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Showing 1 - 200 of 3120 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Academic Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.402, h-index: 51)
Academic Radiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.008, h-index: 75)
Accident Analysis & Prevention     Partially Free   (Followers: 90, SJR: 1.109, h-index: 94)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.612, h-index: 27)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.515, h-index: 90)
Achievements in the Life Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 19)
Acta Astronautica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 382, SJR: 0.726, h-index: 43)
Acta Automatica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acta Biomaterialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.02, h-index: 104)
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Ecologica Sinica     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.172, h-index: 29)
Acta Haematologica Polonica     Free   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.123, h-index: 8)
Acta Histochemica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, h-index: 38)
Acta Materialia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241, SJR: 3.683, h-index: 202)
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Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.442, h-index: 21)
Acta Oecologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.915, h-index: 53)
Acta Otorrinolaringologica (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
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Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Poética     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.365, h-index: 73)
Acta Sociológica     Open Access  
Acta Tropica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.059, h-index: 77)
Acta Urológica Portuguesa     Open Access  
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Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 3)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques Hospitalieres     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.112, h-index: 2)
Acupuncture and Related Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acute Pain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Ad Hoc Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.967, h-index: 57)
Addictive Behaviors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.514, h-index: 92)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Additive Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.039, h-index: 5)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advanced Cement Based Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143, SJR: 5.2, h-index: 222)
Advanced Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.265, h-index: 53)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.739, h-index: 33)
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Advances in Anesthesia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 4)
Advances in Antiviral Drug Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 49)
Advances In Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.31, h-index: 42)
Advances in Biological Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.277, h-index: 43)
Advances in Botanical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.619, h-index: 48)
Advances in Cancer Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.215, h-index: 78)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.9, h-index: 30)
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Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Membranes and Organelles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.183, h-index: 23)
Advances in Child Development and Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.665, h-index: 29)
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.268, h-index: 45)
Advances in Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.938, h-index: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.314, h-index: 130)
Advances in Computers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 22)
Advances in Dermatology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
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Advances in Digestive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Ecological Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47, SJR: 3.25, h-index: 43)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.486, h-index: 10)
Advances in Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46, SJR: 5.465, h-index: 64)
Advances in Exploration Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53, SJR: 0.674, h-index: 38)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 2.558, h-index: 54)
Advances in Genome Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Geophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 2.325, h-index: 20)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 24)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 31)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.396, h-index: 27)
Advances in Immunology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37, SJR: 4.152, h-index: 85)
Advances in Inorganic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.132, h-index: 42)
Advances in Insect Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.274, h-index: 27)
Advances in Integrative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Intl. Accounting     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Life Course Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.764, h-index: 15)
Advances in Lipobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Marine Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.645, h-index: 45)
Advances in Mathematics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 3.261, h-index: 65)
Advances in Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.489, h-index: 25)
Advances in Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Microbial Physiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.44, h-index: 51)
Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Molecular Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.324, h-index: 8)
Advances in Nanoporous Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Oncobiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organ Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 2.885, h-index: 45)
Advances in Parallel Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 11)
Advances in Parasitology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 2.37, h-index: 73)
Advances in Pediatrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.4, h-index: 28)
Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Pharmacology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.718, h-index: 58)
Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.384, h-index: 26)
Advances in Phytomedicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 11)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Plant Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.5, h-index: 62)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.478, h-index: 32)
Advances in Radiation Oncology     Open Access  
Advances in Small Animal Medicine and Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Advances in Space Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Space Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 374, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 65)
Advances in Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Surgery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 27)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.321, h-index: 56)
Advances in Veterinary Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Virus Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.878, h-index: 68)
Advances in Water Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.408, h-index: 94)
Aeolian Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 22)
Aerospace Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 344, SJR: 0.816, h-index: 49)
AEU - Intl. J. of Electronics and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.318, h-index: 36)
African J. of Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 6)
Ageing Research Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9, SJR: 3.289, h-index: 78)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 438, SJR: 1.385, h-index: 72)
Agri Gene     Hybrid Journal  
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.18, h-index: 116)
Agricultural Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.275, h-index: 74)
Agricultural Water Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 1.546, h-index: 79)
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia     Open Access  
Agriculture and Natural Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56, SJR: 1.879, h-index: 120)
Ain Shams Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.434, h-index: 14)
Air Medical J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 18)
AKCE Intl. J. of Graphs and Combinatorics     Open Access   (SJR: 0.285, h-index: 3)
Alcohol     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, h-index: 66)
Alcoholism and Drug Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Alergologia Polska : Polish J. of Allergology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.436, h-index: 12)
Alexandria J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.05, h-index: 20)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Allergologia et Immunopathologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.46, h-index: 29)
Allergology Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.776, h-index: 35)
Alpha Omegan     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.121, h-index: 9)
ALTER - European J. of Disability Research / Revue Européenne de Recherche sur le Handicap     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.158, h-index: 9)
Alzheimer's & Dementia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49, SJR: 4.289, h-index: 64)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ambulatory Pediatrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
American Heart J.     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 3.157, h-index: 153)
American J. of Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48, SJR: 2.063, h-index: 186)
American J. of Emergency Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.574, h-index: 65)
American J. of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 45)
American J. of Geriatric Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.653, h-index: 93)
American J. of Human Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32, SJR: 8.769, h-index: 256)
American J. of Infection Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 81)
American J. of Kidney Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31, SJR: 2.313, h-index: 172)
American J. of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45, SJR: 2.023, h-index: 189)
American J. of Medicine Supplements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209, SJR: 2.255, h-index: 171)
American J. of Ophthalmology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.803, h-index: 148)
American J. of Ophthalmology Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American J. of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.249, h-index: 88)
American J. of Otolaryngology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.59, h-index: 45)
American J. of Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.653, h-index: 228)
American J. of Preventive Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26, SJR: 2.764, h-index: 154)
American J. of Surgery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36, SJR: 1.286, h-index: 125)
American J. of the Medical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.653, h-index: 70)
Ampersand : An Intl. J. of General and Applied Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anaerobe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.066, h-index: 51)
Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60, SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anales de Cirugia Vascular     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 27)
Anales de Pediatría (English Edition)     Full-text available via subscription  
Anales de Pediatría Continuada     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.104, h-index: 3)
Analytic Methods in Accident Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.577, h-index: 7)
Analytica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.548, h-index: 152)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 154)
Analytical Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 2)
Analytical Spectroscopy Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anesthésie & Réanimation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anesthesiology Clinics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 40)
Angiología     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.124, h-index: 9)
Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Animal Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180, SJR: 1.907, h-index: 126)
Animal Feed Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.151, h-index: 83)

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Journal Cover Acta Biomaterialia
  [SJR: 2.02]   [H-I: 104]   [26 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1742-7061
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3120 journals]
  • Extracellular matrix hydrogel therapies: In vivo applications and
    • Authors: Martin T. Spang; Karen L. Christman
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Martin T. Spang, Karen L. Christman
      Decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) has been widely used for tissue engineering applications and is becoming increasingly versatile as it can take many forms, including patches, powders, and hydrogels. Following additional processing, decellularized ECM can form an inducible hydrogel that can be injected, providing for new minimally-invasive procedure opportunities. ECM hydrogels have been derived from numerous tissue sources and applied to treat many disease models, such as ischemic injuries and organ regeneration or replacement. This review will focus on in vivo applications of ECM hydrogels and functional outcomes in disease models, as well as discuss considerations for clinical translation. Statement of Significance Extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogel therapies are being developed to treat diseased or damaged tissues and organs throughout the body. Many ECM hydrogels are progressing from in vitro models to in vivo biocompatibility studies and functional models. There is significant potential for clinical translation of these therapies since one ECM hydrogel therapy is already in a Phase 1 clinical trial.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.019
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • Preparation of decellularized biphasic hierarchical myotendinous junction
           extracellular matrix for muscle regeneration
    • Authors: Chenchen Zhao; Shengyu Wang; Gangliang Wang; Mingzhen Su; Liyang Song; Jiaxin Chen; Shunwu Fan; Xianfeng Lin
      Pages: 15 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Chenchen Zhao, Shengyu Wang, Gangliang Wang, Mingzhen Su, Liyang Song, Jiaxin Chen, Shunwu Fan, Xianfeng Lin
      Muscle injury and defect affect people's quality of life, and effective treatment is lacking. Herein, we generated a scaffold to obtain decellularized porcine Achilles tendon myotendinous junction (D-MTJ) extracellular matrix (ECM) with well-preserved native biphasic hierarchical structure, biological composition, and excellent mechanical properties for muscle regeneration. The combined use of potassium chloride, potassium iodide, Triton-X 100, and sodium-dodecyl sulfate (SDS) can completely remove the main immunogenicity, while maintaining the major biological components and microstructure. The specific biomechanics of D-MTJ is comparable to the native muscle-tendon physiological conditions. Additionally, the D-MTJ ECM scaffold induced minimal immunological reaction (histology analysis) through rat subcutaneous implantation. Moreover, in vitro, muscle satellite cells adhered, proliferated, and infiltrated into the D-MTJ scaffold, and myofiber-like cell differentiation was observed as shown by increased expression of myogenesis-related genes during culture. In vivo, newly formed myofibers were observed in a muscle defect model with D-MTJ orthotopic transplantation, while the control group presented mostly with fibrous tissue deposition. Additionally, the number of Myod and MyHC-positive cells in the ECM scaffold group was higher at day 30. We preliminary explored the mechanisms underlying D-MTJ-mediated muscle regeneration, which may be attributed to its specific biphasic hierarchical structure, bio-components, and attractiveness for myogenesis cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest the D-MTJ ECM scaffold prepared in this study is a promising choice for muscle regeneration. Statement of Significance This study is the first to use decellularization technology obtaining the specifically decellularized myotendinous junction (D-MTJ) with well-preserved biphasic hierarchical structure and constituents, excellent mechanical properties and good biocompatibility. The D-MTJ was further proved to be efficient for muscle regeneration in vitro and in vivo, and the underlying mechanisms may be attributed to its specifically structure and constituents, improved myogenesis and good preservation of repair-related factors. Our study may provide basis for the decellularization of other biphasic hierarchical tissues and a platform for further studies on muscle fiber and tendon integrations in vitro.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.035
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • In vivo performance of freeze-dried decellularized pulmonary heart valve
           allo- and xenografts orthotopically implanted into juvenile sheep
    • Authors: Tobias Goecke; Karolina Theodoridis; Igor Tudorache; Anatol Ciubotaru; Serghei Cebotari; Robert Ramm; Klaus Höffler; Samir Sarikouch; Andrés Vásquez Rivera; Axel Haverich; Willem F. Wolkers; Andres Hilfiker
      Pages: 41 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Tobias Goecke, Karolina Theodoridis, Igor Tudorache, Anatol Ciubotaru, Serghei Cebotari, Robert Ramm, Klaus Höffler, Samir Sarikouch, Andrés Vásquez Rivera, Axel Haverich, Willem F. Wolkers, Andres Hilfiker
