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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3183 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3183 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 101, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 433, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 295, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 418, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 373, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 467, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 207, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 210, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Acta Ecologica Sinica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.18
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 11  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1872-2032
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3183 journals]
  • Effect of salinity on germination characters and seedlings parameters of
           Egyptian flax cultivars growing in Nyiregyhaza

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 39, Issue 1Author(s): W.A.E. Abido, L. Zsombik In the recent years using non-traditional sources, i.e. saline water in irrigation becomes essential. Overcoming the toxic effects of salinity stress and improving salt tolerance is consider one of the challenges for enhancing germination, seedling characters and biochemical analysis. Therefore, a laboratory experiment was conducted to study the response of seven Egyptian flax cultivars i.e. (Giza 9, Giza 10, Giza 11, Giza 12, Sakha 2, Sakha 5 and Sakha 6) germinated under five salinity stress i.e. (control, 3, 6, 9 and 12 dS m−1) at Research Institute of Nyiregyhaza using Factorial Experimental in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. The following results were recorded: Tested Egyptian flax cultivars significantly varied for germination characters, seedling properties and chemical analysis. Giza 11 exceeded recorded the maximum values of germination and seedling characters, potassium and proline content compared with the other studied cultivars. Increasing salinity stress up to 12 dS m−1 significantly affected germination characters, seedlings parameters and chemical analysis. In general, Giza 11 cultivar substantiated best at high level of salinity stress compared with other studied cultivars. Furthermore, produced the lowest values of Na+ content.
       
  • Assessment of the antimicrobial activity of the lipoidal and pigment
           extracts of Punica granatum L. leaves

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 39, Issue 1Author(s): Marwa M. Elbatanony, Amal M. El-Feky, Bahaa A. Hemdan, M. Azab El-Liethy Punica granatum L. is one of the famous and old species belonging to Family Punicaceae. The lipoidal and natural pigment extracts of the pomegranate were screened for their antimicrobial activity against nine different microbial pathogens. Three different doses of each extract (50, 100 and 150 μl) at three different contact times (15, 30 and 60 min) were examined. Results can be cleared that, all tested microbial pathogens were inhibited by 150 μl of both extracts at 60 min. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of n-hexane extract was powerful than the pigment extract. Also, the quantitative evaluation of the pigments in the leaves was performed using spectroscopical and HPLC analyses, carotenoids and chlorophylls content of P. granatum L. leaves were spectroscopically determined (mg/g) as 6.7 ± 0.214 and 4.9 ± 0.251, respectively. Chlorophyll a and b were 2.33 ± 0.014 and 1.51 ± 0.023, respectively. HPLC analysis of lutein and β-carotene were investigated as 3.652 and 1.915 mg/g. GC/MS analysis of the saponifiable and unsaponifiable fraction of n-hexane extract was carried out and α-amyrin acetate, ergosterol, and α-tocopherol were isolated, purified and identified using different spectroscopical methods. Toxicity assessment demonstrated their high biocompatibility since no toxic effect was recorded.
       
  • Ecological restoration and factors regulating phytoplankton community in a
           hypertrophic shallow lake, Lake Taihu, China

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 39, Issue 1Author(s): Zhixin Ke, Ping Xie, Longgen Guo A restoration program for the control of cyanobacterial blooms and the re-establishment of submerged macrophytes was conducted in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu since 2003. The effect of this ecological projects on plankton community and water quality, and factors regulating phytoplankton community were investigated in 2005. In general, some improvements of water quality occurred in the ecological restoration region, especially in the region of restoring aquatic macrophytes, where we detected significant reduction of nutrients. However, it seems the abundance of phytoplankton cannot be effectively control by the present ecological engineering. The phytoplankton abundance was high in the target restoration zone. Results of CCA and correlation analysis indicate that the phytoplankton community was mainly controlled by physico-chemical factors. Cyanobacteria species were positively related with pH, temperature, TP and TSS, while negatively related with TN, TN/TP and conductivity. The most discriminant variable was TN/TP, which explained 15% of the total variance of phytoplankton. However, TN was more important for the fluctuation of TN/TP than TP. It suggested that TN may be the ultimate factor controlling the phytoplankton community in Lake Taihu. Variation partitioning analysis showed that the pure contribution of crustacean was low for the variation of phytoplankton, suggesting that top-down control by crustacean zooplankton was weak in Lake Taihu. In general, this study suggested the reduction of nutrient load should be more important than top-down control using zooplankton for the ecosystem restoration in Lake Taihu.
       
  • Response of maize genotypes with different nitrogen use efficiency to low
           nitrogen stresses

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 39, Issue 1Author(s): Peng-fei Duan ObjectivesThis paper aims to compare the property difference of spatial and temporal distribution of different nitrogen use efficiency maize genotypes and discuss the physiological mechanism of nitrogen efficiency of maize.MethodIn this study, phenotype of root crowns of maize in seedling stage (V5), bell stage (V12) and silking stage (R1) was conducted to discover phenes and phene modules related to N acquisition. An image was captured for the whole roots. Custom software was used to measure root phenes including root area, root projected structure length, maximum width of roots, and root angle. The study was conducted to examine the differences in spatial and temporal distribution of maize root at two nitrogen levels (0 and 240 kg hm-2), high efficiency genotype ZHENGDAN958 (ZD958) and low efficiency genotype DANYU13 (DY13) are used in field production. Under the low nitrogen stress conditions, the root area of ZD958 significantly increased after bell stage and exceeds the CK by 20.2% at silking stage. With LN, the root projected structure length of ZD958 was longer than that of CK by 49.4% at silking stage. The low efficiency genotype DY13 had no obvious change at two nitrogen levels. The number of the grain yield and root system biomass of high efficiency genotype ZD958 was remarkably larger than that of low efficiency genotype DY13.ConclusionDuring the whole growth stage, the root dry weight, root area and the root width med of high efficiency genotype ZD958 were larger than that of high efficiency genotype DY13. Besides, under the low nitrogen stress conditions, the width of ZD958 deep soil root tended to become longer which is good for the nitrogen absorption from the deep soil. High efficiency genotype can construct a root system which is in a well-developed and reasonable spatial distribution before blooming, so as to ensure plant nitrogen absorption and biomass generation as well. The root index of the nitrogen responsivity of high efficiency genotype ZD958 was higher than that of low efficiency genotype DY13 before blooming.
       
  • Crop residue-derived dissolved organic matter accelerates the
           decomposition of native soil organic carbon in a temperate agricultural
           ecosystem

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 39, Issue 1Author(s): Qingyan Qiu, Lanfang Wu, Binbin Li Crop residue-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in soil carbon (C) cycling. To investigate the effects of maize residue-derived DOM and urea additions on the native soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and soil net C balance a pot experiment was carried out during the winter wheat growing season in the North China Plain (NCP). The results showed that adding maize residue-derived DOM alone (RDOM) or together with urea (RDOM + N) accelerated the decomposition of native SOC and resulted in a net SOC loss. The net loss of SOC was 3.90 ± 0.61 and 3.53 ± 0.48 g C m−2 in RDOM and RDOM + N treatments, respectively. The stimulatory effect of per unit DOM-C addition on the native SOC decomposition was 0.25 ± 0.05 and 0.45 ± 0.07 for the RDOM and RDOM + N treatments, respectively. Increases in the microbial biomass and the activity of β-glucosidase, invertase and cellobiohydrolase as well as soil mineral N content were responsible for a more intense priming effect in DOM-amended soils. The positive relationship between primed soil C and soil available N (R = 0.76, P 
       
  • Allelopathic effect of aqueous extracts of three weed species on the
           growth and leaf chlorophyll content of bread wheat

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 39, Issue 1Author(s): Saira Siyar, Abdul Majeed, Zahir Muhammad, Hazrat Ali, Naila Inayat The purpose of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of weeds (Avena fatua, Melilotus officinalis and Polypogon hissaricus) on germination, growth, dry biomass and chlorophyll concentration of three cultivars of wheat (Ata Habib, Pirsabaq and Serin). In germination test, different concentrations of aqueous extracts (5, 10 and 15 g/l) of the three weeds significantly reduced percent germination; however, 15 g/l extract of M. officinalis resulted in complete failure of germination of cultivar Pirsabaq. In pot culture, root and shoot length, chlorophyll concentration and seedling dry biomass of the three wheat varieties showed differential responses to different weeds. Aqueous extract at 15 g/l of A. fatua increased root and shoot length and dry biomass of cultivar Pirsabaq; however, these parameters were significantly retarded in other two wheat cultivars by extract of weeds. Moisture content of the cultivars did not show any response to allelopathic stress of the weeds. In contrast, chlorophyll concentration in Pirsabaq and Serin was significantly increased by aqueous extract of all the weeds but reduced it in cultivar Ata Habib by 50%. In general, Ata Habib was found to be the most sensitive cultivar to the imposed allelopathic stress. The phytotoxic potential of three weeds was found in the order of A. fatua > M. officinalis > P. hissaricus.
       
  • Soil physical properties and carbon/nitrogen relationships in stable
           aggregates under legume and grass fallow

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 39, Issue 1Author(s): B.E. Udom, S. Omovbude Short-season fallow with legumes and/or grasses can restore the soil organic C and nitrogen (N) and improve soil structure. In this study, we accessed the effects of 2-season legume and grass fallow on structural properties and C/N relationships in aggregates of a sandy loam soil. Two legumes (Calopogonium mucunoides and Centrosema pubescens), and two grasses (Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) and goose grass (Eleusine indica) were used. Results showed that Calopogonium and Centrosema increased soil total porosity and reduced soil bulk densities, while goose grass increased bulk density and reduced total porosity of the soils at 0–15 and 15–30 cm depths. Guinea grass significantly increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity (50.4 cm h−1) and water holding capacity of the soils. Aggregates, 4.75 to 0.5 mm were greater in Guinea grass and least in goose grass fallowed soils. Calopogonium increased macro-aggregates at 0–15 cm soils by 48%, and mean weight diameter (MWD) by 44%. Organic carbon in 0.5–0.25 mm and
       
  • Influence of forest type, altitude and NDVI on soil properties in forests
           of North Western Himalaya, India

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 39, Issue 1Author(s): Muneesa Banday, D.R. Bhardwaj, Nazir A. Pala The present study has reported the influence of forest types, altitude and NDVI (normalized differential vegetation index) on the soil properties. The study area covered four districts viz., Hamirpur, Bilaspur, Sirmaur and Solan of Himachal Pradesh state of India. To carry out this study, five forest types at three different altitudes (600–900 m); (900–1200 m) and (1200–1500 m) above sea level having NDVI values of N1 (0.0–0.1), N2 (0.1–0.2), N3 (0.2–0.3), N4 (0.3–0.4) and N4 (0.4–0.5) were taken into consideration. Among the forest types, northern mixed dry deciduous forest was largest reservoirs of soil organic carbon (SOC) (4.46, 1.52 and 1.46% in humus, 0–20 and 21–40 cm soil layers respectively). The lowest values for SOC were found in dry shiwalik sal forests (2.60, 0.79 and 0.62% in humus, 0–20 and 21–40 cm soil layers respectively). The values of SOC decreased with increase in soil depth. The results showed a positive correlation between SOC, available N, P, K, Ca, S with the altitude and NDVI. However a negative correlation between altitude and NDVI was observed with the bulk density, available Mg and soil pH. Soil pH had a negative influence on SOC whereas SOC had a positive influence on the availability of Nitrogen (N), Sulphur (S) and Potassium (K). The availability of competing cations like Potassium (K) and Calcium (Ca) had a negative effect on the availability of less competitive cations like Magnesium (Mg). The results of the present study can be pivotal in future climate change studies, soil carbon stock assessment and land use planning along the lines of REDD+ initiatives in North Western Himalayan ecosystem.
       
