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Publisher: Elsevier   (Total: 3168 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 3168 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.655, CiteScore: 2)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.015, CiteScore: 2)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 106, SJR: 1.462, CiteScore: 3)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.932, CiteScore: 2)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.771, CiteScore: 3)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 454, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 7)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 330, SJR: 3.263, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Mathematica Scientia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 1)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.834, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.793, CiteScore: 6)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.331, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.052, CiteScore: 2)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.374, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Actas Urológicas Españolas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.344, CiteScore: 1)
Actas Urológicas Españolas (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.671, CiteScore: 5)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.53, CiteScore: 4)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.29, CiteScore: 3)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 2.611, CiteScore: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200, SJR: 4.09, CiteScore: 13)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.167, CiteScore: 4)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Agronomy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.384, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.126, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Applied Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.992, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Applied Mechanics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.089, CiteScore: 5)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.61, CiteScore: 7)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.686, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35, SJR: 3.043, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.453, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.992, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.713, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.316, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.562, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.977, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Developmental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44, SJR: 2.524, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.159, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52, SJR: 5.39, CiteScore: 8)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.354, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 12.74, CiteScore: 13)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.193, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.433, CiteScore: 6)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.163, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.938, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.176, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.88, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.027, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.694, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.158, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.875, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.174, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.579, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.461, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.536, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.574, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.371, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.263, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 437, SJR: 0.569, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.555, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.208, CiteScore: 4)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.262, CiteScore: 5)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55, SJR: 1.551, CiteScore: 3)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.117, CiteScore: 3)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 396, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 3)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.42, CiteScore: 2)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 0)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 3.671, CiteScore: 9)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 494, SJR: 1.238, CiteScore: 3)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.818, CiteScore: 5)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.156, CiteScore: 4)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 1.272, CiteScore: 3)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 1.747, CiteScore: 4)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.589, CiteScore: 3)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 0)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.153, CiteScore: 3)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 3)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.142, CiteScore: 4)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.504, CiteScore: 1)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.148, CiteScore: 2)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 3.521, CiteScore: 6)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54, SJR: 4.66, CiteScore: 10)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.796, CiteScore: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.108, CiteScore: 3)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58, SJR: 3.267, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67, SJR: 1.93, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.524, CiteScore: 3)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 7.45, CiteScore: 8)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.062, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 2.973, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.967, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 278, SJR: 2.7, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66, SJR: 3.184, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 0)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.289, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.59, CiteScore: 1)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 2.139, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.164, CiteScore: 4)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 2)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.767, CiteScore: 1)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.144, CiteScore: 3)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67, SJR: 0.138, CiteScore: 0)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 1)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.277, CiteScore: 0)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription  
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.849, CiteScore: 10)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44, SJR: 1.512, CiteScore: 5)
Analytica Chimica Acta : X     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 221, SJR: 0.633, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.411, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, CiteScore: 0)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 237, SJR: 1.58, CiteScore: 3)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.937, CiteScore: 2)
Animal Reproduction Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.704, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.871
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 189  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0968-0896
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3168 journals]
  • A novel phytosterol isolated from Datura inoxia, RinoxiaB is a potential
           cure colon cancer agent by targeting BAX/Bcl2 pathway
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Babu Gajendran, Prabhu Durai, Krishnapriya Madhu Varier, Arulvasu ChinnasamyPlant sterols have been widely used as chemotherapeutic agents for colorectal cancer for years together. In this study, a novel phytosterol was isolated and characterized from the leaf extract of a medicinal plant, Datura inoxia and was coined as RinoxiaB (RB). This phytosterol was observed to have antiproliferative activity against human colon adenocarcinoma cells, HCT 15. The cell viability assay revealed the IC50 value of the RB as 4 µM. Moreover, RB treated cells showed prominent morphological changes dose dependently and progressively increased the number of dead cells. Additionally, results of the comet, flow cytometry, and cell cycle analysis revealed that the majority of cells were arrested in their S and G2/M phase by blocking the mitotic spindle formation. The western blot analysis (Bcl-2, BAX, Cytochrome C, Caspases 9 & 3) clearly indicated that RB has the ability to induce apoptosis by significantly upregulating (P < 0.05) Bcl-2 and causing mitochondrial damage leading to Cytochrome C release and activation of caspases, which subsequently results in downregulation of BAX expression in the cytosol. Furthermore, the expression of tumor suppressors (p53 and p21) and cell cycle regulatory proteins (Cyclins D1 & B1) suggested that RB inhibit cell proliferation. Thus, the present finding concludes that RB can offer possible apoptotic effects by targeting BAX/Bcl2 pathway in HCT 15 cells, thus alleviating colon cancer.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Discovery of a new class of PROTAC BRD4 degraders based on a
           dihydroquinazolinone derivative and lenalidomide/pomalidomide
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Fangqing Zhang, Zhenwei Wu, Pan Chen, Jian Zhang, Tao Wang, Jinpei Zhou, Huibin ZhangBRD4 has emerged as an attractive target for anticancer therapy. However, BRD4 inhibitors treatment leads to BRD4 protein accumulation, together with the reversible nature of inhibitors binding to BRD4, which may limit the efficacy of BRD4 inhibitors. To address these problems, a protein degradation strategy based on the proteolysis targeting chimera (PROTAC) technology has been developed to target BRD4 recently. Herein, we present our design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a new class of PROTAC BRD4 degraders, which were based on a potent dihydroquinazolinone-based BRD4 inhibitor compound 6 and lenalidomide/pomalidomide as ligand for E3 ligase cereblon. Gratifyingly, several compounds showed excellent inhibitory activity against BRD4, and high anti-proliferative potency against human monocyte lymphoma cell line THP-1. Especially, compound 21 (BRD4 BD1, IC50 = 41.8 nM) achieved a submicromolar IC50 value of 0.81 μM in inhibiting the growth of THP-1 cell line, and was 4 times more potent than compound 6. Moreover, the mechanism study established that 21 could effectively induce the degradation of BRD4 protein and suppression of c-Myc. All of these results suggested that 21 was an efficacious BRD4 degrader for further investigation.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Exploring Structure-Promiscuity Relationships Using Dual-Site Promiscuity