      The decellularization of biological tissues decreases immunogenicity, allows repopulation with cells, and may lead to improved long-term performance after implantation. Freeze drying these tissues would ensure off-the-shelf availability, save storage costs, and facilitates easy transport. This study evaluates the in vivo performance of freeze-dried decellularized heart valves in juvenile sheep. TritonX-100 and sodium dodecylsulfate decellularized ovine and porcine pulmonary valves (PV) were freeze-dried in a lyoprotectant sucrose solution. After rehydration for 24 h, valves were implanted into the PV position in sheep as allografts (fdOPV) and xenografts (fdPPV), while fresh dezellularized ovine grafts (frOPV) were implanted as controls. Functional assessment was performed by transesophageal echocardiography at implantation and at explantation six months later. Explanted grafts were analysed histologically to assess the matrix, and immunofluorescence stains were used to identify the repopulating cells. Although the graft diameters and orifice areas increased, good function was maintained, except for one insufficient, strongly deteriorated frOPV. Cells which were positive for either endothelial or interstitial markers were found in all grafts. In fdPPV, immune-reactive cells were also found. Our findings suggest that freeze-drying does not alter the early hemodynamic performance and repopulation potential of decellularized grafts in vivo, even in the challenging xenogeneic situation. Despite evidence of an immunological reaction for the xenogenic valves, good early functionalities were achieved. Statement of Significance Decellularized allogeneic heart valves show excellent results as evident from large animal experiments and clinical trials. However, a long-term storing method is needed for an optimal use of this limited resource in the clinical setting, where an optimized matching of graft and recipient is requested. As demonstrated in this study, freeze-dried and freshly decellularized grafts reveal equally good results after implantation in the juvenile sheep concerning function and repopulation with recipients’ cells. Thus, freeze-drying arises as a promising method to extend the shelf-life of valvular grafts compared to those stored in antibiotic-solution as currently practised.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.11.041
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • Fracture mechanics of shear crack propagation and dissection in the
           healthy bovine descending aortic media
    • Authors: Henry W. Haslach; Ahmed Siddiqui; Amanda Weerasooriya; Ryan Nguyen; Jacob Roshgadol; Noel Monforte; Eileen McMahon
      Pages: 53 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Henry W. Haslach, Ahmed Siddiqui, Amanda Weerasooriya, Ryan Nguyen, Jacob Roshgadol, Noel Monforte, Eileen McMahon
      This experimental study adopts a fracture mechanics strategy to investigate the mechanical cause of aortic dissection. Inflation of excised healthy bovine aortic rings with a cut longitudinal notch that extends into the media from the intima suggests that an intimal tear may propagate a nearly circumferential-longitudinal rupture surface that is similar to the delamination that occurs in aortic dissection. Radial and 45°-from-radial cut notch orientations, as seen in the thickness surface, produce similar circumferential crack propagation morphologies. Partial cut notches, whose longitudinal length is half the width of the ring, measure the influence of longitudinal material on crack propagation. Such specimens also produce circumferential cracks from the notch root that are visible in the thickness circumferential-radial plane, and often propagate a secondary crack from the base of the notch, visible in the intimal circumferential-longitudinal plane. Inflation of rings with pairs of cut notches demonstrates that a second notch modifies the propagation created in a specimen with a single notch. The circumferential crack propagation is likely a consequence of the laminar medial structure. These fracture surfaces are probably due to non-uniform circumferential shear deformation in the heterogeneous media as the aortic wall expands. The qualitative deformation morphology around the root of the cut notch during inflation is evidence for such shear deformation. The shear apparently results from relative slip in the circumferential direction of collagen fibers. The slip may produce shear in the longitudinal-circumferential plane between medial layers or in the radial-circumferential plane within a medial lamina in an idealized model. Circumferential crack propagation in the media is then a shear mechanical process that might be facilitated by disease of the tissue. Statement of Significance An intimal tear of an apparently healthy aortic wall near the aortic arch is life-threatening because it may lead to full rupture or to wall dissection in which delamination of the medial layer extends around most of the aortic circumference. The mechanical events underlying dissection are not definitively established. This experimental fracture mechanics study provides evidence that shear rupture is the main mechanical process underlying aortic dissection. The commonly performed tensile strength tests of aortic tissue are not clinically useful to predict or describe aortic dissection. One implication of the study is that shear tests might produce more fruitful simple assessments of the aortic wall strength. A clinical implication is that when presented with an intimal tear, those who guide care might recommend steps to reduce the shear load on the aorta.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.027
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • Ultrastructural organization of elastic fibres in the partition boundaries
           of the annulus fibrosus within the intervertebral disc
    • Authors: J. Tavakoli; J.J. Costi
      Pages: 67 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): J. Tavakoli, J.J. Costi
      The relationship between elastic fibre disorders and disc degeneration, aging and progression of spine deformity have been discussed in a small number of studies. However, the clinical relevance of elastic fibres in the annulus fibrosus (AF) of the disc is poorly understood. Ultrastructural visualization of elastic fibres is an important step towards understanding their structure-function relationship. In our previous studies, a novel technique for visualization of elastic fibres across the AF was presented and their ultrastructural organization in intra- and inter-lamellar regions was compared. Using the same novel technique in the present study, the ultrastructural organization of elastic fibres in the partition boundaries (PBs), which are located between adjacent collagen bundles, is presented for the first time. Visualization of elastic fibres in the PBs in control and partially digested (digested) samples was compared, and their orientation in two different cutting planes (transverse and oblique) were discussed. The ultrastructural analysis revealed that elastic fibres in PBs were a well-organized dense and complex network having different size and shape. Adjacent collagen bundles in a cross section (CS) lamella appear to be connected to each other, where elastic fibres in the PBs were merged in parallel or penetrated into the collagen bundles. There was no significant difference in directional coherency coefficient of elastic fibres between the two different cutting planes (p = .35). The present study revealed that a continuous network of elastic fibres may provide disc integrity by connecting adjacent bundles of CS lamellae together. Compared to our previous studies, the density of the elastic fibre network in PBs was lower, and fibre orientation was similar to the intra-lamellar space and inter-lamellar matrix. Statement of Significance A detailed ultrastructural study in the partition boundaries of the annulus fibrosus within the disc revealed a well-organized elastic fibre network with a complex ultrastructure. The continuous network of elastic fibres may provide disc integrity by connecting adjacent bundles of cross section lamellae together. The density of the elastic fibre network in PBs was lower, and fibre orientation was similar to the intra-lamellar space and the inter-lamellar matrix.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.017
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo viscoelastic behavior of the spinal cord
    • Authors: Nicole L. Ramo; Snehal S. Shetye; Femke Streijger; Jae H.T. Lee; Kevin L. Troyer; Brian K. Kwon; Peter Cripton; Christian M. Puttlitz
      Pages: 78 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Nicole L. Ramo, Snehal S. Shetye, Femke Streijger, Jae H.T. Lee, Kevin L. Troyer, Brian K. Kwon, Peter Cripton, Christian M. Puttlitz
      Despite efforts to simulate the in vivo environment, post-mortem degradation and lack of blood perfusion complicate the use of ex vivo derived material models in computational studies of spinal cord injury. In order to quantify the mechanical changes that manifest ex vivo, the viscoelastic behavior of in vivo and ex vivo porcine spinal cord samples were compared. Stress-relaxation data from each condition were fit to a non-linear viscoelastic model using a novel characterization technique called the direct fit method. To validate the presented material models, the parameters obtained for each condition were used to predict the respective dynamic cyclic response. Both ex vivo and in vivo samples displayed non-linear viscoelastic behavior with a significant increase in relaxation with applied strain. However, at all three strain magnitudes compared, ex vivo samples experienced a higher stress and greater relaxation than in vivo samples. Significant differences between model parameters also showed distinct relaxation behaviors, especially in non-linear relaxation modulus components associated with the short-term response (0.1–1 s). The results of this study underscore the necessity of utilizing material models developed from in vivo experimental data for studies of spinal cord injury, where the time-dependent properties are critical. The ability of each material model to accurately predict the dynamic cyclic response validates the presented methodology and supports the use of the in vivo model in future high-resolution finite element modeling efforts. Statement of Significance Neural tissues (such as the brain and spinal cord) display time-dependent, or viscoelastic, mechanical behavior making it difficult to model how they respond to various loading conditions, including injury. Methods that aim to characterize the behavior of the spinal cord almost exclusively use ex vivo cadaveric or animal samples, despite evidence that time after death affects the behavior compared to that in a living animal (in vivo response). Therefore, this study directly compared the mechanical response of ex vivo and in vivo samples to quantify these differences for the first time. This will allow researchers to draw more accurate conclusions about spinal cord injuries based on ex vivo data (which are easier to obtain) and emphasizes the importance of future in vivo experimental animal work.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.024
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • 3D printed structures for modeling the Young’s modulus of bamboo
    • Authors: P.G. Dixon; J.T. Muth; X. Xiao; M.A. Skylar-Scott; J.A. Lewis; L.J. Gibson
      Pages: 90 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): P.G. Dixon, J.T. Muth, X. Xiao, M.A. Skylar-Scott, J.A. Lewis, L.J. Gibson
      Bamboo is a sustainable, lightweight material that is widely used in structural applications. To fully develop micromechanical models for plants, such as bamboo, the mechanical properties of each individual type of tissue are needed. However, separating individual tissues and testing them mechanically is challenging. Here, we report an alternative approach in which micro X-ray computed tomography (µ-CT) is used to image moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens). The acquired images, which correspond to the 3D structure of the parenchyma, are then transformed into physical, albeit larger scale, structures by 3D printing, and their mechanical properties are characterized. The normalized longitudinal Young’s moduli of the fabricated structures depend on relative density raised to a power between 2 and 3, suggesting that elastic deformation of the parenchyma cellular structure involves considerable cell wall bending. The mechanical behavior of other biological tissues may also be elucidated using this approach. Statement of Significance Bamboo is a lightweight, sustainable engineering material widely used in structural applications. By combining micro X-ray computed tomography and 3D printing, we have produced bamboo parenchyma mimics and characterized their stiffness. Using this approach, we gained insight into bamboo parenchyma tissue mechanics, specifically the cellular geometry’s role in longitudinal elasticity.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.036
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • Nanoparticle-induced inflammation can increase tumor malignancy
    • Authors: Bella B. Manshian; Jennifer Poelmans; Shweta Saini; Suman Pokhrel; Julio Jiménez Grez; Uwe Himmelreich; Lutz Mädler; Stefaan J. Soenen
      Pages: 99 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Bella B. Manshian, Jennifer Poelmans, Shweta Saini, Suman Pokhrel, Julio Jiménez Grez, Uwe Himmelreich, Lutz Mädler, Stefaan J. Soenen
      Nanomaterials, such as aluminum oxide, have been regarded with high biomedical promise as potential immune adjuvants in favor of their bulk counterparts. For pathophysiological conditions where elevated immune activity already occurs, the contribution of nanoparticle-activated immune reactions remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of spherical and wire-shaped aluminum oxide nanoparticles on primary splenocytes and observed a clear pro-inflammatory effect of both nanoparticles, mainly for the high aspect ratio nanowires. The nanoparticles resulted in a clear activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, and also secreted transforming growth factor β. When cancer cells were exposed to these cytokines, this resulted in an increased level of epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition, a hallmark for cancer metastasis, which did not occur when the cancer cells were directly exposed to the nanoparticles themselves. Using a syngeneic tumor model, the level of inflammation and degree of lung metastasis were significantly increased when the animals were exposed to the nanoparticles, particularly for the nanowires. This effect could be abrogated by treating the animals with inflammatory inhibitors. Collectively, these data indicate that the interaction of nanoparticles with immune cells can have secondary effects that may aggravate pathophysiological conditions, such as cancer malignancy, and conditions must be carefully selected to finely tune the induced aspecific inflammation into cancer-specific antitumor immunity. Statement of Significance Many different types of nanoparticles have been shown to possess immunomodulatory properties, depending on their physicochemical parameters. This can potentially be harnessed as a possible antitumor therapy. However, in the current work we show that inflammation elicited by nanomaterials can have grave effects in pathophysiological conditions, where non-specific inflammation was found to increase cancer cell mobility and tumor malignancy. These data show that immunomodulatory properties of nanomaterials must be carefully controlled to avoid any undesired side-effects.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.020
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • Repurposing disulfiram for cancer therapy via targeted nanotechnology
           through enhanced tumor mass penetration and disassembly
    • Authors: Huacheng He; Eleni Markoutsa; Jing Li; Peisheng Xu
      Pages: 113 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Huacheng He, Eleni Markoutsa, Jing Li, Peisheng Xu
      Disulfiram (DSF), an FDA approved drug for the treatment of alcoholism, degrades to therapeutically active diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) in the body by reduction. Hereby, we developed a redox sensitive DDTC-polymer conjugate for targeted cancer therapy. It was found that the DDTC-polymer conjugate modified with a β-d-galactose receptor targeting ligand can self-assemble into LDNP nanoparticle and efficiently enter cancer cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Upon cellular uptake, the LDNP nanoparticle degrades and releases DDTC due to the cleavage of disulfide bonds, and subsequently forms copper (II) DDTC complex to kill a broad spectrum of cancer cells. 3D cell culture revealed that this nanoparticle shows much stronger tumor mass penetrating and destructive capacity. Furthermore, LDNP nanoparticles exhibited much greater potency in inhibiting tumor growth in a peritoneal metastatic ovarian tumor model. Statement of Significance The β-d-galactose receptor targeted disulfiram loaded nanoparticle (LDNP) is novel in the following aspects: 1. Lactobionic acid (LBA) targets β-d-galactose receptor, which is a surface lectin that is overexpressed in various types of cancer cells, such as liver and ovarian cancers. The introducing of LBA ligand, endows the LDNP/Cu nanoparticle with stronger penetrating and destructive capacity in a tumor spheroid model. 2. The premature release of disulfiram from the nanoparticle can be minimized through the formation of polymer-prodrug based LDNP. 3. The LDNP nanoparticle fabricated from a polymer-disulfiram derivative conjugate can selectively kill a broad spectrum of cancer cells, while sparing normal cells. 4. In vivo study carried out in a clinically relevant orthotopic ovarian tumor model revealed that LDNP/Cu exhibits stronger efficacy in inhibiting the progression of metastatic ovarian cancer than a dosage form used in clinical trial, while not inducing side effects.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.023
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • Microparticle-mediated sequestration of cell-secreted proteins to modulate
           chondrocytic differentiation
    • Authors: Torri E. Rinker; Brandon D. Philbrick; Marian H. Hettiaratchi; David M. Smalley; Todd C. McDevitt; Johnna S. Temenoff
      Pages: 125 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Torri E. Rinker, Brandon D. Philbrick, Marian H. Hettiaratchi, David M. Smalley, Todd C. McDevitt, Johnna S. Temenoff