  • Habitat distribution modelling and reinforcement of Elaeocarpus serratus
           L. - A threatened tree species of Assam, India for improvement of its
           conservation status

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 39, Issue 1Author(s): Prantik Sharma Baruah, Kishor Deka, Lipika Lahkar, Bhaskar Sarma, S.K. Borthakur, Bhaben Tanti Elaeocarpus serratus L., commonly known as ‘rudraksh’ referred in the Ayurveda as a wonderful plant for strengthening body constitutions, has been recognized as a threatened plant of Assam, India. Traditionally, rudraksh beads, its bark and leaves are used to cure various ailments like stress, anxiety, depression, nerve pain, epilepsy, migraine, lack of concentration, asthma, hypertension, arthritis and liver diseases. The population stock of the species has been depleting very fast in its natural habitat due to rapid habitat fragmentation and changing climate altering the structural and functional integrity of the plant. Hence, conservation of E. serratus L. with proper scientific investigation to prevent from extinction in its wild habitat is urgently needed. The present study was emphasized with the specific objectives to study the distribution and population status, predication of suitable sites through ENM, standardization of macropropagation methods and reinforcement/reintroduction into the suitable wild habitat to improve conservation status. In the present investigation E. serratus L. was reported in few locations of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh with population sizes of mean density, frequency of occurrence and abundance in relation to other associated species as 0.333, 13.922 and 2.215 respectively. For improving the conservation status, potential area and habitat for reinforcement was predicted using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) distribution modelling algorithm. Subsequently, macropropagation protocol was standardized through seed germination and air-layering; saplings were raised and 1050 saplings were reintroduced to the wild habitats selected on the basis of ecological niche modelling. Survival rate was found significantly high as 68%, suggesting that our approach is effective for changing population status and to conserve the plant.
       
  • Influence of Ficus carica and Olea europaea leaves extracts on the
           mycelial growth of mushrooms in vitro

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 39, Issue 1Author(s): Mustafa Nadhim Owaid, Ahmed Saadoon Jaloot, Dhuha Mohammed Ahmed The use of 20% plant leaves extracts included fig (Ficus carica) and olive (Olea europaea) and their mixture 1:1 as an amendment in the solid agar medium (PDA) is beneficial to promote the growth of four mycelial mushrooms. These are Pleurotus ostreatus (Grey oyster mushroom), Pleurotus cornucopiae (Yellow oyster mushroom), Coriolus versicolor (Turkey Tail mushroom), and Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom). C. versicolor showed better growth reached 67 mm significantly (p 
       
  • Response of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) growth to different
           phosphorous levels and sowing dates

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 39, Issue 1Author(s): Nasreen Naz, Ikramullah Khan, Bakhtiar Gul, Gohar Ayub, Farooq Jan, Nawaz Jang, Muhammad Shuaib A field trail was carried out at the University of Agriculture Peshawar during spring, 2013 in order to evaluate the effect of different levels of phosphorus fertilizer and various planting times on the growth and development of tomato. The main objective of the research work was to investigate the best sowing time for tomato in combination with suitable dose of P fertilizer in order to get maximum yield of tomato in the climatic conditions of Peshawar. RCB Design with split plot arrangements was used in the trail. The main factor (phosphorous levels of 0, 90, 110, 130) was allotted to main plots while sowing dates in sub plots. A total twelve treatment were replicated thrice. Maximum days to flowering (39.583 days) and fruiting (46.167 days) obtained in the late sowing. Minimum days to flowering (39), minimum days to fruiting (38.778 days) were taken by the early sowing. Maximum number of branches (27.778), maximum fruit length (6.0222), maximum fruit with (6.1667), maximum fruit yield (24.653 tons ha−1) was produced when the plot fertilize with 130 kg P ha−1. Maximum number of fruit plant−1 (29.778) were produced with application of 130 kg P ha−1, minimum number of fruits (23.667 cm), fruit width (3.778 cm), fruit length (4.3667 cm), plant height (56.300 cm) were obtained from the controlled treatment. Among the various treatment studied in experiment, it is concluded that early planting of the tomato in the summer season i.e. in the start of March and the use of higher dose of P (130 kg P ha−1) is very beneficial for the excellent growth, development and yield of tomato crop.
       
  • Endophytic fungus Serendipita indica increased nutrition absorption and
           biomass accumulation in Cunninghamia lanceolata seedlings under low
           phosphate

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 39, Issue 1Author(s): Chu Wu, Bincheng Li, Qiao Wei, Rui Pan, Wenying Zhang Cunninghamia lanceolata is important forest tree species in southern China, and its successive plantations resulted in degradation of soil fertility in pure stands, causing decline in forest productivity. How to improve productivity in C. lanceolata pure stands is a tough task. Usage of mycorrhizal fungi might be a plausible access to the task. The objective is to study the possibility of the endophytic fungus Serendipita indica (named formerly as Piriformospora indica) in culture of C. lanceolata. Seeds were sowed in plastic pots with river sand. When seedlings had two true leaves, hyphae suspension solution of S. indica was added to near the roots of seedlings in each plastic pot. Such pots with seedlings were placed in a greenhouse and normal management was carried out for the seedlings. Symbiosis effects on root development, nutrition uptake and allocation, and biomass accumulation of C. lanceolata seedlings under low phosphate were investigated. The results showed that S. indica could symbiose with C. lanceolata. The symbiosis did not result in significant changes in root system architecture under low phosphate, but significantly increased nitrogen and phosphorus levels in leaves under low phosphate. Although the symbiosis did not significantly increased nitrogen allocation in leaves under low phosphate, it significantly increased phosphorus allocation in leaves. The interaction between S. indica and C. lanceolata resulted in increase in total biomass under low phosphate and changes in biomass allocation between shoots and roots. The results suggested that S. indica helps host plants to absorb more nutrients under low phosphate and to allocate more nitrogen and phosphate to leaves, promoting plant growth; the fungus might be used in pure stands of C. lanceolata because of its large-scaled axenic culture.
       
  • Weeds flora demographic analysis of date palm orchards in El-Bahariya,
           El-Frafra and Siwa oases

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 39, Issue 1Author(s): Mohamed Abdel Aziz Balah Oases are a specific ecosystems which date palm Phoenix dactylifera are the mainly crop growing for its fruits and others tree parts. Palm orchards are infested by many pests, including weeds species and exposed within time to the challenging invasive weeds to control. The heavy incidence of weeds negatively affects palm productivity, especially in small plantation and divergent distances, while the established orchards, palm trees shading cause deprives from the process of weeds photosynthesis to be lower competitive. The survey was conducted in El-Bahariya and El-Frafra than Siwa oases of which 375 plots were taken. Vegetative analysis in oases altogether demonstrate 91 weed specimens were encountered of which 18 perennial, 42 were broad leaved, and 30 narrow leaved as well as one parasitic weed species belonging to 22 families, whereas Poaceae is the most plentiful family displayed by 38.5% from all families, occurred in date palm orchards during the study. The geographical differentiation affected coefficient of similarity whereas, it in oases recorded the highest between El-Bahariya and El-Frafra than Siwa and El-Bahariya, while El-Frafra Oasis was the most diverse and richness than the others which have the middle soil properties, fertility, and structure. The correlation analysis of weed flora between both El-Bahariya and El-Frafra was higher and more than El-Bahariya and Siwa oases. Under the unique closed agroenvironment of oases, weeds population dynamics are a stable approximately. Regardless of the diversity of annual weed species, perennials species represent the highest dominant number and the pattern of grown weeds was more dominant than wild desert and some invasive weed species. The control action should be taken of perennial weeds and proactive as well as long term prevention for invasive species.
       
  • Sprouting as a survival strategy for non-coniferous trees: Relation to
           population structure and spatial pattern of Emmenopterys henryi (Rubiales)
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 39, Issue 1Author(s): Mengwen Ma, Yuhuan Wu, Yi Zhang, Huajing Kang, Zilin Chen, Peng Liu To improve the management and protection strategies of Emmenopterys henryi, the effect of sprouting on the population and spatial distribution pattern was explored. Environmental conditions of the community, tree diameter at breast height (DBH), and height of each individual tree were obtained using a contiguous grid quadrate method in four plots of deciduous and evergreen broad-leaved forests in Dapan Mountain National Nature Research in Zhejiang, China with the largest distribution area of E. henryi. The principal components analysis (PCA) showed that the sprouting ability of E. henryi is strongly related to the degrees of rock bareness, altitude, and slope. The analysis of the population structures showed that the population of group A only with parental trees was in decline due to a lack of seedlings and saplings, whereas the population of group B with both parental trees and sprouts (group B) was increasing. Groups A and B differed in their spatial distribution patterns in the plot 2, with group A showing a random distribution and group B displaying an aggregated distribution. Because the optimum block scale was between 16 m2 and 32 m2, analyses of the spatial pattern and dynamics of the spatial pattern at 25 m2 could accurately reflect the true distribution. The population of E. henryi is small, and the spatial patterns of the population indicated an aggregated distribution with the exception of plot 2 of group A. Plot 2 showed significant environmental deterioration from nearby rocks and ravines, and as a result, a number of small trees died from root exposure, which led to a random distribution of plot 2. The effects of sprouting should be considered when studying the population and spatial patterns of plants.
       
  • Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system: Estimation of soil aggregates
           stability

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 39, Issue 1Author(s): Maryam Marashi, Ali Mohammadi Torkashvand, Abbas Ahmadi, Mehrdad Esfandyari In present study, the capabilities of multiple linear regression (MLR) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) in developing pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for estimating geometric mean diameter (GMD) and mean weight diameter (MWD), from routine soil properties and combination of routine soil properties and fractal dimension of aggregates were evaluated. For this reason 101 samples were collected form the Northwest of Iran and some their properties such as soil texture, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and organic matter (OM), fractal dimension of aggregates between number-diameter (Dn), mass-diameter (Dmt), and bulk density-diameter (Dmy) were determined and used as an input variables for determining of mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD) by MLR and ANFIS PTFs. Results showed that the application of fractal dimension of aggregates as a predictor in two methods improved the accuracy of PTFs. As well as, results showed that ANFIS have greater potential for determination of the relationships between soil aggregate stability indices and other soil properties in compared with MLR. Therefore using of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) in developing pedotransfer functions is recommended.
       
  • A potential habitat corridor for Western Purple-faced Langur between
           Forest Reserves in Sri Lanka: GIS as a tool in connectivity modelling

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2019Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): P.A.B.G. Panagoda, V.P.A. Weerasinghe Endemic Western purple-faced langur (Semnophithecus vetulus nestor) of Sri Lanka, is an exclusively arboreal, critically endangered primate whose habitats are severely fragmented with the human population expansion. Labugama-Kalatuwawa Forest Reserve (LKFR) which is identified as the last strongholds for maintaining viable populations of the species over the long-run and Indikada Mukalana Forest Reserve (IMFR) which is located in a closer proximity to LKFR have no connection with each other at the current status. As there is no assertion of regional habitat connectivity at a metapopulation context, the study aimed to identify a potential habitat corridor for S. v. nestor between LKFR and IMFR by using GIS as a tool in connectivity modelling. Study area was first divided into 0.04 km2 grids using ‘fishnet’ tool. Five main resistance criteria for S. v. nestor movement were selected namely; land use, road density, canopy cover, human tolerance and Feeding Plant Species Richness and Density (FPSRD). Each grid was assigned with resistance values for above criteria ranging from 1 to 6. Overall resistance layer for S. v. nestor movement was created using ‘weighted overlay’ in GIS environment. The best potential habitat corridor was identified via least-cost modelling. The resultant corridor falls within an area which mainly comprises of forest and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) monoculture. It further accounts for the highest human tolerance, canopy continuity, FPSRD and least road density. Resultant corridor can be improved by bridging existing gaps and enriching the corridor habitats which would play an important role in conservation of S. v. nestor by minimizing the isolation of local populations, ensuring the gene flow and maintaining the minimum viable metapopulation in the long run. This study further demonstrates that GIS can be used as an effective tool for least-cost modelling which helps to identify potential wildlife movement corridors at minimum cost.
       