           Cliffs and Corresponding Single-Site Analogs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Huabin Hu, Jürgen BajorathCurrently available volumes of compounds and biological activity data enable large-scale analyses of compound promiscuity (multi-target activity). To aid in the exploration of structure-promiscuity relationships, promiscuity cliffs (PCs) were introduced previously. In analogy to activity cliffs, PCs were defined as pairs of structurally analogous compounds with large differences in the number of targets they are active against. Hence, PCs reveal small chemical modifications that are implicated in promiscuity. As introduced originally, PCs were identified by applying the matched molecular pair formalism and were thus confined to changes at a single substitution site. Herein, PCs with multiple substitution sites are introduced and a pilot study on a large collection of protein kinase inhibitors is reported, which provide excellent test cases for promiscuity analysis. For dual-site PCs (dsPCs), which dominated the distribution of multi-site PCs, an extended data structure was generated comprising a dsPC and two single-site analogs accounting for individual substitutions. Using a canonical representation, extended dsPCs are intuitive and easy to interpret from a chemical perspective. The analog quartet representing an extended dsPC is rich in structure-promiscuity relationship information and makes it possible to evaluate the potential interplay of chemical modifications implicated in promiscuity. Furthermore, extended dsPCs provide insights into possible experimental causes of apparent differences in analog promiscuity such as varying test frequencies. Hence, the newly introduced PC format should be of interest for exploring origins of compound promiscuity in medicinal chemistry and for formulating experimentally testable target hypotheses for analogs.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Design and Synthesis of Boron-containing Diphenylpyrimidines as Potent BTK
           and JAK3 Dual Inhibitors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Jing Ren, Wei Shi, Damin Zhao, Qinglin Wang, Xiayun Chang, Xiangyi He, Xiaojin Wang, Yong Gao, Peng Lu, Xiquan Zhang, Hongjiang Xu, Yinsheng ZhangBruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) and Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) are very promising targets for hematological malignancies and autoimmune diseases. In recent years, a few compounds have been approved as a marketed medicine, and several are undergoing clinical trials. By recombining the dominant backbone of known active compounds, constructing a foused library, and screening a broad panel of kinases, we found a class of compounds with dual activities of anti-BTK and anti-JAK3. Some of the compounds have shown 10-folds more active in the enzyme and cell-based assays than a known active compound. Furthermore, liver microsome stability experiments show that these compounds have better stability than ibrutinib. These explorations offered new clues to discover benzoxaborole fragment and pyrimidine scaffold as more effective BTK and JAK3 dual inhibitors.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A benzenesulfonamide derivative as a novel PET radioligand for CXCR4
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Yoon Hyeun Oum, Dinesh Shetty, Younghyoun Yoon, Zhongxing Liang, Ronald J. Voll, Mark M. Goodman, Hyunsuk ShimCXCR4 is involved in various diseases such as inflammation, tumor growth, and cancer metastasis through the interaction with its natural endogenous ligand, chemokine CXCL12. In an effort to develop imaging probes for CXCR4, we developed a novel small molecule CXCR4-targeted PET agent (compound 5) by combining our established benzenesulfonamide scaffold with a labeling component by virtue of click chemistry. 5 shows nanomolar affinity (IC50 = 6.9 nM) against a known CXCR4 antagonist (TN14003) and inhibits more than 65% chemotaxis at 10 nM in vitro assays. Radiofluorinated compound 5 ([18F]5) demonstrates a competitive cellular uptake against CXCL12 in a dose-dependent manner. Further, microPET images of [18F]5 exhibits preferential accumulation of radioactivity in the lesions of λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema, human head and neck cancer orthotopic xenograft, and metastatic lung cancer of each mouse model.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Lipidated α/Sulfono-α-AA heterogeneous peptides as antimicrobial
           agents for MRSA
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Sylvia Singh, Minghui Wang, Ruixuan Gao, Peng Teng, Timothy Odom, En Zhang, Hai Xu, Jianfeng CaiThough antibiotics have been used for decades to treat bacterial infections, there is a great need for new treatment methods. Bacteria are becoming resistant to conventional antibiotics, as is the case with Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Herein we report the design of a series of lipidated α/Sulfono-α-AA heterogeneous peptides as mimics for Host Defense Peptides (HDPs). Utilizing fluorescence microscopy and depolarization techniques, our compounds demonstrate the ability to kill Gram-positive bacteria through cell membrane disruption. This mechanism of action makes it difficult for bacteria to develop resistance. Further time kill studies and hemolytic assays have also proven these compounds to be efficient in their ability to eradicate bacteria cells while remaining non-toxic to human red blood cells. This new class of peptidomimetics shows promise for the future antibiotic treatment of MRSA.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Metachromins X and Y from a marine sponge Spongia sp. and their effects on
           cell cycle progression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Yuki Hitora, Kentaro Takada, Yuji Ise, Sau Pinn Woo, Seiya Inoue, Naoki Mori, Hirosato Takikawa, Shohei Nakamukai, Shigeru Okada, Shigeki MatsunagaNew sesquiterpene quinones, metachromins X (1) and Y (2), together with the known metachromins C (3), J (4), and T (5), were isolated as inhibitors of cell cycle progression in the HeLa/Fucci2 cells. The structure of 1 was assigned by spectroscopic data and confirmed by a total synthesis. The planar structure of 2 was determined by interpretation of spectroscopic data, whereas its absolute configuration was analyzed by a combination of chiral HPLC and CD spectroscopy. Metachromins X (1) and C (3) arrested the cell cycle progression of HeLa/Fucci2 cells at S/G2/M phase.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Identification of Potent Pyrazole Based APELIN Receptor (APJ) Agonists
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Sanju Narayanan, Vineetha Vasukuttan, Sudarshan Rajagopal, Rangan Maitra, Scott P. RunyonThe apelinergic system comprises the apelin receptor and its cognate apelin and elabela peptide ligands of various lengths. This system has become an increasingly attractive target for pulmonary and cardiometabolic diseases. Small molecule regulators of this receptor with good drug-like properties are needed. Recently, we discovered a novel pyrazole based small molecule agonist 8 of APJ (EC50 = 21.5 µM, Ki = 5.2 µM) through focused screening which was further optimized to initial lead 9 (EC50 = 0.800 µM, Ki = 1.3 µM). In our efforts to synthesize more potent agonists and to explore the structural features important for apelin receptor agonism, we carried out structural modifications at N1 of the pyrazole core as well as the amino acid side-chain of 9. Systematic modifications at these two positions provided potent small molecule agonists exhibiting EC50 values of < 100 nM. Recruitment of β-arrestin as a measure of desensitization potential of select compounds was also investigated. Functional selectivity was a feature of several compounds with a bias towards calcium mobilization over β-arrestin recruitment. These compounds may be suitable as tools for in vivo studies of APJ function.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Identification of novel inhibitors for the tyrosyl-DNA-phosphodiesterase 1
           (Tdp1) mutant SCAN1 using virtual screening
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): E.M. Mamontova, A.L. Zakharenko, O.D. Zakharova, N.S. Dyrkheeva, K.P. Volcho, J. Reynisson, H.J. Arabshahi, N.F. Salakhutdinov, O.I. LavrikSpinocerebellar ataxia syndrome with axonal neuropathy (SCAN1) is a debilitating neurological disease that is caused by the mutation the Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) DNA repair enzyme. The crucial His493 in TDP1’s binding site is replaced with an arginine amino acid residue rendering the enzyme dysfunctional. A virtual screen was performed against the homology model of SCAN1 and seventeen compounds were identified and tested in a novel SCAN1 specific biochemical assay. Six compounds showed activity with IC50 values between 3.5 and 25.1 µM. The most active ligand 5 (3.5 µM) is a dicoumarin followed by a close structural analogue 6 at 6.0 µM. A less potent series of β-carbolines (14 and 15) was found with potency in the mid-teens. According to molecular modelling an excellent fit for the active ligands into the binding pocket is predicted. To the best of our knowledge, data on inhibitors of the mutant form of TDP1 has not been reported previously. The virtual hits were also tested for wild type TDP1 activity and all six SCAN1 inhibitors are potent for the former, e.g., ligand 5 has a measured IC50 at 99 nM.In the last decade, TDP1 is considered as a promising target for adjuvant therapy against cancer in combination with Topoisomerase 1 poisons. The active ligands are mostly non-toxic to cancer cell lines A-549, T98G and MCF-7 as well as the immortalized WI-38 human fetal lung cells. Furthermore, ligands 5 and 7, show promising synergy in conjunction with topotecan, a clinically used topoisomerase 1 anticancer drug. The active ligands 5, 7, 14 and 15 have a good balance of the physicochemical properties required for oral bioavailability making the excellent candidates for further development.Graphical abstractChemical structure of the dicoumarine compound 5, the most active against SCAN1 and TDP1 (left). Predicted hydrogen bonding interactions of 5 with His263, Lys265 and Arg493 indicated by dashed green lines (right).Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • A scaffold replacement approach towards new sirtuin 2 inhibitors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Tina Seifert, Marcus Malo, Tarja Kokkola, E. Johanna L. Stéen, Kristian Meinander, Erik A.A. Wallén, Elina M. Jarho, Kristina LuthmanSirtuins (SIRT1–SIRT7) are an evolutionary conserved family of NAD+-dependent protein deacylases regulating the acylation state of ε-N-lysine residues of proteins thereby controlling key biological processes. Numerous studies have found association of the aberrant enzymatic activity of SIRTs with various diseases like diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Previously, we have shown that substituted 2-alkyl-chroman-4-one/chromone derivatives can serve as selective inhibitors of SIRT2 possessing an antiproliferative effect in two human cancer cell lines. In this study, we have explored the bioisosteric replacement of the chroman-4-one/chromone core structure with different less lipophilic bicyclic scaffolds to overcome problems associated to poor physiochemical properties due to a highly lipophilic substitution pattern required for achieve a good inhibitory effect. Various new derivatives based on the quinolin-4(1H)-one scaffold, bicyclic secondary sulfonamides or saccharins were synthesized and evaluated for their SIRT inhibitory effect. Among the evaluated scaffolds, the benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide-based compounds showed the highest SIRT2 inhibitory activity. Molecular modeling studies gave insight into the binding mode of the new scaffold-replacement analogues.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Small Molecules Targeting HIF-1α Pathway for Cancer Therapy in Recent
