 (42.2%) samples. The majority of positive samples unique to N. fowleri was detected in water samples followed by swap samples and finally dust samples 14 of 24 (58%), 7 of 24 (29%), 3 of 24 (13%), respectively. In conclusion, swimming pools water may be the source of Naegleria invasion. The use of molecular methods to identify free-living amoebae N. fowleri could provide a more rapid means to diagnose infections caused by those amoebae.
       
  • Vegetation analysis and allelopathy of strilis oat (Avena sterilis L.)
           under natural rangeland and cultivated lands

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 2Author(s): Mohamed A. Balah, Helal S. El Harer, Wdad A. Abdel kader Avena sp. is a major weed threat cereal cropping and there is a need to the ecological knowledge to provide principles for facilitates their management tactics. The autoecology of strilis oat (Avena sterilis L.) into four localities natural rangelands and cultivated lands at El-Jabal Al-Akhdar, Libya were investigated. The demography studies in the cultivated sites revealed 274 specimens belonging to 15 species, within 15 genera and 6 families (wheat) and 252 specimens for 21 species that belonging to 17 genera and 6 families (barley) respectively. The description analysis in rangelands were reported approximately 185 specimens belonging to 14 species within 14 genera and 5 families (Wadi El-Mashel) and 185 specimens that belonging to 17 species within 16 genera and 5 families (Wedi El-Mienisry). The variation between the cultivated and rangelands sites have higher species richness, species evenness, diversity indexes, and homogeneity with smooth rank abundance plots. However, barley and Wedi El-Mienisry communities were more diverse than wheat and Wadi El Mashel. The correlation analysis between main filed density (MFD) of A. sterilis and diversity was strong negative. The phytotoxicity of A. sterilis water extracts was higher in wheat than barley under experiment conditions, while subterranean parts pose significant allelopathic effects than other parts that affect plant assemblages, communities and explained the lower yield of wheat and barley crops.
       
  • Functional diversity research of forest communities in the Xiaowutai
           Mountain National Nature Reserve, Hebei

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 2Author(s): Xiaohang Bai, Jintun Zhang Plant functional traits are the plant physiological characteristics which can response to the changes of the living environment and have a certain impact on the ecosystem structure and function. The objective of our study was to explore characters of present functional diversity indices, the relationships between functional diversity and environmental variables, the relevance of species diversity and functional diversity. In this paper, habitat type, seed dispersal, pollination method, life cycle, life form, leaf form, leaf hair type, flowering period and flowering time were chosen as functional traits, and the research were done in the typical forest communities in the Xiaowutai Mountain National Nature Reserve, Hebei. One hundred and forty-eight quadrats (10 m × 10 m) of forest communities were established along altitude gradients, at the same time, species composition, functional traits, and environmental variables were measured in each quadrat. The results showed that functional diversity indices in forest communities that were calculated by functional distances varied greatly. Functional diversity indices (FAD, MFAD, FDp, FDc, FRic, Rao and FDis) had highly significantly positive correlation with Patrick index and showed a linear increasing trend. All the nine functional diversity indices (FAD, MFAD, FDp, FDc, FRic, Rao, FEve, FDiv, FDis) had significantly correlation with Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou index. Only FDiv showed significantly negative correlation, and the other eight functional diversity indices showed positive correlation. Environmental filtering was important to functional diversity pattern, and functional diversity indices showed correlation with environmental variables. Altitude was a significant factor to functional diversity in forest communities. Except for FDiv, other functional diversity indices displayed a decreasing trend along altitude gradients. Among all the functional diversity indices, only Rao and FDis showed significantly positive correlation with aspect. The functional diversity indices (FAD, MFAD, FDp, FDc, FRic, Rao and FDdis) showed a negative correlation with slope, slope position, litter layer thickness, soil thickness, while, they showed a positive correlation with soil temperature and disturbance. All the nine indices were proved successful in the analysis of functional diversity in forest communities with different effectiveness. They were divided into three categories, functional richness (FAD, MFAD, FDp, FDc, FRic), functional divergence (Rao, FDis), functional evenness (FEve, FDis). Meanwhile, each category was highly inter-correlated and each category was relatively independent with other categories. The study of functional diversity provides a number of ecological indication and monitoring methods for the forest, and it can address a wide range of important ecological questions that links species and ecosystems through mechanisms in biodiversity research.
       