  • Community structure and ant species diversity across select sites of
           Western Ghats, India

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2019Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Javid M. Dad, Shahid Ali Akbar, Himender Bharti, Aijaz Ahmad Wachkoo Information available on species composition, richness and diversity of ant communities of Western Ghats is limited. Recognizing this, the study (2010−2013) was undertaken to evaluate richness and diversity of ants in eight sites of Western Ghats, India, with added notes on how it varies on elevation gradient. Spanning across broad altitudinal and latitudinal gradient, selected sites differed greatly for various micro-habitat variables. Using standard collection protocols and employing five collection techniques, 173 species belonging to 65 genera in 10 subfamilies were collected including twenty species published as new to science and two genera and six species reported for the first time from India. Varying among sites, species richness was recorded lowest (S = 29) at Manalar and highest (S = 116) at Periyar Tiger Reserve. With little but significant variations among sites, the Shannon-Wiener's species diversity index (H′) was recorded highest (H′ = 2.60) at Periyar Tiger Reserve and lowest (H′ = 2.11) at Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary connoting that sites with lower richness were not necessarily less diverse. Beta diversity (β-diversity) was lowest (19%) between contiguous sites like Thattekkad Bird Sanctuary and Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary and highest between site Manalar and Periyar Tiger Reserve at 68% suggesting that ant species composition distinctly varied in these sites. Our results indicated that only few species were adapted to full spectrum of environmental variation along altitudinal gradient studied and both species richness and diversity peaked at mid-elevations as against higher elevations wherein it underwent rapid decline. Such behavior is presumably due to favorable ecological conditions at middle altitudes. Our findings rank high as they not only provide baseline data against which futuristic faunal changes could be assessed with respect to perturbations in a biodiversity hotspot but they also could be used to designate ecological sensitivities to various regions of Western Ghats for future conservation programs.
       
  • Antagonism or synergism' Combined effects of enhanced UV-B radiation
           and acid rain on photosynthesis in seedlings of two C4 plants

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2019Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Jinchun Liu, Yajie Zhao, Haiyan Song, Jinyi Chen, Yun Long Enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and acid precipitation (AP), abiotic stress factors that may have a strong impact on plants because of their detrimental effects on photosynthetic components. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of UV-B radiation and acid rain on plant photosynthesis is a crucial question in plant ecology. However, research regarding their combined effects on photosynthesis of C4 plants is still scarce. Here we monitored the response of net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content and enzyme activities of NADP-ME C4 photosynthetic pathway monocotyledon plant waxy corn (Zea mays L. certain Kulesh), and NAD-ME C4 photosynthetic pathway dicotyledon plant edible amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) to enhanced UV-B and acid rain and their interaction. We grew them in the green house under 3 levels of UV-B radiation (0, 2.88, 5.76 kJ·m−2·d−1 for Z.mays and 0, 2.88, 4.32 kJ·m−2·d−1 for A.mangostanus) and 3 levels of acid rain (pH 6.5, pH 4.5, pH 3.5) in a full three-way randomized block design. The key results were as follows: Enhanced UV-B radiation and acid rain and their interaction all decreased the net photosynthesis (Pn), PEPCase and RuBPCase activity of both species, compared with the control A0B0. UV-B decreased Chla, Chlb and Car in Amaranth seedlings, however, increased them in Maize seedlings, compared with those of the control. As a whole, acid rain had negative effects on chlorophyll content, however, positive effects on Car in two plants seedlings. Both UV-B radiation and (or) acid rain did not affect Chla/Chlb and Car/Chl. In conclusion, the negative effect of UV-B radiation was greater than that of acid rain. Whereas, more synergism was observed in monocotyledonous C4 plants, Maize seedlings, and more antagonism was observed in dicotyledonous C4 plants, Amaranth seedlings, which could explain why the Maize was affected less by the combined UV-B irradiation and acid rain.
       
  • Potential growth inhibition of freshwater algae by herbaceous plant
           extracts

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2019Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Som Cit Sinang, Norhayati Daud, Nurhaida Kamaruddin, Keong Bun Poh Algae often reduce aesthetic values and usability of freshwater as they can grow excessively and present in high biomass concentration. A biological approach to control algae growth by using plant-derived substances has received significant attention due to its minimal undesirable effects. To date, numerous herbaceous plants species are known to have antimicrobial properties. Nevertheless, their inhibitory potential against freshwater algae remains widely unexplored. This study attempted to explore algae inhibition potential using extracts from five herbaceous plants including Melastoma malabathricum, Cosmos caudatus, Pistia stratiotes, Etlingera elatior, and Cinnamomum cassia. Potential inhibitory effect of each plant extract on algae growth was determined through the percentage of algae growth reduction as compared to the control. Our results revealed that all, except Cinnamomum cassia, gave positive inhibitory effects on algae growth. The highest algae growth inhibition was observed in the treatment with Melastoma malabathricum extract, which inhibited up to 50% algae growth as compared to the untreated control. Meanwhile, treatments with Pistia stratiotes, Cosmos caudatus, and Etlingera elatior showed up to 42.6%, 35.3%, and 22.5% inhibition, respectively. Higher algae inhibition effects by Melastoma malabathricum and Pistia stratiotes extracts could be due to their flavonoids and alkaloids content. As an implication, this study suggests the potential use of widely available local plants such as Melastoma malabathricum and Pistia stratiotes to inhibit algae growth in freshwater ecosystems.
       
  • Assessment of heavy metal induced stress responses in pea (Pisum
           sativum
    L.)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Abdul Majeed, Zahir Muhammad, Saira Siyar Exposure of plants to heavy metals severely affects their growth and physiological processes. Nevertheless, different plants show variable responses to different heavy metals, generally in a concentration-dependent manner. In this study, phytotoxic effects of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co) and lead (Pb) applied as chlorides at concentration 500, 750, 1000 and 1250 ppm were evaluated on seed germination, early seedling growth and dry biomass of pea (Pisum sativum L.). A lower concentration (500 ppm) of Pb promoted seed germination but declined other growth parameters. Higher concentration had a phytotoxic influence on the pea. Cd and Co severely affected germination and seedling growth of pea resulting in complete failure of germination and seedling growth at higher metal concentration. Tolerance index (TI) calculated for seed germination and dry biomass indicated that tested plant had zero tolerance to 1250 ppm of Cd as well as 750 ppm and higher concentrations of Co. The order of heavy metals for their phytotoxic effects was Co> Cd> Pb. The study suggests that P. sativum is relatively tolerant to Pb but highly sensitive to Co and Cd.
       
  • Source analysis and health risk of heavy metals in the different seasons
           from Taizihe River, China

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Qiuying Chen, Zhengshan Lu, Dong Yan, Qi Wang, Shigang Xin Twenty five water samples were collected along the Taizihe River, the concentration and health risks of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Cd were detected and evaluated, and the pollution sources was analyzed through principal components analyses. The results indicated that the order of average concentration of heavy metals was follows: Pb > Cr > Cu > Zn and Cd. Among that, the concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cr were at the permissible levels, but Pb and Cd exceeded grade V standard at some sites. The concentrations of Zn and Cu in the wet season were significant higher than that in the dry season (p  0.05). The annual average risks of human health caused by Cd and Cr were 10−3/a and 10−4/a, respectively, which were higher than the recommended maximum acceptable risk level. The human health risk values of Zn, Pb and Cu were all concentrated at 10−8/a or 10−9/a levels, which did not exceed the recommended standard. On the whole, Cd and Cr were the main health risk pollutants of Taizihe River. Pollution sources of Pb was different from other heavy metals in wet and dry season, Cd and Cr were similar in the wet and dry season. The mainly pollution source of heavy metals was industry, especially mining, metal smelting and electroplating industry.
       
  • Floristic composition and biological spectrum of Keran - a remote valley
           of northwestern Himalaya

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Shiekh Marifatul Haq, Akhtar H. Malik, Anzar A. Khuroo, Irfan Rashid The Himalayas are one of the youngest and richest ecosystems on earth with a variety of species and forest types due to the varying altitude, topographic, and climatic conditions. The present study was aimed to investigate the floristic composition and biological spectrum of Keran valley, a region nestled in the northwestern frontiers of Himalayan biodiversity hotspot. Floristically, a total of 183 species were recorded, out of which 55 were aliens. Herbaceous growth form was dominant (67%) and therophytes were the dominant (37%) life form. Likewise, mesophylls (34%) followed by nanophylls (29%) and microphylls (27%) were major leaf size categories; and the simple leaf lamina type was recorded in majority of the species (65%). Almost 1/3rd of the total species pool was growing in the forest habitats, while as the 2/3rd occur within the rest 9 habitat types which were largely human-modified. The vegetation phenology observed during different seasons revealed that most of the species were dominant in summer season (37%), followed by spring (29%), autumn (21%) and winter (13%). The present study provides baseline information on the plant diversity in this hitherto unexplored region of northwestern Himalaya.
       
  • Long-term organic amendment reduces the temperature sensitivity of organic
           carbon decomposition in an upland soil of subtropical China

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Yanni Sun, Xichu Yu, Shan Huang The temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition determines the feedback of soil carbon (C) pool to climate warming. In the present study, soil samples were collected from a long-term fertilization experiment (since 1986) in a double-corn cropping system. Laboratory soil incubations were conducted to investigate the effect of long-term fertilization on the temperature sensitivity of SOC. Results showed that compared to the initial level, long-term corn cropping without fertilization (control) led to a decline in SOC, while inorganic N, P, and K fertilizer application (NPK) maintained it. Organic amendment combined with inorganic NPK (NPKM) significantly increased SOC relative to the NPK treatment. Warming and organic amendment significantly promoted CO2 release. The temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil CO2 emissions was significantly lower in the NPKM than in the NPK, while no significant differences in Q10 values were found between the control and either the NPKM or the NPK. Therefore, organic amendment could promote SOC sequestration, and significantly reduce the temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition in the present subtropical upland soil.
       
  • Investigating the natural structures of Quercus castaneifolia C.A.Meyer in
           managed tracks in connection with physiographic factors in Northern Iran

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Hamid Payam, Sina Pourrajabali The northern forests of Iran have biodiversity and complex structure, which only with the full knowledge of this ecosystem can be expected in the future for optimal and correct management in the future. The long oak tree of Mazoba is the scientific name of the Quercus castaneifolia family of Fagacece and oak species, which is found in the northern parts of Iran from the glacial marshmallows and from the coastal nave to the 1880-meter altitude. The study area is located at a height of 650–620 m above sea level in Shanderman's watershed No. 11 and in the province of Gilan. After turning forests and determining the location of sample parts, four square pieces of one hectare were selected in a square of 100 × 100 in four directions (North, South, East, West) and these specimens were of diameter at the breasts and the quality of the kidney Trees with a diameter of over 7.5 cm were measured 100% and the strips of 10 × 100 m in the north side of each of the parts, in addition to the above, total height, length, crown length, and also inside Restitution bar was studied in classes of diameter 0–2.5 and 2.6–7.49 cm in 5 sections of sample size 2 × 2 to determine the condition of forest regeneration in quantitative and quantitative terms. The study of the distribution range of the number of diagonal and altitudinal classes in the study area showed that the structure of oak masses at relatively large levels is unbalanced to the left, and this adolescence is not created by nature but by the implementation of An incapacitating method has been created. Today, the best kind of management for the northern forests of the country is a single-grain non-uniform gravel method, which is closer to nature in the sustainability of the area. Of course, for the correct application of this type of management, more than anything else, we need to study the natural and less massive masses of the masses, and can be used as a model to guide other oak masses in this area.
       