      Protein delivery is often used in tissue engineering applications to control differentiation processes, but is limited by protein instability and cost. An alternative approach is to control the cellular microenvironment through biomaterial-mediated sequestration of cell-secreted proteins important to differentiation. Thus, we utilized heparin-based microparticles to modulate cellular differentiation via protein sequestration in an in vitro model system of endochondral ossification. Heparin and poly(ethylene-glycol) (PEG; a low-binding material control)-based microparticles were incorporated into ATDC5 cell spheroids or incubated with ATDC5 cells in transwell culture. Reduced differentiation was observed in the heparin microparticle group as compared to PEG and no microparticle-containing groups. To determine if observed changes were due to sequestration of cell-secreted protein, the proteins sequestered by heparin microparticles were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. It was found that heparin microparticles bound insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP)-3 and 5. When incubated with a small-molecule inhibitor of IGFBPs, NBI 31772, a similar delay in differentiation of ATDC5 cells was observed. These results indicate that heparin microparticles modulated chondrocytic differentiation in this system via sequestration of cell-secreted protein, a technique that could be beneficial in the future as a means to control cellular differentiation processes. Statement of Significance In this work, we present a proof-of-principle set of experiments in which heparin-based microparticles are shown to modulate cellular differentiation through binding of cell-secreted protein. Unlike existing systems that rely on expensive protein with limited half-lives to elicit changes in cellular behavior, this technique focuses on temporal modulation of cell-generated proteins. This technique also provides a biomaterials-based method that can be used to further identify sequestered proteins of interest. Thus, this work indicates that glycosaminoglycan-based biomaterial approaches could be used as substitutes or additions to traditional methods for modulating and identifying the cell-secreted proteins involved in directing cellular behavior.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.038
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • Redox-responsive polymeric micelles formed by conjugating gambogic acid
           with bioreducible poly(amido amine)s for the co-delivery of docetaxel and
           MMP-9 shRNA
    • Authors: Yanan Kang; Lu Lu; Jinshuai Lan; Yue Ding; Jing Yang; Yong Zhang; Yuan Zhao; Tong Zhang; Rodney J.Y. Ho
      Pages: 137 - 153
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Yanan Kang, Lu Lu, Jinshuai Lan, Yue Ding, Jing Yang, Yong Zhang, Yuan Zhao, Tong Zhang, Rodney J.Y. Ho
      A novel redox-sensitive system for co-delivering hydrophobic drugs and hydrophilic siRNA or shRNA was developed by conjugating gambogic acid (GA) with poly(amido amine)s (PAAs) through amide bonds, which is called GA-conjugated PAAs (PAG). PAG can self-assemble into micelles as amphiphilic block copolymers, which exhibits an excellent loading ability for the co-delivery of docetaxel (DTX) and MMP-9 shRNA with adjustable dosing ratios. In addition, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and in vitro transfection analyses demonstrated more efficient cellular internalization of DTX and MMP-9 shRNA after incubation with PAG/DTX- MMP-9 shRNA micelles (PAG/DTX-shRNA) than with free drugs. Unlike traditional amphiphilic copolymer micelles, GA conjugated in PAG possesses an intrinsic anticancer efficacy. The presence of disulfide bonds in PAAs enables rapid disassembly of PAG micelles in response to reducing agents, inducing the release of loaded drugs (DTX, GA and MMP-9 shRNA). In vitro cellular assays revealed that PAG/DTX-shRNA micelles inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation more efficiently than the single drug or single drug-loaded micelles. In vivo biodistribution and anti-tumor effect studies using an MCF-7 breast cancer xenograft mouse model have indicated that PAG/DTX-shRNA micelles can enhance drug accumulation compared with the free drug, thereby sustaining the therapeutic effect on tumors. Additionally, PAG/DTX-shRNA micelles displayed a greater anti-tumor efficacy than Taxotere® and PAG-shRNA micelles. These results suggest that the redox-sensitive PAG platform is a promising co-delivery system for combining drugs and gene therapy for the treatment of cancer. Statement of Significance The PAG micelles were designed by conjugating gambogic acid (GA) with poly(amido amine)s (PAAs), which would serve dual purposes as both gene and drugs co-delivery carrier and an anti-tumor prodrug. Unlike traditional amphiphilic micelles, GA conjugated in PAG could exert its intrinsic efficacy and provide synergistic antiproliferative effects with docetaxel (DTX) on MCF-7 cells. Disulfide bonds in PAG enables a rapid disassembly of PAG micelles in response to reducing agents and to release all loaded drugs (DTX, GA and MMP-9 shRNA) at tumor sites. PAG/DTX-shRNA micelles displayed greater anti-tumor efficacy than that of Taxotere®, indicating the design concept for PAG works well. And the strategy for PAG could be used to develop a series of similar co-delivery systems through conjugations of other small-molecule drugs with PAAs, such as doxorubicin, methotrexate and other drugs with carboxy groups in their structure.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.028
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • Multifunctional nanoparticles as somatostatin receptor-targeting delivery
           system of polyaniline and methotrexate for combined chemo–photothermal
    • Authors: Hanh Thuy Nguyen; Cao Dai Phung; Raj Kumar Thapa; Tung Thanh Pham; Tuan Hiep Tran; Jee-Heon Jeong; Sae Kwang Ku; Han-Gon Choi; Chul Soon Yong; Jong Oh Kim
      Pages: 154 - 167
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Hanh Thuy Nguyen, Cao Dai Phung, Raj Kumar Thapa, Tung Thanh Pham, Tuan Hiep Tran, Jee-Heon Jeong, Sae Kwang Ku, Han-Gon Choi, Chul Soon Yong, Jong Oh Kim
      Lanreotide (LT), a synthetic analog of somatostatin, has been demonstrated to specifically bind to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), which are widely overexpressed in several types of cancer cells. In this study, we incorporated a chemotherapeutic agent, methotrexate (MTX), and a photosensitizer material, polyaniline (PANI), into hybrid polymer nanoparticles (NPs), which could target cancer cells after conjugation with LT (LT-MTX/PANI NPs). The successful preparation of LT–MTX/PANI NPs was confirmed by a small particle size (187.9 ± 3.2 nm), a polydispersity index of 0.232 ± 0.011, and a negative ζ potential of −14.6 ± 1.0 mV. Notably, LT-MTX/PANI NPs showed a greater uptake into SSTR-positive cancer cells and thereby better inhibited cell viability and induced higher levels of apoptosis than MTX, PANI NP, and MTX/PANI NP treatments did. In addition, the heat associated with the burst drug release induced by near-infrared (NIR) irradiation resulted in remarkably enhanced cell apoptosis, which was confirmed by an increase in the expression levels of apoptotic marker proteins. In agreement with the in vitro results, the administration of the SSTR-targeting NPs, followed by NIR exposure, to xenograft tumor-bearing mice resulted in an improved suppression of tumor development compared to that shown by MTX, PANI NPs, and MTX/PANI NPs, as well as by LT-MTX/PANI NPs without photothermal therapy. Thus, the SSTR-targeting NPs could be a promising delivery system for the effective treatment of SSTR-positive cancers. Statement of significance Somatostatin receptors are widely overexpressed in several types of cancer cells. In this study, we designed nanoparticles for targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to tumor sites by conjugating hybrid polymers with a synthetic analog of somatostatin, specifically binding to somatostatin receptors. In addition, a photosensitizer material, polyaniline, was incorporated into the nanoparticles for combined chemo–photothermal therapy. The results demonstrated clear advantages of the newly designed targeted nanoparticles over their non-targeted counterparts or a free chemotherapeutic drug in inhibiting the viability of cancer cells in vitro and targeting/suppressing the tumor growth in an animal xenograft model. The study suggests that the designed nanoparticles are a promising delivery system for the effective treatment of somatostatin receptor-positive cancers.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.033
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • A poly(beta-amino ester) activates macrophages independent of NF-κB
    • Authors: Neil M. Dold; Qin Zeng; Xiangbin Zeng; Christopher M. Jewell
      Pages: 168 - 177
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Neil M. Dold, Qin Zeng, Xiangbin Zeng, Christopher M. Jewell
      Nucleic acid delivery vehicles are poised to play an important role in delivering gene therapy for vaccines and immunotherapies, and in delivering nucleic acid based adjuvants. A number of common polymeric delivery vehicles used in nucleic acid delivery have recently been shown to interact with immune cells and directly stimulate immunogenic responses, particularly in particle form. Poly(beta-amino esters) were designed for nucleic acid delivery and have demonstrated promising performance in a number of vaccine and therapeutic studies. Yet, little work has characterized the mechanisms by which these polymers activate immune cells. Here we demonstrate that a poly(beta-amino ester) activates antigen presenting cells in soluble and particulate forms, and that these effects are independent of TLR signaling pathways. Moreover, we show the polymers induce activation independent of NF-κB signaling, but do activate IRF, an important innate inflammatory pathway. New knowledge linking physicochemical features of poly(beta-amino esters) or other polymeric carriers to inflammatory mechanisms could support more rational design approaches for vaccines and immunotherapies harnessing these materials. Significance Statement The last several years have brought exciting work exploring biomaterials as delivery vehicles for immunotherapies, vaccines, and gene therapies. However, a gap remains between the striking finding that many biomaterials exhibit intrinsic immunogenic features, and the specific structural properties that drive these responses. The results in the current study indicate PBAEs cause macrophage activation by pathways that are distinct from pathways activated by common vaccine and immunotherapies components, such as toll-like receptor agonists. Thus, the work reveals new mechanistic details that can be exploited in investigating other materials, and to support more rational design of future biomaterial vaccines and immunotherapy carriers.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.040
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • Reducible disulfide poly(beta-amino ester) hydrogels for antioxidant
    • Authors: Andrew L. Lakes; Carolyn T. Jordan; Prachi Gupta; David A. Puleo; J. Zach Hilt; Thomas D. Dziubla
      Pages: 178 - 189
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Andrew L. Lakes, Carolyn T. Jordan, Prachi Gupta, David A. Puleo, J. Zach Hilt, Thomas D. Dziubla
      Recently, biomaterials have been designed to contain redox-sensitive moieties, such as thiols and disulfides, to impart responsive degradation and/or controlled release. However, due to the high sensitivity of cellular redox-based systems which maintain free-radical homeostasis (e.g. glutathione/glutathione disulfide), if these biomaterials modify the cellular redox environment, they may inadvertently affect cellular compatibility and/or oxidative stress defenses. In this work, we hypothesize that the degradation products of a poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) hydrogel formed with redox sensitive disulfide (cystamine) crosslinking could serve as a supplement to the environmental cellular antioxidant defenses. Upon introduction into a reducing environment, these disulfide-containing hydrogels cleave to present bound-thiol groups, yet remain in the bulk form at up to 66 mol% cystamine of the total amines. By controlling the molar fraction of cystamine, it was apparent that the thiol content varied human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) viability IC50 values across an order of magnitude. Further, upon introduction of an enzymatic oxidative stress generator to the cell culture (HX/XO), pre-incubated thiolated hydrogel degradation products conferred cellular and mitochondrial protection from acute oxidative stress, whereas non-reduced disulfide-containing degradation products offered no protection. This polymer may be an advantageous implantable drug delivery system for use in acute oxidative stress prophylaxis and/or chronic oxidative stress cell therapies due to its solid/liquid reversibility in a redox environment, controlled thiolation, high loading capacity through covalent drug-addition, and simple post-synthesis modification which bound-thiols introduce. Statement of Significance In this work, we demonstrate a unique property of disulfide containing degradable biomaterials. By changing the redox state of the degradation products (from oxidized to reduced), it is possible to increase the IC50 of the material by an order of magnitude. This dramatic shift is linked directly to the oxidative stress response of the cells and suggests a possible mechanism by which one can tune the cellular response to degradable biomaterials.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.030
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • Simvastatin and nanofibrous poly(l-lactic acid) scaffolds to promote the
    • Authors: Diana G. Soares; Zhanpeng Zhang; Fatma Mohamed; Thomas W. Eyster; Carlos A. de Souza Costa; Peter X. Ma
      Pages: 190 - 203
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Diana G. Soares, Zhanpeng Zhang, Fatma Mohamed, Thomas W. Eyster, Carlos A. de Souza Costa, Peter X. Ma
      In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory, odontogenic and pro-angiogenic effects of integrating simvastatin and nanofibrous poly(l-lactic acid) (NF-PLLA) scaffolds on dental pulp cells (DPCs). Highly porous NF-PLLA scaffolds that mimic the nanofibrous architecture of extracellular matrix were first fabricated, then seeded with human DPCs and cultured with 0.1 μM simvastatin and/or 10 μg/mL pro-inflammatory stimulator lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The gene expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β and MMP-9 mRNA) and odontoblastic markers (ALP activity, calcium content, DSPP, DMP-1 and BMP-2 mRNA) were quantified after long-term culture in vitro. In addition, we evaluated the scaffold’s pro-angiogenic potential after 24 h of in vitro co-culture with endothelial cells. Finally, we assessed the combined effects of simvastatin and NF-PLLA scaffolds in vivo using a subcutaneous implantation mouse model. The in vitro studies demonstrated that, compared with the DPC/NF-PLLA scaffold constructs cultured only with pro-inflammatory stimulator LPS, adding simvastatin significantly repress the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. Treating LPS+ DPC/NF-PLLA constructs with simvastatin also reverted the negative effects of LPS on expression of odontoblastic markers in vitro and in vivo. Western blot analysis demonstrated that these effects were related to a reduction in NFkBp65 phosphorylation and up-regulation of PPARγ expression, as well as to increased phosphorylation of pERK1/2 and pSmad1, mediated by simvastatin on LPS-stimulated DPCs. The DPC/NF-PLLA constructs treated with LPS/simvastatin also led to an increase in vessel-like structures, correlated with increased VEGF expression in both DPSCs and endothelial cells. Therefore, the combination of low dosage simvastatin and NF-PLLA scaffolds appears to be a promising strategy for dentin regeneration with inflamed dental pulp tissue, by minimizing the inflammatory reaction and increasing the regenerative potential of resident stem cells. Statement of Significance The regeneration potential of stem cells is dependent on their microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the effect of the microenvironment of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), including 3D structure of a macroporous and nanofibrous scaffold, the inflammatory stimulus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and a biological molecule simvastatin, on their regenerative potential of mineralized dentin tissue. The results demonstrated that LPS upregulated inflammatory mediators and suppressed the odontogenic potential of DPSCs. Known as a lipid-lowing agent, simvastatin was excitingly found to repress the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, up-regulate odontoblastic markers, and exert a pro-angiogenic effect on endothelial cells, resulting in enhanced vascularization and mineralized dentin tissue regeneration in a biomimetic 3D tissue engineering scaffold. This novel finding is significant for the fields of stem cells, inflammation and dental tissue regeneration.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.037
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • Poly (ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) is a suitable substrate for human
           olfactory neuroepithelial cell differentiation in vitro through a defined
           regulatory pathway
    • Authors: Sheng-Tien Li; Tai-Horng Young; Tsung-Wei Huang
      Pages: 204 - 213
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Sheng-Tien Li, Tai-Horng Young, Tsung-Wei Huang
      Olfactory dysfunction significantly influences patients’ life quality, but currently has no adequate treatment. Poly (ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVAL) mediates cell adhesion, growth and modulates differentiation of neural stem cells. However, whether EVAL is a suitable substrate to establish an in vitro culture system that can promote development and differentiation of human olfactory neuroepithelial cells (HONCs) remains unexplored. This study isolates and cultures HONCs on controls and EVAL films for 21 days. The effects of treatment are assessed using immunocytochemistry, microarray analysis, quantitative PCR, ELISA and western blots following culturing. Most of the cell morphology on controls is epithelial and expresses markers of sustentacular cells (SCs), cadherin-1 and cytokeratin18, whereas the main population on EVAL presents as morphology with extended thin processes and possesses markers of mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), olfactory marker protein (OMP). Microarray analyses reveal neuropeptide Y (NPY) and amphiregulin (AREG) are the two important regulating factors on EVAL films. HONCs cultured on EVAL films enhance the development of mature OSNs through NPY signaling, and significantly decrease the growth of SCs by blocking epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. EVAL is a potential biomaterial to serve as an ideal substrate for treating olfactory dysfunction in the future. Statement of Significance Olfaction not only contributes to enjoyments of food, but provides a clue to escape from dangerous environmental hazards. However, loss of smell is commonly progressive and there is no good prognostic approach for olfactory dysfunction. Here, we use poly (ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVAL) to establish an in vitro culture system that promotes development and differentiation of human olfactory neuroepithelial cells. We show that EVAL not only enhances the development of mature olfactory sensory neurons through neuronpeptide Y signaling, but significantly protects the olfactory neuroepithelium from metaplasia by inhibiting EGFR activation. Therefore, EVAL is a potential biomaterial to serve as an ideal substrate for treating olfactory dysfunction in the future.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.029