           Years
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Wendi Tang, Guisen ZhaoHypoxia is a very important feature of tumors, especially for solid tumors, and it was demonstrated highly relevant with aggressive biology, including anti-apoptosis, vasculogenesis and radiation or chemotherapy resistance. Correlatively, hypoxia-inducible factors 1-α (HIF-1α), which the wildest contribution of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), plays a crucial role in the adaptation of tumor cells to hypoxia via upregulating the transcription of the oncogene and downregulating the transcription of suppressor gene. This review focus on the HIF-1α regulation including hydroxylation and acetylation, growth factors pathway, heat shock proteins(HSPs), and small molecule inhibitors for HIF-1α directly or indirectly.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • 6-substituted+2́-deoxy-9-(β)-d-ribofuranosylpurine+derivatives+as+potential+plant+growth+regulators&rft.title=Bioorganic+&+Medicinal+Chemistry&rft.issn=0968-0896&rft.date=&rft.volume=">New aromatic 6-substituted 2́-deoxy-9-(β)-d-ribofuranosylpurine
           derivatives as potential plant growth regulators
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Vlasta Matušková, Marek Zatloukal, Jiří Voller, Jiří Grúz, Zuzana Pěkná, Katarína Briestenská, Jela Mistríková, Lukáš Spíchal, Karel Doležal, Miroslav StrnadCytokinins are naturally occurring substances that act as plant growth regulators and promote plant growth and development, including shoot initiation, branching, apical dominance and leaf senescence. Aromatic cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) has been widely used in micropropagation systems and biotechnology. However, its 9-glucoside (BAP9G) accumulates in explants, causing root inhibition and growth heterogenity. To overcome BAP disadvantages, a series of ring-substituted 2́-deoxy-9-(β)-d-ribofuranosylpurine derivatives was prepared and examined in different classical cytokinin bioassays. Amaranthus, senescence and tobacco callus bioassays were employed to provide details of cytokinin activity of 2́-deoxy-9-(β)-d-ribosides compared to their respective free bases and ribosides. The prepared derivatives were also tested for their recognition by cytokinin receptors of Arabidopsis thaliana AHK3 and CRE1/AHK4. The ability of aromatic N6-substituted adenine-2́-deoxy-9-(β)-d-ribosides to promote plant growth and delay senescence was increased considerably and, in contrast to BAP, no loss of cytokinin activity at higher concentrations was observed. The presence of a 2́-deoxyribosyl moiety at the N9-position led to an increase in cytokinin activities in comparison to the free bases and ribosides. The antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity and effect on the MHV-68 gammaherpesvirus strain were also examined.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Identification of small-molecule urea derivatives as novel NAMPT
           inhibitors via pharmacophore-based virtual screening
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Fikriye Ozgencil, Gokcen Eren, Yesim Ozkan, Sezen Guntekin-Ergun, Rengul Cetin-AtalayNicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) catalyzes the condensation of nicotinamide (NAM) with 5-phosphoribosyl-1-prophosphate (PRPP) to yield nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a rate limiting enzyme in a mammalian salvage pathway of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) synthesis. Recently, intracellular NAD+ has received substantial attention due to the recent discovery that several enzymes including poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), mono(ADP-ribose) transferases (ARTs), and sirtuins (SIRTs), use NAD+ as a substrate, suggesting that intracellular NAD+ level may regulate cytokine production, metabolism, and aging through these enzymes. NAMPT is found to be upregulated in various types of cancer, and given its importance in the NAD+ salvage pathway, NAMPT is considered as an attractive target for the development of new cancer therapies. In this study, the reported NAMPT inhibitors bearing amide, cyanoguanidine, and urea scaffolds were used to generate pharmacophore models and pharmacophore-based virtual screening studies were performed against ZINC database. Following the filtering steps, ten hits were identified and evaluated for their in vitro NAMPT inhibitory effects. Compounds GF4 (NAMPT IC50=2.15±0.22 μM) and GF8 (NAMPT IC50=7.31±1.59 μM) were identified as new urea-typed inhibitors of NAMPT which also displayed cytotoxic activities against human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line with IC50 values of 15.20±1.28 and 24.28±6.74 μM, respectively.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Bioothogonally applicable, π-extended rhodamines for super-resolution
           microscopy imaging for intracellular proteins
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Alexandra Egyed, Attila Kormos, Bianka Söveges, Krisztina Németh, Péter KeleA set of new, bioorthogonally applicable tetrazine and polarity modulated double fluorogenic π-extended rhodamine probes were synthesized. Fluorogenicity and cell labeling experiments suggest that combination of the two quenching mechanisms allows low background labeling schemes even for probes with poor reactivity based fluorogenicity. Two of the new probes were tested in biological labeling schemes of intracellular proteins both in fixed and live cells. The labeled cells were subsequently subjected to confocal and STED imaging. These studies revealed that the rhodaindanes tested are membrane permeable, can stand the challenging environment of live cells and suitable for bioorthogonal, site-specific labeling of intracellular proteins. Furthermore, we found that both probes are suitable for subdiffraction imaging of the labeled structures using STED microscopy.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Selenium bioisosteric replacement of adenosine derivatives promoting
           adiponectin secretion increases the binding affinity to peroxisome
           proliferator-activated receptor δ
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Seungchan An, Jinha Yu, Hongseok Choi, Hyejin Ko, Sungjin Ahn, Jeayoung C. Shin, Jeong Joo Pyo, Lak Shin Jeong, Minsoo NohN6-(3-Iodobenzyl)adenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide (1a, IB-MECA) exhibited polypharmacological characteristics targeting A3 adenosine receptor (AR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, and PPARδ, simultaneously. The bioisosteric replacement of oxygen in 4′-oxoadenosines with selenium significantly increased the PPARδ-binding activity. 2-Chloro-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-4′-selenoadenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide (3e) and related 4′-selenoadenosine derivatives significantly enhanced adiponectin biosynthesis during adipogenesis in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). The PPARδ-binding affinity, but not the A3 AR binding affinity, of 4′-selenoadenosine derivatives correlated with their adiponectin secretion stimulation. Compared with the sugar ring of 4′-oxoadenosine, that of 4′-selenoadenosine was more favorable in forming the South sugar conformation. In the molecular docking simulation, the South sugar conformation of compound 3e formed additional hydrogen bonds inside the PPARδ ligand-binding pocket compared with the North conformation. Therefore, the sugar conformation of 4′-selenoadenosine PPAR modulators affects the ligand binding affinity against PPARδ.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Variations in the C-unit of bedaquiline provides analogues with improved
           biology and pharmacology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Hamish S. Sutherland, Amy S.T. Tong, Peter J. Choi, Adrian Blaser, Scott G. Franzblau, Christopher B. Cooper, Anna M. Upton, Manisha Lotlikar, William A. Denny, Brian D. PalmerAnalogues of the anti-tuberculosis drug bedaquiline, bearing a 3,5-dimethoxy-4-pyridyl C-unit, retain high anti-bacterial potency yet exert less inhibition of the hERG potassium channel, in vitro, than the parent compound. Two of these analogues (TBAJ-587 and TBAJ-876) are now in preclinical development. The present study further explores structure-activity relationships across a range of related 3,5-disubstituted-4-pyridyl C-unit bedaquiline analogues of greatly varying lipophilicity (clogP from 8.16 to 1.89). This broader class shows similar properties to the 3,5-dimethoxy-4-pyridyl series, being substantially more potent in vitro and equally active in an in vivo (mouse) model than bedaquiline, while retaining a lower cardiovascular risk profile through greatly attenuated hERG inhibition.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Pyrazolopyrimide library screening in glioma cells discovers highly potent
           antiproliferative leads that target the PI3K/mTOR pathway
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Teresa Valero, Daniel J. Baillache, Craig Fraser, Samuel H. Myers, Asier Unciti-BrocetaThe search for novel targeted inhibitors active on glioblastoma multiforme is crucial to develop new treatments for this unmet clinical need. Herein, we report the results from a screening campaign against glioma cell lines using a proprietary library of 100 structurally-related pyrazolopyrimidines. Data analysis identified a family of compounds featuring a 2-amino-1,3-benzoxazole moiety (eCF307 to eCF334) for their antiproliferative properties in the nM range. These results were validated in patient-derived cells. Available kinase inhibition profile pointed to blockade of the PI3K/mTOR pathway as being responsible for the potent activity of the hits. Combination studies demonstrated synergistic activity by inhibiting both PI3Ks and mTOR with selective inhibitors. Based on the structure activity relationships identified in this study, five new derivatives were synthesized and tested, which exhibited potent activity against glioma cells but not superior to the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor and lead compound of the screening eCF324.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Suitable fusion of N-terminal heptad repeats to achieve covalently
           stabilized potent N-peptide inhibitors of HIV-1 infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Wenqing Lai, Chao Wang, Jun Yan, Huanliang Liu, Wei Zhang, Bencheng Lin, Zhuge XiN-terminal heptad repeat (NHR)-derived peptide (N-peptide) fusion inhibitors, which are derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope glycoprotein 41 (gp41), are limited by aggregation and unstable trimer conformation. However, they could function as potent inhibitors of viral infection by forming a coiled-coil structure covalently stabilized by interchain disulfide bonds. We previously synthesized N-peptides with potent anti-HIV-1 activity and high stability by coiled-coil fusion and covalent stabilization. Here, we attempted to study the effects of NHRs of chimeric N-peptides by fusing de novo coiled-coil isopeptide bridge-tethered T21 peptides of different NHR lengths. Peptides (T21N23)3 and (T21N36)3 was a more potent HIV-1 fusion inhibitor than (T21N17)3. The site of isopeptide bond formation was precisely controlled and had little influence on N-peptide properties. The N-peptide (T21N36)3, which had a similar conformation as the NHR trimer and interacted well with the C34 peptide, may be useful for screening other C-peptides and small-molecule fusion inhibitors, and for studying the interactions between the NHR trimer and C-terminal heptad repeats.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • 6-Hydrophobic aromatic substituent pyrimethamine analogues as potential