  • Hematological indices and oxidative stress biomarkers response to the
           starvation of Clarias gariepinus

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 2Author(s): M. Bassam AL-Salahy, Ahmed Th. Ibrahim Starvation effects for five weeks on energy reserves, oxidative stress and hematological indices in Nile catfish Clarias gariepinus was studied. The low protein level in starved fish may result from the lowering effect of prolonged starvation on protein synthesis rather than due to its degenerating protein. Moreover, the elevated level of serum amino acids may promote gluconeogenesis in liver. In addition, the lipid depletion in starved fish may be related to the preferential uses of lipids as an energy to starve fish. Also, unchanged glycemic level may introduce a potent evidence for the presence of active gluconeogenesis, depending on both amino and fatty acids precursors. Also, kidney and liver showed disturbances in metabolites associated with oxidative damage such as elevations in total peroxide, carbonyl protein and DNA fragmentation; these may cause dysfunction to these organs after five weeks of starvation. Total peroxide, carbonyl protein and DNA fragmentation were significantly increased in gills, liver and kidney by 29.9, 30.9 and 30.5; 83.6, 84.6 and 53.7; 82.4, 43.3 and 75.7%, respectively. Starvation induced severe anemia and loss of body weight in the fish. However, white muscle did not show any oxidative damage after five weeks of starvation.
       
  • Applying geographic information systems and remote sensing for water
           quality assessment of mangrove forest

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 2Author(s): Sakineh Lotfinasabasl, V.R. Gunale, Mohammad Khosroshahi The study of environmental conditions is one of the most important measures in the field of reforestation. The present study was undertaken to assess the environmental status of the mangrove forest of Alibaug, Maharashtra, India with respect to different sixteen physicochemical parameters of water using Geographical information system (GIS) for rehabilitation, conservation and development of the destructed area of the mangrove forest. The Base map of study area was prepared using topographic map and the remote sensing data of Landsat 7 ETM + for spatial analysis. The distributions of water pollutants were assigned using a GIS approach of Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW). The results showed that the amounts of EC, COD, hardness, O&G, Cl−, Na+, Ca2 +, Mg2 +, NO3− and PO43− are higher than the normal ranges in mangrove forest due to natural processes and human activity, industrial and domestic wastewater disposal, oil spillage and agricultural runoff which all eventually affect the water quality of mangrove forest of Alibaug. To identify the areas within the normal ranges of 16 studied parameter, suitability map of water was prepared through an integration of 16 suitability maps of the studied parameters. The suitability map of water classified the water to six classes of suitability in order of moderate > moderate to high > low to moderate > high > low suitable. The areas with classes of 1 and 2 were suitable for the protective measures. Classes 3 and 4 were suitable for replantation and restoration of native mangrove species as well as local communities' cooperation in the participatory protection measures. The areas of classes 5 and 0 need to be designed an urgent management and mitigation plan to reduce impact of human activities. The result of the study also proves the use of GIS as a powerful tool in addressing assessment and monitoring programs of the water quality in the mangrove ecosystems.
       
  • Survival and development of maize stem borer Chilo Partellus (Swinhoe)
           Lepidoptera: Crambidae on artificial diet

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 2Author(s): D. Peddakasim, M.S.R. Krishna, P. Suneetha, R. Srideepthi, U.L. Sahithya The Life cycle of maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) was studied in in vitro conditions. Development of stem borer undergoes following stages like egg, larvae, pupa and moth. The egg incubation period ranged from 3 to 6 days, larval stage was observed in five instars. The mean value of I, II, III, IV and V instars showed 3.8 ± 0.16, 5.2 ± 0.02, 6.1 ± 0.06, 7.35 ± 1.5, and 10.12 ± 0.29 days, respectively and complete larvae period ranged from 42 to 49 days. Pupae stage was observed in 8–9 days. The pre-mating and mating period was found at 9.10 ± 1.20 and 5.14 ± 1.08 h while egg laying period in 4.1 ± 1.32 days respectively. Fecundity rate of stem borer is from 262 to 657 eggs. The life span of adult male (3-7) and female (3-8) days was observed with a mean of 6.30 ± 0.85 and 5.10 ± 0.69 days respectively. Life cycle of stem borer gets completed in 47 to 51 days. Development of quality insects in required quantities at different developmental stages and their timely supply plays an inevitable role particularly for insect-breeding resistant programs. Hence to meet these challenges we had tried to standardize an artificial diet with cost effective to rear Chilo partellus under in vitro conditions.
       