  • Relative growth rate, biomass partitioning and nutrient allocation in
           seedlings of two threatened trees grown under different light conditions

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 6Author(s): Viheno Iralu, Krishna Upadhaya The present study investigates the variation in the relative growth, biomass and nutrient allocation in two threatened tree species viz. Magnolia punduana Hook.f. & Th. and Elaeocarpus prunifolius Wall. ex Müll. Berol. grown under three different levels of irradiance. The irradiance ranged between 1 and 12 mol m−2 d−1. Results showed that the highest relative growth rate (RGR) was achieved under the intermediate light treatment for both the species (mean: 0.005 mg mg−1 d−1). The growth response coefficient (GRC) model revealed that net assimilation rate (NAR) was the factor driving the RGR in both species. A significant positive correlation was found between NAR and RGR (R2 = 0.33, p = 0.000) whereas specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) was negatively correlated to RGR. Overall, multiple regression of the studied species based on the independent variables viz. NAR, SLA, and LMF showed a significant relation with RGR (F(3,50,53 = 13.001, p = 0.000, R2 = 0.43). The biomass distribution in the studied species is in agreement with the “balanced-growth hypothesis” where high irradiance increased allocation to below ground biomass fraction and decreased irradiance increased allocation to the above ground fraction. The highest nitrogen concentration in leaves was observed under the intermediate light treatment. Overall seedlings growth under intermediate light had a higher mean RGR indicating the species' preference for partial light conditions. Long-term experiments under varied light conditions as in the present study would provide useful insight into plant growth strategies in varied environmental conditions.
       
  • Migratory waterfowls as indicators to assess the protection efficiency in
           Iran

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 6Author(s): Azita Farashi, Leila Halakouhi There are high numbers of endangered birds in Iran. Birds also are indicators of biodiversity in different landscapes and using birds as indicator give us a complete overview about the ecological status of the landscape. In the present study migratory waterfowls were used to identify biodiversity hotspots in Iran. Iran is an interesting place for ornithologists because it is in fact a crossroads of flyways for migratory waterfowls coming from Europe, southern Asia, and Siberia. We predicted the habitat distributions for 27 bird species of Anseriformes in Iran using an ensemble forecasting framework to identify biodiversity hotspots. Moreover, we measured the percentage of overlap between hotspots and protected areas including Ramsar sites. The results showed that suitable habitats for different bird species greatly varied among different ecosystems and they showed dissimilar responses to environmental variables. However, for most species digital elevation model (DEM) was the most important variable in predicting suitable habitats. Our study also revealed that 36.02% of Iran can be considered as suitable habitats for the species and the highest suitability belongs to areas along Zagros and Alborz mountain ranges. Furthermore, the suitable habitats had 7.10% overlap with protected areas and 75% with Ramsar sites. The low overlap between hotspots and protected areas demonstrated the shortage of biodiversity protection in Iran. Therefore, it is essential to select new protected areas based on biodiversity hotspots, and to develop a network of protected areas within those hotspots in Iran.
       
  • Habitat mapping, population size and preventing extinction through
           improving the conservation status of Calamus nambariensis Becc. - an
           endemic and threatened cane of Assam, India

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 6Author(s): Kishor Deka, S.K. Borthakur, Bhaben Tanti Cane is one of the important forest products after timber, form an integral part of a rural and tribal population of many of the tropical countries of South East Asia, Africa and America. Calamus nambariensis Becc. has been recognized as endemic and threatened cane to the North East region of India. The plant is restricted to only two pockets of Assam with a poor population size. Therefore, conservation of this plant through proper scientific investigation is utmost necessary. The present investigation has as its objectives to study the distribution, estimation of population size, standardization of suitable micropropagation methods for reintroduction and reinforcement in suitable wild habitat as determined by ecological niche modelling (ENM) for the purposes of conservation. For improving the conservation status of the species, potential area and habitat for reintroduction was determined using maximum entropy (MaxEnt) distribution modelling algorithm. The population size in both the site was found to be very poor i.e., mean density, frequency of occurrence and abundance in relation to other associated species was 0.600, 29.26 and 2.307 in Nambor Reserve Forest whereas 0.526, 27.407 and 2.112 respectively in Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary. Macropropagation of C. nambariensis was standardized here through seed germination which was found to be more efficient in terms of time and cost which revealed 87% germination in treated seeds, followed by 61% only for untreated seeds till 90 days. It was also observed that seedlings in the hilly slope of Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary (reinforcement) showed high survivability than that of the hilly slop of Lahorijan Reserve Forest (reintroduction). Further, survival rate was measured for 24 months, which revealed significantly very high on an average of 97.85% in both the locations, while 1200 numbers of C. nambariensis plantlets were transferred to the field. The present study could change the population size of C. nambariensis in its natural habitat, proving effective means for preventing extinction and improving conservation status of the plant.
       
  • Factors affecting farmers' willingness to pay for adopting vegetable
           residue compost in North China

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 6Author(s): Ying Zhou, Qingbo Zhou, Shouwen Gan, Liying Wang The random disposal of vegetable residues in north China has become an important obstacle for the sustainable development of vegetable industry. The composting treatment technology has been transformed into organic fertilizer by high temperature fermentation, which has become a widely promoted agricultural clean production technology. However, due to the voluntary nature of farmers' adoption and their reluctance to adopt, this study aimed at assessing the factors that influence their adoption will and evaluate the value of willingness to pay (WTP) for composting technology. Data were collected from 142 respondents through a household survey in Gaocheng District by using structural questionnaire of contingent valuation method (CVM). Some qualitative response models (Probit, Logistic and multiple linear regression models) were applied for examining the main factors influencing the vegetable residue compost adoption and estimating the WTP value. The findings showed that social resource factors play an important role in the respondents' behaviors toward composting technology adoption. The empirical results indeed highlighted that subsidy policy, top dressing time, age, scale, investment of irrigation and net income have significant positive influences on the WTP of compost, while work time and information sources have a negative impact. Government subsidy is a necessary premise for implementing the composting program. The governments should subsidize the remaining 97% of the construction costs to ensure the smooth implementation of composting technology. The findings specifically mentioned that the subsidy object should be the disadvantaged peasant groups with lower household income but more environmentally conscious. This paper is believed to not only assess the technical externality of vegetable residues for the first time but also provide decision reference for policymakers, especially in the background of rapid development of agricultural clean production technology, the accuracy and efficiency of subsidies should be improved.
       
  • Impact of rapid urbanization on the floral diversity and agriculture land
           of district Dir, Pakistan

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 6Author(s): Muhammad Shuaib, Kashif Ali, Sajjad Ahmed, Firasat Hussain, Muhammad Ilyas, Nazim Hassan, Ikramullah Khan, Fida Hussain In the World urbanization is a serious problem especially in developing countries which creates serious environmental problems like climatic and ecological changes in the ecosystem. The present paper aims to explain urbanization that causes loss of agriculture lands, biodiversity, soil erosions and grazing in District Dir. Urbanization decreased species richness such as Salix alba and Populus alba in the last few years in the local area. Soil of local area was divided into three different zones and was tested for soil texture and mineral percentage. Zone I soil showed sandy loamy texture with a pH of 8.3, Nitrogen 0.012%, Phosphorus 5.0% and organic matter was 0.74 (ppm). Zone II soil was loamy sand in texture with pH 8.1, Nitrogen 0.011%, Phosphorus 6.2%, and organic matter was 0.24 (ppm) while Zone III soil texture was silty clay loam with a pH of 8.1, Nitrogen 0.032%, Phosphorus 11.3%, and organic matter was 0.60 (ppm). The current work concludes that urbanizations affect natural biodiversity and agriculture lands, and that soil erosion and watering-points trampled by livestock is one of the significant problems in district Dir, and that the main degrading factor is the overexploitation of vegetation for fuel-wood and livestock grazing.
       
  • The effects of environmental factors on some vegetative characteristics of
           Quercus brantii in Kouh gachan, Ilam, west of Iran

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 6Author(s): Iman Haghiyan In this study the effects of environmental factors on some vegetative characteristics of Quercus brantii was investigated in Kouh gachan, Ilam, West of Iran, using multivariate analysis. Therefore 64 sample plots with a size of 200 m2 were considered for measuring the vegetative parameters. Some environmental factors such as slope, aspect and soil depth were recorded in all sample plots. The Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was used to investigate the relation between vegetative parameters and environmental factors. Redundancy analysis (RDA) analysis was also used to interpret the results. The results of DCA analysis showed that the effect of environmental factors on vegetation cover is significant. Slope had the smallest and the soil depth had the biggest effect on vegetative characteristics of Quercus brantii. The results also confirmed the usage of RDA analysis for investigating the relationship between environmental factors and vegetative characteristics.
       
  • Exploring an efficient habitat index for predicting population and
           abundance of migratory birds in Poyang Lake Wetland, South China

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 6Author(s): Hongmei Zhao, Yeqiao Wang, Bing Xu, Xiaoling Chen, Zhiyong Jiang Poyang Lake wetland is an important wintering habitat of migratory birds with a complexity of coupled nature and human systems. Reported studies suggested that habitat indices were mostly developed based on single-class factors and scale-dependent. Therefore the indices might not be sufficient and applicable to predict regional changes for population and abundance of migratory birds (PMB and AMB) in Poyang Lake wetland at watershed and basin scales. In order to explore an efficient habitat index for predicting PMB and AMB, an integrated and scale-independent habitat index was proposed by integration of landscape and environmental temperature variables at basin and watershed scales. The landscape index and environmental temperature index based on single-class dominant factors, were also evaluated by weighted additive method. Multi-source data, including multi-spatial and temporal remote sensing images and field survey data, was used in this study. Results indicated that the average 10-night temperature in July (TN-Jul.) had dominant influence on PMB and the environmental temperature index was a better predictor for predicting PMB; AMB was influenced by both landscape and temperature variables and the proposed integrated habitat index was better for prediction of AMB in Poyang Lake wetland. The proposed integrated habitat index is a supplement of the single-class habitat index, which provides a more scientific technique for the study of biodiversity.
       
  • Floristic inventory of wild plants of Peshawar university campus

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 6Author(s): Bakhtiar Gul, Ijaz Ahmad, Haroon Khan, Umar Zeb, Hafiz Ullah Floristic inventory of wild plants comprised of total 129 plant species belonging to 42 families and 101 genera. Location wise UAP contributed greater amount of plant species (53%), followed by PFI (29%), UoP (15%) and Islamia College (3%). Majority of the plants were annual herbs (58%), followed by perennial herbs (29%), trees (10%) and shrubs (3%), respectively. The leading families included Poaceae, contributed 18% of all the plant species. Habitat wise, 44% of them grew in grassy plains, abandoned lands and mismanaged lawns, followed by roadsides (34%), undulating grassy plains (15%) and stony grounds with uneven topography along with stream banks and drainage ditches (7%). Still some of plant species were used as ornamentals, while some shrubs were use in fencing around fields; others were utilized as green manure, for fishing, sheltering and religious purposes. Exploring and identifying the wild flora of the campus and compiling as a handbook would help to monitor new plants introductions particularly of noxious invasive weeds in the campuses in future.
       
  • Allelopathic potential of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) germplasm
           resources of Yunnan Province in southwest China

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 6Author(s): Shicai Shen, Gaofeng Xu, Diyu Li, David R. Clements, Guimei Jin, Shufang Liu, Yanxian Yang, Aidong Chen, Fudou Zhang, Hisashi Kato-Noguchi A laboratory bioassay was conducted to determine the allelopathic potentials of aqueous extracts from either roots or leaves of seventeen sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)] cultivars (SP0, SP1, SP2, SP3, SP4, SP5, SP6, SP7, SP9, SP10, SP11, SP13, SP14, SP15, SP16, SP18, and SP19). Most inhibitory rates on Lactuca sativa calculated for leaf or root extracts from the seventeen sweet potato cultivars exhibited positive values and significantly increased with increasing concentration. Germination was totally inhibited at a concentration of 0.05 g·mL−1 for leaf water extracts of SP13, SP15, SP18 and at a concentration of 0.05 g·mL−1 for both leaf and root water extracts of SP19. Inhibition of root length was clearly greater than inhibition of shoot length for both leaf and root water extracts. Biomass inhibition increased with increasing concentration, but some cultivars showed stimulatory effects at low concentrations, and inhibition was generally more pronounced for root water extracts than for leaf water extracts. Moreover, most synthetical inhibitory rates for both leaf and root water extracts from the seventeen cultivars exhibited positive values and significantly increased with increasing concentration. Comparing the synthetical inhibitory rates for both leaf and root water extracts among the seventeen cultivars, SP19, SP6, SP11, and SP7 had the highest allelopathic inhibition. The inhibitory activity on germination index was the greatest, followed by germination rate, root length, biomass, and shoot length in all bioassays. Inhibition by leaf water extracts was generally greater than inhibition by root water extracts, except in the case of shoot length or biomass. Overall, we conclude that all seventeen sweet potato cultivars have strong inhibitory effects on L. sativa, but that these effects vary with cultivar and plant part, with SP19, SP6, SP11, and SP7 exhibiting the highest rates of allelopathic inhibition.
       