           antimalarials for pyrimethamine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 27, Issue 24Author(s): Siriporn Saepua, Karoon Sadorn, Jarunee Vanichtanankul, Tosapol Anukunwithaya, Roonglawan Rattanajak, Danoo Vitsupakorn, Sumalee Kamchonwongpaisan, Yongyuth Yuthavong, Chawanee ThongpanchangThe series of des-Cl (unsubstituted) and m-Cl phenyl analogues of PYR with various flexible 6-substituents were synthesized and studied for the binding affinities with highly resistant quadruple mutant (QM) DHFR. The derivatives carrying 4 atoms linker with a terminal carboxyl substituted on the aromatic ring exhibited good inhibition to the QM enzyme and also showed effective antimalarial activities against resistant P. falciparum bearing the mutant enzymes with relatively low cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. The X-ray crystallographic analysis of the enzyme-inhibitor complexes suggested that the hydrophobic substituent at 6-position was accommodated well in the hydrophobic pocket and the optimal length of the flexible linker could effectively promote the binding of the terminal carboxyl group to the key amino acid residues, Arg59 and Arg122.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Graphical abstract TOC
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 27, Issue 24Author(s):
       
  • Selective toxicity of chrysin on mitochondria isolated from liver of a HCC
           rat model
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 27, Issue 24Author(s): Enayatollah Seydi, Zahra Rahimpour, Ahmad Salimi, Jalal PourahmadFlavonoids are natural compounds that show various biological effects, such as the anti-cancer effect. Chrysin is a flavonoid compound found in honey and propolis. Studies have shown that chrysin has anti-cancer activity due to induction of apoptosis signaling. In the present study, we examined the cytotoxic effect of chrysin against liver mitochondria obtained from the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) rat model. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) was used for induction of HCC. Mitochondria were isolated from liver hepatocytes using differential centrifugation. Then, hepatocytes and mitochondria markers related to apoptosis signaling were investigated. Our finding indicated an increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, collapse in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), swelling in mitochondria, and cytochrome c release (about 1.6 fold) after exposure of mitochondria obtained from the HCC rats group with chrysin (10, 20, and 40 µM) compared to the normal rats group. Furthermore, Chrysin was able to increase caspase-3 activity in the HCC rats group (about 2.4 fold) compared to the normal rats group. According to the results, we proposed that chrysin could be considered as a promising complementary therapeutic candidate for the treatment of HCC, but it requires a further in vivo and clinical studies.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Exploration of zinc-binding groups for the design of inhibitors for the
           oxytocinase subfamily of M1 aminopeptidases
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 27, Issue 24Author(s): Sofia Tsoukalidou, Magdalini Kakou, Ioannis Mavridis, Despoina Koumantou, Vito Calderone, Marco Fragai, Efstratios Stratikos, Athanasios Papakyriakou, Dionisios VourloumisThe oxytocinase subfamily of M1 aminopeptidases consists of three members, ERAP1, ERAP2 and IRAP that play several important biological roles, including key functions in the generation of antigenic peptides that drive human immune responses. They represent emerging targets for pharmacological manipulation of the immune system, albeit lack of selective inhibitors is hampering these efforts. Most of the previously explored small-molecule binders target the active site of the enzymes via strong interactions with the catalytic zinc(II) atom and, while achieving increased potency, they suffer in selectivity. Continuing our earlier efforts on weaker zinc(II) binding groups (ZBG), like the 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid derivatives (DABA), we herein synthesized and biochemically evaluated analogues of nine potentially weak ZBGs, based on differential substitutions of functionalized pyridinone- and pyridinethione-scaffolds, nicotinic-, isonicotinic-, aminobenzoic- and hydrazinobenzoic-acids. Crystallographic analysis of two analogues in complex with a metalloprotease (MMP-12) revealed unexpected binding topologies, consistent with the observed affinities. Our results suggest that the potency of the compounds as inhibitors of ERAP1, ERAP2 and IRAP is primarily driven by the occupation of active-site specificity pockets and their proper orientation within the enzymes.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Synthesis of benzopyran derivatives as PPARα and/or PPARγ
           activators
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 27, Issue 24Author(s): Almudena Bermejo, Isabel Barrachina, Noureddine El Aouad, Xavier Franck, Nadia Chahboune, Inmaculada Andreu, Bruno Figadère, Laura Vila, Nathalie Hennuyer, Bart Staels, Catherine Dacquet, Daniel H. Caignard, María-Jesús Sanz, Diego Cortes, Nuria CabedoWe describe the synthesis of 26 compounds, small polycerasoidol analogs, that are Lipinski’s rule-of-five compliant. In order to confirm key structural features to activate PPARα and/or PPARγ, we have adopted structural modifications in the following parts: (i) the benzopyran core (hydrophobic nucleus) by benzopyran-4-one, dihydrobenzopyran or benzopyran-4-ol; (ii) the side chain at 2-position by shortening to C3, C4 and C5-carbons versus C-9-carbons of polycerasoidol; (iii) the carboxylic group (polar head) by oxygenated groups (hydroxyl, acetoxy, epoxide, ester, aldehyde) or non-oxygenated motifs (allyl and alkyl). Benzopyran-4-ones 6, 12, 13 and 17 as well as dihydrobenzopyrans 22, 24 and 25 were able to activate hPPARα, whereas benzopyran-4-one (7) with C5-carbons in the side chain exhibited hPPARγ agonism. According to our previous docking studies, SAR confirm that the hydrophobic nucleus (benzopyran-4-one or dihydrobenzopyran) is essential to activate PPARα and/or PPARγ, and the flexible linker (side alkyl chain) should containg at least C5-carbon atoms to activate PPARγ. By contrast, the polar head (“carboxylic group”) tolerated several oxygenated groups but also non-oxygenated motifs. Taking into account these key structural features, small polycerasoidol analogs might provide potential active molecules useful in the treatment of dyslipidemia and/or type 2 diabetes.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The adduct formation between the thioguanine-polyamine ligands and DNA
           with the AP site under UVA irradiated and non-irradiated conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 27, Issue 24Author(s): Yukiko S. Abe, Shigeki SasakiThe AP sites are representative of DNA damage and known as an intermediate in the base excision repair (BER) pathway which is involved in the repair of damaged nucleobases by reactive oxygen species, UVA irradiation, and DNA alkylating agents. Therefore, it is expected that the inhibition or modulation of the AP site repair pathway may be a new type of anticancer drug. In this study, we investigated the effects of the thioguanine-polyamine ligands (SG-ligands) on the affinity and the reactivity for the AP site under UVA irradiated and non-irradiated conditions. The SG-ligands have a photo-reactivity with the A-F-C sequence where F represents a tetrahydrofuran AP site analogue. Interestingly, the SG-ligands promoted the β-elimination of the AP site followed by the formation of a covalent bond with the β-eliminated fragment without UVA irradiation.Graphical abstractTo create your abstract, type over the instructions in the template box below. Fonts or abstract dimensions should not be changed or altered.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Identification of neomacrophorins isolated from Trichoderma sp. 1212-03 as
           proteasome inhibitors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 27, Issue 24Author(s): Shota Uesugi, Yuna Honmura, Mami Nishiyama, Kazuaki Kusakabe, Akio Tonouchi, Tetsuro Yamashita, Masaru Hashimoto, Ken-ichi KimuraNeomacrophorins I-III (1–3) and X have previously been isolated from Trichoderma sp. 1212-03. Their mode of action against cancer cells and the mechanism of biosynthesis of the characteristic [4.4.3] propellane framework in neomacrophorin X have not been reported. The isolation and characterization of neomacrophorins IV (4), V (5), and VI (6) is reported. Epoxyquinones 1, 4, and 6 potently induced apoptotic cell death in human acute promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells, while epoxysemiquinols 2, 3, and 5 showed weak activity. This indicates that the epoxyquinone moiety is crucial for apoptosis-inducing activities of neomacrophorins. We also found that neomacrophorins inhibit proteasome in vitro, and 1, 4, and 6 induced significant accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in HL60 cells. These activities were completely suppressed by a nucleophile, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). The analysis of reaction mechanisms using LC-MS suggested that C2′ and C7′ of neomacrophorins could be Michael acceptors in the reaction with NAC methyl ester (NACM). These findings indicated that the electrophilic properties of neomacrophorins are responsible for both their potent biological effects and the biosynthesis of unique [4.4.3] propellane framework in neomacrophorin X.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Graphical Abstract Contents Continued
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 27, Issue 24Author(s):
       
  • Synthesis and elaboration of N-methylpyrrolidone as an acetamide fragment
           substitute in bromodomain inhibition
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 27, Issue 24Author(s): J.P. Hilton-Proctor, O. Ilyichova, Z. Zheng, I.G. Jennings, R.W. Johnstone, J. Shortt, S.J. Mountford, M.J. Scanlon, P.E. ThompsonN-Methylpyrrolidone is a solvent molecule which has been shown to compete with acetyl-lysine-containing peptides for binding to bromodomains. From crystallographic studies, it has also been shown to closely mimic the acetamide binding motif in several bromodomains, but has not yet been directly pursued as a fragment in bromodomain inhibition. In this paper, we report the elaboration of N-methylpyrrolidone as a potential lead in fragment-based drug design. Firstly, N-methylpyrrolidone was functionalised to provide points for chemical elaboration. Then, the moiety was incorporated into analogues of the reported bromodomain inhibitor, Olinone. X-ray crystallography revealed that the modified analogues showed comparable binding affinity and structural mimicry to Olinone in the bromodomain binding site.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Structure optimization and bioactivity evaluation of ThDP analogs