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • High resolution 3D microscopy study of cardiomyocytes on polymer scaffold
           nanofibers reveals formation of unusual sheathed structure
    • Authors: Victor Balashov; Anton Efimov; Olga Agapova; Alexander Pogorelov; Igor Agapov; Konstantin Agladze
      Pages: 214 - 222
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Victor Balashov, Anton Efimov, Olga Agapova, Alexander Pogorelov, Igor Agapov, Konstantin Agladze
      Building functional and robust scaffolds for engineered biological tissue requires a nanoscale mechanistic understanding of how cells use the scaffold for their growth and development. A vast majority of the scaffolds used for cardiac tissue engineering are based on polymer materials, the matrices of nanofibers. Attempts to load the polymer fibers of the scaffold with additional sophisticated features, such as electrical conductivity and controlled release of the growth factors or other biologically active molecules, as well as trying to match the mechanical features of the scaffold to those of the extracellular matrix, cannot be efficient without a detailed knowledge of how the cells are attached and strategically positioned with respect to the scaffold nanofibers at micro and nanolevel. Studying single cell – single fiber interactions with the aid of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning probe nanotomography (SPNT), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we found that cardiac cells actively interact with substrate nanofibers, but in different ways. While cardiomyocytes often create a remarkable “sheath” structure, enveloping fiber and, thus, substantially increasing contact zone, fibroblasts interact with nanofibers in the locations of focal adhesion clusters mainly without wrapping the fiber. Statements of Significance We found that cardiomyocytes grown on electrospun polymer nanofibers often create a striking “sheath” structure, enveloping fiber with the formation of a very narrow (∼22 nm) membrane gap leading from the fiber to the extracellular space. This wrapping makes the entire fiber surface available for cell attachment. This finding gives a new prospective view on how scaffold nanofibers may interact with growing cells. It may play a significant role in effective design of novel nanofiber scaffolds for tissue engineering concerning mechanical and electrical properties of scaffolds as well as controlled drug release from “smart” biomaterials.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.031
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • A compound scaffold with uniform longitudinally oriented guidance cues and
           a porous sheath promotes peripheral nerve regeneration in vivo
    • Authors: Liangliang Huang; Lei Zhu; Xiaowei Shi; Bing Xia; Zhongyang Liu; Shu Zhu; Yafeng Yang; Teng Ma; Pengzhen Cheng; Kai Luo; Jinghui Huang; Zhuojing Luo
      Pages: 223 - 236
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Liangliang Huang, Lei Zhu, Xiaowei Shi, Bing Xia, Zhongyang Liu, Shu Zhu, Yafeng Yang, Teng Ma, Pengzhen Cheng, Kai Luo, Jinghui Huang, Zhuojing Luo
      Scaffolds with inner fillers that convey directional guidance cues represent promising candidates for nerve repair. However, incorrect positioning or non-uniform distribution of intraluminal fillers might result in regeneration failure. In addition, proper porosity (to enhance nutrient and oxygen exchange but prevent fibroblast infiltration) and mechanical properties (to ensure fixation and to protect regenerating axons from compression) of the outer sheath are also highly important for constructing advanced nerve scaffolds. In this study, we constructed a compound scaffold using a stage-wise strategy, including directionally freezing orientated collagen-chitosan (O-CCH) filler, electrospinning poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) sheaths and assembling O-CCH/PCL scaffolds. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical tests, a blend of collagen/chitosan (1:1) was selected for filler fabrication, and a wall thickness of 400 μm was selected for PCL sheath production. SEM and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction further revealed that the O-CCH filler exhibited a uniform, longitudinally oriented microstructure (over 85% of pores were 20–50 μm in diameter). The electrospun PCL porous sheath with pore sizes of 6.5 ± 3.3 μm prevented fibroblast invasion. The PCL sheath exhibited comparable mechanical properties to commercially available nerve conduits, and the O-CCH filler showed a physiologically relevant substrate stiffness of 2.0 ± 0.4 kPa. The differential degradation time of the filler and sheath allows the O-CCH/PCL scaffold to protect regenerating axons from compression stress while providing enough space for regenerating nerves. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated that the O-CCH/PCL scaffolds could promote axonal regeneration and Schwann cell migration. More importantly, functional results indicated that the CCH/PCL compound scaffold induced comparable functional recovery to that of the autograft group at the end of the study. Our findings demonstrated that the O-CCH/PCL scaffold with uniform longitudinal guidance filler and a porous sheath exhibits favorable properties for clinical use and promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery. The O-CCH/PCL scaffold provides a promising new path for developing an optimal therapeutic alternative for peripheral nerve reconstruction. Statement of Significance Scaffolds with inner fillers displaying directional guidance cues represent a promising candidate for nerve repair. However, further clinical translation should pay attention to the problem of non-uniform distribution of inner fillers, the porosity and mechanical properties of the outer sheath and the morphological design facilitating operation. In this study, a stage-wise fabrication strategy was used, which made it possible to develop an O-CCH/PCL compound scaffold with a uniform longitudinally oriented inner filler and a porous outer sheath. The uniform distribution of the pores in the O-CCH/PCL scaffold provides a solution to resolve the problem of non-uniform distribution of inner fillers, which impede the clinical translation of scaffolds with longitudinal microstructured fillers, especially for aligned-fiber-based scaffolds. In vitro and in vivo studies indicated that the O-CCH/PCL scaffolds could provide topographical cues for axonal regeneration and SC migration, which were not found for random scaffolds (with random microstructure resemble sponge-based scaffolds). The electrospun porous PCL sheath of the O-CCH/PCL scaffold not only prevented fibroblast infiltration, but also satisfied the mechanical requirements for clinical use, paving the way for clinical translation. The differential degradation time of the O-CCH filler and the PCL sheath makes O-CCH/PCL scaffold able to provide long protection for regenerating axons from compression stress, but enough space for regenerating nerve. These findings highlight the possibility of developing an optimal therapeutic alternative for nerve defects using the O-CCH/PCL scaffold.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • CO2-expanded nanofiber scaffolds maintain activity of encapsulated
           bioactive materials and promote cellular infiltration and positive host
    • Authors: Jiang Jiang; Shixuan Chen; Hongjun Wang; Mark A. Carlson; Adrian F. Gombart; Jingwei Xie
      Pages: 237 - 248
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Jiang Jiang, Shixuan Chen, Hongjun Wang, Mark A. Carlson, Adrian F. Gombart, Jingwei Xie
      Traditional electrospun nanofiber membranes were incapable of promoting cellular infiltration due to its intrinsic property (e.g., dense structure and small pore size) limiting their use in tissue regeneration. Herein, we report a simple and novel approach for expanding traditional nanofiber membranes from two-dimensional to three-dimensional (3D) with controlled thickness and porosity via depressurization of subcritical CO2 fluid. The expanded 3D nanofiber scaffolds formed layered structures and simultaneously maintained the aligned nanotopographic cues. The 3D scaffolds also retained the fluorescent intensity of encapsulated coumarin 6 and the antibacterial activity of encapsulated antimicrobial peptide LL-37. In addition, the expanded 3D nanofiber scaffolds with arrayed holes can significantly promote cellular infiltration and neotissue formation after subcutaneous implantation compared to traditional nanofiber membranes. Such scaffolds also significantly increased the blood vessel formation and the ratio of M2/M1 macrophages after subcutaneous implantation for 2 and 4 weeks compared to traditional nanofiber membranes. Together, the presented method holds great potential in the fabrication of functional 3D nanofiber scaffolds for various applications including engineering 3D in vitro tissue models, antimicrobial wound dressing, and repairing/regenerating tissues in vivo. Statement of Significance Electrospun nanofibers have been widely used in regenerative medicine due to its biomimicry property. However, most of studies are limited to the use of 2D electrospun nanofiber membranes. To the best of our knowledge, this article is the first instance of the transformation of traditional electrospun nanofiber membranes from 2D to 3D via depressurization of subcritical CO2 fluid. This method eliminates many issues associated with previous approaches such as necessitating the use of aqueous solutions and chemical reactions, multiple-step process, loss of the activity of encapsulated biological molecules, and unable to expand electrospun nanofiber mats made of hydrophilic polymers. Results indicate that these CO2 expanded nanofiber scaffolds can maintain the activity of encapsulated biological molecules. Further, the CO2 expanded nanofiber scaffolds with arrayed holes can greatly promote cellular infiltration, neovascularization, and positive host response after subcutaneous implantation in rats. The current work is the first study elucidating such a simple and novel strategy for fabrication of 3D nanofiber scaffolds.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.018
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • Microchannel system for rate-controlled, sequential, and pH-responsive
           drug delivery
    • Authors: Dasom Yang; Jung Seung Lee; Chang-Kuk Choi; Hong-Pyo Lee; Seung-Woo Cho; WonHyoung Ryu
      Pages: 249 - 260
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Dasom Yang, Jung Seung Lee, Chang-Kuk Choi, Hong-Pyo Lee, Seung-Woo Cho, WonHyoung Ryu
      Controlled delivery of drug at a constant rate, in a sequential order, or responsive to environment conditions has been pursued for a long time to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic molecules and to minimize side effects of highly potent drugs. However, achieving such delicately-controlled delivery of a drug molecule is non-trivial and still remains a challenge. We propose the use of microchannels to control the rate, sequence, and pH-responsiveness of drug delivery for high precision and predictability. In this study, we introduce elementary drug delivery units consisting of micro-reservoirs and microchannels that have variations in their lengths, widths, numbers, and straightness. The release study demonstrates that the release rates of model drugs can be modulated by the design of microchannels. Finite element modeling of drug release predicts the performance of the drug delivery units with high accuracy. The possibility of sequential drug delivery is also demonstrated using biodegradable polymer plug in microchannels. Finally, pH-responsive delivery of drugs in microfluidic units is also discussed and demonstrated via cell viability tests. Statement of Significance In this work, we developed microchannel-based drug delivery devices whose release rate could be accurately calculated and controlled by design of microchannel geometry. Although there have been many advances in microfabricated drug delivery systems, in particular, reservoir-based systems, no systematic investigation has been made to utilize the release channels. In our work, an equivalent electrical circuit concept was applied to the microfluidic systems for more detailed design and analysis. A microfluidic channel was regarded as an electrical resistor; their diffusion/electrical flux could be tuned with geometric factors such as length, width, a number of channel/resistor and their connections. Furthermore, from delivery rate control using channel geometry, multifunctional channel-based release systems for sequential and pH-responsive were demonstrated.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.013
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • Copper-containing mesoporous bioactive glass promotes angiogenesis in an
           in vivo zebrafish model
    • Authors: Lilian B. Romero-Sánchez; Manuel Marí-Beffa; Paloma Carrillo; Miguel Ángel Medina; Aránzazu Díaz-Cuenca
      Pages: 272 - 285
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Lilian B. Romero-Sánchez, Manuel Marí-Beffa, Paloma Carrillo, Miguel Ángel Medina, Aránzazu Díaz-Cuenca
      The osteogenic and angiogenic responses of organisms to the ionic products of degradation of bioactive glasses (BGs) are being intensively investigated. The promotion of angiogenesis by copper (Cu) has been known for more than three decades. This element can be incorporated to delivery carriers, such as BGs, and the materials used in biological assays. In this work, Cu-containing mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) in the SiO2-CaO-P2O5 compositional system was prepared incorporating 5% mol Cu (MBG-5Cu) by replacement of the corresponding amount of Ca. The biological effects of the ionic products of MBG biodegradation were evaluated on a well-known endothelial cell line, the bovine aorta endothelial cells (BAEC), as well as in an in vivo zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo assay. The results suggest that ionic products of both MBG (Cu free) and MBG-5Cu materials promote angiogenesis. In vitro cell cultures show that the ionic dissolution products of these materials are not toxic and promote BAEC viability and migration. In addition, the in vivo assay indicates that both exposition and microinjection of zebrafish embryos with Cu free MBG material increase vessel number and thickness of the subintestinal venous plexus (SIVP), whereas assays using MBG-5Cu enhance this effect. Statement of Significance Mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) with high specific surface area, well-ordered pores, large pore volumes and controllable amount of ions are interesting to develop controlled drug delivery systems for bone tissue regeneration. Copper (Cu) incorporation to the basic SiO2-CaO-P2O5 composition has attracted high interest due to its multifunctional biological properties. Promotion of angiogenesis is one of these properties, which can be integrated to the biomaterial with lower cost and higher stability when compared with growth factors. This work reports the synthesis and characterization of Cu-containing MBG evaluating its angiogenic properties in the subintestinal vessel zebrafish assay. This transgenic in vivo assay is merging as an alternative model providing short-time consuming protocols and facilities during pro-angiogenic drug screenings. The report shows that the ionic products of this MBG material delivered to the zebrafish incubation media significantly enhance angiogenesis in comparison with control groups. Besides, results indicate Cu ions may exhibit a synergic effect with Si, Ca, and P ions in angiogenesis stimulation both in vitro and in vivo. To our knowledge, this is the first time that zebrafish in vivo assays are used to evaluate angiogenic activity of ionic dissolution products from MBG materials.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.032
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • Sub-surface assessment of hydrothermal ageing in zirconia-containing
           femoral heads for hip joint applications
    • Authors: L. Gremillard; J. Chevalier; L. Martin; T. Douillard; S. Begand; K. Hans; T. Oberbach
      Pages: 286 - 295
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): L. Gremillard, J. Chevalier, L. Martin, T. Douillard, S. Begand, K. Hans, T. Oberbach
      Zirconia-based materials have been used in orthopaedics since the 1980s, with large success, mainly thanks to transformation toughening. On the other hand, their main drawback is their potential sensitivity to hydrothermal ageing, i.e. tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation on their surface in the presence of water. Hydrothermal ageing may result in roughness increase and microcracking of the surface. In this article the hydrothermal ageing behaviour of three medical-grade zirconia-based materials is assessed at high temperature and extrapolated to room or body temperature. The degradation is also characterized by FIB/SEM nano-tomography to better assess sub-surface evolutions. In both zirconia and alumina-toughened zirconia (ATZ), ageing results in the presence of a homogenous transformed layer of constant thickness whose growth rate is about 8 times slower in ATZ than in zirconia. Microcracking occurs in the entire transformed layer in zirconia, but was much less relevant in ATZ. Zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) is much less prone to ageing. In ZTA ageing results in a thin transformed layer in which the monoclinic fraction decreases with depth. No microcracking was observed in ZTA. Statement of Significance This article details the microstructural evolution of the surface of three zirconia-based ceramics when exposed to water (hydrothermal ageing), and establishes a time-temperature equivalences of these evolutions. It shows that different zirconia-alumina composites do not degrade the same way: zirconia and alumina-toughened zirconia present a homogeneous degraded zone of constant thickness, whereas zirconia-toughened-alumina presents a gradient of transformation. These new findings will help understanding better the hydrothermal degradation of zirconia based materials, and in particular will facilitate a better prediction of the durability of zirconia-based devices such as orthopaedic implants and dental devices (implants, crowns, abutments…).