  • Effect of water stress on germination of some Hungarian wheat landraces
           varieties

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Acta Ecologica Sinica, Volume 38, Issue 6Author(s): W.A.E. Abido, L. Zsombik In order to examine germination characters, seedling parameters, water relative content, tolerance index and enzyme activities of seven Hungarian wheat landraces varieties (Tiszadadai, Riscsei, Komloi, Leweucei, Mateteleki, Mikebudai and Nyiradi) under five concentrations of water stress (0, 6, 12, 18, and 24%) of polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000). A laboratory experiment has been conducted through Factorial Experiment in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four repetitions at Research Institute of Nyiregyhaza, Hungary. From the obtained results, Leweucei variety was surpassed other studied verities under study and recorded the highest values of all studied characters followed by Mateteleki, Komloi, Nyiradi, Riscsei, Tiszadadai and Mikebudai. Increasing water stress (PEG-6000) from 0 to 6, 12, 18 and 24% significantly reduced germination characters, seedlings parameters, water relative content (WRC), tolerance index and α and β-amylases activities. Generally, under water stress condition, Leweucei and Mateteleki varieties were recorded the highest values of water relative content (WRC), tolerance index (TI) and α and β-amylases activities as well as able to prompt better drought tolerance and could be suggested as a good resource for breeding programs and cultivation under drought stress conditions compared with other wheat landraces varieties.
       
  • Removal of hydrocarbons from liquid media by Aspergillus niger
           van Tieghem

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): A. Hassaine, O. Bordjiba This study investigated the abiliy of Aspergillus niger van Tieghem to utilize crude oil and kerosene. Hydrocarbons are molecules that pose serious environmental problem because of their toxic, carcinogenic or teratogenic properties. The fate of these pollutants in the environment is mainly governed by the biodegradation process. The existence of these phenomena depends on the inherent biodegradability of the pollutant but also the presence of microflora-degrading competent.The microbial strain were isolated and identified from industrial wastewater samples from Sonatrach Skikda (North-east of Algeria), we selected them for their ability to grow in the presence of hydrocarbons. To test the ability to biodegrade the two selected hydrocarbons in 6 days, the study of the evolution of such parameters as the microbial kinetics, pH, the final dry weight of the population, oxygen concentration, and finally, biodegradation rate of crude oil and kerosene was conducted by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A control test was performed to quantify the losses caused by abiotic factors.The filamentous fungus was found to degrade crude oil and kerosene, when previously grown mycelium was incubated 6 days in the Galzy and Slonimski media containing hydrocarbon. The results showed that these organisms were able to utilize crude oil more than kerosene and the degradation rate was 52.01% and 32.67%, respectively. Thus Aspergillus niger van Tieghem plays a major role in the detoxification of polluted natural environments and these capabilities could be explored in bioremediation processes.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Determination of resource based stocking density of wild ungulates living
           in the floating meadows of Keibul Lamjao National Park, India

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Chongpi Tuboi, Syed Ainul Hussain The stocking density of the globally threatened Eld's deer (Rucervus eldii eldii) and hog deer (Axis porcinus), living in the floating meadows of Keibul Lamjao National Park, India, were derived from the forage demand of each species and the availability of forage biomass in the meadows. The biomass production was estimated by harvesting the above-ground biomass every month for 2 years from 432 plots of size 1 m × 1 m that were protected by ungulate-proof enclosures. The actual intake of the ungulates was estimated from the percentage of dry matter consumed for each food plant species through micro-histological analysis. The populations of Eld's deer and hog deer that the meadows can support were calculated on the basis of the consumable dry matter available in the park, considering the variable thickness of the floating meadows. The estimated overall stocking densities of Eld's deer and hog deer were 0.141 ± 0.06 and 0.265 ± 0.12 individuals ha−1 or 15,581.54 ± 1171.6 kg of ungulate biomass. The stocking density varied significantly with meadow type for both the species, being higher for thick meadows. The best available areas of the park having 864.29 ha, can support 170.41 ± 11.4 Eld's deer and 319.36 ± 22.94 hog deer or 17,356.38 ± 912.02 kg of ungulate biomass with a maximum of 173.6 ± 4.21 Eld's deer and 325.46 ± 9.45 hog deer or 17,684.56 ± 697.3 kg of ungulate biomass in the monsoon season. The thin meadows with an area of 732.34 ha can support another 119.37 ± 12.78 and 225.44 ± 23.88 Eld's deer and hog deer respectively or 12,201.35 ± 922.74 kg of ungulate biomass. In similar resource constraint habitat, this study will be helpful in determining the optimal stocking density for the science based management of rangelands, especially for the conservation of wild grazers.
       
  • Determination the most important variations in plant traits related to
           livestock grazing using multivariate statistical methods in Baladeh-Noor
           rangeland, Mazandaran Province, Iran

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Iman Haghiyan Animal grazing affect rangelands ecosystems by changing dimensional characteristics. The aim of this study is to determine the most important variations on plant traits in response to the livestock grazing in Baladeh-Noor rangelands located Mazandaran province in North of Iran. Various plant characteristics were measured in moderate and high grazing intensity and exclosure for three key and palatable species of Artemisia aucheri, Astragalus sp and Bromus tomentellus. In order to detect plant properties variation in three sites (exclosure, moderate grazing and critical grazing) and to determine their sensibility, the DCA and PCA analysis were used. According PCA analysis, the most changes of grazing effect in first principal component is related to the crown and basal large diameter, underground biomass and root. It was observed significant changes in five plant properties. Also, the results showed that 92.98% of changes are described by first and second axes and the most of Eigen value are crown and basal large diameter and root with 0.982, 0.977 and 0.968 respectively. As a result, the correct management of grazing according to the potential of soil and vegetation cover of each site could improve the condition of rangelands and produce the constant and dominant forages and livestock.
       
  • Antibiotic residues in food animals: Public health concern

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Zeuko'o Elisabeth Menkem, Bronhilda Lemalue Ngangom, Stella Shinwin Ateim Tamunjoh, Fekam Fabrice Boyom Antibiotics are used to treat disease and improve animal production. These antibiotics might result in deposition of residues in meat, milk and eggs which are not permitted in food intended for human consumption. This review report some health hazards of antibiotic residues in food. There are many factors influencing the occurrence of residues in animal products such as drug's properties and their pharmacokinetic characteristics, physicochemical or biological processes of animals and their products. The use of antibiotics is necessary in the prevention and treatment of animal diseases. Moreover, these antibiotics also improve the performance of growth and feed efficiency, synchronizing the reproductive cycle and breeding performance. These may also lead to harmful residual effects. For this to be minimized, withdrawal periods must be observed. This withholding periods makes the residues to be negligible or no longer detected in foods. However, withdrawal period is established to safeguard human from exposure of antibiotics added food. Failure to respect this period, could result in one which produces potential threat to direct toxicity in human. Moreover, low levels of antibiotic exposure would result in alteration of microflora, causing disease and the possible development of resistant strains causing failure of antibiotic therapy. The regulation of these residues in food of animal origin is necessary to prevent the health of humans.
       
  • Comparative study on the mycelial growth and yield of Ganoderma lucidum
           (Curt.: Fr.) Karst. on different lignocellulosic wastes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Funda Atila The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of using wheat straw (WS), cottonseed meal (CSM), sunflower meal (SFM), soybean straw (SBS) and bean straw (BS) as basal substrates in Ganoderma lucidum cultivation instead of oak (OS) and poplar (PS) sawdusts. In the study, effects of different growing substrates on spawn running period, yield and biological efficiency (BE) of G. lucidum were determined. Moreover, possible correlations among productivity and lignocellulosic content of substrates were assessed. Average spawn run period varied between 14.2 and 18.2 d. Total yields of G. lucidum grown on different substrates ranged from 28.6 g/kg to 86.1 g/kg, while the corresponding values for BE varied between 8.9%–24.7%. The highest yield and BE was exhibited by the OS followed by PS substrate. CSM gave the lowest yield and BE. Spawn running time was found to be positively correlated to nitrogen content of the substrates (r2 = 0.918) and negatively correlated to cellulose and hemicellulose content of substrate (r2 = −0.927 and r2 = −0.838, respectively). The total mushroom yield was correlated negatively to nitrogen content of the substrates (r2 = −0.850) and positively correlated to C:N ratio (r2=0.915). Moreover, there is a strong positive correlation between mushroom yield and cellulose and lignin content of the substrates (r2 = 0.794 and r2= 0.879). According to results, G. lucidum had a preference for substrates containing a high amount of cellulose and and lignin, and having a low amount of N and high cellulose:lignin ratio. Furthermore, SBS, WS and BS may be suggested as alternative basal substrates for cultivation of G. lucidum.
       
  • Multivariate approaches evaluated in the ethnoecological investigation of
           Tehsil Oghi, Mansehra, Pakistan

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Junaid Ahmed, Inayat Ur Rahman, Elsayed Fathi AbdAllah, Niaz Ali, Abbas Hussain Shah, Farhana Ijaz, Abeer Hashem, Aftab Afzal, Zafar Iqbal, Kamel A. Abdella, Eduardo Soares Calixto, Shujaul Mulk Khan Pakistan has rich history of indigenous folk medicine, and of the 6000 species of higher plants found in the country 12% are used in medicinal formulations. This immensely important knowledge of folk practices to cure different ailments has been learned after centuries and is mostly verbally communicated. Therefore, a field study was designed to investigate the plant biodiversity and accumulate the indigenous knowledge about the uses of plants of Tehsil Oghi, District Mansehra, Pakistan. A total of 141 local inhabitants were interviewed through a structured questionnaire followed by multivariate approaches to evaluate the data based on the Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). Plants specimen were preserved, mounted and labeled on the herbarium sheets, cataloged and deposited for voucher numbers in Herbarium, Government Post Graduate College, Mansehra, Pakistan. In present study, a total 104 species belonging to 88 genera and 54 families were recorded from the study area; herbaceous growth form dominated the study area with 56 species, followed by trees with 30 species and shrubs 14 species. Among all 54 families, Rosaceae species were dominant with 12 species, followed by Asteraceae with 8 species. Out of the reported 104 species, 94 plant species are medicinal, 22 plant species are edible fruits, 37 plant species are fuel wood, 24 plant species are timber wood, 38 plant species are fuel wood, 9 plant species are vegetables, while 34 plant species are ornamental. The present study revealed the importance of the flora of this unexplored area and also provides the baseline study for future biological, phytochemical and pharmacological experimentations.
       