  • Migratory waterfowls as indicators to assess the protection efficiency in
           Iran

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Azita Farashi, Leila Halakouhi There are high numbers of endangered birds in Iran. Birds also are indicators of biodiversity in different landscapes and using birds as indicator give us a complete overview about the ecological status of the landscape. In the present study migratory waterfowls were used to identify biodiversity hotspots in Iran. Iran is an interesting place for ornithologists because it is in fact a crossroads of flyways for migratory waterfowls coming from Europe, southern Asia, and Siberia. We predicted the habitat distributions for 27 bird species of Anseriformes in Iran using an ensemble forecasting framework to identify biodiversity hotspots. Moreover, we measured the percentage of overlap between hotspots and protected areas including Ramsar sites. The results showed that suitable habitats for different bird species greatly varied among different ecosystems and they showed dissimilar responses to environmental variables. However, for most species digital elevation model (DEM) was the most important variable in predicting suitable habitats. Our study also revealed that 36.02% of Iran can be considered as suitable habitats for the species and the highest suitability belongs to areas along Zagros and Alborz mountain ranges. Furthermore, the suitable habitats had 7.10% overlap with protected areas and 75% with Ramsar sites. The low overlap between hotspots and protected areas demonstrated the shortage of biodiversity protection in Iran. Therefore, it is essential to select new protected areas based on biodiversity hotspots, and to develop a network of protected areas within those hotspots in Iran.
       
  • Relative growth rate, biomass partitioning and nutrient allocation in
           seedlings of two threatened trees grown under different light conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Viheno Iralu, Krishna Upadhaya The present study investigates the variation in the relative growth, biomass and nutrient allocation in two threatened tree species viz. Magnolia punduana Hook.f. & Th. and Elaeocarpus prunifolius Wall. ex Müll. Berol. grown under three different levels of irradiance. The irradiance ranged between 1 and 12 mol m−2 d−1. Results showed that the highest relative growth rate (RGR) was achieved under the intermediate light treatment for both the species (mean: 0.005 mg mg−1 d−1). The growth response coefficient (GRC) model revealed that net assimilation rate (NAR) was the factor driving the RGR in both species. A significant positive correlation was found between NAR and RGR (R2 = 0.33, p = 0.000) whereas specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) was negatively correlated to RGR. Overall, multiple regression of the studied species based on the independent variables viz. NAR, SLA, and LMF showed a significant relation with RGR (F(3,50,53 = 13.001, p = 0.000, R2 = 0.43). The biomass distribution in the studied species is in agreement with the “balanced-growth hypothesis” where high irradiance increased allocation to below ground biomass fraction and decreased irradiance increased allocation to the above ground fraction. The highest nitrogen concentration in leaves was observed under the intermediate light treatment. Overall seedlings growth under intermediate light had a higher mean RGR indicating the species' preference for partial light conditions. Long-term experiments under varied light conditions as in the present study would provide useful insight into plant growth strategies in varied environmental conditions.
       
  • Allelopathic potential of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) germplasm
           resources of Yunnan Province in southwest China