           targeting cyanobacterial pyruvate dehydrogenase E1
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 27, Issue 24Author(s): Jiangtao Feng, Haifeng He, Yuan Zhou, Meng Cai, Hao Peng, Honglin Liu, Lei Liu, Lingling Feng, Hongwu HeHarmful cyanobacteria bloom (HCB) has occurred frequently in recent years and it is urgent to develop novel algicides to deal with this problem. In this paper, a series of novel thiamin diphosphate (ThDP) analogs 5a−5g were designed and synthesized targeting cyanobacterial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1 (Cy-PDHc E1). Our results showed that compounds 5a−5g have higher inhibitory activities against Cy-PDHc E1 (IC50 9.56–3.48 µM) and higher inhibitory activities against two model cyanobacteria strains Synechocystis sp PCC6803 (EC50 2.03–1.58 µM) and Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB905 (EC50 1.86–0.95 µM). Especially, compound 5b displayed highest inhibitory activities (IC50 = 3.48 µM) against Cy-PDHc E1 and powerful inhibitory activities against cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp PCC6803 (EC50 = 1.58 µM) and Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB905 (EC50 = 1.04 µM). Moreover, the inhibitory activities of compound 5b were even higher than those of copper sulfate (EC50 = 2.02 and 1.71 µM separately) which has been widely used as algicide against cyanobacteria PCC6803 and FACHB905. The more important was that compound 5b display much higher inhibitory selectivity between Cy-PDHc E1 (Inhibitory rate 97.4%) and porcine PDHc E1 (Inhibitory rate 11.8%) under the same concentration (100 μM). The inhibition kinetic experiment and molecular docking research showed that compound 5b can inhibit Cy-PDHc E1 by occupying the ThDP-binding pocket and then blocking Cy-PDHc E1 bound to ThDP as competitive inhibitor. The imagines of SEM and TEM showed that cellular microstructures were heavily destroyed under compound 5b stress. Our results demonstrated compound 5b could be taken as a potential lead compound targeting Cy-PDHc E1 to obtain environment-friendly algicide for harmful cyanobacterial blooms control.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Identifying new lead structures to enhance tolerance towards drought
           stress via high-throughput screening giving crops a quantum of solace
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 27, Issue 24Author(s): Jens Frackenpohl, Linn Schneider, Luka J.B. Decker, Jan Dittgen, Franz Fenkl, Christian Fischer, Jana Franke, Joerg Freigang, Rahel Getachew, Susana M. Gonzalez Fernandez-Nino, Hendrik Helmke, Martin J. Hills, Sabine Hohmann, Jochen Kleemann, Karoline Kurowski, Gudrun Lange, Peter Luemmen, Nicole Meyering, Fabien Poree, Dirk SchmutzlerNovel synthetic lead structures interacting with RCAR/(PYR/PYL) receptor proteins were identified based on the results of a high-throughput screening campaign of a large compound library followed by focused SAR studies of the three most promising hit clusters. Whilst indolinylmethyl sulfonamides 8y,z and phenylsulfonyl ethylenediamines 9y,z showed strong affinities for RCAR/ (PYR/PYL) receptor proteins in wheat, thiotriazolyl acetamides 7f,s exhibited promising efficacy against drought stress in vivo (wheat, corn and canola) combined with confirmed target interaction in wheat and arabidopsis thaliana. Remarkably, binding affinities of several representatives of 8 and 9 were on the same level or even better than the essential plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA).Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Dual mode of binding of anti cancer drug epirubicin to G-quadruplex
           [d-(TTAGGGT)]4 containing human telomeric DNA sequence induces thermal
           stabilization
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 27, Issue 24Author(s): Shailja Raje, Kumud Pandav, Ritu BarthwalEpirubicin exerts its anti cancer action by blocking DNA/RNA synthesis and inhibition of topoisomerase-II enzyme. Recent reports on its influence on telomere maintenance, suggest interaction with G-quadruplex DNA leading to multiple strategies of action. The binding of epirubicin with parallel stranded inter molecular G-quadruplex DNA [d-(TTAGGGT)]4 comprising human telomeric DNA sequence TTAGGG was investigated by absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The epirubicin binds as monomer to G-quadruplex DNA with affinity, Kb1 = 3.8 × 106 M−1 and Kb2 = 2.7 × 106 M−1, at two independent sites externally. The specific interactions induce thermal stabilization of DNA by 13.2–26.3 °C, which is likely to come in the way of telomere association with telomerase enzyme and contribute to epirubicin-induced apoptosis in cancer cell lines. The findings pave the way for drug designing in view of the possibility of altering substituent groups on anthracyclines to enhance efficacy using alternate mechanism of its interaction with G4 DNA, causing interference in telomere maintenance pathway by inducing telomere dysfunction.Graphical abstractStabilization of G-quadruplex DNA [d-(TTAGGGT)]4 comprising human telomeric DNA sequence upon binding of epirubicin at two sites may hamper telomere association with telomerase enzyme leading to epirubicin induced apoptosis, it being an alternate strategy for anti cancer action.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Design, synthesis and biological activity of a novel ethylenediamine
           derivatives as H1 receptor antagonists
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 27, Issue 24Author(s): Shiyang Zhou, Gangliang Huang, Guangying ChenIn this study, a series of novel ethylenediamine compounds were obtained by structural modification of the lead compounds with thonzylamine, and using the principle of modifying by bioisostere formation and modification with alkyl groups. In vitro assay, the biological activities showed that the target compounds have good properties in inhibiting mast cell degranulation and releasing histamine and β-aminohexidase, such as the compounds 5c, 5g, 5k, 5l and 5o, especially of compound 5k to mast cell degranulation is IC50 = 0.0106 ± 0.001 μmol⋅L−1, histamine release was IC50 = 0.0192 ± 0.005 μmol⋅L−1 and β-hexosaminidase release was IC50 = 0.0455 ± 0.002 μmol⋅L−1 in vitro. At the same time, in vivo biological activities assay results showed that have a good Histamie induce bronchospasm effect with relatively long duration and good protective effect in vivo, among which the protective effect of compound 5k was 79.74 ± 0.30%, compounds 5c, 5g, 5k, 5l and 5o could inhibit the capillary permeability of increasing which were caused by histamine.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Graphical abstract TOC
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 December 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 27, Issue 24Author(s):
       
  • Diversity & tractability revisited in collaborative small molecule
           phenotypic screening library design
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Brian R. Lahue, Meir Glick, Matthew Tudor, Scott Arne Johnson, Janet Diratsouian, Mary Jo Wildey, Marybeth Burton, Robert Mazzola, Anne Mai WassermannIdentification of purposeful chemical matter on a broad range of drug targets is of high importance to the pharmaceutical industry. However, disease-relevant but more complex hit-finding plans require flexibility regarding the subset of the compounds that we screen. Herein we describe a strategy to design high-quality small molecule screening subsets of two different sizes to cope with a rapidly changing early discovery portfolio. The approach taken balances chemical tractability, chemical diversity and biological target coverage. Furthermore, using surveys, we actively involved chemists within our company in the selection process of the diversity decks to ensure current medicinal chemistry principles were incorporated. The chemist surveys revealed that not all published PAINS substructure alerts are considered productive by the medicinal chemistry community and in agreement with previously published results from other institutions, QED scores tracked quite well with chemists’ notions of chemical attractiveness.Graphical abstractTo create your abstract, type over the instructions in the template box below. Fonts or abstract dimensions should not be changed or altered.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Preparation and Biological Evaluation of BACE1 Inhibitors: Leveraging
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Leonard L. Winneroski, Jon A. Erickson, Steven J. Green, Jose E. Lopez, Stephanie L. Stout, Warren J. Porter, David E. Timm, James E. Audia, Mario Barberis, James P. Beck, Leonard N. Boggs, Anthony R. Borders, Robert D. Boyer, Richard A. Brier, Erik J. Hembre, Jörg Hendle, Pablo Garcia-Losada, Jose Miguel Minguez, Brian M. Mathes, Patrick C. MayInhibition of BACE1 has become an important strategy in the quest for disease modifying agents to slow the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. We previously reported the fragment-based discovery of LY2811376, the first BACE1 inhibitor reported to demonstrate robust reduction of human CSF Aβ in a Phase I clinical trial. We also reported on the discovery of LY2886721, a potent BACE1 inhibitor that reached phase 2 clinical trials. Herein we describe the preparation and structure activity relationships (SAR) of a series of BACE1 inhibitors utilizing trans-cyclopropyl moieties as conformational constraints. The design, details of the stereochemically complex organic synthesis, and biological activity of these BACE1 inhibitors is described.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The architecture of hydrogen and sulfur σ-hole interactions explain
           differences in the inhibitory potency of C-β-D-glucopyranosyl thiazoles,
           imidazoles and an N-β-D glucopyranosyl tetrazole for human liver glycogen
           phosphorylase and offer new insights to structure-based design
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Efthimios Kyriakis, Aikaterini G. Karra, Olga Papaioannou, Theodora Solovou, Vassiliki T. Skamnaki, Panagiota G.V. Liggri, Spyros E. Zographos, Eszter Szennyes, Éva Bokor, Sándor Kun, Anna-Maria G. Psarra, László Somsák, Demetres D. LeonidasC-Glucopyranosyl imidazoles, thiazoles, and an N-glucopyranosyl tetrazole were assessed in vitro and ex vivo for their inhibitory efficiency against isoforms of glycogen phosphorylase (GP; a validated pharmacological target for the development of anti-hyperglycaemic agents). Imidazoles proved to be more potent inhibitors than the corresponding thiazoles or the tetrazole. The most potent derivative has a 2-naphthyl substituent, a Ki value of 3.2 µM for hepatic glycogen phosphorylase, displaying also 60% inhibition of GP activity in HepG2 cells, compared to control vehicle treated cells, at 100 μM. X-Ray crystallography studies of the protein - inhibitor complexes revealed the importance of the architecture of inhibitor associated hydrogen bonds or sulfur σ-hole bond interactions to Asn284 OD1, offering new insights to structure-based design efforts. Moreover, while the 2-glucopyranosyl-tetrazole seems to bind differently from the corresponding 1,2,3-triazole compound, the two inhibitors are equipotent.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Structure-activity relationship study of the pyridine moiety of
           isothiazolo[4,3-b]pyridines as antiviral agents targeting cyclin
           G-associated kinase