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.021
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • Regulation of osteoclasts by osteoblast lineage cells depends on titanium
           implant surface properties
    • Authors: Ethan M. Lotz; Michael B. Berger; Zvi Schwartz; Barbara D. Boyan
      Pages: 296 - 307
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Ethan M. Lotz, Michael B. Berger, Zvi Schwartz, Barbara D. Boyan
      A critical stage during osseointegration of a titanium (Ti) implant is primary bone remodeling, which involves cross talk among osteoclast precursors, osteoclasts, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and osteoblasts. This phase couples the processes of bone formation and resorption. During remodeling, osteoclasts produce factors capable of regulating MSC migration and osteogenesis. Furthermore, they degrade primary bone, creating a foundation with a specific chemistry, stiffness, and morphology for osteoblasts to synthesize and calcify their matrix. MSCs and osteoblasts receiving cues from the implant surface produce factors capable of regulating osteoclasts in order to promote net new bone formation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects Ti implant surfaces have on bone remodeling. Human MSCs and normal human osteoblasts (NHOsts) were cultured separately on 15 mm grade 2 smooth PT, hydrophobic-microrough SLA, hydrophilic-microrough Ti (mSLA) (Institut Straumann AG, Basel, Switzerland), or tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). After 7d, conditioned media from surface cultures were used to treat human osteoclasts for 2d. Activity was measured by fluorescence of released collagen followed by mRNA quantification. This study demonstrates that MSC and NHOst cultures are able to suppress osteoclast activity in a surface dependent manner and osteoclast mRNA levels are selectively regulated by surface treatments. The substrate-dependent regulatory effect was mitigated when MSCs were silenced for integrin subunits and when conditioned media were denatured. These results indicate that MSCs and NHOsts regulate at least two aspects of remodeling: reduced fusion of new osteoclasts and reduced activity of existing osteoclasts. Statement of Significance In this study, we developed a novel in vitro model to study how microstructured and hydrophilic titanium implants impact bone remodeling for dental and orthopaedic applications. Our approach intersects biomaterials and systems physiology, revealing for the first time that implant surface properties are capable of regulating the communication among the cells involved in remodeling of primary bone during osseointegration. We believe that the basic research presented in our manuscript will provide important knowledge in our understanding of factors that impact implant success. Furthermore, it provides a solid foundation for the development of materials that enable rapid osseointegration and earlier loading times for implants in bone that has been compromised by trauma or disease.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.039
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • pH-responsive gold nanoclusters-based nanoprobes for lung cancer targeted
           near-infrared fluorescence imaging and chemo-photodynamic therapy
    • Authors: Fangfang Xia; Wenxiu Hou; Chunlei Zhang; Xiao Zhi; Jin Cheng; Jesús M. de la Fuente; Jie Song; Daxiang Cui
      Pages: 308 - 319
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 March 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 68
      Author(s): Fangfang Xia, Wenxiu Hou, Chunlei Zhang, Xiao Zhi, Jin Cheng, Jesús M. de la Fuente, Jie Song, Daxiang Cui
      Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems have drawn a great deal of attention for their opportunities to improve cancer treatments over intrinsic limits of conventional cancer therapies. Herein, we developed the polypeptide-modified gold nanoclusters (GNCs)-based nanoprobes for tumor-targeted near-infrared fluorescence imaging and chemo-photodynamic therapy. The nanoprobes comprise of tetra-functional components: i) polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell for long blood circulation and better biocompatibility; ii) MMP2 polypeptide (CPLGVRGRGDS) for tumor targeting; iii) cis-aconitic anhydride-modified doxorubicin (CAD) for pH-sensitive drug release; iv) photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) for photodynamic therapy and fluorescence imaging. The in vitro results demonstrated that the as-synthesized nanoprobes could be efficiently internalized into A549 cells and then significantly enhance the mortality of cancer cells compared with free Ce6 and doxorubicin. For in vivo tests, the nanoprobes showed excellent tumor targeting ability, long blood circulation time, and could remarkably inhibit the growth of tumor. Our results will help to advance the design of combination strategies to enhance the efficacy of imaging-guided cancer therapy. Statement of Significance The as-prepared CDGM NPs could accumulate into the tumor tissue with the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect as well as the active tumor targeting ability from the MMP2 polypeptides. With the acid-sensitive linker, the doxorubicin (DOX) would be released from the synthesized nanoparticles after exposing to the acid tumor microenvironment. The CDGM NPs exhibit excellent tumor targeting ability and could remarkably suppress the growth of tumor compared with free Ce6 and DOX.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.034
      Issue No: Vol. 68 (2018)
  • Cell-material interactions in tendon tissue engineering
    • Authors: Junxin Lin; Wenyan Zhou; Shan Han; Varitsara Bunpetch; Kun Zhao; Chaozhong Liu; Zi Yin; Hongwei Ouyang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Junxin Lin, Wenyan Zhou, Shan Han, Varitsara Bunpetch, Kun Zhao, Chaozhong Liu, Zi Yin, Hongwei Ouyang
      The interplay between cells and materials is a fundamental topic in biomaterial-based tissue regeneration. One of the principles for biomaterial development in tendon regeneration is to stimulate tenogenic differentiation of stem cells. To this end, efforts have been made to optimize the physicochemical and bio-mechanical properties of biomaterials for tendon tissue engineering. However, recent progress indicated that innate immune cells, especially macrophages, can also respond to the material cues and undergo phenotypical changes, which will either facilitate or hinder tissue regeneration. This process has been, to some extent, neglected by traditional strategies and may partially explain the unsatisfactory outcomes of previous studies; thus, more researchers have turned their focus on developing and designing immunoregenerative biomaterials to enhance tendon regeneration. In this review, we will first summarize the effects of material cues on tenogenic differentiation and paracrine secretion of stem cells. A brief introduction will also be made on how material cues can be manipulated for the regeneration of tendon-to-bone interface. Then, we will discuss the characteristics and influences of macrophages on the repair process of tendon healing and how they respond to different materials cues. These principles may benefit the development of novel biomaterials provided with combinative bioactive cues to activate tenogenic differentiation of stem cells and pro-resolving macrophage phenotype. Statement of Significance The progress achieved with the rapid development of biomaterial-based strategies for tendon regeneration has not yielded broad benefits to clinical patients. In addition to the interplay between stem cells and biomaterials, the innate immune response to biomaterials also plays a determinant role in tissue regeneration. Here, we propose that fine-tuning of stem cell behaviors and alternative activation of macrophages through material cues may lead to effective tendon/ligament regeneration. We first review the characteristics of key material cues that have been manipulated to promote tenogenic differentiation and paracrine secretion of stem cells in tendon regeneration. Then, we discuss the potentiality of corresponding material cues in activating macrophages toward a pro-resolving phenotype to promote tissue repair.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.012
  • Capacity of octacalcium phosphate to promote osteoblastic differentiation
           toward osteocytes in vitro
    • Authors: Yuko Sai; Yukari Shiwaku; Takahisa Anada; Kaori Tsuchiya; Tetsu Takahashi; Osamu Suzuki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Yuko Sai, Yukari Shiwaku, Takahisa Anada, Kaori Tsuchiya, Tetsu Takahashi, Osamu Suzuki
      Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) has been shown to act as a nucleus for initial bone deposition and enhancing the early stages of osteoblastic differentiation. However, the effect on differentiation at the late stage into osteocytes has not been elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate whether OCP can promote the differentiation lineage from osteoblasts to late osteocytes using a clonal cell line IDG-SW3 compared to commercially available sintered β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) in a transwell cell culture. Special attention was paid to detect the progress of OCP hydrolysis associated with ionic dissolution products from this material. OCP induced the appearance of an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) peak in the IDG-SW3 cells compared to β-TCP and HA and increased SOST/sclerostin and FGF23 gene expression after 35 days of incubation. Analyses by X-ray diffraction, curve fitting of Fourier transform infrared spectra, and acid phosphate inclusion of the materials showed that OCP tended to hydrolyze to an apatitic structure during the incubation. Since the hydrolysis enhanced inorganic phosphate ion (Pi) release from OCP in the media, IDG-SW3 cells were further incubated in the conditioned media with an increased concentration of Pi in the presence or absence of phosphonoformic acid (PFA), which is an inhibitor of Pi transport within the cells. An increase in Pi concentration up to 1.5 mM raised ALP activity, while its positive effect was eliminated in the presence of 0.1 to 0.5 mM PFA. Calcium ions did not show such an effect. These results indicate the stimulatory capacity of OCP on osteoblastic differentiation toward osteocytes. Statement of Significance Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) has been shown to have a superior osteoconductivity due to its capacity to enhance initial stage of osteoblast differentiation. However, the effect of OCP on the late osteoblastic differentiation into osteocyte is unknown. This study showed the capacity associated with the structural change of OCP. The data show that OCP released inorganic phosphate (Pi) ions while the hydrolysis advanced if soaked in the media, determined by chemical and physical analyses, and enhanced osteocytes differentiation of IDG-SW3 cells more than hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). Conditioned elevated Pi-containing media in the absence of OCP enhanced the osteocyte differentiation in the range of the concentration induced by OCP, the effect of which was cancelled by the inhibitor of Pi-transporters.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.026
  • pH-triggered charge-reversible of glycol chitosan conjugated carboxyl
           graphene for enhancing photothermal ablation of focal infection
    • Authors: Wei Qian; Chang Yan; Danfeng He; Xunzhou Yu; Long Yuan; Menglong Liu; Gaoxing Luo; Jun Deng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Wei Qian, Chang Yan, Danfeng He, Xunzhou Yu, Long Yuan, Menglong Liu, Gaoxing Luo, Jun Deng
      Subcutaneous abscesses infected by multidrug-resistant bacteria are becoming an increasing challenge to human health. To address this challenge, a surface-adaptive and biocompatible glycol chitosan conjugated carboxyl graphene (GCS-CG) is developed, which exhibits unique self-adaptive target to the acidic microenvironment of abscess (∼pH 6.3) and no damage to the healthy tissue (pH 7.4) around the abscess. Originally, following conjugated with GCS, the absorbance of CG obviously increases in the near-infrared (NIR) region, enabling GCS-CG to generate an increment amount of heat. GCS-CG shows fast pH-responsive surface charge transition from negative to positive, which presents strong adherence to negatively charged bacteria surface in abscess, while exhibits poor affinity to host cells in healthy tissues. The local temperature of NIR-irradiated GCS-CG is estimated to be higher than their ambient temperature, ensuring targeted heating and eradicating the bacteria to reduce the damage to tissue; hence, wound healing is accelerated. Moreover, the in vitro and in vivo biosafety results demonstrate that GCS-CG presents greatly biocompatible even at a high concentration of 1 mg·mL−1. Given the above advantages as well as the simple preparation, graphene developed here may provide a new potential application as a useful antibacterial agent in the areas of healthcare. Statement of Significance A surface-adaptive nanomaterial, glycol chitosan conjugated carboxyl graphene (GCS-CG) is developed, which realizes the acidity-triggered bacteria targeting. GCS-CG can result in direct thermal ablation of bacteria and enhancement of the infected wound healing, but exhibit no damage to healthy tissues. The pH-responsive GCS-CG described here, containing no antibiotics, has great potentials in treating bacterial infection and even multidrug-resistant bacteria.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.022
  • Silk fibroin / collagen protein hybrid cell-encapsulating hydrogels with
           tunable gelation and improved physical and biological properties
    • Authors: Jennifer O. Buitrago; Kapil D. Patel; Ahmed El-Fiqi; Jung-Hwan Lee; Banani Kundu; Hae-Hyoung Lee; Hae-Won Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Jennifer O. Buitrago, Kapil D. Patel, Ahmed El-Fiqi, Jung-Hwan Lee, Banani Kundu, Hae-Hyoung Lee, Hae-Won Kim
      Cell encapsulating hydrogels with tunable mechanical and biological properties are of special importance for cell delivery and tissue engineering. Silk fibroin and collagen, two typical important biological proteins, are considered potential as cell culture hydrogels. However, both have been used individually, with limited properties (e.g., collagen has poor mechanical properties and cell-mediated shrinkage, and silk fibroin lacks cell adhesion motifs). Therefore, the combination of them is considered to achieve improved mechanical and biological properties with respect to individual hydrogels. Here, we show that the cell-encapsulating hydrogels of silk fibroin / collagen are implementable over a wide range of compositions, enabled simply by combining the different gelation mechanisms. Not only the gelation reaction but also the structural characteristics, consequently, the mechanical properties and cellular behaviors are accelerated significantly by the silk fibroin / collagen hybrid hydrogel approach. Of note, the mechanical and biological properties are tunable to represent the combined merits of individual proteins. The shear storage modulus is tailored to range from 0.1 to 20 kPa along the iso-compositional line, which is considered to cover the matrix stiffness of soft-to-hard tissues. In particular, the silk fibroin / collagen hydrogels are highly elastic, exhibiting excellent resistance to permanent deformation under different modes of stress; without being collapsed or water-squeezed out (vs. not possible in individual proteins) - which results from the mechanical synergism of interpenetrating networks of both proteins. Furthermore, the role of collagen protein component in the hybrid hydrogels provides adhesive sites to cells, stimulating anchorage and spreading significantly with respect to silk fibroin gel, which lacks cell adhesion motifs. The silk fibroin / collagen hydrogels can encapsulate cells while preserving the viability and growth over a long 3D culture period. Our findings demonstrate that the silk / collagen hydrogels possess physical and biological properties tunable and significantly improved (vs. the individual protein gels), implying their potential uses for cell delivery and tissue engineering. Statement of significance Development of cell encapsulating hydrogels with excellent physical and biological properties is important for the cell delivery and cell-based tissue engineering. Here we communicate for the first time the novel protein composite hydrogels comprised of ‘Silk’ and ‘Collagen’ and report their outstanding physical, mechanical and biological properties that are not readily achievable with individual protein hydrogels. The properties include i) gelation accelerated over a wide range of compositions, ii) stiffness levels covering 0.1 kPa to 20 kPa that mimic those of soft-to-hard tissues, iii) excellent elastic behaviors under various stress modes (bending, twisting, stretching, and compression), iv) high resistance to cell-mediated gel contraction, v) rapid anchorage and spreading of cells, and vi) cell encapsulation ability with a long-term survivability. These results come from the synergism of individual proteins of alpha-helix and beta-sheet structured networks. We consider the current elastic cell-encapsulating hydrogels of silk-collagen can be potentially useful for the cell delivery and tissue engineering in a wide spectrum of soft-to-hard tissues.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.026
  • Delayed release of chemokine CCL25 with bioresorbable microparticles for
           mobilization of human mesenchymal stem cells
    • Authors: Kristin Fröhlich; David Hartzke; Franziska Schmidt; Jan Eucker; Aleksander Gurlo; Michael Sittinger; Jochen Ringe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Kristin Fröhlich, David Hartzke, Franziska Schmidt, Jan Eucker, Aleksander Gurlo, Michael Sittinger, Jochen Ringe
      Chemokines are guiding cues for directional trafficking of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) upon injury and local chemokine delivery at injury sites is an up-to-date strategy to potentiate and prolong recruitment of MSC. In this study we present the chemokine CCL25, also referred to as thymus-expressed chemokine, to mobilize human MSC along positive but not along negative gradients. We hence proceeded to design a biodegradable and injectable release device for CCL25 on the basis of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). The conducted studies had the objective to optimize PLGA microparticle fabrication by varying selected formulation parameters, such as polymer type, microparticle size and interior phase composition. We found that microparticles of DV,50∼75 µm and fabricated using end-capped polymers, BSA as carrier protein and vortex mixing to produce the primary emulsion yielded high chemokine loading and delayed CCL25 release. To determine bioactivity, we investigated CCL25 released during the microparticle erosion phase and showed that deacidification of the release medium was required to induce significant MSC mobilization. The designed PLGA microparticles represent an effective and convenient off-the-shelf delivery tool for the delayed release of CCL25. However, continuative in vivo proof-of-concept studies are required to demonstrate enhanced recruitment of MSC and/or therapeutical effects in response to CCL25 release microparticles. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE With the discovery of chemokines, particularly CXCL12, as stimulators of stem cell migration, the development of devices that release CXCL12 has proceeded quickly in the last few years. In this manuscript we introduce CCL25 as chemokine to induce mobilization of human MSC. This study proceeds to demonstrate how selection of key formulation parameters of CCL25 loading into PLGA microparticles exerts considerable influence on CCL25 release. This is important for a broad range of efforts in in situ tissue engineering where the candidate chemokine and the delivery device need to be selected carefully. The use of such a cell-free CCL25 release device may provide a new therapeutic option in regenerative medicine.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.036
  • Targeted delivery of FGF2 to subchondral bone enhanced the repair of
           articular cartilage defect
    • Authors: Wenyu Yang; Yiting Cao; Zhe Zhang; Fuchong Du; Yanping Shi; Xuemin Li; Qiqing Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Wenyu Yang, Yiting Cao, Zhe Zhang, Fuchong Du, Yanping Shi, Xuemin Li, Qiqing Zhang