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Shicai Shen, Gaofeng Xu, Diyu Li, David R. Clements, Guimei Jin, Shufang Liu, Yanxian Yang, Aidong Chen, Fudou Zhang, Hisashi Kato-Noguchi A laboratory bioassay was conducted to determine the allelopathic potentials of aqueous extracts from either roots or leaves of seventeen sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)] cultivars (SP0, SP1, SP2, SP3, SP4, SP5, SP6, SP7, SP9, SP10, SP11, SP13, SP14, SP15, SP16, SP18, and SP19). Most inhibitory rates on Lactuca sativa calculated for leaf or root extracts from the seventeen sweet potato cultivars exhibited positive values and significantly increased with increasing concentration. Germination was totally inhibited at a concentration of 0.05 g·mL−1 for leaf water extracts of SP13, SP15, SP18 and at a concentration of 0.05 g·mL−1 for both leaf and root water extracts of SP19. Inhibition of root length was clearly greater than inhibition of shoot length for both leaf and root water extracts. Biomass inhibition increased with increasing concentration, but some cultivars showed stimulatory effects at low concentrations, and inhibition was generally more pronounced for root water extracts than for leaf water extracts. Moreover, most synthetical inhibitory rates for both leaf and root water extracts from the seventeen cultivars exhibited positive values and significantly increased with increasing concentration. Comparing the synthetical inhibitory rates for both leaf and root water extracts among the seventeen cultivars, SP19, SP6, SP11, and SP7 had the highest allelopathic inhibition. The inhibitory activity on germination index was the greatest, followed by germination rate, root length, biomass, and shoot length in all bioassays. Inhibition by leaf water extracts was generally greater than inhibition by root water extracts, except in the case of shoot length or biomass. Overall, we conclude that all seventeen sweet potato cultivars have strong inhibitory effects on L. sativa, but that these effects vary with cultivar and plant part, with SP19, SP6, SP11, and SP7 exhibiting the highest rates of allelopathic inhibition.
       
  • The simulation of the vine biomass at different planting ages in Ningxia
           vineyards using DNDC model

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Yajie Zhang, Xudong Wu, Shiping Wang, Haishan Niu The vine total biomass of different planting ages from plants in vineyard (1–12 years) was investigated by analysing biomass in stands with various ages and also simulated using the denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model in the east Helan Mountains, Ningxia in 2011. The results indicated that the DNDC model accurately simulated the total biomass at different planting ages in the studied vineyard; the simulated results were approximately 93.6% of the measured results, and the biomass determination coefficient R2 between the model simulation and the in situ observations was 0.948 (p 
       
  • Distribution of heavy metals and arsenic in soils and indigenous plants
           near an iron ore mine in northwest Iran

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): S. Maryam Hosseini, Maryam Rezazadeh, Azam Salimi, Mahlagha Ghorbanli Heavy metal contaminations in the environment of mining area have become a global problem. The vicinity of an iron ore mine was investigated to estimate the concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Mn, Ni, Zn, and Cr in the soil and the feasibility of using native plants for phytoremediation. For this, concentrations of elements in soil samples collected and were analyzed by inductivity coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic in the roots and aerial parts of Dactylis glomerata L. and Scleranthus orientalis Rössler were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer too. As concentrations in the samples surpassed the soil toxicity threshold. Cd concentration in soil samples was considerably high next to mine pit. Neither species was identified as a hyperaccumulator, but both species could be considered as excluder plants for As.
       
  • Soil properties of Alhagi sparsifolia community in saline-sodic
           badlands in west China

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Lili Nan, Quanen Guo A field experiment was conducted to assess the influences of soil chemical, physical, and biological properties of Alhagi sparsifolia community in Linze, Gaotai, and Guazhou County, Gansu province, China. Results showed that soils sampled were generally infertile with low levels of organic matter, available nitrogen, phosphorus, copper, manganese, and zinc with bacteria dominant microbial communities supporting A. sparsifolia. Available potassium and iron were sufficient in the study sites. With increasing soil layer depth, the contents of organic matter, available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, manganese, urease, dehydrogenase, bacteria, and actinomyces in the soil decreased significantly (P 
       
  • Flower colour preferences of Aporia bieti (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in the
           Xiama Forest Farm, Gansu, China

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Shuqiu Zhang, Jimin Han, Quan Qian, Jing Zhao, Xiuping Ma, Sen Song In addition to their ornamental value, butterflies provide value to flowering plants through pollination, which can improve their heterosis. Studying the relationship between butterflies and flowers is useful for understanding the adaptive relationship between them. By observing the pollinating and feeding behaviour of Aporia bieti in the Xiama forest, Gansu, we explored the adaptive relationship between A. bieti proboscis size and the corolla tube length of the flowers. To eliminate interference from the butterfly's sense of smell, we used foam flowers instead of real flowers. The results indicated that (1) of the red, yellow, pink, purple, and white flowers tested, yellow flowers were preferred; (2) there was no distinct difference in the preferences of A. bieti for large- (45 mm) and small- (25 mm) sized flowers; and (3) A. bieti proboscis length was significantly related to the corolla tube length of the flowers fed on by the butterfly, which suggests co-evolution between butterfly proboscis length and the length of the pollen tube.
       