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Belén Martinez-Gualda, Szu-Yuan Pu, Mathy Froeyen, Piet Herdewijn, Shirit Einav, Steven De JonghePreviously, we reported the discovery of 3,6-disubstituted isothiazolo[4,3-b]pyridines as potent and selective cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK) inhibitors with promising antiviral activity. In this manuscript, the structure-activity relationship study was expanded to synthesis of isothiazolo[4,3-b]pyridines with modifications of the pyridine moiety. This effort led to the discovery of an isothiazolo[4,3-b]pyridine derivative with a 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl residue at position 5 that displayed low nanomolar GAK binding affinity and antiviral activity against dengue virus.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of
           8-(2-amino-1-hydroxyethyl)-6-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazine-3(4H)-one derivatives
           as potent β2-adrenoceptor agonists
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Ce Yi, Gang Xing, Siqi Wang, Xiaoran Li, Yichuang Liu, Jinyan Li, Bin Lin, Anthony Yiu-Ho Woo, Yuyang Zhang, Li Pan, Maosheng ChengA series of β2-adrenoceptor agonists with an 8-(2-amino-1-hydroxyethyl)-6-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazine-3(4H)-one moiety is presented. The stimulatory effects of the compounds on human β2-adrenoceptor and β1-adrenoceptor were characterized by a cell-based assay. Their smooth muscle relaxant activities were tested on isolated guinea pig trachea. Most of the compounds were found to be potent and selective agonists of the β2-adrenoceptor. One of the compounds, (R)-18c, possessed a strong β2-adrenoceptor agonistic effect with an EC50 value of 24 pM. It produced a full and potent airway smooth muscle relaxant effect same as olodaterol. Its onset of action was 3.5 min and its duration of action was more than 12 h in an in vitro guinea pig trachea model of bronchodilation. These results suggest that (R)-18c is a potential candidate for long-acting β2-AR agonists.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Development of novel phenoxy-diketopiperazine-type plinabulin derivatives
           as potent antimicrotubule agents based on the co-crystal structure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Zhongpeng Ding, Mingxu Ma, Changjiang Zhong, Shixiao Wang, Zhangyu Fu, Yingwei Hou, Yuqian Liu, Lili Zhong, Yanyan Chu, Feng Li, Cai Song, Yuxi Wang, Jinliang Yang, Wenbao LiThe co-crystal structure of Compound 6b with tubulin was prepared and solved for indicating the binding mode and for further optimization. Based on the co-crystal structures of tubulin with plinabulin and Compound 6b, a total of 27 novel A/B/C-rings plinabulin derivatives were designed and synthesized. Their biological activities were evaluated against human lung cancer NCI-H460 cell line. The optimum phenoxy-diketopiperazine-type Compound 6o exhibited high potent cytotoxicity (IC50 = 4.0 nM) through SAR study of three series derivatives, which was more potent than plinabulin (IC50 = 26.2 nM) and similar to Compound 6b (IC50 = 3.8 nM) against human lung cancer NCI-H460 cell line. Subsequently, the Compound 6o was evaluated against other four human cancer cell lines. Both tubulin polymerization assay and immunofluorescence assay showed that Compound 6o could inhibit microtubule polymerization efficiently. Furthermore, theoretical calculation of the physical properties and molecular docking were elucidated for these plinabulin derivatives. The binding mode of Compound 6o was similar to Compound 6b based on the result of molecular docking. The theoretical calculated LogPo/w and PCaco of Compound 6o were better than Compound 6b, which could enhance its cytostatic activity. Therefore, Compound 6o might be developed as a novel potent anti-microtubule agent.Graphical abstractTo create your abstract, type over the instructions in the template box below. Fonts or abstract dimensions should not be changed or altered.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Discovery of Novel Small Molecule Induced Selective Degradation of the
           Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal (BET) Bromodomain Protein BRD4 and BRD2
           with Cellular Potencies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Fei Jiang, Qingyun Wei, Huili Li, Hongmei Li, Yong Cui, Yu Ma, Haifang Chen, Peng Cao, Tao Lu, Yadong ChenThe BET proteins BRD2, BRD3, and BRD4 play important roles in transcriptional regulation and can be degraded by proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) for BET proteins. However, the lack of intra-BET proteins selectivity limits the scope of current degraders as probes for target validation and could lead to unwanted side effects or toxicity in a therapeutic setting. We describe herein the design, synthesis, and evaluation of PROTAC BET degraders, based on the BET inhibitor with selectivity for the first Bromodomain benzo[cd]indole-2-one, alkylamide linker and cereblon ligand thalidomide. Compound 15 potently and rapidly induces reversible, long-lasting, and unexpectedly selective removal of BRD4 and BRD2 over BRD3, which not only effectively inhibits cell growth in human acute leukemia cell lines, but also very effective in inhibiting solid tumors with low cytotoxic effect in the cell profiles of NCI 60 cell lines. Remarkable dependency on linker length was observed for BRD4-degrading and c-Myc-driven antiproliferative activities in acute myeloid leukemia cell line MV4-11. The small-molecular 15 represents a novel, potent, and selective class of BRD4 and BRD2 degraders for the development of therapeutics to treat cancers.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Discovery of novel nonpeptide small-molecule NRP1 antagonists: virtual
           screening, molecular simulation and structural modification
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Kewen Peng, Yu Li, Ying Bai, Teng Jiang, Huiyong Sun, Qihua Zhu, Yungen XuMultifaceted roles of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-neuropilin-1 (NRP1) interaction have been implicated in cancer, but reports on small-molecule inhibitors of VEGF-NRP1 interaction are scarce. Herein, we describe the identification of 1, a novel nonpeptide small-molecule NRP1 antagonist with moderate activity via structure-based virtual screening. Ensemble docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of 1 were carried out and an interesting binding model was obtained. We found that the “aromatic box” enclosed by Tyr297, Trp301 and Tyr353 of NRP1 is critical for NRP1-1 binding. Further structure modification of 1 based on the binding model derived from MD simulations resulted in the identification of 12a with significantly improved activity.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Generation of Highly Potent DYRK1A-Dependent Inducers of Human β-Cell
           Replication via Multi-Dimensional Compound Optimization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Paul A. Allegretti, Timothy M. Horton, Yassan Abdolazimi, Hannah P. Moeller, Benjamin Yeh, Matthew Caffet, Guillermina Michel, Mark Smith, Justin P. AnnesSmall molecule stimulation of β-cell regeneration has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for diabetes. Although chemical inhibition of dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) is sufficient to enhance β-cell replication, current lead compounds have inadequate cellular potency for in vivo application. Herein, we report the clinical stage anti-cancer kinase inhibitor OTS167 as a structurally novel, remarkably potent DYRK1A inhibitor and inducer of human β-cell replication. Unfortunately, OTS167’s target promiscuity and cytotoxicity curtails utility. To tailor kinase selectivity towards DYRK1A and reduce cytotoxicity we designed a library of fifty-one OTS167 derivatives based upon a modeled structure of the DYRK1A-OTS167 complex. Indeed, derivative characterization yielded several leads with exceptional DYRK1A inhibition and human β-cell replication promoting potencies but substantially reduced cytotoxicity. These compounds are the most potent human β-cell replication-promoting compounds yet described and exemplify the potential to purposefully leverage off-target activities of advanced stage compounds for a desired application.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Synthesis and antileishmanial activity of fluorinated rhodacyanine
           analogues: the ‘fluorine-walk’ analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Thitiya Lasing, Atchara Phumee, Padet Siriyasatien, Kantima Chitchak, Parichatr Vanalabhpatana, Kit-Kay Mak, Chew Hee Ng, Tirayut Vilaivan, Tanatorn KhotavivattanaIn a search for potent antileishmanial drug candidates, eighteen rhodacyanine analogues bearing fluorine or perfluoroalkyl substituents at various positions were synthesized. These compounds were tested for their inhibitory activities against Leishmania martiniquensis and L. orientalis. This ‘fluorine-walk’ analysis revealed that the introduction of fluorine atom at C-5, 6, 5’, or 6’ on the benzothiazole units led to significant enhancement of the activity, correlating with the less negative reduction potentials of the fluorinated analogues confirmed by the electrochemical study. On the other hand, -CF3 and –OCF3 groups were found to have detrimental effects, which agreed with the poor aqueous solubility predicted by the in silico ADMET analysis. In addition, some of the analogues including the difluorinated species showed exceptional potency against the promastigote and axenic amastigote stages (IC50 = 40-85 nM), with the activities surpassing both amphotericin B and miltefosine.Graphical abstractTo create your abstract, type over the instructions in the template box below. Fonts or abstract dimensions should not be changed or altered.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Synthesis and Evaluation of 2’-Dihalo Ribonucleotide Prodrugs with
           Activity against Hepatitis C Virus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): A. Chris Krueger, Hui-Ju Chen, John T. Randolph, Brian S. Brown, Geoff T. Halvorsen, Howard R. Heyman, Tongmei Li, Christopher C. Marvin, Jason P. Shanley, Eric A. Voight, Daniel A.J. Bow, Cecilia Van Handel, Vincent Peterkin, Robert A. Carr, DeAnne Stolarik, Tatyana Dekhtyar, Michelle L. Irvin, Preethi Krishnan, Rodger F. Henry, Rolf WagnerGraphical abstract for this articleHepatitis C virus (HCV) nucleoside inhibitors have been a key focus of nearly 2 decades of HCV drug research due to a high barrier to drug resistance and pan-genotypic activity profile provided by molecules in this drug class. Our investigations focused on several potent 2’-halogenated uridine-based HCV polymerase inhibitors, resulting in the discovery of novel 2’-deoxy-2’-dihalo-uridine analogs that are potent inhibitors in replicon assays for all genotypes. Further studies to improve in vivo performance of these nucleoside inhibitors identified aminoisobutyric acid ethyl ester (AIBEE) phosphoramidate prodrugs 18a and 18c, which provide high levels of the active triphosphate in dog liver. AIBEE prodrug 18c was compared with sofosbuvir (1) by co-dosing both compounds by oral administration in dog (5 mg/kg each) and measuring liver concentrations of the active triphosphate metabolite at both 4 and 24 hours post dosing. In this study, 18c provided liver triphosphate concentrations that were 6-fold higher than sofosbuvir (1) at both biopsy time points, suggesting that 18c could be a highly effective agent for treating HCV infected patients in the clinic.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