      It is reported that growth factor (GF) is able to enhance the repair of articular cartilage (AC) defect, however underlying mechanisms of which are not fully elucidated yet. Moreover, the strategy for delivering GF needs to be optimized. The crosstalk between AC and subchondral bone (SB) play important role in the homeostasis and integrity of AC, therefore SB targeted delivery of GF represents one promising way to facilitate the repair of AC defect. In this study, we firstly investigated the effects and mechanism of FGF2 on surrounding SB and cartilage of detect defects in rabbits by using a homogenous collagen-based membranes. It was found that FGF2 had a modulating effect on the defect-surrounding SB via upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, BMP4 and SOX9 at the early stage. Low dose FGF2 improved the repair upon directly injected to SB. Inhibition of BMP signaling pathway compromised the beneficial effects of FGF2, which indicated the pivotal roles of BMP in the process. To facilitate SB targeted FGF2 delivery, a double-layered inhomogeneous collagen membrane was prepared and it induced increase of BMP2 and BMP4 in the synovial fluid, and subsequent successful repair of AC defect. Taken together, this targeted delivery of FGF2 to SB provides a promising strategy for AC repair owing to the relatively clear mechanism, less amount of it, and short duration of delivery. Statement of Significance Articular cartilage (AC) and subchondral bone (SB) form an integral functional unit. The homeostasis and integrity of AC depend on its crosstalk with the SB. However, the function of the SB in AC defect repair is not completely understood. The application of growth factors to promote the repair articular cartilage defect is a promising strategy, but still under the optimization. Our study demonstrate that SB plays important roles in the repair of AC defect. Particularly, SB is the effective target of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and targeted delivery of FGF2 can modulate SB and thus significantly enhances the repair of AC defect. Therefore, targeted delivery of growth factor to SB is a novel promising strategy to improve the repair of AC defect.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.039
  • Linking multiscale deformation to microstructure in cortical bone using in
           situ loading, digital image correlation and synchrotron x–ray scattering
    • Authors: Anna Gustafsson; Neashan Mathavan; Mikael J Turunen; Jonas Engqvist; Hanifeh Khayyeri; Stephen A Hall; Hanna Isaksson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Anna Gustafsson, Neashan Mathavan, Mikael J Turunen, Jonas Engqvist, Hanifeh Khayyeri, Stephen A Hall, Hanna Isaksson
      The incidence of fragility fractures is expected to increase in the near future due to an aging population. Therefore, improved tools for fracture prediction are required to treat and prevent these injuries efficiently. For such tools to succeed, a better understanding of the deformation mechanisms in bone over different length scales is needed. In this study, an experimental setup including mechanical tensile testing in combination with digital image correlation (DIC) and small/wide angle x-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) was used to study deformation at multiple length scales in bovine cortical bone. Furthermore, micro-CT imaging provided detailed information about tissue microstructure. The combination of these techniques enabled measurements of local deformations at the tissue- and nanoscales. The orientation of the microstructure relative to the tensile loading was found to influence the strain magnitude on all length scales. Strains in the collagen fibers were 2-3 times as high as the strains found in the mineral crystals for samples with microstructure oriented parallel to the loading. The local tissue strain at fracture was found to be around 0.5%, independent of tissue orientation. However, the maximum force and the irregularity of the crack path were higher when the load was applied parallel to the tissue orientation. This study clearly shows the potential of combining these different experimental techniques concurrently with mechanical testing to gain a better understanding of bone damage and fracture over multiple length scales in cortical bone. Statement of significance To understand the pathophysiology of bone, it is important to improve our knowledge about the deformation and fracture mechanisms in bone. In this study, we combine several recently available experimental techniques with mechanical loading to investigate the deformation mechanisms in compact bone tissue on several length scales simultaneously. The experimental setup included mechanical tensile testing in combination with digital image correlation, microCT imaging, and small/wide angle x-ray scattering. The combination of techniques enabled measurements of local deformations at the tissue- and nanoscales. The study clearly shows the potential of combining different experimental techniques concurrently with mechanical testing to gain a better understanding of structure-property-function relationships in bone tissue.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.037
  • Bone regeneration capacity of magnesium phosphate cements in a large
           animal mode
    • Authors: Britta Kanter; Anna Vikman; Theresa Brückner; Martha Schamel; Uwe Gbureck; Anita Ignatius
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Britta Kanter, Anna Vikman, Theresa Brückner, Martha Schamel, Uwe Gbureck, Anita Ignatius
      Magnesium phosphate minerals have captured increasing attention during the past years as suitable alternatives for calcium phosphate bone replacement materials. Here, we investigated the degradation and bone regeneration capacity of experimental struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) forming magnesium phosphate cements in two different orthotopic ovine implantation models. Cements formed at powder to liquid ratios (PLR) of 2.0 and 3.0 g ml-1 were implanted into trabecular bone using a non-load-bearing femoral drill-hole model and a load-bearing tibial defect model. After 4, 7 and 10 months the implants were retrieved and cement degradation and new bone formation was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (µCT) and histomorphometry. The results showed cement degradation in concert with new bone formation at both defect locations. Both cements were almost completely degraded after 10 months. The struvite cement formed with a PLR of 2.0 g ml-1 exhibited a slightly accelerated degradation kinetics compared to the cement with a PLR of 2.0 g ml-1. Tartrat-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining indicated osteoclastic resorption at the cement surface. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) revealed that small residual cement particles were mostly accumulated in the bone marrow in between newly formed bone trabeculae. Mechanical loading did not significantly increase bone formation associated with cement degradation. Concluding, struvite-forming cements might be promising bone replacement materials due to their good degradation which is coupled with new bone formation. Statement of Significance Recently, the interest in magnesium phosphate cements (MPC) for bone substitution increased, as they exhibit high initial strength, comparably elevated degradation potential and the release of valuable magnesium ions. However, only few in vivo studies, mostly including non-load-bearing defects in small animals, have been performed to analyze the degradation and regeneration capability of MPC derived compounds. The present study examined the in vivo behavior of magnesiumammoniumphosphate hexahydrate (struvite) implants with different porosity in both mechanically loaded and non-loaded defects of merino sheep. For the first time, the effect of mechanical stimuli on the biological outcome of this clinically relevant replacement material is shown and directly compared to the conventional unloaded defect situation in a large animal model.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.035
  • Introduction of sacrificial bonds to hydrogels to increase defect
           tolerance during suturing of multilayer vascular grafts
    • Authors: Allison Post; Alysha P. Kishan; Patricia Diaz-Rodriguez; Egemen Tuzun; Mariah Hahn; Elizabeth Cosgriff-Hernandez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Allison Post, Alysha P. Kishan, Patricia Diaz-Rodriguez, Egemen Tuzun, Mariah Hahn, Elizabeth Cosgriff-Hernandez
      Small-caliber vascular grafts used in coronary artery bypass procedures typically fail due to the development of intimal hyperplasia or thrombosis. Our laboratory has developed a multilayered vascular graft with an electrospun polyurethane outer layer with improved compliance matching and a hydrogel inner layer that is both thromboresistant and promotes endothelialization. Initial in vivo studies showed that hydrogel particulates were dislodged from the hydrogel layer of the grafts during suturing. To address this problem, we developed and characterized a new hydrogel formulation that resists damage during suturing. Introduction of sacrificial, hydrogen bonds to poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels via co-polymerization with n-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) increased the fracture energy as determined by single edge notch testing. This enhanced defect tolerance resulted in a hydrogel layer that was resistant to suture-induced damage with no dislodged particles observed. Importantly, the incorporation of NVP did not affect the thromboresistance, bioactivity, or biostability of the hydrogel layer. In addition to eliminating complications due to hydrogel particle generation in our multilayer graft design, this defect tolerant hydrogel formulation has broad potential use in many cardiovascular and soft tissue applications. Statement of Significance Small-caliber vascular grafts used in coronary artery bypass procedures typically fail due to development of intimal hyperplasia or thrombosis. Our laboratory has developed a multilayered vascular graft with an electrospun polyurethane outer layer with improved compliance matching and a hydrogel inner layer that is both thromboresistant and promotes endothelialization. However, hydrogel particulates were dislodged from the hydrogel layer during suturing in vivo. This work describes a hydrogel formulation based on poly(ethylene glycol) that is resistant to suture-induced damage. The introduction of sacrificial, hydrogen bonds by co-polymerization with n-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) resulted in an increase fracture energy without affecting the thromboresistance, bioactivity, or biostability. This defect-tolerant hydrogel formulation and the methodology to assess hydrogel defect tolerance has broad potential use in cardiovascular and soft tissue applications.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.033
  • Structure and collagen crimp patterns of functionally distinct equine
           tendons, revealed by quantitative polarised light microscopy (qPLM)
    • Authors: Ewa M. Spiesz; Chavaunne T. Thorpe; Philipp J. Thurner; Hazel R.C. Screen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Ewa M. Spiesz, Chavaunne T. Thorpe, Philipp J. Thurner, Hazel R.C. Screen
      Structure-function relationships in tendons are directly influenced by the arrangement of collagen fibres. However, the details of such arrangements in functionally distinct tendons remain obscure. This study demonstrates the use of quantitative polarised light microscopy (qPLM) to identify structural differences in two major tendon compartments at the mesoscale: fascicles and interfascicular matrix (IFM). It contrasts functionally distinct positional and energy storing tendons, and considers changes with age. Of particular note, the technique facilitates the analysis of crimp parameters, in which cutting direction artefact can be accounted for and eliminated, enabling the first detailed analysis of crimp parameters across functionally distinct tendons. IFM shows lower birefringence (0.0013 ± 0.0001 [-]), as compared to fascicles (0.0044 ± 0.0005 [-]), indicating that the volume fraction of fibres must be substantially lower in the IFM. Interestingly, no evidence of distinct fibre directional dispersions between equine energy storing superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs) and positional common digital extensor tendons (CDETs) were noted, suggesting either more subtle structural differences between tendon types or changes focused in the non-collagenous components. By contrast, collagen crimp characteristics are strongly tendon type specific, indicating crimp specialisation is crucial in the respective mechanical function. SDFTs showed much finer crimp (21.1 ± 5.5 µm) than positional CDETs (135.4 ± 20.1 µm). Further, tendon crimp was finer in injured tendon, as compared to its healthy equivalents. Crimp angle differed strongly between tendon types as well, with average of 6.5 ± 1.4° in SDFTs and 13.1 ± 2.0° in CDETs, highlighting a substantially tighter crimp in the SDFT, likely contributing to its effective recoil capacity. Statement of Significance This is the first study to quantify birefringence in fascicles and interfascicular matrix of functionally distinct energy storing and positional tendons. It adopts a novel method – quantitative polarised light microscopy (qPLM) to measure collagen crimp angle, avoiding artefacts related to the direction of histological sectioning, and provides the first direct comparison of crimp characteristics of functionally distinct tendons of various ages. A comparison of matched picrosirius red stained and unstained tendons sections identified non-homogenous staining effects, and leads us to recommend that only unstained sections are analysed in the quantitative manner. qPLM is successfully used to assess birefringence in soft tissue sections, offering a promising tool for investigating the structural arrangements of fibres in (soft) tissues and other composite materials.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.034
  • Independent control of matrix adhesiveness and stiffness within a 3D
           self-assembling peptide hydrogel
    • Authors: Nathaniel J. Hogrebe; James W. Reinhardt; Nguyen K. Tram; Anna C. Debski; Gunjan Agarwal; Matthew A. Reilly; Keith J. Gooch
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Nathaniel J. Hogrebe, James W. Reinhardt, Nguyen K. Tram, Anna C. Debski, Gunjan Agarwal, Matthew A. Reilly, Keith J. Gooch
      A cell’s insoluble microenvironment has increasingly been shown to exert influence on its function. In particular, matrix stiffness and adhesiveness strongly impact behaviors such as cell spreading and differentiation, but materials that allow for independent control of these parameters within a fibrous, stromal-like microenvironment are very limited. In the current work, we devise a self-assembling peptide (SAP) system that facilitates user-friendly control of matrix stiffness and RGD (Arg–Gly–Asp) concentration within a hydrogel possessing a microarchitecture similar to stromal extracellular matrix. In this system, the RGD-modified SAP sequence KFE-RGD and the scrambled sequence KFE-RDG can be directly swapped for one another to change RGD concentration at a given matrix stiffness and total peptide concentration. Stiffness is controlled by altering total peptide concentration, and the unmodified base peptide KFE-8 can be included to further increase this stiffness range due to its higher modulus. With this tunable system, we demonstrate that human mesenchymal stem cell morphology and differentiation are influenced by both gel stiffness and the presence of functional cell binding sites in 3D culture. Specifically, cells 24 hours after encapsulation were only able to spread out in stiffer matrices containing KFE-RGD. Upon addition of soluble adipogenic factors, soft gels facilitated the greatest adipogenesis as determined by the presence of lipid vacuoles and PPARγ-2 expression, while increasing KFE-RGD concentration at a given stiffness had a negative effect on adipogenesis. This three-component hydrogel system thus allows for systematic investigation of matrix stiffness and RGD concentration on cell behavior within a fibrous, three-dimensional matrix. Statement of Significance Physical cues from a cell’s surrounding environment—such as the density of cell binding sites and the stiffness of the surrounding material —are increasingly being recognized as key regulators of cell function. Currently, most synthetic biomaterials used to independently tune these parameters lack the fibrous structure characteristic of stromal extracellular matrix, which can be important to cells naturally residing within stromal tissues. In this manuscript, we describe a 3D hydrogel encapsulation system that provides user-friendly control over matrix stiffness and binding site concentration within the context of a stromal-like microarchitecture. Binding site concentration and gel stiffness both influenced cell spreading and differentiation, highlighting the utility of this system to study the independent effects of these material properties on cell function.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.031
  • Microgels produced using microfluidic on-chip polymer blending for
           controlled released of VEGF encoding lentivectors
    • Authors: Justin L. Madrigal; Shonit N. Sharma; Kevin T. Campbell; Roberta S. Stilhano; Rik Gijsbers; Eduardo A. Silva
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Justin L. Madrigal, Shonit N. Sharma, Kevin T. Campbell, Roberta S. Stilhano, Rik Gijsbers, Eduardo A. Silva
      Alginate hydrogels are widely used as delivery vehicles due to their ability to encapsulate and release a wide range of cargos in a gentle and biocompatible manner. The release of encapsulated therapeutic cargos can be promoted or stunted by adjusting the hydrogel physiochemical properties. However, the release from such systems is often skewed towards burst-release or lengthy retention. To address this, we hypothesized that the overall magnitude of burst release could be adjusted by combining microgels with distinct properties and release behavior. Microgel suspensions were generated using a process we have termed on-chip polymer blending to yield composite suspensions of a range of microgel formulations. In this manner, we studied how alginate percentage and degradation relate to the release of lentivectors. Whereas changes in alginate percentage had a minimal impact on lentivector release, microgel degradation led to a 3-fold increase, and near complete release, over 10 days. Furthermore, by controlling the amount of degradable alginate present within microgels the relative rate of release can be adjusted. A degradable formulation of microgels was used to deliver VEGF-encoding lentivectors in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay and yielded a proangiogenic response in comparison to the same lentivectors delivered in suspension. The utility of blended microgel suspensions may provide an especially appealing platform for the delivery of lentivectors or similarly sized therapeutics. Statement of Significance Genetic therapeutics hold considerable potential for the treatment of diseases and disorders including ischemic cardiovascular diseases. To realize this potential, genetic vectors must be precisely and efficiently delivered to targeted regions of the body. However, conventional methods of delivery do not provide sufficient spatial and temporal control. Here, we demonstrate how alginate microgels provide a basis for developing systems for controlled genetic vector release. We adjust the physiochemical properties of alginate for quicker or slower release, and we demonstrate how combining distinct formulations of microgels can tune the release of the overall composite microgel suspension. These composite suspensions are generated using a straightforward and powerful application of droplet microfluidics which allows for the real-time generation of a composite suspension.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.013
  • Highly efficient local delivery of endothelial progenitor cells
           significantly potentiates angiogenesis and full-thickness wound healing
    • Authors: Chenggui Wang; Qingqing Wang; Wendong Gao; Zengjie Zhang; Yiting Lou; Haiming Jin; Xiaofeng Chen; Bo Lei; Huazi Xu; Cong Mao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Chenggui Wang, Qingqing Wang, Wendong Gao, Zengjie Zhang, Yiting Lou, Haiming Jin, Xiaofeng Chen, Bo Lei, Huazi Xu, Cong Mao