  • Effect of priming treatments on seed germination and seedling growth in
           bamboo [Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees]

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): P.K. Sarkar, P.R. Kumar, A.K. Singh, B.P. Bhatt Instances of flowering of bamboo species Dendrocalamus strictus are few and far between which are taken as opportunity by nurserymen to collect seeds for propagation. Germination of seeds is reported to be poor. Therefore, different seed priming treatments were applied to D. strictus seeds collected from Ranchi in order to obtain uniform and high germination. Under laboratory conditions, dehusking of seeds before sowing ensured cent percent germination. Seed priming with KNO3 1% solution resulted in 80.4% increase in germination followed by hydropriming by 16 h (73.1% increase). In field conditions, dehusked seeds gave 23.0% germination without any priming treatment. Priming treatment with KNO3 1% gave the highest rise in germination (39.1%) followed by hydropriming for 16 h (26.1%). Seeds with their seed coats intact could give germination of 9.5% when germinated without any treatment. A rise of 115.8% in germination was obtained by priming with KNO3 1% (final germination count 20.5%). The next best treatment was hydropriming for 16 h (final germination 18.5%, a rise of 94.7%). KNO3 1% also induced the earliest and the most rapid germination. When seedlings germinated in laboratory were transferred to soil, all seedlings from all treatments established successfully without any mortality whatsoever. Therefore, it is recommended that seeds should be primed for 8 h with 1% KNO3 and germinated in laboratory or in farm house under normal atmospheric condition before transplanting the seedlings to soil.
       
  • In-vitro efficacy of bio-control agent and essential oils against leaf
           blight of chickpea caused by Alternaria alternata

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Muswar Ali Gadhi, Zubair Ahmed Nizamani, Ghulam Hussain Jatoi, Manzoor Ali Abro, Azhar Uddin Keerio, Gul Bahar Poussio, Dewen Qiu Alternaria leaf blight is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of chickpea in different countries including Pakistan and has caused huge losses ranging from 5 to 100% around the world. This study was carried out to check the in-vitro effectiveness and sustainability of a bio-control agent Trichoderma viride and some essential oils like Castor, Jasmine, Clove, Sesame, Neem, Coconut, Henna, Black seed, and Mint oil at different doses of 1%, 2%, 4%, and 6% by food poisoned method against the mycelial colony growth inhibition of A. alternata which causes leaf blight in chickpea. The results indicate that maximum germination (80%) was recorded in control, (63%) under soil infestation and a minimum germination of (60%) was recorded in seed infestation. Maximum shoot weight (0.5630 g) in control, (0.2751 g) under soil infestation and (0.2064 g) in seed infestation. Maximum root weight (0.5937 g) in control, (0.4359 g) under soil infestation method, and (0.4102 g) in seed infestation method. Maximum shoot length (20.00 cm) in control, (10.23 cm) under soil infestation method and (7.053 cm) in seed infestation method. Maximum root length (7.19 cm) in control, (4.80 cm) under soil infestation method and (4.80 cm) in seed infestation. Bio-control agent Trichoderma viride showed (74.44%) growth inhibition compared to control (1.00%) growth inhibition of A. alternata. Maximum colony growth inhibition of A. alternata was (80.00%) Sesame, Coconut (77.04%), Henna (72.59%), Mint (66.07%), Black seed (71.85%), Jasmine (64.07%), Clove (70.74%), Neem (73.33%), Castor (58.89%) and minimum of (1.00%) was recorded in control. The results of this study will be very helpful for researchers and farming community for better management of this destructive disease of chickpea.
       
  • Influence of altitude on the distribution pattern of flora in a protected
           area of Western Himalaya

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Jahangeer A. Bhat, Munesh Kumar, Nazir A. Pala, Shipra Shah, Suchindra Dayal, Champathi Gunathilake, Ajeet K. Negi IntroductionDistribution pattern and diversity of flora was compared along an altitudinal gradient using the stratified random sampling design for identifying major plant communities of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary of Garhwal Himalaya, India. The reconnaissance of flora is presented, along with the analysis of the distribution of species, genera, and families within five (5) altitudinal zones. Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary which is situated in the Indian Himalayas harbours a rich variety of flora and fauna. The Himalayas are recognized for diverse vegetation distributed over a wide range of topographical conditions.ResultsThe analysis of diversity within five (5) altitudinal zones was carried out and a total of 324 plant species, representing 219 genera belonging to 92 families, were found. The dominant family was Asteraceae; the co-dominant family was Rosaceae, followed by Lamiaceae and Ranunculaceae. Eight (8) families were observed in all the altitudinal zones, while forty (40) families were observed in a single altitudinal zone, and the remaining forty-four (44) families were found in more than one (1) altitudinal zone. Most of the tree species were contagiously distributed, but a few of them were randomly distributed in all the altitudinal zones. The shrubs and herbs were contagiously distributed in all the altitudinal zones. The correlation analysis (P 
       
  • Assessment of density area and LNRF models in landslide hazard zonation
           (Case study: Alamout watershed, Qazvin Province, Iran)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): M. Eslami, S. Shadfar, A. Mohammadi-Torkashvand, E. Pazira Landslide is one of the natural disasters causing both life loss and financial damage. To plan and manage landslides better, it is necessary to produce landslide hazard zonation (LHZ) maps. Alamout watershed is one of the most susceptible landslides located in a mountainous area in north of Iran. At first, required information of layers such as geology, soil, elevation, slope, aspect, rainfall, and distance to fault, road, river, and land use factors from different sources were provided. Landslide inventory map was prepared using geological map, aerial photos and filed investigation with GPS. The map of each effective factor on the landslide was combined with the landslide distribution map to determine the weight of each factor. Landslide hazard zonation map was prepared with density area and LNRF methods in the Geographic Information System (GIS). The two models were evaluated with quality sum (Qs). Results showed that the density area method (Qs= 1.496) was more accurate than the LNRF model (Qs= 0.897). The results obtained from density area model indicated that very high hazard zones were approximately 33% of the study area. Additionally, low and very low hazard zones were almost 6.8% of the watershed. In the LNRF model, very low and low hazard zones were approximately 28% and high and very high hazard zones were 48% of the studying region.
       
  • Effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer on yield and quality of Capsicum
           annum
    L.

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): S. Vijayakumar, S. Durgadevi, P. Arulmozhi, S. Rajalakshmi, T. Gopalakrishnan, N. Parameswari In the present study, intensive investigation was made on the effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF) of Codium decorticatum on the seed germination yield biochemical and pigment characteristic of Capsium annum under laboratory conditions and in pots. Different concentrations such as 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of SLF were prepared using distilled water. The seeds were soaked in 10 h for each SLF concentration then placed in separate Petri plates. Similarly, water soaked seeds were used as controls. Application of a lower concentration (20%) of SLF Showed maximum seed germination, fresh weight, dry weight, root and shoot length, number of branches, leaf area, number of pods and content of total chlorophyll, chl a, and chl b, protein, carbohydrate and lipids were observed. Therefore, the results of the present study suggested that the SLF of C. decortianum could serve as an alternative bio-fertilizer as is eco-friendly, cost-effective, deliver substantial economic and environmental benefits to farmer.
       
  • Uses and ecosystem services of trees outside forest (TOF)-A case study
           from Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal, India

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Bisleshna Tamang, Biplov C. Sarkar, Nazir A. Pala, Gopal Shukla, Vineeta, Partho S. Patra, Jahangeer A. Bhat, A.N. Dey, Sumit Chakravarty Trees outside Forest (TOF) play a critical role in conservation of floristic diversity apart from being reservoirs of other ecosystem services. TOF includes all the trees, attained 10 cm or more diameters at breast height, available on lands, which is not notified as forests. The present study was conducted in the Pundibari campus of Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya to document the available tree diversity and their potential uses and ecosystem services. A total of 1816 numbers of individuals with dbh ≥ 10 cm of 95 woody perennials species were inventoried belonging to 79 genera and 38 families. The contribution among number of individuals was dominated by Mangifera indica with (9.19%). The overall dominant family was Fabaceae represented by 11 species followed by Arecaceae and Meliaceae. The contribution of inventoried 95 species was dominated by forestry tree species followed by road isde plantation, fruit crops and plantation crops respectively. The highest number of individuals among forestry plantation was for Terminalia arjuna (121) followed by Gmelina arborea (114) and Tectona grandis (95). The documented species were dominated by endemic flora (66.31%) and exotic flora (33.68%). Majority of the species (54) were of timber value, followed by food (50), fodder (36) and ethno-medicine (39). Based on the contribution to ecosystem services all the 95 species have the potential to sequest carbon followed by 46 species to provide beautification in the form of avenue/ornamental/roadside. The tree species richness and their potential ecosystem services documented in the present study can be a baseline study for further assessment of such landscapes and their significance under threatning environmental conditions.
       
  • Effect of selected fungicides and Bio-Pesticides on the mycelial colony
           growth of the Helminthosporium oryzae. brown spot of rice

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Ghulam Hussain Jatoi, Azhar Uddin Keerio, Yusuf Ali Abdulle, Dewen Qiu Helminthosporium oryzae, a fungal pathogen causing Brown Spot of Rice is one of the disastrous biotic factors responsible for 16–43% yield in rice. To control in vitro fungal growth of this pathogen, four fungicides viz. Mencozeb, Thiophanate Methyl, Iprovalicarb + Propineb and Propineb were used with four different concentrations: 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm. Plant extracts of five species as Azadirachta indica, Calotropisprocera, Allium sativum, Datura stramonium and Zingiber officinale were also tested with three doses (5, 10 and 15 ml). While, 24 isolates of Bacterial isolates were investigated for their antagonistic effect. The in vitro results of the four fungicides contributed that Mancozeb and Thiophanate Methyl inhibited the colony growth at the higher doses (150 and 200 ppm) with no linear colony growth. However, Propineb was found moderately effective at (5.00 mm) and Iprovalicarb + Propineb was less effective (7.25 mm). Similarly, the in-vitro efficacy of the five plant extracts against H. oryzae at different doses revealed that Zingiber officinale and Allium sativum were more effective at high doses (00.00 mm, 2. mm). Also, Datura stramonium (4.62 mm) Azadirachta indica (18.00 mm) and Calotropisprocera (12.00 mm) performed better as compared to the control (40.00 mm). The results revealed that out of 24 isolates, 4 isolates of bacteria Agrobacterium spp, Xanthomonas, Erwinia, Streptomyces has inhibited the linear colony growth of H. oryzae up to 1-2 mm. This study can be useful for controlling the fungal disease as the two fungicides Mancozeb and Thiophanate Methyl were more effective and the Zingiber officinale and Allium sativum plant extracts were highly effective against the brown spot of rice. Biocontrol also reduced leaner colony Helminthosporium oryzae.
       
  • Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Thanjavur and its surrounding
           (Tamil Nadu - India)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): S. Rajalakshmi, S. Vijayakumar, P. Arulmozhi The present study aims to document data about the traditional uses of plants in health-care trainers among the local peoples of areas which may lead to natural drug invention development. There is urgency in recording such data for ethnobotanical studies using many statistical calculations were applied. Totally, 137 informants were selected from 8 villages by their traditional knowledge about medicinal plants. The collected specimens were statistically analyzed by Frequency citation (FC), Relative frequency citation (RFC), Use values (UV), Relative importance (RI), Cultural index (CI), Frequency index (FI) and Pearson correlation Co-efficient. Totally, 85 medicinal plants belonging to 73 families were documented through traditional people of Thanjavur for the treatment of 17 different ailments in which paste based herbal medicine is highly used (30%). Among the families, Acanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Malvaceae are dominant species with each five, Solanaceae with four species, Amaranthaceae, Apiaceae, Convulcacaeae, Aizoaceae, Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae and Rubiaceae with each three species and Capparaceae, Lythraceae, Anacardiaceae are recorded each two species and remaining families were one species respectively. In this quantitative ethnobotanical analysis, the high use values were recorded as Solanum trilobatum (1.31), Thespesia populnea (1.30), Cissus quadrangularis (1.26), Trianthema portulacastrum (1.76), and Hygrophila auriculata. Phyllanthus niruri showed high RI values than other plants. Pearson correlation coefficient between RFC and UV was 0.802 with P-value
       
  • The response of Solanum melongena L. to different phosphorus
           levels and sowing dates

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Naheeda Begum, Muhammad Shuaib, Ikramullah Khan, Muzammil Shah, Aimal Khan, Rukhsana Kausar, Fida Hussain In order to harvest potential yield of eggplant and to find a suitable sowing time and phosphorus level for eggplant, an experiment was conducted at Ornamental Nursery, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar in February 2013. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block (RCB) design with split plot arrangements. There were two factors i.e. Phosphorus levels and dates of Sowing. Phosphorus levels were assigned to the main plot while sowing dates were kept in the subplot. The data on Number of branches plant−1, Days to flowering, Days to fruiting, Number of fruits plant−1 and Yield Plot−1were significantly affected by phosphorus level and date of sowing. While the data on plant height was not significant, and overall results showed that early sowing date (February 25) produced significantly good results as compared to the rest of the sowing dates. Moreover, phosphorus level was also significantly affected the experimental parameters. Phosphorus level (70 kg ha−1) produced significantly best results in all the parameters followed by Phosphorus level (100 kg ha−1) in almost all the parameters. Thus it is concluded that early sowing of bringel (eggplants) is recommended with phosphorus level (70 & 100 kg ha−1).
       