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    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 27, Issue 23Author(s):
       
  • Graphical Abstract Contents Continued
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 27, Issue 23Author(s):
       
  • Graphical abstract TOC
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 27, Issue 23Author(s):
       
  • Design, synthesis, and bioactivity of dihydropyrimidine derivatives as
           kinesin spindle protein inhibitors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Haytham O. Tawfik, Mervat H. El-Hamamsy, Nabaweya A. Sharafeldin, Tarek F. El-MoselhyA series of twenty-one 3,4-dihydropyrimidine derivatives bearing the heterocyclic 1,3-benzodioxole at position 4 in addition to different substituents at positions 2, 3 and 5 were designed and synthesized as monastrol analogs. The novel synthesized compounds were screened for their cytotoxic activity towards 60 cancer cell lines according to NCI (USA) protocol. Compounds 10b and 15 showed the best antitumor activity against most cell lines. Compound 15 was subsequently tested in 5-doses mode and displayed high selectivity towards CNS, prostate and leukemia subpanel with selectivity ratios of 22.30, 15.38 and 12.56, respectively at GI50 level. The IC50 of compounds 9d, 10b, 12, 15 and 16 against kinesin enzyme were 3.86 ± 0.12, 10.70 ± 0.35, 3.95 ± 0.12, 4.36 ± 0.14, and 14.07 ± 0.45 μM respectively, while the prototype compound, monastrol, reported IC50 value of 20 ± 0.42 μM. The safest compound among test compounds against normal cell line (HEK 293) is 10b with IC50 value of 62.02 ± 2.42 µM/ml in comparison to doxorubicin (IC50 = 11.34 ± 0.44 µM/ml). Cell cycle analysis of SNB-75 cells treated with compound 15 showed cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Further, the assay of levels of active caspase-3 and caspase-9 was investigated. Moreover, Molecular docking of compounds, 9d, 10b, 12, 15, 16, monastrol and mon-97 was performed to study the interaction between inhibitors and the kinesin spindle protein allosteric binding site.Graphical abstractCompound 15 possessed potent activity against most cell lines in NCI (USA) protocol at the single concentration of 10 μM. It proved to have promising inhibitory influence against kinesin enzyme assay. Cell cycle analysis of SNB-75 cell treated with 15 showed cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Discovery of amide-bridged pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as tumor targeted
           classical antifolates with selective uptake by folate receptor α and
           inhibition of de novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Weiguo Xiang, Aamod Dekhne, Arpit Doshi, Carrie O'Connor, Zhanjun Hou, Larry H. Matherly, Aleem GangjeeWe previously showed that classical 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine antifolates bind to folate receptor (FR) α and the target purine biosynthetic enzyme glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFTase) with different cis and trans conformations. In this study, we designed novel analogs of this series with an amide moiety in the bridge region that can adopt both the cis and trans lowest energy conformations. This provides entropic benefit, by restricting the number of side-chain conformations of the unbound ligand to those most likely to promote binding to FRα and the target enzyme required for antitumor activity. NMR of the most active compound 7 showed both cis and trans amide bridge conformations in ∼1:1 ratio. The bridge amide group in the best docked poses of 7 in the crystal structures of FRα and GARFTase adopted both cis and trans conformations, with the lowest energy conformations predicted by Maestro and evidenced by NMR within 1 kcal/mol. Compound 7 showed ∼3-fold increased inhibition of FRα-expressing cells over its non-restricted parent analog 1 and was selectively internalized by FRα over the reduced folate carrier (RFC), resulting in significant in vitro antitumor activity toward FRα-expressing KB human tumor cells. Antitumor activity of 7 was abolished by treating cells with adenosine but was incompletely protected by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICA) at higher drug concentrations, suggesting GARFTase and AICA ribonucleotide formyltransferase (AICARFTase) in de novo purine biosynthesis as the likely intracellular targets. GARFTase inhibition by compound 7 was confirmed by an in situ cell-based activity assay. Our results identify a “first-in-class” classical antifolate with a novel amide linkage between the scaffold and the side chain aryl L-glutamate that affords exclusive selectivity for transport via FRα over RFC and antitumor activity resulting from inhibition of GARFTase and likely AICARFTase. Compound 7 offers significant advantages over clinically used inhibitors of this class that are transported by the ubiquitous RFC, resulting in dose-limiting toxicities.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effect of self-assembly on antimicrobial activity of double-chain short
           cationic lipopeptides
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Oktawian Stachurski, Damian Neubauer, Izabela Małuch, Dariusz Wyrzykowski, Marta Bauer, Sylwia Bartoszewska, Wojciech Kamysz, Emilia SikorskaShort cationic antimicrobial lipopeptides with surfactant-like structure are promising antibiotic candidates that preferentially target microbial membranes. Therefore, we focused our study on double-chain lipopeptides, (C10-16)2Dab-KKK-NH2 and (C10-16)2Dap-KKK-NH2, where Dab and Dap are 2,4-diaminobutyric and 2,3-diaminopropionic acids, respectively. We tried to answer a question how the self-assembly behaviour affects biological activities of the tested compounds. The subject compounds were synthesized manually by solid-phase method and screened for their antimicrobial and haemolytic activities. Cytotoxicity tests on human keratinocytes were carried out for the most promising lipopeptides. Self-assembly properties were evaluated by both experimental and theoretical methods. Interactions with membrane models were examined using the ITC and FTIR techniques. All the lipopeptides studied showed the tendency to self-assembly in solution, and this behaviour was affected by the length of the hydrocarbon chains. Acyl chain elongation supported the formation of the bilayer structure and deprived the lipopeptides of antimicrobial activity. A multi-step mechanism of interaction with a negatively charged membrane was observed for the short-chain lipopeptides, indicating other processes accompanying the binding process. Short-chain lipopeptides were able to penetrate into the liposome’s interior and/or cause the rupture of the liposome, this being compatible with their high antimicrobial activity.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of benzoylacrylic acid
           shikonin ester derivatives as irreversible dual inhibitors of tubulin and
           EGFR
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Wen-Xue Sun, Hong-Wei Han, Min-Kai Yang, Zhong-Ling Wen, Yin-Song Wang, Jiang-Yan Fu, Yun-Ting Lu, Ming-Yue Wang, Jia-Xin Bao, Gui-Hua Lu, Jin-Liang Qi, Xiao-Ming Wang, Hong-Yan Lin, Yong-Hua YangIn this study, a series of shikonin derivatives combined with benzoylacrylic had been designed and synthesized, which showed an inhibitory effect on both tubulin and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In vitro EGFR and cell growth inhibition assay demonstrated that compound PMMB-317 exhibited the most potent anti-EGFR (IC50 = 22.7 nM) and anti-proliferation activity (IC50 = 4.37 μM) against A549 cell line, which was comparable to that of Afatinib (EGFR, IC50 = 15.4 nM; A549, IC50 = 6.32 μM). Our results on mechanism research suggested that, PMMB-317 could induce the apoptosis of A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, along with decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), production of ROS and alterations in apoptosis-related protein levels. Also, PMMB-317 could arrest cell cycle at G2/M phase to induce cell apoptosis, and inhibit the EGFR activity through blocking the signal transduction downstream of the mitogen-activated protein MAPK pathway and the anti-apoptotic kinase AKT pathway; typically, such results were comparable to those of afatinib. In addition, PMMB-317 could suppress A549 cell migration through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, molecular docking simulation revealed that, PMMB-317 could simultaneously combine with EGFR protein (5HG8) and tubulin (1SA0) through various forces. Moreover, 3D-QSAR study was also carried out, which could optimize our compound through the structure-activity relationship analysis. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo results had collectively confirmed that PMMB-317 might serve as a promising lead compound to further develop the potential therapeutic anticancer agents.Chemical compounds studies in this article:Shikonin (PubChem CID: 479503); Maleic anhydride (PubChem CID: 7923); Colchicine (PubChem CID: 6167); Paclitaxel (PubChem CID: 36314); Afatinib (PubChem CID: 10184653); Benzene (PubChem CID: 241); Methylbenzene (PubChem CID: 1140); Fluorobenzene (PubChem CID: 10008); Chlorobenzene (PubChem CID: 7964); Bromobenzene (PubChem CID: 7961).Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of amino acids-oleanolic acid
           conjugates as influenza virus inhibitors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Lingkuan Meng, Yangqing Su, Fan Yang, Sulong Xiao, Zhili Yin, Jiaxin Liu, Jindong Zhong, Demin Zhou, Fei YuViral entry inhibitors are of great importance in current efforts to develop a new generation of anti-influenza drugs. Inspired by the discovery of a series of pentacyclic triterpene derivatives as entry inhibitors targeting the HA protein of influenza virus, we designed and synthesized 32 oleanolic acid (OA) analogues in this study by conjugating different amino acids to the 28-COOH of OA. The antiviral activity of these compounds was evaluated in vitro. Some of these compounds revealed impressive anti-influenza potencies against influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus. Among them, compound 15a exhibited robust potency and broad antiviral spectrum with IC50 values at the low-micromolar level against four different influenza strains. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay and docking experiment indicated that these OA analogues may act in the same way as their parent compound by interrupting the interaction between HA protein of influenza virus and the host cell sialic acid receptor via binding to HA, thus blocking viral entry.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The plant-derived chalcone Xanthoangelol targets the membrane of
           Gram-positive bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Dieter Meier, Melissa Vázquez Hernández, Lasse van Geelen, Rini Muharini, Peter Proksch, Julia E. Bandow, Rainer KalscheuerXanthoangelol is a geranylated chalcone isolated from fruits of Amorpha fructicosa that exhibits antibacterial effects at low micromolar concentration against Gram-positive bacterial pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis. We demonstrate that Xanthoangelol treatment of Gram-positive bacteria affects bacterial membrane integrity and leads to a leakage of intracellular metabolites. This correlates with a rapid collapse of the membrane potential and results in a fast and strong bactericidal effect. Proteomic profiling of Xanthoangelol-treated cells revealed signatures of cell wall and/or membrane damage and oxidative stress. Xanthoangelol specifically disturbs the membrane of Gram-positive bacteria potentially by forming pores resulting in cell lysis. In contrast, Xanthoangelol treatment of human cells showed only mildly hemolytic and cytotoxic effects at higher concentrations. Therefore, geranylated chalcones such as Xanthoangelol are promising lead structures for new antimicrobials against drug-resistant gram-positive pathogens.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Design, synthesis, in vitro, and in silico studies of novel