      Wound therapy with a rapid healing performance remains a critical clinical challenge. Cellular delivery is considered to be a promising approach to improve the efficiency of healing, yet problems such as compromised cell viability and functionality arise due to the inefficient delivery. Here, we report the efficient delivery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) with a bioactive nanofibrous scaffold (composed of collagen and polycaprolactone and bioactive glass nanoparticles, CPB) for enhancing wound healing. Under the stimulation of CPB nanofibrous system, the viability and angiogenic ability of EPCs were significantly enhanced through the activation of Hif-1α/VEGF/SDF-1α signaling. In vivo, CPB/EPC constructs significantly enhanced the formation of high-density blood vessels by greatly upregulating the expressions of Hif-1α, VEGF, and SDF-1α. Moreover, owing to the increased local delivery of cells and fast neovascularization within the wound site, cell proliferative activity, granulation tissue formation, and collagen synthesis and deposition were greatly promoted by CPB/EPC constructs resulting in rapid re-epithelialization and regeneration of skin appendages. As a result, the synergistic enhancement of wound healing was observed from CPB/EPC constructs, which suggests the highly efficient delivery of EPCs. CPB/EPC constructs may become highly competitive cell-based therapeutic products for efficient impaired wound healing application. This study may also provide a novel strategy to develop bioactive cell therapy constructs for angiogenesis-related regenerative medicine. Statement of Significance This paper reported a highly efficient local delivery of EPCs using bioactive glass-based CPB nanofibrous scaffold for enhancing angiogenesis and wound regeneration. In vitro study showed that CPB can promote the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of EPCs through upregulation of the Hif-1α/VEGF/SDF-1α signaling pathway, indicating that the bioactivity and angiogenic ability of EPCs can be highly maintained and promoted by the CPB scaffold. Moreover, CPB/EPC constructs effectively stimulated the regeneration of diabetic wounds with satisfactory vascularization and better healing outcomes in a full-thickness wound model, suggesting that the highly efficient delivery of EPCs to wound site facilitates angiogenesis and further leads to wound healing. The high angiogenic capacity and excellent healing ability make CPB/EPC constructs highly competitive in cell-based therapeutic products for efficient wound repair application.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.019
  • Corneal regeneration: A review of stromal replacements
    • Authors: Steffi Matthyssen; Bert Van den Bogerd; Sorcha Ní Dhubhghaill; Carina Koppen; Nadia Zakaria
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Steffi Matthyssen, Bert Van den Bogerd, Sorcha Ní Dhubhghaill, Carina Koppen, Nadia Zakaria
      Corneal blindness is traditionally treated by transplantation of a donor cornea, or in severe cases by implantation of an artificial cornea or keratoprosthesis. Due to severe donor shortages and the risks of complications that come with artificial corneas, tissue engineering in ophthalmology has become more focused on regenerative strategies using biocompatible materials either with or without cells. The stroma makes up the bulk of the corneal thickness and mainly consists of a tightly interwoven network of collagen type I, making it notoriously difficult to recreate in a laboratory setting. Despite the challenges that come with corneal stromal tissue engineering, there has recently been enormous progress in this field. A large number of research groups are working towards developing the ideal biomimetic, cytocompatible and transplantable stromal replacement. Here we provide an overview of the approaches directed towards tissue engineering the corneal stroma, from classical collagen gels, films and sponges to less traditional components such as silk, fish scales, gelatin and polymers. The perfect stromal replacement has yet to be identified and future research should be directed at combined approaches, in order to not only host native stromal cells but also restore functionality. Statement of Significance In the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in ophthalmology the focus has shifted towards a common goal: to restore the corneal stroma and thereby provide a new treatment option for patients who are currently blind due to corneal opacification. Currently the waiting lists for corneal transplantation include more than 10 million patients, due to severe donor shortages. Alternatives to the transplantation of a donor cornea include the use of artificial cornea, but these are by no means biomimetic and therefore do not provide good outcomes. In recent years a lot of work has gone into the development of tissue engineered scaffolds and other biomaterials suitable to replace the native stromal tissue. Looking at all the different approaches separately is a daunting task and up until now there was no review article in which every approach is discussed. This review does include all approaches, from classical tissue engineering with collagen to the use of various alternative biomaterials and even fish scales. Therefore, this review can serve as a reference work for those starting in the field and but also to stimulate collaborative efforts in the future.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.023
  • Challenges in vascular tissue engineering for diabetic patients
    • Authors: Jhilmil Dhulekar; Agneta Simionescu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Jhilmil Dhulekar, Agneta Simionescu
      Hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia coexist in diabetes and result in inflammation, degeneration, and impaired tissue remodeling, processes which are not conducive to the desired integration of tissue engineered products into the surrounding tissues. There are several challenges for vascular tissue engineering such as non-thrombogenicity, adequate burst pressure and compliance, suturability, appropriate remodeling responses, and vasoactivity, but, under diabetic conditions, an additional challenge needs to be considered: the aggressive oxidative environment generated by the high glucose and lipid concentrations that lead to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the vascular wall. Extracellular matrix-based scaffolds have adequate physical properties and are biocompatible, however, these scaffolds are altered in diabetes by the formation AGEs and impaired collagen degradation, consequently increasing vascular wall stiffness. In addition, vascular cells detect and respond to altered stimuli from the matrix by pathological remodeling of the vascular wall. Due to the immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), they are frequently used in tissue engineering in order to protect the scaffolds from inflammation. MSCs together with antioxidant treatments of the scaffolds are expected to protect the vascular grafts from diabetes-induced alterations. In conclusion, as one of the most daunting environments that could damage the ECM and its interaction with cells is progressively built in diabetes, we recommend that cells and scaffolds used in vascular tissue engineering for diabetic patients are tested in diabetic animal models, in order to obtain valuable results regarding their resistance to diabetic adversities. Statement of Significance Almost 25 million Americans have diabetes, characterized by high levels of blood sugar that binds to tissues and disturbs the function of cardiovascular structures. Therefore, patients with diabetes have a high risk of cardiovascular diseases. Surgery is required to replace diseased arteries with implants, but these fail after 5–10 years because they are made of non-living materials, not resistant to diabetes. New tissue engineering materials are developed, based on the patients’ own stem cells, isolated from fat, and added to extracellular matrix-based scaffolds. Our main concern is that diabetes could damage the tissue-like implants. Thus we review studies related to the effect of diabetes on tissue components and recommend antioxidant treatments to increase the resistance of implants to diabetes.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.008
  • The rheological properties of native sericin
    • Authors: James Sparkes; Chris Holland
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): James Sparkes, Chris Holland
      Unlike spider silk, spinning silkworm silk has the added intricacy of being both fibre and micron-thick glue-like coating. Whilst the natural flow properties of the fibre feedstock fibroin are now becoming more established, our understanding of the coating, sericin is extremely limited and thus presents both a gap in our knowledge and a hindrance to successful exploitation of these materials. In this study we characterise sericin feedstock in its native state from the silkworm Bombyx mori, and by employing both biochemical, rheological and spectroscopic tools, define a natural gold standard. Our results demonstrate that native sericin behaves as a viscoelastic shear thinning fluid, but that it does so at a considerably lower viscosity than its partner fibroin, and that its upper critical shear rate (onset of gelation) lies above that of fibroin. Together these findings provide the first evidence that in addition to acting as a binder in the construction of the cocoon, sericin is capable of lubricating the flow of fibroin within the silk gland, which has implications for future processing, modelling and biomimetic efforts of these materials. Statement of Significance This study addresses one of the major gaps in our knowledge regarding natural silk spinning by providing rigorous rheological characterisation of the other major protein involved – sericin. This allows progress in silk flow modelling, biomimetic system design, and in assessing the quality of bioinspired and waste sericin materials by providing a better understanding of the native, undegraded system.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.021
  • Trivalent chromium incorporated in a crystalline calcium phosphate matrix
           accelerates materials degradation and bone formation in vivo
    • Authors: Barbe Rentsch; Anne Bernhardt; Anja Henß; Seemun Ray; Claudia Rentsch; Martha Schamel; Uwe Gbureck; Michael Gelinsky; Stefan Rammelt; Anja Lode
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Barbe Rentsch, Anne Bernhardt, Anja Henß, Seemun Ray, Claudia Rentsch, Martha Schamel, Uwe Gbureck, Michael Gelinsky, Stefan Rammelt, Anja Lode
      Remodeling of calcium phosphate bone cements is a crucial prerequisite for their application in the treatment of large bone defects. In the present study trivalent chromium ions were incorporated into a brushite forming calcium phosphate cement in two concentrations (10 and 50 mmol/mol β-tricalcium phosphate) and implanted into a femoral defect in rats for 3 and 6 month, non-modified brushite was used as reference. Based on our previous in vitro findings indicating both an enhanced osteoclastic activity and cytocompatibility towards osteoprogenitor cells we hypothesized a higher in vivo remodeling rate of the Cr3+ doped cements compared to the reference. A significantly enhanced degradation of the modified cements was evidenced by micro computed tomography, X-ray and histological examinations. Furthermore the formation of new bone tissue after 6 month of implantation was significantly increased from 29% to 46% during remodeling of cements, doped with the higher Cr3+ amount. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) of histological sections was applied to investigate the release of Cr3+ ions from the cement after implantation and to image their distribution in the implant region and the surrounding bone tissue. The relatively weak incorporation of chromium into the newly formed bone tissue is in agreement to the low chromium concentrations which were released from the cements in vitro. The faster degradation of the Cr3+ doped cements was also verified by ToF-SIMS. The positive effect of Cr3+ doping on both degradation and new bone formation is discussed as a synergistic effect of Cr3+ bioactivity on osteoclastic resorption on one hand and improvement of cytocompatibility and solubility by structural changes in the calcium phosphate matrix on the other hand. Statement of Significance While biologically active metal ions like strontium, magnesium and zinc are increasingly applied for the modification of ceramic bone graft materials, the present study is the first report on the incorporation of low doses of trivalent chromium ions into a calcium phosphate based biomaterial and testing of its performance in bone defect regeneration in vivo. Chromium(III)-doped calcium phosphate bone cements show improved cytocompatibility and both degradation rate and new bone formation in vivo are significantly increased compared to the reference cement. This important discovery might be the starting point for the application of trivalent chromium salts for the modification of bone graft materials to increase their remodelling rate.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.010
  • The degradation and transport mechanism of a Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr stent in rabbit
           common carotid artery: a 20-month study
    • Authors: Jian Zhang; Haiyan Li; Wu Wang; Hua Huang; Jia Pei; Haiyun Qu; Guangyin Yuan; Yongdong Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Jian Zhang, Haiyan Li, Wu Wang, Hua Huang, Jia Pei, Haiyun Qu, Guangyin Yuan, Yongdong Li
      Mg-based stent is a promising candidate of the next generation fully degradable vascular stents. The latest progress includes the CE approval of the Magmaris WE43 based drug eluting stent. However, so far, the long term (more than 1 year implantation) in vivo degradation and the physiological effects caused by the degradation products were still unclear. In this study, a 20 month observation was carried out after the bare Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr (abbr. JDBM) stent prototype was implanted into the common carotid artery of New Zealand white rabbit in order to evaluate its safety, efficacy and especially degradation behavior. The degradation of the main second phase Mg12Nd was also studied. Results showed that the bare JDBM stent had good safety and efficacy with a complete re-endothelialization within 28 days. The JDBM stent struts were mostly replaced in situ by degradation products in 4 month. The important finding was that the volume and Ca concentration of the degradation products decreased in the long term, eliminating the clinicians’ concern of possible vessel calcification. In addition, the alloying elements Mg and Zn in the stent could be safely metabolized as continuous enrichment in any of the main organs were not detected although Nd and Zr showed an abrupt increase in spleen and liver after 1 month implantation. Collectively, the long term in vivo results showed the rapid re-endothelialization of JDBM stent and the long term safety of the degradation products, indicating its great potential as the backbone of the fully degradable vascular stent. Statement of Significance Mg-based stent is a promising candidate of the next generation fully degradable stents, especially after the recent market launch of one of its kind (Magmaris). However the fundamental question about the long term degradation and metabolic mechanism of Mg-based stent and its degradation products remain unanswered. We implanted our patented Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr bare stent into the common carotid artery of rabbits and conducted a 20 months observation. We found that the Ca containing degradation products could be further degraded in vivo. All the alloying elements showed no continuous enrichment in the main organs of rabbits. These findings eliminate the clinicians’ concern of possible vessel calcification and element enrichment after the implantation of Mg alloy based stents to some extent.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.018
  • Localization and promotion of recombinant human bone morphogenetic
           protein-2 bioactivity on extracellular matrix mimetic chondroitin
           sulfate-functionalized calcium phosphate cement scaffolds
    • Authors: Baolin Huang; Zihan Wu; Sai Ding; Yuan Yuan; Changsheng Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Baolin Huang, Zihan Wu, Sai Ding, Yuan Yuan, Changsheng Liu
      Localization of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) with continuous and effective osteogenic stimulation is still a great challenge in the field of bone regeneration. To achieve this aim, rhBMP-2 was tethered on chondroitin sulfate (CS)-functionalized calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds through specific noncovalent interactions. CS, one of the core glycosaminoglycans, was covalently conjugated onto CPC scaffolds with the assistance of polydopamine (PDA) and further immobilized rhBMP-2 in a biomimetic form. The CPC-PDA-CS scaffolds not only controlled the release kinetics and presentation state of rhBMP-2 but also effectively increased the expression levels of bone morphogenetic protein receptors (BMPRs) and enhanced the recognitions of the remaining rhBMP-2 to BMPRs. Strikingly, the rhBMP-2-loaded CPC-PDA-CS significantly promoted the cellular surface translocation of BMPRs (especially BMPR-IA). In vivo studies demonstrated that, compared with the rhBMP-2 upon CPC and CPC-PDA, the rhBMP-2 upon CPC-PDA-CS exhibited sustained release and induced high quality and more ectopic bone formation. Collectively, these results suggest that rhBMP-2 can be localized within CS-functionalized CPC scaffolds and exert continuous, long-term, and effective osteogenic stimulation. Thus, this work could provide new avenues in mimicking bone extracellular matrix microenvironment and localizing growth factor activity for enhanced bone regeneration. Statement of Significance A bioinspired chondroitin sulfate (CS)-functionalized calcium phosphate cement (CPC) platform was developed to tether recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), which could exhibit continuous, long-term, and effective osteogenic stimulation in bone tissue engineering. Compared with rhBMP-2-loaded CPC, the rhBMP-2-loaded CPC-polydopamine-CS scaffolds induced higher expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptors (BMPRs), greater cellular surface translocation of bone morphogenetic protein receptor-IA, higher binding affinity of BMPRs/rhBMP-2, and thus higher activation of the drosophila gene mothers against decapentaplegic protein-1/5/8 (Smad1/5/8) and extracellular-regulated protein kinases-1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling. This work can provide new guidelines for the design of BMP-2-based bioactive materials for bone regeneration.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.004
  • Adhesive free-standing multilayer films containing sulfated levan for
           biomedical applications
    • Authors: Tiago D. Gomes; Sofia G. Caridade; Maria P. Sousa; Sara Azevedo; Muhammed Y. Kandur; Ebru T. Öner; Natália M. Alves; João F. Mano
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Tiago D. Gomes, Sofia G. Caridade, Maria P. Sousa, Sara Azevedo, Muhammed Y. Kandur, Ebru T. Öner, Natália M. Alves, João F. Mano
      This work is the first reporting the use of layer-by-layer to produce adhesive free-standing (FS) films fully produced using natural-based macromolecules: chitosan (CHI), alginate (ALG) and sulfated levan (L-S). The deposition conditions of the natural polymers were studied through zeta potential measurements and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring analysis. The properties of the FS films were evaluated and compared with the control ones composed of only CHI and ALG in order to assess the influence of levan polysaccharide introduced in the multilayers. Tensile tests, dynamic mechanical analysis and single lap shear strength tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of the prepared FS. The presence of L-S conferred both higher tensile strength and shear strength to the developed FS. The results showed an adhesion strength 4 times higher than the control (CHI/ALG) FS films demonstrating the adhesive character of the FS films containing L-S. Morphological and topography studies were carried out revealing that the crosslinking reaction granted the L-S based FS film with a higher roughness and surface homogeneity. Preliminary biological assays were performed by cultivating myoblasts cells on the surface of the produced FS. Both crosslinked and uncrosslinked FS films containing L-S were cytocompatible and myoconductive. Statement of Significance Sutures remain as the “gold standard” for wound closure and bleeding control; however they still have limitations such as, high infection rate, inconvenience in handling, and concern over possible transmission of blood-borne disease through the use of needles. One of the challenges of tissue engineering consist on the design and development of biocompatible tissue adhesives and sealants with high adhesion properties to repair or attach devices to tissues. In this work, the introduction of sulfated levan (L-S) on multilayered free-standing membranes was proposed to confer adhesive properties. Moreover, the films were myoconductive even in the absence of crosslinking just by the presence of L-S. This study provides a promising strategy to develop biological adhesives and for cardiac tissue engineering applications.