  • Integration of allelopathy and herbicide to control Asphodelus
           tenuifolius
    in chickpea crop

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Imtiaz Khan, Muhammad Ishfaq Khan, Hashmatullah Controlling Asphodelus tenuifolius in chickpea crop is a big challenge for the grower in the southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. Keeping in view the yield losses due to weeds a research was conducted at Ahmadwala Research Station “District Karak” to control to A. tenuifolius.Herbicides, mulches and allelopathic weed extracts were evaluated during the experiment. The experiment was repeated thrice using Randomized Complete Block design with Chattan cultivar. The weed control treatments Viz. Stomp 330 EC (Pre) @ 2.5 L ha−1, Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, Bromoxynil +MCPA (Tank mixture of herbicides), Starane-M, Eucalyptus leaves as mulch, wheat straw as mulch, allelopathic extract (Asphodelus tenuifolius) + Stomp, allelopathic Cyperus rotundus extract, allelopathic Sorghum halepense extract were tested and compare with the control treatment during the experiment. The data was recorded on A. tenuifolius density m−2 before and after treatment application, plant height (cm), crude protein %, crude fats %, biological yield (kg ha−1), and seed yield (kg ha−1). The level of significance of all the treatments was (0.05). The results indicated that the minimum A. tenuifolius density was recorded in the plots treated with Stomp 330 EC (4.74 m−2) followed by herbicide Fenoxaprop-p- ethyl 6.9 EC (10.87 m−2). The maximum A. tenuifolius density was found in the control plots (81.64 m−2) which were left undisturbed. Among the chickpea yield components, the maximum plant height at maturity (48.98 cm) was recorded for Stomp 330 EC as lowest data were recorded for control plot. The maximum crude protein (17.68), crude fat (2.93) and oil content was (5.92%) was recorded in the plots treated with Stomp 330 EC and the minimum was found in the control plots.Similarly, the maximum biological yield (4058.7 kg ha−1) and seed yield (1282 kg ha−1) were recorded in Stomp 330 EC treated plots as lowest data were observed for control plot. Therefore, it is recommended that using herbicides Stomp 330 EC and Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl is one of the effective weed control strategies for control of wild in chickpea growing areas.
       
  • Bioefficacy of some Rhizobactrial isolates against sorghum root Rot
           pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Amany M. Balah, Saadia Mohamed Hassanien Eassa, Abeer E. El-Hadidy, Samy A. Afiah This study carried out to identify certain microbial allelochemicals with antifungal activity of some rhziobacterial isolates against Bipolaris sorokiniana fungi. The fungicidal activity of isolated microbe metabolites was compared based on inhibition % of fungal growth. Results showed that ethyl acetate crude extracts with two concentrations (500 and 1000 ppm) of Pseudomonas geniculata (SC) and Bacillus cereus (S4) were the most efficient isolates recorded inhibition % 33.62 and 52.59% followed by S4 (Bacillus cereus (ATCC 14579) which achieved inhibition % 33.62 and 46.55% at the same concentrations, respectively. After 4 days.The constituents analyzed by LC-MS/MS and FTIR of the ethyl acetate extracts of the Pseudomonas geniculata ATCC19374 were afforded aminobutyric acid, 1,4-benzoquinone, coumaric acid, sinapic acid, tryptophan amino acid, Succinic acid and ferulic acid. While, the secondary metabolites of (Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 extract were aminobutyric acid, 1,4-benzoquinone, coumaric acids, sinapic acid, ferulic acid and benzoic acid. Results indicated that the isolates of Pseudomonas geniculata ATCC19374 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 could be use as a good element in plant root rot pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana management.
       
  • Effects of elevation gradients and soil components on the vegetation
           density and species diversity of Alabna escarpment, southwestern Saudi
           Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Sami Asir Al-Robai, Haidar Abdalgadir Mohamed, Abdelazim Ali Ahmed, Abdul Wali Ahmed Al-Khulaidi The study was conducted on Alabna escarpment, southwestern Saudi Arabia, for evaluating the effects of elevation and soil components on the species diversity and plant community. Among 241 species (167 genera and 53 families) recorded in total, therophytes and chamaephytes prevailed in the area while bryophytes were rare. Clustering analysis revealed the presence of four community types which had a remarkable overlapping in species composition. Group 2 was the most diverse and represented by one stand with 58 species in which 19 plant species were only recorded in this group. Group 1 comprised two stands and the other two groups had more than two stands. Diversity and distribution of species were affected by elevation and element contents in the soil. The soil was slightly alkaline, not saline, contained a reasonable amount of elements and very poor in P content. Heavy metals were found in neglected quantities indicating that the area was unpolluted.
       
  • Screening the antimicrobial potential of twelve medicinal plants against
           venereal diseases causing pathogens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): J.E. Morvin Yabesh, S. Vijayakumar, P. Arulmozhi, S. Rajalakshmi The antimicrobial potential of selected ethnomedicinal plants in traditional healers of Silent valley, Palakkad district of Kerala, India against venereal diseases causing pathogens. Twelve medicinal plants and their parts were collected from the various places of Silent Valley, Kerala, India. These plant parts were dried and mixed with different kinds of solvents respectively hexane, chloroform, methanol and water. In this study, six microbial strains were selected, in which five bacterial and a fungal strain. Among the bacterial strains, two strains were gram positive and three strains for gram negative bacteria. Totally, twelve medicinal plant parts mixed with various solvents were treated against the selected pathogenic organisms. Among them, methanolic extract of A. occidentate, C. indica, H. rosa-sinensis and M. oleifera exhibited excellent antibacterial activity than other parts of plants and standard drugs. As well as, methanolic extract of H. rosa-sinensis showed good antifungal activity against C. albicans. While,the least inhibition was noted with aqueous extract of C. indica against S. aureus. The MIC ranges from 0.78μg/ml to 50μg/ml and MBC/MFC 1.52μg/ml to 50μg/ml. The methanolic flower extract of H. rosa-sinensis has showed effective zone of inhibition against all the pathogens, particularly N. gonorrhoeae (30 mm) and C. albicans (26mm), than other extracts and standard drugs. Therefore, we concluded that, flower extract had potential therapeutic activity against venereal diseases. This research will be helpful to discover the new therapeutic drug molecule in Pharmaceutical sectors.
       
  • Modelling of plant species richness along altitudinal gradient: Asalem
           Watershed basin, temperate deciduous forests in northern Iran

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Hassan Pourbabaei, Ali Salehi, Sepide Sadat Ebrahimi, Fazel khodaparasrt Among the various topographical factors, effects of altitudinal factor on species diversity, richness, composition and biological functions patterns are considerable. This study was done to investigate plant species richness along altitudinal gradient in the Asalem watershed basin, northern forests of Iran. For these purpose, 13 altitudinal transects were established from 100 to 2500 m, according to altitude ranges within 200 m intervals. Data collection was done in 216 circular plots of 1000-m2 area with a distance of 150 m from each other. In total, 576species of 325 genus and 96 families were recorded. The highest number of species was belonged to Asteracese، Fabaceae and Lamiaceae families. The results indicated that forbs with 414 species belong to54 families and ferns with 31 species belong to10 families were the largest and smallest group of plants in study area respectively. In herbaceous layer, the mean number of species was increased along altitudinal gradients (P ≤ 0.005). The lowest and highest value of species number was belonged to 500 and 2500 m altitudes, respectively. Generally, there was a gradual decline of species number at 100 to 500 m. Fitted models indicated that variation patterns at altitudinal gradients were significant and the proposed polynomial model had a high conformity with changes of species richness. The lowest value of species number in woody layer was belonged to 1900 m altitude and 2100 m had the highest value. Three peak points were recorded at the beginning, middle and the end of gradient, respectively. Sinusoidal models showed a correlation between species richness and altitudinal changes by high coefficient of determination. Results of β –diversity indicated that species change rate was fixed at 700 m altitude, but it was decreased by increasing altitude. Fluctuations of β diversity were followed of the sinusoidal models. In the study area, destructive factors including road construction, tourism and over-exploitation are a serious threat for the ecosystem and this study can be considerable to develop targeted strategies for conservation of plant diversity. In addition, study of habitat conditions in each altitudinal gradients is necessary to reconstruction stands with low species diversity and appropriate species selection to establish stands with high density.
       
  • The effects of seed coat removal on the activity of peroxidase enzyme in
           Acer Velutinium

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Fatemeh Mohammadnia, Seyed Yousef Torabian, Afsaneh Rezaie, Seyed Armin Hashemi Persian maple (PM) (Acer velutinum) is a fast-growing and broad-leaved tree that is native of Iran. It occurs in the coastal plains of the Caspian Sea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of seed coat removal on the activity of peroxidase enzyme in PM seed.PM seeds were collected from Deiez forest located at Northern Iran. The seeds were categorized into two groups including coated and uncoated seeds. Extracts from each group were prepared at 4 stages including stage 1 (day 10), stage 2 (day 20), stage 3 (day 30) and stage 4 (day 40). Electrophoresis of peroxidase enzyme was performed using polyacrylamide gels. Peroxidase activity was assessed using a spectrophotometer. The Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-wallis tests were used to compare means of peroxidase activity between different groups. P-value of
       
  • Biomass, carbon density and diversity of tree species in tropical dry
           deciduous forests in Central India

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Rajendra Kr Joshi, Shalini Dhyani Tropical dry deciduous forests play a significant role in regulating the biogeochemical cycles. Present study assesses the carbon stock of tropical dry deciduous forests varying in tree density, basal cover, and diversity located in Singrauli district of Madhya Pradesh in Central India. Field sampling was carried out in six forest sites viz., Chitrangi, East Sarai, Gorbi, Renukoot, West Sarai, and Waidhan, of Singrauli. A total of 29 tree species belonging to 18 families were recorded across the forest ranges where tree density, basal area and diversity values varied from 702 (Gorbhi Range) – 1671 (East Sarai range) individuals ha−1; 15.43 (Renukhund range) – 71.76 m2 ha−1 (Chitrange range) and 0.69 (West Sarai range) – 2.52 (Gorbi range), respectively. Total biomass estimated ranged from 103.32 (Renukhund range) – 453.54 Mg ha−1 (Chitrange range) while the total tree carbon density varied from 48.97 to 214.97 Mg C ha−1. The variation in carbon storage in the studied ranges was found dependent on density of trees in different diameter and age classes and tree species diversity. Diospyros melanoxylon, Butea monosperma, Shorea robusta, Senegalia catechu, Spondias pinnata, and Lagerstroemia parviflora were the dominant species at different study sites (forest ranges) and contributed towards higher carbon storage in respective forest ranges. Study endorses field-based approach for carbon estimations based on above and belowground assessments as a more realistic approach to understand sink potential of natural forests.
       