  • Floristic inventory and ecological characterization the village Sherpao,
           District Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa- Pakistan

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Sajjad Ali, Umar Zeb, Wang Lei, Haroon Khan, Khurram Shehzad, Hanif Khan, Irfan Ullah Floristic inventory of village Sherpao, District Charsadda comprised of total 104 plant species belonging to 46 families and 95 genera. The leading families included Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae and contributed by 8 species one (7.69%).The most pre-dominant life form was therophytes having 35 species (33.65%). Most dominant habit of flora were herbs having 77 species (74%) followed by trees contributed by 18 species (17.30%) and shrubs having 9 species (8.65%). Leaf size spectra of the flora showed that the most dominant leaf size class were microphyll having 38 species (36.53%) followed by nanophyll contributed by 32 species (30.76%), mesophyll represented 22 species (21.15%) and leptophyll contributed by 12 species (11.53%). Based on habitat 77 species (74%) were xerophytic in nature followed by 14 species (13.46%) in wet condition and 13 species (12.5%) were present in both conditions. In 104 plant species 85 were non spiny and 19 were spiny. Plant growth and distribution are having strong correlation with environment. Therefore, it is important to understand the environmental aspects that affect plant growth and distribution.
       
  • Salicylic acid changes morpho-physiological attributes of feverfew
           (Tanacetum parthenium L.) under salinity stress

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Tahereh Mallahi, Mohammad Jamal Saharkhiz, Jamal Javanmardi Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) (TP) is a valuable medicinal plant from Asteraceae family with various pharmaceutical and therapeutic properties. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of salicylic acid (SA) on the physiological and morphological responses of TP under salinity stress. Salinity was induced by NaCl and CaCl2 (2:1) at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mM levels. SA was applied as foliar application at 0, 200 and 300 ppm concentrations. Plant height, leaf and shoot number, fresh and dry weight and essential oil, starch, sugar, protein, proline, catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbic peroxidase (APX) contents were as measured morpho-physiological traits. The results showed that SA significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved the measured traits and caused higher tolerance in TP plants under salinity stress. The essential oil content increased with increasing the salinity level up to 90 mM, which was more significant when combined with SA application. All of the measured traits except proline content, antioxidant enzymes, essential oil and sugar decreased at high salinity levels.
       
  • Inhibition of gut proteases and development of dengue vector, Aedes
           aegypti by Allium sativum protease inhibitor

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Tooba Naz Shamsi, Romana Parveen, Afaque Ahmad, Roopa Rani Samal, Sarita Kumar, Sadaf Fatima The paper describes the bio efficacy of a protease inhibitor; isolated from Allium sativum ‘garlic’ (ASPI); against Aedes aegypti mosquito, a well-known transmitter of dengue and Chikungunya. The purification of protease inhibitor from Allium sativum ‘garlic’ (ASPI) was carried out by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography using akta DEAE-Cellulose column. The protein fraction demonstrating trypsin inhibitory activity was further evaluated for its insecticidal activity using gut protease inhibition assay and larvicidal assay. ASPI is an inhibitor of porcine trypsin (IC50 of 650.726 μg/mL) and has molecular weight of ~15 kDa determined by SDS PAGE similar to other inhibitors of the Kunitz-type family (14–26 kDa). ASPI demonstrated 50% reduced activity of Ae. aegypti midgut proteases and showed a dose-dependent acute toxicity on Ae. aegypti 3rd instars exhibiting LC50 value of ~50.827 μg/mL. After ten days of larval exposure ASPI resulted in a 24-h delay of larval development and ~72% mortality at 61.5 μg/mL. These results suggest that ASPI may serve as potent insecticidal agent and hence opens a new gateway in the field of phyto-remediation.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Application of zeolite and geohumus superabsorbent on establishment and
           some growth indices of Nitraria schoberi L.