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      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.027
  • Central β-turn increases the cell selectivity of imperfectly amphipathic
           α-helical peptides
    • Authors: Changxuan Shao; Haotian Tian; Tianyu Wang; Zhihua Wang; Shuli Chou; Anshan Shan; Baojing Cheng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Changxuan Shao, Haotian Tian, Tianyu Wang, Zhihua Wang, Shuli Chou, Anshan Shan, Baojing Cheng
      Although membrane lytic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) show enormous potential for addressing mounting global antibiotic resistance, therapeutic applications are hindered by their weak antimicrobial activity, high toxicity, salt sensitivity and poor understanding of structure-activity relationships. To investigate the effects of different parameters on the biological activities of AMPs, a rational approach was adopted to design a series of short cationic α-helical peptides comprising the Ac-WxKyWxzzyKxWyK-NH2 sequence, where x: cationic residues (Arg or Lys), y: hydrophobic residues (Ala, Val, Ile or Leu), and zz: β-turn (rigid D-Pro-Gly turn or flexible Gly-Gly turn). The peptides showed a more helical structure as the concentration of membrane-mimetic solution increased. The peptide RL with a central D-Pro-Gly turn (x: Arg, y: Lys, zz = D-Pro-Gly) exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities (2–8 μM) against ten types of clinically relevant microorganisms and even maintained its activity in the presence of physiological salts and showed excellent selectivity toward bacterial cells over human red blood cells and mammalian cells. However, the toxicity was increased after the removal of D-Pro-Gly turn. Additionally, the bactericidal activity was reduced when the D-Pro-Gly turn was replaced by a Gly-Gly turn. Fluorescence spectroscopy and electron microscopy analyses indicated that RL and its derivatives killed microbial cells by permeabilizing the cell membrane and damaging membrane integrity. In conclusion, these findings clearly generalized a potential method for designing or optimizing AMPs, and the peptide RL is a promising therapeutic candidate to combat antibiotic resistance. Statement of Significance We proposed a rational approach to design imperfectly amphiphilic peptides and identified RL (Ac-WRKLWRpGLKRWLK-NH2) in particular that shows strong antibacterial properties, low toxicity and high salt resistance. The β-turn unit inserted into the central position of cationic α-helical peptides, especially the D-Pro-Gly turn, significantly increase the cell selectivity of the synthetic amphiphiles. The findings demonstrate a potential method for designing and/or optimizing AMPs, which would facilitate the development of strategies to design peptide-based antimicrobial biomaterials in a variety of biotechnological and clinical applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.009
  • Short peptide analogs as alternatives to collagen in pro-regenerative
           corneal implants
    • Authors: Jaganmohan R. Jangamreddy; Michel K.C. Haagdorens; M. Mirazul Islam; Philip Lewis; Ayan Samanta; Per Fagerholm; Aneta Liszka; Monika K. Ljunggren; Oleksiy Buznyk; Emilio I. Alarcon; Nadia Zakaria; Keith M. Meek; May Griffith
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Jaganmohan R. Jangamreddy, Michel K.C. Haagdorens, M. Mirazul Islam, Philip Lewis, Ayan Samanta, Per Fagerholm, Aneta Liszka, Monika K. Ljunggren, Oleksiy Buznyk, Emilio I. Alarcon, Nadia Zakaria, Keith M. Meek, May Griffith
      Short collagen-like peptides (CLPs) are being proposed as alternatives to full-length collagen for use in tissue engineering, on their own as soft hydrogels, or conjugated to synthetic polymer for mechanical strength. However, despite intended clinical use, little is known about their safety and efficacy, mechanism of action or degree of similarity to the full-length counterparts they mimic. Here, we show the functional equivalence of a CLP conjugated to polyethylene glycol (CLP-PEG) to full-length recombinant human collagen in vitro and in promoting stable regeneration of corneal tissue and nerves in a pre-clinical mini-pig model. We also show that these peptide analogs exerted their pro-regeneration effects through stimulating extracellular vesicle production by host cells. Our results support future use of CLP-PEG implants for corneal regeneration, suggesting the feasibility of these or similar peptide analogs in clinical application in the eye and other tissues. Statement of significance Although biomaterials comprising full-length recombinant human collagen and extracted animal collagen have been evaluated and used clinically, these macromolecules provide only a limited number of functional groups amenable to chemical modification or crosslinking and are demanding to process. Synthetic, customizable analogs that are functionally equivalent, and can be readily scaled-up are therefore very desirable for pre-clinical to clinical translation. Here, we demonstrate, using cornea regeneration as our test bed, that collagen-like-peptides conjugated to multifunctional polyethylene glycol (CLP-PEG) when grafted into mini-pigs as corneal implants were functionally equivalent to recombinant human collagen-based implants that were successfully tested in patients. We also show for the first time that these materials affected regeneration through stimulation of extracellular vesicle production by endogenous host cells that have migrated into the CLP-PEG scaffolds.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.011
  • Self-sensibilized polymeric prodrug co-delivering MMP-9 shRNA plasmid for
           combined treatment of tumors
    • Authors: Qiao Tang; Xin Ma; Yi Zhang; Xiang Cai; Wei Xue; Dong Ma
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Qiao Tang, Xin Ma, Yi Zhang, Xiang Cai, Wei Xue, Dong Ma
      Polymeric prodrugs are of immense interest as anticancer drug-delivery system owing to their superior drug stability during circulation and satisfactory drug loading capacity. However, they are usually less effective than free drugs due to imperfect degradable characteristics or active sites blockage. A polymeric prodrug (HPAA-MTX) with chemotherapeutic self-sensibilization effect consisting of glutathione (GSH)-triggered hyperbranched poly(amido amine) (HPAA) and methotrexate (MTX) was designed and synthesized in this work. This prodrug not only showed better inhibition effect on the tumor cells proliferation compared with free MTX, but also displayed selective sensibilization to tumor cells rather than normal cells. Meanwhile, HPAA-MTX was also explored as a MMP-9 shRNA plasmid delivery vector due to their rich amino group of HPAA, accompanying with MTX for simultaneous inhibiting tumor cells proliferation and migration. As expected, HPAA-MTX possessed excellent gene delivery capacity with significant down-regulation expression of MMP-9 protein and further inhibition of MCF-7 cells migration. Benefiting from the self-sensibilization effect and MTX/MMP-9 co-delivery strategy, this HPAA-MTX/MMP-9 co-delivery system exhibited significantly improved therapeutic efficacy to breast cancer in a combined manner which was confirmed through in vitro and in vivo assays. The strategy established in this study provided a facile “all-in-one” platform to integrate the drug/gene co-delivery strategy and self-sensibilization effect into one single nanocomposite for potential cancer treatment. Statement of significance A cationic polymeric prodrug with chemotherapeutic self-sensibilization effect was designed and showed better inhibition effect on tumor cells proliferation compared with its free drug, as well displayed the selective sensibilization effect to tumor cells rather than normal cells. Moreover, the prodrug could also deliver MMP-9 shRNA plasmid for a combined therapy. As expected, the prodrug possessed excellent gene delivery capacity with significant down-regulation expression of MMP-9 protein and further inhibition of MCF-7 cells migration. Benefiting from the self-sensibilization effect and the drug/gene co-delivery strategy, this prodrug exhibited significantly improved therapeutic efficacy to breast cancer in a combined manner.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T09:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.014
  • The effects of platelet lysate patches on the activity of tendon-derived
    • Authors: Raquel Costa-Almeida; Albina R. Franco; Tamagno Pesqueira; Mariana B. Oliveira; Pedro S. Babo; Isabel B. Leonor; João F. Mano; Rui L. Reis; Manuela E. Gomes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Raquel Costa-Almeida, Albina R. Franco, Tamagno Pesqueira, Mariana B. Oliveira, Pedro S. Babo, Isabel B. Leonor, João F. Mano, Rui L. Reis, Manuela E. Gomes
      Platelet-derived biomaterials are widely explored as cost-effective sources of therapeutic factors, holding a strong potential for endogenous regenerative medicine. Particularly for tendon repair, treatment approaches that shift the injury environment are explored to accelerate tendon regeneration. Herein, genipin-crosslinked platelet lysate (PL) patches are proposed for the delivery of human-derived therapeutic factors in patch augmentation strategies aiming at tendon repair. Developed PL patches exhibited a controlled release profile of PL proteins, including bFGF and PDGF-BB. Additionally, PL patches exhibited an antibacterial effect by preventing the adhesion, proliferation and biofilm formation by S. aureus, a common pathogen in orthopaedic surgical site infections. Furthermore, these patches supported the activity of human tendon-derived cells (hTDCs). Cells were able to proliferate over time and an up-regulation of tenogenic genes (SCX, COL1A1 and TNC) was observed, suggesting that PL patches may modify the behavior of hTDCs. Accordingly, hTDCs deposited tendon-related extracellular matrix proteins, namely collagen type I and tenascin C. In summary, PL patches can act as a reservoir of biomolecules derived from PL and support the activity of native tendon cells, being proposed as bioinstructive patches for tendon regeneration. Statement of significance Platelet-derived biomaterials hold great interest for the delivery of therapeutic factors for applications in endogenous regenerative medicine. In the particular case of tendon repair, patch augmentation strategies aiming at shifting the injury environment are explored to improve tendon regeneration. In this study, PL patches were developed with remarkable features, including the controlled release of growth factors and antibacterial efficacy. Remarkably, PL patches supported the activity of native tendon cells by up-regulating tenogenic genes and enabling the deposition of ECM proteins. This patch holds great potential towards simultaneously reducing post-implantation surgical site infections and promoting tendon regeneration for prospective in vivo applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-01-26T08:54:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.006
  • Mesoporous silica nanoparticles decorated with polycationic dendrimers for
           infection treatment
    • Authors: Blanca González; Montserrat Colilla; Jaime Díez; Daniel Pedraza; Marta Guembe; Isabel Izquierdo-Barba; María Vallet-Regí
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018
      Source:Acta Biomaterialia
      Author(s): Blanca González, Montserrat Colilla, Jaime Díez, Daniel Pedraza, Marta Guembe, Isabel Izquierdo-Barba, María Vallet-Regí
      This work aims to provide an effective and novel solution for the treatment of infection by using nanovehicles loaded with antibiotics capable of penetrating the bacterial wall, thus increasing the antimicrobial effectiveness. These nanosystems, named “nanoantibiotics”, are composed of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), which act as nanocarriers of an antimicrobial agent (levofloxacin, LEVO) localized inside the mesopores. To provide the nanosystem of bacterial membrane interaction capability, a polycationic dendrimer, concretely the poly(propyleneimine) dendrimer of third generation (G3), was covalently grafted to the external surface of the LEVO-loaded MSNs. After physicochemical characterization of this nanoantibiotic, the release kinetics of LEVO and the antimicrobial efficacy of each released dosage were evaluated. Besides, internalization studies of the MSNs functionalized with the G3 dendrimer were carried out, showing a high penetrability throughout Gram-negative bacterial membranes. This work evidences that the synergistic combination of polycationic dendrimers as bacterial membrane permeabilization agents with LEVO-loaded MSNs triggers an efficient antimicrobial effect on Gram-negative bacterial biofilm. These positive results open up very promising expectations for their potential application in new infection therapies. Statement of Significance Seeking new alternatives to current available treatments of bacterial infections represents a great challenge in nanomedicine. This work reports the design and optimization of a new class of antimicrobial agent, named “nanoantibiotic”, based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) decorated with polypropyleneimine dendrimers of third generation (G3) and loaded with levofloxacin (LEVO) antibiotic. The covalently grafting of these G3 dendrimers to MSNs allows an effective internalization in Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, the LEVO loaded into the mesoporous cavities is released in a sustained manner at effective antimicrobial dosages. The novelty and originality of this manuscript relies on proving that the synergistic combination of bacteria-targeting and antimicrobial agents into a unique nanosystem provokes a remarkable antimicrobial effect against bacterial biofilm.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-01-26T08:54:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.12.041
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