  • Behavior of bio- and chemical insecticides in tomato ecosystem in Minia
           Governorate

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): A.S.M.H. EL Roby, S.M. Hussein Influence of certain insecticides, ie. emamectin benzoate, acetamiprid, indoxacarb, and two bio-agents; entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (EKB20) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt); in alternating the organization of entomophagous and their biological agents complexes were studied in tomato ecosystem in Minia Governorate, Egypt. The results reflected the tendency of entomopathogenic nematode and B. thuringiensis for selectivity, followed by emamectin benzoate when compared with the other insecticides. Diversity indexes after application of entomopathogenic nematode, emamectin benzoate and B. thuringiensis were higher at the two applications in the two successive seasons, followed by indoxacarb and acetamiprid. The highest values of equitability were shown in the treatment of entomopathogenic nematode and B. thuringiensis until 10 days post-treatment. The results showed that EKB20, Bt and emamectin benzoate have highly toxic effect against Spodoptera littoralis and Tuta absoluta with low effect on the beneficial insects in tomato. The difference can be attributed to different mode of action of product and number of sprays. Therefore, emamectin benzoate, EKB20, and Bt are considered good promised control elements, especially in successful release of some schemes of tomato integrated control.
       
  • Changes in photosynthetic pigments and uptake of some soil elements by
           chicory supplied with organic fertilizers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Hossein Gholami, Askar Ghani, Fatemeh Raouf Fard, Mohammad Jamal Saharkhiz, Hossein Hazrati Due to the important role of medicinal and aromatic plants in different industries, it is important to increasing production of yield and secondary metabolite produced without the use of harmful chemical fertilizer. The use of organic fertilizers like humic acid and vermicompost is the best way to achieve safe production. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is a vegetable with possible medicinal properties. The research was undertaken to determine the effects of humic acid at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 kg.ha−1 and vermicompost at 0, 5, 7.5 and 10 t.ha−1 on mineral elements N, P, K, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu uptake, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, and fresh and dry yield. The experiment was based on randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. The humic acid and vermicompost benefitted nutrient uptake, yield and photosynthetic pigment concentrations of chicory. The highest of N (4.64%) and P value (0.83%) was in the 10 t.ha−1 vermicompost plus 0.6 kg.ha−1 humic acid treatment. The maximum potassium content (11.05%) was obtained by application of 0.6 kg.ha−1 humic acid and vermicompost (7.5 t.ha−1). Humic acid and vermicompost did not affect on Mn content in aerial parts. Application of 10 t.ha−1 vermicompost in combination with 0.6 kg.ha−1 humic acid increased total chlorophyll content (average 3.63 mg.g−1 FW). In humic acid treatments, the highest carotenoid pigments contents are measured 9.85 and 9.62 mg.g−1 FW, by application 0.6 kg.ha−1 and 0.9 kg.ha−1 humic acid, respectively. While as relation to vermicompost, the maximum content 10.08 mg.g−1 FW was determined in 10 t.ha−1 vermicompost treatment. Appropriate concentrations of vermicompost and humic acid can be used for organic production of chicory.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Salinity imposed stress on principal cereal crops and employing seed
           priming as a sustainable management approach

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Abdul Majeed, Zahir Muhammad, Saiful Islam, Habib Ahmad Cereal crops specifically maize, wheat, and rice have a prominent role in feeding the world's population. In the context of a growing population and a potential increase in food demand in coming years, yield output of cereals is certainly necessary. Concurrently, the production of these crops is challenged with several abiotic and biotic stresses. Salinity, a leading abiotic stress in global agriculture, significantly reduce growth, yield and overall production of cereals and if not managed through successive efforts, global food security will be uncertain in the future. Thus, employment of sustainable approaches in achieving the targets of food demands of increasing population needs focused attention. Integration of agronomic and biotechnological methods can manage salinity induced drastic effects on crops which would lead to increased crop productivity. In this review, we focus on employing seed priming techniques as possible salt stress management approaches in three major cereal crops (maize, rice, and wheat).
       
  • Ethnomedicinal flora of Frontier Region Tank, Fata, Pakistan

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Asmat Ullah, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Zafar Iqbal, Inayat Ur Rahman, Niaz Ali, Muzammil Shah, Aftab Afzal, Farhana Ijaz, Sana Ullah, Abid Raza, Mushtaq Ahmad Main objective of the study was to record the ethnobotanical uses of indigenous plants of the federally administered tribal area (FATA), Bhittani (Local Tribe). Total interviewed local informants of different ages through questionnaire were 212 (196 male and 16 female). Well-known statistical indices, Use Value (UVi) formula and Fidelity Level (FL%) were used for quantification of the recorded data. After identification, the collected specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of Botany Department, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Present findings reveal that 38 plants species belonging to 26 families were being used in the treatment of 31 different diseases. Regarding plant habit, herbs were the leading growth form (63%), followed by trees (24%) and shrubs (13%) respectively. Solanaceae (13.16%) was leading family used in curing various diseases, followed by Asteraceae and Moraceae (7.89% each). Most cited families by the informants were Solanaceae (5 species, 137 citations), Asteraceae (3 species, 81 citations), Moraceae (3 species, 69 citations) and Amaryllidaceae (2 species, 57 citations). Most of taxa were used in curing constipation and stomach problem (9.88% each), followed by pain and cough (7.41% each), digestive and fever (4.96% each). Most frequently used plant part for curing different diseases was leaves (33.33%), followed by fruits (21.67%) and roots (13.33%). Medicinal plants with most use values and high ranks were Withania coagulans (0.88) ranked 1st and Cichorium intybus 2nd (0.81) while Cichorium intybus also showed 100% FL value. Plants of study area provide most of the basic requirements for the survival of local communities. There is huge pressure exerted on the natural vegetation due to their overuse by the inhabitants of the area. If proper remedial measures are not taken soon, this process may lead to decline of the valuable plant species from the study area.
       
  • Integration of Allelopathy and herbicide to control Asphodelus
           tenuifolius
    in chickpea crop

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Imtiaz Khan, Muhammad Ishfaq Khan, Hashmatullah Controlling Asphodelus tenuifolius in chickpea crop is a big challenge for the grower in the southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. Keeping in view the yield losses due to weeds a research was conducted at Ahmadwala Research Station “District Karak” to control to A. tenuifolius. Herbicides, mulches and allelopathic weed extracts were evaluated during the experiment. The experiment was repeated thrice using Randomized Complete Block design with Chattan cultivar. The weed control treatments Viz. Stomp 330 EC (Pre) @ 2.5 L ha−1, Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, Bromoxynil +MCPA (Tank mixture of herbicides), Starane-M, Eucalyptus leaves as mulch, wheat straw as mulch, allelopathic extract (Asphodelus tenuifolius) + Stomp, allelopathic Cyperus rotundus extract, allelopathic Sorghum halepense extract were tested and compare with the control treatment during the experiment. The data was recorded on A. tenuifolius density m−2 before and after treatment application, plant height, crude protein, crude fats, biological yield, and seed yield. The level of significance of all the treatments was (0.05). The results indicated that the minimum A. tenuifolius density was recorded in the plots treated with Stomp 330 EC (4.74 m−2) followed by herbicide Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 6.9 EC (10.87 m−2). The maximum A. tenuifolius density was found in the control plots (81.64 m−2) which were left undisturbed. Among the chickpea yield components, the maximum plant height at maturity (48.98 cm) was recorded for Stomp 330 EC the lowest plant height was recorded for control plot. The maximum crude protein (17.68), crude fat (2.93) and oil content was (5.92%) was recorded in the plots treated with Stomp 330 EC and the minimum was found in the control plots. Similarly, the maximum biological yield (4058.7 kg ha−1) and seed yield (1282 kg ha−1) were recorded in Stomp 330 EC treated plots as biological and grain yield was observed for control plot. Therefore, it is recommended that using herbicides Stomp 330 EC and Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl is one of the effective weed control strategies for control of A. tenuifolius in chickpea growing areas.
       
  • Competitive, Sustainable Natural Pesticides

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Manar Fawzi Bani Mfarrej, Fatimetou Mohamed Rara To control the negative effects of synthetic pesticides, natural organic pesticides should take place to be an alternative to synthetic pesticides which have a lot of harms on the environment and public health. These alternatives are natural materials work as killers or repellents to reduce, destroy and kill pests which affect human health and environment. In this research, the effectiveness of natural organic pesticides has been tested by doing preliminary experiments as a first methodology composed of 11 ingredients of natural materials with different concentrations to choose the most effective components and mix them in one treatment (pesticide). The results were very positive for some of them and showed how these organic pesticides are effective in term of killing and repelling pests. Neem oil, Lavender oil, and Cottonseed oil were the most effective with high degradation time. On the other hand, Chrysanthemum liquid was the least effective as it is a liquid, not oil (oil is more concentrated). Moreover, Garlic oil and Mint oil were effective as repellants with high degradation time. For the second methodology where the most five effective materials based on the preliminary experiments have been mixed together to form one pesticide. The final pesticide showed effective results on stick insect and ants. Lack of studies about natural organic pesticides was an obstacle in this research, where some ingredients have not been scientifically tested in previous studies. This research could help to change from chemical activities used in agriculture field to more friendly methods in term of sustainable agriculture.
       
  • Response of antioxidants to semisynthetic bacteriostatic antibiotic
           (erythromycin) concentrations: A study on freshwater fish

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Sivashankar Renuka, Sathisaran Umamaheswari, Chellappan Shobana, Mathan Ramesh, Rama Krishnan Poopal The present study was envisioned to assess the short (96 h) and long-term (35 days) antioxidant responses of Labeo rohita exposed to different concentrations (10, 50, and 100 μg/L) of commonly used antibiotic, erythromycin. When compared to the control groups, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the gills of the erythromycin treated fingerlings was significantly (P 
       
  • Long-term fluctuations of the aquatic ecosystems in the Onon-Torey plain
           (Russia)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Balzhit B. Bazarova, Natalya A. Tashlykova, Ekaterina Yu. Afonina, Alexey P. Kuklin, Petr V. Matafonov, Gazhit Ts. Tsybekmitova, Eugenia P. Gorlacheva, Mydygma Ts. Itigilova, Alexey V. Afonin, Mariya N. Butenko The paper describes the analysis of long-term fluctuations of aquatic communities (phytoplankton, macrophytes, zooplankton, zoobenthos, fishes) influenced by abiotic factors (water level, salinity) in model lakes of the Onon-Torey plain in Russia. The cyclic succession series are elucidated. These series may provide a basis for monitoring and forecasting the state of the ecosystem for the researched lakes and for other similar lakes in Central Asia.
       
  • Evaluation of agro-morphological traits among the advance lines of rice

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Acta Ecologica SinicaAuthor(s): Wasaf Sadiq, Fida Muhammad Abbasi, Hamid Ali, Muhammad Tariq, Inayat Ur Rahman Present study was undertaken to evaluate different morphological traits of rice advance lines. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with ten rice advance lines replicated three times at National Tea and High Value Crops Research Institute (NTHRI) Shinkiari, Mansehra, Pakistan. Three plants per plot were selected randomly to record the important agro-morphological data viz. plant height, panicle length, number of tillers per plant, branches per panicle, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, flag leaf area, grain length, grain width and length/breadth (L/B) ratio were measured. All the recorded data was analyzed through SPSS 16.0 and Statistix 8.1. The results revealed that the vegetative growth attributes i.e. plant height was significantly increased in FH10-2 (152.7 cm), No. of tillers in FH4-1 (4.3), No. of branches in JP-6 (24.33), panicle length in Line 2(24) (49.6 cm), flag leaf length in FH10-2 (50.7 cm), flag leaf width in Super NPT-3 (4.3 cm) and flag leaf area in FH4-1 (143.6 cm), respectively. Furthermore, yield contributing attributes like grain length (8.5 mm) and Length/Breadth ratio (4.7) were significantly increased in FH4-1 and grain breadth in Super NPT-3 (2.8 mm). Among ten advance lines of rice, nine were recorded with slender grain shape while four advance lines were recorded with extra long slender and long slender grain size each.
       
 
 
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