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Fatemeh Zareian, Mohammad Jafari, Seyed Akbar Javadi, Ali Tavili Using Superabsorbent is one of the solutions to water shortages in arid and semi-arid regions. In order to evaluate the effect of zeolite and geohumus on the growth of Nitraria schoberi L. species, a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design was conducted with nine replications in Kashan city. The treatments consisted of various zeolite levels (0, 10 and 15 wt%) and geohumus (0, 100, 150, 250 gr for hole) and irrigation (normal irrigation, low irrigation). This study showed that superabsorbent application has a positive effect on establishment and other indices such as plant height, large and small canopy diameter and collar diameter. The highest survival percentage was observed in superabsorbent application (100%) and the lowest was measured in control treatment of low irrigation (the soil free of modifying substances) (78%). Also, the most growth indices of the plant are related to the treatment of 250 g geohumus with low irrigation treatment. Based on the results, it was found that adding superabsorbent on soil causes more establishment and improves vegetative growth traits. Also, considering the economical price of zeolite superabsorbent compared to geohumus as well as its abundance in Iran, it is recommended to use in order to increase irrigation intervals and reduce costs in desertification projects.
       
  • Variation in soil properties under different land uses and attitudinal
           gradients in soils of the Indian Himalayas

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Rahul Singh, D.R. Bhardwaj, Nazir A. Pala, Bhalendra Singh Rajput We studied the interaction effects of 8-different land uses systems viz., forestry (T1), silvopastoral (T2), horticulture (T3), agrihorticulture (T4), agrisilviculture (T5), agrihortisilviculture (T6) > grassland (T7) and agriculture (T8) in 2-altitudinal gradient for three consecutive soil layers of up to 1 m deep from sub-montane to low hill sub-tropical zone of Western Himalayas in Himachal Pradesh State of India. All the land uses under agroforestry practices viz., agrisilviculture, silvopastoral, agrihorticulture and agrihortisilviculture showed significantly enhanced values of pH, organic carbon (OC %), available N, P, K and exchangeable Ca, Mg and available S than agriculture land use. A maximum value of soil carbon (1.08%) was observed in forest land use followed by silvopastoral, horticulture, agrihorticulture, agrisilviculture, agrihortisilviculture, grassland and agriculture, respectively. Overall highest values of available N, P and K were observed under forest land use and silvopastoral among agroforestry systems. Available N, P, and K declined with increasing altitude. Exchangeable Mg followed the trend T7 > T2 > T5 > T1 > T6 > T3 > T4 > T8 and available Sulphur as T7 > T3 > T2 > T6 > T5 > T4 > T8 > T1, respectively. The value of exchangeable Ca and available S increased with increasing altitude. From the study it can be concluded that tree based land use systems of subtropical zone of the Himalayan region are more sustainable and environment friendly than agriculture and grassland use systems. Hence, they need to be conserved and promoted on large scale. The outcome of this paper will be helpful in convincing the farmers for adoptions of agroforestry practices in large scale.
       
  • Phylogenetic diversity of bacteria in the Arctic Ocean sediments
           neighboring the Bering Strait

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Zheng Zhang, Xiaoqian Gu, Liang Zhang, Xuezheng Lin To expand investigations and insights into the phylogenetic diversity of bacteria inhibiting seafloor biosphere, six Arctic Ocean sediments neighboring the Bering Strait were sampled and their bacterial diversities were investigated by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. A total of 157,454 trimed sequences were obtained, resulting in 9413 OTUs at the 97% sequence identity (OTU3%). This pyrosequencing allowed detection of higher than 85% of richness estimator Chao1 and Ace at the OTU3% level. Higher coverage (≥0.97) and much less of rare types (singletons, only accounting for 24.5% of all OTU3%) indicated that this pyrosequencing recovered most of bacteria inhabiting these biospheres. At the phylum level, the high relative sequence abundance (42.0% to 63.3%) showed that Proteobacteria was the dominant member at all these sampling sites. At the class level, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Flavobacteriia composed the majority of bacterial communities, and the relative abundance of Cyanobacteria and Bacilli varied significantly among the six samples. At the genus level, abundant OTUs related with sulfate reduction, including Desulfobulbus and Desulforhopalus, were identified. Shared and unique OTUs analysis revealed that, at the OTU3% level, 508 OTUs were shared by all the six samples, and the number of unique OTUs ranged from 98 (R02) to 195 (NB04). Principal coordinates analysis PCoA analysis revealed that samples C04 and NB04 had the similar communities and were distinct from the others. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that temperature was the most significant factors that correlated with the bacterial community composition. The differences in bacterial compositions and diversities indicate that the similar sediment habitats contain a large variation in microbial biodiversity.
       