           diarylimidazole-1,2,3-triazole hybrids as potent α-glucosidase inhibitors
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Mina Saeedi, Maryam Mohammadi-Khanaposhtani, Mohammad Sadegh Asgari, Nafiseh Eghbalnejad, Somaye Imanparast, Mohammad Ali Faramarzi, Bagher Larijani, Mohammad Mahdavi, Tahmineh AkbarzadehIn this work, new derivatives of diarylimidazole-1,2,3-triazole 7a-p were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. All compounds showed potent inhibitory activity in the range of IC50 = 90.4-246.7 µM comparing with acarbose as the standard drug (IC50 = 750.0 µM). Among the synthesized compounds, compounds 7b, 7c, and 7e were approximately 8 times more potent than acarbose. The kinetic study of those compounds indicated that they acted as the competitive inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Molecular docking studies were also carried out for compounds 7b, 7c, and 7e using modeled α-glucosidase to find the interaction modes responsible for the desired inhibitory activity.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Pyrenocine A induces monopolar spindle formation and suppresses
           proliferation of cancer cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Yusuke Myobatake, Shinji Kamisuki, Senko Tsukuda, Tsunehito Higashi, Takumi Chinen, Kenji Takemoto, Masami Hachisuka, Yuka Suzuki, Maya Takei, Yukine Tsurukawa, Hiroaki Maekawa, Toshifumi Takeuchi, Tomoko M. Matsunaga, Hiroeki Sahara, Takeo Usui, Sachihiro Matsunaga, Fumio SugawaraPyrenocine A, a phytotoxin, was found to exhibit cytotoxicity against cancer cells with an IC50 value of 2.6-12.9 μM. Live cell imaging analysis revealed that pyrenocine A arrested HeLa cells at the M phase with characteristic ring-shaped chromosomes. Furthermore, as a result of immunofluorescence staining analysis, we found that pyrenocine A resulted in the formation of monopolar spindles in HeLa cells. Monopolar spindles are known to be induced by inhibitors of the kinesin motor protein Eg5 such as monastrol and STLC. Monastrol and STLC induce monopolar spindle formation and M phase arrest via inhibition of the ATPase activity of Eg5. Interestingly, our data revealed that pyrenocine A had no effect on the ATPase activity of Eg5 in vitro, which suggested the compound induces a monopolar spindle by an unknown mechanism. Structure-activity relationship analysis indicates that the enone structure of pyrenocine A is likely to be important for its cytotoxicity. An alkyne-tagged analog of pyrenocine A was synthesized and suppressed proliferation of HeLa cells with an IC50 value of 2.3 μM. We concluded that pyrenocine A induced monopolar spindle formation by a novel mechanism other than direct inhibition of Eg5 motor activity, and the activity of pyrenocine A may suggest a new anticancer mechanism.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A mouse model-based screening platform for the identification of immune
           activating compounds such as natural products for novel cancer
           immunotherapies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Lisa Richter, Sonja Kropp, Peter Proksch, Stefanie ScheuThe therapy of cancer continues to be a challenge aggravated by the evolution of resistance against current medications. As an alternative for the traditional tripartite treatment options of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, immunotherapy is gaining increasing attention due to the opportunity of more targeted approaches. Promising targets are antigen-presenting cells which drive innate and adaptive immune responses. The discovery and emergence of new drugs and lead structures can be inspired by natural products which comprise many highly bioactive molecules. The development of new drugs based on natural products is hampered by the current lack of guidelines for screening these structures for immune activating compounds. In this work, we describe a phenotypic pre-clinical screening pipeline for first-line identification of promising natural products using the mouse as a model system. Favorable compounds are defined to be non-toxic to immune target cells, to show direct anti-tumor effects and to be immunostimulatory at the same time. The presented screening pipeline constitutes a useful tool and aims to integrate immune activation in experimental approaches early on in drug discovery. It supports the selection of natural products for later chemical optimization, direct application in in vivo mouse models and clinical trials and promotes the emergence of new innovative drugs for cancer treatment.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Impact of hydroxy moieties at the benzo[7]annulene ring system of GluN2B
           ligands: design, synthesis and biological evaluation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Louisa Temme, Frederik Börgel, Dirk Schepmann, Dina Robaa, Wolfgang Sippl, Constantin Daniliuc, Bernhard WünschIn this study, the impact of one or two hydroxy moieties at the benzo[7]annulene scaffold on the GluN2B affinity and cytoprotective activity was analyzed. The key intermediate for the synthesis of OH-substituted benzo[7]annulenamines 11-13 and 17 was the epoxyketone 8. Reductive epoxide opening of 8 resulted with high regioselectivity in the 5-hydroxyketone 9 (Pd(OAc)2, HCO2H, phosphane ligand) or the 6-hydroxyketone 10 (H2, Pd/C), whereas hydrolysis in aqueous dioxane led to the dihydroxyketone 14. Reductive amination of these ketones with primary amines and NaBH(OAc)3 afforded the benzo[7]annulenamines 11-13 and 17. In receptor binding studies 5-OH derivatives 11 and 12 showed higher GluN2B affinity than 6-OH derivatives 13, which in turn were more active than 5,6-di-OH derivative 17a. The same order was found for the cytoprotective activity of the ligands. The tertiary amine 12a with one OH moiety in 5-position represents the most promising GluN2B negative allosteric modulator with a binding affinity of Ki = 49 nM and a cytoprotective activity of IC50 = 580 nM. In the binding pocket 12a shows a crucial H-bond between the benzylic OH moiety and the backbone carbonyl O-atom of Ser132 (GluN1b). It was concluded that a 5-OH moiety is essential for the inhibition of the NMDA receptor associated ion channel, whereas a OH moiety in 6-position is detrimental for binding and inhibition. An OH or CH2OH moiety at 2-position results in binding at the ifenprodil binding site, but very weak ion channel inhibition.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking studies of new
           amides of 4-bromothiocolchicine as anticancer agents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Greta Klejborowska, Alicja Urbaniak, Jordane Preto, Ewa Maj, Mahshad Moshari, Joanna Wietrzyk, Jack A. Tuszynski, Timothy C. Chambers, Adam HuczyńskiColchicine is the major alkaloid isolated from the plant Colchicum autumnale, which shows strong therapeutic effects towards different types of cancer. However, due to the toxicity of colchicine towards normal cells its application is limited. To address this issue we synthesized a series of seven triple-modified 4-bromothiocolchicine analogues with amide moieties. These novel derivatives were active in the nanomolar range against several different cancer cell lines and primary acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells, specifically compounds: 5 – 9 against primary ALL-5 (IC50 = 5.3 – 14 nM), 5, 7– 9 against A549 (IC50 = 10 nM), 5, 7 – 9 against MCF-7 (IC50 = 11 nM), 5 – 9 against LoVo (IC50 = 7 – 12 nM), and 5, 7 – 9 against LoVo/DX (IC50 = 48 – 87 nM). These IC50 values were lower than those obtained for unmodified colchicine and common anticancer drugs such as doxorubicin and cisplatin. Further studies revealed that colchicine and selected analogues induced characteristics of apoptotic cell death but manifested their effects in different phases of the cell cycle in MCF-7 versus ALL-5 cells. Specifically, while colchicine and the studied derivatives arrested MCF-7 cells in mitosis, very little mitotically arrested ALL-5 cells were observed, suggesting effects were manifest instead in interphase. We also developed an in silico model of the mode of binding of these compounds to their primary target, β-tubulin. We conducted a correlation analysis (linear regression) between the calculated binding energies of colchicine derivatives and their anti-proliferative activity, and determined that the obtained correlation coefficients strongly depend on the type of cells used.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Piperidine and piperazine inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase
           targeting excitotoxic pathology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2019Source: Bioorganic & Medicinal ChemistryAuthor(s): Manjunath Lamani, Michael S. Malamas, Shrouq I. Farah, Vidyanand G. Shukla, Michael F. Almeida, Catherine M. Weerts, Joseph Anderson, JodiAnne T. Wood, Karen L.G. Farizatto, Ben A. Bahr, Alexandros MakriyannisFAAH inhibitors offer safety advantages by augmenting the anandamide levels “on demand” to promote neuroprotective mechanisms without the adverse psychotropic effects usually seen with direct and chronic activation of the CB1 receptor. FAAH is an enzyme implicated in the hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA), which is a partial agonist of the CB1 receptor. Herein, we report the discovery of a new series of highly potent and selective carbamate FAAH inhibitors and the evaluation for neuroprotection. The new inhibitors showed potent nanomolar inhibitory activity against human recombinant and purified rat FAAH, were selective (>1000-fold) against serine hydrolases MGL and ABHD6 and lacked any affinity for the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Evaluation of FAAH inhibitors 9 and 31 using the in vitro competitive activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) assay confirmed that both inhibitors were highly selective for FAAH in the brain, since none of the other FP-reactive serine hydrolases in this tissue were inhibited by these agents. Our design strategy followed a traditional SAR approach and was supported by molecular modeling studies based on known FAAH cocrystal structures. To rationally design new molecules that are irreversibly bound to FAAH, we have constructed “precovalent” FAAH-ligand complexes to identify good binding geometries of the ligands within the binding pocket of FAAH and then calculated covalent docking poses to select compounds for synthesis. FAAH inhibitors 9 and 31 were evaluated for neuroprotection in rat hippocampal slice cultures. In the brain tissue, both inhibitors displayed protection against synaptic deterioration produced by kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity. Thus, the resultant compounds produced through rational design are providing early leads for developing therapeutics against seizure-related damage associated with a variety of disorders.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
 
 
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