  • The cutaneous leishmaniasis vulnerability index (CLVI)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Ahmed Karmaoui South east of Morocco is one of the biggest cutaneous leishmaniasis disease foci. Despite its non-lethality, this disease causes several socioeconomic and psychological impacts. This disease has lots of risk factors. Some of these are related to the environmental change, and others are linked to the demographic and socio-economical system. The interactions between these risk factors create the need for a multidisciplinary approach to estimate the vulnerability risk to the cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this context, a new index was proposed and six provinces were selected, which are Zagora, Ouarzazate, Tinghir, Errachidia, Figuig, and Tata. The findings depict that in term of anthropogenic vulnerability, Tinghir is the most vulnerable to leishmaniasis followed by Errachidia and Ouarzazate. Geographically, Errachidia has the very high vulnerability score and Figuig have the high vulnerability. The results show also an important risk to leishmaniasis in all provinces regarding the socio-economical component, except for Tata. Regarding services category, Zagora is the most vulnerable. However, for the hygiene, Figuig, Ouarzazate, and Errachidia present the high scores of vulnerability, then the rest provinces. The total score of cutaneous leishmaniasis vulnerability of the selected provinces indicates that Tinghir is the most vulnerable regarding this disease followed respectively by Errachidia, Ouarzazate, Zagora, Figuig, and Tata.
       
  • Phenotyping using semi-automated BIOLOG and conventional PCR for
           identification of Bacillus isolated from biofilm of sink drainage pipes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Mohamed Azab El-Liethy, Bahaa A. Hemdan, Gamila E. El-Taweel The presence of Bacillus in natural biofilms which develop in sink drainage pipes is not widely studied. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to isolate and identify Bacillus spp. using the BIOLOG GEN III system as a phenotypic fingerprint and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 61 biofilms samples were collected from sink drainage pipes in a kitchen and bathroom of different households in Helwan area and both laboratory and hospital collected from National Research Centre (NRC). Bacillus was isolated from the biofilms using HiCrome Bacillus Agar followed by isolates identification by both BIOLOG to the species level and PCR using genus specific primers to the genera level. Bacillus was detected in all tested biofilm samples (61 samples). The highest counts were observed in hospital sink drainage pipes (105 CFU/10 cm2) while; the lowest counts were observed in both bathroom and laboratory sink drainage pipes (102 CFU/10 cm−2). In total, 61% Bacillus isolates were identified by BIOLOG while, 67% isolates were confirmed by PCR. The diversity of Bacillus among species level using BIOLOG were 34% B. cereus, 23% B. subtilis ss subtilis, 17% B. thuringiensis, 16% B. licheniformis and 13% B. amyloliquefaciens. It can be concluded that; PCR is more sensitive than BIOLOG for identification of Bacillus. However, BIOLOG can identify Bacillus at species level and test 94 carbon and chemical sources on a microplate in one shot. Thus, the combination between phenotyping by BIOLOG and molecular approaches such as PCR for identification of bacterial isolates is recommended.
       
  • Effect of gamma irradiation on OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus L.)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Kiran Amir, Saddam Hussain, Muhammad Shuaib, Firasat Hussain, Zara Urooj, Wisal Muhammad Khan, Umar Zeb, Kashif Ali, Muhammad Aurang Zeb, Fida Hussain The investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma rays (100, 200, 300, 400, 500 Gy and zero doses as control) on various morphological aspects of Abelmoschus esculentus. A comparison of the results of different doses with control showed that gamma irradiation significantly affected various parameters. Days to germination were almost the same as compared to control, but 400 Gy took minimum days to germination. Germination % was 100% both in control and the irradiated plants. 100 Gy took minimum days for flower initiation as compared to control and other doses. Fruit initiation early occurred in 100Gy as compared to other doses, and fruit maturation occurred early in 300 Gy as compared to control. Plant height was significantly increased at 500 Gy as compared to control. Number of fruits per plant was significantly decreased at 200 Gy as compared to control. Fruit length decreased in all doses but in control fruit length was maximum. Number of seeds per fruit was maximum at control, fresh and dry weights of seeds were increased in control as compared to other doses. The number of nodes decreased in all doses but in the control the numbers of nodes were maximum. Branches were increased in100Gy as compare to 200, 300,400,500 Gy as well in control. Numbers of leaves were increased in 300 Gy as compared to other doses.
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.224.216.155
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-